Srimad Bhagavad Gita
English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary

Swami Gambhirananda

Source: Project Gutenberg

Chapter 21 2.10 O descendant of Bharata, to him who was sorrowing between the two armies, Hrsikesa, mocking as it were, said these words: English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 2.10 And here, the text commencing from 'But seeing the army of the Pandavas' (1.2) and ending with '(he) verily became silent, telling Him (Govinda), "I shall not fight"' is to be explained as revealing the cause of the origin of the defect in the from of sorrow, delusion, etc. [Delusion means want of discrimination. Etc. stands for the secondary manifestations of sorrow and delusion, as also ignorance which is the root cause of all these.] which are the sources of the cycles of births and deaths of creatures. Thus indeed, Ajuna's own sorrow and delusion, cuased by the ideas of affection, parting, etc., originating from the erroneous belief, 'I belong to these; they belong to me', with regard to kingdom [See note under verse 8.-Tr.], elders, sons, comrades, well-wishers (1.26),
Sri Sankaracharya begins his commentary of the Gita only from the 10th verse of 2nd Chapter.
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kinsmen (1.37), relatives (1.34) and friends, have been shown by him with the words, 'How can I (fight)...in battle (against) Bhisma' (4), etc. It is verily because his discriminating insight was overwhelmed by sorrow and delusion that, even though he had become engaged in battle out of his own accord as a duty of the Ksatriyas, he desisted from that war and chose to undertake other's duties like living on alms etc. It is thus that in the case of all creatures whose minds come under the sway of the defects of sorrow, delusion, etc. there verily follows, as a matter of course, abandoning their own duties and resorting to prohibited ones. Even when they engage in their own duties their actions with speech, mind, body, etc., are certainly motivated by hankering for rewards, and are accompanied by egoism. [Egoism consists in thinking that one is the agent of some work and the enjoyer of its reward.] Such being the case, the cycle of births and deaths -- characterized by passing through desireable and undesirable births, and meeting with happiness, sorrow, etc. [From virtuous deeds follow attainment of heaven and happiness. From unvirtuous, sinful deeds follow births as beasts and other lowly beings, and sorrow. From the performance of both virtuous and sinful deeds follows birth as a human being, 3

with a mixture of happiness and sorrow.] from the accumulation of virtue and vice, continues unendingly. Thus, sorrow and delusion are therefore the sources of the cycles of births and deaths. And their cessation comes from nothing other than the knowledge of the Self which is preceded by the renunciation of all duties. Hence, wishing to impart that (knowledge of the Self) for favouring the whole world, Lord Vasudeva, making Arjuna the medium, said, 'You grieve for those who are not to be grieved for,' etc. As to that some (opponents) [According to A.G. the opponent is the Vrttikara who, in the opinion of A. Mahadeva Sastri, is none other than Bodhayana referred to in Sankaracarya's commentary on B.S. 1.1.11-19.-Tr.] say: Certainly, Liberation cannot be attained merely from continuance in the knowledge of the Self which is preceded by renunciation of all duties and is independent of any other factor. What then? The well-ascertained conclusion of the whole of the Gita is that Liberation is attained through Knowledge associated with rites and duties like Agnihotra etc. prescribed in the Vedas and the Smrtis. And as an indication of this point of view they quote (the verses): 'On the other hand, if you will not fight this righteous (battle)' (33); 'Your right is for action 4

(rites and duties) alone' (47); 'Therefore you undertake action (rites and duties) itself' (4.15), etc. Even this objection should not be raised that Vedic rites and duties lead to sin since they involve injury etc.'. Objection: How? Opponent: The duties of the Ksatriyas, charaterized by war, do not lead to sin when undertaken as one's duty, even though they are extremely cruel since they involve violence against elders, brothers, sons and others. And from the Lord's declaration that when they are not performed, 'then, forsaking your own duty and fame, you will incur sin' (33), it stands out as (His) clearly stated foregone conclusion that one's own duties prescribed in such texts as, '(One shall perform Agnihotra) as long as one lives' etc., and actions which involve crutely to animals etc. are not sinful. Vedantin: That is wrong because of the assertion of the distinction between firm adherence (nistha) to Knowledge and to action, which are based on two (different) convictions (buddhi). The nature of the Self, the supreme Reality, determined by the Lord in the text beginning with 'Those who are not to be grieved for' (11) and running to the end of the verse, 'Even considering your own duty' (31), is called Sankhya. Sankhya-buddhi [Sankhya is that correct (samyak) knowledge of the Vedas which reveals (khyayate) the reality of the Self, the 5

supreme Goal. The Reality under discussion, which is related to this sankhya by way of having been revealed by it, is Sankhya.] (Conviction about the Reality) is the conviction with regard to That (supreme Reality) arising from the ascertainment of the meaning of the context [Ascertainment...of the context, i.e., of the meaning of the verses starting from, 'Never is this One born, and never does It die,' etc. (20).] -- that the Self is not an agent because of the absence in It of the six kinds of changes, viz birth etc. [Birth, continuance, growth, transformation, decay and death.] Sankhyas are those men of Knowledge to whom that (conviction) becomes natural. Prior to the rise of this Conviction (Sankhya-buddhi), the ascertained [Ast. and A.G. omit this word 'ascertainment, nirupana'-Tr.] of the performance of the disciplines leading to Liberation -- which is based on a discrimination between virtue and vice, [And adoration of God]. and which presupposes the Self's difference from the body etc. and Its agentship and enjoyership -- is called Yoga. The conviction with regard to that (Yoga) is Yoga-buddhi. The performers of rites and duties, for whom this (conviction) is appropriate, are called yogis. Accordingly, the two distinct Convictions have been pointed out by the Lord in the verse, 'This wisdom (buddhi) has been 6

imparted to you from the standpoint of Selfrealization (Sankhya). But listen to this (wisdom) from the standpoint of (Karma-) yoga' (39). And of these two, the Lord will separately speak, with reference to the Sankhyas, of the firm adherence to the Yoga of Knowledge. [Here Yoga and Knowledge are identical. Yoga is that through which one gets connected, identified. with Brahman.] which is based on Sankya-buddhi, in, 'Two kinds of adherences were spoken of by Me in the form of the Vedas, in the days of yore.' [This portion is ascending to G1.Pr. and A.A.; Ast. omits this and quotes exactly the first line of 3.3. By saying, 'in the form of the Vedas', the Lord indicates that the Vedas, which are really the knowledge inherent in God and issue out of Him, are identical with Himself.-Tr.] similarly, in, 'through the Yoga of Action for the yogis' (3.3), He will separately speak of the firm adherence to the Yoga [Here also Karma and Yoga are identical, and lead to Liberation by bringing about purity of heart which is followed by steadfastness in Knowledge.] of Karma which is based on Yoga-buddhi (Conviction about Yoga). Thus, the two kinds of steadfastness -- that based on the conviction about the nature of the Self, and that based on the conviction about rites and duties -- have been 7

distinctly spoken of by the Lord Himself, who saw that the coexistence of Knowledge and rites and duties is not possible in the same person, they being based on the convictions of non-agentship and agentship, unity and diversity (respectively). As is this teaching about the distinction (of the two adherences), just so has it been revealed in the Satapatha Brahmana: 'Desiring this world (the Self) alone monks and Brahmanas renounce their homes' (cf. Br. 4.4.22). After thus enjoining renunciation of all rites and duties, it is said in continuation, 'What shall we acheive through childeren, we who have attained this Self, this world (result).' [The earlier quotation implies an injuction (vidhi) for renunciation, and the second is an arthavada, or an emphasis on that injunction. Arthavada: A sentence which usually recommends a vidhi, or precept, by stating the good arising from its proper observance, and the evils arising from its omission; and also by adducing historical instances in its support.-V.S.A] Again, there itself it is said that, before accepting a wife a man is in his natural state [The state of ignorance owing to nonrealization of Reality. Such a person is a Brahmacarin, who goes to a teacher for studying the Vedas]. And (then) after his enquiries into rites and duties, [The Brahmacarin first studies the 8

Vedas and then enquires into their meaning. Leaving his teacher's house after completing his course, he becomes a house holder.] 'he' for the attainment of the three worlds [This world, the world of manes and heaven.-Tr.] 'desired' (see Br. 1.4.17) as their means a son and the two kinds of wealth consists of rites and duties that lead to the world of manes, and the divine wealth of acquisition of vidya (meditation) which leads to heaven. In this way it is shown that rites and duties enjoined by the Vedas etc. are meant only for one who is unenlightened and is possessed of desire. And in the text, 'After renouncing they take to mendicancy' (see Br. 4.4.22), the injunction to renounce is only for one who desires the world that is the Self, and who is devoid of hankering (for anything else). Now, if the intention of the Lord were the combination of Knowledge with Vedic rites and duties, then this utterance (of the Lord) (3.3) about the distinction would have been illogical. Nor would Arjuna's question, 'If it be your opinion that wisdom (Knowledge) is superior to action (rites and duties)...,' etc. (3.1) be proper. If the Lord had not spoken earlier of the impossibility of the pursuit of Knowledge and rites and duties by the same person (at the same time), then how could Arjuna falsely impute to the Lord -- by 9

saying, 'If it be your opinion that wisdom is superior to action....' -- (of having spoken) what was not heard by him, viz the higher status of Knowledge over rites and duties? Moreover, if it be that the combination of Knowledge with rites and duties was spoken of for all, then it stands enjoined, ipso facto, on Arjuna as well. Therefore, if instruction had been given for practising both, then how could the question about 'either of the two' arise as in, 'Tell me for certain one of these (action and renunciation) by which I may attain the highest Good' (3.2)? Indeed, when a physician tells a patient who has come for a cure of his biliousness that he should take things which are sweet and soothing, there can arise no such request as, 'Tell me which one of these two is to be taken as a means to cure biliousness'! Again, if it be imagined that Arjuna put the question because of his noncomprehension of the distinct meaning of what the Lord had said, even then the Lord ought to have answered in accordance with the question: 'The combination of Knowledge with rites and duties was spoken of by Me. Why are you confused thus?' On the other hand, it was not proper to have answered, 'Two kinds of steadfastness were spoken of by Me it the days of yore,' in a way that was inconsistent and at variance with the question. 10

Nor even do all the statements about distinction etc. become logical if it were intended that Knowledge was to be combined with rites and duties enjoined by the Smrtis only. Besides, the accusation in the sentence, 'Why then do you urge me to horrible action' (3.1) becomes illogical on the part of Arjuna who knew that fighting was a Ksatriya's natural duty enjoined by the Smrtis. Therefore, it is not possible for anyone to show that in the scripture called the Gita there is any combination, even in the least, of Knowledge of the Self with rites and duties enjoined by the Srutis or the Smrtis. But in the case of a man who had engaged himself in rites and duties because of ignorance and defects like the attachment, and then got his mind purified through sacrifices, charities or austerities (see Br. 4.4.22), there arises the knowledge about the supreme Reality -- that all this is but One, and Brahman is not an agent (of any action). With regard to him, although there is a cessation of rites and duties as also of the need for them, yet, what may, appear as his diligent continuance, just as before, in those rites and duties for setting an example before people -- that is no action in which case it could have stood combined with Knowledge. Just as the actions of Lord Vasudeva, in the form of performance of the duty 11

of a Ksatriya, do not get combined with Knowledge for the sake of achieving the human goal (Liberation), similar is the case with the man of Knowledge because of the absence of hankering for results and agentship. Indeed, a man who has realized the Truth does not thingk 'I am doing (this)' nor does he hanker after its result. Again, as for instance, person hankering after such desirable things as heaven etc. may light up a fire for performing such rites as Agnihotra etc. which are the mans to attain desirable things; [The Ast. reading is: Agnihotradi-karma-laksana-dharmaanusthanaya, for the performance of duties in the form of acts like Agnihotra etc.-Tr.] then, while he is still engaged in the performance of Agnihotra etc. as the means for the desirable things, the desire may get destroyed when the rite is half-done. He may nevertheless continue the performance of those very Agnihotra etc.; but those performance of those very Agnihotra etc.; but those Agnihotra etc. cannot be held to be for this personal gain. Accordingly does the Lord also show in various places that, 'even while perfroming actions,' he does not act, 'he does not become tainted' (5.7). As for the texts, '...as was performed earlier by the ancient ones' (4.15), 'For Janaka and others strove to attain Liberation through action itself' (3.20), 12

they are to be understood analytically. Objection: How so? Vedantin: As to that, if Janaka and others of old remained engaged in activity even though they were knowers of Reality, they did so for preventing people from going astray, while remaining established in realization verily through the knowledge that 'the organs rest (act) on the objects of the organs' (3.28). The idea is this that, though the occasion for renunciation of activity did arise, they remained established in realization along with actions; they did not give up their rites and duties. On the other hand, if they were not knowers of Reality, then the explanation should be this; Through the discipline of dedicating rites and duties to God, Janaka and others remained established in perfection (samsiddhi) either in the form of purification of mind or rise of Knowledge. This very idea [The idea that rites and duties become the cause of Knowledge through the purification of the mind.] will be expressed by the Lord in, '(the yogis) undertake action for the purification of oneself (i.e. of the heart, or the mind)' (5.11). After having said, 'A human being achieves success by adoring Him through his own duties' [By performing one's own duty as enjoined by scriptures and dedicating their results to God, one's mind becomes purified. Then, through Gods 13

grace one becomes fit for steadfastness in Knowledge. From that steadfatness follows Liberation. Therefore rites and duites do not directly lead to Liberation. (See Common. under 5.12) (18.46), He will again speak of the steadfastness in Knowledge of a person who has attained success, in the text, '(Understand...from Me...that process by which) one who has achieved success attains Brahman' (18.50). So, the definite conclusion in the Gita is that Liberation is attained only from the knowledge of Reality, and not from its combination with action. And by pointing out in the relevant contexts the (aforesaid) distinction, we shall show how this conclusion stands. That being so, Lord Vasudeva found that for Arjuna, whose mind was thus confused about what ought to be done [The ast. and A.A., have an additional word -mithyajnanavatah, meaning 'who had false ignorance'.-Tr.] and who was sunk in a great ocean of sorrow, there could be no rescue other than through the knowledge of the Self. And desiring to rescue Arjuna from that, He said, '(You grieve for) those who are not to be grieved for,' etc. by way of introducing the knowledge of the Self. [In this Gita there are three distinct parts, each part consisting of six chapters. These three parts deal with the three words of the great Upanisadic saying, 14

'Tattvamasi, thou art That', with a view to finding out their real meanings. The first six chapters are concerned with the word tvam (thou); the following six chapters determine the meaning of the word tat (that); and the last six reveal the essential identity of tvam and tat. The disciplines necessary for realization this identity are stated in the relevant places.] 2.11 The Blessed Lord said -- You grieve for whose who are not to be grieved for; and you speak words of wisdom! The learned do not grieve for the departed and those who have not departed.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 2.11 Bhisma, Drona and others are not to be grieved for, because they are of noble character and are eternal in their real nature. With regard to them, asocyan, who are not to be grieved for; tvam, you; anvasocah, grieve, (thinking) 'They die because of me; without them what shall I do with dominion and enjoyment?'; ca, and; bhasase, you speak; prajnavadan, words of wisdom, words used by men of wisdom, of intelligence. The idea is, 15

panda means wisdon about the Self.1) ['Therefore the knowers of Brahman..the knowers of Brahman. having known all about this strength as well as scholorship. nor you. And surely it is not that we all shall cease to exist after this. one the authority of the Upanisadic text. 3. the living. agatasun ca. the departed. 'Your are sorrowing for those who are eternal in the real sense.12 But certainly (it is) not (a fact) that I did not exist at any time. should try to live upon that strength which comes of Knowledge. whose life has become extinct. nor these rulers of men.5.'Like one mad. panditah. having known all about scholorship. do not grieve for. having known all about scholarship. na anusocanti. and who are not to be grieved for. Hence your are a fool!. and for those who have not departed. '. those indeed who have this are panditah.. gatasun. the knowers of the Self -..' 2. 16 .' (Br.'] -. he becomes meditative.' Because. he becomes a knower of Brahman. whose life has not left. The ideas is. you show in yourself this foolishness and learning which are contradictory. the learned.. having known all about both meditativeness and its opposite...

Ca. [Here Ast.] Similarly. I existed eternally. similar is 17 . The meaning is that even in all the three times (past. adds ghatadisu viyadiva. jana-adhipah. na ime. did not exist. On the contrary. youth and decrepitude to an embodied being in this (present) body. at any time. even after the destruction of this body. that jatu. they did exist. sarve. I did exist. On the other hand. na tvam. vayam. we shall exist. but not in the sense of the multiplicity of the Self. nor is it that you did not exist. aham.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . na eva. present and future) we are eternal in our nature as the Self.13 As are boyhood. na bhavisyamah.12 Why are they not to be grieved for? Because they are eternal. The idea is that when the bodies were born or died in the past. And similarly.-Tr. but certainly it is not (a fact). The plural number (in we) is used following the diversity of the bodies. 2. nor is it that these . rulers of men.Swami Gambhirananda 2. I . we. all. on the contrary. How? Na tu eva. and so also. atah param. after this. did not exist. na asam. but you surely existed. like Space in pot etc. it is surely not that. shall cease to exist.

the unchanging Self's dehantarapraptih. middle age. Tatra. an intelligent person. Yatha. similar. an intelligent person does not get deluded. On these. this being so. to show how the Self is eternal.' etc. kaumaram. present.of the embodied. These three states are mutually distinct.'. and jara. youth. asmin. advance of age. to an embodied being. boyhood.Swami Gambhirananda 2. the Lord cites an illustration by saying. yauvanam. What then? It is seen that the Self. to one who possesses a body (deha). acquires the second and third states. does not. the manner in which. 18 . This being so. dhirah. dehe. in this. when the first state gets destroyed the Self does not get destroyed. decrepitude. as are. dehinah. Tatha. to the Self possessing a body. which verily remains unchanged. This is the meaning. na. indeed.13 As to that. get deluded. a body different from the present one.. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . body --. muhyati.. when the second state comes into being It is not born. acquisition of another body. is Its.the acquisition of another body.

. 'But the contacts of the organs. happiness and sorrow. They have a beginning and an end. heat. the organs and objects. the contacts of the organs with objects.2.14 But the contacts of the organs with the objects are the producers of cold and heat. viz sound etc. as of ordinary people. happiness and sorrow. of the organs with sound etc. Matrah means those by which are marked off (measured up) sounds etc. The sparsah. heat. the Lord said. Or. (and) are transient. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . are the producers of cold. i. producers of cold. happiness and sorrow is noticed in him. Delusion arises from being deprived of happiness. and sorrow arises from contact with pain etc.' etc. caused by the experience of cold.e. happiness and 19 . objects.14 'In the case of a man who knows that the Self is eternal. Matra-sparsah.' apprehending this kind of a talk from Arjuna. still delusion.Swami Gambhirananda 2. although there is no possibility of delusion concerning the destruction of the Self. are sita-usna-sukha-duhkhadah. O descendant of Bharata. contacts. Bear them. heat. are matra-sparsah. sparsah means those which are contacted.e. the organs of hearing etc. Matra-sparsah. i.

Hence. do not. etc.. the wise man.. too.'etc. dhiram. do not be happy or sorry with regard to them. are by nature subject to origination and destruction. ete. do not perturb. tan.. Cold sometimes produces pleasure. transient. and sometimes pain. the person whom. verily. Since they. who are) foremost among men.sorrow. the person. verily. these. Similarly the nature of heat. have a beginning and an end. On the other hand.Swami Gambhirananda 2. 2. torment. the wise man to whom sorrow and happhiness are the same -..15 What will happen to one who bears cold and heat? Listen: Verily. bear. etc. who is free from 20 . the person whom these do not torment. they are anityah. i. vyathayanti.e. happiness and sorrow have definite natures since they do not change.15 O (Arjuna. is unpredictable. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .cold. therefore.he is fit for Immortality. cold and heat mentioned above. agamapayinah. na. Hence they are mentioned separately from cold and heat.. yam purusam. sama-duhkha-sukham. the organs. titiksasva. them -. the contacts. (O Arjuna) hi. to whom sorrow and happiness are the same. heart.

kalpate. etc.. existence. who forbears the opposites. reality. heat.Swami Gambhirananda 2. becomes fit. has been realized by the seers of Truth.happiness and sorrow when subjected to pleasure and pain. the real has no nonexistence. for the state of Immortality. cold. who is established in the realization of the enternal Self. he. na vidyate.' etc. together with their causes are not substantially real when tested by means of proof. bhavah. for this reason also it is proper to bear cold. because of his realization of the enternal Self. etc. For they are changeful. Asatah. As configurations like pot etc. i. of cold. heat. because heat. 2. amrtattvaya. being.16 Of the unreal there is no being. But the nature of both these. and whatever is changeful is inconstant. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . without becoming sorrowful or deluded. for Immortality. there is no. indeed. for Liberation.e. are unreal since they are not perceived to be different from earth when tested by the eyes. sah. so also are all changeful things unreal because they are not perceived to be 21 . etc. together with their causes. of the unreal.16 Since 'the unreal has no being.

then the cause also should be unreal. (and)'. for in all cases there is the experience of two awarenesses.different from their (material) causes. and the other is variable. Objection: If it be that [Here Ast. may it not be urged that owing to the nonexistence of those (causes) there will arise the contingency of everything becoming unreal [An entity cannot be said to be unreal merely because it is non-different from its cause.-Tr.]? Vedantin: No. and also because they are not perceived before (their) origination and after destruction. therefore it is proved that there is something which is the substratum of all imagination.] That in relation to which the awareness does not change is real. in that case. [In all cases of perception two awarenesses are involved: one is invariable. viz pot etc. Were it to be asserted as being unreal. has the additional words 'karyasya ghatadeh. because there is no entity which is not subject to the law of cuase and effect. Since the variable is imagined on the invariable. Thus. viz the awareness of reality. the effect. and which is neither a cause nor an effect. that in relation to which it changes is unreal. and the awareness of unreality. since the distinction between the real and the 22 .] such (material) causes as earth etc. as also their causes are unreal since they are not perceived differently from their causes.

because of its constancy. etc. the awareness of pot etc. 'The cloth is real'. the experiences) 'The pot is real'. since the awareness of pot also changes when the pot is destroyed. the awarenesses are not concerned with substratum and qualities.of cloth. but the awareness of pot. 'A blue lotus'.according to the non-dualists. is inconstant. [In the empirical experience. and thus has it been shown above. viz the substance (lotus) and the quality (blueness). 'The elephant is real' . there are two awarenesses concerned with two entities. etc. whereas the coexistence of 'blueness' and 'lotus' is real according to the dualists. 23 . 'The pot is real'. but not so the object of the awareness of reality. In the case of the experience. [The coexistence of 'reality' and 'pot' etc. like that of 'water' in a mirage.] This is how it happens everywhere. But the awareness of reality is not (inconstant). are valid only empirically -. are superimposed on the awareness of 'reality'.] Of these two awareness.unreal is dependent on awareness.(which experiences) are not like (that of) 'A blue lotus'. therefore in all cases (of empirical experiences) everyone has two kinds of awarenesses with regard to the same substratum: (As for instance. Objection: If it be argued that. Therefore the object of the awareness of pot etc. is unreal because of inconstancy.

Since the awareness of reality corresponds to the adjective (i. when the noun is missing there is no possibility of its (that awareness) being an adjective.A. and the Objection starts from nanu 24 . For this reason also it is not destroyed.. In that case. the awareness of reality persists in the region where the pot had existed. again. because in cloth etc..adjective. Objection: May it not be that even the awareness of reality is not present in relation to a pot that has been destroyed? Vedantin: No.. [This last sentence has been cited in the f.] Objection: If it be argued that like the awareness of reality. therefore. again'). That awareness relates to the odjective (and not to the noun 'pot'). So.Tr.e.since. it is used adjectivelly)... the awareness of reality (does not cease) with the absence of an object. the awareness of a pot also persists in other pots? Vedantin: No. to what should it relate? But..therefore the awareness of the pot's reality is also changeful? Vedantin: No.relate?) is a statement of the Vedantin..n. because that (awareness of pot) is not present in (the awareness of) a cloth etc... the awareness of reality is seen to persist. the first portion (No. because the noun is absent (there). [Even when a pot is absent and the awareness of reality does not arise with regard to it. So. Some read nanu in place of na tu ('But. of A.

antah. and the dualities (heat. asatah. and therefore it becomes impossible for it (the awareness of existence) to exist in the same substratum?'-Tr. Therefore. when nouns like pot etc. Therefore. Tu. bhavah.punah sadbuddheh. of the unreal. there is no. there is no. the conclusion (regarding the nature of the 25 . viz body etc. na vidyate. the awareness of existence has no noun to qualify. because in such experiences as. So. when nouns like pot etc. of the real. (the awareness of existence has no noun to qualify and therefore) it becomes impossible for it to exist in the same substratum? [The relationship of an adjective and a noun is seen between two real entities.] Objection: May it not be said that. na vidyate.) it is observed that there is a coexistence of two objects though one of them is non-existent. then both of them will be real entities. are absent. being. abhavah. but. because It is constant everywhere. nonexistence. etc. of the Self. the nature. satah. This is what we have said. cold. if the relationship between 'pot' and 'reality' be the same as between a noun and an adjective.). 'This water exists'. (which arises on seeing a mirage etc. together with their causes. the next Objection will run thus: 'May it not be said that.] Vedantin: No. are absent. the coexistence of reality with a non-pot does not stand to reason. etc. And similarly. so.

etc. And Its name is tat. 'But know That'. the true nature of Brahman. as explained above. and the unreal is verily unreal. cold. And all is Brahman. name of all) which can be used with regard to all. 2. mentally being convinced that this (phenomenal world) is changeful. Tat is a pronoun (Sarvanama. 26 .real and the unreal) that the Real is verily real. and others inconstant --. -.some of which are definite in their nature. This is the idea. drstah. you too. heat. Therefore. The abstraction of tat is tattva. has been realized thus. is that reality which remains verily as the Real and surely for ever? This is being answered in. Those who are apt to realize this are tattva-darsinah. None can bring about the destruction of this Immutable. by the seers of Truth. ubhayoh api. again. of the Real and the unreal. of both these indeed. What.17 But know That to be indestructible by which all this is pervaded. etc. lit. tattva-darsibhih. forbear the dualities. seers of Truth. verily unreal and appears falsely like water in a mirage. of the Self and the non-Self. by adopting the vision of the men of realization and giving up sorrow and delusion.

. this. nor (does It suffer mutation) by (loss of something) belonging to It. Which. as pot etc. Na kascit. because the Self is Brahman. Brahman surely does not suffer loss like Devadatta suffering from loss of wealth. not even God Himself. pervaded. is that 'unreal' that is said to change its own nature? This is being answered: 27 . all. tat viddhi. bring about. By Its very nature this Brahman called Reality does not suffer mutation. by nature not subject to destruction. the destruction. know That. asya. unlike bodies etc. can destroy his own Self. because It has nothing that is Its own. to be avinasi. Besides. again. of this avyayasya. arhati. because. is tatam. can. of the Immutable.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 2. Therefore no one can bring about the destruction of this immutable Brahman. but -.this word is used for distinguishing (reality) from unreality.17 Tu. are pervaded by space. indestructible. It has no limbs. disappearance. by which Brahman called Reality. by which. none. what? (that) yena. action with regard to one's Self is self-contradictory. idam. kartum. the Universe together with space. nonexistence. that which does not undergo growth and depletion. sarvam. No one. vinasam.

As for instance.18 Ime. it is said to be 'destroyed'. indestructible. to belong nityasya. in dream and magic --. a body which is reduced to ashes and has disappeared is said to have been destoryed. when it becomes transfigured by being afflicted with diseases etc. The two words 'everlasting' and 'indestructible' are not repetitive. by discriminating people. antavantah. because in common usage everlastingness and destructibility are of two kinds. indeterminable. and that is its end. (And) even while existing. the indeterminable. This is the meaning. aprameyasya. bodies -. embodied One.2. dehah. etc.18 These destructible bodies are said to belong to the everlasting. destructible. are said. sarirnah.as the idea of reality which continues with regard to water in a mirage. these. to the everlasting. anasinah. the indestructible. embodied One. so are these bodies and they have an end like bodies etc. [Here 28 . gets eliminated when examined with the means of knowledge. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the Self. join the battle. uktah.Swami Gambhirananda 2. Therefore. O descendant of Bharata.

similar is the case even with regard to loss of wealth. indestructible'. Aprameyasya. because the Self is self-evident. it is not that without first determining oneself as. one takes up the task of determining an object of knowledge. in order that this contingency may not arise.] That being so. For. Otherwise.? Vedantin: No.the A. Therefore. Besides. of the indeterminable. known and the means of knowledge become sublated. it is said.' Objection: Is it not that the Self is determined by the scriptures. means 'of that which cannot be determined by such means of knowledge as direct perception etc. But the scripture is the final authority [when the Vedic text establishes Brahman as the innermost Self. Indeed. its authority 29 . 'Of the everlasting. all the distinctions such as knower.'-Tr. there is a search for a means of knolwedge by the knower. the everlastingness of the Self would be like that of the earth etc. For what is called the 'self' does not remain unknown to anyone. (only) when the Self stands predetermined as the knower.A. and before that through direct perception etc. adds 'tatha dhana-nase-apyevam. by the two words 'everlasting' and 'indestructible' it is meant that It is not subject to both kinds of distruction. Thus it is reasonable that the Vedic text should be the final authority. 'I am such'.

4.] 30 . Since the Self is thus eternal and unchanging.the Brahman that is immediate and direct. tasmat. but not by virtue of making some unknown thing known.19-20. because be (Arjuna). 3. it attains authoritativeness with regard to the Self.-Tr.is derived from its being faultless in as much as it has not originated from any human being. it is not intended to enjoin action. remains silent as a result of being overpowered by sorrow and delusion. i.e. you join the battle. yudhyasva. The scripture Gita is intended for eradicating sorrow. Therefore. not an injunction. 'Therefore.1). join the battle' is only an approval.. all that is being done by the Lord is the removal of the obstruction to his duty. Here there is no injunction to take up war as a duty. therefore. There are slight verbal differences. There is an Upanisadic text in support of this: '. delusion.]: By way of merely negating superimposition of qualities that do not belong to the Self. 1. do not desist from the war. which are the cases of the cycle of births and deaths. As evidences of this idea the Lord cites two Vedic verses: [Ka.2.. etc. the Self that is within all' (Br. though he was determined for war.

ca. has this phrase in both the places. nor is It killed. the agent of the act of killing. omits this phrase from the precedig sentence and includes it in this place. the killer. as hatam.19 But the ideas that you have. manyate. of enam. the embodied One under consideration. The meaning is: On the killing of the body. and. this One. both of them.2. owing to non-discrimination. know the Self which is the subject of the consciousness of 'I'.this idea of yours is false. How? Yah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . both of them are 31 . and he who thinks of this One as the killed -. thinks. vijanitah. he who.A. The A. 'Bhisma and others are neing killed by me in war. ubhau tau.(who thinks) 'When the body is killed. do not.] as 'I am the killer'.-Tr. he who. thinks. I am surely their killer' -.the content of the consciousness of 'I' --) [The Ast.19 He who thinks of this One as the killer. the killed -. yah. vetti.both of them do not know. the other who. 'I have been killed'. I become the object of the act of killing'. na. as hantaram.Swami Gambhirananda 2. and he who thinks. of enam. This One does not kill. this One. I am myself killed. he who thinks of the Self (-.

na mriyate. is It born never does It die. na hanti. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . na hanyate. undecaying. nor is It killed.to which matter is subject --. ancient. this Self. this Self. It will again cease to be. never. jayate.20 Na kadacit. For. ayam. does not become the agent of the act of killing. 32 . the Self has no change in the form of being born -. By this is denied the final change in the form of destruction. nor is it that having come to exist.Swami Gambhirananda 2. this One. i. owing to Its changelessness. having come to exist. neverl. bhutva.e. The second verse is to show how the Self is changeless: 2. and so on. The word (na) kadacit).va is used in the sense of and).ignorant of the nature of the Self. is ayam. eternal. and (-.e. Since ayam. It never dies.never. va. It is not killed when the body is killed. This One is birthless. is connected with the denial of all kinds of changes thus -.20 Never is this One born. does not kill. born i. It does not become the object (of the act of killing). and never does It die.

it is understood that. that which lasts for ever. For. Therefore the text says sasvatah. birthless. cease to be thereafter.10. again. are used with regard to something which comes into existence after having been non-existent. Although all changes become negated by the denial of the first and the last kinds of changes. And again. which have not been mentioned may become negated. From the use of the word va. bhuyah. therefore It does not die.-Tr. in common parlance. and na. For. unlike the body. the words.. so that all the changes. na. abhavita. nor. since it is without qualities. In Its own nature It does not decay because It is free from parts. will not. and since It does not die. Since this is so. therefore It is ajah. The change in the form of decay is denied by the word sasvata. this Self does not again come into existence after having been non-existent. that which ceases to exist after coming into being is said to die. Therefore It is not born. undecaying.] should be denied with their own respective terms by which they are implied. The Self is not like this. Therfore It is not born.. 'It is born'. therefore It is nityah.having experienced the process of origination. viz youth etc. there is no degeneration owing to the decay of any 33 . eternal. still changes occuring in the middle [For the six kinds of changes see note under verse 2.

] may be avoided. 2. A thing that grows by the addition of some parts is said to increase and is also said to be new. he who knows this One as indestructible. It is puranah. the material changes seen in the world. ancient. how and whom does that person kill. which is opposed to decay. In this mantra the six kinds of transformations. then a tautology is unavoidable. If the verb han. na hanyate. eternal. even when sarire. It does not grow. birthless and undecaying. It is not killed.-Tr. The meaning of the sentence is that the Self is devoid of all kinds of changes. So also. It does not get transformed. Thus It is puranah. But this Self was fresh even in the past due to Its partlessness. i.21 O Partha.e. Change in the form of growth. so that a tautology [This verse has already mentioned 'death' in the first line. are denied in the Self. hanyamane. It does not grow. The verb 'to kill' has to be understood here in the sense of transformation.e. therefore 'both of them do not know' -. is killed. the body. to kill. or whom 34 . So also. is also denied by the word puranah.this is how the present mantra is connected to the earlier mantra. i. na hanyate. Since this is so.quality. transformed. is also taken in the sense of killing.

does he cause to be killed! [This is not a question but only an emphatic denial. or how ghatayati.e.-Tr. (and kam. in what way. birthless. indestructible. undertake the act of killing. devoid of transformation. he who. whom. above all injunctions and prohibitions. Yah. and avyayam.' etc. hanti. the person who is himself an authority [i. does he cause (others) to be killed. etc. ajam. how. eternal. possessing the characteristics stated in the earlier mantra.] English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . this One. that man of realization. having stated the reasons for (Its) changelessness..Swami Gambhirananda 2. and then in the mantra.21 In the mantra.-Tr.' having declared that (the Self) does not become the agent or the object of the actof killing.]. See 18. knows -yah is to be thus connected with Veda --. enam.) does sah. 'Never is this One born. veda.17. purusah. as avinasinam. 'He who thinks of this One as the killer. kill. the Lord sums up the purport of what was declared above: He who knows this One as indestructible. (how does he) 35 .16. katham. nityam. undecaying. devoid of the final change of state.

-Tr. therefore the negation of all kinds of actions in the case of a man of realization is what the Lord conveys as the only purport of this context.-Tr.instigate a killer! The intention is to deny both (the acts) by saying. may it not be argued that action does not become impossible for one who has known as unchanging 36 .].? Vedantin: Has not the immutability of the Self been already stated as the reason [Some readings omit this word. Indeed.' etc. But the denial of (the act of) killing has been cited by way of an example. and this reason holds good with regard to all actions of the man of realization. 'How can that person. viz the immutability of the Self. Objection: By noticing what special reason for the impossibility of actions in the case of the man of realization does the Lord deny all actions (in his case) by saying. 'In no way does he kill any one. omits 'viz the immutability of the Self'. for the man of realization is different from the immutable Self. the specific ground for the impossibility of all actions? Objection: It is true that it has been stated.] . is the changelessness of the Self. [The A.] is common (with regard to all actions). Since the implication of the reason [The reason for the denial of killing etc. nor does he cause anyone to be killed'.-Tr. but that is not a specific ground. because an interrogative sense is absurd (here).A.

stump of a tree?! Vedantin: No. action being impossible for that man of Knowledge. is meant the transformation of the internal organ into the form of an extension upto an object.. the Self. presented by the intellect etc.. As on account of the lack of knowledge of the distinction between the Self and the modifications of the intellect. Enlightenment does not belong to the aggregate of body and senses. though verily immutable. which in reality is immutable. modification of the intellect. is called objective knowledge. because of man of Knowledge is one with the Self.. the knower is the Immutable and is the Self which is not a part of the aggregate.' etc. as the last laternative. is reasonable. due to 37 . the denial in. Thus. Thereby. along with its past impressions.. like the extension of the light of a lamp illuminating an object. Therefore.. 'How can that person. in this very way. which (knowledge) is a modification of the intellect [By buddhi-vrtti. is said to be the 'knower' because of Its association with the knowledge of the distinction between the Self and non-Self. the Self. Consciousness reflected on this transformation and remaining indistinguishable from that transformation revealing the object. etc. is imagined through ignorance to be the perceiver of objects like sound etc. the senses concerned.

it is admitted that the vrtti in the form. for Brahman is self-effulgent.ignorance. does reach Brahman and destroys ignorance about Brahman. like grinding something that has already been ground! This being so.] and is unreal by nature. Both of them envelop the object. like the flash of a torchlight. and along with it goes the reflection of Consciousness. 'I am Brahman'. the Self is imagined to be the perceiver because of Its connection with the vrtti. a pot for instance. From the statement that action is impossible for man of realization it is understood that the conclusion of the Lord is that. and not for the 38 . reveals the pot. the injunction about enlightenment to one who has already achieved realization is useless. but it is not admitted that Brahman is revealed like a 'pot'. actions enjoined by the scriptures are prescribed for the unenlightened. becoming unified with only that portion of it which has been delimited by the pot. (-A. the distinction that rites and duties are enjoined for the unenlightened.Tr.) The process is elsewhere described as follows: The vrtti goes out through the sense-organ concerned. modification.G. In the case of knowledge of Brahman. The vrtti destroys the ignorance about the pot. and the reflection of Consciousness. Objection: Is not elightenment too enjoined for the ignorant? For.

nothing remains later on to be performed as a duty after knowing the meaning of the injunction about the nature of the Self from such texts as. But apart from the rise of knowledge regarding the unity of the Self. Therefore. In this way duties are (enjoined) [Ast. Again. become possible'. 'This is my duty.' In relation to that he becomes eligible. etc. 'Agnihotra etc.. becuase of the negation of action (in this text). his non-agency. their performance becomes bligatory on the unenlightened one who thinks. And the text.] for him. no other idea arises. As after the knowledge of the meaning of the injunction for rites like Agnihotra etc.' etc. in the form.' etc. 'How can that person.. 'Never is this One born. has to be performed by collecting various accessories. There can reasonable be a distinction between the existence or nonexistence of a thing to be performed. this distinction can be maintained.-Tr. 'both of them do not know' (19).enlightened one. does not stand to reason. -. I am not the enjoyer'.unlike this. Thus. for anyone who knows himself as. 'I am the agent'. concerns the enlightened person distinguished above. he is an unenlightened man. adds 'sambhavanti. 'I am not the agent. And according to the text. 39 . I am the agent. etc. and this is my duty'. Vedantin: No. there will necessarily arise the idea.

' [Ast.' etc. Similarly also. and renunciation comes after that. '(The embodied man of selfcontrol.28). ['Now. So also there is the text. making a distinction between the enlightened man of Knowledge and the unenlightened man of rites and duties.-Tr. indeed. "I do not act"' (cf. but only gives the purport of Tai. Ar.) having given up all actions mentally.] The Lord will show again and again this very division: 'The unenlightened man who is deluded by egoism thinks thus: "I am the doer". Therefore. and the seeker of Liberation are qualified only for renunciation of all rites and duties. says that this is not a quotation.6). there are these two paths. They are thought of as the dharma characterized by engagement in duties. Vyasa said to his son.-Tr. the Lord Narayana. 'Now. 241. 10. and that by renunciation of them' (Mbh.the enlightened person distinguished above. but the one who is a knower of the facts (about the varieties of the gunas) thinks.27.62. there are these two paths on which the Vedas are based.12.3).] So also (there is a Vedic text meaning): 'The path of rites and duties. Sa. 40 . makes them take up the two kinds of adherences in the text. who has realized the immutable Self. indeed. is the earlier. through the Yoga of Action for the yogis' (3. 3. 'through the Yoga of Knowledge for the men of realization.

(20). 4. because it will lead to the needlessness of such scriptural instructions as. control of the body and organs.19). 'Never is this One born. why should not there arise from the scriptures the knowledge of unchangeability. since there exist inference and scriptures for Its realization. With regard to this some wiseacres say: In no person does arise the idea. (following the instruction of the teacher)' (Br. actionless Self. 'It is to be realized through the mind alone. Again.4. on the occurrence of which (idea alone) can renunciation of all actions be enjoined. oneness. They should be asked: As on the authority of scripural instructions there arises the knowledge of the existence of virtue and vice and the knowledge regarding an agent who gets associated with successive bodies.' etc. nonagentship. which is One and devoid of the six kinds of changes beginning with birth to which all things are subject'. 'I am the changeless. it is mere bravado to say that Knowledge does not 41 .13) etc. becomes the instrument for realizing the Self. The mind that is purified by the instructions of the scriptures and the teacher. etc. etc. because the Sruti says. similarly. of that very Self? Objection: If it be said that this is due to Its being beyond the scope of any means (of knowledge)? Vedantin: No.continues (happily in the town of nine gates)' (5. That is not correct.

] says. because only that agent who is subject to change instigates someone else who is different from himself and can be acted on. -. adds vasudeva after 'Lord'. 'having given up all actions mentally. Similarly. with a view to pointing out the absence of fitness for rites and duties in the case of an enlightened person. or an indirect agent.thereby denying this direct and indirect agentship of an enlightened person in respect of all actions without exception. Also. 'through the Yoga of Knowledge for the men of realization' (3. And that ignorance has been shown in. is the result of ignorance. the Self being changeless.' etc. the object of an action. 'I am the killer'.' 'how can that person. and 'both of them do not know' (see 2.3). saying. are cuased by ignorance is a common factor in all actions without exception. the fact that such agentship etc. 'Do this. again.(5.19).' etc. the Lord [Ast. 'He who knows this One as indestructible. And here also it is shown that the idea of the Self being an agent. it surely eliminates ignorance. the Lord will also speak of renunication of all actions in. 'I am killed'. 'For what.Tr.arise.13).' Thus. As regards the question. Objection: May it not 42 . its opposite. And it has to be granted that when knowledge arises. is the man of enlightenment qualified?'. the answer has already been give earlier in.

(of him) who neither acts nor makes others act'.continues happily in the town of nine gates' (ibid. for those actions are impossible in the absence of mental activity.. 'The embodied man. In that. as stated by the Lord. 'all actions'. who neither acts nor makes others act. Objection: May it not be argued that 'all actions' relates only to those of the mind? Vedantin: No. the 43 . points out that they can also form a part of the next Objection. is with regard to a dying man. case.) will become illogical since it is not possible for a dead person.be argued that from the expression. (it follows that) oral and bodily actions are not to be renounced? Vedantin: No..13). because all oral and bodily actions are preceded by those of the mind. because it has been specifically expressed: 'without doing or causing (others) to do anything at all' (5.G. Objection: May it not be said that one has to mentally renounce all other activities except the mental functions which are the causes of scriptural rites and duties performed through speech and body? Vedantin: No. not one living? Vedantin: No. because (in that case) the specific statement. Objection: May it not be that this renunciation of all actions. [The words 'akurvatah akarayatah. because of the categoric expression. 'mentally'. have been taken as a part of the Commentator's arguement. But A.

'(he rests) by depositing (sannyasya.. by renouncing) in the body'. whereas renunciation is independent of this. 'As after rejecting wornout clothes. The word nyasa preceded by sam here means 'renunciation'. because everywhere it is categorically asserted that the Self is changeless. Besides.] of the Self. And now we shall speak of the matter on hand: As to that. the man of realization is eligible for renunciation. This we shall show in the relevant texts later on in the cotext of the knowledge of the Self. according to this Scripture. not 'depositing'. 44 . the action of 'resting' requires a location. (but) not 'he rests in the body by renouncing. has been postulated.. he rest by depositing (sannyasya. Therefore. but not 'he rests in the body by renouncing. alone. not for rites and duties.Neither doing nor making others do.. What is it like? That is being said in. the indestructibility [Indestructibility suggests unchangeability as well.translation of the Objection will be this: Can it not be that the construction of the sentence (under discussion) is -. Objection: Can it not be that the construction of the sentence (under discussion) is.' etc.'? Vedantin: No. viz the Gita..'?] to rest in that body after renouncing all actions. by renouncing) in the body'.

takes up. likewise.Swami Gambhirananda 2. wornout. the Self which is surely unchanging like the man (in the example). new ones. do not. jirnani. samyati. sarirani.' etc. other. in that very manner. cut. after rejecting jirnani.Swami Gambhirananda 2. after rejecting. water does not moisten It. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . dehi. the embodied one. other. likewise after rejecting wornout bodies the embodied one unites with other new ones. and air does not dry It. clothes. na. It being 45 . navani. weapons. This is meaning. Sastrani. 'Weapons do not cut It. as in the world. navani. the embodied one under discussion.23 Weapons do not cut It. enam. narah. new ones.23 Why does It verily remain unchanged? This is being answered in. It. vihaya. vasamsi. unites with. tatha. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . a man grhnati.22 Yatha. wornout. 2.2. aparani. chindanti. vihaya. fire does not burn It. bodies. anyani.22 As after rejecting wornout clothes a man takes up other new ones.

-Tr. Even marutah.] 2. even pavakah. omnipresent. acchedyah.Swami Gambhirananda 2. na sosayati. and similarly. 46 . For water has the power of disintegrating a substance that has parts. cannot be moistened. Since the other elements which are the causes of destruction of one ano ther are not capable of destroying this Self.24 Since this is so. na dahati enam. It. by the process of moistening it. does not dry. It is eternal. unmoving and changeless. fire. does not burn. does not moisten It. Ca. na enam kledayanti. in place of enam svatmanam. It. air destroys an oil substance by drying up the oil. cannot be cut. does not reduce It to ashes. It is sarva-gatah. Similarly. reads 'enam tu atmanam. therefore ayam. but this Self'. Being eternal. So also. omnipresent. air. That is not possible in the case of the partless Self.24 It cannot be cut.) one's own Self. therefore It is nityah. It is sthanuh. Being omnipresent. do not cut off Its limbs. It cannot be burnt. (enam. [Ast. eternal. water. apah.partless. and surely cannot be dried up. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . stationary. weapons like sword etc.

" etc. Therefore. Being fixed. (20). ayam. this Self. Something is repeated with those very words. and never does It die. i. i. It is not to be argued that 'these verses are repetive since eternality and changelessness of the Self have been stated in a single verse itself. Therefore It is sanatanah. is acalah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . having known This thus.stationary. viz the Self. "Never is this One born. as a new thing. It is not produced from any cause. unmoving. Whatever has been said there (in verse 19) about the Self does not go beyond the meaning of this verse.e. changeless. fixed like a stump.Swami Gambhirananda 47 . This is inconceivable.' Since the object. This is unchangeable. the unmanifest Self may come within the comprehension of the intellect of the transmigrating persons and bring about a cessation of their cycles of births and deaths. therefore Lord Vasudeva raises the topic again and again.25 It is said that This is unmanifest. is inscrutable. somehow. 2. you ougth not to grieve.e. and something ideologically. and explains that very object in other words so that.

Tasmat. a curdling medium. is acintyah. you ought not to grieve thus. ucyate. Not being subject to transformation. the Self. to grieve. And It is chnageless owing to partlessness. ayam. It is said to be changeless.Swami Gambhirananda 48 . It is avikaryah. it is said that. for it is not seen that any non-composite thing is changeful. these are killed by me. indeed. This.26 On the other hand. 'I am the slayer of these. This.25 Moreover. But this Self is inconceivable becuase It is not an object of the organs. This Self does not change as milk does when mixed with curd. For anything that comes within the purview of the organs becomes the object of thought. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . ayam. It cannot be objectified. you ought not. if you think this One is born continually or dies constantly. evam. enam. O mighty-armed one. inconceivable. etc. even then. having known. being beyond the ken of all the organs. is avyaktah. since. as described. thus. anusocitum. thinking. the Self. unmanifest. na arhasi. unchangeable. For this very reason. Hence. vidivata. this one. therefore.' 2.2.

following ordinary experience. dies. 'On the other hand. etc. thus. is uttered assuming that the Self is transient. manyase. 2. death. or. jatasya. becomes born with the birth of each of the numerous bodies. enam. of the dead. Therefore you ought not to grieve over an inevitable fact. socitum. tatha api. constantly. since that which is subject to birth will die. O mightyarmed one. to grieve. tvam. even then. is 49 . Hi. mrtam. 'death of anyone born'.Swami Gambhirananda 2. for. mrtyuh. on the other hand. is nityajatam.26 This (verse). nityam. dhruvah. of anyone born. even if the Self be of that nature.conveys the sense of assumption --).. born continually.2. va. along with the death of each of these (bodies). is without exception. is certain. ca. these two are inevitable. janmah. and that which is subject to death will be born.' etc. Atha ca. na arhasi.27 For death of anyone born is certain. evam. maha-baho. the Self under discussion. you think. and of the dead (re-) birth is a certainly.27 This being so. ought not. you. if (-. this One. (re-) birth. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and mrtasya.

O descendant of Bharata.28 O descendant of Bharata. 50 . na arhasi. aggregates formed by material elements acting as causes and effects.dhruvam. 2. viz sons. avyaktaduni. you. socitum. With regard to that (fact). arthe. to grieve.Swami Gambhirananda 2. tvam. friends.. After death they certainly become unmanifest. therefore. over an enevitable.) bhutani. all beings remain unmanifest in the beginning. Those beings. a certainly. is inevitable. viz birth and death. this fact. (Bharata. invisibility.28 It is not reasonable to grieve even for beings which are constituted by bodies and organs.-Tr. constituted by bodies and organs. apariharye. What lamentation can there be with regard to them? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Tasmat. fact. they become manifest in the middle. ought not. and others. since 'all beings remain unmanifest' etc. [Another reading is karya-karana-sanghata. remain unmainfest in the beginning.] who before their origination have unmanifestedness (avyakta). all beings.

e. as their beginning (adi) are avyaktaadini. paridevana. as their death (nidhana) are avyakta-nidhanani. unmanifest after death. can there be. after origination. and similarly indeed. St.Swami Gambhirananda 51 . nor are you theirs. with regard to them. which are invisible. and someone else hears of It as a wonder. before death. what. they become vyakta-madhyani. with regard to beings which are objects of delusion. Again. Accordingly has it been said: 'They emerged from invisibility.nonperception. tatra. someone else talks of It as a wonder. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . They are not yours. manifest in the middle. The idea is that even after death they verily attain unmanifestedness. 2. become avyakta-nidhanani. or what prattle. and. does not realize It even after hearing about It.13). What is this fruitless lamentation!' (Mbh. invisibility. indeed. i. Ka. (become) visible.29 Someone visualizes It as a wonder. (and then) get destroyed! 2. they eva. Those which have unmanifestness (avyakta). lamentation. certainly. And some one else. Ca. and have gone back to invisibility.

2. 'O descendant of Bharata. ca.from the point of view of the nature of things. He who speaks of It and the who hears of It is indeed rare among many thousands. indeed.a wonder is something not seen before. veda. Now. this embodied Self'. Kascit. 'Someone visualizes It as a wonder. the absolute Self is not. ascaryavat. tatha. does not. visualizes. seeing and speaking about It. srutva. Therefore. pasyati.' etc. hears of It as a wonder. Or. api. what is comparable to that is ascarya-vat. something seen all on a sudden.] He says. the Self. similarly. talks of It as a wonder. (the meaning is) he who sees the Self is like a wonder. after hearing. 52 . na. something strange. else. indeed.29 'This Self under discussion is inscrutable. in the course of concluding the topic under discussion. And someone else srnoti. [viz the needlessness of sorrow and delusion. and. It. The answer is: Although the individualized Self is the object of egoism. as a wonder. eva. enam. even.] This is being answered in. kascit. vadati. Why should I blame you alone regarding a thing that is a source of delusion to all!' How is this Self inscrutable? [It may be argued that the Self is the object of egoism. the idea is that the Self is difficult to understand. anyah. etc. as though It were a wonder -. someone. realize It. And someone. someone.

from the standpoint of the supreme Reality. socitum. you. this One cannot be killed on account of Its being allpervasive. there is no occasion for sorrow or delusion.. ayam. Since the indewelling One cannot be killed although the body of everyone of the living beings be killed. (This is so) not merely from the standpoint of the supreme Reality. can never be killed. this embodied Self existing in everyone's body can never be killed.30 O descendant of Bharata. for Bhisma and others.2. in all bodies.e. to grieve. therefore.] it has been said that. this dehi. but -- 53 . in trees etc. Here [i. ought not. in the earlier verse. for sarvani bhutani. all (these) beings. Therefore you ought not to grieve for all (these) beings. tasmat. tvam. although existing sarvasya dehe. nityam avadhyah. na arhasi. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . embodied Self. under any condition. That being so.30 Because of being partless and eternal.Swami Gambhirananda 2.

Swami Gambhirananda 2. sreyah. you ought not. than that dharmyat. vikampitum. therefore. which presents itself unsought for and which is an open gate to heaven. 2. And hi. svadharmam. yuddhat. your own duty. aveksya.31 Even considering your own duty you should not waver.it being conducive to virtue and meant for protection of subjects through conquest of the earth --. na arhasi. even. to deviate from the natural duty of the Ksatriya. for a ksatriya. to waver.e. righteous.2. battle. the duty of a Ksatriya. considering. from what is natural to yourself. since there is nothing else better for a Ksatriya than a righteous battle. (but) is supremely righteous -. happy are the Ksatriyas who come across this kind of a battle. ksatriyasya.32 O son of Partha. 54 . better. anyat. na vidyate. there is nothing. since that battle is not devoid of righteousness. else. viz battle -considering even that -. i.. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .31 Api.

yadrcchaya. are not those Ksatiryas sukhinah. come across.Swami Gambhirananda 2.] who labhante. does that battle become a duty? This is being answered (as follows) [A specific rule is more authoritative than a general rule. their minds remaind fully engaged in their immediate duty. then. svarga-dvaram. and which is an apavrtam. a yuddham. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . if you will not fight this righteous battle. battle. Nonviolence is a general rule enjoined by the scriptures. unlike the minds of others.] 2. O son of Partha. upapannam. forsaking your own duty and fame. gate to heaven? [Rites and duties like sacrifices etc.]: Partha. because. idrsam.33 On the other hand. which presents itself.32 Why. yield their results after the lapse of some time. But the Ksatriyas go to heaven immediatley after dying in battle. happy [Happy in this world as also in the other. again. but the duty of fighting is a specific rule for a Ksatriya. you will incur sin. open.Swami Gambhirananda 55 . of this kind. unsought for.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

na karisyasi. tvam. hitva.. your own duty. will not fight. 2. and.34 Not only will there be the giving up of your duty and fame. people. etc. forsaking. avapsyasi. and which is enjoined (by the scriptures). to a person honoured with such epithets as 'virtuous'. avyayam. unending. dharmyam. even imam. also. only papam.34 People also will speak of your unending infamy. and. akrtim. ca. cet. but bhutani. which is not opposed to righteousness. sambhavitasya. akirtih. to an honoured person. this. Ca. you. tatah. sva-dharmam. will speak.2. battle. te. samgramam. And to an honoured person infamy is worse than death. if.33 Atha. 56 . which has presented itself as a duty. infamy. sin. righteous. you will incur. is worse than. because of not undertaking that. fame. kathayisyanti. kritim. 'heroic'.Swami Gambhirananda 2. infamy. perpetual. of your. ca api. earned from encountering Mahadeva (Lord Siva) and others. on the other hand. then. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . atiricyate.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . to an honoured person death is perferable to infamy. from the fight. mamsyante. tvam.Swami Gambhirananda 57 . The meaning is that. maharathah. but bhayat. death. as uparatam. 2. bahumato bhutva.36 And your enemies will speak many indecent words while denigrating your might. Duryodhana and others. to whom. having desisted.Swami Gambhirananda 2. not out of compassion. What can be more painful than that? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . will think. you will again fall into disgrace before them. the great chariotriders. before Duryodhana and others.35 The great chariot-riders will think of you as having desisted from the fight out of fear. of you. yesam.maranat. out of fear of Karna and others. you. ca. yasyasi laghavam.35 Moreover. and you will into disgrace before them to whom you had been estimable. tvam. ranat. and . 2. had been estimable as endowed with many qualities.

duhkhataram. uttistha. tava. might earned from battles against Nivatakavaca and others.Swami Gambhirananda 2. or jitva. kim nu. mahim. therefore. The purport is that in either case you surely stand to gain. tatah. Therefore. nindantah. various kinds of. by undertaking the fight with Karna and others.2. there is no greater pain than it. tasmat. enemies. by being killed. and besieds. unutterable words. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .36 Ca. while denigrating. vadisyanti. samarthyam. Kaunteya. or by winning you will enjoy the earth. by winning over Karna and other heroes. O son of Kunti. 2. you will enjoy. than the sorrow arising from being scorned? That is to say. rise up. prapsyasi. indecent words. your. Therefore. what can be. the earth. 58 . bahun. bhoksyase. tava. scorning. krta-niscayah. many. either. O Arjuna. your. svargam. hatah. ahitah. more painful. heaven.37 Again. avacya-vadan. rise up with determination for fighting. will speak. Since this is so.37 Either by being killed you will attain heaven. than that. va. you will attain.

' 2. 'I shall either defeat the enemies or shall die. it will amount to accepting combination of Knowledge and actions. That is to say.38 Treating happiness and sorrow. same. sukha-duhkhe. and conquest and defeat with equanimity. Thus you will not incur sin. happiness and sorrow. for fighting. Evam. sin. without having likes and dislikes. yuddhaya. na avapsyasi. gain and loss. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . engage in battle. gain and loss. so also treating labha-alabhau.with determination. papam. tatah. 59 . with equanimity. thus by undertaking the fight. conquest and defeat.e.e. then engage in battle. To avoid this contingency the Commentator says. with the determination. This advice is incidental. [The context here is that of the philosophy of the supreme Reality.38 As regards that. listen to this advice for you then you are engaged in battle considering it to be your duty: Krtva. jaya-ajayau. then. i. 'incidental'. as the same. treating.Swami Gambhirananda 2. you will not incur. yuddhaya yujyasva. i. If fighting is enjoined in that context.

' etc. For.). etc. 'Even considering your own duty' (31).20 etc. Hence the Lord says: 2. It is not an injunction to combine Knowledge with actions. in order to show the distinction between the (two) topics dealt with in this scripture. and the hearer also will easily comprehend it by keeping in view the distinction between the topics.3) -. if the distinction between the topics of the scripute be shown here.although the context is of the supreme Reality.as stated later on in.].39 O Partha. is of the realization of the supreme Reality. but this has not been presented by accepting that as the real intention (of the Lord).. the advice to fight is incidental. through the Yoga of Action for the yogis' (3. however. since fighting is here the natural duty of Arjuna as a Ksatriya. 'through the Yoga of Knowledge for the men of realization. The real context here (in 2. Now. The generally accepted argument for the removal of sorrow and delusion has been stated in the verses beginning with. the Lord concludes that topic which has been presented above (in 2.will proceed again smoothly.12 etc. this wisdom has been imparted to you from the standpoint of Self-realization. But 60 . then the instruction relating to the two kinds of adherences -. by saying. 'This (wisdom) has been imparted.).

and they arise from ignorance about one's Self. etc. endowed with which wisdom you will get rid of the bondage of action. from the spandpoint of Yoga. te. from the standpoint of the means of attaining it (Knowledge) -. yoge. sankhye. but. to this wisdom which will be imparted presently. [Mundane existence consists of attraction and repulsion. with regard to the discriminating knowledge of the supreme Reality. to you. for the sake of adoring God. delusion.Swami Gambhirananda 2. esa. the performance of rites and duties with detachment after destroying the pairs of opposites. etc. buddhih.. Tu. has been imparted. Enlightenment is the independent and sole cause that removes this ignorance. imam. as also in 61 . srnu. in the context of Karma-yoga.39 Partha. O son of Prtha (Arjuna). listen. from the standpoint of Selfrealization.] constituting mundane existence. the Knowledge which directly removes the defect (viz ignorance) that is responsible for sorrow. agentship and enjoyership. this.i.e. wisdom. abhihita. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .listen to this (wisdom) from the standpoint of Yoga. These are the defects.

the bondage of action -. svalpam api. dharmasya. here. 62 . viz the Yoga of Action (rites and duties). you will get rid of that bondage by the attainment of Knowledge through God's grace. Even a little of this righteousness saves (one) from great fear. even a little. prahasyasi. abhikrama-nasah. This is the idea. Besides.the context of the practice of spiritual absorption. na vidyate. of a beginning. with which. na. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . waste of an attempt. O Partha. asya.action is itself the bondage described as righteousness and unrighteousness. But. any pratyavayah. nor does there arises. you will get rid of.Swami Gambhirananda 2. of this. He (the Lord) praises that wisdom: Yuktah. nor is there. iha. there is no. yaya. As as inducement. karma-bandham.40 Moreover. unlike as in medical care. nor is there (any) harm. endowed.40 Here there is no waste of an attempt. wisdom concerning Yoga. buddhya. unlike as in agriculture etc. in the path to Liberation. The meaning is that the result of any attempt in the case of Yoga is not uncertain. harm. 2.

] Those again. which has been spoken of in the Yoga of Knowledge and which has the characteristics going to be spoken of in (Karma-) yoga.Swami Gambhirananda 2. birth. is this path to Liberation. one-pointed. which are the other buddhayah. thoughts. trayate. from great fear. conviction. possessed of numerous branches. i. [The right source of knowledge. and are innumerable. 2. buddhih.41 O scion of the Kuru dynasty.righteousness in the form of Yoga (of Action). Owing to the 63 . when pracised. which are above criticism. since it originates from the right source of knowledge. they are bahusakhah. saves (one). vyavasayatmika. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . viz the Vedic texts. It is resolute by nature and annuls the numerous branches of the other opposite thoughts. etc. mahato bhayat.41 Kuru-nandana. O scion of the Kuru dynasty. a single. The thoughts of the irresolute ones have many branches indeed. there is only eka. of mundance existence characterized by death. possessed of numerous variations.e. iha. in this there is a single. one-pointed conviction.

unceasing. Whose thoughts? Avyavasayinam. (And those thoughts are) hi. their minds are full of desires and they have heaven as the goal. evergrowing and extensive. those undiscerning people who utter this flowery talk -. limitless. and is full of various special rites meant for the attainment of enjoyment and affluence --.43 O son of Prtha. 2. limitless.] But even the worldly state ceases with the cessation of the infinite branches of thoughts. they remain engrossed in the utterances of the Vedas and declare that nothing else exists. under the influence of discriminating wisdom arising from the valid source of knowledge. [Endless. i. anantah. because the worldly state. of those who are devoid of discriminating wisdom arising from the right source of knowledge.which promises birth as a result of rites and duties. springs from an unreal source. innumerable under every branch. because it does not cease till the rixe of full enlightenment.e. of the irresolute ones. which is an effect. indeed.Swami Gambhirananda 64 .influence of their many branches the worldly state becomes endless. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .42-2.

iti. O son of Prtha. The result 65 . utter.]. are svarga-parah. imam. are apt tosay.e. which is going to be stated. who declare. non-discriminating. and vadinah. which is beautiful like a tree in bloom. who remain engrossed in the utterances of the Vedas. have heaven as the goal. flowery talk. this. they are swayed by desires. promises birth as a result of rites and duties. in the Vedic sentences which reveal many panegyrics. people who are undiscerning. (and) svarga-parah.who are they? they are -avipascitah. exists. apart from the rites and duties conducive to such results as attainment of heaven etc. etc.e. i.]. they are. They utter that speech (-. those devoid of onepointed conviction. that.43 Partha. Liberation. yam puspitam vacam. pleasant to hear.-Tr.2. i. veda-vada-ratah.this is supplied to construct the sentence --) which janma-karma-phala-pradam. na anyat. fruits of action and their means. and appears to be (meaningful) sentences [Sentences that can be called really meaningful are only those that reveal the self. of poor intellect. And they are kamatmanah. Those who accept heaven (svarga) as the supreme (para) human goal. have their minds full of desires. asti. -. to whom heaven is the highest. who pravadanti. full of desires. by nature. nothing else [God.

The fools who utter that speech move in the cycle of transmigration. bhoga-aisvarya-gatimprati.(phala) of rites and duties (karma) is karma-phala. Bhoga. and aisvarya. viz objects such as heaven. are bhoga-aisvarya. 2.44 One-pointed conviction does not become established in the minds of those who delight in enjoyment and affluence. is kriya-visesa-bahula. animals and sons. This is the idea. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . enjoyment. full of various special rites. The speech that is full (bahula) of these. Their attainment (gatih) is bhoga-aisvarya-gatih. and whose intellects are carried away by that (speech). meant for that (attainment). are revealed plentifully. Birth (janma) itself is the karma-phala.Swami Gambhirananda 66 . Special (visesa) rites (kriya) are kriyavisesah. (This speech) is kriya-visesa-bahulam. the speech by which these. prati. the speech by which that is full (bahula) of these. That (speech) which promises this is janma-karmaphala-prada. affluence. (They utter a speech) that is full of the specialized rites. for the attainment of enjoyment and affluence.

the Vedas [Meaning only the portion dealing with rites and duties (karmakanda).the word samadhi being derived in the sese of that into which everthing is gathered together for the enjoyment of a person --. of those who identify themselves with these. You become free from worldliness. buddhih. without (desire for) acquisition and protection. of those who delight in enjoyment and wealth. in the minds -. of those whose intellects are carried away. samadhau.2.] have the three qualities as their object. 2. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .44 And vyavasayatmika. whose discriminating judgement becomes covered. does not become established. by that speech which is full of various special rites.Swami Gambhirananda 67 . free from the pairs of duality. with regard to Knowledge or Yoga. taya. bhoga-aisvaryaprasaktanam. i.e. and self-collected. na vidhiyate. conviction. one-pointed. ever-poised in the quality of sattva.45 O Arjuna. does not arise. and apahrta-cetasam. of those who have the hankering that only enjoyment as also wealth is to be sought for.

traigunya-visayah. i. [From heat. forbear them. (and) so also niryoga-ksemah. free from the pairs of duality -. vedah. the worldly life. etc. everpoised in the quality of sattva. become.] which are the causes of happiness and sorrow.] O Arjuna.] You become nitya-sattvasthah. who indulge in pleasure. adds 'yat phalam tad aha. free from the three qualities.2. the collection of virtuous.45 To those who are thus devoid of discriminating wisdom. the Commentator takes the phrase nistraigunya to mean niskama. But you bhava. vicious and mixed activities. cold. be free from desires. have the three gunas. [There is a seeming conflict between the advices to be free from the three qualities and to be ever-poised in the quality of sattva.e. without (desire for) acquisition 68 .e. as also their results. you become free from them. that the Lord states:'-Tr.e.] i. That is.by the word dvandva. duality. [Traigunya means the collection of the three qualities. the Vedas. as the object to be revealed. Hence. In this derivative sense traigunya means the worldly life. etc. rajas (energy) and tamas (darkness). what result accrues. are meant the conflicting pairs [Of heat and cold. nistraigunyah. free from desires. have the three qualities as their object. i.] (Be) nirdvandvah. [Here Ast. viz sattva (purity).

46 If there be no need for the infinite results of all the rites and duties mentioned in the Vedas. when 69 . use.] 2. then why should they be performed as a dedication to God? Listen to the answer being given: In the world.Swami Gambhirananda 2.46 A Brahmana with realization has that much utility in all the Vedas as a man has in a well when there is a flood all around. i. For one who as 'acquisition and protection' foremost in his mind. all those needs are fulfilled to that very extent. utility. is achieved. drinking. pond and other numerous limited reservoirs.. self-collected. one has udapane. Hence. This is the advice given to you while you are engaged in your own duty. all that. etc. it is difficult to seek Liberation. you be free from acquisition and protection. arthah. vigilant. like bathing. And also be atmavan. [And not from the point of view of seeking Liberation. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Yoga means acquisition of what one has not. sampluhtodake. in a well. indeed.and protection. and ksema means the protection of what one has.e. whatever. yavan.

before one attains the fitness for steadfastness in Knowledge..' (Ch. in that result of realization which comes brahmanasya.. he quotes again from the Gita toshow that the conclusion holds good in the case of knowledge of the absolute Brahman as well. 'all actions in their totality culminate in Knowledge' (4. [The Commentators quotation from the Ch. in all. have to be undertaken by one who is fit for rites and duties. to that very extent.. 4.who knows what he (Raikva) knows. The Lord also will say. etc. the vedesu. result of action. pond... in the rites and duties mentioned in the Vedas. tavan. Vedas..1. '.4). vijanatah.e. all that utility is achieved. who knows the Reality that is the supreme Goal -.there is a flood. gets fulfilled. In a similar manner.e. there is sarvesu. whatever utility. sarvatah. rites and duties. 70 ..that result being comparable to the flood all around.33).so all virtuous deeds performed by people get included in this one.] Therefore. even though they have (limited) utility as that of a well. Lest it be concluded that the present verse relates to knowledge of the qualified Brahman only. For there is the Upanisadic text. to a Brahmana. i. i. relates to meditation on the qualified Brahman. all arount. a sannyasin.

do not. May you not have any inclination for inaction.47 Your right is for action alone. then he does become the cause for the production of the results of action.e. is karmani eva. may you not. never. karma-phalahetuh. Do not become the agent of the results of action. Ma. become. for the results of action . for inaction. right. 'If the results of work be not desired. i. Even there. never for the results. the agent of acquiring the results of action. adhikarah. have. under no condition whatever. for action alone. an inclination. not for steadfastness in Knowledge. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . akarmani. sangah. thus bhuh. when you are engaged in action. thinking. Whenever you have a hankering for the fruits of action. astu. you will become the agent of acquiring the results of action. what is the need of work which involves pain?' 71 .Swami Gambhirananda 2. you have ma kadacana.2. your.may you not have a hankering for the results of action. For when one engages in action by being impelled by thirst for the results of action.47 Te. a right phalesu. Ma.

casting off. O Dhanajaya.2. even there. arising from the impurity of the mind. in success and failure -. [Ignorance. karmani.Swami Gambhirananda 2. but not for propitiating Him to become favourable towards yourself.'] Undertake actions bhutva. by becoming established in Yoga. undertake. casting off attachment and remaining equipoised in success and failure. O Dhananjaya (Arjuna). siddhi-asidhyoh. remaining. Equanimity is called Yoga. and in the failure that arises from its opposite. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . kuru.48 By being established in Yoga. how then are they to be undertaken? This is being stated: Yogasthah.even in the success characterized by the attainment of Knowledge that arises from the purification of the mind when one performs actions without hankering for the results. tyaktva. for the sake of God alone. actions. samah.48 If action is not to be undertaken by one who is under the impulsion of the fruits of action. attachment. equipoised. 'God will be pleased with me. sangam. in the form.] What is that Yoga with regard to being established in 72 . undertake actions.' ['Undertake work for pleasing God.

therefore. Yoga. as against action performed with equanimity of mind for adoring God. equanimity in success and failure. The meaning is that you should resort to the knowledge of the supreme Goal. very remote. is. because it (the former) is the cause of birth. buddhau. is called. avaram. phala-hetavah. indeed. indeed. Those who thirst for rewards are pitiable. yogah. 73 . seek shelter. inferior. who thirst for rewards. buddhi-yogat. karma. ucyate. by far. 'undertake'? This indeed is that: the samatvam.49 O Dhananjaya. action is quite inferior to the yoga of wisdom. from actions undertaken with equanimity of mind. O Dhananjaya. which relates to Yoga. durena. under wisdom. death. take resort to. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . etc. 2. Since this is so.49 Then again. hi. action undertaken by one longing for the results. Take resort to wisdom.which it is said.Swami Gambhirananda 2. from the yoga of wisdom. because those who under take inferior actions. quite. or to the Conviction about Reality that arises from its (the former's) maturity and which is the cause of (achieving) fearlessness. saranam anviccha.

here. the wisdom of equanimity. skilfulness. iha.] 2. through the purification of the mind and acquisition of Knowledge. therefore.with the mind dedicated to God. karmasu. possessed of wisdom. both. one rejects here both virtue and vice. sukrta-duskrte. O Gargi. in this world. since one jahati. rejects. yujyasva. Yoga is skilfulness in action. Skilfulness means the attitude of the skilful. is pitiable' (Br. who departs from this world without knowing this Immutable. according to the Sruti. yogaya.50 Listen to the result that one possessed of the wisdom of equanimity attains by performing one's own duties: Buddhi-yuktah. are krpanah. 'He.who are impelled by results. possessed of the wisdom of equanimity. For Yoga is kausalam.10). pitiable. in action. [See note under 2. virtue and vice (righteousness and unrighteousness). tasmat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . devote yourself. Therefore devote yourself to (Karma-) yoga. to (Karma-) yoga.-Tr. 3. That indeed is skilfulness 74 . the wisdom of equanimity with regard to one's success and failure while engaged in actions (karma) -called one's own duties (sva-dharma) -.50 Possessed of wisdom.Swami Gambhirananda 2.8.7. ubhe.

produced by actions'.] buddhi-yuktah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 2. Hi. men of Enlightenment.which. because. Therefore. makes actions that by their very nature bind give up their nature! Therefore. those who are devoted to wisdom.Swami Gambhirananda 2. it becomes the cause of Liberation as well. [Desirable: the bodies of gods and others. tyaktva. through equanimity. who are imbued with the wisdom of equanimity. reach the state beyond evils by having become freed from the bondage of birth. be you devoted to the wisdom of equanimity. (they) becoming men of Enlightenment by giving up the fruits produced by actions. it leads to becoming freed from sin etc.51 Because. (they) becoming manisinah. the acquisition of desirable and undesriable bodies. the fruit. phalam. when actions are performed with an attitude of equanimity. undesirable: the bodies 75 . [Because. by giving up the fruits' are connected with the remote word 'karmajam. by stages. those who are devoted to wisdom.51 The words 'phalam tyaktva. by giving up.

.] karmajam. produced by actions.to the yoga of wisdom' (49). is enlightenment itself. the state.Since it (buddhi) has been mentioned as the direct cause of the elimination of righteousness and unrighteousness. Or: -. the alternative meaning of buddhi has been taken as 'enlightenment'. and which arises from the purification of the mind as a result of Karma-yoga. anamayam. which consists in the realization of the supreme Goal. even while living.52 When your mind will go beyond the turbidity of delusion. i. action is to be performed by taking the help of the 'wisdom about the supreme Reality' which has been chosen as one's Goal. by having become janma-bandha-vinirmuktah. beyond all evils.] 2. and so on. therefore what has been presented (in the three verses) beginning with.. padam.of animals etc.. gacchanti. which is comparable to a flood all around. becoming freed from that --. then you will acquire dispassion for what has to be heard and what has been heard. So. freed from the bondage of birth -. beyond evils.birth (janma) itself is a bondage (bandha). the supreme state of Visnu. reach. [In the first portion of the Commentary buddhi has been taken to mean samattva buddhi (wisdom of equanimity).e. called Liberation. 76 . 'O Dhananjaya.

[Tada: then. [Yada: when maturity of discrimination is attained. which. despassion. what has been heard. the dirt in the form of delusion. when the mind. vyatitarisyati. moha-kalilam.Swami Gambhirananda 2. When discrimination referred 77 . buddhih. gantasi. ca. will go beyond. i.52 When is attained that wisdom which arises from the purification of the mind brought about by the pursuit of (karma-) yoga? This is being stated: Yada. for srotavyasya. leads to the rise of discrimination.] at that time. mind. what has to be heard. cross over.has been heard. your. the turbidity of delusion. srutasya. in the form of non-discrimination. when. when your mind will attain the state of purity. impels the mind towards objects -. becoming purified. then.e.. tada. te. and. The idea implied is that. you will acquire. the scriptures other than those relating to Self-knowledge. which in turn matures into detachment.that is to say. after confounding one's understanding about the distinction between the Self and the not-Self.] at the time when. at that time what has to be heard and what has been heard [What has to be heard. nirvedam..English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

] becomes fruitless. then you will attain Yoga that arises from discrimination. steadfast.53 When your mind that has become bewildered by hearing [S. mind. 78 . your. are filled with divergent ideas. then the fruitlessness of all things other than Self-knowledge becomes apparent. 2. Yada. niscala. that is to say.-Tr. tossed about. when at the time when. free from the trubulence in the form of distractions.53 If it be asked.to above gets matured. and (their) relationship. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . takes the word sruti in the sense of the Vedas. sthasyati. bewildered. unshakable.Swami Gambhirananda 2.e. that has become sruti-vipratipanna. will become. buddhih. free from doubt even in that (unshakable) state. i. by hearing (the Vedas) that reveal the diverse ends. when shall I attain the yoga of the supreme Reality which is the fruit that results from Karma-yoga?'. te.] will become unshakable and steadfast in the Self. and acala. means. then listen to that. 'By becoming possessed of the wisdom arising from the discrimination about the Self after overcoming the turbidity of delusion.

which has been spoken of in the commentary on the previous verse.samadhau. in the Self -samadhi being derived in the sense of that in which the mind is fixed. Self-absorption. what is the description of a man of steady wisdom who is Selfabsorbed? How does the man of steady wisdom speak? How does he sit? How does he move about? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .e. with a view to knowing the characteristics of one who has the realization of the Self. i. the enlightenment. 'the enlightenment achieved through meditation on the Self'. the realization of the supreme Goal. you will attain. Or the phrase may mean. avapsyasi. then. tada. Yoga. The steadfastness which the monks have in that enlightenment is called steadfastness in Knowledge. at that time. yogam.54 Arjuna said -. in samadhi. Arjuna.] asked: 2. that is to say.O kesava.Swami Gambhirananda 79 . that arises from discrimination. Having got an occasion for inquiry. [By the word samadhi is meant the enlightenment arising from discrimination.

ka. sit? How does he vrajeta. when one fully renounces all the desires that have entered the mind. is the bhasa.O Partha.. then he is called a man of steady wisdom. and ending with the completion the Chapter. indeed. of one whose realization. applied himself to steadfastness 80 .54 O Kesava.2. does the sthitadhih.. 'I am the supreme Brahman'. how.Swami Gambhirananda 2. the language (for the description) -. sthita-prajnasya. of what kind is his sitting or moving? Through this verse Arjuna asks for a description of the man of steady wisdom.55 The Blessed said -.55 In the verses beginning from. description. man of steady wisdom. himself probhaseta. what. dhih. speak? How does he asita. remains steady. of one who is Self-absorbed? Or kim. instruction about the characteristics of the man of steady wisdom and the disciplines (he had to pass through) is being given both for the one who has. 2. 'When one fully renounces. of a man of steady wisdom. samadhisthasya. move about? That is to say. and remains satisfied in the Self alone by the Self.'.how is he described by others --. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

with spirituality.-Tr. because these (characteristics) are the result of effort. desires. there may arise the possibility of 81 . entered into the heart --. the kaman.G. For in all the scriptures without exception. that have entered the mind. prajahati. formal renunciation for undertaking the disciplines which lead to that Realization. the characteristics presented in this and the following verses describe not only the vidvat-sannyasin. If all desires are renounced while the need for maintaining the body persists. in the absence of anything to bring satisfaction. they become the characteristics (of the man of realization). yada.in the Yoga of Knowledge after having renounced rites and duties from the very beginning [Even while he is in the stage of celibacy. all. varieties of desires. manogatan. According to A. then. but are also meant as disciplines for the vividisa-sannyasin. whatever are the characteristics of the man of realization are themselves presented as the disciplines for an aspirant. And those that are the disciplines requiring effort. dealing. and for the one who has (applied himself to this after having passed) through the path of Karma-yoga.] O Partha. when. sarvan. at the time when. and vividisa.]. one fully renounces. [There are two kinds of sannyasa -vidvat (renunciation that naturally follows Realization).

a man of steady wisdom. a man of realization. and who delights in the Self and disports in the Self. and has gone beyond attachment. remains satisfied. sthita-prajnah.Swami Gambhirananda 82 . one whose wisdom.56 That monk is called a man of steady wisdom when his mind is unperturbed in sorrow. who has renounced the desire for progeny. wealth and the worlds. arising from the discrimination between the Self and the not-Self. he is free from longing for delights. and satiated with everything else on account of having attained the nector of realization of the supreme Goal. by the Self which is his own -. The idea is that the man of steady wisdom is a monk. [A lunatic is one who has lost his power of discrimination. and a drunkard is one who has that power but ignores it. atmani eva. atmana. tada. in the Self alone.one's behaving like lunatics or drunkards. 2. fear and anger. then. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .indifferent to external gains. in the very nature of the inmost Self. he is called.] Hence it is said: Tustah. is stable. ucyate.

monk [Sankaracarya identifies the monk with the man of realization. 83 . that munih.2. has no longing for delights when they come to him --. etc. 2.] ucyate. are environmental (adhibhautika) sorrows. sthita-dhih. duhkhesu. Similarly. has gone beyond attachment. headache. are physical (adhyatmika) sorrows.when he. etc. free from longing. a man of steady wisdom.56 Moreover. snakes. etc. those caused by cyclones.] --. unlike fire which flares up when fed with fuel etc.57 The wisdom of that person remains established who has not attachment for anything anywhere. his mind is unperturbed. floods. for delights -. when anudvignamanah. sorrows caused by tigers. is then called. so also. in sorrow -. and vita-raga-bhayakrodhah.. are super-natural (adhidaivika). when he is vigata-sprhah. fear and anger. who neither welcomes nor rejects anything whatever good or bad when he comes across it. delights also may be experienced on the three planes. sukhesu.when his mind remains unperturbed by the sorrows that may come on the physical or other planes [Fever.

tasya. the wisdom. sarvatra. ['Fully' suggests 84 .58 And besides. this one. who does not rejoice on meeting with the good. life.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . when. i. 2. tat tat. neither welcomes. when he comes across it.. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . samharate. subha-asubham. na dvesti.57 Further. ayam. anabhi-snehah. anything whatever. yada. fo that sannyasin. even for body. good or bad. anything anywhere. who. pratisthita.Swami Gambhirananda 2. Of such a person. as a tortoise wholly (withdraws) the limbs. propya. etc. nor reject the bad on meeting with it. the wisdom arising from discrimination remains established. yah. of that person. who na abhinanadati.Swami Gambhirananda 2. the sannyasin practising steadfastness in Knowledge. has no attachment for. who is thus free from elation or dejection. nor rejects. fully withdraws. prajna. then his wisdom remains established.58 And when this one fully withdraws the senses from the objects of the senses. remains established.e.

too. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . with the exception of the taste (for them). his. wholly (withdraws). wisdom. as.59 The objects recede from an abstinent man. and 'withdraws' suggests full control over the organs] indriyani. but not so the hankering for those objects. they get fully withdrawn like the limbs of a tortoise. Even the taste of this person falls away after realization the Absolute. angani. indriya-arthebhyah. then tasya. from all the objects of the senses. a tortoise. [That is . prajna. so far as the phenomenal world is concerned. pratisthita. from all sides out of fear. cease to be active when the refrains from sense-objects. As to that.] the organs of a sick person. -. the senses. kurmah. sarvasah. its limbs. How that (hankering) gets completely withdrawn is being stated: 2.when the man engaged in steadfastness to Knowledge withdraws thus. iva.Swami Gambhirananda 85 . remains established -.(the meaning of this portion has already been explained).absolute firmness in withdrawal.

the objects themselves. asya.) the organs. with the exception of the hankering that one has for objects. param. 'I verily am That (Brahman). or. his objective perception becomes seedless. induced by his own taste (i. i. even that. a man of tastes'. they do so) rasavarjam.e. (still. etc. as in such expressions as.' In the absence of full realization there can be no eradication of the 'hankering'. niraharasya dehinah. one should therefore stabilize one's wisdom which is characterized by full realization. Api. 'sva-rasena pravrttah. even from a fool who engages in painful austerity and abstains from objects. taste of the nature of subtle attachment. 'rasajnah. figuratively implied and expressed by the word 'objects'.59 Although visayah. the objects. of this person. when drstva. The idea conveyed is that. the Reality which is the supreme Goal. [If it be held that attachment cannot be eliminated without the knowledge of Brahman. a connoisseur (of tastes)'. he continues in life with the realization. vinivartante.e. after attaining. nivartate. recede. falls away. The word rasa is well known as referring to the sense of taste (hankering).2. and at the same time that the knowledge of 86 . willingly)'. (i. from an abstinent man. with the exception of the taste (for them). of the sannyasin. Brahman. rasah. the Absolute. from an embodied being. 'rasikah.e.

In answer it is said that gross attachments are eliminated through discrimination which restrains the senses from being overpowered by objects. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the turbulent organs violently snatch away the mind of an intelligent person. haranti. prasabham.] Since the organs have to be first brought under his own control by one who desires to establish firmly the wisdom which is characterized by full realization. of an intelligent. the turbulent. O son of Kunti. for. manah. therefore the Lord speaks of the evil that arises from not keeping them under control: 2. Hence there is no vicious circle involved. kaunteya. And the full Knowledge arising thereof eliminates the subtle inclinations as well. O son of Kunti. while he is striving diligently [Repeatedly being mindful of the evils that arise 87 .60 Hi. then we get involved in a vicious circle.60 For. purusasya. even. yatatah. even while he is striving diligently. api. violently.Brahman cannot arise until attachment is eradicated. person. the mind. snatch away. pramathini. organs.Swami Gambhirananda 2. vipascitah. indriyani.

controlling. tasya.Tr. mat-parah. one should remain. 'I am not different from Him. of the sannyasin remaining thus concentrated. [The Commentator says that api may be construed either with yatatah or with vipascitah purusasya. asita. the inmost Self of all. of them.from sense-objects. one should remain concentrated on Me as the supreme. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . all. yasya. For. the wisdom of one whose organs are under control becomes steadfast. having subdued. for. tani.he to whom I. on Me as the supreme -. yuktah. 88 .Swami Gambhirananda 2. The idea is. the prajna. 2. he should remain (concentrated) thinking.] -.' Hi. and after confounding him. whose.61 Samyamya. violently carry away his mind endowed with discriminating knoweldge.(or. Since this is so. wisdom. Vasudeva. therefore. sarvani.61 Controlling all of them. concentrated. even when he is aware of this.) the words purusasya vipascitah (of an intelligent person) are to be connected with the remote word api (even). the organs confound a person who is inclined towards objects. am the supreme (parah) is mat-parah. of one.] Indeed.

from attachment.62-2. hankering. visayan. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . fondness. in the case of a person.63 In the case of a person who dwells on objects. is being stated this [This:what is described in the following two verses. and is also a matter of common experience. Now. are vase. for those objects. upajayate.. [The organs come under control either by constantly thinking of oneself as non-different from the Self. attachment.] of the objects such as sound etc. becomes steadfast. for them. who dwells on. grows. thirst. love. by dint of practice. there arises. the specialities [Specialities: The charms imagined in them.62 Pumsah. or by constantly being mindful of the evils that result from objects. cause of all the evils that beset one who is the verge of being overwhelmed: 2. the objects.] root. thinks of. sangah.] pratisthita. from hankering springs anger. Sangat. there arises attachment for them. under control.indriyani. sanjayate. kamah.Swami Gambhirananda 2. When that is obstructed from any 89 . from love. dhyayatah. then. From attachment grows hankering. organs. tesu.

Thinking of objects has been said to be the root of all evils. from the loss of understanding. anger. (comes) smrti-vibhramah. is destroyed. an angry man.e. Hence. pranasyati.quarter. he becomes unfit for the human Goal. from anger. a sannyasin 90 . For. Sammohat. failure of memory originating from the impressions acquired from the instructions of the scriptures and teachers. krodhah. Buddhi-nasat. abhijayate. from hankering. When it becomes unfit. Therefore. he perishes. springs. (results) buddhi-nasah. it does not occur. sammohah. a man is verily ruined. a man continues tobe himself so long as his mind remains fit to distinguish between what he ought to and ought not do. this which is the cause of Liberation is being now stated: [If even the memory of objects be a source of evil. The unfitness of the mind to discriminate between what should or should not be done is called loss of understanding. absence of discrimination with regard to what should or should not be done. abuses even a teacher. from delusion. bhavati. from that failure of memory. when his internal organ. i. When there is an occasion for memory to rise. then their enjoyment is more so. a man is ruined. follows. becoming deluded. delusion. After that. loss of understanding. kamat. Indeed. his understanding. Krodhat. Smrti-bhramsat.

fondness.63 From anger follows delusion. Sammohat. from love. he perishes. kamat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . abhijayate. from hankering. sanjayate. follows. krodhah. becoming deluded. absence of discrimination with regard to what should or should not be done. anger. from failure of memory.seeking Liberation cannot avoid this evil. For.. attachment. bhavati. sangah. love. from 91 . an angry man. there arises. The present verse is an answer to this apprehension. Krodhat. delusion. for them. hankering. abuses even a teacher. visayan.] of the objects such as sound etc. from attachment. in the case of a person.Swami Gambhirananda 2. failure of memory. thirst. the objects. springs. for those objects.63 Pumsah. from delusion. from anger. grows.] 2. dhyayatah. thinks of. from the loss of understanding. the loss of understanding. sammohah. Sangat. When that is obstructed from any quarter. since he has to move about for food which is necessary for the maintenance of his body. kamah. who dwells on. tesu. upajayate. the specialities [Specialities: The charms imagined in them.

Therefore. a sannyasin seeking Liberation cannot avoid this evil. then their enjoyment is more so. is destroyed. Indeed.delusion. from the loss of understanding.] 92 . a man is verily ruined. he becomes unfit for the human Goal. it does not occur. pranasyati. (comes) smrti-vibhramah. since he has to move about for food which is necessary for the maintenance of his body. a man continues tobe himself so long as his mind remains fit to distinguish between what he ought to and ought not do. i. his understanding. failure of memory originating from the impressions acquired from the instructions of the scriptures and teachers. When there is an occasion for memory to rise. loss of understanding. Hence. a man is ruined. (results) buddhi-nasah.e. The unfitness of the mind to discriminate between what should or should not be done is called loss of understanding. from that failure of memory. when his internal organ. this which is the cause of Liberation is being now stated: [If even the memory of objects be a source of evil. Smrti-bhramsat. Buddhi-nasat. he perishes. After that. Thinking of objects has been said to be the root of all evils. When it becomes unfit. The present verse is an answer to this apprehension.

there can be no real control. serenity.64 Certainly the functions of the organs are naturally preceded by attraction and repulsion. visayan. indriyaih. and are under his own control. vidheyaatma. which are unavoidable. What happens when there is serenity? This is being answered: 93 . prasadam. raga-dvesa-viyuktaih. the self-controlled man attains serenity. adhigacchati. and are atma-vasyaih. takes atma-vasyaih in the sense of '(with the organs) under the control of the mind'. attains.] the selfcontrolled man. a seeker after Liberation. self-poise. Here atma is used in the sense of the mind. caran. 'vidheyatma. objects.2. whose mind can be subdued at will. Hence the text uses the second expression. over the organs. whose mind can be subdued at will'.64 But by perceiving objects with the organs that are free from attraction and repulsion.G. by perceiving. that are free from those attraction and repulsion. [A. according to the Commentator himself. This being so. under his own control. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 2.. He then argues that it the mind be not under control. with the organs such as ears etc.

buddhih. like the sky.] ought to deal with the indispensable and scripturally non-forbidden objects through his senses that are free from love and hatred. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . becomes firmly established. upajayate. of one who has a serene mind. i. eradication. (this is so) hi.65 Prasade. soon. when there is serenity. there follows eradication of all his sorrows. because the wisdom of one who has a serene mind soon becomes firmly established.65 When there is serenity. the sannyasin's. of one whose mind is poised in the Self. of all his. asu. pariavatisthate. That same serenity is being eulogized: 94 . asya sarvaduhkhanam. remains steady (avatisthate) totally (pari).Swami Gambhirananda 2.e. there follows.2. prasannacetasah. Moreover. therefore a man of concentration [A man who is free whom slavery to objects of the senses. because. hanih. the wisdom. sorrow on the physical and other planes. The meaning of the sentence is this: Since a person with such a poised mind and well-established wisdom attains fulfilment. it becomes unmoving in its very nature as the Self.

i. there does not arise. and. not the thirst for objects -that is misery to be sure. for an unsteady man. Kutah. How can there be happiness for one without peace? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . for one who does not have a concentrated mind. na asti.] for the knowledge of the Self. so 95 .Swami Gambhirananda 2. The implication is that. how can there be.e. And for an unmeditative man there is no peace. buddhih.2. wisdom. abhavayatah. for an unmeditative man. who does not ardently desire the knowledge of the Self. asantasya. meditation. sukham. for the unsteady. peace. there is no. earnest longing [Longing to have a continuous remembrance of the knowledge of Brahman which arises in the mind from hearing the great Upanisadic sayings (maha-vakyas). ca. And similarly.66 For the unsteady there is no wisdom.66 Ayuktasya. and there is no meditation for the unsteady man. restraint of the senses. ayuktasya. for one without peace? That indeed is happiness which consists in the freedom of the senses from the thirst for enjoyment of objects. there is no santih. there is no bhavana. with regard to the nature of the Self. happiness.

vayuh. the wandering. caratam. yat manah. by diverting the wisdom from the pursuit of the Self. the mind engaged in thinking [Perceiving objects like sound etc. diverting a navam. tat. the mind which follows in the wake of the wandering senses. boat. by diverting a boat on the waters from its intended course. How? Iva. prajnam. 2. After having stated variously the reasons for the idea conveyed through the verse. his. for. there is no possibility of even an iota of happiness! It is being stated why a man without concentration does not possess wisdom: 2. drives it along a wrong course. As wind. ambhasi. similarly the mind. asya. on the waters.67 For. indriyani. the mind which. makes it engage in objects. destroys.67 Hi. like. the wind. senses that are tending towards their respective objects. in their respective varieties. anuvidhiyate. follows in the wake of. that (mind) carries away his wisdom like the mind (diverting) a boat on the waters. harati.' 96 . that. carries away.] of the objects of the senses. wisdom born from the discrimination between the Self and the not-Self.long as thirst persists. 'For. the sannyasin's. O son of Kunti.

nigrhitani. therefore. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . those which are these ordinary and Vedic dealings cease on the eradication of ignorance.Swami Gambhirananda 2. tasya. his. (60). becomes established. prajna. and having established that very idea. O mighty-armed one.68 Since the evils arising from the activities of the organs have been described. they being effects of ignorance. tasmat.68 Therefore. sarvasah.etc. yasya. from their objects such as sound etc. And ignorance ceases because it is 97 . mahabaho. whose. O mighty-armed one. indriyani. differentiated as mind etc. pratisthita. the Lord concludes thus: 2. the sannyasin's. organs. in all their varieties. In the case of a man of steady wisdom in whom has arisen discriminating knowledge. this wisdom becomes established whose organs in all their varieties are withdrawn from their objects. are withdrawn. wisdom.. indriyaarthebhyah.

yasyam in which. sarva-bhutanam. For clarifying this idea. for all creatures. what is that? that is the Reality which is the supreme Goal.] who has arisen from the sleep of ignorance. is nisa. similarly the Reality wich is the supreme Goal appears to be night. 98 . As that which verily appears as day to the nocturnal creatures is night for others. the selfrestrained man.opposed to Knowledge. keeps awake. i. to all unenlightened beings who are comparable to the nocturnal creatures.which being darkness (tamah) by nature. That during which creatures keep awake. night -.69 The self-restrained man keeps awake during that which is night for all creatures. obliterates distinctions among all things. whose organs are under control. tasyam. as it were. in that (night) characterized as the Reality. the creatures. That night of ignorance. characterized by the distinctions of subjects and objects. 2. that which. bhutani. the supreme Goal. the Lord says: 2. jagarti. accessible to the man of steady wisdom.e. Samyami.69 ya. the yogi [The man of realization. it is night to the seeing sage. because It is beyond the range of vision of those who are devoid of that wisdom.

accepted as a valid means of knowledge and presenting itself in the different forms of actions. sa nisa. to the seeing. ignorance. keeping awake. though it is known to be false. ignorance becomes eradicated like the darkness of night after sun-rise. muneh. when Knowledge dawns.] Before the rise of Knowledge. are said to be jagrati. becomes the cause of all rites and duties. [It may be argued that even after illumination the phenomenal world. because the man of realization will then have no ardent leaning towards this differentiated phenomenal world which makes an injunction relevant. who perceives the Reality that is the supreme Goal. It cannot reasonably become the source of rites and duties (after Realization) when it is understood as an invalid means of knowledge. Therefore. because that (night) is ignorance by nature. pasyatah. not in the state of enlightenment. therefore there is scope for the validity of the scriptural injunctions even in the case of an illumined soul. means and results. The answer is that there will be no scope for the injunctions.who are really asleep. rites and duties are enjoined only during the state of ignorance. sage. in which night they are like dreamers in sleep. For an agent becomes 99 . will continue to be perceived because of the persistence of past impressions. For. it is night.

by the very fact that It is the Self.. not for engaging in actions. the man to whom has come the Knowledge that all these differences in their totality are mere ignorance like the night.engaged in actions when he has the idea.] to impel one to that. which are a valid means of knowledge'. but not when he understands that 'all this is mere ignorance. and since the validity of all the means of knowledge culminates in It. there is eligibility only for renouncing all actions. Objection: May it not be argued that. In accordance with this the Lord will show in the verse. to that man who has realized the Self. since 'knowledge of the Self' relates to one's own Self. [Because.] Answer: No. [The validity of all the means of knowledge holds good only so long as the knowledge of the Self has not arisen.17) etc.] therefore the Self does not depend on an injunction to impel 100 . 'Actions have been enjoined as a duty for me by the Vedas. like the night'. Indeed. without an injunction nobody would engage in a duty. Again. 'Those who have their intellect absorbed in That. there will be no reason for being engaged even in that (steadfastness in Knowledge) if there be no valid means of knowledge [Vedic injunctions. that he has competence only for steadfastness in Knowledge. whose Self is That' (5. much less in steadfastness to Knowledge.

after the realization of the true nature of the Self. in the same way as the means of knowledge which is valid in dream becomes unauthoritative during the waking state. knowledge. Hence. is endowed with discrimination and detachment. the valid means of that perception is not seen to be a cause impelling the knower (to any action with regard to that object). after acquiring an intellectual knowledge of the Self in a general way. or to the Self Itself? The first alternative is untenable because a valid means of knowledge reveals its objects even without an injunction. whereas an injunction is possible in the case of something yet to be achieved. or end of. there is no scope again for any means to. In the world. it is established that. The last valid means of (Self-) knowledge eradicates the possibility of the Self's becoming a perceiver. The attainment of Liberation is only for the sannyasin [Liberation is attained only by one who. 101 . too. The second alternative also is untenable because the Self is self-revealing. it loses its own authoritativeness. there remains no eligibility for rites and duties.] Surely. [Does the injunction relate to the knowledge of the Self. And even as it eradicates.It towards Itself. after the preception of an abject. for an knower of the Self. And one's own Self is not an object of that kind.

the man of enlightenment. kamah. but not for him who has not renounced and is desirious of the objects (of the senses). tadvat. and has directly realized the Self by going through the process of sravana (understanding of Upanisadic texts about the Self). like waters entering into a sea.Swami Gambhirananda 2. into whom. without overwhelming him even in the presence of objects. waters. from all directions. apah. etc. sarve. with a view to establishing this with the help of an illustration.70 That man attains peace into whom all desires enter in the same way as the waters flow into a sea that remains unchanged (even) when being filled up from all sides. in the same way.has arisen above all desires. peace Liberation. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . yam. who has renounced all desires and is a man of steady wisdom. Not so one who is desirous of objects. they vanish in the Self. 102 . enter. Such being the case. apnoti. has become a monk in the primary sense. that man. attains. pravisanti. as. all.]. into which person. desires. the Lord says: 2. santim.70 Sah. all forms of wishes. they do not bring It under their own influence. yadvat.

i. peace. vihaya. called Nirvana.coming from all sides.e. apuryamanam. nihsprhah. a sea. i. kaman. consisting in the cessation of all the sorrows of mundane existence. adhi-gacchati. who. becoming 103 . pravisanti. he becomes one with Brahman. The idea implied is that he never attains (peace). unchanged. therefore. the man of steady wisdom. after rejecting.71 That man attains peace who. without any change. who is kama-kami. santim. moves about. the knower of Brahman. making efforts only for maintaining the body. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . samudram. desires. carati.Swami Gambhirananda 2. He who is given to desire them is kama-kami. attains. without a trace. desirous of objects. 2. that remains acala-pratistham. (even) when filled up from all sides with water. sarvan. without the idea of ('me' and) 'mine'. after rejecting all desires.71 Sah puman. that continues to be its own self.e. not so the other. flow into. and devoid of pride. fully. that man who has become thus. free from hankering. Since this is so. yah. moves about free from hankering. wanders about. the sannyasin. Kama means objects which are sought after. Na. all.

in 104 .Swami Gambhirananda 2. after attaining . this Rcchati.72 O Partha. one does not become deluded. esa.e. Liberation. i. which is such.e. free from self esteem owing to learning etc. nirmamah. asyam. after renouncing all actions. identification with Brahman. the state of being established in Brahman. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . prapya. devoid of pride. One attains identification with Brahman by being established in this state even in the closing years of one's life. i. without the idea of ('me' and) 'mine'. This steadfastness in Knowledge. by being established. one attains.free from any longing even for the maintenance of the body. is brahmisthitih. this. without the deeprooted idea of 'mine' even when accepting something needed merely for the upkeep of the body. this is the state of being established in Brahman. and nir-ahankarah. is being praised: 2.72 O Partha. Na vimuhyati. sthitva. brahma-nirvanam. One does not become deluded after attaining this. continuing (in life) in indentification with Brahman. enam. the aforesaid.

after having espoused monasticism even from the stage of celibacy. What need it be said that. one who remains established only in Brahman during the whole life.this. in the closing years of one's life. attains indetification with Brahman! 105 . api. even. in the state of Brahman-hood as described. anta-kale.

Your.] In that case.Chapter 3 3. is superior. If the combination of Wisdom and action be intended (by the Lord).1 Arjuna said -. if it be Your opinion that wisdom is superior to action. te. if it be. to action-.Swami Gambhirananda 3. cet. the separation of Knowledge from action.1 O Janardana. in that case each of them cannot be considered separately as producing its 106 . that (Wisdom or action.O Janardana (krsna). For. Arjuna would have done something illogical in separating Wisdom from action by saying that Wisdom is superior to action. therefore. opinion. When Knowledge and action are considered to form together a single means to Liberation. why they do you urge me to horrible aciton. karmanah. intention. mata. Wisdom. even) from the point of view of the result. that buddhih. jyayasi. O Kesava ? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . which is a constituent of the combination) cannot be greater than that (Combination. is not justifiable. [The path combining Wisdom and action. then the means to Liberation is only one. from the point of view of the result. [Since what is intended is a combination.

action. then. be rational? Besides.. "Undertake action..] Similarly. involving injury?'that (censure) also does not become reasonable. On the other hand. as it were. do You urge. horrible. 3.. whereas for others those sanctioned by the Smrtis alone are to be combined with Knowledge. [If the opponent's view be that Knowledge is to be combined with rites and duties sanctioned by the Vedas and the Smrtis in the case of the householders only. to ghore. and Arjuna also comprehended (accordingly). 'It has been stated by the Lord that Wisdom is superior to action. karmani. 'Tatkim. in. and He exhorts me saying.] if it be supposed that the combination (of Knowledge) with action sanctioned only by the Smrtis has been enjoined for all by the Lord. as it were.own distinct result. by a seemingly conflicting statement! Tell me for 107 . and also in. why then. what Arjuna said by way of censuring the Lord. niyojayasi. then...2 You bewilder my understanding." which is a source of evil! What may be the reason for this?'. how can the statement. cruel. 'Why then do you urge me to horrible action'. mam. Arjuna's question can be justified only if this separation were possible. me. O Kesava.

'tvam tu. for certain.2 'Though the Lord speaks lucidly. you'. as it were. one of these. me. aham. as to that'. either Knowledge or action: "This indeed is fit for Arjuna. if You [In some readings.' Even if 108 . buddhim. still. may attain. tadekam. any. sreyah. tell me. I. vyamisrena iva. according to his understanding. statement! You have surely undertaken to dispel the confusion of my understanding. iva. as it were.certain one of these by which I may attain the highest Good. "You bewildered my understanding. but why do You bewildered (it)? Hence I say. by which. the highest Good. strength and situation"."' However.] think that it is impossible for a single person to pursue both Knowledge and action. which can be undertaken (only) by different persons then. niscitya. to me who am of a dull understanding. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . apnuyam.-Tr. by one of either Knowledge or action. that being the case. vada. understanding. is substituted by 'tatra. vakyena.Swami Gambhirananda 3. the Lord's utterance appears to be conflicting. yena.' 'Mohayasi. by that seemingly conflicting. You bewilder. however.

steadfastness. through the Yoga of Action for the yogis.] dvividha. persistence in what is undertaken. nistha. two kinds of steadfastness in this world were spoken of by Me in the days of yore-through the Yoga of Knowledge for the men of realization.Swami Gambhirananda 3. for the people of the three castes who are qualified for following the scriptures. O unblemished one. but surely not of both'.3 The Blessed Lord said -. 109 . asmin loke. owing to which. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . two kinds of . prokta. as expressed in 'Tell me one of these two?' Certainly the Lord did not say. in this world. 'I shall speak of only one among Knowledge and action.O unblemished one.3 Anagha. how then could there be the desire in Arjuna to know of only one of them. considering it impossible for himself to acquire both. should have prayed for one only! The answer was in accordance witht the question: 3. O sinless one. [This word of address suggests that Arjuna is qualified to receive the Lord's instruction. Arjuna.Knowledge had been spoken of at all by the Lord as being subsidiary to steadfastness in action.

Knowledge. by Me. those to whom the entity presented by the Vedantic knowledge has become fully ascertained (see Mu. in the days of yore. after having brought into being the creatures. the omniscient God. And the steadfastness karma-yogena.were spoken of. who had revealed for them the traditional teachings of the Vedas. in the beginning the creation. through the Yoga of Action-action itself being the Yoga [Yoga here means 'that through which one gets united with. which are the means of securing prosperity and the highest Goal. prosperity'. those who have espoused monasticism from the stage of Celibacy. those who are established in Brahman alone. for the men of realization-those possessed of the Knowledge arising from the discrimination with regard to the Self and the notSelf.e.6)-.the monks who are known as the parama-hamsas. which is that steadfastness of two kinds? In answer the Lord says: The steadfastness jnanayogena. maya. and Yoga is used in the derivative sense of 'that (Knowledge) through which one gets united with Brahman'. refers to the knowledge of the supreme Reality.2. itself. had been stated sankhyanam.]-. comes to have. 3. such actions as go 110 . i. Now then. pura. through the Yoga of KnowledgeKnowledge itself being the Yoga [Here jnana.

by the name of righteousness and are prescribed by the scriptures. but. had it been intended or stated or if it will be stated in the Gita by the Lord-and if it has also been so stated in the Vedas-that Knowledge and action are to be practised in combination by one and the same person for attaining the same human Goal. being possessed of likes and dislikes! And that is untenable. Again. on the other hand. And what has been said by Arjuna regarding superiority of Wisdom over action. I shall speak of them as being meant to be pursued by different persons'. that stands confirmed for not having been refuted. that steadfastness in either Knowledge or action is to be practised only by different persons who are respectively qualified? If.] had been stated yoginam. to others. the men of action (rites and duties). So. for the yogis. why then should He here tell His dear supplicant Arjuna. it be supposed that the Lord's idea is. 'After hearing about both Knowledge and action. from no point of view whatsoever can there be a combination of Knowledge and action. then the Lord would be imagined to be unreliable. Arjuna will himself practise them (in combination). This is the idea. and (it also stands confirmed) that steadfastness in Knowledge is suitable for being practised by monks alone. And from the statement that they 111 .

'You are urging me to that very action which is a source of bondage'. on the other hand. not independently. and that. steadfastness in Knowledge. then.(Knowledge and action) are to be followed by different persons. the Lord said: 3. and was thinking thus. not by abstaining from action. in order to show-that the steadfastness in action is a means to the human Goal. the Lord said. since it may be concluded that they become the cause of attaining the human Goal independently of each other. having come into being through the means of steadfastness in action. therefore. Noticing that Arjuna had become dejected under the impression.4 A person does not attain freedom from action by abstaining from action. Or:-When steadfastness in Knowledge and steadfastness in action become incapable of being pursued simultaneously by one and the same person owing to mutual contradiction. 112 . it is understood that this has the Lord's approval. 'I shall not undertake action'.' etc. 'Na karmanam anarambhat. nor does he attain fulfilment merely through renunciation. leads to the human Goal independently without anticipating anything else. but by virtue of being instrumental in securing steadfastness in Knowledge.

asnute. 'Knowledge arises in a person from the attenuation of sinful acts' [the whole verse is: Jnanam utpadyate pumsamksayatpapasya karmanah. karmanam. attain. freedom from action. na does not. 204.. which are the causes of the purification of the mind by way of attenuating the sins incurred. a person. Yathadarsatalaprakhye pasyatyatmanamatmani.acts.] (Mbh. anarambhat.4 Purusah. i. This is the import.8).-Tr. 'Knowledge arises.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the state of abiding in one's own Self which is free from action. Sa. From the statement 113 . naiskarmyam. which are or were performed in the present or past lives.Swami Gambhirananda 3.e. the state of being free from action. as stated in the Smrti (text). and which. by being the cause of that (purification). by abstaining. steadfastness in the Yoga of Knowledge. become the source of steadfastness in Knowledge through the generation of Knowledge. One sees the Self in oneself as does one (see oneself) in a cleaned surface of a mirror'.. from actions-by the nonperformance of actions such as sacrifices etc.

'Sacrifice. And Karma-yoga is the means to the Yoga of Knowledge characterized by freedom from action. viz the Realm of the Self. charity and austerity are verily the purifiers of the wise' (18. 'The Brahmanas seek to know It through the study of the Vedas.that one does not attain freedom from action by abstaining from actions. 4. there can be no attainment of an end without (its) means. O mighty-armed one. etc. the Lord will established that. (charity. Indeed. What.5). it has been shown in the texts.6). whch deal with the means of realizing the goal of Knowledge under discussion. sacrifices. Objection: Is it not 114 .. 'But. renunciation is hard to attain without (Karma)yoga' (5. is the reason that one does not attain freedom from action by abstaining from actions? The answer is: Because performing actions is itself a means to freedom from action.11). etc. the yogis undertake work. and austerity consisting in a dispassionate enjoyment of sense-objects)' (Br. 'By giving up attachment. And even here (in the Gita)..for the purification of themselves' (5. As for the Upanisads. again.22). it may be concluded that one attains freedom from action by following the opposite course of performing actions.4. that the Yoga of Karma is a means to the Yoga of Knowledge . because it has been so established in the Upanisads and here as well.

Par. again. characterized by freedom from action. it is a better known fact that freedom from action follows abstention from actions. too. samadhi-gacchati. sannyasanat eva. Hence also arises the question. it is shown that attainment of freedom from action follows even from the renunciation of obligatory duties? And in the world.5 Because. (one should take recourse to freedom from action)-. fulfilment steadfastness in the Yoga of Knowledge. no one ever remains even for a moment without doing work. does he attain. is the reason that by the mere giving up of actions which is not accompanied with Knowledge. the Lord says: 3. 115 . merely through renunciationeven from the mere renunciation of actions which is devoid of Knowledge. a person does not attain fulfulment in the form of freedom from actions? To this query seeking to know the cause. 'Why should one who desires freedom from action undertake action?' Reply: Therefore the Lord said: Na ca. siddhim.43).that in such texts as-'Extending to all creatures immunity from fear' (Na. What. For all are made to work under compulsion by the gunas born of Nature. 5. nor.

This has been explained similarly in. nor for the men of Knowledge. even. for. Karma-yoga. under compulsion.Swami Gambhirananda 3. are made to work. are not shaken by the gunas.5 Hi. gunaih. all creatures. remains. prakrti-jaih. But. rajas (activity). then this is certainly bad. because. without doing work. Why? Hi. is not pertinent for the men of Knowledge who.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .23). ever. born of Nature. 'who is not distracted by the three gunas (qualities)' (14. and tamas (mental darkness).21). moment. because of their not moving away from their own Self. for so much time as a ksanam. sarvah. The word 'unenlightened' has to be added to the sentence. akarma-krt. since the men of realzation have been spoken of separately in. verily avasah. na kascit. 'he who has known this One as indestructible' (2. For Karma-yoga is meant only for the unenlightened. api. karyate karma. jatu. Hence the Lord says: 116 . no one. by the gunas-sattva (goodness). if one who is not a knower of the self does not perform prescribed action. tisthati. on the other hand.

but. a hypocrite. one who engages in Karma-yoga with the organs of action. sits. indriya-arthan. aste. 3. manasa.7 But. O Arjuna.. the objects of the senses. one who is unenlightened and who is eligible for action. mentally. sits mentally recollecting the objects of the senses. smaran.-what does he engage in? the Lord says in answer-karma yogam. controlling the organs with the mind and becoming unattached-that one excels. O Arjuna. engages in. yah. recollecting.7 Tu. the organs of action-hands etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of deluded mind. sah.Swami Gambhirananda 3. on the other hand.3. Karma117 .6 One. one who. is called a hypocrite. who after withdrawing the organs of action. of deluded mind. karma-indriyani. is called. vimudha-atma. ucyate. after withdrawing. that one. a sinful person. that one. arabhate. thinking. samyamya. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 3.6 Yah. mithya-acarah.

controlling. for. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . with speech. those daily obligatory duties (nitya-karmas) or which one is competent (according to the scriptures). duties. karma. O Arjuna. manasa.Swami Gambhirananda 3. free from hankering for results'. even the maintenance of your body will not be possible. visisyate. to 118 . the hypocrite.8 Tvam. And. niyamya. through inaction. superior. is jyayah.. with the organs of action. action. excels the other one. niyatam. the sense-organs. hi. still Sankaracarya holds that it is either heaven or purification of the heart.-Tr. from the point of view of result. karma-indriyaih. for action is superior to inaction. and which are not heard of [although no result of daily obligatory duties is mentioned in the scriptures. therefore. [Here Ast. kuru. 3. This being so. adds 'phalabhisandhi-varjitah. etc. you. the obligatory.8 You perform the obligatory duties. hands. with the mind.] sah.-Tr. because something done must have its consequence. and becoming asaktah unattached.yoga. perform. akarmanah.] as productive of any result. karma. indriyani. that one.

you perform actions for Him. will not be possible. meant for Got not by that meant for God.7. whatever is done for Him is yajnartham.inaction. through inaction. 1. samacara. 119 . O son of Kunti. Without being attached.9 Ayam. man. lokah. According to the Vedic text. that karmanah. karma-bandhanah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Therefore. the one who is eligible for action. this.4). anyatra. and. Therefore. Why? Ca. being free from attachment to the results of actions. becomes bound by actions. without being attached.9 This man becomes bound by actions other than that action meant for God. O son of Kunti. yajnah means God. action. the maintenance of your body. akarmanah. Sam. na prasiddhyet. other than.' How? 3. 'And as regards your ideea that action should not be udnertaken because it leads to bondage-that too is wrong. to non-performance (of duties).the person who has karma as his bondage (bandhana) is karma-bandhanah-. yajnarthat. te sarira-yatra.Swami Gambhirananda 3. mukta-sangah. api. the distinction between action and in action is abvious in this world. 'Sacrifice is verily Visnu' (Tai. even.

tadartham. having created. having created the beings together with the sacrifices. in the beginning of creation. Let this be your yielder of coveted objects of desire. by this sacrifice.10 Pura. particular results.you perform. together with the sacrifices. you multiply. let this sacrifice be. vah. How? 3. is istakama-dhuk.Swami Gambhirananda 3. the people of the three castes. yielder of coveted objects of desire.' English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . srstva. ista-kamadhuk. Prajapati. karma. actions. prasavisyadhvam. prajah. uvaca. 'Anena. 'You accomplish that. Nourishing one another. you shall attain the supreme Good. the beings. in the days of yore.' That which yields (dhuk) coveted (ista) objects of desire (kama). your. saha-yajnah. for Him.' Prasava means origination.' 120 . An eligible person should engage in work for the following reason also: 3.11 'You nourish the gods with this. the creator of beings. Esah astu. Prajapati said: 'By this you multiply. for God. growth.10 In the days of yore. Let those gods nourish you. said.

being nourished.' [The param sreyah (supreme Good) will either mean liberation or heaven in accordance with aspirant's hankering for Liberation or enjoyment. you nourish.e. 3. avapsyatha. one another. Thus bhavayantah. dasyante 121 . 'you shall attain heaven-which is meant by param 'sreyah.12 'Yajna-bhavitah. He is certainly a theif who enjoys what have been given by them without offering (these) to them.' English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . parasparam. nourish. the gods. Indra and others. anena.12 'Being nourished by sacrifices.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . with this sarifice. called Liberation. devan. the gods. bhavayantu. devah. the param.' or. supreme.Swami Gambhirananda 3. those gods. being satisfied. Let te devah.11 'Bhavayata. youmake you contented with rainfall etc. the gods will indeed give you the coveted enjoyments. i. by sacrifices. Good.Swami Gambhirananda 3. through the attainment of Knowledge.] Moreover. sreyah. nourishing. you shall attain. vah.

). will distribute. But the unholy persons who cook for themselves.13 Those again. he. by them. celibacy (including study of the Vedas. will indeed give. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . among vah.] to them. and to the manes-are repaid by satisfying them through sacrifices.Swami Gambhirananda 3. who. to them. they become freed from all sins. a stenah. childeren and cattle. enjoyments. respectively.e. gratifies only his own body and organs. such as wife. after making offering to the gods and others. bhogan. a stealer of the wealth of gods and others. ebhyah. who are yajna-sista-asinah. they incur sin.' 3. who. thief. apradaya. etc. yah. i. he incurs sin. what enjoyable things have been given. certainly.hi. [The 122 . you. by the gods. coveted. without offering (these). partakers of the remnants of sacrifices. taih. bhunkte. is eva. to the rsis (sage). Unless one repays these debts. without repaying the debt [The three kinds of debt-to the gods. Sah.13 By becoming partakers of the remembers of sacrifices. and procreation. enjoys. with dattan. the istan.

cook. the papah. but. agham. It is atoned by making the aforesaid five offerings. who are selfish. they. called nectar.]. they. mucyante. grinding machines and broom.panca-maha-yajnas. being themselves sinful. atmakaranat. santah.. Tu. become freed. with these things. oven. creatures and rsis (sages).14 From food are born the creatures. te. Action is definitely the cause of the movement of the wheel of the world. water-pot. A householder incurs sin by killing insects etc. ye. incur. sin. and also from those others incurred owing to injury etc. cutting instruments. which have to be made by every householder are offerings to gods. manes. How? This is being answered: 3. unholy persons. from all sins-from those sins incurred through the five things [the five things are. humans. five great offerings. for themselves. the origin of food is from rainfall. For the following reasons also actions should be undertaken by an eligible person. caused inadvertently. 123 . bhunjate. who. viz oven etc. pacanti. rainfall originates from sacrifice. sarvakilbisaih. knowingly or unknowingly. sacrifice has action as its origin. by being (so).] are habituated to eat the remnants (of those offerings).

From the sun comes rain.Sm.3. rainfall. 124 . and from that the creatures' (Ma. This accords with the Smrti. the Vedas has the Immutable as its source. bhutani. and from the sun comes rain. i. from rain comes food. the creatures. the all-pervading Veda is for ever based on sacrifice. are born.-Tr. is parjanyat. bhavanti. the unique result. (Here) sacrifice means its unique [Also termed as the unseen result (adrsta).14 It is a matter of direct perception that annat. from rain comes food. it has action for its origin. which arises (samudbhavah) from action (karma) undertaken by the priest and the sacrificer. the origin of food. Hence. And that sacrifice.Swami Gambhirananda 3.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .15 Know that actin has the veda as its origin. Anna-sambhavah. originates. is karma-samudbhavah. from food. Parjanyah. bhavati.76).] result.e. from yajnat. which is eaten and is transformed into blood and semen. 3. from rainfall. 'The oblations properly poured into fire reaches the sun. from sacrifice.

And from where has this kind of aciton originated? The answers this. Even though all-pervading. called the Veda. on sacrifice. Brahma. And the Lord says: That action has the Vedas as its origin.. is brahmodbhavam. based. as its source. called the Immutable. 125 . p. all pervading. Since the Veda came out.A. the Immutable.Swami Gambhirananda 3. like the breath of a man.15 Again. action. the supreme Self. pratisthitam.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .'-Tr.. 1936. origin. it has aksara.. is aksara-samudbhavam.] Further. 116). yajne. therefore the Veda. know. because the injunctions about sacrifices predominate in it. from the supreme Self Itself. Astekar's reading is: Tat ca evam vidham karma kuto jatamityaha. Brahman. it has Brahma. This is the meaning.'vide A. [a different reading in place of this is: 'Tat ca vividham karma kuto jatamityaha. the Veda is nityam. adds 'revealer'-Tr.] viddhi. [Here Ast. for ever. as its udbhavam. is sarva-gatam. being the revealer of everything. From where did those various kinds of action originate? In reply the Lord says. the Veda. that karma.' Still another reading is: 'Tat ca karma brahmodbhavam iti aha.

though competent for action.Swami Gambhirananda 3. set in motion.. '(A person does not attain freedom from action by adstaining from action' (4) and ending with. In the verses beginning from. i. he. sah. and who indulges in the senses. na anuvartayati. whose life is vile. mogham.e. yah. here. who.16 O Partha. Therefore. through the senses. does not follow. the wheel of the world. indriyaih. who indulges in the senses-who has his arama. iha. 'You perform the obligatory duties. with objects. thus. even the maintenance of your body will not be possible' (8). aghayuh. in vain. and indriya-aramah.. on the basis of the Vedas and the sacrifices. evam. lives.3. the gist of the topic under discussion is that action must be undertaken by one who is qualified (for action) but is unenlightened.16 O Partha. it has been proved that before one attains fitness for steadfastness in the 126 . enjoyment. through inaction. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . he lives in vain who does not follow here the wheel thus set in motion. in the world. whose life is sinful. jivati.And. sport. pravartitam. whose life (ayuh) is sinful (agham). cakram. by God.

the knowers of the Self.] have been incidentally stated as to why a competent person has to undertake actions. and the evils arising from their non-performance have also been emphatically declared. the question arises whether the wheel thus set in motion should be followed by all. secures the affection of the gods. to undertake Karma-yoga for that purpose. he lives in vain. revealing out of His own accord that the following substance of the Upanisads-Becoming freed from false knowledge by knowing this very Self. it is the bounden duty of a person who is qualified for action. or in order to make the meaning of the scripture (Gita) clearly understood. but is not enlightened. and which is acquired by one ignorant of the Self through the means of the practice of Karma-yoga mentioned above? Either anticipating Arjuna's question to this effect. and so on. the Lord. through the Yoga of Knowledge only.knowledge of the Self. the Brahmanas renounce 127 . or only by one who is ignorant of the Self and has not attained to the steadfastness which is fit to be practised by the Sankhyas.' many reasons [Such as. that it pleases God. Such being the conclusion. And then. also in the verses commencing from '(This man becomes bound) by actions other than that action meant for God' (9) and ending with 'O Partha.

there is no. the man of Knowledge. contented. and is contented only in the Self-for him there is no duty to perform. and is santustah.what is a compulsory duty for those having false knoweldge. the sannyasin. eva. karyam.17 Tu. atmaratih eva syat. steadfast in the knowledge of the Self. but. that manavah. man. rati means attachment to objects. in the Self. viz. etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . are used to indicate various types of pleasures. trpti and santosa. na vidyate.. atmani. and then lead a mendicant life just for the purpose of maintaining the body. says: 3. tasya. Br. who is satisfied only with the Self-not with food and drink. Or. desire for sons. they have no duty to perform other than steadfastness in the knowledge of the Self (cf.5. duty [Duty with a view to securing Liberation.1)-has been presented here in the Gita. trpti means happiness arising from contact with some particular object. who.Swami Gambhirananda 3. 3. yah. 128 . and atmatrptah. only.17 But that man who rejoices only in theSelf and is satisfied with the Self. though synonymous. [Rati. for him.] to perform. rejoices only in the Self-not in the sense objects.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . for a man who is such a knower of the Self. thta is to say. there is no duty to undertake. nor any (concern) with nonperformance. 3. nor is there. Moreover. krtena. for him. for him kascana. But this one. na asti. concern.] All people surely feel contened by acquiring an external thing. The idea it that. moreover. without depending on it. tasya. eva. there is no. asya. akrtena. na. for him. here.18 For him there is no concern here at all with performing action. with performing action. there is no. with nonperfromance.and santosa means happiness in general. arising from the acquisition of some coveted object only. at all. he remains detached from everything.18 Moreover. let there be some evil called sin owing to non-performance! Reply: Iha. na. Objection: In that case. Ca. kascit artha-vyapasrayah sarva129 . remains contented only with the Self. artham. who rejoices in the supreme Self.Swami Gambhirananda 3. in this world. any (concern). Certainly there is no evil in the form of incurring sin or in the form of self-destruction. for him there is no dependence on any object to serve any purpose.

which is possible of being created by action promted by necessity. due to which there can be some action for that purpose. karyam. a person. attains. Liberation. from Brahma to an unmoving thing. always. without attachment. duty. the obligatory. to serve any purpose. (For him) there is no end to gain by depending on any praticular object.' 3. apnoti. asaktah. a person attains the Highest. by performing (one's) duty without attachment. duty. samacara. acaran. This is meaning. through the purification of the mind. by doing work as a dedication to God. param. Vyapasrayah is the same as vyapasrayanam. by performing. always perform the obligatory duty. satatam. remaining unattached. daily karma. dependence on any object. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . therefore.19 Therefore. And 130 .bhutesu. purusah. asaktah. dependence. 'You (Arjuna) are not established in this fullest realization which is comparable to a flood all around. for.19 Since this is so. for. hi.Swami Gambhirananda 3. the Highest. perform. (one's) karma. remaining unattached.

to be associated with action itselfwithout renouncing it-with a veiw to preventing mankind from going astray.Swami Gambhirananda 3. The verse is to be explained thus. if (it be that) Janaka and others had not attained fullest realization. Janaka and others such as Asvapati.20 Hi. samsiddim. for. because of past momentum. then. strove to attain. they gradually became established in Liberation through action which is a means for the purification of the mind. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . if you 131 . asthitah. If it be that they were possessed of the fullest realization. Liberation. Again. karmana eva. janakadayah. through action itself. the leaned Ksatriyas. then the meaning is that they remained established in Liberation whlile continuing. in the olden days.(you should perform your duty) for the following reason also: 3.20 For Janaka and others strove to attain Liberation through action itself. You ought to perform (your duties) keeping also in view the prevention of mankind from going astray. On the other hand.

an ordinary person follows that. [V.-Tr.think. tvam. keeping also in view. is mankind to be prevented from going astray? That is being stated: [In Ast. arhasi. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . nevertheless. loka-sangraham.-Tr. kartum.] There by it does not follow that action has to be undertaken by somebody else who has the fullest enlightenment and has reached his Goal'.-Tr. By whom.Swami Gambhirananda 132 . ought. who are under the influence of past actions.S. [Ajanadbhih: This is also translated as.21 Whatever a superior person does. sampasyan api. and 'propitiation of mankind'. this introductory sentence is as follows:loka-samgrahah kimartham kartavyam iti ucyate. ] the prevention of mankind from going astray. even that purpose. 'surely because they were unenlightened'. another person does that very thing! Whatever he upholds as authority. to perform (your duties). you. 'Obligatory duty was performed even by Janaka and others of olden days who were surely unenlightened. and how.] 3.A gives the meanings of the phrase as 'the welfare of the world'.

he accepts that very thing as authoritative. there is no duty whatsoever for Me (to fulfil).] whatever action. follows.22 O Partha. O Partha. another.3. na asti. the translation of this portion is: There is nothing unattained that should be attained.22 In all the three worlds.21 Yat yat. be it Vedic or secular. for Me (to fulfill). English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Why? There is na anavaptam. [According to S. The G1. upholds. tat.] (Still) do I continue in action. does tat tat eva.Swami Gambhirananda 3. me. that very action. anuvartate. Pr. whatsoever. sah. nothing remains unachieved or to be achieved. i. there is no. authority. even trisu lokesu. duty. whatever. a leader. janah. yat yat yesu yesu. does. he. a sresthah.-Tr. 133 . Further.e. 'If you have a doubt here with regard to the duty of preventing people from straying. kartavyam. itarah. that. kincana. acarati. yat. the superior person. in all the three worlds. as pramanam. person. then why do you not observe Me?' 3. who follows him. an ordinary person. kurute. [This is according to the Ast. nothing (that remains) unachieved. superior person.-Tr. reads. lokah.

And if that be so. if at any time I do not continue [Ast. 3. varteyam. and A. men: anuvartante. O Partha. what is the harm? In reply the Lord says: [Ast.24 These worlds will be ruined if I do not perform action. mama. continue. path.A. men will follow My path in every way. atandritah.Tr. do not. 134 . manusyah. I being the Highest. read varteya instead of varteyam. willl follow.-Tr.] 3. in action. jatu. yadi.Swami Gambhirananda 3. Still varte eva. vartma. and shall be destroying these beings.or avaptavyam. vigilantly. sarvasah.] vigilantly in action. karmani. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .23 For. And I shall become the agent of intermingling (of castes). aham. in every way. I. omits this sentence completely. karmani. to be achieved. in action. O Partha. untiringly. an. if. at any time.23 Again. My. do I continue.

Consequently.Swami Gambhirananda 3. prajah.25 O scion of the Bharata dynasty. like Me. too. 135 . of intermingling (of castes). I shall become. you or some one else possesses the conviction of having attained Perfection and is a knower of the Self. aham.24 Cet. lokah. will be ruined. these. This would be unbefitting of Me. if. who am God. and. na kuryam. worlds. sankarasya. do not perform. Ca. action. syam. being desirous of the prevention of people from going astray. imah. as the unelightened poeple act with attachment to work. That is to say. to help others even if there be no obligation on his own part. I who am engaged in helping the creatures. owing to the obsence of work responsible for the maintenance of the worlds. futher. karma. 'On the other. if.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .' 3. I shall be destroying. the agent. I. karta. upahanyam. beings. all ime. it is a duty of such a one. so should the enlightened person act. without attachment. these. utsideyuh. shall be destroying them.

Hence.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . lokasamgraham. while himself remaining deligen [Some translate yuktah as. being desirous of achieving. yatha. should vidvan. tatha. the following advice is being given to such a knower of the Self:' 3. Working. so. unenlightened poele. as. asaktah. prevention of people from going astray. act. to work. remaining unattached. the enlightened person. 'Neither for Me who am a knower of the Self. act. saktah. is there any duty apart from working for the welfare of the world. karmani. kuryat. nor for any other (knower of the Self) who wants thus prevent people from going astray. (thinking) 'The reward of this work will accrue to me'. who are attached to work. the knower of the Self.25 O scion of the Bharata dynasty. takes it in the sense of Yoga136 . kurvanti.] Whay does he (the enlightened person) act like him (the former)? Listen to that: Cikirsuh.26 The enlightened man should not create disturbance in the beliefs of the ignorant. [Giving up the idea of agentship and the hankering for the rewards of actions to oneself. 'in the right manner'. with attachment.Swami Gambhirananda 3. without attachment. some avidvamsah. S.

-Tr. karma-sanginam. ignorant person be come attached to actions? In reply the Lord says: 3. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .' English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . josayet. disturbance in the beliefs-disturbance in the firm belief. 'This has to be done. working. while remaining diligent. he should make them do. meaning the same as josayet.]. yuktah. ajnanam. merged in yoga.Swami Gambhirananda 137 . and the result of this action is to be reaped by me'. one who is deluded by egoism thinks thus: 'I am the doer.26 Vidvan the enlightened man.] all the duties. sarvakarmani. buddhi-bhedam.Swami Gambhirananda 3. performing those very activities of the ignorant. of the non-discriminating one. of the ignorant. all the duties.27 While actions are being done in every way by the gunas (qualities) of Nature. But what should he do? Himself samacaran.-Tr. who are attached to work. he should make them do [Another reading is yojayet. How does an anillumined.yuktah. na janayet. should not create.

of Nature-Nature.].e. (i. in ever way. 'I am the doer of those diverse activities. iti. he thinks. by the gunas. (born) prakrteh. who has self-identification with the body and the organs. O mighty-armed one. 'Aham karta. believes the activities to be his own-. one who is deluded by egoism. is vimudham.' 138 . being the state of equilibrium of the three qualities of sattva. thinking thus: 'The organs rest (act) on the objects of the organs. through ignorance. I am the doer.28 But. and who. rajas and tamas. diluded in diverse ways. sarvasah. the one who is a knower of the facts about the varieties of the gunas (qualities) and actions does not become attached. while actions.3. mind.' Ahankara is self-identification with the aggregate of body and organs. gunaih.27 Karmani kriyamanani. manyate.) by the modifications in the form of body and organs. by that (ahankara) is ahankara-vimudha-atma. ahankaravimudha-atma. He whose atma. (otherwise known as) Pradhana [Pradhana. Maya. thus. thinks.' 3. the Power of God. are being done. He who imagines the characteristics of the body and organs to be his own. secular and scriptural.

a knower of the facts.' 3. ego. the gunas in the form of organs. They are the five subtle elements. iti matva. gunesu. rest (act). intellect. does not become attached. Karma-vibhaga means the varieties of inter-actions among these. about the varieties of the gunas and actions.29 Those who are wholly deluded by the gunas of Nature become attached to the activities of the gunas. tattva-vit.-not the Self-vartante. on the gunus in the form of objects of the organs. five sensory organs.Swami Gambhirananda 3.-Tr.e. i. [Guna-vibhaga means the products of Prakrti which consists of the three gunas.Swami Gambhirananda 139 . a knower of the diversity of the gunas and the diversity of acitons.-knower of what kinds of facts?-guna-karma-vibhagayoh. who do not know the All.] na sajjate.28 Tu.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . The knower of the All should not disturb those of dull intellect. five motor organs and five objects (sound etc. 'Gunah. on the other hand. he who is a knower. thinking thus. but.) of the senses. mind.

the knower of the All.e. the answer is being stated: 3. those who are attached to actions. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sajjante. thining. That he should not do. guna-sammudhah. who is qualified for actions (rites and duties)? As to this. who are wholly deluded by the gunas.30 Devoid of the fever of the soul.30 Vigata-jvarah. Again. become attached. of dull intellect. without remorse. of Nature. na vicalayet. guna karmasu. should not disturb. Unsetting of beliefs is itself the disturbance. one who is himself a knower of the Self.29 Those again. devoid of the fever of the soul. to the activities of the gunas.' Krtsna-vit.Swami Gambhirananda 3. prakrteh. in what manner should duties be under-taken by a seeker after Liberation who is not enlightened.3. (who are) mandan. who are all attention on the results of actions. and becoming free from expectations and egoism. i. engage in battle by dedicating all actions to Me. This is the idea. akrtsnavidah. tan. 'We do actions for results. 140 . who do not know the All. with (your) mind intent on the Self. being free from repentance.

without cavil. adds 'parama. sraddhavantah. all. adhyatma-cetasa. bhutva. actions. those. which has been stated with valid reasoning.this teaching of Mine. they also. My teaching. who (nityam.31 Ye. viz that 'duty must be performed'. 'I am an agent. who are such.yuddhyasva. engage in battle. sarvani. mayi. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . by dedicating. the omniscient supreme Lord. are nirmamah. with faith. with this idea. and nirmamah. becoming. free from egoism. who am Vasudeva. supreme'-Tr. ever.31 Those men who ever follow this teaching of Mine with faith and without cavil. without detracing Me. te api. me matam. sannyasya. the Self of all.Swami Gambhirananda 3.]. they also become freed from actions. You from whom has vanished the idea. and further. and I work for God as a servant'. free from expectations ['Free from expectations of results for yourself']. manavah. the Teacher [Here Ast. follow accordingly. karmani. and anasuyantah. with (your) mind intent on the Self-with discriminating wisdom.) anutisthanti. to Me. 3. men. Vasudeva. '(this is) mine'. nirasih. 141 .

they are deluded in various ways with respect to all knowledge. they do not fear the evil which will arise from transgressing Your commandments? As to that. me. the Lord says: 142 . 'For what reason. anutisthanti. na. but. teaching. do they not follow your teachings. karmabhih. who are devoid of discrimination.Swami Gambhirananda 3. perform duties that are not theirs and not follow their own duties? How is it that by remaining opposed to You. who are deluded about off knowledge. from actions called the righteous and the unrighteous. to have gone to ruin. do not follow My teaching. etat. nastan.] and who are devoid of discrimination-to have gone to ruin.] this. sarva-jnana-vimudhan. tan.32 But those who. acetasah. know. this instruction of Mine.32 Tu. My. 3. follow. them. who abhyasuyantah.mucyante. do not. decrying. matam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . again. those who are the opposite of them (the former). know them-who are deluded about all knoweldge [Knowledge concerning the qualified and the unqualified Brahman. decaying [Finding fault where there is none. ye. become freed. Viddhi.

then.Swami Gambhirananda 3. All creatures (behave) according to that only. even. a man of wisdom-what to speak of a fool!. therefore the following is being stated: 143 . beings.33 Even a man of wisdom behaves according to his own nature. nature. [Also.33 Api. his own. Therefore. etc. what can restraint do. behaves. vice. What can restraint do? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . follow. and so on. nature. knowledge. Sadrsam. (their) prakrtim. Nigrahah kim karisyati.] acquired in the past (lives) and which become manifest at the commencement of the present life. be it from Me or anybody else? If all beings behave only according to their own natureand there is none without his nature-. jnanavan. since there arises the contingency of the scriptures becoming purposeless owing to the absence of any scope for personal effort.3. cestate.-what? svasyah. desires. according to. prakrteh. yanti. Nature means the impressions of virtue. Being follow (their) nature. bhutani.

Swami Gambhirananda 3. when a person controls love and hatred with the help of their opposites [Ignorance. and repulsion against undesirable things.].3. in the very beginning. the cause of love and hatred. indriyasya indriyasya. attraction and repulsion. of all the organs..34 Attraction and repulsion are ordained with regard to the objects of all the organs. that which is the nature of a person impels him to his actions. because they are his adversaries. not come under the influence of love and hatred.34 Raga-dvesau. As to that. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . verily under the influence eof love and hatred. On the other hand. with regard to each of the organs. For. then he 144 . has discrimination as its opposite. with regard to objects such as sound etc. the scope of personal effort and scriptural purpose are being stated as follows: One who is engaged in the subject-matter of the scriptures should. (vyavasthitau. in the following manner-attraction towards desirable things. are ordained. One should not come under the sway of these two. arthe. And then follow the rejection of one's own duty and the undertaking of somebody else's duty.) are sure to occur.

under the sway. being practised even though vigunah.].35 Svadharmah. Death is better while engaged in one's own duty. has to be undertaken just because it is a duty! That is wrong: 3. of love and hatred. one impelled by love and hatred misinterprets even the teaching of the scriptures.Tr. his. is sreyan. he ceases to be led by his nature. one should not come. hi because. Therefore. who. This is the meaning. Even 145 . more commendable than. superior to.becomes mindful only of the scriptural teachings. though defective. put obstacles on his way to Liberation. vasam. they. meritoriously performed. one's own duty. paradharmat. tau. this person's paripanthinau. like robbers. defective. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .35 One's own duty [Customary or scripturally ordained observances of different castes and sects. too. another's duty. tayoh. are asya. of these two. though svanusthitat. In this world. adversaries. and thinks that somebody else's duty. na agacchet.Swami Gambhirananda 3. is superior to another's duty well-performed. another's duty is fraught with fear. deficient. well-performed.

because they (attraction and repulsion) are his adversaries' (34). this. O scion of the Vrsni dynasty. 'In the case of a person who dwells on objects' (2.36 Arjuna said -. papam. said: 3. fraught with fear. 146 . kena.Now then. varsneya.. death. purusah. better.nidhanam. as compared with remaining alive while engaged in somebody else's duty. O scion of the Vrsni dynasty (Krsna). carati. Although the root cause of evil was stated in. 'When this indeed becomes known.. commit. now then. to be sure'. 'This is thus.. Arjuna. being prayuktah. in one's own duty. while engaged svadharme. by what acting as the cause.Swami Gambhirananda 3. that was presented desultorily and vaguely. I shall make effort for its eradication'. another's duty. does ayam. impelled. with the idea. as it were? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . impelled by what does this man commit sin even against his wish. since it invites dangers such as hell etc. being constrained by force. Wishing to know it briefly and definitely as. man. is bhayavahah. is sreyah. as a servant is by a king. Why? Paradharmah..36 Atha.62) and '.

(V. against his wish. balat. beauty. in whom reside for ever. even. fame. gain and loss. is called Bhaga-van. [Gain and loss stand for future prosperity and adversity. unimpeded and in their fullness. this anger. a great sinner. api. of which you ask-. Illumination.6.This desire. niyojitah. iva. Know this to be the enemy here. being constrained.37 The Blessed Lord said -. though not himself willing. which illustration has already been given? The Lord (Bhaga-van) said: 'You hear about that enemy. That Vasudeva. as it were-as if by a king. 78).] ignorance and Illumination of all beings' (ibid. by force. a sinful act. the six qualities of majesty etc. 3. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .74).sin. detachment as well as Liberation [Liberation stands for its cause. virtue. is a great devourer.' 'Bhaga is said to consist of all kinds of majesty. 'He is spoken of as Bhaga-van who is aware of creation and dissolution. anicchan. the source of all evil.].P.Swami Gambhirananda 147 . born of the quality of rajas.. and who has the knowledge of such subjects as creation etc.5.

it is maha-papma. the enemy. as a mirror by dirt. or. 'I have been led to act by desire indeed!' It is mahaasanah. this desire. enam. because of which the creatures incur all evil. is also identical with this (desire). People who are engaged in service etc. desire. It is rajogunasamudbhavah. a great devourer. know. viddhi. kamah. here in this world. born of the quality of rajas. For a being commits sin when goaded by desire.3. indeed. and who are stricken with sorrow are heard to lament. This desire when obstructed in any way turns into anger. krodhah. this. is the enemy of the whole world. it instigates a person by arousing rajas.37 Esah. And hence. iha. For. anger. when desire comes into being. it is the origin of the quality of rajas. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 148 . whose food is enormous.. which are effects of rajas. Therefore. and as a foetus remains enclosed in the womb. Therefore. to be vairinam. so in this shrouded by that. a great sinner. With the help of examples the Lord explains how it is an enemy: 3.38 As fire is enveloped by smoke.

'I am being induced by this into evil. For the fool looks upon desire as a friend so long as hankering lasts. jnaninah. a foetus. Again. is avrtam. shrouded. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . as. by dirt. tena. and. of the wise. a mirror. what is that which is indicated by the word idam (this). covered. it is the constant enemy of the wise but not of a fool. etena. which is born concomitantly (with fire) and is naturally dark. avrtam. and which is covered by desire? The answer is: 3. vahnih. ulbena. is covered malena.3.] feels distressed.39 Jnanam. Therefore. dhumena. is enveloped. is idam. avriyate. constant enemy. so. is avrtah. enclosed. Knowledge. by smoke.38 Yatha. which is an insatiable fire. in the womb by the amnion. by that.39 O son of Kunti. and also when he is forced to act by it. When sorrow 149 . by this. nityavairina. tatha. fire. which is naturally bright. garbhah. ca. this.' And he always [Both at the time when desire arises in him. Knowledge is covered by this constant enemy of the wise in the form of desire. or as adarsah. For the wise person knows even earlier.Swami Gambhirananda 3.

mind. (and) duspurena. but certainly not earlier. dehinam.40 Indriyani. become the enemy of all? Since when the abode of an enemy is known. mind. diversely deludes. abode. analena.Swami Gambhirananda 3. in that form-.comes as a consequence. desire's. desire. asya. 'I have been driven into sorrow because of longings'. manah. adhisthanam. having what as its abode does desire.40 The organs. vimohayati. Esah. it is possible to easily slay the enemy. the intellect. fire. therefore the Lord says: 3. this one. This one diversely deludes the embodied being by veiling Knowledge with the help of these. Therefore it is the constant enemy of the wise alone. he realizes. and buddhih. and the intellect are said to be its abode. are said to be. ucyate. Again. its. 150 . which is an insatiable. In what form? Kamarupena. the organs. That which is difficult to satisfy is duspurah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . in the form of desire-tha which has wish itself as its expression is kama-rupa. in the form of a viel over Knowledge. and (derivatively) that which never has enough (alam) is analam.

Knowledg. adau niyamya. completely renounce this one'. with the help of these.Swami Gambhirananda 3. wisdom. i. Renounce.] 3. renounce this one [A variant reading is. jnana. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. enam. learning.] which is sinful and a destroyer of learning and wisdom. means the full experience of that. from the scripures and a teacher. and jnanavijnana-nasanam. which is papmanam. etaih. indriyani. the enemy under consideration. prajahihi. after first controlling the organs. 'prajahi hi-enam. by veiling.the embodied being. means knowledge about the Self etc. avrtya.41 Since this is so. therefore. a destroyer of learning and wisdom. are the media for the expression of desire. discard. Vijnana. sinful-which is desire that is accustomed to sinning. from yourself the destroyer 151 . the organs. after first controlling.-Tr. jnanam. renounce.e.41 Therefore. which are its abodes. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. this one. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Desire covers the Knoweldge of the Self by stimulating these. with the organs etc. [The activities of the organs etc.

pervasiveness. imangination. It has been said. to the external.Swami Gambhirananda 3. feet. So also. suspicion. by taking the support of what should one give up desire? This is being answered: 3. but the intellect is superior to the mind. from the point of view of subtlety.42 The learned ones ahuh. etc. As to that. superior. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . indecision. the mind. vikalpa:doubt. hearning. having the nature of thinking and doubting. 152 . However. thought. that indriyani. intention. volition. [Sankalpa: will. the one who is superior to the intellect is He.. the mind is superior to the organs. the five [Five sense-organs: of vision. say. which are the means to the achievement Liberation. uncertainly. taste. five motor-organs: hands. etc. and for excretion and generation-these latter five are also understood in the present context. 'After first controlling the organs. manah. renounce desire the enemy'.of those two-learning and wisdom.42 They say that the organs are superior (to the gross body). reflection. inner position. speech. are parani.] organs-ear etc. smell and touch. gross and limited body.

buddheh. the supreme Self.Tr.-V..] Understanding the Self thus [Understanding. The G1.] as superior to the intellect. is para. that one.A. to the mind. to the intellect'.He. to the intellect.. in association with its 'abodes' counting from the organs. Makes the "abode'' counting from the organs' an adjective of 'the Dweller in the body'. O mighty-armed one. and completely establishing (the Self) is spiritual absorption with the (help of) the mind. And yah. what follows from that?'-Tr. superior. paratah. 'is tu. 153 . introdcues this verse with.A. buddhih. and omits the portion. sah..buddheh. to the organs.] 3.43 [The Ast. indriyebhyah. having the nature of determination. [The portion. etc. deludes It by shrouding Knowledge.S..error. is the witness of the intellect. superior. Which has the same reading here as the A. and with regard to which Dweller in the body it has been said that desire.the supreme Self. however. superior. Pr. 'Tatah kim. however. the one who is innermost as compared with all the objects of perception ending with the intellect. is tu.thus:that desires can be conquered through the knowledge of the Self. 'with regard to which Dweller. the intellect.] is param. manasah.. Similarly.' is translated from Ast..

the Self. enemy.Swami Gambhirananda 3. evam. this satrum. superior. to the intellect. 154 . it being possessed of many inscrutable characteristics. jahi. with the mind. as param. completely establishing. difficult to subdue-which can be got hold of with great difficulty.e. understanding. atmana. i. and samstabhya.43 Buddhva. establishing (the Self) fully in spiritual absorption with the help of your own purified mind. kama-rupam. which is durasadam. atmanam. which is difficult to subdue. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . vanquish. buddheh. O mighty-armed one.vanquish the enemy in the form of desire. thus. in the form of desire.

The protection of the world becomes ensured when the Brahmanas and the Ksatriyas are protected. does not decay. because its result is undecaying.I imparted this imperishable Yoga to Vivasvan. It (this Yoga) is avyayam. imperishable.Swami Gambhirananda 4. Being endowed with this power of Yoga. yogam.1 In the beginning of creation. Vivasvan taught this to Manu. presented in the (preceding) two chapters. imparted. Yoga. which is characterized by steadfastness in perfect Illumination.1 The Blessed Lord said -. proktavan. they would be able to protect the Brahmana caste. imperishable. this. aham. imam. avyayam. And he. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . to Vivasvan. 155 .Swami Gambhirananda 4. the Sun. For. vivasvate. and Manu transmitted this to Iksavaku.Chapter 4 English Translation . with a veiw to infusing vigour into the Ksatriyas who are the protectors of the world. the result-called Liberation-of this (Yoga). I.

parantapa. the king-sages. this Yoga. [First king of the Iksvaku dynasty. transmitted (this). iha. Yoga. O destroyer of foes. that. imam. praha. taught (this).2 The king-sages knew this (yoga) which was received thus in regular succession. is lost. yogah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .] 4. nastah. Sah. now. scorcher of antagonists. 'scorches' (tapayati) them by the 'rays' of the 'heat' of his prowess is parantapa. those who were kings and sages (at the same time). By para are meant those against oneself. to Manu.e. otherwise known as the Solar dynasty. to Iksvaku. Manu abravit. knew. mahata kalena. like the sun. manave. his own son who was the first king. He who. in now lost owing to a long lapse of time. i. O destroyer of foes. viduh. received thus through a regular succession of Ksatriyas. which was evam paramparapraptam. owing to a long lapse of time. has go its traditional line snapped.Swami Gambhirananda 4. Noticing that the Yoga has got lost by reaching people who are weak and have no control 156 . That Yoga.Vivasvan.2 Rajarsayah. iksvakave.

which is this. etat. considering that.e. this (Yoga) is a profound secret. devotee. maya. proktah. iti. rahasyam. to you. this Yoga. (whereas) the birth of Vivasvan was earlier. you are. My. i. and that the world has become associated with goals that do not lead to Liberation. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . has been taught.4 Arjuna said -. as though raising a question.3 That ancient Yoga itself.Swami Gambhirananda 4. has been taught to you by Me today.Your birth was later. for. How am I to understand this that You instructed (him) in the beginning? 157 . For. ancient. ca sakha. adya.of their organs. te. by Me. and friend. Lest someone should understand that the Lord has said something contradictory. eva. asi. me.3 Sah. that. profound. today. Yoga. 4. therefore. bhaktah. in order to prevent that (doubt). ayam. considering that you are My devotee and friend. which is this. yogah. is a uttamam. Knowledge. secret. Hi. puratanah. 4. itself.

tava ca. vijanyam. are the same person who are now teaching me? By way of demolishing the doubt of fools with regard to Vasudeva. janma.4 Bhavatah. me. as not inconsistent. janmani. how. in the beginning of creation. that He has no God-hood and omniscience-to which very purpose was Arjuna's question4. was param. of Visvasvan. of Mine. and so have yours. You. lives. Therefore. this. adau. in the beginning. O scorcher of enemies! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . vyatitani. am I to understand.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . katham. (but) you know not. was aparam.Swami Gambhirananda 4. bahuni. earlier.O Arjuna. iti. who proktavan.Swami Gambhirananda 4. insturcted this Yoga. I know them all. Your. many. many lives of Mine have passed. and so have 158 .5 The Blessed Lord said -. (whereas) the birth vivasvatah. have passed. later. tvam. the Sun. in the abode of Vasudeva.5 O Arjuna. etat. yourself. that.

sarvani. aham. Aham. know not. possessing as I do unobstructed power of knowledge.Swami Gambhirananda 4. though I am naturally possessed of an undiminishing power of Knowledge. though. due to your power of understanding being obstructed by righteousness. veda know. etc. However. bhutanam. Prakrti. all. isvarah. because by nature I am enternal. though I am birthless. can there be any birth for You who are the eternal God?' That is beng answered: 4. natural Ruler. and so also api san. pure. the Lord. them. under 159 . va vetta. and the Lord of beings. you. the Maya of Visnu consisting of the three gunas. in spite of the absence of righteousness and unrighteousness. tani. I take birth by means of My own Maya. of beings. prakrtim. O scorcher of foes. (still) by subjugating My Prakriti. undecaying by nature.6 Api. I know. (still) adhisthaya. 'In that case. My own. I. unrighteousness. and avyayatma. (but) tvam.yours. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . parantapa. san ajah. by subjugating. from Brahma to a clump of grass. undecaying by nature. how. svam. enlightened and free.6 Though I am birthless.

whenever. then do I manifest Myself. spell the whole world exists. bhavati. yada yada hi. whenever there is a decline one virtue and increase of vice.whose. Vasudeva. Myself. through Maya. there is. rise. and deluded by which one does not know one's own Self. sambhavami. of virtue consisting of the duties of castes and stages of life of living beings. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 160 . as though born. the destruction of the evil-doers. decrease. of vice. Why? 4. atmanam. which are the means to achieving properity and Liberation.7 O scion of the Bharata dynasty. atma-mayaya.7 O scion of the Bharata dynasty. It is being stated when and why that birth occurs: 4. I manifest Myself in every age.Swami Gambhirananda 4. tada. srjami. I. a glanih. but not in reality like an ordinary man.-by subjugating that Prakrti of Mine. adharmasya. I take birth. dharmasya. manifest. and abhyutthanam. increase.8 For the protection of the pious. decline. and establishing virtue. do aham. appear to become embodeid. then. by means of My own Maya.

eti. attains. as described. divine.9 He who thus knows truly the divine birth and actions of Mine does not get rebirth after casting off the body. tyaktva. supernatural. of the evildoers. sadhunam. after casting off. does not get. truly. which is a form of Maya. I manifest Myself. birth. Me-he gets Liberated. this deham.9 Yah. of the sinful ones. and also dharmasamsthapanarthaya. He attains Me. body. 4.Swami Gambhirananda 4. etc. and actions. vetti. he.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . vinasaya. thus. he who. sambhavami. that divyam. as they are in reality. comes to. mama. for the destruction. such as protection of the pious.Swami Gambhirananda 4. na eti.. yuge yuge. punarjanma. mam. O Arjuna. 161 . of the pious. in every age.8 Paritranaya. of Mine.-for that purpose. the followers of the virtuous path. duskrtam. ca karma. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . for establishing virtue fully. knows tattvatah. janma. rebirth. for the protection. O Arjuna. evam. Sah.

many. about the supreme Reality. who were absorbed in Me. who were seers of (their) identity with God.10 Bahavah. purified. who were devoid of attachment. being the austerity. manmayah. and were purified by the austerity of Knowledge. have attained. who had taken refuge only in Me. The particular mention of 'the austerity of Knowledge' is to indicate that steadfastness in Knowledge does not depend on any other 162 . who had taken refuge in Me. who were absorbed in Me. i. mam upasrithah. fear and anger. vita-raga-bhaya-krodhah.e. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . agatah.This path of Liberation has not been opened recently. Liberation. What then? Even in earlier days4. have attained My state. and were putah. who had become supremely sanctified. becoming sanctified by that austerity of Knowledge-. jnana-tapasa. the supreme God.Swami Gambhirananda 4. who were steadfast in Knowledge alone. fear and anger. My state. Goodhood.10 Many who were devoid of attachment. by the austerity of Knowledge-Knowledge itself. madbhavam. who were knowers of Brahman.

at the same time. For they are not seekers of Liberation. them.austerity. I. by granting Knowledge to those who follow what has been stated (in the scriptures) and are seekers of Liberation. a seeker of rewards (of actions). favour. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . they approach. Me. mam. O son of Partha. according to the manner in which. You have love and aversion. because of which You grant the state of identity with Yourself only to a few but not to others?' The answer is: 4. I favour them in that very manner. the purpose for which. by granting that fruit. 'In that case.11 Yatha. bhajami. and by granting Liberation to those who are men of 163 . aham. tan. seeking. It is certainly impossible for the same person to be a seeker of Liberation and. tatha eva. This is the idea. but do not hanker after rewards.Swami Gambhirananda 4. whatever fruit. Therefore. in that very manner.11 According to the manner in which they approach Me. by granting fruits to those who hanker after fruits. human beings follow My path in every way. prapadyante.

12 Longing for the fruition of actions (of their rites and duties). success from action comes quickly. anuvartante. in the human world. follow.] the path of God who am omnipresent. why then do not all. I do not favour anybody out of love or aversion. O son of Prtha. [The paths characterized by Knowledge and by action (rites and duties). or out of delusion. 164 . take refuge in You alone with the very knowledge that Vasudeva is everything?' As to that. path. sarvasah. On the other hand.wisdom and are monks aspiring for Liberation. they worship the gods here. in every way. manusyah. This is the meaning. in which they approach Me. vartma. human beings. Under all circumstances. My. mama. and You are there with Your capacity to grant all rewards. becoming desirous of Liberation. and so also by removing the miseries of those who suffer.in these ways I favour them just according to the manner. 'If Your wish to be favourable is the same towards all creatures on account of the absence of the defects of love and aversion in You who are God. For. hear the reason for this: 4. By 'human beings' are meant those people who become engaged in their respective duties to which they are qualified according to the results they seek.

here. in the case of those. they worship. iha. 'While he who worships another god thinking. manuse-loke. for. He is like an animal to the gods' (Br. fruition. because through oblations he works for their pleasure!] Hi. siddim. from action. so also is the sacrificer to the gods. 1.12 Kanksantah.4. comes.' the Lord shows that results of actions can accrue even in the other worlds. yajante. in the human world.10).) bhavati. karmanam. which gives rise to the ideas of difference between the worshipped and the worshipper. karmaja. of actions. success." does not know. longing for. Fire and otherswhich accords with the Upanisadic text. because the authority of the scriptures extends only over the human world. the gods. in this world. The difference lies 165 . quickly. (siddhih. ksiparm.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 'For. As animals are beneficial to human beings. fructification of the results. Indra. success comes quickly. By the specific statement. in the human world. who sacrifice to other gods and long for results.Swami Gambhirananda 4. and I am another. "He is one. [This text points out that the reason for adoring other deties is the ignorance of the Self. indeed. praying for. devatah.

.' For what reason. srstam. the four castes.] actions is according to castes. elegibility for'. have been created. do they as a rule follow Your path alone. which accords with 166 . obtains only in the human world. still know Me to be a non-agent and changeless. and A. stages of life.Swami Gambhirananda 4. follow My path in every way. but not of others? This is being answered: 4. The fruition of the results of those actions of persons who are eligible according to castes. stages of life. etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .13 The four castes have been created by Me through a classification of the gunas and duties. but not in the other worlds? Or:-It has been said.A.in this that. omit 'adhikara. Even though I am the agent of that (act of classification).13 Catur-varnyam-meaning the same as catvarah varnah. in the human world eligibility for [Ast. again. etc. and read karmani. maya. What is the reason for the rule that the competence for rites and duties according to castes. etc.-Tr. stages of life. stages of life. by Me who am God. 'Human beings. having such divisions as castes. etc. comes quickly.

etc. in whom tamas (indolence.) is secondary and rajas is predominant. ignorance. 'Well. classification of the duties. attachment.17 and 18). Hence the specification. In this way.etc. determined by the classification of the gunas.90.) preponderates. are the duties of the Ksatriyas. And these four castes do not prevail in the other worlds. through a classification of the gunas and duties. etc. Agriculture etc. etc.G. austerity. Courage. 'in the human world'. have a predominance of the quality of sattva (purity. writes: guna-vibhagena karma-vibhagah. 10..45. This is the idea. are the duties of the Brahmanas. goodness.). in that caste. in whom sattva becomes secondary and rajas (passion. who are sattvika. also see Chapter 14). As to that. 16. etc. the four castes have been created by Me through a classification of the gunas and duties. 'The Brahmanas were His face.e. the control of the mind and body. valour.12). are the duties of the Vaisya.-Tr] By the gunas are meant sattva.. You become subject tothe consequence of those actions? 167 .' (Rg. [A. in whom rajas is secondary and tamas predominates (see chapters 14. i.such Vedic texts as. Service is the only duty of the Sudra. rajas and tamas (see note under 2. guna-karma-vibhagasah. etc. by virtues of Your being he agent of the acts of creation of the four castes.

' Because -4. Me. even though. who have self-identification in the form. na limpanti. by becoming the originators of body etc. na sprha. I am not the agent of those actions of which you think I am the agent. actions. not subject to the cycle of births and deaths.Therefore you are not eternally free and the eternal Lord!' This is being answered: Api. mam. changeless. But in the case of transmigrating beings. for Me. tasya. I am kartaram. 'I am the agent'. those karmani. do not taint. for Me there is no hankering for the results of actions. One who knows Me thus. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 'In reality. and thirst for actions as also for their results. does not become bound by actions. And me. mam. still. the agent. to be akartaram. there is no hankering for the results of those actions. a non-agent. viddhi. also know Me to be avyayam. and therefore. however.Swami Gambhirananda 4. from the highest standpoint. from the empirical standpoint of maya. know.14 Because of the absence of egoism. Me. of that act. it is reasonable that actions 168 .14 Actions do not taint Me.

sah. karma. Owing to the absence of these. abhijanati. api. having known.should taint them. action. In his case also actions cease to be the originators of body etc. I have no hankering for the results of actions'. Tasmat. does not become bound. eva. therefore. purvaih. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . karma. undertake. were undertaken. then (undertake actions) for 169 . Me. who. This is the import. thus.Swami Gambhirananda 4. iti. yah. Anyone else. mam. and (knows). na badhyate. he. thus. karmabhih. you. krtam. by actions. 'I am not an agent. knows. Thererfore you undertake action itself as was performed earlier by the ancient ones. actions do not taint Me. You ought not to sit quietly. 4. itself.15 Jnatva. evam. you (undertake actions) because they were performed by the ancients as well-if you have no Self-knowledge. I have no desire for the results of actions'.15 Having known thus. by the ancient. seekers of Liberation. that 'I am not an agent. too. Therefore. as his own Self. kuru. tvam. mumuksubhih. even. duties. duties were performed even by the ancient seekers of Liberation. or even renounce.

then (undertake actions) in order to prevent people from going astray-. which neither purifies the mind nor helps people). purvataram. by the ancient ones. [This last portion of the sentence is translated by some as follows: You should not undertake actions which are done in the present manner (i. performed..e. not actions as are undertaken in the present day.self-purification. What is the use of specifying that it was done earlier by the ancient ones?' 'The answer is: Because there is a great difficult as regards actions. iti atra. (See G1.16 Kavayah api. Pr. as 170 .' How? 4. p. or. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . do not perform actions in the manner undertakne by people nowadays.) 'If action has to be undertaken here. purvaih. I shall tell you of that action by knowing which you will become free from evil. Janaka and others. are confounded in this subject of action etc. earlier.16 Even the intelligent are confounded as to what is action and what is inaction. 114.Swami Gambhirananda 4. even the intelligent. if you have Self-knowledge. as were krtam. then I shall do so following Your instruction itself. mohitah.

of karma. to be known. (i. kim karma. akarma ca. The true nature of action is inscrutable. karmanah.e. about sitting quietly. inaction. as are well-known in the world. yat.) sitting quietly. api. from transmigration. and akarma. about action enjoined by the scriptures. I shall tell. so.17 Hi. and something to be known about prohibited action. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . What is there to understand (further) in that regard?' 'Why?' The answer is: 4.17 For there is something to be known even about action. by knowing. what is inaction.Swami Gambhirananda 4. moksyase. there is something to be known akarmanah. 171 . as also of inaction. you. 'And you should not think thus: What is called karma is the movement of the body etc. even. also. Therefore. from evil. and something has to be known about inaction. jnatva. is not doing those.to. and kim akarma. which-action etc. there is something boddhavyam.. for. about prohibited action. about inaction. action. you will become free: asubhat. what is action. and there is certainly something to be known vikarmanah. pravaksyami. te.

is buddhiman. therefore. karmani. viz action." (16)?' This is being stated: 4. he is the wise one [Possessed of the knowledge of Brahman] among men. action. in inaction. inscrutable. pasyet. finds karma. etc. hard to understand. i. manusyesu. in tha action-. 'What. in the absence of action.18 Since engagement and non-engagement (in action) depend on an agent. and action in inaction. action in general. again. and yah. of action-implying karma etc.Swami Gambhirananda 4. and about which it was promised. sah. he. exist 172 . akarma. pasyati. he who.(The words 'there is' are to be supplied in all the three cases. akarmani. yah.. the essential nature.) Because gatih. prohibited action and inaction.18 He who finds inaction in action. a wise one.e. ie. who. is gahana. among men. which has to be understood.. accessories. "I shall tell you. in action-karma means whatever is done. finds. he is engaged in yoga and is a performer of all actions! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the true nature. absence of action.. All dealings involving an act. inaction. is the essential nature of action etc. karmanah.

(thus) become logical. how can a witness have (such) an incongruous perception? Vedantin: Is it not that [Ast. what is meant by this contradictory statement. Moreover. This. yuktah. engaged in yoga. and a krtsna-karma-krt. nor inaction action. is implied the perception of things as they are. That being so. 'He who finds inaction in action'. Therefore there is no incongruity. One who discriminates between action and inaction is praised thus. however. 'He who finds inaction in action'.certainly on the plane of ignorance. in order to show things as they are the Lord says. freedom from evil cannot follow from an erroneous perception. performer of all actions.] only so long as one has not attained to the Reality. And by saying. Objection: Well. One who discriminates between action and actions. 'there is something to be known'. but not on that of Self-realization. whereas it 173 . etc. and similarly. and 'action in inaction'? For action cannot become inaction. reads na in place of nanu. holds good on the plane of ignorance.-Tr. that which is reality is inaction appears as action. Besides.] to an ordinary foolsih observer. [Both engagement and non-engagement presuppose agentship and an act of some kind. He is a yogi. action itself as inaction? That being so. the qualifications such as 'intelligent' etc.

in order to eliminate them. Objection: Is it not that to every one action is action itself? Never is there an exception to this. [Ast. 'He who finds inaction in action. omits 'aham karomi iti. like a plum in a bowl! Nor even has action inaction as its receptacle.-Tr. still a man becomes repeatedly deluded under the influence of 174 .' etc.] and seeing. becuase when a boat is moving. motionless trees on the bank appear to move in the opposite direction to a man on the boat. Therefore. is for dispelling their contrary perception. an absence of motion is noticed in distant moving things which are not near one's eyes. 'I am doing'. here also occurs the contrary perceptions. Not that in the empirical plane inaction has action as its receptacle.-because of which it is said. the Lord's utterance. Therefore. action and inaction are actually perceived contrarily by the ordinary persons-like seeing water in a mirage. under the idea. "I am doing"'.has been said. As such. inaction in acion.' etc. 'he who finds inaction in action. viz seeing action in inaction under the idea. one account of action and inaction being perceived contrarily by the creatures. Similarly. Vedantin: That is not so. because inaction is a negation of action. 'by knowing which you will become free from evil'. although this answer has been given more than once. or silver in nacre.

a man imagines.-has been and will be spoken of. Smrtis and logic. its result is to be enjoyed by me.20. '(It is said that) This is unmanifest. 'he who finds inaction in action. I shall sit quietly and happily. is very deep-rooted. he repeatedly raises false issues and questions! And therefore. and never does It die' (2.25). on the Self. the Lord gives His answer again and again.' That being so.' Similarly. observing that the subject is difficult to understand. and happy'. 'I shall not do anything. free from activity. And 175 . 'Never is this One born.2. as stated in. Ka.18). this is my action. owing to which 'even the intelligent are confounded as to what is action and what is inaction. This is inconceivable' (2. with a view to removing this contrary understanding of man. And forgetting the truth that has been heard again and again. 'I am an agent. etc. and superimposing on the Self the cessation of activities pertaining to the body and organs and the resulting happiness. 1. The absence of action in the Self-well-known from the Vedas. i. the Lord says.' And as a consequence of the superimposition of aciton pertaining to the body etc.e. there arises such ideas as. with the idea.a totally opposite perception. The contrary perception of action in that actionless Self.' etc. whereby I shall be free from exertion. in inaction. 'I shall remain quiet.

in a secondary sense. freed from evil. he who sees action because of egoism being implicit in the idea.' Therefore. in inaction (akarmani) in the cessation of the activities pertaining to the body and organs and ascribed to the Self in the same way that actions are ascribed-. the non-performance of these (nitya176 . and a performer of all actions. unchanging Self. like the perception of motion in the (stationary) trees on the bank of a river-(in that action) he who contrariwise finds the fact of inaction. though action belonging to the body and organs continues to be action. Again. And he. like perceiving absence of motion in those trees-. still it is superimposed by everyone on the acitonless. 'I am happily seated quietly. And. he is engaged in yoga. How? (Thus:) 'Since the daily obligatory duties (nityakarmas) certainly have no results when performed as a dedication to God. they are said to be inaction. therefore. he is a yogi. This verse is interpreted by some in another way. is learned among men. in action (karmani). in that action. 'I act. he who knows thus the distinction between action and inaction. This is the meaning. is wise.here in this world. as a result of which even a learned person things. without doing anything'-. attains fulfilment. which is universally considered by all people to be inherent in the Self.

].. he who sees action since that yields results such as hell etc.. will be contradicted.' This explanation is not logical. follow from the knowledge of the absence of their results. leads to the result of freedom from evil. Hereby is refuted the 'seeing of action in inaction' [As explained by others. and the utterance of the Lord in the sentence. i.e. Nor has this been stated here by the Lord Himself. but (what has been enjoined is) merely that performance of the 177 .. however. it cannot.] as a duty. in inaction. in the non-performance of the daily obligatory duties. verily in a figurative sense. therefore it is called action. though in reality it is so-so also.-Tr.by knowing which you will become freed from evil'. '. for (according to the opponent) 'seeing of action in inaction' has not been enjoined here [Here. because freedom from evil as a result of such knowledge is unreasonable. he who sees inaction in the daily obligatory duties (nityakarmas) owing to the obsence of their results-in the same way as a cow that does not yield milk is said to be not a cow. For it has not been enjoined (anywhere) that knowledge of the nityakarmas (themselves).. in the present verse. That being so.karmas) is inaction. How? Even if it be that liberation from evil follows from the performance of nityakarmas. since this produces an evil result.

Further. it was possible (for the Lord) to express in 178 . such results as freedom from evil. or the seeing of action in inaction-that is not a false perception. Vedantin: Not so. and correct knowledge alone is praise-worthy. no result can accrue from the knowledge that evil arises from non-performance of nityakramas.] Indeed. been enjoined as something that should be known. nothing particular is gained by rejecting what is heard of (in the scriptures) and imagining something that is not. darkness does not become the remover of darkness! Opponent: Well. Vadantin: What then? Opponent: It is a figurative statement based on the existence or the non-existence of results. engagement in yoga. wisdom. Moreover. not from false perception. Nor is this a eulogy of false perception. because there is no such scriptural statement that something results from knowing action as inaction and inaction as action. even in a figurative sense. false perception is itself an abvious form of evil! How can it bring about liberation from another evil? Surely. Besides. Nor even has non-performance of nityakarmas. the seeing of inaction in action. and being a performer of all actions cannot reasonably follow from a false perception of action as inaction.nityakarmas is obligatory. Besides. [The stated results accrue from correct knowledge.

Nor even can any evil. this subject-matter (performance of nityakarmas) is not something to be protected with mystifying words. which is misleading to others? This being the case. Moreover. and that by their non-performance one would have to go to hell. for there is the statement. does not need any repetition. 'He who sees inaction in action. and (in the Upanisad) it has been 179 . the subject-matter that was stated more clearly in. what was the need of the ambiguous statement. For. 'Of the unreal there is no being' (2.. Under such circumstances.16). anything purposeloss does not deserve to be known. 'Your right is for action alone' (2. which is an entity.His own words that there is no result from the nityakarmas. It is not even logical to say that the subject-matter will become easy for comprehension if it is stated again and again through different words. such an explanation by anyone will be clearly tantamount to imagining that statement of the Lord as meant for deluding people.47). Besides.' etc. arise from the nonperformance of nityakarmas. And everwhere it is said that whatever is good and ought to be practised deserves to be understood. which is a non-entity. neither is false knowledge worth acquiring nor is the semblance of an object presented by it worth knowing.

Since emergence of the existent from the nonexistent has been denied. is being praised: 180 .' etc. In either case. of the nityakarmas). whether one undertakes them or not. if it is admitted that falling into hell results from their nonperformance (i.2. And the verse has been explained by us accordingly.' etc. the scriptures cannot enjoin fruitless actions. and an entity becomes a non-entity! And that is not rational because it runs counter to all the means of valid knowledge. the meaning of 'He who finds inaction in action.pointed out. you assert that they lead to Liberation. And there will be a contradiction with your own standpoint when. then that too is surely a source of evil. is just what stands out literally.e.2). The aforesaid perception of 'inaction in action. and it is illogical that what is painful should be done intentionally. 4. the scriptures will be imagined to be useless. Therefore. after holding that the nityakarmas are fruitless. therefore anyone's assertion that the existent originates from the nonexistent will amount to saying that a non-entity becomes an entity. they being naturally painful. 'How can existence originate from nonexistence?' (Ch. Further. Also.

yasya.e. learned. him. ahuh. [Kamasankalpa is variously translated as 'desires and purposes'..62)-i. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 'plans and desires for results'. kama-sankalpa-varjitah. But Sankarcarya shows sankalpa as the cause of kama. in the real sense. etc. and jnanagni-dagdha-karmanam. panditam. are sarve. and if they are done by one who has withdrawn from actions. whose actions have been burnt away by the fire of wisdom. then they are merely for the maintenance of the body-.] and whose actions have been burnt away by the fire of wisdom. samarambhah. the knowers of Brahman. Finding 181 . 'hankering for desires'.19 The wise call him learned whose actions are all devoid of desires and their thougts. devoid of desires and the thoughts which are their (desires') causes (see 2. tam.19 Budhah.4. actions-whatever are undertaken. call.Swami Gambhirananda 4. -Tr. then they are for preventing people from going astray. of the one who perceives as stated above. whose. the wise. (those actions) are performed as mere movements. without any selfish purpose: if they are performed by one (already) engaged in actions. all.

even remains engaged as before in actions-without attachment to those actions and their results because of the absence of any selfish purpose-.inaction etc. still he surely does nothing at all! His actions verily become 'inaction' because of having been burnt 182 . that itself is agnih. he surely renounces (all) [Ast. all. one who is a perceiver of 'inaction' etc. fire. He whose actions. is jnana-agnidagdha-karma. Being so. However.-Tr. karma. adds this word sarva. is jnana.] is free from actions owing to the very fact of his seeing 'inaction' etc. have been dagdhani. [Perceiver of inaction etc. if it becomes impossible to renounce actions and he.] actions along with their accessories as he does nnot find any purpose in activity. burnt away by that fire of wisdom. He is a monk. For some reason.-Tr. having been engaged in actions under the influence of past tendencies. later on becomes endowed with the fullest Self-knowledge. described as good and bad. for the sake of preventing people from going astray. wisdom. he does not engage in actions although he might have done so before the dawn of discrimination.: He who knows the truth about action and inaction as explained before. who acts merely for the purpose of maintaining the body. He again who. in action etc.

actions done by a man of Knowledge are certainly inactions. he who is nitya-trptah. since he is endowed with the realization of the actionless Self. and phala-asangam. has no hankering for objects. In reality.Swami Gambhirananda 4. the Lord says: 4. The idea is that he is dependent of any support which may be a means of attaining some coveted seen or unseen result. having given up the idea of agentship. he really does not do anything even though engaged in action. dependent on nothing-. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .away by the fire of wisdom. he who is ever-contented.e.20 Having given up attachment to the results of action. Actions together with their accessories must be relinquished by one who has become thus. desiring to achieve some human goal.20 With the help of the above-mentioned wisdom. because they have no end to serve. By way of pointing out this idea. tyaktva. and nirasrayah. Asraya means that on which a person leans. even 183 . attachment to the results of action. evertrptah. i. dependent on nothing. ever-contented. api. This being so.

he. inmost. and makes effort only for the maintenance of the body. actionless Self. either with the intention of preventing people from going astray or with a view to avoiding the censure of the wise people. in actions-getting out of those (actions) being impossible-.being bereft of solicitation for desirable objects seen or unseen. by virtue of seeing no purpose to be served by undertaking actions meant to secure some seen or unseen result. the all-pervasive. who has the mind and organs under control. Hence. in order to express this idea the Lord says: 4. because he is endued with the realization of the actionless Self. he.though. has dawned the realization of his identity with Brahman. becomes free. does not do. karmani. na karoti.] On the other hand. sah. really. one who is the opposite of the above-mentioned one. eva. even before undertaking works. the monk steadfast in Knowledge. kincit. he remains abhi-pravrttah. (and) in whom. [From the subjective standpoint of the enlightened there are no actions.21 One who is without solicitation. but ordinary people mistakenly think them to be actions. engaged as before. (and) is totally 184 . has renounced actions along with their accessories. anything. who. which in reality are a mere semblance of it.

without possessions. possessions. hope. in the form of evil as also rigtheousness-to one aspiring for Liberation. he does not incur. belongings.Swami Gambhirananda 4. yata-citta-atma.e. who has the mind and organs under control-one by whom have been controlled (yatau) both the internal organ (citta) and the external aggregate of body and organs (atma). he incurs no sin by performing actions merely for the (maintenance of the) body.)]. therefore.21 Nirasih.] 185 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . [ Parigraha: receiving. (Some translate it as desire. he becomes liberated from transmigration.A] totally without possessions.one by whom have been renounced (tyaktah) all (sarvah) possessions (parigrahah).-Tr.S. he becomes free from both of them. even righteousness is surely an evil because it brings bondage-. one who is without solicitation-one from whom asisah [Asih is a kind of desire that can be classed under prayer. (and) is tyakta-sarva-parigrahah. accepting. i. na apnoti. have departed.-Tr. adds tasmat tabhyam mukto bhavati samsarat mukto bhavati ityarthah. solicitations. [Here Ast. kilbisam. sin.V.

which can be 186 .) from the specification. actions. called righteous and unrighteous.' Even if the Lord were to say that 'one does not incur sin by doing with his body some scripturally sanctioned action intended to secure a seen or an unseen end'. then there arises the contingency of His denying something (some evil) that has not come into being! (Further. then it will amount to a contradiction [Contradiction of the scriptures.] when the Lord says. in the expression. by performing. what does it matter if by (the words) sariram karma is meant 'actions done by the body' or 'actions merely for the purpose of maintaning the body? The answer is: If by sariram karma is meant actions done by the body. do the words sariram karma mean 'actions done by the body' or 'actions merely for the purpose of maintaining the body? Again. for the purpose of maintaining the body-without the idea of agenship even with regard to these (actions). and from the use of the word kevala (only). Further. karma. sariram karma kurvan (by doing actions with the body). kevalam. merely. even though it be prohibited. 'one does not incur sin by doing with his body any action meant for seen or unseen purposes. it will amount to saying that one incurs sin by performing actions. 'kevalam sariram karma'. sariram.kurvan.

which are known from injunctions and prohibitions (of the scriptures) and which have in view seen or unseen results. On the other hand. when the sense conveyed by sariram karma is taken as acctions merely for the purpose of maintaining the body. orally.. it will amount to a mere purposeless restatement of a known fact.accomplished with the mind and speech and which come within the purview of injunction and prohibition. 'I do. or mentally. he certainly becomes free without any obstacle since he has all his 187 . merely for the purpose of maintaining the body.' Since there is no possibility of a person who has reached such a state incurring evil as suggest by the word sin. because from the use of the word kevala. therefore he does not become subject to the evil of transmigration. then the implication will be that he does not do any other work as can be accomplished physically. even in the case of doing what is prohibited. yet he does not incur sin by merely making movements of the body etc. That is to say. (merely) it follows that he is devoid of the sense of agentship implicit in the idea. the statement that one incurs sin by performing enjoined actions through the mind and speech will involve a contradiction. Even there. while he appears to people to be working with those very body (speech) etc.

without forethought and spontaneously. 21. for the maintenance of the body of a monk as permitted by the text. Under this circumstance.. spontaneously: alms brought to one spontaneously by devoted people.22 Remaining satisfied with what comes unasked for. he is not bound even by performing actions. being free from spite. It becomes faultless by accepting the interpretation of sariram karma thus. but collected from five or seven houses without any plan. without forethought: alms that are not given with abuses. This verse is only a reiteration of the result of full illumination stated earlier. and equipoised under success and failure. since owning food etc. and have not fallen on the ground. 'What comes unasked for. 8. 12) etc. meant for the bare sustenance of the body is absent. therefore it becomes imperative to beg for alms etc. by way of pointing out the means of obtaining food etc.actions burnt away by the fire of wisdom. Sm. In the case of the monk who has renounced all possessions. having transcended the dualities. 188 . the Lord says: 4.] (Bo..' [Unasked for: what comes before the monk gets ready for going out for alms.. for the upkeep of the body.

he.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Vimatsarah. who is ever poised in the realization of the Self as It is.8. is success and failure. feeling contented with that-. realizing the absence of agentship in the Self. siddhau ca asiddhau.Swami Gambhirananda 4. etc. certainly does not do any actions like going about for alms etc. is ever clearly conscious of the fact. with regard to things that come unasked for-. for the sustenance of the body. who is equipoised. The monk who is such.. in action etc. who sees inaction etc. But when. not delighted or sorrowful in getting or not getting food etc. being free from spite.having transcended the dualitiesone is said to be beyond dualities when his mind is not distressed even when afflicted by such opposites as heat and cold. the organs act on the objects of the organs' (see 5.22 Yadrccha-labha-santustah. equipoised.-. who. from the idea of enmity. 189 . 'I certainly do not anything.28). 3. and samah. remaining satisfied with what comes unasked for-yadrccha-labha means coming to possess something without having prayed for it. with regard to the activities accomplished by the body etc. Dvandva-atitah. for the bare maintenance of the body. in the course of going about for alms etc.

When a person who has already started works becomes endowed with the realization of the identity of the Self with the actionless Brahman. Thus. then he (apparently) becomes an agent with regard to such actions as moving about for alms etc. krtva. from the standpoint of his own realization which has arisen from the valid means of knowledge presented in the scriptures. who has experienced the absence of agentship. But if this becomes impossible for some reason and he continues to be engaged in those acitons as before. even. api. still he certainly does not do anything. 'Having given up attachment to the results of 190 . this is only a restatement of what has been said earilier. However. actions and purposes in the Self. he is surely not an agent. actions become relinquished. by performing such actions as moving about for alms merely for the maintenance of the body. to whom is thus ascribed agentship by others. agentship is attributed to him by ordinary poeple. then it follows that in the case of that man. This absence of action has been shown in the verse. because action which is a source of bondage has been burnt away along with its cause by the fire of wisdom. He. is not bound.abserving similarly with common human behaviour. na nibadhyate.

' (20). whose mind is fixed in Knowledge only. who has got rid of attachment.. So.-Tr. actions. jnana-avasthita-cetasah. again. acaratah. of the liberated person who has become relieved of such bondages as righteousness and unrighteousness. who has become detached from everything. actions undertaken for a sacrifice get totally destroyed. totally-saha (together) agrena (with its consequence.G.]. does an action that is underway get destroyed totally without producing its result? This is being answered: Because. Sankaracarya also interprets this word similarly in 3. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . takes yajna to mean Visnu. Of that very person with regard to whom has been shown the absence of aciton4.action.23 Muktasya. gatasangasya. yajnaya will mean 'for Visnu'. For what reason. This is the meaning.23 Of the liberated person who has got rid of attachment. gets destroyed. samagram.Swami Gambhirananda 4. etc.9. for a sacrifice. 191 .. praviliyate. whose mind is fixed in Knowledge. his karma. undertaken. to accomplish a sacrifice [A.. yajnaya. result).

the offering is poured by Brahman in the fire of Brahman. brahma-agnau. to a knower of Brahman. 'by him who sees Brahman in action'. Similarly. He perceives it as not existing separately from the Self. the oblations is Brahman: To him. as one sees the non-existence of silver in nacre.24 Brahma-arpanam.24 The ladle is Brahman [Some translate as 'Brahman is the ladle. (-this is 192 .Swami Gambhirananda 4.) The meaning is that.) English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Brahman alone is to be reached by him who has concentration on Brahman as the objective [As an object to be known and attained. the ladle is Brahman: The knower of Brahman perceives the instrument with which he offers oblation in the fire as Brahman Itself.].. what is perceived in the world as ladle is Brahman Itself. In this sense it is that Brahman Itself is the ladle-just as what appears as silver is only narcre. (The two words brahma and arpanam are not parts of a compound word. samasa.. In the same way.. (Some translate brahma-karma-samadhina as.' etc.-Tr.4. the oblations is Brahman. what is seen as oblations is nothing but Brahman. brahma-havih.

a compound word-) in the fire of Brahman: The fire into which oblation is hutam, poured; brahmana, by Brahman, by the agent, is Brahman Itself. The meaning is that Brahman Itself is the agent (of the offering). That he makes the offering-the act of offering-, that is also Brahman. And the result that is gantavyam, to be reached by him; that also is brahma eva, surely Brahman. Brahma-karmasamadhina, by him who has concentration on Brahman as the objective: Brahman Itself is the objective (karma); he who has concentration (samadhi) on That is brahma-karma-samdhih. The goal to be reached by him is Brahman alone. Thus, even the action undertaken by one who desires to prevent mankind from going astray is in reality inaction, for it has been sublated by the realization of Brahman. This being so, in the case of the monk from whom aciton has dropped off, who has renounced all activity, viewing his Knowledge as a (kind of) sacrifice, too, becomes all the more justifiable from the point of view of praising full realization. That is, whatever is well known as ladle etc. in the context of a sacrifice, all that, in the context of the Self, is Brahman Itself to one who has realized the supreme Truth. If not so, then, since all in Brahman, it would have been uselesss to specifically mention ladle etc. as Brahman. 193

Therefore, all actions cease to exist for the man of realization who knows that Brahman Itself is all this. And this follows also from the absence (in him) of the idea of accessories. [See note on p.211.Tr.] For the act called 'sacarifice' is not seen to exist without being in association with the idea of accessories. All such acts as Agnihotra etc. are associated with the ideas of such accessories as making an offering etc. to the particular gods who are revealed in the scriptures, and with the idea of agentship as also desire for results. But they are not found bereft of the ideas of such distinctions as exist among action, accessories and results, or unassociated with the ideas of agentship hankering for results. This (apparent) (activity of the man of Knowledge), however, stands dissociated from the ideas of differences among the accessories like ladle etc., actions and results, which get destroyed by the Knowledge of Brahman. Hence, it is inaction to be sure. And thus has it been shown in, 'He who finds inaction in action' (18), 'he really does not do anything even though engaged in action' (20), 'the organs act on the objects of the organs' (3.28), 'Remaining absorbed in the Self, the knower of Reality should think, "I certainly do not do anything"' (5.8), etc. While pointing out thus, the Lord demolishes in various places the ideas of 194

differences among actions, accessories and results. And it is also seen in the case of rites such as Agnihotra undertaken for results (kamya), that the Agnihotra etc. cease to be (kamya) rites undertaken for selfish motives when the desire for their results is destroyed. Similarly, it is seen that actions done intentionally and unintentionally yeild different results. So, here as well, in the case of one who has his ideas of distinctions among accessories like ladle etc., actions and results eliminated by the knowledge of Brahman, even activites which are merely external movements amount to inaction. Hence it was said, 'gets totally destroyed.' Here some say: That which is Brahman is the ladle etc. It is surely Brahman Itself which exists in the five forms [Asscessories that can be indicated by the five grammatical case-ending, viz Nominative, Objective, Instrumental, Dative and Locative. (As for instance, the sacrificer, oblation, ladle, sacrificial fire, and Brahman.-Tr.) of accessories such as the ladle etc. and it is Itself which undertakes actions. There the ideas of ladle etc. are not eradicated, but the idea of Brahman is attributed to the ladle etc. as one does the ideas of Visnu etc. to images etc., or as one does the idea of Brahman ot name etc. Reply: True, this could have been so as well if the context were not meant for 195

the praise of jnanayajna (Knowledge considered as a sacrifice). Here, however, after presenting full realization as expressed by the word jnana-yajna, and the varieties of rites as referred to by the word yajna (sacrifice), Knowledge has been praised by the Lord in, 'Jnana-yajna (Knowledge considered as a sacrifice) is greater than sacrifices requiring materials' (33). And in the present context, this statement, 'the ladle is Brahman' etc., is capable of presenting Knowledge as a sacrifice; otherwise, since Brahman is everything, it will be purposeless to speak specially only of ladle etc. as Brahman. But those who maintain that one has to superimpose the idea of Brahman on the ladle etc., like superimposing the idea of Visnu and others on images etc. and of Brahman on name etc., for them the knowledge of Brahma stated (in the verse) cannot be the intended subject-matter dealt with here, because according to them ladle etc. are the (primary) objects of knowledge (in the context of the present verse). Besides, knowledge in the form of superimposition of an idea cannot lead to Liberation as its result; and what is said here is, 'Brahman alone in to be realized by him'. Also, it is inconsistent to maintain that the result of Liberation can be achieved without full realization. And it goes against the context-the context being of 196

full realization. This is supported by the fact that (the subject of ) full realization is introduced in the verse, 'He who finds inaction in action,' and at the end (of this chapter) the conclusion pertains to that very subject-matter. The chapter comes to a close by eulozing full realization itself in, 'Jnana-yajna (Knowledge considered as a sacrifice) is greater than sacrifices requiring materials', 'Achieving Knowledge, one...attains supreme Peace,' (39) etc. That being so, it is unjustifiable to suddenly say out of context that one has to superimpose the idea of Brahman on the ladle etc. like the superimposition of the idea of Visnu on images. Therefore this verse bears the meaing just as it has been already explained. As to that, after having presented Knowledge as a sacrifice, other sacrifices also are being mentioned now in, the verses beginning with, '(Other yogis undertake) sacrifice to gods alone,' etc., for eulogizing that Knowledge: 4.25 Other yogis undertake sacrifice to gods alone, Others offer the Self, as a sacrifice by the Self itself, in the fire of Brahman. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 197

4.25 Apare, other; yoginah, yogis, ritualists; pariupasate, undertake; yajnam, sacrifice; daivam, to gods; eva, alone. A sacrifice by which the gods are adored is daiva-yajna; they perform only that. This is the meaning. Brahma-agnau, in the fire of Brahman: By the word brahman is meant That which is referred to in such sentences as, 'Brahman is Truth, knowledge and infinite' (Tai. 2.1), 'Knowledge, Bliss, Brahman' (Br. 3.9.28), 'the Brahman that is immediate and direct-the self that is within all' (Br.3.4.1), which is devoid of all worldly characteristiscs like hunger etc. and which is beyond all particular qualifications-as stated in, 'Not this, not this' (Br.4.4.22). That which is Brahman is the fire. [Brahman is called fire because, as reflected in wisdom, It burns away everything, i.e. ignorance, or because everything merges into It during dissolution (pralaya).] And it is spoken of as Brahmagni with a view to referring to It as that into which the offering is made. In that fire of Brahman, apare, others, other knowers of Brahman; upa-juhvati, offer; yajnam, the Self, which is referred to by the word yajna (sacrifice), it, having, been presented as a synonym of the Self;that Self, which is a sacrifice, which is reality is verily the supreme Brahman, which is associated with such limiting adjuncts as the intellect etc., 198

which is associated with all the qualities of the limiting adjuncts superimposed on it, and which is the oblation, (they offer) yajnena, by the Self itself as described above. The offering (of the Self) in that (Brahman) is nothing but the realization of that Self which is assoicated with the limiting adjuncts to be the supreme Brahman which is free from adjuncts. The monks, steadfast in the realization of the identity of Brahman and the Self, make that offering. This is the meaning. Beginning with, 'The ladle is Brahman' etc., this sacrifice characterized as full realization is being included among such sacrifices as daiva-yajna etc. with a view to eulogizing it in the verses beginning with, 'O destroyer of enemies, jnana-yajna is greater than the sacrifices involving (sacrificial) materials'. 4.26 Others offer the organs, viz ear etc., in the fires of self-control. Others offer the objects, viz sound etc., in the fires of the organs. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 4.26 Anye, others, other yogis; juhvati, offer; indriyani, the organs; viz srotradini, car etc.; samyama-agnisu, in the fires of self-control. The 199

plural (in fires) is used because self-control is possible in respect of each of the organs. Selfcontrol itself is the fire. In that they make the offering, i.e. they practise control of the organs. anye, others; juhvati, offer; visayan, the objects; sabdadin, viz sound etc.; indriyagnisu, in the fires of the organs. The organs themselves are the fires. They make offerings in those fires with the organs of hearing etc. They consider the perception of objects not prohibited by the scriputures to be a sacrifice. 4.27 Others offer all the activities of the organs and the activities of the vital force into the fire of the yoga of sel-control which has been lighted by Knowledge. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 4.27 Further, apare, others; juhvati, offer, i.e. merge; sarvani, all; indriya-karmani, the activities of the organs; and also the prana-karmani, activities of the vital force- prana means the air in the body; they offer its activities such as contraction, expansion, etc; atma-samyama yogaagnau, into the fire of the yoga of self-control200

withdrawal (samyama) [Samyama consists of concentration, meditation, and Self-absorption. The idea conveyed by the verse is that by stopping all activities, they concentrate the mind on the Self.] into the Self (atma) is self-control (atma-samyama); that itself is the fire of yoga (yoga-agni); (they offer) into that fire; jnana-dipite, which has been lighted by Knowledge, made to blaze up by discriminating knowledge, as if lighted up by oil. 4.28 Similarly, others are performers of sacrifices through wealth, through austerity, through yoga, and through study and knowledge; others are ascetics with severe vows. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 4.28 Tatha, similarly; apare, others; are dravyayajnah, perfomers of sacrifices through wealththose sacrificers who spend wealth (dravya) in holy places under the idea of performing sacrifices; tapo-yajnah, performers of sacrifices through austerity, men of austerity, to whom austerity is a sacrifice; [This is according to Ast.-Tr.] yogayajnah, performers of sacrifice through yoga-those to whom the yoga consisting in the control of the vital 201

forces, withdrawal of the organs, etc., is a sacrifice; and svadhyaya-jnana-yajnah, performers of sacrifices through study and knowledge. Sacrificers through study are those to whom the study of Rg-veda etc. accroding to rules is a sacrifice. And sacrificers through knowledge are those to whom proper understanding of the meaing of the scriptures is a sacrifice. Others are yatayah, ascetics, who are deligent; samsita-vratah, in following severe vows. Those whose vows (vratah) have been fully sharpened (samsita), made very rigid, are samsita-vratah. [Six kinds of sacrifices have been enumerated in this verse.] Further, 4.29 Constantly practising control of the vital forces by stopping the movements of the outgoing and the incoming breaths, some offer as a sacrifice the outgoing breath in the incoming breath; while still others, the incoming breath in the outgoing breath. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 4.29 Pranayama-parayanah, constantly practising control of the vital forces-i.e. they practise a form of pranayama called Kumbhaka (stopping the breath 202

either inside or outside) ['Three sorts of motion of Pranayama (control of the vital forces) are, one by which we draw the breath in, another by which we throw it out, and the third action is when the breath is held in the lungs or stopped from entering the lungs.'-C.W., Vol.I, 1962, p. 267. Thus, there are two kinds of Kumbhaka-internal and external.]-; prana-apana-gati ruddhva, by stopping the movements of the outgoing and the incoming breaths-the outgoing of breath (exhalation) through the mouth and the nostrils is the movement of the Prana; as opposed to that, the movement of Apana is the going down (of breath) (inhalation); these constitute the prana-apana-gati, movements of Prana and Apana; by stopping these; some juhvati, offer as a sacrifice; pranam, the outgoing breath, which is the function of Prana; apane, in the incoming breath, which is the function of Apana-i.e. they practised a form of pranayama called Puraka ('filling in'); while tatha apare, still others; offer apanam, the incoming breath; prane, in the outgoing breath, i.e. they practise a form of pranayama called Recaka ('emptying out'). [Constantly practising control of the vital, forces, they perform Kumbhaka after Recaka and Puraka.] 203

4.30 Others, having their food regulated, offer the vital forces in the vital forces. All of them are knowers of the sacrifice and have their sins destroyed by sacrifice.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 4.30 Besides, apare, others; niyata-aharah, having their food regulated; juhvati, offer; pranan, the vital forces, the different kinds of vital forces; pranesu, in the vital forces themselves. Whichever function of the vital forces is brought under control, in it they offer the other functions. These latter become, as it were, merged in the former. Sarve api, all; of ete, them; yajna-vidah, are knowers of the sacrifice; and yajna-ksapitakamasah, have their sins destroyed by the sacrifices as mentioned above. After accomplishing the above-mentioned sacrifices, 4.31 Those who partake of the nectar left over after a sacrifice, reach the eternal Brahman. This world ceases to exist for one who does not perform 204

sacrifices. What to speak of the other (world), O best among the Kurus (Arjuna)! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 4.31 Yajna-sista-amrta-bhujah, those who partake of the nectar left over after a sacrifice, i.e. those who, after performing the sacrifices described above, eat, during the leisure after the sacrifice, the food called nectar, as prescribed by the injunctions; yanti, reach; sanatanam brahma, the eternal Brahman. For the sake of consistency (with the Upanisads) it is understood that if they (the sacrificers) are seekers of liberation, (then they reach Brahman) in due course of time. [The Upanisads describe the different stages through which those who do good deeds and practise meditation have to pass before reaching the qualified Brahman after death. For liberation there is need also of purification of the heart, Thus, they reach Brahman by stages, and not immediately after death. (See Ch. 8.5 and subsequent portion; also, Br. 4.3.35 to 4.4.25, etc.)] Even ayam lokah, this world, common to all beings; na asti, ceases to exist; ayajnasya, for one who does not perform sacrifices, for him who does not have to his credit 205

even a single one of the above sacrifices. Kutah anyah, what to speak of the other world which can be achieved through special disciplines; kurusattama, O best among the Kurus! 4.32 Thus, various kinds of sacrifices lie spread at the mouth of the Vedas. Know them all to be born of action. Knowing thus, you will become liberated. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 4.32 Evam, thus; bahu-vidha yajnah, various kinds of sacrifices as described; vitatah, lie spread; mukhe, at the mouth, at the door; brahmanah, of the Vedas. Those which are known through the Vedas- as for instance, 'We offer the vital force into speech', etc.-are said to be vitatah, spread, elaborated; mukhe, at the mouth; brahmanah, of the Vedas. Viddhi, know; tan, them; sarvan, all; to be karmajan, born of action, accoplished through the activities of body, speech and mind, but not born of the Self. For the Self is actionless. Hence, jnatva, knowing; evam, thus; vimoksyase, you will become liberated from evil. By knowing thus'These are not my actions; I am actionless and 206

detached'-You will be freed from worldly bondage as a result of this full enlightenment. This is the purport. Through the verse beginning with, 'The ladle is Brahman' etc., complete Illumination has been represented as a sacrifice. And sacrifices of various kinds have been taught. With the help of [Some translate this as: As compared with...-Tr.] those (sacrifices) that are meant for accomplishing desireable human ends, Knowledge (considered as a sacrifice) is being extolled: How? 4.33 O destroyer of enemies, Knowledge considered as a sacrifice is greater than sacrifices requiring materials. O son of Prtha, all actions in their totality culminate in Knowledge. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 4.33 O destroyer of enemies, jnana-yajnah, Knowledge considered as a sacrifice; is sreyan, greater; dravyamayat yajnat, than sacrifices requiring materials [Including study of the Vedas, etc. also.] For, a sacrifice performed with materials is an originator of results, [Worldly prosperity, attaining heaven, etc.], but Knowledge considered as a sacrifice is not productive of results. [It only 207

reveals the state of Liberation that is an achieved fact. (According to Advaitism, Liberation consists in the removal of ignorance by Illumination. Nothing new is produced thereby.-Tr.)]. Hence it is greater, more praiseworthy. How? Because, sarvam, all; karma-akhilam, actions in their totality, without exception; O son of Prtha, parisamapyate, culminate, get merged (attain their consummation); jnane, in Knowledge, which is a means to Liberation and is comparable to 'a flood all around' (cf.2.46). This is the idea, which accords with the Upanisadic text, 'As when the (face of a die) bearing the number 4, called Krta, wins, the other inferior (numbers on the die-faces) get included in it, so whatever good actions are performed by beings, all that gets merged in this one (Raikva). (So it happens) to anyone who knows what he (Raikva) knew' (Ch. 4.1.4). In that case, by what means is this highly estimable Knowledge acquired? The answer is being given: 4.34 Know that through prostration, inquiry and service. The wise ones who have realized the Truth will impart the Knowledge to you. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 208

while others may not be so. by lying fully streched on the ground with face downward. with prolonged salutation. who have realized the Truth. and sevaya. tat. Alternatively. etc. The considered view of the Lord is that Knowledge imparted by those who 209 . tattva-darsinah.'Tr. after which Ast. body. through prostration. through the service of the guru. and agreeing with this. A. 'who have realized the Truth'. will impart.]. Sankaracarya's own words in the Commentary are evamadina. Hence this translation. and what are Knowledge and ignorance. Hence the qualification. some of them are apt to know Truth just as it is. know. jnanam. upadeksyanti..34 Viddhi. Then the meaning will be. you. by approaching teachers pranipatena.. says that the word viddhi (know) is to be connected with evamadina. will tell. the wise ones. puts a full stop.4. the teachers.G. te. the process by which It is acquired. (Know it) through these and other (disciplines) [Other disciplines such as control of the mind. 'Being pleased with such and other forms of humility. jnaninah. Being pleased with humility. that. as to how bondage and Liberation come. pariprasnena. through inquiry. the Knowledge as described above. those words have to be taken with prasrayena. Although people may be wise.

delusion. which is well known in the Upanisads.have full enlightenment becomes effective. in this way. the next verse also becomes appropriate: 4. and atha. atmani. also. draksyasi. asesena. 'You will realize the identity of the individual Self and God.35 Jnatva. you will see directly. in the way you have come under delusion now. Besides. the supreme Lord.' Moreover. the greatness of this Knowledge is: 210 . counting from Brahma down to a clump of grass. not any other. all beings. thus-'These beings exist in me' . in Vasudeva. yena. knowing. in the innermost Self. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . That being so. yat. bhutani. again. punah. you will not come under delusion again in this way. O Pandava (Arjuna). see that these are mayi.Swami Gambhirananda 4. which-by acquiring which Knowledge imparted by them. in Me. and through which you will see all beings without exception in the Self and also in Me.35 Knowing which. through which Knowledge. you will not come under. without exception. na vasyasi. O Pandava. The purport is. moham. in the Self. evam.

] jnana-plavena eva. sin. the vrjinam. the ocean of wickedness.-Tr.]. papa-krt-tamah. righteousness (formal religious observance).36 Api cet asi. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . similarly the fire of Knowledge reduces all actions to ashes. is said to be an evil in the case of one aspiring for Liberation. How Knowledge destroys sin is being told with the help of an illustration: 4. reads papa-samudram. sin. extremely sinful. papebhyah. as a blazing fire reduces pieces of wood to ashes. by using Knowledge alone as a float. 211 . all.36 Even if you be the worst sinner among all sinners. the worst sinner. too. sarvam.Swami Gambhirananda 4. wickedness.4. even if you be. means here sinner) . still you will cross over all the wickedness with the raft of Knowledge alone. sarvebhyah. you will cross over. in the scriptures imparting spiritual instructions. (ocean of sin) in place of papam. lit.37 O Arjuna. still santarisyasi. [Ast. among all. the sinners (papa. with the raft of Knowledge alone. Here [Here.

similarly. Hence. and thus there would be no teacher to transmit Knowledge!] it follows that. since the result of actions owing to which the present body has been born has already become effective. blazing. kurute. like pieces of wood. So. imparting of Knowledge by enlightened persons would be impossible. jnanagnih. it renders them ineffective. yatha.e. bhasmasat. for the fire of Knowledge itself cannot directly [Knowledge destroys ignorance. kurute. the fire of KnowledgeKnowledge itself being the fire. a well lighted fire. all actions.] burn actions to ashes. pieces of wood. sarva-karmani. as. This in turn makes actions impossible. to ashes. a samiddhah. Knowledge reduces to ashes only all those actions that were done (in this 212 .Swami Gambhirananda 4. fire. edhamsi. i. therefore it gets eshausted only through experiencing it. agnih. the idea implied is that full enlightenment is the cuase of making all actions impotent. to ashes. tatha. and thereby the idea of agentship is eradicated.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .37 O Arjuna. From the force the context [If the body were to die just with the dawn of Knowledge. reduces. bhasmasat. reduces.

indeed.life) prior to the rise of Knowledge and that have not become effective. sanctifying. vindati. therefore. pavitram. through the yoga of Karma and the yoga of concentration-. after a long time. na vidyate. That.Swami Gambhirananda 4. in his own heart. sadrsam. verily svayam. comparable. tat. purified. one who has become perfected. realizes. jnanena. purifying. after the dawn of) Knowledge. Knowledge. here. Yoga-samsiddhah. and those that were done in the many past lives. to Knowledge. attains. qualified. yogena.38 Hi. atmani. Since this is so. One who has become perfected after a (long) time through yoga. who as attained fitness through yoga-the seeker after Liberation who has become samsiddhah. 4. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . by himself. as also those performed along with (i. iha. That means by which Knowledge is invariably attained is being taught: 213 .e.38 Indeed. there is nothing purifying here comparable to Knowledge. realizes That by himself in his own heart. kalena. i. there is nothing.e.

labhate. However. who is diligent. for there is scope for dissimulation faith etc. again. 214 . one may not have control over the organs. Achieving Knowledge. does surely attain Knowledge.Swami Gambhirananda 4. is diligent and has control over the organs. prostrations etc. Knowledge. will result from gaining Knowledge? This is being answered: Labdhva. Even when one has faith and is diligent. Therefore the Lord says. one soon attains supreme Peace. etc. Hence they are the unfailing means of acquiring Knowledge. who has control over the organs-he whose organs (indriyani) have been withdrawn (samyata) from objects. samyata-indriyah. attains. who is full of faith. jnanam.. he may be indolent.39 Sraddhavan.39 The man who has faith. and has control over the organs. But this is not so in the case of one possessing faith etc. are not invariably fruitful.4. steadfast in the service of the teacher. He who is such.. Hence the Lord says. What. the man who has faith. tatparah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . which are external. attains Knowledge. which are the means of attaining Knowledge. Even when one has faith. diligent.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . perishes.40 One who is ignorant and faithless.achieving. supreme. Peace. yet it is not to the extent that a man with a doubting mind does. For doubt is the most vicious thing. Knowledge.-Tr.40 Ajnah. Why? The answer is being stated: 4. who has no faith in the instructions of the teacher and the scriptures. Neither this world nor the next nor happiness exists for one who has a doubting mind. who has not known the Self. and has a doubting mind perishes. who is faithless. jnanam. That Liberation soon follows from full Knowledge is a fact well ascertained from all the scriptures and reasoning. One should not entertain any doubt in this matter.Swami Gambhirananda 4. soon indeed. acirena. and asradda-dhanah.] and samsayaatma. Although the ignorant and the faithless get ruined. supreme detachment called Liberation. [Ast. vinasyati. he is the most vicious of them all. adds here: guruvakya-sastresu avisvasavan. param. As for one with a doubting mind. 215 . one attains. santim. who has a doubting mind. one who is ignorant. adhigacchati.

41 Yoga-sannyasta-karmanam.Swami Gambhirananda 4.41 O Dhananjaya (Arjuna). O Dhananjaya. asti. nor also. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . one who has renounced actions through yoga: that person who is a knower of the supreme Goal. exist. whose doubt has been fully dispelled by Knowledge. nor happiness. How does one become detached from actions through yoga? The Lord says: He is jnana-samchinna-samsayah. parah. na. by whom actions called righteous or unrighteous have been renounced through the yoga characterized as the Knowledge of the supreme Goal. Why? 4. the next world. samsayaatmanah. actions do not bind one who has renounced actions through yoga. he who has thus 216 . neither this world which is familiar. na sukham. and who is not inadvertent. For doubt is possible even with regard to them! Therefore one should not entertain doubt. for one who has a doubting mind.How? Na ayam lokah. one whose doubts (samsaya) have been fully dispelled (samchinna) by Knowledge (jnana) characterized as the realization of the identity of the individual Self and God.

and since one who has doubts with regard to the practice of the yogas of Knowledge and actions gets ruined4. not careless. na nibadhnanti. atistha. take recourse to yoga and rise up. jnanasina. cutting asunder. O scion of the Bharata dyasty.42 Therefore. who is not inadvertent.e. and now. mind.Swami Gambhirananda 4. seen as the activities of the gunas (see 3. undertake. atmavantam. etc. take recourse to. 217 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . rise up for battle. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. him. yogam. which is a means to full Illumination.) they do not produce a result in the form of evil etc. karmani. Since one whose doubts have been destroyed by Knowledgearising from the destruction of the impurities (of body.renounced actions through yoga. i. chittva. uttistha. cutting asunder with the sword of Knowledge this doubt of your own in the heart.28). (i. actions.e.) as result of the practise of Karmayoga-does not get bound by acitons owing to the mere fact of his actions having been burnt away by Knowledge.42 Tasmat. arising from ignorance. yoga -performance of actions. therefore. do not bind.

Hence the word 'own' is used. Indeed. delusion. which is a destroyer of such defects as sorrows. this. although the doubt is with regard to the Self. The word atmanah is used because doubt concerns oneself. it is really one's own. born of non-discrimination.. samsayam. etc. ajnana-sambhutam. with that sword of Knowledge-. So. 218 . atmanah.enam. of your own. which is a source of one's own ruin and is most sinful. that itself is the sword. in the heart. hrtstham.with the sword of Knowledge-Knowledge is full Illumination. residing in the intellect. arising from ignorance. doubt. another's doubt cannot be removed by someone else.

e. between these two.-Tr. of actions. You praise. karmanam. mam.) samsasi. as the one intended by You. me. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . reads karma-yogaanusthana (performance of Karma-yoga) in place of karma-anusthana (performance of actions).].O Krsna. and again. And hence. between the renunciation of actions and the performance of actions [Ast. and again. for certain. yat. better.Chapter 5 5. tat ekam. more commendable. that one-one of the two. sannyasam.1 (O Krsna. etayoh. (Karma-) yoga. i. since performance of the two together by the same person is impossible.Swami Gambhirananda 5.1 Arjuna said -. is sreyah. yoga. 219 . the obligatory performance of those very rites! Therefore I have a doubt as to which is better-Is the performance of actions better. Tell me for certain that one which is better between these two. which. speak of. You praise yogam. renunciation. of performance of various kinds of rites enjoined by the scriptures. You praise renunciation of actions. suniscitam. tell. or their rejection? And that which is better should be undertaken. punah ca. bruhi.

ca. Between the two. to be sure. between the two which are the causes of Liberation. sannyasah. tayoh. nihsreyasa-karau. Though both lead to Liberation by virtue of being the cause of the rise of Knowledge. over mere renunciation of actions. Karma-yoga. tu. excels. [Karma-yoga is better than renunciation of actions that is not based on Knowledge. karma-sannyasat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . renunciation of actions.] Why? In answer the Lord says: 220 . however. karma-yogah. even then. excels over renunciation of actions. Thus He extols Karma-yoga. While stating His own opinion in order to arrive at a conclusion5. visisyate. lead to Liberation.2 Ubhau.by undertaking which you think I shall acquire what is beneficial. Karma-yoga-their performance-. Karma-yoga.2 The Blessed Lord said -. however. and. both.Both renunciation of actions and Karma-yoga lead to Liberation.Swami Gambhirananda 5.

easily. but it canot be that both of them 221 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . a man of constant [A man of constant renunciation: He is a man of renunciation ever before the realization of the actionless Self. there should be opposition even between their results. even though engaged in actions. from bondage.3 For. O mighty-armed one. That performer of Karma-yoga. Hi. yah. becomes freed. as nitya-sannyasi. pramucyate. which are opposed to each other and can be undertaken by different persons. bandhat.5. na dvesti. does not crave.] renunciation.Swami Gambhirananda 5. O mighty-armed one. should be known. mahabaho. happiness and their sources should be known as a man of constant renunciation. does not hate anything. It is reasonable that in the case of renunciation and Karma-yoga. jneyah. one who is free from duality. who. he who is free from duality becomes easily freed from bondage. without trouble. for. nirdvandvah. The meaning is that he who continues to be like this in the midst of sorrow.3 He who does not hate and does not crave should be known as a man of constant renunciation. and na kanksati. sukham.

even one. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . asthitah. gets. ekam api. the wise.surely lead to Liberation. Sankhya [Sankhya. 'renunciation' and '(Karma-) yoga'. properly. How? Any one who samyak. the result of both is that Liberation itself. between the Path of Knowledge and (Karma-) yoga. is that which is suited for sankhya. different. Therefore there is no conflict with regard to the result. ubhayoh.Swami Gambhirananda 5. When such a question arises. Self-inquiry. speak of. having opposite and different results. pravadanti. unconflicting result. of both. Objection: After beginning the topic with the words.4 Balah.] (the Path of Knowledge) and (Karma-)yoga. as prthak. vindate. how is it that the Lord speaks of the identity 222 . the result. however. phalam. monasticism. the fools. speak of Sankhya (the path of Knowledge) and (Karma-) yoga as different. not the learned ones.e. resorts to. The learned ones.e.4 The fools. i. na panditah. admit one. not the learned ones. For. follows. i. this is the answer stated: 5. sankhya-yogau. Any one who properly resorts to even one (of them) gets the result of both.

Those very 'renunciation and 'Karma-yoga'.5 The State [Sthana (State) is used in the derivative sense of 'the place in which one remains established. and from which one does not become relegated'. are meant by the words 'Sankhya' and 'yoga'.Swami Gambhirananda 223 . gave the answer by expressing them through other words. How can the result of both be attained by the proper performance of only one? The answer is: 5. without actually avoiding them. that is reached by the yogis as well. 'Sankhya' and '(Karma-) yoga'. This is the Lord's veiw. and by adding something special which was intended by Him.] that is reached by the Sankhyas. Although the question was put by Arjuna merely with regard to renunciation and Karma-yoga. Therefore there is no discussion out of the context. which is beside the point? Reply: This defect does not arise. when they are (respectively) associated with Knowledge and such of Its means as equanimity etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . He sees who sees Sankhya and yoga as one.. yet the Lord.of the results of the path of Knowledge and (Karma-) yoga.

because of the identity of their results. This is what was meant by me. Sankhya and yoga as ekam. your question was as to which one was better of the two. by the Sankhyas. 'Among the two. sah. one.5. excels renunciation of actions'? Reply: Hear the reason for this: Having is veiw the mere giving up of actions and Karmayoga. who. by the monks steadfast in Knowledge. tat prapyate. as well. Objection: If this be so. Karma-yoga. Therefore. The yogis are those who. The purport is that. pasyati. however. And that is indeed yoga in the highest sense. undertake actions by dedicating them to God without seeking any result for themselves. yah. as a means to the attainment of Knowledge. yat prapyate. the State called Liberation. sees truly. that is reached. pasyati. that is reached. then. api. is it said. However.5 Sthanam. that which is the Vedic Karma-yoga is figuratively spoken of as yoga and renunciation since it leads to it (supreme 224 . then monasticism itself excels yoga! Why. yogaih. he. sankhyaih. by the yogis. This is the meaning. My answer was accordingly given that Karma-yoga excels renunciation of actions (resorted to) without Knowledge is Sankhya. by them also that Stated is reached through the process of acquiring monasticism which is a result of the knowledge of the supreme Reality. sees.

yoga-yuktah. withdrawal of the internal and external organs from their objects. is hard to attain. (Also see Commentary on 5.Knowledge). 'Karma-yoga excels'.6 But. but. The meditative man equipped with yoga attains Brahman without delay. equipped with yoga. ayogatah. sannyasah. adhigacchati.12). the meditative man-the word muni being derived in the sense of one who meditates on the real nature of God. duhkham aptum. na cirena. in the real sense. very quickly. with Vedic Karma-yoga in the form of dedication to God without thought of results (for oneself). O mighty-armed one. renunciation is hard to attain without (Karma-) yoga. attains. Brahman. [Karma-yoga leads to enlightenment through the stages of attenuation of attachment. Munih.Swami Gambhirananda 5. brahma. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . renunciation. O mighty-armed one.] The monasticism under 225 . How does it lead to that? The answer is: 5. without delay. Therefore it was said by Me. and their inclination towards the indwelling Self.6 Tu. without (Karma-) yoga.

endowed with yoga. [i.. visuddhatma.2) Brahman means monasticism in the real sense.7 When again. controlled in body.discussion is called Brahman because it leads to knowledge of the supreme Self. 226 . this person becomes yoga-yuktah. and thus becomes fully enlightened. Brahman is verily the supreme' (Ma. Na.Swami Gambhirananda 5. etc.] English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . even when he acts through the apparent functions of the mind. [The construction of the sentence is this: When this person resorts to nitya and naimittika rites and duties as a means to the achievement of fully Illumination. he does not become afflected. a conqueror of the organs.] pure in mind. the Self of the selves of all beings-he does not become tainted even while performing actions. devoted to the performance of the nitya and naimittika duties. 5.e. 'Nyasa (monasticism) is Brahman. 21. pure in mind. as a means to attain full enlightenment. as stated in the Upanisad.7 Endowed with yoga. consisting in steadfastness to the knowledge of the supreme Self. then. organs.

tattvavit.vijitatma.8 Yuktah. (then. That is to say.e. does not become tainted. 'I certainly do not do anything'. jitendriyah. sleeping. the Self of the selves of all beings-one whose Self (atma). controlled in body. he na lipyate. breathing. 5. i.9 Remaining absorbed in the Self. even while seeing. kurvan api. holding. hearing. a conqueror of the organs.8-5.. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . remaining absorbed in the Self. releasing.) thus continuing in that state. moving. smelling. Hence. he does not become bound by actions. even while performing actions for preventing mankind from going astray. has become the selves (atma) of all beings (sarvabhuta) beginning from Brahma to a clump of grass. speaking. opening and closing the eyes-remembering that the organs function in relation to the objects of the organs. the inmost consciousness.Swami Gambhirananda 5. this person does not act in the real sense. the knower of Reality-knower of the real nature 227 . eating. and sarva-bhutatmabhutatma. touching. And besides. fully illumined. the knower of Reality should think.

and who has full realization. surely does not go there itself for drinking water even after knowing that no water exists there! 5. there is competence only for giving up all actions because of his realization of the nonexistence of actions.10 One who acts by dedicating actions to Brahman and by renouncing attachment. smelling. sprsan. 228 . closing the eyes. jighran. asnan. sleeping. i. hearing. when or how should he think? This is being answered. just as a lotus leaf is not by water. even. gacchan. visrjan. he does not become polluted by sin..' Having realized the Truth. srnvan. unmisan. pralapan.of Truth. who finds nothing but inaction in action-in all the movements of the body and organs-. releasing. 'na karomi eva. should think. svapan. manyeta. breathing. grhnan. I certainly do not do. eating. while seeing. speaking. holding.e. kincit. Api. one who proceeds to drink water in a mirage thinking that water is there. All these are to be connected with the above manyeta (should think). Indeed. For the man who has known the Truth thus. moving. pasyan. touching. svasan. anything. of the Self. opening. the seer of the supreme Reality. nimisan.

for the purification of themselves. a lotus leaf. intellect and even the organs. by sin. attachment with regard to results. actions.Swami Gambhirananda 5. to God. the 229 .10 On the other hand. by dedicating. he. adhaya. and tyaktva. is not ambhasa. all karmani. by giving up sangam. is not affected. yoginah. with the idea. acts.Swami Gambhirananda 5. attachment. The only result that will certainly accrue from such action will be the purification of the heart. even with regard to teh resulting Liberation. to Brahman. 'I am working for Him. the yogis undertake work merely through the body. mind. sangam. does not get polluted. as a servant does everything for his master'. again. just as. iva.11 By giving up attachment. sah. by surrendering. yah. na lipyate.11 Since tyaktva. one who is ignorant of the Truth and is engaged in Karma-yoga. padma-patram.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . by renouncing. papena. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . karoti. who. brahmani. 5. by water.

which are unassociated with ownership thus: 'I act only for God. through the organs. for the purification of the heart. which are devoid of the idea of ownership. kayena. i.yogis. karma-phalam.Swami Gambhirananda 5. One who is lacking in resolute faith.. giving up. and not for my gain'. body etc. therefore you have competence only for that. buddhya. one attains Peace arising from steadfastness. being attached to the result under the impulsion of desire.e. so as to deny the idea of ownership with regard to all actions-. yuktah. by having this conviction thus-'Actions are for God. work.12 Tyaktva. 230 . becomes bound. manasa.this word is to be construed with each of the words. kurvanti. indriyaih. kevalaih. karma. men of action. And also since. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and api. by becoming resolute in faith. merely.12 Giving up the result of work by becoming resolute in faith. for the purification of themselves.. through the body. So you undertake action alone. through the mind. atmasudhaye. the result of work. even. 5. through the intellect. undertake.

acquisition of Knowledge. phale saktah.Swami Gambhirananda 5. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . thinking. without doing or causing (others) to do anything at all. sukham. however. apnoti. kama-karena. under that impulsion of desire. under the impulsion of desire-kara is the same as karana (action). he who is ayuktah. sannyasya. and steadfastness in Knowledge.13 Aste. continues happily in the town of nine gates. nibadhyate. attains. happily. called Liberation. It is to be understood that he attains this through the stages of purification of the heart. he. lacking in resolute faith. But one who has experienced the supreme Reality5. all 231 . santim. he continues. gets bound. renunciation of all actions. 'I am doing this work for my gain'. sarva-karmani. On the other hand.e. i. having given up. being prompted by desire. the action of desire (kama-kara. having given up all actions mentally.not for my gain'. This is the idea.13 The embodied man of self-control. Peace. naisthikim arising from steadfastness. Therefore you become resolute in faith. being attached to result.

i. reside in bodies to be sure! That being so. 128. Where and how does the vasi. As possessed of those gates. effortles. the dehi. [See note on p. etc. resides in that town with nine gates. mind and body. kamya and nisiddha (prohibited actions).actions-nitya.e. And it is inhabited by the organs.] manasa. be they monks or not. embodied one. and mouth. The answer 232 . and two are below for urination and defecation. having given up (all actions) by seeing inaction in action. of which seven [Two ears. as it were. placid in mind.-Tr. it is called the 'town with nine gates'. one who has his organs under control. the body is called a town with the Self as its only master. which serve its needs and which are productive of many results and experience.] are in the head for one's own experiences. Freed from the activities of speech. mentally. and devoid of all external wants which are different from the Self. remain? This is being answered: Navadvare pure. the specification is needless. This is what has been said. through discriminating wisdomi. man of self-control. he continues happily. intellect and objects. mind. two eyes nostrils. Objection: What is the need of this specification? For all embodied beings. like citizens. Being like a town. naimittika.e. Renouncing all actions. in the town with nine gates.

It is reasonable that as a result of knowledge in the form of discriminating wisdom. the continuance in the body itself-the town with nine gates-as a consequence of the persistence of the remnants of the results of past actions which have started bearing fruit. for one who realizes the Self as distinct from the aggregate of body etc. however. which have been ignorantly superimposed on the supreme Self. there can be. who is unenlightened. on the ground. there can be a mental renunciation of the actions of others. because the awareness of being distinct (from the body) arises while one is in the body itself. like staying in a house. 'I am in a house. 'I am in the bdoy.is: The embodied one.' But. there can certainly be no such conviction as. he. 'He continues in the body itself'. the qualifying words. do have a purpose to serve. or on the seat. Even in the case of one in whom has arisen discriminating wisdom and who has renounced all actions. in his totality.' For one who experiences the body alone as the Self. it becomes reasonable to have the conviction. 'I am in the body. thinks. who perceives merely the aggregate of the body and organs as the Self. Form the point of veiw of the difference between the convictions of the enlightened and the unenlightened persons. Although it has been 233 . like one's being in a house.

It does not act. Anticipating this. as it were' (Br. Objection: Is it that the direct or indirect agentship of the embodied one inheres in the Self and ceases to be after renunciation.7). nor association with the results of actions. without himself doing anything at all. 5. 'It is said that. still there may be the apprehesion that direct or indirect agentship inheres in the Self. For it was stated. But it is Nature that acts.3. as the movement of a traveller ceases with the stoppage of his movement? Or.stated that one continues (in the body) by relinquishing actions of the body and organs ignorantly superimposed on the Self. 'O son of Kunti. the Lord says: na eva kurvan.14 The Self does not create agentship or any objects (of desire) for anyone. not causing (others) to do. 4. the answer is: The Self by Its nature has neither direct nor indirect agentship. And it is also stated in the Upanisad. It seems to move. 'It seems to meditate. nor is It affected' (13. as it were...25). although existing in the body. 234 . (not) inducing the body and organs to activity. is it that they do not exist owing to the very nature of the Self? As to this.31).This (Self) is unchangeable' (2. and na karayan.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Objection: If the embodied one does not do anything himself. Knowledge remains covered by ignorance.one's own (sva) nature (bhava)-characterized as ignorance. any objects-such objects as chariot.Swami Gambhirananda 235 . na srjati. or even karmani.15 The Omnipresent neither accepts anybody's sin nor even virtue. Thereby the creatures become deluded. and does not make others do. palace. kartrtvam. which will be spoken of in. 'Since this divine Maya' (7. Nature. does not create. pravartate. by saying 'Do this'. pot. then who is it that engages in work by doing and making others do? The answer is: Tu.14). But from the highest standpoint5. for anyone. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .14 Prabhuh. which are intensely longed for. the Self. but. association with the results of actionsassociation of the creator of a chariot etc. Maya.Swami Gambhirananda 5. lokasya. etc. with the result of his work. it is svabhavah. that acts. agentship. nor even karma-phalasamyogam.

that ignorance. as also sacrifices. by ignorance. remains avrtam. oblation.Swami Gambhirananda 5. of whom tat ajnanam. oblation. in the case of those creatures. ajnanena. sin. neither accetps. na ca eva. Why then are such virtuous acts as worship etc. kasyacit. thereby.16 Tu. etc. the creatures. Tena. charity. as also sacrifices. their Knowledge. reveals that supreme Reality. na adatte. offered by devotees? To this the Lord says: Jnanam. atmanah.5. of 236 . the non-discriminating people in the world. charity. muhyanti. I make others do.15 Vibhuh. worship etc. the Omnipresent.16 But in the case of those of whom that ignorance of theirs becomes destroyed by the knowledge (of the Self). but. I eat.' 5. anybody's-even a adevotee's. become deluded thus-'I do. covered. like the sun. yesam. etc. virtue offered by devotees. nor even. discriminating wisdom. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . knowledge. papam. jantavah. does He accept sukrtam. I make others eat.

the Reality which is the highest Goal.] in the supreme Knowledge which has been revealed. the totality of whatever is to be known. who have That (tat) supreme Brahman Itself as their Self (atma).Swami Gambhirananda 5. like the sun. tat-atmanah. those who have their intellect absorbed in That. that supreme Reality. reveals. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . nasitam. their. who are steadfast in That-nistha is intentness.17 Tat-buddhayah. tat-param. jnanam. prakasayati. whose Self is That. becomes destroyed. by discriminating knowledge concerning the Self. [Here Ast. their dirt having been removed by Knowledge.17 Those who have their intellect absorbed in That. tesam. jnanena. who are steadfast in That. exclusive 237 . in the same way as the sun reveals all forms whatever.-Tr. adityavat.theirs-being covered by which ignorance creatures get deluded-. knowledge. by knowledge. in that Brahman'. 5. tat-nisthah. whose Self is That. reads 'tasmin brahmani. who have That as their supreme Goal-they attain the state of non-returning.

and tat-parayanah. they are called tat-nisthah who become steadfast only in Brahman by renouncing all actions. who have That as their supreme (para) Goal (ayana). apunaravrttim. by Knowledge. the state of non-returning.18 The learned ones look with equanimity on a Brahmana endowed with learning and humality.devotion. those who have got their ignorance destroyed by Knowledge-those who are of this kind-. Those whose dirt (kalmasa). the defect in the form of sin etc. How do those learned ones. i. an elephant and even a dog as well as an eater of dog's meat. jnana-nirdhuta-kalmasah. who have That alone as their supreme Resort.e. destryed (nirdhuta).e. the monks.Swami Gambhirananda 238 . have been removed. who are devoted only to the Self. a cow. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . look upon Reality? That is being stated: 5. by the aforesaid Knowledge (jnana) are jnana-nirdhutakalmasah. i. whose ignorance regarding the Self has been destroyed by Knowledge. their dirt having been removed. which are the cause of transmigration. destroyed.. attain. they gacchanti. non-association again with a body.

and even. in a cow. vidya-vinayasampanne. ca eva. Sm. which are wholly and absolutely imbued with the quality of tamas-they are seers of equality. the learned ones. who is possessed of good tendencies and the quality of sattva. Objection: How? 239 . ca. absolutely untouched by the qualities of sattva etc. and by adoring equally one who is an equal. brahmane. same and one Brahman.. Objection: On the strength of the text. and vinaya means pridelessness-. to himself' (Gau. as well as.20). are not they sinful. on a dog. in a Brahmana. on an eater of dog's meat. sama-darsinah. on a cow. who is endowed with Knowledge and tranquillity. whose food should not be eaten? Reply: They are not open to the charge. 17. svapake. on a Brahmana. endowed with learning and humility-vidya means knowledge of the Self. suni. as also by the tendencies born of rajas and tamas. and the tendencies created by it. which is possessed of the middling quality of rajas and is not spiritually refined. look with equanimity. 'A sacrificer incurs sin by not adoring equally one who is an equal. hastini. Those learned ones who are habituated to see (equally) the unchanging.18 Panditah. on a Brahmana who has Self-knowledge and modesty.5. gavi. on an elephant. and in an elephant etc.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . rebirth. overcome. etc. free from defects. though It is supposed by fools to be affected by the defects of those (objects).e.19 Iha eva. since Consciousness is free from qualifications. Since Brahman is the same (in all) and free from defects. on sameness. even while living in the body. taih. is sargah. manah. therefore they are established in Brahman. established. are sthitam.5.19 Here [i. And the Lord will speak of desires etc. samye.) as the attributes of the aggregate of body and organs. because It is free from defects.. even while they are living. made steadfast.] itself is rebirth conquered by them whose minds are established on sameness. in Brahman that exists as the same in all beings. jitah. by them. Nor even is It differentiated by Its qualities.6 etc.Swami Gambhirananda 5. (cf. conquered. Because of Its existence in such mean objects as an eater of dog's meat. by the learned ones who see with equanimity. still It remains untouched by those blemishes. 13. hi. minds. yesam. It is nirdosam. and 240 . the internal organs. whose. here itself.

Thus. for that statement-'A sacrificer incurs sin by not adoring equally one who is an 241 . sthitah. quality. therefore. Besides. Nor even are there the ultimate distinctions which can create differentiation in the Self. etc. te. Therefore there is nothing else from which It can be distinguished. the Self is one and omnipresent. Sm. 'Being without beginning and without qualities' (13. not even a shade of defect touches them. in Brahman Itself. samam brahma. For they have no self-identification in the form of perceiving the aggregate of body etc. as the Self.20) refers to the man who has self-identification in the form of perceiving the aggregate of body.will also say. they.-Tr. [According to the Vaisesikas. This distinction makes every entity different from other entities. as the Self.] because there is nothing to prove that these ultimate distinctions exist in every body. On the other hand. 17. Vedanta denies such a category. which is a category like substance.31). Tasmat. are established. Hence. individual souls have their own ultimate distinctions by the very fact that they are individuals. everything is possessed of not only qualities but also of antya-visesa (ultimate distinction). brahmani. As a result. (organs) etc. action. Brahman is the same and one. that statement (Gau.

charity.' etc.an unequal. pointedly refers to persons who are the objects of adoration. therefore5. This being so. the determining factors are the possession of such special qualities as being 'a knower of Brahman'. etc.. It is indeed seen that in worship. and 'versed in the four Vedas'. has reference to men of action. who is established in Brahman. But Brahman is bereft of association with all qualities and defects.. should have his intellect steady and should not be deluded. beginning from 'The embodied man.having given up all actions mentally' (13) to the end of the chapter.. He should not get delighted by getting what is desirable. etc.equal.. [Those engaged in actions with a sense of agentship.] But this subject under consideration.-Tr. And 'adoring an equal. 'versed in the six auxiliary branches of Vedic learning'. 242 . . and by adoring equally one who is not equal to himself.20 A knower of Brahman. nor become dejected by getting what is undesirable. Since the Self is Brahman which is without blemish and is the same (in all). is concerning one who has given up all actions. it is logical that they are established in Brahman.

-Tr. brahmani in Brahman.who is not a performer of actions. and A. Na prahrsyet. not for the one who has realized the absolute Self. sources of happiness and sorrow'. and further. prapya.'s reading is 'horsa-visadau kurvate. he should not be deluded. he should not get delighted.A. cause happiness and sorrow' in place of 'harsa-visada-sthane. what is undesirable-because the acquisition of the desirable and the undesirable are causes of [Ast.20 Brahmavit. he should be free from delusion. should have his intellect steady-the man of steady intellect is one who has the unwavering. the one who is established in Brahman243 . who is established. priyam. i. what is desirable. and surely. na ca udvijet. one who has renounced all actions. as described. prapya. by getting. Further. sthitah. sthira-buddhih. firm conviction of the existence of the one and the same taintless Self in all beings.] happiness and sorrow for one who considers the body as the Self. since in his case there can be no acquisition of desirable and undesirable objects. by getting.Swami Gambhirananda 5. apriyam. a knower of Brahman. neither should he become dejected.e. Pr. which (latter) reading occurs in G1. asammudhah.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

in the Self. unattached. he gets the bliss that is in the Self.5. So. With his heart absorbed in meditation on Brahman.Swami Gambhirananda 5. with his heart. bahya-sparsah means those things which are external (bahya) and are objects of contact. atmani. which is.21 With his heart unattached to external objects. one whose internal organ (atma) is absorbed in (yukta). with his heart absorbed in meditation on Brahman-meditation (yoga) on Brahman is brahma-yoga. gets that sukham. viz sound etc. bahya-sparsesu. he vindati. engaged in. that person who thus has his heart unattached. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . he asnute. aksayam. Bliss. he acquires undecaying Bliss.. yat. he who cherishes undecaying happiness in the Self should withdraw the organs from the momentary 244 . acquires. sukham. Brahma-yoga-yuktaatma. who derives no happiness from objects. internal organ. that meditation on Brahman is brahma-yoga-yukta-atma. to external objectssparsah means objects that are contacted. bliss.21 Asakta-atma. undecaying.

verily. one should withdraw the organs from the objects which are comparable to a mirage. duhkha-yonayah. it is understood that. Adi (beginning) of enjoyments consists in the contact between objects 245 . because they are creations of ignorance. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . they also adi-antavantah.happiness in external objects. enjoyments. have a beginning and an end. This is the meaning. For this reason also one should withdraw: 5. bhogah. Realizing that there is not the least trace of happiness in the world. are eva. since. It is certainly a matter of experience that physical and other sorrows are created by that itself. the wise one does not delight in them. By the use of the word eva (verily). that result from contact with objects. that arise from contact between the objects and the organs. Not only are they sources of sorrow. (therefore) O son of Kunti.22 Hi. sources of sorrow. as it happens here in this world. so does it even in the other world.22 Since enjoyments that result from contact (with objects) are verily the sources of sorrow and have a beginning and an end. ye samsparsajah.Swami Gambhirananda 5.

indeed. is difficult to resist. is the loss of that contact.23 Yah saknoti. in them. here itself. This extremely painful evil. tesu. Hence. the discriminating person who has realized the Reality which is the supreme Goal. is able to. which is opposed to the path of Bliss and is the source of getting all miseries. sodhum. that man is a yogi. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . This is the meaning. sarira-vimoksanat. For delight in objects is seen only in very foolish beings. budhah. Death is put as a limit because the 246 . one who can. they have a beginning and an end. Therefore one must make the utmost effort to avoid it.Swami Gambhirananda 5. while alive. as for instance in animals etc.and senses. prak. (Therefore) O son of Kunti.23 One who can withstand here itself-before departing from the body-the impulse arising from desire and anger. does not delight. being present in the intervening moment. withstand. na ramate. 5. Hence the Lord says:. and their end (anta). iha eva. in enjoyments. the wise one. he is happy. before. they are impermanent. departing from the body. till death-.

bitting of lips. is yuktah. is that repulsion one has against what are adverse to oneself and are sources of sorrow. The impulse of anger has the signs of trembling of body.24 One who is happy within. The impulse arising from desire is a kind of mental agitation. that man. face. sah narah. and sukhi. What kind of a person. joyful eyes.impulse of desire and anger is certanily inevitable for a living person. is the hankering. being established in Brahman. That impulse (veda) which has those desire and anger as its source (udbhava) is kama-krodha-udbhava-vegah. And krodha. perspiration. attains Brahman? The Lord says: 5. that 247 . Kama. a yogi. and has the signs of horripilation. That is the idea. in this world. red eyes. with regard to a coveted object-of an earlier experience. He who is able to withstand that impulse arising from desire and anger. anger. One should not relax until his death. etc. whose pleasure is within. when they are seen. heard of or remembered. or is heard of or remembered. is happy. and which is a source of pleasure-when it comes within the range of the senses. etc. desire. For this impulse has got infinite sources. and who has his light only within. thirst.

attains. who are engaged in doing good to all beings. having become Brahman. attain absorption in Brahman. who is of this kind. yah. who are freed from doubt. adhigacchati. antar-jyotih eva. brahma-bhutah.24 Yah antah-sukhah. has pleasure within-he disports only in the Self within. that yogi. has the indwelling Self alone as his light. brahma-nirvanam. Besides. [He has not to depend on the organs like ear etc. and so also antar-aramah.Swami Gambhirananda 248 .Swami Gambhirananda 5. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .] sah yogi.25 The seers whose sins have been attenuated. has his light only within. in the indwelling Self. absorption in Brahman-gets Liberation. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 5. similarly. one who is happy within. whose organs are under control. even while he is still living. attains absorption in Brahman. for acquiring knowledge.yogi. having become Brahman.

And 249 .Swami Gambhirananda 5. who have control over their internal organ. ksina-kalmasah. who are free from desire and anger. chinna-dvaidhah. vidita-atmanam.e. Liberation. Liberation. kamakrodha-viyuktanam. defects like sin etc. who have known the Self. whether living or dead. brahma-nir-vanam. have been attenuated. yataatmanah.e. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . who are freed from doubt. the monks. ratah. whose organs are under control. labhante. yata-cetasam. either way. i.26 Yatinam.5. Further. to the monks. 5. absorption in Brahman. abhitah. who have known the Self. there is absorption in Brahman either way. the seers. who are engaged. sarvabhutahite. those who have full realization. whose sins.26 To the monks who have control over their internal organ. there is. attain. who have full realization. in doing good to all beings-favourably disposed towards all. brahma-nirvanam. i. vartate. Immediate Liberation of the monks who are steadfast in full realization has been stated. absorption in Brahman. who are free from desire and anger..25 Rsayah. harmless.

keeping.' the Lord gave instruction through some verses in the form of aphorisms: 5. leads to Liberation through the stages of purification of the heart. at every stage that Karma-yoga. to God. outside: To one who does not pay attention to the external objects like sound 250 . attainment of Knowledge.the Lord has said. mind and organs] to God. bahih. objects-sound etc. and will say. He who is ever is verily free. and making equal the outgoing and incoming breaths that move through the nostrils. with the idea. fear and anger. and renunciation of all actions.28 Keeping the external objects outside. mind and intellect should be fully intent on Liberation and free from desire. now. the eyes at the juncture of the eye-brows. 'I shall speak elaborately of the yoga of meditation which is the proximate discipline for full realization. sparsan. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the external.Swami Gambhirananda 5. bahyan. undertaken as a dedication to Brahman. the contemplative who has control over his organs.. Thereafter.27 Krtva. by surrendering all activities [The activities of body.27-5.

samau krtva. and (keeping) the caksuh. prana-apanau. bhruvoh. of the eye-brows (-the word 'keeping' has to be supplied-). as the great Lord of all the worlds. making equal. that move through the nostrils. fear and anger. ever remains thus. He has no other Liberation to seek after. free from desire. he. mind and intellect. at the juncture. the monk. verily free. sah.. and similarly. antare. who. Having kept them out in this way. who has control over his organs. ever. munih. sah. is muktah. The monk yah. fully intent on Liberation-keeping his body is such a posture.etc. the contemplative-derived (from the root man) in the sense of contemplating-. yata-indriyamano-buddhih. am the enjoyer of 251 . ever remains thus. the outgoing and the incoming breaths.29 One attains Peace by knowing Me who. is muktah yah.sada. eyes. the objects become verily kept outside. who. sada. the contemplative should have Liberation itself as the supreme Goal. brought to the intellect through the ear etc. nasa-abhyantara-carinau. What is there to be realized by one who has his mind thus concentrated? The answer this is beig stated: 5. He should be vigata-iccha-bhaya-krodhah. he. should be moksa-para-yanah..

Peace. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . complete cessation of transmigration. mam. jnatva. who am the Witness of all perceptions. 252 . by knowing. who. friend. santim.Swami Gambhirananda 5. sarva-bhutanam. great Lord of all the worlds. as the sarvaloka-mahesvaram. (and) who am the friend of all creatures. as the performer and the Deity of the sacrifices and austerities (respectively). (and) who am the suhrdam. yajnatapasam.sacrifices and austerities. of sacrifices and austerities. Me who am Narayana. of all creatureswho am the Benefactor of all without consideration of return. who am the dispenser of the results of all works. enjoyer (of the fruits). am the bhoktaram. who exist in the heart of all beings. one attains.29 Rcchati.

He who craves for the results of actions becomes dependent on the results of actions. (but) not (so in) he who does not keep a fire and is actionless.He who performs an action which is his duty.-on what?-on that which is karma-phalam. Whoever is a man of action of this kind is distinguished from the other men of action. the result of actioni. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . without depending on the result of action. without craving for the result of action-. But this person is the opposite of such a one. yah he who.) which is his karyam. 'wihtout depending on the result of action.Swami Gambhirananda 6. monk. he is a monk and a yogi. duty. the nityakarmas such as Agnihotra etc. (karma. means 253 . is a sannyasi. sah. which are opposed to the kamya-karmas-.1 Anasritah. Hence (it is said).1 The Blessed Lord said -. without depending on. an action. performs accomplishes. Having become so. karoti. he . Sanyyasa.Chapter 6 6.e. In order to express this idea the Lord says. and a yogi.

Akriyah. It is not to be understood that. Ahavaniya. charity. Smrtis and scriptures dealing with meditation? Why are monasticism and meditativeness spoken of here with regard to one who keeps a fire and is a man of action-which is not accepted as a fact? Reply: This defect does not arise. which are the accessories of rites. etc. Anvaharya-pacana. Yoga means concentration of mind. only that person who does not keep a fire (niragnih) and who is actionless (akriyah) is a monk and a yogi. Niragnih is one from whom the fires [viz Garhapatya. have bocome dissociated. and his being a man of meditation is from the fact of his doing actions as accesories to meditation or from 254 . is he who does not have even such kriyas. a monk. which are performed wityout fire.]. By kriya are mean austerity. He who has that is a yogi. because both are sought to be asserted in some secondary sense. etc. Objection: Is it not only with regard to one who does not keep a fire and is acitonless that monasticsm and meditativeness are well known in the Vedas. actionless. he who is possessed of this is a sannyasi. It is to be understood that this man is possessed of these qualities. And he is also a yogi. Objection: How is that? Reply: His being monk is by virtue of his having given up hankering for the results of actions.renunciation.

the answer is this. it is not that monasticism and meditativeness are meant in the primary sense. the knowers of the Vedas and the Smrtis. which is characterized by engagement (in actions). From the 255 .2 That which they call monasticism. With a veiw to pointing out this idea. On the contrary. O Pandava. Yoga. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . tam. monasticism. which is characterized by cessation from work. they. known.2 Yam. Thus both are used in a figurative sense. Accepting what kind of similarity between Karma-yoga. and its opposite. call. which prahuh. that monasticism in the real sense. know that to be Yoa.Swami Gambhirananda 6. For. in the real sense. the Lord says: 6. renunciation in the real sense. nobody who has not given up expectations can be a yogi. sannyasam iti. O Pandava. consisting in the performance of actions. to be yogam. viddhi. that which is characterized by the giving up of all actions and their results.his rejection of thoughts for the results of actions which cause disturbances in the mind. has their equation been stated? When such an apprehension arises.

because thought of results is the cause of the disturbance of mind. kascit. even while performing actions. there does exist a simialrity of Karma-yoga with real renunciation. Karma-yoga is extolled as monasticism in. yogi. for. of results. For he who is a monk in the real sense.e. a yogi. This is the purport. no man of action whosoever. nobody. gives up the thought for results. becomes. Thus.point of view of the agent. any man of action who gives up the thought of results would become a yogi. Therefore. the Lord says: Hi.19)] also. because of the similarity of real monasticism with Karmayoga from the point of veiw of giving up by the agent. from the very fact of his having given up all the means needed for accomplishing actions. which in turn leads to actions for getting it. can become. 256 . gives up the thought of all actions and their results-the source of desire that leads to engagement in work. Pointing out this idea. [Thoughts about an object lead to the desire for it. who has not given up expactaions-one by whom has not been renounced expectation. i.bhavati. a man of concentration with an unperturbed mind. anticipation. because of his having given up thought of results which is the cause of mental distractions. a man of concentration. (Also see note under 4. asannyastasankalpah.

Tasya. to (Dhyana-) yoga.-trying to ascend to what?yogam.Swami Gambhirananda 6. know that to be Yoga.' Since Karma-yoga. i. for one who has renounced the results of actions.e. is said to be. which is independent of results.3 For the sage who wishes to ascend to (Dhyana-) yoga. inaction alone is said to be the means. for that person. i. means. therefore it has been praised as monasticism. for the sage.e. the karanam. karanam. when he has ascended to (Dhyana-) yoga. O Pandava. samah.-for which person who is desirous to ascend?-munch. is said to be. who has not ascended. the means for remaining 257 .'That which they call monasticism. action is said to be the means. again. Thereafter. for one who wishes to ascend. is the remote help to Dhyana-yoga. ucyate. karma. alone. yoga-arudhasya. now the Lord shows how Karma-yoga is helpful to Dhyana-yoga: 6. eva. when he has ascended to (Dhyana-)yoga. for that very person who is unable to remain established in Dhyana-yoga. inaction. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . withdrawl from all actions. action.3 Aruruksoh. For that person. ucyate.

This is the meaning. And accordingly has it been said by Vyasa: 'For a Brahmana there is no wealth conparable to (the knowledge of) oneness. After that. straightforwardness and withdrawal from various actions' (Mbh. truthfulness. [Verily: This word emphasizes the fact that.37). since attachment to sense objects like sound etc. sameness. a yogi who is concentrating his mind. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . therefore the removal of that obstruction is the means to its attainment. now is being stated when one becomes established in Yoga: 6. verily.] when a man who has given up thought about everything does not get attached to sense-objects or acitons. 175. 258 . character.4 Hi. he at once becomes established in Yoga. he is then said to be established in Yoga. To the extent that one withdraws from actions. Sa. yada. the mind of that man who is at cease and self-controlled becomes concentrated. When this occurs. when.4 Verily. harmlessness. sarva-sankalpa-sannyasi.Swami Gambhirananda 6. equipoise. and to actions is an obstacle in the path of Yoga.poised in the state of meditation.

2. and also such Smrti texts as. does not hold the idea that they have to be done by him. it works out' (Br. 'O Desire. na anusajjate. and karmasu. Sm. it resolves. This agrees with such Upanisadic texts as. '(This self is identified with desire alone. for things here and hereafter. with regard to actions-nitya. he is said to have attained to Yoga. I know your source. And when one gives up all desires. 'one who has given up thought about eveything'.. I shall not think of you. ucyate. what it resolves. From the expression. This accords with such Smrti texts as: 'Verily.5). 259 .e. he is said to be. it follows that one has to renounce all desires and all actions. 177. i. So you will not arise in me' (Mbh. with regard to sense-objects like sound etc. Sa.who has given up thought about everything-who is apt to give up (sannyasa) all (sarva) thoughts (sankalpa) which are the causes of desire. renunciation of all actions becomes accomplished. does not become attached.e. 'Whatever actions a man does. naimittika. then.3).4. 4. Sacrifices arise from thoughts' (Ma. established in Yoga. indriya-arthesu. tada. kamya and nisiddha (prohibited) because of the absence of the idea of their utility. at that time. i. desire has thought as its source. for all desires have thoughts as their source.25).) What it desires. You surely spring from thought. yoga-arudhah.

he being the 260 . oneself sunk in the sea of the world. no one can even move a little. oneself is verily. So. 2. It accords with reason also. For oneself is verily one's onw friend. atmana. i. atmanam. oneself. oneself is verily one's own enemy. by the expression. In fact. by oneself. 6. Hence. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Centainly there is no other friend who can bring about liberation from this world. Na avasadayet. atmanah one's own. even a friend is an obstacle to Liberation. one should not lower oneself. When one is thus established in Yoga. for. Sm. debase. one should save. should uplift (oneself) from that.5 Uddharet. one should not lower.4).5 One should save oneself by oneself. atma eva. make it attain the state of being established in Yoga. ut-haret. the Lord makes one renounced all desires and all actions. one should save. bandhuh. 'one who has given up thought about everything'. Hi.e. when all thoughts are renounced. atmanam. then by that very fact one's self becomes uplifted by oneself from the worldly state which is replete with evils.all that is the effect of desire itself' (Ma. friend. For.Swami Gambhirananda 6.

even he is of one's own making! Therefore the firm conclusion. his eva atma. very self. that atma.Swami Gambhirananda 6.source of such bondages as love etc. for one who has not conquered his self.-Tr.] of what kind is one's own friend. the aggregate of body and organs.6 Of him. oneself verily is one's own enemy. atma. by whom has been conquered his very self by the self. jitah. Atma eva. is bandhuh. Tu. 261 . oneself verily. his self itself acts inimically like an enemy. his self is the friend of his self. or (the self) of what kind is one's own enemy? This is being answered: 6. but. (the self) [Ast. has been conquered. But. subdued. Therefore the emphatic statement. of him. by whom. yena. 'oneself verily is one's own enemy's is reasonable. enemy.' As to that. of his self. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . one's own: ripuh. Anyone else who is an external harmful enemy. is atmanah. self. atmanah. the friend.6 Tasya. has this additional word. self. is justifiable. 'For one is one's own friend. It has been said that 'oneself is verily one's own friend. The idea is that he is a conqueror of his senses.

anatmanah. jita-atmanah. like an enemy. as also honour and dishonour. inimically. similarly one's self behaves like an enemy to oneself. samahitah. As an enemy.7 The supreme Self of one who has control over the aggregate of his body and organs. 262 . and who is tranquil. they oppose this concentration. does harm to oneself. the supreme Self. his self itself.] in the midst of cold and heat. if they are not under control.Swami Gambhirananda 6. becomes manifest. varteta. [If the body and organs are under control. they are helpful in concentrating one's mind on the Self.7 Parama-atma. who is different from oneself. with the attitude of an enemy.] 6. of one who has control over the aggregate of his body and organs. (He should be equipoised) [These words are supplied to complete the sentence. atma eva. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . satrutve. prasantasya. acts. who is a monk with his internal organ placid. but. satruvat. happiness and sorrow. This is the meaning. who has no self-control. for one who has not conquered his self. who is tranquil.

who has his organs under control. who has his organs under control. adoration and despise. but vijnana is making those things known from the scriptures a subject of one's own realization just as they have been presented.e.Swami Gambhirananda 6. who is unmoved.8 One whose mind is satisfied with knowledge and realization. tatha. he whose mind (atma) has become contented (trpta) with those jnana and vijnana is jnana-vijnana-trptaatma-. is sadi to be Self-absorbed.. 6. and vijita-indriyah. whose mind is satisfied with knowledge and realization-jnana is thorough knowledge of things presented by the scriptures. 263 . manaapamanayoh in honour and dishonour. (he should be equipoised) sita-usna-sukha-duhkhesu. in the midst of cold and heat. a stone and gold. kutasthah.he who is of this kind. jnana-vijnana-trpta-atma.e. Moreover. becomes directly manifest as his own Self. i. i. as also. happiness and sorrow.becomes manifest. who is unmoved. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . who becomes unshakable.8 A yogi. The yogi treats equally a lump of earth.

is said to be. a neutral. a foe [Ari (foe) is one who does harm behind one's back. dvesyah. an arbiter.9 He excels who has sameness of view with regard to a benefactor. whose mind is not engaged with the question of who one is and what he does. madhyasthah.]. i. 6. is a single compound word. Further. one who is affectionate.] a relative. a friend. i. who is a well-wisher of two conflicting parties. mitram. the hateful.Swami Gambhirananda 6. a friend. bandhuh. who has sameness of view. he becomes free). a 264 .e.e. with regard to a suhrd. the hateful. a stone and gold. who is repulsive to oneself. Visisyate. benefactor-one who does some good without consideration of return. [Dvesyah is one who openly hateful. Self-absorbed.9 The first line of the verse beginning with 'benefactor. who sides with nobody. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . yuktah. treats equally a lump of earth.' etc. That yogi sama-losta-asma-kancanah. arih.ucyate. a neutral. good people and even sinners. samabuddhih. udasinah. a foe. an arbiter. he is the best among all those who are established in Yoga-(a different reading is vimucyate. he excels.

rahasi. his mind. 'in a solitary place' and 'alone'.. by staying. it follows that (he has to undertake all these) after espousing monasticism.10 A yogi. who perform prohibited actions-with regard to all of them. This is the meaning. in a solitary place.10 A yogi should constantly concentrate his mind by staying in a solitary place. api ca. free from hankering. sthitah.to all these as also sadhusu. he should concentrate his mind by desisting from all acquisition.relative. Now then have to be stated the rules 265 . (and) free from acquisition. ekaki. From the uise of the qualifying words. yata-citta-atma. papesu. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . with regard to good people. without any companion. and aparigrahah. should constantly concentrate. Therefore. with mind and body controlled. with mind and body controlled. atmanam. and even. satatam yunjita. free from expectations. free from acquisition. without expectations.Swami Gambhirananda 6. to acquire this excellent result6. And even after renunciation. nirasih. alone. sinners. who follow the scriptures.. alone. in mountain caves etc. a man of meditation.

the seat is being first spoken of: 6. etc. in a clean. and the consequent result etc. having established. sucau.12 Pratisthapya. Hence this is begun. as disciplines for yoga in the case of one practising concentration.12 (and) sitting on that seat. Among these. neither too high nor too low.Swami Gambhirananda 6. making the mind one-pointed and keeping the actions of the mind and senses under control.12 6.regarding seat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .11 See Commentary under 6. and made of cloth. as also the signs of one who has succeeded in Yoga. placed successively one below the other.11 Having firmly established in a clean place his seat. he should concentrate his mind for the purification of the internal organ. dese. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . firmly.Swami Gambhirananda 6. movements. food. place. sthiram. skin and kusa-grass. which is 266 .

yogam yunjyat. ekagram. and yata-citta-indriya-kriyah. na ati nicam. seat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . one-pointed. on that. na ati ucchritam. How? Krtva.solitary. for the purification of the internal organ. and that made of caila-ajina-kusa-uttram. and kusa-grass. keeping the actions (kriyah) of the mind (citta) and senses (indriya) under control (yata). tatra. he should concentrate his mind. the mind. neither too high.Swami Gambhirananda 267 . nor even too low.13 Holding the body. asanam. The external seat has been spoken of. Now is being stated how the posture of the body should be: 6. asane. making. either naturally or through improvement.by withdrawing it from all objects. To what purpose should he concentrate his mind? In answer the Lord says: atma-visuddhaye. manah. looking at the tip of his own nose-and not looking around. here is in a reverse order to that of the textual reading-. seat. skin. cloth. atmanah. sitting. What follows after thus establishing the seat? Upavisya. placed successively one below the other-the successive arrangement of cloth etc. being steady. his own. head and neck erect and still.

around. still-movement is possible for one (even while) holding these erect. samam. sthirah.6. being steady. the body (torso). the vow of a celibate. kaya-siro-girvam. and. erect. i.13 See Commentary under 6. [What is sought to 268 . therefore it is specified. ca. The words 'as it were' are to be understood because what is intended here is not an injunction for looking at the tip of one's own nose! What then? It is the fixing the gaze of the eyes by withdrawing it from external objects. holding. disah. seated with a placid mind. and acalam. not glancing now and then in various directions-. sampreksya. 'still'-. and that is enjoined with a veiw to concentrating the mind. firm in with the mind fixed through concentration. remaining steady. Goal. not looking.14 6.e.14 Dharayan. head and neck. looking svam nasikagram. at tip of his own nose -looking at it intently.Swami Gambhirananda 6. i. anavalokayan.e. as it were. and on Me by controlling it having Me as the supreme English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .14 He should remain free from fear.

with Me as the supreme Goal. in the vow of a celibate. with the mind fixed on Me who am the supreme God. asita. but he does not accept the woman as his supreme Goal. vigata-bhih. it is merely the withdrawl of the gaze that is implied by sampreksya (looking). What then? He accepts the king or Sive as his 269 . free from fear sthitah. 'Making the mind fixed in the Self' (25). by becoming concentrated. then it will result in interrupting that concentration. through concentration. the mind. manah. matparah. owing to the missing word iva (as it were). eating food got by beggin. Further. then the mind would remain fixed there itself. brahmacari-vrate. he should remain seated. besides. If the gaze be directed outward.e. i.e.be presented here as the primary objective is the concentration of mind.] If the intention were merely the looking at the tip of the nose. mat-cittah. by stopping the modifications of the mind. etc. not on the Self! In. firm. Therefore the purpose is to first fix the gaze of the eyes within. Some passionate person may have his mind on a woman. samyamya. Therefore. with a placid mind. by controlling. he should follow these. yuktah. the Lord will speak of concentrating the mind verily on the Self. the vow cosisting in serivce of the teacher. with a mind completely at peace.e. i.-firm in that. i. prasantatma.

the Peace.15 Concentrating the mind thus for ever. concentrating. nirvana-paramam. according to the methods shown above. thus. the mind.Swami Gambhirananda 6.16 But. niyata-manasah. sada. the yogi of controlled mind achieves the Peace which culminates in Liberation and which abides in Me. adhi-gacchati. O Arjuna. evam. for ever.15 Yunjan. After that. which abides in Me. and mat-samstham. nor surely for one who keeps awake. achieves. the yogi. neither for one who habitually sleeps too long. now is being stated the result of Yoga: 6. of controlled mind. atmanam. nor for one who does not eat at all. which culminates in Liberation. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .goal. santim.: 6. But this one (the yogi) not only has his mind on Me but has Me as his Goal. Now are bieng mentioned the rules about the yogi's food etc. 270 . Yoga is not for one who eats too much. the indifference to worldly attachments and possessions.

na ca. is not. it harms him. Yoga is not for ati svapna-silasya. for one who keeps awake too long. for one who eats food more than his capacity. ekantam. surely not.Swami Gambhirananda 6. This accords with the Vedic text. atiasnatah. anasnatah. nor is Yoga. 'One half of the stomach is to be filled with food including curries.7. the third quarter is to be filled with water. that which is less.16 (Tu. then it sustains him. but the fourth quarter is to be left for the movement of air. if one eats that much food which is within one's capacity. Br. a yogi should not eat food more or less than what is suitable for him. Yoga na asti. Similarly. at all. and Yoga is na eva. 2. but) O Arjuna. Indeed. jagratah. for one who does not eat. it does not sustain him' (Sa. it does not hurt him. again. for one who eats too much. one who habitually sleeps too long. Therefore..English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Bo. does Yoga become possibel? This is being stated: 271 . Or the meaning is that Yoga is not for one who eats more food than what is prescribed for a yogi in the scriptures on Yoga. How.22). the quantity has been mentioned in. Sm. that which is more. 'As is well known.' etc.

and whose sleep and wakefulness are temperate.17 Yogah bhavati. includes mental 'food as well.26. and also yukta-cestasya. Yoga destroys all worldly sorrows.2.] and vihara means moving about. Yoga becomes.17 Yoga becomes a destroyer of sorrow of one whose eating and movements are regulated. yukta-svapna-avabodhasya. of one whose effort (cesta) is moderate (yukta). English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . walking.e. which also means food. one for whom these two are regulated (yukta) is yuktaahara-vihara-.-Tr.ahara (lit. i. similarly. whose effort in works is moderate. food) means all that is gathered in. a destroyer of sorrow-that which destroys (hanti) all sorrows (duhkhani)-.Swami Gambhirananda 6. ahara. of one whose eating and movements are regulated.. duhkha-ha. 7. yukta-ahara-viharasya. See Ch.6. To him whose eating and movements are 272 . [According to the Commentator. karmasu. of one whose sleep (svapna) and wakefulness (avabodha) are temperate (yukta). in works. have regulated periods.

e. yada. ucyate. cittam. rests. in the non-dual Self alone. for all desirable objects. he gets established in his own Self. i. whose effort in work is moderate. said to be.Swami Gambhirananda 6. who has become free from hankering. Self-absorbed. then. When does a man become concentrated? That is being presently stated: 6. thirst. Yoga becomes a destroyer of sorrows. the viniyatam.regulated. controlled. atmani eva.18 A man who has become free from hankering for all desirable objects is then said to be Selfabsorbed when the controlled mind rests in the Self alone. avatisthate. sarva-kamebhyah. the mind that has been made fully one-pointed by giving up thought of external objects. An illustration in being given for the mind of that yogi which has become Self-absorbed: 273 . when. yuktah. mind. whose sleep and wakefulness are temperate. seen and unseen. is tada.18 A yogi. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . nihsprhah.

-Tr. By dint of practising Yoga thus.G.].19 As a lamp kept in a windless place does not flicker. then6. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .20 At the time when the mind restrained through the practice of Yoga gets withdrawn. becomes concentrated. yata-citasya. i. a dipah. for the yogi. kept in a windless place. such is the simile thought of for the yogi whose mind is under control. smrta. and just when by seeing the Self by the self one remains contented in the Self alone [A. nivata-sthah. who is practising Self-absorption. on the Self. as. who is engaged in. whose mind is under control. atmanah. when the mind. comparable to a lamp in a windless place. yoginah. does not flicker. thought of. na ingate. by the knowers of Yoga who understand the movements of the mind. and who is engaged in concentration on the Self. 274 .6.19 Yatha. concentration.e. yogam. sa upama. lamp. such is the simile-that with which something is compared is an upama (smile)-. and yunjatah.Swami Gambhirananda 6. construes the word eva (certainly) with tusyati (remains contented).

just when. by experiencing. 210. gets withdrawn. the mind. by the self. uparamate.] Besides. entirely prevented from wandering. the Self. Vol. atmana. niruddham. which by nature is the supreme light of Consciousness. and. restrained.20 state in a general way the characteristics of samadhi.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . atmanam. blisss and unqualified egoism. From the present verse to the 25th. tusyati. by the mind purified by concentration. 275 . [Samadhi is of two kinds. cittam. Asamprajnata-samadhi is introduced and defined. I.G. yatra eva. W. 212. at the time when. by seeing. at the very moment when.Swami Gambhirananda 6. The concentration called right knowledge (Samprajnata) is that which is followed by reasoning. C. in which the citta retains only the unmanifested impressions.. gets delighted.-Cf. pasyan. through the practice of Yoga. According to A. atmani eva. in one's own Self alone-. pp. Asamprajnata is that which is attained by the constant practice of cessation of all mental activity. discrimination. ca. one remains contented.20 Yatra. 1962. Samprajnata and Asamprajnata. yogasevaya.Tr. the verses upto 6.

surely. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . does not swerve. tat. intuited by the intellect alone. 6. and being established (thus) this person surely does not swerve from Reality.e. the illumined one. and being established in which one is not perturbed even by great sorrow. without the help of the senses. that. i. not objective. eva. infinite. na calati.e. can be intuited by the intellect. does not deviate from the nature of Reality-. buddhi-grahyam. one experiences. and which is atindriyam.6. Bliss.Swami Gambhirananda 6. when.e.22 Obtaining which one does not think of any other acquisition to be superior to that. i. sukham. 276 . (-when one experieneces this kind of Bliss) and sthitah. from that Reality-i. absolute-which is verily limitless.21 Yatra. at the time when. being established in the nature of the Self. ayam. beyond the senses. Further. this person. which. tattvatah.21 When one experienece that absolute Blisss which can be intuited by the intellect and which is beyond the senses. atyantikam. vetti. yat.

any other. acquisition.23 One should know that severance of contact with sorrow to be what is called Yoga.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . to be verily yoga-sanjnitam. by great. and also. sthitah. na manyate.Swami Gambhirananda 6.22 Labdhva. yasmin. one does not think. tat. yam. in which Reality of the Self. as may be caused by being struck with weapons. one should know.' (20) etc. The yoga that has been spoken of as a particular state of the Self. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . duhkhena.23 Vidyat.6. oen should 277 . what is called Yoga-i. one is not perturbed.Swami Gambhirananda 6. na vicalyate.-. even. that there is aparam. severance (viyoga) of contact (samyoga) with sorrow (duhkha). etc. That Yoga has to be practised with perservance and with an undepressed heart. superior to that. labham. tatah adhikam. distinguished by its characterisics in the verses beginning with 'At the time when the mind gets withdrawn. api. which-by acquiring which Self-attainment.e. guruna.being established. sorrow. duhkhasamyoga-viyogam. obtaining. that.

Again. niscayena. one should not think of anything whatsoever. and anirvinnacetasa. Yoga. 278 .24 By totally eschewing all desires which arise from thoughts.know it through a negative definition. that. has to be practised. That which is not (a) depressed (nirvinnam) is anirvinnam.Swami Gambhirananda 6. and restraining with the mind itself all the organs from every side. with perservance. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Making the mind fixed in the Self.25 One should gradually withdraw with the intellect endowed with steadiness. This is the meaning.24 See Commentary under 6. What is that? The heart. with an undepressed heart. yogah. the need for pursuing Yoga is again being spoken of in another way in order to enjoin 'preservance' and 'freedom from depression' as the disciplines for Yoga: Sah. After concluding the topic of the result of Yoga.25 6. 6. which has the results as stated above. yoktavyah. (One has to practise Yoga) with that heart which is free from depression.

indriya-gramam. from every side. by restraining it from all those causes whatever due to which the restless. totally. desires. one should withdraw. one should not think of. sanaih sanaih. uparamet. 'The Self alone is all. fixed in the Self. Krtva. sankalpa-prabhavan. with the mind itself. there is nothing apart from It'-thus fixing the mind on the Self. which arise from thoughts. kincit api.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .-with what?-buddhya. endowed with steadiness. i.Swami Gambhirananda 6. unsteady mind wanders away. 6. na cintayet. restraining. anything whatsoever. with the idea. making manah. the mind. with the intellect.25 Tyaktva.possessed of what distinction?-dhrti-grhitaya. and further. viniyamya. atma-samstham. Thisis the highest instruction about Yoga. 279 . with the mind endued with discrimination. gradually. sarvan. manasa eva.e. with fortitude. the kamam. samantatah. by eschewing. abstain. not suddenly. all the organs.26 (The yogi) should bring (this mind) under the subjugation of the Self Itself. without a trace. all. asesatah.

Thus.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . who has become identified with Brahman.27 Supreme Bliss comes to this yogi alone whose mind has become perfectly tranquil. 280 . 6. should bring this (mind) under the subjugation. by restraining. mind.. goes out due to its inherent defects. etat vasamnayet. etat. whose (quality of) rajas has been eliminated. from all those causes whatever. unsteady. and is taintless. yatah yatah. niyamya. wanders away.26 In the beginning. due to which. of the Self Itself. and therefore asthiram. atmani eva. the yogi who is thus engaged in making the mind established in the Self. (It should be restrained) by ascertaining through discrimination those causes to be mere appearances. niscarati. tatah tatah. very restless. restless. doe to whatever objects like sound etc. it.. the cancalam. manah. the mind of the yogi merges in the Self Itself.Swami Gambhirananda 6. through the power of practice of Yoga. viz sound etc. and with an attitude of detachment.

['The five klesas. and clinging to life' (P. and akalmasam.27 Uttamam. painbearing obstructions.Swami Gambhirananda 6.28 By concentrating his mind constantly thus. Blisss.Y.Su. who has got the certitude that Bramhman is all.Swami Gambhirananda 281 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . to this yogi alone. supreme. whose mind has become perfectly tranquil. 6. brahmabhutam. who has become identified with Brahman. who is free even while living. santa-rejasam. viz defects such as delusion etc. attachment. prasanta-manasam. free from vice etc.2.e. egoism. sukham. unsurpassable. hi enam yoginam. whose (quality of) rajas has been eliminated.] have been destroyed.3). aversion. the taintless yogi easily attains the absolute Bliss of contact with Brahman. who is taintless. i. comes. upaiti. are: ignorance. whose rajas.

in the process stated.Swami Gambhirananda 282 .] with the supreme Brahman. and attainment of unsurpassable Bliss. sukhena. [Liberation is conceived of in two ways-total cessation of sorrows. of brahmasamsparsam. contact with Brahman-the Bliss that is in touch [In touch with. Bliss. sinless yogi. homogeneous with. easily. asnute. in essential oneness with. by constantly concentrating. thus.e. free from the obstacles to Yoga. vigata-kalmasah. Now is being shown that result of Yoga which is the realization of identity with Brahman and which is the cause of the extinction of the whole mundane existence . his mind. i. supreme. atayantam. attains.29 One who has his mind Self-absorbed through Yoga. evam. unsurpassable.6. and every-thing in his Self. atmanam. the taintles. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sukham. see this Self existing in everything.] 6. identified with. and who has the vision of sameness everywhere. absolute-that which exists by transcending limits-.28 Sada yunjan.

one who has his mind Selfabsorbed through Yoga. mayi. unified atmani. all things.6. sarva-bhuta-stham. in all things. in his Self. beginning from Brahma. one who.of his vision-of 283 . and. The fruit of this realization of the unity of the Self is being stated: 6. all created things. ca.-aham. the Self. and sees all things in Me-I do not out of his vision. who am the Self of all. in Me who am the Self of all. who has the vision of sameness everywhere-who has the vision (darsana) of sameness (sama-tva).30 Yah. na pranasyami. Me. sarvatra. existing in everything. Vasudeva. everything from Brahma to a clump of grass. mam. sees. atmanam. in all divergent objects beginning from Brahma to immovable things. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the knowledge of identity of the Self and Brahman everywhere (sarvatra) without exception. sees. tasya. do not go out.30 One who sees Me in everything. iksate. pasyati. his own Self. and sarva-bhutani.29 Yoga-yukta-atma. whose mind is merged in samadhi. and sarvatra-sama-darsanah.Swami Gambhirananda 6. sees sarvam. and he also is not lost to My vision. I who am God.

and he also. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .one who has thus realized the unity of the Self. after reiterating (in the first line of the present verse) the idea of full realization contained in the previous verse. because of the indentity between him and Me.Swami Gambhirananda 6. for that which is called one's own Self is surely dear to one. being established in unity. sarvatha api. i. is being spoken of (in the second line): The yogi. in whatever condition. to Vasudeva.31 That yogi who. and since it is I alone who am the seer of the unity of the Self in all. He is verily ever-free. he may be. the result of that (realization). The idea is that he is not obstructed from Liberation by anything.31 This being so. exists. vartamanah. ca sah. viz Liberation. That man of realization does not get lost to Me. he exist in Mein whatever condition he may be. is not lost.e. 284 . Furthermore. 6. in the supreme state of Visnu. to My vision. vartate. adores Me as existing in all things. in Me. me. na pranasyati. the man of full realization. mayi.

whatever. that yogi is considered the best who judges what is happiness and sorrow in all beings by the same standard as he would apply to himself. Va. by the same standard as he would apply to himself.32 O Arjuna. oneself. is dear to me.e. In this way. i. sarvatra.6. judges. samam. so also is happiness agreeable to all creatures. by the same standard. sorrow is unfavourable. He who is thus non-injurious and steadfast in full 285 . he who.Swami Gambhirananda 6. And what does he view with sameness? That is being stated: As sukham. He does not act against anyone. so also is sorrow unwelcome and unfavourable to all creatures. and-the word va is (used) in the sense of and. just as yadi. atmaaupamyena. in all beings. The abstract from of that is aupamya. yah. Atma-aupamya means a standard as would be applicable to oneself.32 Atma-aupamyena: Atma means the self. pasyati. happiness. O Arjuna. That by which a comparison is made is an upama. he looks upon happiness and sorrow as pleasant and unpleasant to all bengs. unwelcome to me. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . in the same manner. as he would apply to himself-. he is non-injurious. duhkham. That is .

33 O Madhusudana. 6. cancalatvat. tvaya.33 Arjuna said -. Noticing that his Yoga-as spoken of and consisting in full Illumination. by You. strong and obstinate. that has been spoken of. owing to the restlessness (of the mind). which is well known. owing to the unsteadiness of the mind. Arjuna. yah proktah. that yogi. paramah matah.-what?-etasya. yogah. sah. sthiram. as sameness. steady.is hard to acquire. I cannot conceive. 286 .O Madhusudana (Krsna). na pasyami.Illumination. said: 6. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . samyena. I consider its control to be as greatly difficult as of the wind.34 For. the mind is unsteady. I do not see its steady continuance. its. O Krsna. Yoga. is considered as the best among all the yogis. with a view to hearing the sure means to its attainment. sthitim. I do not see. ayam. this.Swami Gambhirananda 6. continuance. this Yoga that has been spoken of by You as sameness. turbulent. undisturbed.

O mighty-armed one. This is the idea. He is Krsna because He uproots the defects such as sin etc. it is drdham. of devotees-. Aham. for. O Krsna-the word krsna is derived from the root krs [Another derivative meaning may be-'the capacity to draw towards Himself all glorious things of this and the other world'. restraint. tasya. nigrahah. obstinate.].Swami Gambhirananda 6. strong. agitates. It brings them under extraneous control. in the sense of 'uprooting'. manye. the body and the organs. manah.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 'This is just as you say. control. undoubtedly the mind is untractable and restless. the mind. 287 . itsof the mind which is of this kind. unsteady.34 Hi. Again. I.' 6. to be (suduskaram. Besides. Control of the wind is difficult. turbulent. as of the wind. It torments. not amenable ot anybody's restraint. I consider the control of the mind to be even more difficult than that. hard as the (large shark called) Tantu-naga (also known as Varjuna-pasa). is cancalam. Not only is it very unsteady. consider.35 The Blessed Lord said -. it is also pramathi. greatly difficult. it is balavat.) vayoh iva.

36 My conviction is that Yoga is difficult to be attained by one of uncontrolled mind.Swami Gambhirananda 6. But it is 288 . mind. is durnigraham. however. asamsayam. through practice.abhyasa means repetition of some idea or thought of the mind one some mental plane ['Some mental plane' suggests some object of concentration.35 Mahabaho. completely subdued. undoubtedly-there is no doubt with regard to this. through detachment-vairagya means absence of hankering for enjoyment of desirable things. By him. untractable. restless. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and calm. Tu. i. That mind is thus brought undr control. who has not controlled his mind6. O mighty-armed one. as a result of the practice of discerning their defect.]-.But. but.e. is brought under control. it-the modifications of the mind in the form of distractions-grhyate. restrained. it is brought under control through practice and detachment. abhyasena. that the manah. and vairagyena. seen or unseen. O son of Kunti.

by accepting the practice of Yoga. actions leading to the attainment of this or the next world may be renounced by a yogi. My. at the time of death his mind may waver from the path of Yoga. by him whose mind has been brought under control through practice and detachment. is iti. to be attained. Apprehending that he may be thereby ruined. who repeatedly makes effort. i. sakyah. by one of controlled mind. Yoga is dusprapah. by practice and detachment. and yet he may not attain the result of perfection in Yoga. that. upayatah. asamyataatmana. difficult to be attained. Tu.36 Me. which is the means to Liberation. by one who strives.e. As to that. by one of uncontrolled mind. the internal organ.possible to be attained through the (above) means by one who strives and has a controlled mind. but. and vasyatmany. yatata. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Consequently. by one who has not controlled his mind. avaptum. Yoga is possible. matih. conviction. through the means described above. 289 .Swami Gambhirananda 6. full Illumination. on the other hand.

from Yoga. deluded on the path to Brahman. what goal does one attain who. gacchati. full Illumination. perfection in Yoga.6. does he not get ruined like a scattered cloud? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and. failing to achieve. too. not diligent. calita-manasah. devoid of effort on the path of Yoga. though possessed of faith. who. is not diligent and whose mind becomes deflected from Yoga? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 6. though upetah sraddhaya.37 O krsna. kam gatim. belief in God and in the other world. what goal. at the time of death. is ayatih. failing to achieve perfection in Yoga.) whose memory has been lost? 6. i.38 O Mighty-armed one.Swami Gambhirananda 290 . whose mind becomes deflected. possessed of faith. yogat. without support.O krsna.e.37 Arjuna said -. (i. yogasam-siddhim.e. the result of Yoga. fallen from both. does one attain. aprapya.

none other than Yourself can be the dispeller of this doubt! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . totally. kaccit na. me. O Mighty-armed one. samsayam. brahmanah pathi. none other than You. asesatah. on the path leading to Brahman. does he not. can be. of mine.40 The Blessed Lord said -.Swami Gambhirananda 6. on the path of Brahman. get ruined. iva. For.39 O Krsna. samsayasya. the destroyer. without support. this. Hi. no 291 . arhasi. nasyati. a chinna-abhram. fallen from both. This is the meaning. upapadyate. You should. etat. na tvad anyah. the despeller. doubt.O Partha. remove. deluded-having become deluded. like.38 Mahabaho. chetta. be he a sage or a god. doubt.39 O krsna. of this. having fallen from the Path of Action and the Path of Yoga.6. for. scattered cloud? Or is it that he does not? 6. there is certainly no ruin for him here or hereafter. You should totally eradicate this doubt of mine. For. ubhayavibhrastah. 6. Therefore you Yourself should dispel (the doubt). apratisthah. eradicate. chettum. vimudhah. asya.

there is certainly. and residing there for eternal years. for him. durgatim. 292 .41 Attaining the worlds of the righteous. My son! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . na vinasah. the man fallen from Yoga is born in the house of the pious and the properous. in this world. that is not there for one who has fallen from Yoga. no one. meets with. tasya.Swami Gambhirananda 6. Hi. engaged in good. tata. therefore the son also is called tata. My son! A father is called tata because he perpetuates himself (tanoti) through the son. Since the father himself becomes the son.] But what happens to him? 6. [Sri krsna addressed Arjuna thus because the latter was his disciple. eva vidyate. Ruin means a birth inferior to the previous one. kalyana-krt. iha. for. here. or amutra. no ruin.40 O Partha. A disciple is called putra (son).one engaged in good meets with a deplorable end. na kascit. in the other world. gacchati. a deplorable end. hereafter.

the worlds. and usitva. for sasvatih. punya-krtam. gehe. reaching. eternal. in the house.41 Prapya. who are prosperous. sucinam. residing there.]. the yoga-bhrastah. years. is born.Swami Gambhirananda 6. man fallen from Yoga.e. for on the one hand he has renounced actions. of the pious. lokan. and srimatam.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . viz that of Karma and of Meditation.. 293 . But the possibility of getting ruined by performing actios (rites and duties) according to Vedic instructions does not arise.) when the period of enjoyment is over. who perform actions according to scriptural instructions. of the performers of the Horse-sacrifice. of the righteous. a monk-as understood from the force of the context [From Arjuna's question it minght appear that he was asking about the fate of people who fall from both the paths. samah. Hence. the question of ruin is relevant in the case of a monk. the Lord's answer relates to the fall and ruin of a monk alone. However. enjoying the stay. abhijayate. and on the other he may fail to attain perfection in Yoga in the present life. the one who had set out on the path Yoga. i. (then. etc. since their results are inevitable. attaining.

in the family. 6. 294 . Such a birth as is of this kind is surely more difficult to get in the world.6. Agastya. Becuase. dhimatam. O scion of the Kuru dynasty. as is of this kind-a birth that is in the family of poor yogis. bhavati. yogis. more difficult to get. yoginam. (S. and Vacaspati and the author of Khanada of recent times.42 Or he is born in the family of wise yogis [Persons possessing knowledge of Brahman. Etat janma. or. is hi. only.Swami Gambhirananda 6. who are poor-which is different from the family of the prosperous. Janaka and Asvapati of olden days. and he cites the instances of Vasistha. and he strives more than before for perfection. loke. kule. as compared with the earlier one.42 Athava.)] only. eva. he is born. in a family as described.43 There he becomes endowed with that wisdom acquired in the previous body. in the world. of wise. durlabha-taram. yat idrsam. such a birth. concedes that some rare householders also can have this knowledge. surely. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

How does he become endowed with the wisdom acquired in the previous body? That is being answered: 6. past practice-the powerful habit formed in the past life. labhate. paurva-dehikam. tena eva. bhuyah. for. for the sake of. he becomes endowed with that wisdom. purvaabhyasena. tam buddhisamyogam. he. O scion of the Kuru dynasty. samsiddau. If he had not 295 . kurunandana.44 For. even inspite of himself. in the family of yogis. he is carried forward even in spite of himself! Even a seeker of Yoga transcends the result of the performance of Vedic rituals! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . avasah api. for. is carried forward. more intensely. he strives. by that very. more intensely than that tendency acquired in the previous birth. there. perfection.43 Tatra.Swami Gambhirananda 6. hiryate. tatah. by that very past practice. acquired in the previous body. the yogi who had fallen from Yoga.44 Hi. than before. And yatate.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 6.

yogasya. even the tendency born of Yoga gets surely overpowered. the yogi. If he had committed any unrighteous act which was more powerful. thereby acheives the highest Goal. the person implied is a monk who had engaged in the path of Yoga with a desire to known his true nature.even he. but had falled from Yoga-. 296 . becoming purified from sin and attaining perfection through many births. then he is carried forward by the tendency created by the practice of Yoga. may undertake it with steadfastness! And why is the state of Yoga higher? 6. the result of the performance of Vedic ritual.committed any act which could be characterized as unrigtheous etc. But when that is exhausted.45 However. the tendency born of Yoga begins to take effect by itself. even though it may lie in abeyance over a long period. The idea is that it does not get destroyed. ativartate. sabda-brahma. and more powerful than the tendency created by the practice of Yoga. What to speak of him who after understanding Yoga. then. applying himself assiduously. of Yoga from the force of the context. . trascends-will free himself from. even a seeker. Jijnasuh api.

samsuddha-kilbisah. thereby coming to have full Illumination. highest.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and aneka-janma-samsiddhah.Swami Gambhirananda 6.gathering together tendencies little by little in many births. tapasvibhyah. prayatnat. the man of Knowledge. striving more intensely. even. than men of austerity. considered. most perfect. . he is matah. i. therefore. he is considered higher even than men of knowledge. adhikah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . higher. api. Goal. applying himself.46 A yogi is higher than men of austerity.gatim.45 The yogi. The yogi is also higher than men of action. Therefore. achieves. yati.Swami Gambhirananda 6. higher than. Since this is so. 6. assiduously. attaining perfection through many births. jnanibhyah. O Arjuna. superior to.e. and attaining perfection through that totality of impressions acquired in many births. the param.46 A yogi is adhikah. yatamanah. becoming purified from sin. and as a result. tatah. do you become a yogi. 297 .

mam. (A yogi is superior) to even those who possess that (learning).he is considered by Me to be the best of the yogis. he who adores Me with his mind fixed on Me and with faith. than men of action-karma means Agnihotra etc.with his mind. sarvesam yoginam. with faith.47 Api. Aditya. therefore. bhajate. he who. he. the best of the yogis. among all the yogis. 6.. Since this is so. yah. sah. by Me. and sraddhavan. madgatena.47 Even among all the yogis. [It has been shown thus far that Karma-yoga has monasticism as its ultimate culmination. and others. Me. Jnana here means scriptural learning. fixed on Me. considered. karmibhyah. tasmat. is matah. becoming filled with faith. me.men of knowledge. higher. do you become a yogi. (greater) than those who adhere to them. engaged in Yoga most intensely.Swami Gambhirananda 6. bhava. concentrated on Me who am Vasudeva. greater. even. among those who are immersed in meditation on Rudra. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . adores. to be yukta-tamah. The yogi is adhikah. And in the course of expounding Dhyana-yoga together 298 . antaratmana. O Arjuna.

'] 299 . and instructing about the means to control the mind. He has also stated that steadfastness in Knowledge is for a man who knows the meaning of the word tvam (thou) (in 'Thou are That'). All these instructions amount to declaring that Liberation comes from the knowledge of the great Upanisadic saying.with its ausxiliaries. the Lord rules out the possibility of absolute ruin for a person fallen from Yoga. 'Thou art That.

rejecting any other means. mayi asaktamanah. hear how you.1 The Blessed Lord said -. accepts only Me as his refuge. Anyone who hankers after some human objective resorts to some rite such as the Agnihotra etc. practising the Yoga of Meditation.1 O Partha.Swami Gambhirananda 7. the process by which. will know. as to yatha. however. austerity or charity. hear.O Partha. having the mind fixed on Me. jnasyasi. am the refuge (asraya) is madasrayah-. that. This yogi. will know Me with certainly and in fulness.. Yogam yunjan. the supreme Lord. which is the means to its attainment. practising the Yoga of Meditation and taking refuge in Me. having the mind fixed on Me. he keeps his mind fixed on Me alone.one whose mind (manah) is fixed (asakta) on Me (mayi) who am the supreme God possessed on the qualification going to be spoken of-. Srnu. tat. taking refuge in Me-one to whom I Myself. how. 300 . having become thus. mam.Chapter 7 7. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Madasrayah. which is being spoken of by Me. you who. concentrating the mind-.

asesatah. and samagram. fully. you will know'. one may conclude that the Lord is speaking of indirect or theoretical knowledge. strength. shall tell. that the Lord is such indeed. without doubt. vaksyami. possessed of such qualities as greatness. combined with direct experienece. in fullness.2 Aham. there 301 . I.] in their fullness. refers to omniscience and will. it is Consciousness. associated with personal enlightenment. combined with realization. you. etc.Me. asamsayam. 7. this' rules out such a conclusion. which is idam. 'jnasyasi. te.Swami Gambhirananda 7. majesty. [From the statement. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . with certainty. after experiencing which Knowledge. which is savijnanam. and it has also been said that this Knowledge is 'savijnanam. this.] after experience which there remains nothing else here to be known again. jnanam. power. of that (Knowledge) about Myself. [Strength-physical. avasisyate. The word 'idam. Knowlege. etc. power-mental. in the earlier verse. yat jnatva. realization'. in detail.2 I shall tell you in detail of this Knowledge which is combined with realization.

among thousands. among a multitude of men. even of the perfected one. to be known.3 Sahasresu manusyanam. here. yatati. anything that can be a means to human ends.Swami Gambhirananda 7. a rare one. who are diligent-they (those diligent ones themselves) being (considered to be) verily perfect because they are striving for Liberation. nothing else.3 Among thousands of men a rare one endeavours for perfection. bhuyah. [For perfection: for the rise of Knowledge through the purification of the mind. of them-. indeed. one perchance knows Me in truth.remains. 302 . jnatavyam. kascit. 'he who knows Me in reality becomes omniscient. for perfection. How so? This is being answered: 7. yatatam. endeavours. one perchance.' This is the idea. iha. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . again. (In this way) the Lord praises that Knowledge which is intended to be spoken. kascit.] Siddhanam api. Therefore Knowledge is difficult to attain because of its superexcellent result. in order ot draw the attention of the hearer. na anyat. Thus. siddhaye. Even of the perfected ones who are diligent.

associated [Associated. is meant the principle called mahat [Mahat means Hiranyagarbha. the subtle elements alone are referred to even by the words water etc.4 This Prakrti of Mine is divided eight-fold thus: earth. mam. is meant the Unmanifest. Me. 'Prakrti (of Mine) is divided eight-fold'. astadha. egoism.Swami Gambhirananda 7. mind. By ahankarah. fire. thus: bhumih. tattvatah. i. manah. space. is divided.] the divine power called Maya.4 Iyam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . water. Apah. as described. prakrtih. egoism. kham. fire. bhinna. intellect. By buddhih. Having drawn the attention of the hearer by arousing interest. water. analah. intellect and also egoism. in truth. this being understood from the statement. eight-forl.e. of the nature of. [Prakrti here does not mean the Pradhana of the Sankhyas. air. knows. air. me. iti. of Mine. Similarly. By 'mind' is meant its source.vetti. or Cosmic Intelligence.] with 303 . this. earth-not the gross earth but the subtle element called earth. the Lord says: 7. Prakrti.] which is the source of egoism. mind. space. vayuh.

Know the other Prakrti of Mine which. know. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .(Cosmic) ignorance. pure. the other. the source of evil and having the nature of worldly bondage. which is characterized as 'the Knower of the body (field)'. me. and egoism is the impelling force (of all). (but)-the impure. iyam.Swami Gambhirananda 7. which has taken the form of the individual souls. which is essentially Myself. tu. It is indeed seen in the world that egoism is the impelling cause behind all endeavour. of Mine. prakrtim. is higher than this. which. As food mixed with position is called poison. however. is apara. Viddhi.5 O mighty-armed one. anyam. however. the inferior (Prakrti)-not the higher. similarly the Unmainfest. which has taken the from of individual souls.is param. this is the inferior (Prakrti). than this (Prakrti) already spoken of.5 O mighty-armed one. higher. and which is the cause 304 . Prakrti. is called egoism since it is imbued with the impressions resulting from egoism. this. Jiva-bhutam. which is the primordial Cause. and by which this world is uphelp. 7. more exalted. itah.

origin. tatha. I. the pralayah. have these (etat) as their source (yoni)-things that have these lower and higher Prakrtis. The maning is this: I. Since this is so. who am the ominscient God.6 Understand thus that all things (sentient and insentient) have these as their source. by which Prakriti. and yaya. jagat. by permeating it. I am the origin as also the end of the whole Universe. iti. Since My two Prakrtis are the source. therefore. this. am the source of the Univese through My two Prakrtis. therefore- 305 . of the whole. dharyate.of sustenance of life. things. Universe. all. the termination. bhutani.Swami Gambhirananda 7. is upheld. idam. understand. as their source are etat-yonini. as also. jagatah.Swami Gambhirananda 7. English Translation . etat-yonini. that sarvani. thus. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .6 Upadharaya. charcterized as the 'field' and the 'Knower of the field (body)'. aham. the cause of all things. am the prabhavah. krtsnasya. end. world.

therefore. sutre.7. i. nothing else whatsoever. maniganah. there is nothing else whatsoever higher than Myself. connected. idam. All this is strung on Me like pearls on a string. protam. i. (the letter) Om in all the Vedas.7 O Dhananjaya. peals. there is.on a string. I am the effulgence of the moon and the sun. sarvam. this. like. 306 . like cloth in the warp. the supreme God. asti. the Universe. by virtue of which all this is strung on You? This is being answered: 7. I am the taste of water. higher. mayi. na anyat kincit. parataram. mattah.8 O son of Kunti.e.e. [Like cloth formed by threads constituting its warp and woof.] and iva. all things. on Me. than Me.Swami Gambhirananda 7. all. and manhood in men. woven. no other cause. I Myself am the source of the world. 'What qualities are You endowed with.7 O Dhananjaya. the sound in space. the supreme God. transfixed. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .is strung. Since this is so.

(I am) paurusam. and I am the austerity of the ascetics. the sound.8 Kaunteya. manhood. effulgence. of the moon and the sun. the taste. I am the brillinace in the fire. This is how it is to be understood in every case. Just as I am the essence of water. sarva-vedesu. I.Swami Gambhirananda 7. similarly. So also (I am) sabdah. the prabha. asmi. The idea is that water is depedent on Me who am its essence.the quality of being man. pranavah. in men. Space is established on Me who am that (sound). nrsu. All the Vedas are established on Me who am that Om. In the same way. as the essence. in all the Vedas. from which arises the idea of manhood. in space. which is the essence of water. aham. and the life in all beings.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . O son of Kunti. 7.Swami Gambhirananda 307 . khe. (the letter) Om.9 I am also the sweet fragrance in the earth. Men are established on Me who am such. sasi-suryayoh. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . I am. am rasah.

the source of growth. Ascetics are established in Me who am that austerity. know Me to be the eternal Seed of all beings. in the earth.10 O Partha. seed. fragrance. in all beings. I am the buddhih. mam. know.Swami Gambhirananda 7. The natural sweetness of smell in the earth is cited by way of suggesting sweetness of taste of water etc. is due to contact with particular things. Besides. to be the sanatanam. brilliance. sarva-bhutanam. eternal. so also (I am) the jivanam.7. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . etc.10 O Partha. buddhimatam. Me. the power of discrimination of the mind. in fire.9 I am also the punyah. of worldly people. austerity. asmi. life-that by which all creatures live. tapasvisu. sarva-bhutesu. as well. intellect. resulting from nescience. bijam. of ascetics. And I am the tapah. I am the courage of the courageous. of the intelligent. gandhah. and . prthivyam. of people having the power of 308 . viddhi. I am the intellect of the intelligent. But foulness of smell etc. the tejah. I am. unholiness. vibhavasau. 7. sweet. of all beings. The earth is dependent on Me who am its fragrance. Ca.

but not that strength of the worldly which causes hankering and attachment. of the strong. Moreover. That strength. I am the strength that is devoid of them and is necessary merely for the maintenance of the body etc. which are for the mere maintenance of the body and so on. fondness for things acquired. Ragah is attachment.11 And of the strong I am the strength which is devoid of passion and attachment. courage. of those possessed of that. Further. 7. not opposed to scriptural injunctions. I am that kamah.. 309 . I am the tejah. again. bharatarsabha. among creatures.11 I am the balam. which is dharma-aviruddhah. Kamah is passion. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 7. not contrary to righteousness. strength.discrimination. balavatam. hankering for things not at hand. O scion of the Bharata dyansty. etc. virility. is kama-raga-vivarjitam. Among creatures I am desire which is not contrary to righteousness. tejasvinam. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. ability. devoid of passion and attachment. desire-such desires as for eating. drinking. of the courageous. bhutesu.

sattvikah eva. as are the transmigrating bengs.Swami Gambhirananda 7. and those things that are made of (the quality of) rajas and tamas.Swami Gambhirananda 7. tu. and tamas see note under 2. 17 and 18. subject to Me. know. that indeed are made of (the quality of) sattva. rajas. all without exception. still. know them to have sprung from Me alone. rajas and tamas) according to the creatures's own actions: viddhi.English Translation . them. [For sattva. mattah eva iti.12 Those things that indeed are made of (the quality of ) sattva. Although they originate from Me.45 as also Chapters 14. again. mayi. am na tesu. and ye rajasah. those things. I am not in them. tan.12 Ye bhavah. however. However.310 . those that are made (of the quality) of rajas. not under their control. they. I. under My control. they are in Me! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . those that are made of (the quality of) tamas-whatever things are made (of sattva. aham. not in them-I am not subject to them. and tamasah. to have sprung from Me alone when they come into being. Te. are in Me.

by these. distinct. etc.-Tr. things. jagat. all. bhavaih.13 All this world. world. ebhyah. the cause of burning away the seed of the evil of transmigration!'-in this way the Lord expresses regret. made of the gunas. different. And what is the source of that ignorance in the world? That is being stated: 7. in the forms of attachment. pure.] 'The world does not know Me. deluded as it ismade to have indiscrimination. and am avyayam. the supreme Lord. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the aggregate of creatures. aforesaid tribhih. 311 . delusion. and gunamayaih. three. free from all qualities. transcendental to. even though I am of this kind. intelligent and free by nature. this. does not know. does not know Me who am transcendental to these and undecaying. Me.Swami Gambhirananda 7. repulsion. from these gunas as referred to above.] the Self of all beings. na abhijanati. mohitam.4. who am param. and am eternal. deluded as it is by these three things made of the gunas (qualities).Tr. mam. idam.13 Sarvam. [See note on p. of the transformations of the gunas. ebhih.

of Mine. which deludes all beings. (therefore) those who take refuge in Me alone cross over this Maya. which (Maya) is My own.Swami Gambhirananda 7. i.14 Hi. and which is guna-mayi.14 Since this divine Maya of Mine which is constituted by the gunas is difficult to cross over.Swami Gambhirananda 7. etam. cross over.38. is duratyaya. do they cross over this divine Maya of Visnu. this. That is to say. since. constituted by the three gunas? That is being stated: English Translation . those who. in Me alone. Maya mama. take refuge.] How. they. taranti. difficult to cross over. of God.Tr. Maya. wholeheartedly prapadyante. again. daivi. this being so. divine. by giving up all forms of rites and duties. constituted by the gunas. mam eva.undecaying. te. viz birth etc. esa. free from all (the six kinds of) changes in things.e. this. aforesaid. of Visnu. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . mayam. they become freed from the 312 . therefore. ye. [See note on p. in Me who am the Master of Maya and who am their own Self.

15 Mudhah. the foolish.Swami Gambhirananda 313 . English Translation .bondage of the world. man.Swami Gambhirananda 7. 'If it is that those who resort to You cross over this Maya. untruthfulness. demoniacal. such as cruelty. do not. etc. and asritah. evildoers. asuram bhavam. who are the most depraved among men. by Maya. who are deprived of (their) wisdom by Maya. do not take refuge in Me. deprived of. na. who are also apa-hrtajnanah. why then do not all take refuge in You alone?' This is being answered: English Translation . the most depraved among men. who are nara-adhamah.. prapadyante. take refuge.15 The foolish evildoers. ways. mayaya. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the supreme God. who resort to. in Me. sinners. duskrtinah.Swami Gambhirananda 7. despoiled of (their) wisdom. and who resort to demoniacal ways.

16 O Arjuna. of janah. adore. foremost of the Bharata dynasty. foremost of the Bharata dynasty. one who. the seeker of Knowledge.] who knows the reality of Visnu. artah. artharthi. who is in distress. people. ['One who. of virtuous deeds. already having intellectual knowledge. aspires for Liberation. and are sukrtinah.Swami Gambhirananda 314 .'] being over-whelmed by thieves. Me. the seeker of wealth and the man of Knowledge. who are eminent among human beings and are pious in actions. the seeker of Knowledge. four classes. the afflicted-one who is overcome by sorrow.. O Arjuna. mam. bhajante.16 Again. takes refuge (in Me). the seeker of wealth. disease. being in distress and seeking to be saved from it. English Translation . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . tigers. jijnasuh. caturvidhah. etc. and jnani. who wants to know the reality of the Lord. [i.e. the man of Knowledge. four classes of people of virtuous deeds adore Me: the afflicted.Swami Gambhirananda 7.7.

being the very Self of Me who am Vasudeva. 'If that be so. becomes superior. the knower of Reality. endowed with constant steadfastness as a result of being a knower of Reality. he surpasses (the others). endowed with constant steadfastness and one-pointed devotion. therefore aham. he. It is indeed a well known fact in the world that the Self is dear. is dear to him. very much. dear to him. jnani. priyah. jnaninah. the man of Knowledge. and he also becomes eka-bhaktih. Consequently. to the man of Knowledge. is nityayuktah. being the Self of the man of Knowledge. because he finds no one else whom he can adore.17 Of them.e. For I am very much dear to the man of Knowledge. the Self.7.Swami Gambhirananda 7. since. is very much priyah. that person of onepointed devotion visisyate. the man of Knowledge. Hi. I. am priyah. therefore. I. dear. am atyartham. the man of Knowledge. The meaning. among the four. and he too is dear to Me. And sah. to Me. i. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of them. dear.17 Tesam. excels. mama. then the other three-the 315 . endowed with one-pointed devotion. is that Vasudeva. excels.

and none else'. are eva.18 Sarve. the Lord. My.e. ete. the very Self. they are verily dear to Me. he is engaged in ascending to. all of these three. opinion.18 All of these. indeed. For. matam. that man of Knowledge asthitah. to the supreme Brahman.Swami Gambhirananda 7. (This is) My opinion. Me alone. noble. But the man of Knowledge becomes very much dear. udarah. mam eva. Hi. is atma eva. For. but the man of Knowledge is the very Self.afflicted and the others-are not dear to Vasudeva?' 'This is not so!' 'What then?' 7. the man of Knowledge. Why is this so? In answer the Lord says: Tu but. This is me. conviction. no devotee of Mine can become disagreeable to Me who am Vasudeva. going to. are noble. for. with a steadfast mind. indeed. he is set on the path leading to Me alone who am the super-excellent Goal. who am the anuttamam 316 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . with a steadfast mind-having his mind absorbed in the idea.. is set on the path leading to. not different from Me. jnani. 'I am verily Vasudeva. This is the difference. without exception. yuktatma. i.

adds the word Narayana.] thus as the Self of all.Swami Gambhirananda 7. Sah. directly prapadyate. the Self. There is none else who can equal or excel him. is being stated: 317 . The reason why one does not realize that all this is verily Vasudeva. The man of Knowledge is being eulogized again: 7. jnanavan. who am the inmost Self. janmanam. Such a high-souled one is very rare. attains.] the tendencies leading to Knowledge. is mahatma.19 At the end of many births the man of Knowledge attains Me. births.Tr. omits this word. who has got hiis Knowledge matured. the man of Knowledge.gatim. Me.19 Ante. as it has been said (in verse 3). who realizes Me [Here Ast. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . that. mam. after the completion. (realizing)-in what way?-iti. a highsouled one. at the end. (realizing) that Vasudeva is all. super-excellent Goal to be reached. which becme the repository for accumulating [Ast. all. Therefore he is su-durlabhah.-Tr. of many. such a one. bahunam. Vasudeva. Vasudeva is sarvam. very rare among thousands of men.

.20 People. resort. asthaya. by particular tendencies gathered in the past lives.Swami Gambhirananda 7. such as progeny. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . by desires for various objects. to other deities. compelled.7. hrta-jnanah. who are different from Vasudeva. resort to other deities following the relevant methods.the relevant methods-those processes that are well known for the adoration of the concerned deities.Swami Gambhirananda 7. taih taih kamaih. tam tam niyamam. and niyatah. etc. svaya prakrtya. prapadyante. guided.21 Whichever form (of a deity) any devotee wants to worship with faith. by their own nature. deprived of their discriminating knowledge. English Translation . 318 . deprived of their wisdom by desires for various objects and guided by their own nature.20 People. that very firm faith of his I strengthen. following taking the help of. cattle. deprived of their wisdom. heaven. the Self. anya-devatah.

7. faith.-Tr. that person engages in worshipping that form. arcitum. whichever. tasya.among these people with desires. steady. who. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of his. icchati. firm. form of a deity. to worship. sraddham. in which (worship) he was earlier engaged under the impulsion of his own nature-. of that particular covetous person-that very faith with which he desires to worship whatever form of a deity.] vidadhami. I strengthen. yah.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 7. acalam. takes the portion 'svabhavatah yo yam devata-tanum sraddhaya arcitum icchati' with the next verse. any covetous person. being endowed sraddhaya.21 Yam yam. devotee. and being a bhaktah. that very. tam eva. tanum. and he gets those very desired results therefrom as they are dispensed by Me alone.22 Being imbued with that faith. [Ast.Swami Gambhirananda 319 . with faith. wants.

If the reading be hitan (instead of hi tan). faith. ihate. sraddhaya. desired results. taya. because I am possessed of the knowledge of the apportionment of the results of actions. tatah.Swami Gambhirananda 7.7. he gets.Swami Gambhirananda 320 .23 That result of theirs who are of poor intellect is indeed limited. sah. by Me alone. aradhanam. then the beneficence (-hita means beneficent-) of the desired result should be interpreted in a figurative sense. supreme God. those very. as granted by Me. from that form of the deity which was worshipped. kaman. i. The meaning his that he surely gets those desired results since they are ordained by God. engages in.e. radhanam. who am the omniscient. worshipping. tan hi. as vihitan. there-from. with that. tasyah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . they are dispensed.being endued. The worshippers of gods go to the gods. for desires cannot be beneficial to anyone! English Translation . My devotees go to Me alone. maya eva. And labhate. that form of the deity.22 Yuktah. that person. meted out.

devan. 'Thus. indeed. of theirs.7. to. bhavam. who are of poor intellect. therefore. to Me alone. the nondiscriminating ones. immutable. supreme. My reality as the supreme Self. is limited. unaware. ajanantah.Swami Gambhirananda 7.24 The unintelligent. that result. and anuttanam. the worshippers of gods. of poor wisdom. unaware of My supreme state which is immutable and unsurpassable. 321 . mam api. they do not resort to me alone for the unlimited result. the unintelligent. My devotees.23 Since those non-discriminating men with desires are engaged in disciplines for limited results. Deva-yajah. alpamedhasam. param.' In this manner the Lord expresses his compassion. yanti. state. go. which is avyayam. tesam. yanti.24 Abuddhayah. antavat tu bhavati. Alas! they are surely in a pitiable condition. unsurpassable. to the gods. think of Me as the unmanifest that has become manifest. 'Why do they not take refuge in Me alone?' The answer is: 7. tat phalam. Madbhaktah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . mama. undecaying. of My. though the effort needed is the same. ephemeral.

to the world. i. at present [At present.]though I am the ever well-known God. do not become manifest.Swami Gambhirananda 7. being enveloped. They think so because they are unaware of My reality. vyaktim. For this very reason. veiled.25 Being enveloped by yoga-maya.Swami Gambhirananda 7. This is the idea. think. I do not become manifest to all. the coming together. of the (three) gunas. aham. ayam. deluded.e. 322 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . that (combination) is itself maya. as avyaktam. na prakasah. mam. the invisible. What is the reason for their ignorance? This is being stated: English Translation . after being embodied as an Incarnation. that has become.manyante. The idea is that I become manifest only to some devotees of Mine. This deluded world does not know Me who am birthless and undecaying. lokah. I. being enveloped by yoga-maya-Yoga means the combination. of Me. the unmanifest. yoga-maya. to all. this. sarvasya. mudhah. manifest. by that yoga-maya. visible.25 Yoga-maya-samavrtah. apannam.

again. and vartamanani.Swami Gambhirananda 7.26 O Arjuna.world. mam. 'What. Except the one person who is My devotee and has taken refuge in Me. Me. but no one knows Me! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . The present verse states the reason for the nonrealization of the qualified Brahman. I know ca. the possessor of maya. who am ajam. aham. however. the present. na kascana. just as the magic of any other magician does not cover his knowledge. no one adores Me. the future. also.is the obstruction to knowing 323 .that yoga-maya. birthless. but. I. because of My being covered by which the world does not know Me.26 O Arjuna. knows. bhavisyani. I know the past and the present as also the future beings. unqualified Brahman was stated. [In verse 13 the reason for the non-realization of the supreme. samatitani. mam. and avyayam. Me. therefore7. na abhijanati. Tu. the past beings. know. bhutani. no one. veda. undecaying. veda. does not obstruct the knowlege of Me who am God.] 'That yogamaya. jus because he does not know My reality. since it belongs to Me.' Since this is so. beings. does not know.

which relate to happiness and sorrow and their causes.27 O scion of the Bharata dynasty. By what? When that is thus sought to be known in particular. by what arises from likes and dislikes: iccha. and dvesa. dislikes.Swami Gambhirananda 7. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . are termed as duality (and this deludes all creatures). and which come into association with all beings in due course. the Lord says this: 7. by the delusion of duality. all creatures become bewildered at the time of their birth. the Lord answers: dvandvamohena. Delusion (moha) that originates from duality (advandva) is dvandva-moha. when likes and dislikes arise from the experience of 324 . O destroyer of foes. are iccha-dvesau. likes.Your reality. Those very likes and dislikes. As regards them.27 Iccha-dvesa-samutthena. which are mutually opposed like heat and cold. due to the delusion of duality arising from likes and dislikes. being prevented by which the creatures that are born do not know You?' In anticipation of such a question. (Creatures are duluded) by that. anything arising from them is icchadvesa-samutthah.

they create bewilderment which is the cause of the impediment to the rise of knowledg about the reality of Self. all creatures become deluded. beset with many obstacles as it is. do not know Me who am their Self.happiness. bharata.e. Therefore. O destroyer of foes.' 'Who. therefore all creatures. Hence. sorrow and their causes. they yanti sammoham. and adore You as the Self in 325 . owing to that delusion of duality arising from likes and dislikes. they do not adore Me as their Self. become bewildered. The idea is that all creatures that come into being do so prepossessed by delusion. Parantapa. come to know You. at the time of their origination. being deluded and having their wisdom obstructed by that delusion of duality. sarge. Indeed. at the time of their birth. does not arise in a completely bewildered person whose intelligence has been overcome by them. sarvabhutani. are those that. 'Since this is so. again. come under delusion. by bringing the wisdom of all beings under their control. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. i. It goes without saying that knowledge of the indwelling Self. becoming free from the delusion of duality. then. exact knowledg about objects even in the external world does not arise in one whose mind is overpowered by the defects. the suprem Truth. viz likes and dislikes.

'sarvaparityaga-vratena. and drdhavratah. attenuated. those persons who are of virtuous deeds. firm in their convictions-those who [Here Ast. 326 .accordance with the scriptures?' In order to elaborate the subject enquired about. dvandva-mohanirmuktah. tu. adds. is almost eradicated. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . they. has come to an end.-Tr. being free from the delusion of dulaity and firm in their convictions.28 On the other hand.Swami Gambhirananda 7.] have the firm knowledge that the supreme Reality is such alone and not otherwise are called drdhavratah-. adore Me. they.Swami Gambhirananda 7. te. who are of virtuous deeds. those persons. in whom exist virtuous deeds that are the cause of purification of the mind. whose papam. punya-karmanam. antagatam. it is being said: English Translation . sin. through the vow of relinquishing everything'.28 Yesam jananam. whose sin has come to an end. on the other hand. being free from the delusion of duality as described.

] English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . asritya.Swami Gambhirananda 7. they. they know krtsnam. This verse prescribes meditation on the qualified Brahman for aspirants of the middle class. mam. and all about actions. brahma. about adhyatmam. strive.bhajante. that. everything about the individual Self. [They know Brahman as being all the individual entities and all actions.29 Ye. Brahman. jara-maranamoksaya. the 327 . te. Me. tat. by resorting. adore. they know that Brahman. everything. yatanti. mam. the supreme God. viduh. Why do they worship? This is being answered: English Translation . Verses beginning with the 14the speak about the reaization of the unqualified Brahman by aspirants of the highest class.29 Those who strive by resorting to Me for becoming free from old age and death. the supreme Self.Swami Gambhirananda 7. to Me. those who. by having their minds absorbed in Me. for becoming free from old age and death. know. which is the Supreme.

ca. they. at the time of death. and also in the context of the sacrifice. about karma.Swami Gambhirananda 7. Me. yukta-cetasah. saadhi-bhuta-adhidaivam. ca. but also the knowledge of It as existing in all things on the physical. the divine and the sacrificial planes. as existing in the physical and the divine planes. those who.30 Those who know me as existing in the physical and the divine planes.individual Self. English Translation . they of concentrated minds know Me even at the time of death. viduh. even. api ca.30 Ye. that indwelling intity. prayanakale. of concentrated minds-those who have their minds absorbed in God. Me. know. and. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . all. viz of the 328 . mam. [For those who are devoted to God. they know akhiliam. mam. viduh. there is not only the knowledge of Brahman as identified with all individuals and all actions (see previous verse). sa-adhiyajnam. actions. te. as existing in the context of the sacrifice.Swami Gambhirananda 7. and also. Those who realize Brhaman as existing in the context of all the five. know.

of Brahman even at the critical moment of death.individual. loss of awareness. and of the sacrifices-for them with such a realization there is no forgetting. of the physical.] 329 . of actions.of the divine.

and who.O supreme person.2. what is that Brahman? What is that which exists in the individual plane? What is action? And what is that which is said to exist in the physical plane? What is that which is said to be existing in the divine plane? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . how. how are You to be known by people of concentrated minds? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . English Translation .Swami Gambhirananda 8.1 See Commentary under 8.Swami Gambhirananda 8.2 O Madhusudana.Swami Gambhirananda 8.Chapter 8 English Translation .Swami Gambhirananda 330 . is the entity existing in the sacrifice here in this body? And at the time of death.1 Arjuna said -.

'Under the mighty rule of this Immutable. the supreme Self.8. By svabhava. This agrees with the Upanisadic text. immutable Brahman. 3. because of its being mentioned (as a letter) later on in. 'The single letter Om.The Immutable is the supreme Brahman. as the indwelling Self.2 In order to settle these questions seriatim 8.. By action is meant the offerings which bring about the origin of the existence of things.Swami Gambhirananda 8.' (Br. Besides. the adjective 'supreme' is more apporpriate with regard to the absolute.3 Aksaram means that which does not perish (na ksarati). adhyatmam. is meant the eixtence of that very supreme Brahman in every body as the indwelling Self.3 The Blessed Lord said -. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the entity which. self-hood is said to the entity present in the individual plane. And (the letter) Om is not accept here [as the meaning of aksara (lit.9). which is Brahman' (13). is referred to by the word.. self-hood. Svabhavah ucyate. O Gargi. letter)].8. self-hood is said to be. exists in the body (atma) by 331 .

meant by action. originate thorugh the successive processes of railfall etc. etc.making it its habitat (adhikrtya). The existence (bhava) of (moving and nonmoving) things (bhuta) is bhuta-bhava. cake. i. It is needed from this source that all bengs. and which in the ultimate analysis is the supreme Brahman. and what exists in the divine plane is the Person. Visargah. the originator of existing things.Swami Gambhirananda 8. This sacrifice consisting in pouring of oblations is called action.4 The which exists in the physical plane is the mutable entity. the giving away to gods of things like porridge [Caru: An oblations of rice. The coming into being (udbhava) of that (existence) is bhuta-bhava-udbhavah.]. 332 . English Translation . O best among the embodied beings.14-15). I Myself am the entity that exists in the sacrifice in this body. (see 3. the offerings. bhuta-bhava-udbhava-karah. That which causes (karoti) this is bhuta-bhava-udbhava-karah.. moving and non-moving. barley and pulse boiled-together to be offered to gods. which bring about the origin of the existence of things. is karma-sanjnitah.e.

-what is it?-it consists of the ksarah bhavah. is the Deity. who resides in the Sun and sustains the organs of all creatures. mutable entity.4 Adhibhutam.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 'Sacrifice is indeed Vishu' (Tai. which is going on atra dehe. he who lies in every heart. This is meaning. 1. the entity existing in the divine plane. I Myself. therefore it is closely associated with the body. He is Hiranyagarbha. Deha-bhrtam-vara. am adhiyajnah. derived in the sense of he by whom all things are pervaded. adhiyajnah. presiding over all sacrifices-which agrees with the Vedic text.Swami Gambhirananda 8. the entity existing in sacrifices. 333 . Sam. or.7. called Visnu. Purusah means the Person. the entity existing in the sacrifice.4). who am that very Visnu.e. that which exists by comprising all creatures. Ksarah is that which is mutable. He is adhidaivatam. that which exists in the physical plane. i. Aham eva. O best among the embodied beings. which is destructible. bhavah means anything whatsoever that has orgination. In this sense it is said to be going on in the body. Since a sacrfice is performed with body. in this body.

no. while thinking. there is. yah. My state.' 'What then?' English Translation . doubt. smaran.Swami Gambhirananda 8. attains. thinking of any entity whichever it may be one gives up the body at the end. atra. of Me alone. na. and . body. he. the Reality that is Vishu. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .English Translation .Swami Gambhirananda 8. samsayah. in this regard. at the time of death. about this. 334 . prayati.5 Ca. mam eva. yati. madhavam. by giving up.6 O son of Kunti. anyone who departs by giving up the body while thinking of Me alone. Asti. who am the supreme Lord Visnu. anyone who. muktva. the kalevaram. having been always engrossed in its thought. he attains My state. as to whether he attains (Me) or not. departs.Swami Gambhirananda 8. he attains that very one. sah. There is no doubt about this.5 And at the time of death. anta-kale. 'This rule does not apply in relation to me alone.

tadbhavabhavitah. one gives up.Swami Gambhirananda 8.Swami Gambhirananda 8. think of. always.7 Therefore. any entity. smaran. anusmara. and yudhya. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Me. any particular deity. eti. you will attain Me alone. at the time of the departure of life. having been sada. in the way prescribed by the scriptures.6 O Son of Kunti. mam. sarvesu kalesu. tam tam eva. 335 . at the end. which ever it may be. that very entity which is rememberednone else. tyajati. engrossed in its thought. at all times.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . one by whom that is remembered as a matter of habitual recollection is tadbhavabhavitah. think of Me at all times and fight. body. ante. yam yam va api. There is no doubt that by dedicating your mind and intellect to Me.7 Tasmat.Swami Gambhirananda 8. Since the last thought is thus the cause of acquiring the next bodyEnglish Translation . therefore. fight. bhavam. the kalevaram. that very one. thinking of. Engrossment in it is tad-bhavah. he attains.

as I shall be remembered. esyasi. have any separate reality apart from Brahman. one reaches the supreme Person existing in the effulgent region. to Me. and at the same time engage in war. But this is not so. Vasudeva-will attain. it is denied that actions etc. mayi. by dedicating your mind and intellect.Swami Gambhirananda 336 . it may seem that He envisages a combination of Knowledge and action. because when one thinks of all actions.engage your-self in war. accessories and results that come within the purview of the mind and the intellect as Brahman. mam eva. Therefore no combination is involved here. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Asamsayah. by meditating with a mind which is engaged in the yoga of practice and which does not stray away to anything else. which is your own (caste) duty. that arpita-mano-buddhih. Me alone. [When the Lord instructs Arjuna to think of Him. 8. there is no doubt in this matter.8 O son of Prtha. you-you who have thus dedicated our mind and intellect to Me.] Besides.

8 Partha. to what kind of a Person does he go? This is being stated: English Translation . consists in the repetition of the same kind of thought. and na anya-gamina. one reaches. uninterupted by any contrary idea. effulgent like the sun. practice.Swami Gambhirananda 8. the Ruler. contemplating in accordance with (anu) the instruction of teachers and scriptures. the Ordainer of everything. abhyasa-yogayuktena. divyam. purusam. Person. unsurpassed. And. with a mind. subtler than the subtle. i. cestasa. the Anceint. with regard to Me who am the object of concentration of the mind. the mind of a yogi is engrossed (yuktam) in that itself. which does not stray away to anything else which is not inclined to go away to any other object. by meditating. in the Solar Orb. 337 .9 He who meditates on the Omniscient.8. existing in the effulgent region (divi). anu-cintayan. of inconceivable form. with a mind that is such. engaged in the yoga of practice-abhyasa. yati.e. the paramam. supreme. and beyond darkness-(he attains the supreme Person). O son of Prtha. that practice itself is yoga.

puranam. present and future.he attains Him. anusmaret. This verse is to be connected with the earlier itself thus: 'by meditating (on Him). and being imbued with devotion 338 . English Translation . in all their varieties. though always existing. sarvasya. anyone who. aniyamsam.. dhataram.9 Yah. the Ordainer. subtler.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 8. the Lord of the whole Universe. meditates on.Swami Gambhirananda 8. the Knower of things past. darknessbeyond the darkness of delusion in the form of ignorance-(he attains the supreme Person). tamasah. anoh. beyond. anusasitaram. the Eternal. the Omniscient.. and parastat. aditya-varnam. he who. than the subtle. who is manifest as eternal Consciousness like the effulgence of the sun. acintya-rupam. having fully fixed the Prana (vita force) between the enebrows with an unswering mind. individually to all creatures. defies being conceived of by anybody. of every-thing-one who grants the fruits of actions.' Further. who is effulgent like the sun. the Ruler.10 At the time of death. kavim. the Ancient. who is of inconceivable form-His form.

yuktah. upaiti. described as 'the Omniscient. the bhruvoh. bhaktya.e. the fixing of the mind on Reality alone. eye-brows. pranam. air. param. having fully fixed. he. with an unwavering mind. samyak.] with the strength of concentration-i. the yogi possessed of such wisdom. yoga-balena. he reaches that resplendent supreme person. consisting in steadfastness of the mind arising from accumulation of impressions resulting from spiritual absorption. deep love. as also. imbued. between. fire.Swami Gambhirananda 8. div yam. with devotion.as also the strength of concentration. without losing attention. purusam. to the exclusion of any other object. at the time of death. supreme.10 Prayana-kale. [Space. madhye.' 339 . [Yoga means spiritual absorption. acalena manasa. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and then lifting up the vital force-through the nerve going upward-by gradually gaining control over (the rudiments of nature such as) earth etc. that. reaches. resplendent. ca eva. after first brining the mind under control in the lotus of the heart. the Prana (vital force). imbued with that (strength) also. water and earth. Person. avesya. tam.] and after that. the Ancient.

of that. Goal to be reached. immutable-that whch does not get exhausted. speak of It as opposed to all qualifications-'It is neither gross nor minute' (Br. yat. and aspiring for which people practise celibacy. declare. samgrahena.Swami Gambhirananda 8.11 I shall speak to you briefly of that immutable Goal which the knowers of the Vedas declare.etc.11 Pravaksye. 'What is declared by the knowers of the Vedas. padam. tat. 3. te. which is called the aksaram.Swami Gambhirananda 8. vedanti. which. veda-vidah. 'O Gargi. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . to you. in accordance with the Upanisadic text. and which is described through such characteristics as.: English Translation . briefly.8) etc. the knowers of Brahman say this 340 . which is indestructible. the knowers of the Vedas.'etc. into which enter the deligent ones free from attachment.-. The Lord again speaks of Brahman which is sought to be attained by the process going to be stated. I shall speak.8. the knowers of the purport of the Vedas.

Again. the monks.5) etc. etc..1. people caranti. anyone who meditates on the supreme Purusa with the help of this very syllable Om. who have become vita-ragah. brahmacaryam. Commencing with. different from vice. as possessed of three letters. yat.he is lifted up to the world of Brahma (Hiranyagarbha) by the Sama-mantras. 'Again. free from attachment.' it has been stated. which Immutable. beginning with '(Tell me of that thing which you see as) different from virtue.5.. which all the austerities speak of. this very Brahman that is (known as) the inferior and superior is but this Om"' (pr. practise. and wishing for which people practise Brahmacarya: it is this. yatayah. viz Om' (Ka. intently meditates on Om in that wonerful way till death?" To him he said. and further. In the above quotations. enter. after the attainment of complete realization. Om which is going to be spoken of is presented as a name of this 341 . '"O venerable sir. visanti.2. and icchantah.cit. the diligent ones. among men. which world does he really win thereby who. 'I tell you briefly of that goal which all the Vedas with one voice propound.Immutable (Brahman) is that' (ibid). aspiring to know (-to know being supplied to complete the sense-). celibacy-at the teacher's house.1-2). it has been stated. "O Satyakama.' (op..1415). into which. yat.

For this purpose the following text is begun: 8. '(I shall speak to you birefly of that immutable Goal) which the knowers of the Vedas declare.' and in. the Ancient. and having fixed his own vital force in the head. '(He who meditates on) the Omniscient.-Tr. having confined the mind in the heart. in as much as this leads to Liberation in course of time. whereas meditation (contemplation. 342 . (and then) continuing in the firmness in yoga. and also as Its symbol like an image. Here also that very meditation on Om in the manner stated above-which is the means of attaining the supreme Brahman introduced in.12 Having controlled all the passages. upasana) leads to gradual Liberation (krama-mukti).supreme Brahman. This has been done as a means to meditation on it (Om) for the attainment of the supreme Brahman by poeple of low and mediocre intellect.]-has to be spoken of along with 'adherence to yoga' as also whatever is connected directly or indirectly with it.' and which (meditation) leads to Liberation in due course [Realization of Brahman leads to immediate Liberation (sadyomukti.

he who. continuing in. in the lead. the doors of perception. which is Brahman.13 Yah.Swami Gambhirananda 8. mind. viz Om.13 He who departs by leaving the body while uttering the single syllable. in the heart-not allowing it to spread out. the manah. his own. and thinking of Me. (and then) asthitah. adhaya. murdhni.12 Samyamya. tyajan. atmanah. the firmness in yoga-in order to make it steady-. having confined. 8. sarva-dvarani. niruddhya. thereby it 343 . by leaving. vital force. the body-the phrase 'leaving the body' is meant for qualifying departure. deham. dies.Swami Gambhirananda 8. with the help of the mind controlled therein.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and after that. departs. having fixed. rising up through the nerve running upward from the heart. hrdi. all the passages. prayati. pranam. he attains the supreme Goal. And while fixing it there itself. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . having controlled. yogadharanam.

gatim. best. O son of Prtha. smarati. which is Brahman. uninteruptedly. sah. uninterrupteldy. I am easy of attainment. Me. of God who is implied by that (syllable). supreme. By niryasah. yati. attains. tasya yoginah. By satatam. is meant 'without any break'. vyaharan. 8. and anusmaran. who is ever absorbed (in God).14 Partha.is implied that the soul's departure occurs by abandoning the body. who remembers Me uninterruptedly and for long. viz Om. Not 344 .Swami Gambhirananda 8. single syllable. the supreme God.14 O son of Prtha. remembers. the eka-adsaram. Goal. he. thinking. having abandoned thus-. yah. and not through the destruction of its own reality. to that yogi of constant concentration and single-minded attention. who. is meant along duration. a yogi whose mind is not drawn to any other object. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and nityasah. om iti brahma. to that yogi. nitya-yuktasya. Further. of single-minded attention. mam. the paramam. mam. of Me. of constant concentration. while uttering. and ananya-cetah. for long-. satatam. Om which is the name of Brahman.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the paramam.15 Upetya mam. who have attained. Since this is so. continuously.Swami Gambhirananda 8. 345 . the exalted ones who have attained the highest perfection do not get rebirth which is an abode of sorrows and which is impermanent.15 As a result of reaching Me. easy of attainment. nor even a year! What then? The meaning is: He who remembers Me for his whole life. get. 'What follows from Your being easy of attainment?' This is being answered: 'Hear what follows from My being easy of attainment. therefore one should remain ever absorbed in Me. apnuvanti. samsiddhim. this kind of punarjanama. gatah. as a result of reaching Me who am God-as a result of realizing My nature. highest. do not. I. am sulabhah.Swami Gambhirananda 8.' English Translation . na. the exalted ones. mahatmanah. the monks. with mind given to nothing else.six months. As to what kind of rebirth they do not get. called Liberation. rebirth. To that yogi aham. perfection.

abrahmabhuvanat. which is an abode of sorrows. Me alone. but also asavatam. Again.16 O Arjuna. kaunteya. On the other hand. a resort of physical and other sorrows.Swami Gambhirananda 8. a birth to which sorrows adhere. together with the world of Brahmabhuvana is that (place) in which creatures are born. are subject to return. worlds. Tu. i. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 'Is it that those who attain someone other than You return?' This is being answered: English Translation . and brahma-bhuvana means the world of Brahma. punarjanma. na vidyate.Swami Gambhirananda 8. punah avartinah. after reaching. impermanent. they come again. It is not merely an abode of sorrows. upetya. there is no. all the worlds together with the world of Brahma are subject to return. O son of Kunti.16 O Arjuna. rebirth. those who do not reach Me. 346 . there is no rebirth after reaching Me. But. having no fixity of nature. are by nature liable to come again. mam.the Lord states its characteristics-duhkhalayam. but. O son of Kunti. all the lokah.e.

S. they. who are the knowers of what day and night are. Who knows (these)? In reply the Lord says: Te. they know. ends in a thousand yugas.17 Those poeple who are knowers of what day and night are. which ends in a thousand yugas. Since the worlds are thus 347 . know the day of Brahma which ends in a thousand yugas [The four yugas (in the human worlds). janah. poeple. of Prajapati. of Brahma.000 years. night.A. day. which. that ahah.S. having the same duration as the day. and V. His night also extends over an equal period. Dwapara. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and His night which ends in a thousand yugas.Why are all the worlds together with the realm of Brahma subject to return? Becuase they are limited by time. yat. ahoratra-vidah. sahasra-yuga-paryantam. Treta.17 Viduh.e. viz Satya. the people who know the measurement of time.]. i. How? 8. yuga-sahasraantam. See M.320.Swami Gambhirananda 8. brahmanah. This period multiplied by a thousand constitutes one day of Brahma. and Kali are made up of 4. of Virat. and also the ratirm.

at the time when Brahma sleeps. avyakta-sanjnake. prabhavanti. all the manifested things. merge. therefore they are subject to return. sarvah vyaktayah. praliyante. all things that get manifested. become manifested. with the coming of day. in that itself. emerge. all creatures characterized as moving and nonmoving. they. from that avyakta. tatra eva. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . ratri-agame. when night comes.delimited by time. which is called the Unmanifested referred to above. In order to obviate the defect of the emergence of some unmerited result and the destruction of merited results.Swami Gambhirananda 8. What happens during the day and the night of Prajapati is being stated: 8. avyaktat. [The following verse says that the very 348 .18 With the coming of day all manifested things emerge from the Unmanifest and when night comes they merge in that itself which is called the Unmanifested.18 Ahar-agame. Similarly. from the Unmanifested-avyakta (Unmanifested) is the state of sleep of Prajapati. all manifested things. at the time when Brahma wakes.

bhutagramah.19 O son of Prtha. (See P. that very multitude of beings disappears in spite of itself at the approach of night. [The five evils are: ignorance. bhutva. that very-not any other. attachment. the Lord says this: 8. after being born again and again at the approach of day.same multitude of beings continues in the different cycles of creation.] dealing with bondage and Liberation. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . consisting of the moving and the non349 . Y. multitude of beings. and there-fore these two defects do not arise. egoism. aversion and clinging to life.] for pointing out the meaningfulness of the scriptures [For the earlier reason the scriptures do not lose their validity.3)]. and with a view to propounding detachment from the world on the ground that the helpless multitude of beings perishes after being born again and again under the influence of accumulated results of actions that have for their origin such evils as ignorance etc. Su. 2.Swami Gambhirananda 8. It comes to life at the approach of day. after being born again and again. sah eva.19 O son of Prtha.

this is being said-that It is to be reached through this path of yoga: 8. [For they are impelled by their own defects] without any independence whatever.20 He is parah. disappears repeatedly. The word tu. 'He who departs by leaving the body while uttering the single syllable. ratri-agame. but. verily in spite of itself. at the approach of night. from that aforesaid (Unmanifested). which is Brahman. is meant for showing the distinction of the Immutable that is going to be spoken of from 350 . ahar-agame. at the close of the day. Prabhavati.moving objects that existed in the earlier cycle of creation. viz Om. with a vies to indicating the real nature of that very Immutable.Swami Gambhirananda 8. The means for the attainment of that Immutable which was introduced has been pointed out in. different. Now. at the approach of day. praliyate. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . it comes to life. who does not get destroyed when all beings get destroyed. in spinte of itself. ' etc.-From what?tasmat.20 But distinct from that Unmanifested is the other eternal unmainfest Reality. avasah. (13). distinct.

bhavah ityabhiprayah: The meaning is that the Reality is different and distinct (form that Unmanifested). eternal. when sarvesu bhutesu. Bhavah. all beings. from the Unmaifested spoken of earlier.] He is sanatnah. 'anyah vilaksanah. again is He distinct? Avyaktat. of a different characteristic. vinasyati. for obviating this the Lord says: anyah. the other. beginning from Brahma. there is the possibility of similarlity of characteristics. and which is characterized as ignorance (avidya) [Ast. He is bhavah. Hence. nasyatsu. the Reality. and He is the Immutable which is beyond the range of the organs.the Unmanifested. That is the supreme abode of Mine.Swami Gambhirananda 8. reaching which they do not return. get destroyed. the Immutable. 351 . From what. the supreme Brahman called the Immutable. which is the seed of the multitude of beings. na. they call Him the supreme Goal.-Tr. who is such. adds. the Reality. does not. yah sah. get destroyed. English Translation . It has been said that He is distinct from that.21 He who has been mentioned as the Unmanifested. Even though different.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sah. that. that supreme Person-in whom are included (all) the beings and by whom all this is pervaded-is. that Person. of Visnu. supreme.Swami Gambhirananda 8. The means for gaining That is being stated: 8. reaching which Reality. na nivartante. the aksarah. the supreme State.22 O son of Prtha. they do not return to the worldly state. Immutable. meantioned. Goal. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .22 O son of Prtha. indeed. yam prapya. as avyaktah. is the paramam. dhama. Tat. mama. unsurpassable Person-(the word purusa) derived in the sense of 'residing in the heart' or 'allpervasiveness'. reached through onepointed devotion. they call.e. abode. ahuh. That. of Mine.21 He Himself who has been uktah. Unmanifest. gatim. Him-that very unmanifest Reality which is termed as the Immutable.Swami Gambhirananda 8. compared to whom 352 . supreme. supreme. tam. i. parah purusah. the paramam.

through devotion. is being recited. are included. by whom. and yena. this. The description of the Path of Return (in verse 25) is by way of praising the other Path (of Departure. indeed.. ananyaya. labhyah.at which. '(O best of the Bharata dynasty) of that time. in which Person. is pervaded. tatam. reached. through ananyaya.. Hence. by which Person. characterized as Knowledge. has to be stated. in order to present the intended idea the verse. are by space.' etc. all.Swami Gambhirananda 8. and also (of the time 353 .23 O best of the Bharata dynasty. which relates to the Self. (all) the beings which are Its products-for a product remains inherent in its cause. which is one pointed. who have superimposed the idea of Brahman on the syllable Om and who are destined to get Liberation in due course. bhutani. as pot etc. bhaktya. is tu. in verse 24): English Translation . one-pointed. the Universe. sarvam. in whom. yasya. I shall now speak of that time by departing at which the yogis attain the State of Non-return.there is nothing superior-. antahsthani. The Northern Path meant for the attainment of Braman by the yogis under discussion. idam.

daytime. 354 .] 8. (these words are to be which time.24 Fire. ca eva. the State of Nonreturn. persons who are knowers of Brahman attain Brahman when they die. the six months of the Northern solstice-by following this Path. by dying. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . By 'Yogis' are implied both the yogis (men of meditation) and the men of acitons (rites and duties). 'through the Yoga of Action for the yogis' (3. tam. anavrttim. vaksyami.'s reading. The Lord speaks of that time: [This is Ast.Swami Gambhirananda 8. by departing. attain. the yogis. O best of the Bharata dynasty. the State of Return. and also. tu.3). now. avrttim. prayatah. in accordance with the description.-Tr. yanti. I shall speak. But the men of action are yogis by courtesy. of the time by departing at which they attain its opposite.by departing at which they attain) the State of Return. kalam. of that. the birght forrnight. time. of nonrebirth. light.23 Bharatarsabha. yoginah.

Suklah. the expressions 'at which time' and 'that time' (in the earlier verse) are used in view of the predominance (of the deities presiding over time). etc. or of the Northern and the Southern Paths as they are called-who are gods of time. Or fire and light are the well-known Vedic deities. too. six months. the latter being numerically greater. Sanmasah uttarayanam. fire-is a deity presiding over a period of time. then the remaining three are the only deities of time.] So also. similarly. the bright fortnight. are referred to here as 'time' by such words as day. similarly. implies the deity presiding over the bright fortnight. The deities of both the Paths-of gods and manes. daytime.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . is understood the deity presiding over the Path. all the five deities are referred to as deities of time. As the expression 'mango grove' is used with regard to a place where mango trees are more numerous. fortnight. Still. means the deity of daytime. light-also is a deity presiding over a period of time. ahah.24 Agnih. jyotih. the six months of the Northern solstice-here.Swami Gambhirananda 8. [If the first two (fire and light) are taken as Vedic deities. This is the principle (of interpretation followed 355 .

smoke. persons. English Translation . and ratrih night. who are fit for immediate Liberation. Indeed.4.elsewhere (in the Upanisads also). as also the dark fortnight and the six months of the Southern solstice-following this Path the yogi having reached the lunar light.Swami Gambhirananda 8. returns. who are brahma-vidah. Tatra. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .25 Dhuman. brahma. they are suffused with Brahman. 356 . there is neither going nor coming back for those established in full realization. those engaged in meditation on (the qualified) Brahman. Brahman. gacchanti. Having their organs merged in Brahman. knowers of Brahman. night.46). 4. prayatah. janah. according to the Upanisadic text. when they die. they are verily identified with Brahman.25 Smoke. 'His vital forces do not depart' (Br. following this Path. attain. Similarly. It is understood that they attain Brahman through stages. are the deities presiding over smoke and night.Swami Gambhirananda 8.

by the other he returns again. gati. jagatah.. means the deity of the dark fortnight. are verily considered eternal. verily. By the one a man goes to the State of Non-return. English Translation . by sanmasah daksinayanam the six months of the Southern solstice. having reached. mate. white and black [The Northern Path (the path of the Gods). following this Path. 357 . nivartate. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . on their exhaustion. the yogi who performs sacrifices etc. yogi.krsnah. of the world. the lunar lighthaving enjoyed the results (of his actions). the dark fornight. prapya.26 These two courses of the world. and the Southern Path (the Path of the Manes) respectively. courses. the man of actions. considered. returns.Swami Gambhirananda 8. Tatra. are hi. which are sukla-krsne. which are white and black.]-white because it is a revealer of Knowlege. and black because there is absence of that (revelation). candramasam jyotih.26 Ete. Just as before. also is verily meant a deity.Swami Gambhirananda 8. these two.

punah. by the other.Swami Gambhirananda 8. muhyati. English Translation . anavrttim.) whosoever has known these two courses becomes deluded. O Arjuna. be you steadfast in yoga at all times. steadfast in Yoga. to the State of Non-return. has known. becomes deluded.sasvate. janan. Therefore. these two courses as described-that one leads to worldly life. yoga-yuktah. by the white one. avartate. no yogi [One steadfast in meditation. sarvesu kalesu. he returns. therefore. Tasmat. again. no yogi whosoever. be you. O Arjuna. na kascana yogi.27 O son of Prtha. because the world is eternal. Here about the greatness of that yoga: 358 . ekaya. eternal. and the other to Liberation. These two courses are possible for those who are qualified for Knowledge and for rites and duties. not for everybody. at all times. bhava. a man goes. ete srti.27 O son of Prtha. by the one. This being so. anyaya.Swami Gambhirananda 8. yati. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

intellect. with regard to sacrifices performed together with their accessories. austerities and also charities. the yogi transcends all those results of rigtheous deeds that are declared with regard to the Vedas. yat. idam. with regard to austerities practised correctly [With concentrated mind. having known. and he reaches the primordial supreme State. declared by the scriptures.English Translation .] studied. results of righteous deeds. punya-phalam. with regard to charities rightly [Taking into 359 .28 Having known this.28 Viditva. etc. tapahsu.Swami Gambhirananda 8.]. this-having fully ascertained and practised what was spoken in the course of determining the answers to the seven questions (put by Arjuna in verse 1 and 2). all those. face. pradistam. etc. sacrifices. and also. transcends. danesu.viz vedesu. yajnesu. with regard to teh Vedas which have been properly [Sitting facing eastward after having washed one's hands. goes beyond. with regard to these.Swami Gambhirananda 8. the yogi atyeti. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . aggregate of rewards. tat sarvam. ca eva. that are.

time and fitness of the recipient. adyam. and upaiti. 360 .e. sthanam. the Cause that existed in the beginning. which is primordial.] given.consideration place. the param. he reaches. State of God. Brahman. supreme. i.

The word tu (however) is used for pointing out a distinction [The distinction of Knowledge from meditation that was being discussed. Vijnana is direct experience (aparoksajnana). I shall speak of.Swami Gambhirananda 9.1 The Blessed Lord said -. and is jnanam. to you who are not given to cavilling I shall speak of this highest secret itself.] combined with experience. by realizing which you shall be free from evil. or Its knowledge gathered from the Vedas (paroksajnana). 361 . The Lord uttered the word 'this' by bearing in mind as an immediately present fact the knowledge of Brahman that will be and was spoken of in the earlier chapters. idam.Chapter 9 English Translation . this.1 Te. which is Knowledge [Jnana may mean Brahman that is Consciousness. pravaksyami. who are not given to cavilling.].Swami Gambhirananda 9. (I shall speak) of this itself-what is that?-(it is) guhyatamam. anasuyave. who are free from carping. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .However. to you. the highest secret.

Knowledge. the Sovereign Profundity.19). which Knowledge.1). those who understand otherwise than this come under a different ruler.2). etc. the best sanctifire. combined with experience.Swami Gambhirananda 9. 7.. by attaining.2 This is the Sovereign Knowledge. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . asubhat. directly realizable. you shall be free. 6. English Translation . (Knowledge) of what kind? It is vijnana-sahitam. without a second' (op. the direct means to Liberation.25. and also as stated in such Upanisadic texts as. the Sovereign Knowledge. from worldly bondage. jnatva. from evil.Swami Gambhirananda 9. by realizing. cit.2 And that is raja-vidya. and belong to the worlds that are subject to decay' (op. 'One only. yat. righteous.2). cit. very easy to practise and imperishable. moksyase. 'the Self verily is all this' (Ch.2. this 362 .25. 'On the other hand. Indeed. 7. complete Knowledge-nothing else-. as stated in the Upanisads and the Smrtis. 'Vasudeva is all' (7. the kind among sciences because of the abundance of its radiance.

it may mean shining. Eeve so. directly perceivable like happiness etc. therefore. what to speak of its sanctifying power! Besides. in that way. this. This knowledge of Brahman. kartum to practise. Even though possessed of many qualities. the greatest. pavitram. It is seen (in the world) that. righteous. actions which require little effort and are accomplished easily yield meagre results.Tr.] So also. a thing may be noticed to be contrary to righteousness. is raja-guhyam. derived from the root raj. or. accumulated over many thousands of births. idam. which sanctifies all things that purify. very easy. the Sovereign Profundity. it may be difficult to practice. unrighteous and otherstogether with their roots. is the greatest. to shine. sanctifier. Shine it reduces to ashes in a moment (the results of) all actions-righteous.knowledge of Brahman shines most brilliantly among all kiinds of learning [The word raja means a king. whereas those that are difficult to 363 . Hence the Lord says it is susukham. it is pratyaksavagamam. but it is dharmyam. the kind among profundities. the best. like the knowledge of the distinction among jewels. directly realizable. not divorced from righteousness. or figuratively. The knowledge of the Self is not opposed to righteousness. uttamam.

perishes when its result gets exhausted. who are sinful. certainly go round and 364 . this Dharma. without reaching Me.3 Parantapa. and who delight in life (sense enjoyments). 9. which is easily attained. this knowledge of the Self-those who are faithless as regards its true nature as well as its result. it is not perishable like (the results of) actions. however. asya dharmasya.3 O destroyer of foes. persons who are regardless of this Dharma (knowledge of the Self) certainly go round and round. From the point of view of its result. those purusah. who are asraddadhanah.accomplish yield great results. who have taken recourse to the 'upanisad' (mystical teaching) of demoniacal people. O destroyer of foes. imperishable. Hence the knowledge of the Self should be highly regarded. Thus the contingency arises that this (knowledge of Brahman). consisting in consideration the body alone as the Self. along the path of transmigration which is fraught with death. nivartante. regardless of.Swami Gambhirananda 9. devoid of faith in. persons. Therefore the Lord says it is avyayam. again. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

Swami Gambhirananda 9. i. the Lord says: English Translation . avyakta-murtina. Certainly there is no question of their attaining Me. world. omits the word sadhana. without reaching. sarvam. is tatam. maya.] constituting the path for reaching Me. Having drawn Arjuna's attention through the (above) eulogy.4 This whole world is prevaded by Me in My unmanifest form. the path leading to hell. in that form in which My 365 . Me. pervaded. through the supreme nature. in My unmanifest form. aprapya. they go round and round along that very path.. this.-where?-mrtyu-samsara-vartmani. but I am not contained in them! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . whole. Hence. jagat.-Tr. All beings exist in Me. the implication is that (they go round and round) without even acquiring a little devotion..Swami Gambhirananda 9. which is one of the disciplines [Ast. birth as low creatures. along the path (vartma) of transmigration (samsara) fraught with death (mrtyu). by Me. the supreme God.round. etc. that I have. mam.e.4 Idam. disciplines.

tesu. matsthani. contained. I Myself am the Self of those created things.nature is not manifest. Since unlike gross objects I am not in contact with anything. For this very reason that I am not in contact with anytingEnglish Translation . in My form which is beyond the range of the organs. all beings. in them. exist in Me. a thing that has no contact with anything cannot exist like something contained in a receptacle. therefore I am certainly the inmost core even of space. in the created things. they exist in Me. it appears to people of little understanding that I dwell in them. Consequently. Hence I say: Na ca aham.e. no created thing that is bereft of the Self (i. Therefore. For. Behod My divine Yoga! I am the sustainer and originator of beings. 366 . but My Self is not contained in the beings. Sarva-bhutani.5 Nor do the beings dwell in Me.Swami Gambhirananda 9. of Reality) can be conceived of as an object of practical use. being possessed of their reality through Me who am their Self. For. from Brahma to a clump of grass. i. but I am not. avasthitah. Hence they are said to be established in Me.e. are established in Me in that unmanifest form.

26). again. 'It is My Self? Following human understanding. originator of beings. dwell in Me. behold.9. the Lord calls It 'My Self'. i. I am the bhutabhavanah. is not contained in the bengs. having separated the aggregate of body etc. Behold this other wonder: I am the bhuta-bhrt. beginning from Brahma.Swami Gambhirananda 9. nor do the beings. action. By way of establishing with the help of an illustration the subject-matter [Subject-matter-that the Self. yogam. Pasya.e. My. How.. though I am unattached. which 367 . but. me. too. matsthani. The Upanisadic text. performance. But not that He has said so by ignorantly thinking like ordinary mortals that the Self is different from Himself. Yoga. there is no possibility of Its remaining contained in beings. Ca. mama atma.unattached.5 Na ca bhutani. aisvaram. is it said. sustainer of beings. 3.. this real nature of Myself. one who gives birth to or nourishes the beings. My Self. So also. (from the Self) and superimposing eoism of them.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . As it has been explained according to the logic stated above. similarly shows the absence of association (of the Self) due to Its being free from contact: '. divine. for It is never attached' (Br. na bhutasthah.

wind. tatha. sarvatragah.) abide in Me who am omnipresent like space-abide certainly without any contact. English Translation . (sarvani.Swami Gambhirananda 368 . that yatha. continuance and dissolution] akasa-sthitah. iti. in the world. similarly all beings abide in Me.Swami Gambhirananda 9. continuance and dissolution.has no contact with anything. voluminous-in dimension. similarly.6 Upadharaya.6 Understand thus that just as the voluminous wind moving everywhere is ever present in space. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . bhutani. understand. all. [During creation. vayuh. ever. thus. the mahan. moving everywhere. the Lord says: English Translation .Swami Gambhirananda 9. is the substratum of creation. beings. matsthani.] dealt with in the aforesaid two verses. present in space. just as. is nityam.

again. go back. mamikam prakrtim. sarva-bhutani. all the beings go back at the end of a cycle to My Prakrti.9. to My Prakrti which consists of the three gunas (qualities. as before [As before: as in previous cycles of creation. at the end of a cycle. I. I project forth again and again the whole of this multitude of beings which are powerless owing to the influence of (their own) nature. at the time of dissolution. at the beginning of a cycle. like wind abiding in space. O son of Kunti. abide thus in Me during their period of existence.7 O son Kunti. Punah.7 Kaunteya. yanti. 369 . project forth. all the beings-all the beings which. see 7. tani. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .].Swami Gambhirananda 9. create. kalpadau.Swami Gambhirananda 9. English Translation .8 Keeping My own prakrti under control. the beings.13) and is (called My) lower Nature. them. visrjami. at the time of creation. aham. I project them forth again at the beginning of a cycle. kalpa-ksaye.

introductory Commentary. powerless. remaining (as I do) like one unconcerned with. will become associated with virtue and vice as a result of that act?' In aswer the Lord says this" English Translation . prakrteh vasat. again and again. 'In that case. punah. which. those actions. I project forth.. Prakrti. imam.] as ignorance etc. visrjami. existing bhuta-gramam. and unattached to.9 O Dhananjaya (Arjuna). are avasam.-Tr. under the influence of their own nature. whole of.Swami Gambhirananda 9. the krtsnam.19.8 Thus avastabhya. 370 . which is charcterized as nescience.Swami Gambhirananda 9. this.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . not independent. prakrtim. punah. svam. being under another's sub-jugation due to such defects [See under 8. nor do those actions bind Me. You. keeping under control. multitude of beings which are born of Prakrti. who are the supreme God and who ordain this multitude of beings unequally. My own.

like some indifferent spectator.Swami Gambhirananda 371 . remaining (as I do). and asaktam. unattached. I project forth this multitude of beings. 'Remaining like one unconcerned.' Hence. karmani. those. mam. to those actions-free from attachment to results. There (in th previous two verses) it involves a contradiction to say. udasinavat.for the Self is not subject to any change. like one unconcerned.Swami Gambhirananda 9. like the silkworm. Me. bind.9 O Dhananjaya. tesu karmasu. nibadhnanti. Otherwise. This is the idea. free from the egoism that 'I do.' In order to dispel this doubt the Lord says: English Translation .English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . tani. who am God. a foolish man becomes bound by acitons. the Lord states the reason for His not becoming associated with the actions: Asinam. nor do. the absence of the idea of agentship and the absence of attachment to results are the causes of not getting bound. actions-which are the sources of the creation of the multitude of beings unequally. even int he case of any other person also. na ca. As to that.

O son of Kunti. remaining changeless as a mere witness under all circumstances. of the moving and the nonemoving things. 6. the Supervisor of actions. interprets kevala as non-dual. My maya consisting of the three gunas and characterized as ignorance. the Prakrti.11). 'The one divine Being is hidden in all beings. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . revolves. the indwelling Self of all bengs. with the moving and the non-moving things. the world sa-cara-acaram. the Prakrti produces (the world) of the moving and the nonmoving things. Thus there is the Vedic text.G. consisting of the manifest and the unmanifest.10 Maya. the one who imparts consceiousness. prakrtih. A.] and without qualities' (Sv. as the supervisor. the world revolves. viparivartate.-Tr. the jagat. under all conditions 372 . unconditioned [This is according to Sankaracarya's commentary on this verse.9. O son of Kunti.Swami Gambhirananda 9. the witness. Owing to this reason. owing to this reason-because of this presiding over. He is amnipresent. under Me. adhyaksena.10 Under Me as the supervisor. the refuge of all beings. world. Anena hetuna. suyate. produces.

and who in reality has no contact with any kind of enjoyment-. I see. 10.] All the activities of the world in the form. I experience this happiness.' etc. Tai. They verily exist in consciousness. 10. He is inscrutable.2. the heart.-Tr] I shall do this for this purpose. Hence.. continuance and dissolution.15). suffer this sorrow.5. And it has been pointed out by the Lord also: 'Knowledge remains covered by ignorance.7. I shall know this. 373 . I hear this. Na. and end in consciousness. And such mantras as. [Ast.8.] (Rg.129. Su. 'He who is the witness of this is in the supreme heaven' [Supreme heaven.54.9).[During creation. therefore there is no other enjoyer. omits this portion. i. 3. 'Who know (It) truly. reveal this fact. in this context.e. 'For what purpose is this creation?'.6). Thereby the creatures become deluded' (5.129. and its answer are baseless-in accordance with the Vedic text. the question. 'I eat this. Br. Since it follows from this that there is no other conscious being part from the one Deity-who is the witness of all as the absolute Consciousness. indeed arise owing to their being the objects of the conscious witness. who can fully speak about this here? From where has this come? From where is this variegated creation?' (Rg. I shall do this for that purpose.

e. free and the Self of all beings. the Lord of all beings. belittle.Swami Gambhirananda 9. which is subtler and more pervasive than space. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 9. disregard. although I am by nature thus eternal.. nay. as a result of continously disrespecting Me. How? English Translation .11 Ajanatah. Me.Swami Gambhirananda 374 . mama. intelligent. mudhah. As a result of that. bhavam. supreme. and asritam. those wretches get ruined. nature-My supreme Reality. who have taken. avajananti. foolish people disregard Me who have taken a human body.. not knowing. the nondiscriminating ones. My. the great Lord of all beings who is their Self. param. i. foolish people. a human body common to men. pure. manusim tanum.11 Not knowing My supreme nature as the Lord of all beings. which is like space.English Translation . as bhuta-maheswaram. when I act with the help of a human body. mam.

And vicetasah. disregarding Him who is their own Self. eat. prakritim.' etc. 'cut. and senseless. verily become vain. which are undertaken by them. because of dishonouring the Lord. [Besides.Swami Gambhirananda 9. break. disposition. fruitless actions.. the mohinim. of fiends. of vain actions. break. eat. drink.] they become sritah. etc. Similarly. such as Agnihotra etc. of demons-according to which the body is the Self. even their knowledge verily becomes useless. possessed of. [The habit to cut. of vain knowledge. is characteristic of fiends. In this way they are of vain actions. So also. self-deceptive. The habit of stealing others' wealth.. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . saying. steal others' wealth.12 Moghasah.12 Of vain hopes. raksasim. of vain hopes. of vain knowledge: of fruitless knowledge. moghakarmanah. i. selfdelusive.9. etc. is characteristic 375 .e. mogha-jnanah. they become verily possessed of the deceptive disposition of fiends and demons. drink. of vain actions: their rites.. in the next birth. Besides. and asurim..e. they become habitually inclined to act cruelly. senseless: i. they lose their power of discrimination.

English Translation . surely adore Me with single-mindedness. being possessed of divine nature. being asritah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . (i.e. 'Those worlds of devils (are covered by blinding darkness)' (Is.] This is stated in the Sruti.of demons. bhutadim. mam. adore. ananya-manasah. which is characerized by devotion to God. daivim. and who have set out on the path of Liberation. source of all objects. as the avyayam. jnatva. knowing Me. prakrtim. noble ones-who are not smallmined. Me. those mahat-manah. tu. God.13 On the other hand. How? 376 . etc.. divine. the noble ones. who are imbued with faith. bhajante. 3). surely.13 O son of Prtha. immutable.Swami Gambhirananda 9. naturedistinguished by mental and physical control. O son of Prtha. with singlemindedness. faith. of space etc.Swami Gambhirananda 9. knowing Me as the immutable source of all objects. possessed of. kindness. th five elements) as well as of living beings.

The various ways in which they adore are being stated: English Translation . striving. drdhavratah. who am Brahman in reaility. non-injury. ca. bhaktya. to the Self residing in the heart. the men of firm vows worship Me by paying obeisance to Me and being ever endowed with devotion. endeavouring with the help of such virtues as withdrawal of the organs. ca. nitya-yuktah. yatantah. by paying obeisance. and. being ever endowed.Swami Gambhirananda 9. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . etc. mam. and. glorifying.English Translation . control of mind and body. kindness. Me.14 Satatam. mam.. upasate. God. kirtayantah. the men of firm vows those whose vows [Vows such as celibacy]. with devotion. to Me. those whosevows are unshakable.Swami Gambhirananda 9. always.Swami Gambhirananda 9.14 Always glorifying Me and striving. worship Me.15 Others verily worship Me by adoring exclusively through the sacrifice of the knowledge 377 . namasyantah.

glorifying.e. the Cosmic Person. 'If they worship in numerous ways. by adoring. mulitiformed. variously. who has His face everywhere. etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .. multifariouslyin different forms as the sun. Me. Still others worship Me thinking that. exists bahudha. that very God who is visvatomukhah.Swami Gambhirananda 9. how is it that they worship You alone?' Hence the Lord says: 378 . others. Visnu who is God Himself exists in different forms as the sun etc. Adoring with that (knowledge) they worship Me. mam. (others worship Me) multifariously. yajantah. and (others) as the multiformed existing variously.15 Anye. upasate.of oneness. who is the Cosmic Person. verily. and that knowledge consists in the realization of the highest truth that the supreme Brahman is verily one. i. ca. They worship (Me) by thinking that. api. And some others Me prthaktvena. who has His facr everywhere. exclusively. worship. through the sacrifice of the knowledge of oneness-knowledge of God itself being the sacrifice. In numerous ways they worship Him. moon. jnana-yajnene ekatvena. giving up others forms of adoration. God.

a kind of Vedic sacrifice. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . I am the mantra with which offering is made to manes and gods. Besides. I am the 379 . and ausadha means medicine for curing diseases. and I am agnih.16 I am the kratu. svadha means food in general of all creatures. I am ausadhamby which word is meant the food that is eaten by all creatures. I Myself am the ajyam. I am the ausadha. ordainer. the food that is offered to the manes. I am the mantra.16 Aham. oblations. I Myself am the ajya. and I am the act of offering.English Translation . the fire-I Myself am the fire into which the oblation is poured. I am svadha.17 Of this world I am the father. And I am the hutam. I. I am the fire.Swami Gambhirananda 9. mother. further. am the kratuh. (and the). sacrifice as prescribed by the Smrtis.Swami Gambhirananda 9.Swami Gambhirananda 9. act of offering. Or. I Myself am the yajnah. I am the svadha. English Translation . I am the yajna. grand-father.

aham. knowable-that which has to be known. which has to be known. the syllable Om as also Rk. The ca (as also) is suggestive of the Atharva-veda.] and the onkarah. the pavitram. dispenser of the results of their actions to the creatures. eva ca. is realizable through Om. world. [Virtuous actions. I. syllable Om. foundation. grand-father. end. dhata. witness. the nourisher. (and the) pirtamahah. the father. sanctifier. ordainer. friend. the mother. origin. [Brahman. I am the vedayam.] Moreover.18 (I am) the fruit of actions. regarding which fact the three Vedas are the authority. am pita. the Lord. as also Rk. store and the imperishable seed.Swami Gambhirananda 9.knowable. of this. abode. Sama and Yajus. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . mata.Swami Gambhirananda 380 . jagatah.Swami Gambhirananda 9. the sancitifier. refuge. English Translation . Sama and Yajus.17 Asya. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

9. Indeed. remover of sufferings of the afflicted who take shelter. the suhrt.Swami Gambhirananda 9. And since creation is noticed to be continuous.18 (I am) the gatih. 381 . the saranam. witness of all tha is done or not done by creatures. The seed is imperishable because it continues so long as the world lasts.19 O Arjuna. the place into which the world merges. origin of the world. it is understood that the continuity of the seed never ends. the nidhanam. seed. abode. I give heat. I withhold and pour down rain. and the avyayam. (I am) the sthanam. I am verily the nectar. the nivasah. store. nourisher. [The giver of the fruits of actions. imperishable. and also death existence and nonexistence. end. the bharta. the pralayah. foundation on which the world rests. one who does a good turn without thought of reward.] the prabhuh. bijam. So also. the saksi. friend. where creatures live. the cause of growth of all things which germinate. English Translation . the prabhavah. which is for future enjoyment of creatures. refuge. Lord. Further. fruit of actions. nothing springs up without a seed.

for the Upanisad says. existence-the effect which has come into bneing in relation to its cause. 4).6. Having poured down. Through some rays utsrjami. and mrtyuh. and its opposite. again nigrhnami. aham.19 O Arjuna.] It is not that the Lord is Himself absolutely nonexistence. I. rain.'. 6. give heat through some intense rays. cit.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . nonexistence. verily..2. 'All transformation has speech as it basis..2). It cannot be admitted that the effect has absolute existence.. and it is name only' (Ch. tapami. I Myself am sat. death of the mortals. I withdraw it through some rays-for eight months. I pour down. the amrtam. varsam.all this was Existence. Again I pour it down in the rainy season.by what logic can the existent come verily out of nonexistence? But surely.. 1.. nor are effect and cause (absolutely) existence and nonexistent (respectively). Nor can it be said that the cause has absolute non-existence. [Nonexistence: the cause which has not become manifest as the effect possessing name and form.Swami Gambhirananda 9. I am eva ca. in the form of the sun. Those men of Knowledge who meditate of Me while 382 . asat. one without a second' (op. for there is the text. nectar of the gods.

which is the result of righteousness. by worshipping. existing in the forms of gods such as the Vasus and others. and who.20 Those who are versed in the Vedas. Having reached the place (world) of the king of gods. Yajus and Sama Vedas. through sacrifices such as the Agnistoma 383 . mam.20 Those. yajnaih. who are drinkers of Soma. 9. etc. they enjoy in heaven th divine pleasure of gods. adds this portion-svareva gatih. pray for.worshpping Me according to the respective forms of sacrifices mentioned above-regardomg Me as one or multifirious. who are drinkers of Soma and are purified of sin.Swami Gambhirananda 9. are putapapah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . heavenly goal. heaven itself being the goal.]-. who are ignorant and desirous of pleasures. who are versed in the three Vedas. the svargatim. istva. they attain Me alone according to their conceptions. somapah. purified of sin. again.-.Tr. trai-vidyah. Me. who know the Rk. the attainment of heaven-heaven itself being the goal [Ast. as a result of that very drinking of Soma. prarthayante. pray for the heavenly goal by worshipping Me through sacrifices.

21 After having enjoyed that vast heavenly world. Thus. And asadya. pleasures of gods. asnanti. thus. supernatural.Tr. ksine. those who follow the rites and duties prescribed in the three Vedas.] the rites and duties prescribed in the three 384 . divi. traidharmyam. they enter into the human world on the exhaustion of their merit. indeed. English Translation . heavenly. those who follow in the manner described. tam. svargalokam. deva-bhogan. (which is) punyam. te. on the exhaustion.Swami Gambhirananda 9. they. visanti..Swami Gambhirananda 9. they. that: visalam. the place (world) of the kind of gods. attain the state of going and returning. surendra-lokam. enjoy. Evam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . in heaven. merit. of Indra. of their punye. this martyalokam. te.21 Bhuktva.etc. human world. having reached. the devyan. anuprapannah. heavenly world. the result of righteousness. enter into. divine. [A variant reading is trayi-dharmam. after having enjoyed. and are desirous of pleasures. vast.

who are ever attached (to Me). who ananyah. becoming non-different from Me and meditative. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . worship Me everywhere.22 Those persons who. am the Self of all. the state of going and returning.Swami Gambhirananda 9. ye janah.'] tesam. but never that of independence. for them. who are ever attached (to Me). infinite Reality. I arrange for securing what they lack and preserving what they have. as their own Self. attain. ['They see Me the one. aham. and are kama-kamah. and there is nothing else besides Me'. all-pervading. who are desireless and fully illumined. worship Me everywhere. becoming meditative. the monks. becoming non-different (from Me). and cintayantah. arrange for. those persons. who have realized the supreme Truth. This is the meaning. nitya-abhiyuktanam.Vedas-merely the Vedic rites and duties. labhante. ['Having known that I. desirous of pleasures. having realized the supreme Deity.22 On the other hand. I. 9. for them. Vasudeva. vahami.] paryu-pasate mam. Narayana. 385 . only gata-agatam.

They have taken refuge only in the Lord.17. therefore they have become My own Self as also dear. He does arrange for it. Yoga means making available what one does not have. Does not the Lord surely arrange for securing what they lack and protecting what they have even in the case of other devotees? This is true. to arrange for securing what they lack and protecting what they have. and ksema means the protection of what one has got.18). in life or in death. worship (them). being devoted to other deities and endowed with faith. then do not their devotees too worship You alone?' 'Quite so!' 9. Therefore the Lord Himself arranges to procure what they do not have and protect what they have got.both yoga-kesamam. they also. those who have realized non-duality do not make any effrot to arrange for themselves the acquisition of what they do not have and the preservation of what they have. On the contrary. securing what they lack and preserving what they have. they desire nothing for themselves. Indeed. 'If you Yourself are the other gods even. 386 .23 Even those who. Since 'but the man of Knowledge is the very Self. But the difference lies in this: Others who are devotees make their own efforts as well for their own sake. (This is) My opinion' and 'he too is dear to Me' (7.

O son of Kunti. mam. and anvitah sraddhaya.Swami Gambhirananda 9.23 Api. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Avidhi implies ignorance.24 I indeed am the enjoyer as also the Lord of all sacrifices. following the wrong method. worship Me alone (though) following the wrong method. anya-devatabhaktah. but they do not know Me in reality. (though) avidhi-purvakam. being devoted to tother deities. te api.O son of Kunti. worship. endowed with faith. those who. how can the question of their ignorance arise?] This is being answered: BecauseEnglish Translation . 387 . yajante.Swami Gambhirananda 9. alone. and hence. even.e. worship (them). ye. the worshippers of other deities worship them knowingly. eva. So the idea is that they worship (Me) ignorantly. yajanti. they also. Therefore they fall. Me. 'How it is that they worship (Me) ignorantly?' [i.

Lord. (See also 9. enjoyer.24 As the Self of the deities (of the sacrifices). ca eva. na abhi-jananti. therefore.S. they do not know.'] sarva-yajnanam. the prabhuh.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . but. mam. te. for it has been said earlier. Me as such. 'I Myself am the entity (called Visnu) that exists in the sacrifice in this body' (8.25). they. in reality. of all sacrifices enjoined by the Vedas and the Smrtis. hi. after the exhaustion of the results of those sacrifices and the falling of the respective bodies (assumed in those worlds) they return to the human world for rembodiment.Swami Gambhirananda 9. tattvena. aham.'-M. am the bhokta. And atah.4). indeed. still just because they do not know Me real nature and do not offer the fruits of their sacrifices to Me.)] The result of a sacrifice is inevitable even for those who worship 388 . they proceed to the worlds of the respective deities through the Southern Path (beginning with smoke. Tu. by worshipping ignorantly. [The Lord: 'I being the indwelling Ruler of all. I. fall from the result of the sacrifice. see 8. cyavanti.20-1. Then. as also. A sacrifice is verily presided over by Me. ['Although they perform sacrifices with great diligence.

the Four Sisters. go pitrn. etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Pitr-vratah. who are devoted to the manes. yanti.] and devotion are directed to the gods. Bhutejyah. bowing down. devan. How? English Translation . And madyajinah. still owing to 389 . Me alone.25 Deva-vratah. reach mam.Swami Gambhirananda 9. the gods. the worshippers of the Beings reach the Beings. those who are given to worshipping Me. votaries of the gods..Swami Gambhirananda 9. the group of Sixteen (divine) Mothers. the Beings such as Vinayaka. to the manes such as Agnisvatta and others. those who worship Me. the votarites of the manes go to the manes. and others.ignorantly out of their devotion to other deities. Although the effort (involved) is the same. those who are occupied with such rites as obsequies etc. those whose religious observances [Making offerings and presents. go to. reach.25 Votaries of the gods reach the gods. and those who worship Me reach Me. circumambulation. the devotees of Visnu. the votaries of the manes.

Swami Gambhirananda 390 . me.26 Yah. whoever. Thereby they attain lesser results. which has been bhaktiupahrtam devotionally presented. I accept that (gift) of the pure-hearted man which has been devotionally presented. tat.. This is the meaning. water. prayata-atmanah. a leaf. offers.Swami Gambhirananda 9. 'Not only do My devotees get the everlasting result in the form of non-return (to this world). prayaccati. of the pure-hearted man. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . bhaktya. but My worship also is easy. or toyam. puspam.' How? English Translation . I accept.Swami Gambhirananda 9. a fruit. Me. a flower phalam. thereforeEnglish Translation . a flower. with devotion. Since this is so. asnami. a fruit. that (gift)-leaf etc. patram.26 Whoever offers Me with devotion-a leaf.ingorance they do not worship Me exclusively. or water.

whatever you do. (all) that you offer to Me. and yat-juhosi. whatever you offer as a sacrifice. to Brahmanas and others.27 O son of Kunti. whatever you do. whatever you offer as a sacrifice. and yat-tapasyasi. etc. food.9.not injunctions of the scriptures.27 O son of Kunti. Havng your mind inbued with the 391 . that.' English Translation . whatever you eat. what comes spontaneously. (all) tat. that are spontaneous.Swami Gambhirananda 9. whatever austerties you undertake. whatever you eat. you will become free from bondage in the form of actions which are productive of good and bad results. clarified butter. whatever you give-gold.] yad-asnasi.28 Thus. yatadadasi. kurusva madarpanam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . whatever sacrifices you perform-be it prescribed by the Vedas or by the Smrtis.Swami Gambhirananda 9. you offer to Me. yat-karosi. whatever you give and whatever austerities you undertake. [Actions such as walking etc. 'Hear what happens to you when you act thus.

karma-bandhanaih. will attain. you will attain Me.Swami Gambhirananda 9. which are productive of good and bad results-i. In that case the Lord is possessed of love and hatred inasmuch as He favours the devotees. being such. He who has his mind (atma) endowed (yukta) with that yoga of renunciation (sannyasa-yoga) is sannyasa-yoga-yukta-atma. You. and that is also yoga since it involves actions. come.28 By dedicating to Me evam. and vimuktah. Sannyasa. from bondage in the form of actions-actions themselves being the bonds. maksyase.yoga of renunciation and becoming free. becoming free from the bonds of actions evern while living. subha-asubha-phalaih. from actions that have desirable (subha) and undesireable (asubha) results (phala). to Me.e. you will become free. upaisyasi. thus. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . having your mind endowed with the yoga of renunciation. is that which results from dedication (of actions) to Me. when this body falls. mam. renunciation. and not others? That is not so: 392 .

dvesyah. as it has been purified by following the virtuous path. Tu. with devotion. Tu. to Me there is none detastable or none dear. equal.29 Aham. near. worship Me. ye.Swami Gambhirananda 9. and I too exist in them. but removes it from those who apporach. but. there is none. am samah. not in others. Ca. I. 'Listen to the greatness of devotion to Me:' 393 . na asti. not others. te they. me. those who approach near. but.29 I am impartial towards all beings. ye. they exist in Me. too. to Me. sarvabhutesu. in them. bhaktya. api. none. similarly I favour the devotees. dear. exist mayi. I am like fire: As fire does not ward off cold from those who are afar. God. na. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . naturally exist tesu. aham. similarly I favour the devotees. I. impartial. those who. and. towards all beings.'] they do not exist in Me because of My love.9. ['Their mind becomes fit for My manifestation. in Me-by their very nature. But those who worship Me with devotion. detestable. not others. bhajanti. priyah. Thus there is no hatred towards them (the latter).

30 Even if a man of very bad conduct worships Me with one-pointed devotion. ananyabhak. a man of very bad conduct. O son of Kunti. worships. good.Swami Gambhirananda 9. is to be considered. mam. even if. deemed. bhajate. eva. Do you proclain boldly. he. he is to be considered verily good.31 He soon becomes possessed of a virtuous mind. with one-pointed devotion. hi. with his mind not given to anybody else. has virtuous intentions. su-duracarah. mantavyah. has resolved rightly. he. for. Me. sah. sadhuh. he attains everlasting peace. English Translation . of extremely vile behaviour.9. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . as well behaved. samyakvyavasitah.Swami Gambhirananda 394 .30 Api cet. verily.Swami Gambhirananda 9. for he has resolved rightly. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of very condemnable character. that My devotee does not get ruined.

even those who are born of sin-women. and nigaccahti. also takes papa-yonayah (born of sin) as a separate phrase. make a firm declaration. possessed of a virtuous mind. sasvat. O son of Kunti. M. peace.Swami Gambhirananda 9.]-. he attains. everlasting.. pranasyati. verily dharmaatma. English Translation . do you proclaim boldly. bhaktah.Swami Gambhirananda 395 .31 Having given up his external evil behaviour due to the strength of his internal proper resolves. those who are born low and are of vile deeds. viz Mlecchas. and classifies women and others only as those debarred from Vedic study.e. he soon becomes. does not.9. My. Vaisyas as also Sudras. that me. ksipram bhavati.S.32 For. devotee. Pukkasas and others). get ruined. Moreover.'s construction of this portion is: women. etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .-Tr. even they reach the highest Goal by taking shelter under Me. O son of Prtha. santim. who has dedicated his inner being to Me. as also Sudras [S. Vaisyas. and even others who are born of sin (i.]. quietude [Cessation of evil acts. listen to the supreme Truth: Pratijanihi. na.

the param. reach.Swami Gambhirananda 9. as also. rajarsayah. papayonayah syuh. go to.9. even they. who are born of sin. English Translation . and asukham. of sacred birth. having come. imam. ye api. vaisyah. the human world-having attained 396 . gatim. even those. do you worship Me. highest. holy Bramanas. ever changeful. O son of Prtha. prapya. women. at the same time.Swami Gambhirananda 9. tatha. te api.33 Kim punah. of the bhaktah. miserable. sudrah. unhappy. lokam. devout. Sudras. anityam. under Me-by accepting Me as their refuge.32 Hi. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sages! Since this is so. what to speak of. the Lord says-striyah. Goal vyapasritya. tatha. kindsages-those who are kings and. therefore. Vaisyas. by taking shelter. to this. as also. ephemeral. mam. for. the punyah brahmanah.-as to who they are.33 What to speak of the holy Brahmanas as also of devout kind-sages! Having come to this ephemeral and miserable world. yanti. world.

do you worship. In this way. [Here Ast. who am thus the Self: I indeed am the Self of all the beings.Swami Gambhirananda 9.34 Manmana bhava. devoted yourself. to Me. by accepting Me as the supreme Goal. You shall attain Me evam atmanam. have your mind fixed on Me. by concentrating your mind. 397 . and bow down to Me. By concentrating your mind and accepting Me as the supreme Goal. bow down. sacrifice to Me. adds the word vasudeva. you shall surely attain. and matparayanah. esyasi eva. sacrifice to Me. This is the purport. be engaged in sacrificing to Me. only mam. be devoted to Me. Madyaji. How? 9. you shall surely attain Me who am thus the Self. the word atmanam (Self) is to be connected with the preceding word mam (Me). You shall attain Me who am such. and am also the supreme Goal. bhajasva. Yuktva.34 Having your mind fixed on Me. Me who am God. And namaskuru.this human life which is a means to Liberation. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . mam. mam to Me.-Tr] and also be madbhakah. devoted to Me.

'Why shall I speak?' In answer to this the Lord says: 10. to you. srnu. vacah. in all respects. listen over again ot My supreme utterance.Swami Gambhirananda 10. supreme.2 Neither the gods nor the great sages know My majesty. which I. to My. who take delight (in it). wishing your welfare. yat. priyamanaya. vaksyami. paramam. utterance. shall speak to you who take delight (in it). bhuyah eva. over agiain.1 The Blessed Lord said -.1 O mighty-armed one. I shall speak to you hitakamyaya. aham. me. which is expressive of the transcendental Reality. te.Chapter 10 10. wishing your welfare. Hence. shall speak. I. I am the source of the gods and the great sages. listen. like one drinking ambrosia.O mighty-armed one. You become greatly pleased by My utterance. For. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . which supreme Truth. 398 .

2 Na sura-sanah. Me. great sages.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the beginningless: Since I am the source of the gods and the great sages. the beginningless. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . derived in the sense of 'coming into being'. of the great sages. vetti. He who 399 .Swami Gambhirananda 10.-what do they not know?-me. it means origin. viduh. he. and the great Lord of the worlds. the undeluded one among mortals. Besides. know. neither the gods-Brahma and others. therefore I am birthless and beginningless. Pulaha. becomes freed from all sins. and nothing else exists as My origin. My.Swami Gambhirananda 10. and. the birthless. Nor even the maharsayah. knows.3 Yah. abundance of lordly power-or. ajam. he who. mam. prabhavam (prabhavam). Pulastya. Being without an origin is the cause of being birthless. ca. Marici. Bhrgu and others [Bhrgu.Tr. 10.] devanam. Kratu and Vasistha. of the gods. maharsinam. and anadim. Atri.3 He who knows Me-the birthless. majesty.

among human beings.Swami Gambhirananda 400 . the transcendental One devoid of ignorance and its effects. fame. pramucyate. death and fear as also fearlessness. becomes freed. among mortals. birth.5.5 Non-injury. sorrow.Swami Gambhirananda 10.4 Intelligence. forgiveness. he. and loka-maheswaram. 10. charity. happiness. sarva-papaih. non-delusion. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . satisfaction. martyesu. equanimity. sah. 'For the following reason also I am the great Lord of the worlds:' 10. the great Lord of the worlds. infamy-(these) different dispositions of beings spring from Me alone. from all sinscommitted knowingly or unknowingly. control of the internal organs.knows Me who am thus birthless and beginningless. truth. wisdom. austerity. the asammudhah. undeluded one. control of the external organs. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .4 See Commentary under 10.

austeritydisciplining the body through control of the organs. heard. wisdom-knowledge of entities such as the Self etc. Samah. (These) 401 . charity-distribution (of wealth) according to one's capacity.10. death. Damah. forgivenessunperturbability of the mind of one who is abused or assulted. Bhavah. fearlessness. Ahimsa.5 Buddhih. Danam. sorrow. intelligence-the power of the internal organ to know of things which are subtle etc. Satyam. ayasah is infamy due to unrighteousness. and its opposite abhavah. fame-renown arising from righteousness. truth-an utterance regarding what one has seen. Tustih. Indeed. Asammohah. control of the internal organs. Samata. as also its opposite abhayam. equanimity. Tapah. Jnanam. Sukham. And bhayam. Duhkham. fear. Ksama. happiness. nondelusion-proceeding with discrimination with regard to things that are to be known as they present them-selves. Yasah. birth. On the contrary. satisfaction-the idea of sufficiency with regard to things acquired. people talk of a man possessed of this (power) as intelligent. is said to be truth. control of the external organs. and felt oneself. communicated as such to others for their understanding. non-injury-noncruely towards creatures.

great sagesBhrgu and others. [This is said in the sesne that none of these dispositions can exist without the Self. of ancient days. catvarah. and they were born from My mind. and Savarna. Manus [Savarni. tatha.6 The seven great sages as also the four Manus of anceint days. of which Manus and the great sages. 10. spring. from Me alone. and they jatah. yesam. (and hence) they were endowed with the power of Visnu. Dharma-savarini.-Tr. bhuanam. bhavanti. bhavah. madbhavah. these. different. moving and non-moving. as also. manavah. were born. of whom. maharsayah. of beings. loke in the world. the four. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . creatures. Daksa-savarni. prajah. are the creation.]. dispositionsintelligence etc. purve. as described. the seven. had their thoughts fixed on Me. imah.] from God. had their thoughts fixed on Me-they had their minds fixed on Me.Swami Gambhirananda 10. mattah. in accordanced with their actions.6 Sapta. of living bengs.prthak-vidhah. Moreover. eva. of whom are these creatures in the world.well known as Savarnas. 402 .

about this.S. this. majesty. atra. [After realizing the personal God. action.7 One who knows truly this majesty and yoga of Mine. tattvatah. knows. With what kind of unwavering Yoga does he become endued? This is being answered: 403 . etam. [Omnipresence. the capacity for mystic powers. 10.)]-or.7 Yah. one who. yujyate. (God's power of accomplishing the impossible.-M.] There is no samsayah. the omniscience resulting from yoga (meditation).] and yogam. becomes imbued with. vetti. aforesaid. My own ability to achieve [God's omnipotence. There is no doubt about this. avikampena. from My mind-they were created by Me through My mind itself. yoga. he attains the transcendental Reality.manasa. yogena. doubt. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . vibhutim.e. unwavering. consisting in steadfastness in perfect knowledge. (divine) manifestations. the earlier knowledge leads to the latter.Swami Gambhirananda 10. is called yoga. sah. he. i. just as it is. truly. Yoga. he becomes imbued with unwavering Yoga.

mam. everything. moves on. meaning ardent longing for the supreme Reality. consisting of continuance. the whole world of changes. Besides. they derive satisfaction and rejoice. filled with fervour.8 Aham. origin. of the whole world. with lives dedicated to Me. the supreme Brahman called Vasudeva. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .9 With minds fixed on Me.10. Matva. 10.e. imbued with that. enlightening each other. pravartate.8 I am the origin of all. action and enjoyment of the fruits of action. the budhah. adore Me. filled (samanvitah) with that.Swami Gambhirananda 10. destruction. sarvam. adore. I. i. everything moves on owing to Me. owing to Me alone. bhajante. realizing. the knowers of the supreme Reality. sarvasya. bhavasamanvitah. am the prabhavah. Realizing thus. wise ones. filled with fervour-bhava is the same as bhavana. mattah. Me. iti. 404 . the wise ones. and always speaking of Me. of all. thus.

each other. who worship-. always. having their organs withdrawn into Me. to them. valour. and bhajatam. ever attached. who.e. speaking of. and nityam.9 Maccittah. absorbed in Me. mad-gatapranah. who have become free from all external desires. or having their organs. parasparam. becoming devotees. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . enlightening.Swami Gambhirananda 10. eyes etc. mam. who are ever devoted. bodhayantah.10 To them who are ever devoted and worship Me with love. with lives (pranas) dedicated to Me. they derive satisfaction.10 Tesam. with minds fixed on Me. 10. adore Me in the manner described earlier. Is it because of 405 . rejoice. and ramanti. tusyanti. as by coming in contact with a dear one.Swami Gambhirananda 10. as possessed of qualities like knowledge. get happiness. etc. strength. satatayuktanam. i. I grant that possession of wisdom by which they reach Me. Me. kathayantah.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

dadami. etc. tam. tesam eva. they reach. destroy the darkness born of ignorance with the luminous lamp of Knowledge. by which possession of wisdom consisting in full enlightenment. aham. I grant.11 Anukampartham. atmabhavasthah. Who do so? Te. I. with love. I. 'For what purpose. residing in 406 .Swami Gambhirananda 10. coming in possession (yoga) of that is buddhi-yoga. out of compassion. realize as their own Self. do You bestow that possession of wisdom to those devotees of Yours?' In reply to such a query the Lord says: 10.hankering for possessions? The Lord says: No. the supreme God who is the Self. they. for them alone.11 Out of compassion for them alone. or as the destroyer of what cause standing as an obstacle on the way of reaching You. To them who worship Me with that (love). buddhi-yogam. Me. yena. anxious as to how they may have bliss. that. upayanti. who adore Me through such disciplines as fixing their minds on Me. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . mam. residing in their hearts. (they worship) priti-purvakam. possession of wisdombuddhi means full enlightenment with regard to My real nature.

All the sages as also the divine sage Narada. the supreme Light. jnanadipena.. 10. having the wick of the intellect imbued with the impressions arising from such disciplines as celibacy etc. Asita is the 407 . still they are named separately because of their eminence. born of ignorance. bhasvata. and made luminous by full Illumination resulting from the practice of constant concentration and meditation. Devala and Vyasa [Although Narada and the other sages are already mentioned by the words 'all the sages'. tamah.their hearts-atmabhavah means the seat that is the heart. being seated there itself.13 Arjuna said -. the supreme Sanctifier. in the form of discriminating comprehension. in the receptacle of the detached mind. originating from non-discrimination. with the lamp of Knowledge. Asita.12-10. ajnanajam. the darkness of delusion known as false comprehension. i. nasayami.e. After hearing the above-described majesty and yoga of the Lord. fanned by the wind of intensity of meditation on Me. destroy. the darkness.You are the supreme Brahman. with the luminous lamp of Knowledge-fed by the oil of divine grace resulting from devotion. placed in the windless shelter of the mind withdrawn from objects and untainted by likes and dislikes.

are the param brahma. as also.13 Arjuna said -. All the sages as also the divine sage Narada. divine sage. the devarisih. the eternal. the supreme Light. and You Yourself verily tell me (so). You. Sarve. Asita and Devala ahuh.] call You the eternal divine Person. bravisi. the Primal God. svayam. the supreme Self. tell. the supreme Sanctifier. tatha. verily. the Birthless. Person. call. and. supreme Brahman. eva. divyam.You are the supreme Brahman. tvam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . naradah. ajam.Swami Gambhirananda 10. You Yourself. Asita.father of Devala. divine. supreme Light. the birthless. purusam. the paramam pavitram. thus: Sasvatam. supreme Sanctifier. vibhum. the sagesVasistha and others. the param dhama. the Omnipresent. You. Devala and Vyasa [Although Narada and the other sages are already mentioned 408 . Ca. the Primal God.12 Bhavan. all. the Omnipresentcapable of assuming diverse forms. Narada. the God who preceded all the gods. me (so). me. 10.12-10. And even Vyasa also speaks in this very way. adi-devam. rsayah.

divyam. eva. bravisi. Certainly. Person. the devarisih. Ca. the Birthless. divine sage. O Lord. Narada. vibhum. the paramam pavitram. all. ajam. and. me. rsayah. the eternal. thus: Sasvatam. the param dhama. me (so). Sarve.] call You the eternal divine Person. the Omnipresentcapable of assuming diverse forms. the sagesVasistha and others. supreme Light. You Yourself. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . You. and You Yourself verily tell me (so). supreme Sanctifier. call. naradah. tatha. the Omnipresent.Swami Gambhirananda 10. I accept to be true all this which You tell me. the Primal God. adi-devam. the birthless. purusam. neither the gods nor the demons comprehend Your glory.by the words 'all the sages'. And even Vyasa also speaks in this very way. 409 . still they are named separately because of their eminence. are the param brahma.13 Bhavan. the supreme Self. tell. verily. Asita and Devala ahuh. divine. 10. tvam. the Primal God. as also.14 O Kesava. You. svayam. supreme Brahman. Asita is the father of Devala. the God who preceded all the gods.

the Lord of beings. etat. svayam. Hi. vadasi. the unqualified State. therefore. tvam. all. eva.Swami Gambhirananda 10. 410 . the Lord of the worlds. comprehend. viduh. bhutesa. glory. na devah. Your. the Lord of beings. speak. true indeed. 10. neither the gods. manye. mam.14 O Kesava. which. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . certainly. Since You are the origin of the gods and others. You Yourself alone know Yourself by Yourself. bhagavan. O Lord. nor the demons. bhutabhavana. Yourself. yat. to be rtam.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the Creator of beings. this that has been said by sages and You. vyaktim. I accept.15 Purusottama. one who brings the creatures into being. O supreme Person. O God of gods.15 O supreme Person. God of gods. to Me. glory [Prabhavam in the Commentary is the same as prabhavam. sarvam. O Creator of beings. the Lord of the worlds. You tell.]. deva-deva. You. jagat-pate. te.Swami Gambhirananda 10. na danavah.

divyah hi. through which manifestations You exist pervading these worlds. O Lord. worlds. [Here yoga stands for the results of yoga.Swami Gambhirananda 10. by Yourself. vaktum.7)] how shall I know You by remaining ever-engaged in meditation? And through what objects. to speak.. iman. etc. manifestations. atmanam. Yourself. tisthasi. as God possessed of unsurpassable powers of knowledge. pervading. these. know. lokan. in full. vettha. atmana. 10. sovereignty.16 Arhasi. of Your own manifestations. vyapya. You exist. strength. yabhih. omnipotence.16 Be pleased to speak in full of Your own manifestations which are indeed divine. are You to be meditated on by me? 411 . asesena. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . (See Comm. vibhutibhih. which are indeed divine. through which. be pleased. atmavibhutayah. 10. manifestations of Your glory.17 O Yogi. viz omniscience. one possessed of these is a yogi..alone. etc. on 10.

while hearing (Your) nectar-like (words). maya. by me? 10. He is called Jana-ardana. Kathaya. go to hell etc. kesu kesu bhavesu. bhagvan.17 O Yogi. how. 'to pray'. For. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . narrate to me. You. through what objects.Swami Gambhirananda 10. viz prosperity and Liberation.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . bhuyah. the demons who are opposed to the gods. 412 . Or. narrate to me again [In addition to what has been said in the seventh and ninth chapters.] Your onw yoga and (divine) manifestations elaborately. shall I know tvam.18 O Janardana: ardana is derived from ard. there is no satiety in me. by remaining ever-engaged in meditation? Ca.] by all beings for the sake of human goals. katham. aham vidyam.Swami Gambhirananda 10. sada pari-cintayan.18 O Janardana. He is called so because He is prayed to [The verbal root ard has got a second meaning. O Lord. are You to be meditated on. and. in the sense of the act of going. by virtue of making the janas. cintah asi.

according to their importance. now. while hearing. Na asti there is no. according to their importance. there is no. kathayisyami.O best of the Kurus. divine. antah. satiety.Swami Gambhirananda 10.again. elaborately. the (divine) manifestations-the variety of the objects of meditation. I shall described to you My onw glories. O best of the Kurus. on the other hand. atmavibhutayah. to you. though spoken of earlier. indeed) divyah. yogam. nectar-like speech issuing out of Your mouth. srnvatah. it is not possible to speak exhaustively of them even in a hundred years. Your own. which are (hi. 413 . I shall described. now. in me. 10. vistarena.19 The Blessed Lord said -. (Your) amrtam. My own glories. since. hanta. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . na asti. Hi.19 Kuru-srestha. heavenly. atmanah. according as those manifestations are pre-eminent in their respective spheres. and vibhutaim. There is no end to my manifestations. me. for. trptih. (there-fore) pradhanyatah. te. which are indeed divine. yoga-the special ability in the form of mystic powers.

-Tr. am verily the adih. and I am the beginning and the middle as also the end of (all) beings. O Gudakesa-gudaka means sleep. actions and past experiences. the antah. the indwelling Self. I. manifestations.Swami Gambhirananda 10. one who has got thick hair. I. aham. and isa means master.]-sthitah. am the atma. 'Of those.20 Gudakesa.] or. I am capable of being meditated on (through them) becasue aham. vistarasya. [See also under 1. Self.end. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . middle. I am the Self residing in the hearts of all beings. ca. residing in the hearts of all beings. end. continuance. now listen to the foremost:' 10. I am to be meditated on through the following aspects. to My. of (all) beings. i. by one who is unable to do so. and the madhyam.e. beginning. who is to be ever-meditated on as sarva-bhuta-asaya [Asaya-that in which are contained the impressions of meditations (upasanas). one who has conquered sleep. me. 'I am to be meditated upon thus also:' 414 . master of that (sleep) is gudakesa. the origin. as also. bhutanam. dissolution. And.20 O Gudakesa.24.

] I am Marici.Swami Gambhirananda 10. I am sasi. am the Aditya called Visnu. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Paravaha.] I am Visnu. ravih.22 Among the Vedas I am Sama-veda.21 Among the Adityas [viz Dhata.21 Adityanam. Tvasta and Visnu.Swami Gambhirananda 415 .-Tr. Savita. I. Rudra. Udvaha. Varuna.-Tr. the radiant.10. the one called Marici. among the luminaries. among the twelve Adityas. Vivasvan. Jyotisam. Naksatranam. among the (forty-nine) Maruts [The seven groups of Maruts are Avaha. Surya. aham. the radiant sun. Marutam. amsuman. Bhaga. Pravaha. among the stars I am the moon. aryama. among the luminaries. among the different gods called Maruts. among the gods I am Indra. I am. and I am the intelligence in creatures. 10. Among the organs I am the mind. Samvaha and parivaha. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Pusa. asmi. Mitra. Vivaha. among the stars. sun. the moon.

Dharma. Indra.10. Ahirbudhnya. I am the mind which is of the nature of reflection and doubt. Indriyanam. 10. Devanam.] I am Sankara. they are: Apa. Mahesvara. among the gods-such as Rudras. I am the Samaveda. Soma. Aparajita. The Mbh. Yaksas are a class of demigods who attend on him and guard his wealth.]. Anila. Pratyusa and Prabhasa. Among the Vasus [According to the V. Sambhu. Different Puranas give different lists of eleven names. Tryam-baka. I am the manah.-Tr. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . among the Vedas. bhtanam.23 Among the Rudras [Aja. Pinaki. viz eye etc.-Tr. mind..Swami Gambhirananda 416 . given a different list. dhruva. I am vasavah. and among the mountains I am Meru. and the Bh. in creatures.]. intelligence [It is the medium for the manifestation of Consciousness. And I am the cetana. Ekapada. Harana and Isvara.22 Vedanam. the function of the intellect ever manifest in the aggregate of body and organs. Vrsakapi. and among the Yaksas and goblins I am Kubera [God of wealth. Anala (Fire).P.] I am Fire. Adityas and others. among the eleven organs.

among large expanses of water I am the sea. know.23 Rudranam. Kubera. the commander of the armies of gods. Among comanders of armies I am Skanda. among the peaked mountains. mam. I am pavakah. mukhyam. among reservoirs dug by gods (i. among commaners of armies. Me. among the Yaksas and goblins. of words I am the single syllable (Om) [Om is the best 417 . among the eight Vasus.25 Among the great sages I am Bhrgu. I am Sankara. to be Brahaspati. among nature reservoirs). 10. the foremost. I am Skanda.24 O son of Prtha. Sarasam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . among large expanses of water. among the eleven Rudras.24 O son of Prtha viddhi.10. the foremost among the priests of kings. I am Meru. Being as he is the priest of Indra. know me to be Brhaspati. he should be the foremost. I am sagarah. Fire.Swami Gambhirananda 10. Senaninam. and sikharinam. purodhasam. and yaksaraksasam. Vasunam.e. the sea. 10. among the priests of kings. I am vittesah.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . single.] (I am) Citraratha.Swami Gambhirananda 418 . Among rituals I am the ritual of Japa [Japa.] of the immovables.26 Among all trees (I am) the Asvatha (peepul). and hence the best. the Himalaya. aksaram. syllable Om. 10. the sage Kapila. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 10. of the immovables. Giram. and Narada among the divine sages. among the great sages. silently repeating names of deities. Among the dandharvas [A class of demigods regarded as the musicians of gods. of words. I am the japayajnah. Yajnanam.because it is the name as well as the symbol of Brahman. But Japa is free from such injury. Sthavaranam. Rituals often involve killing of animals.25 Maharsinam.]. I am the Himalaya. among the perfected ones. rituals of Japa. etc. in the form of words. muttering prayers-repeating passages from the Vedas. of utterances. among rituals. I am Bhrgu. I am the ekam.

10. among the perfected ones. [Uccaihsravas and Airavata are respectively the divine horse and elephant of Indra.] English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . mam.Swami Gambhirananda 10. among all trees. born of nectar. 'know Me to be so' remains 419 . from their very birth. Airavata. the sage Kapila. the Kind of men. know.27 Asvanam.10. among the Lordly elephants. (I am) the Asvatta. were endowed with an abundance of the wealth of virtue. among those who. and among men. to be the horse named Uccaihsravas. know Me to be Uccaihsravas. among the gandharvas. gajendranam. Siddhanam. (I am) munih. among the divine sages-those who were gods and became sages by virtue of visualizing Vedic mantras. the son of Iravati.26 Sarva-vrksanam. Airavata among the lordly elephants. knowledge and renunciation. born of nectar-born when (the sea was) churned (by the gods) for nectar. among them I am Narada. I am the gandharva called Citraratha. and Narada devarsinam. amrta-udbhavam. among horses. Gandharvanam.27 Among horses. Me. viddhi.

among the various serpents. among milch cows.Swami Gambhirananda 10. prajanah. the kind of serpents. among cows I am kamadhenu. made of the bones of (the sage) Dadhici. or it means a cow in general which gives milk at all times. King of men. 10. 10. Sarpanam. among weapons. among serpents.28 Ayudhanam. I am Kandarpa. Kamadhenu.understood.28 Among weapons I am the thunderbolt. know Me as the naradhipam. I am kama-dhuk. and Varuna among gods of the waters. 420 .29 Among snakes I am Ananta. Dhenunam. and among serpents I am Vasuki. And naranam. and among the maintainers of law and order I am Yama (King of death). the Progenitor. I am Vasuki. which was the yielder of all desires of (the sage) Vasistha. Among the manes I am Aryama. (the god) Kama (Cupid). I am Kandarpa. the Progenitor. I am the vajram. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . among men. thunderbolt.

among birds. among snakes. kalayatam. of those who calculate. Time. 421 .Swami Gambhirananda 10. the loin. And samyamatam.29 Naganam. (I am) vainateyah. Pitrnam. asmi. among demons. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . or the tiger. the King of snakes. named Aryama. I am the King of the manes.Swami Gambhirananda 10. And among animals I am the loin. among animals. the son of Vinata. I am mrgendrah.30 Among demons I am Prahlada.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of the gods of the waters. and I am Time among reckoners of time. the descendants of Diti. And I am kalah. of a particular species of snakes. among the manes. I am the one called Prahlada.30 Daityanam. And paksinam. I am Ananta. And mrganam. Garuda. the King yadasam. among reckoners of time. 10. And Varuna. and among birds I am Garuda. among the maintainers of law and order I am Yama.

I am Rama. among the wielders of weapons I am Rama. he antah. among streams of water. I am jahnavi. son of Dasaratha. and . At the commencement (verse 20) origin. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Ganga. air. as also. only of 422 . Among fishes. among weilders of weapons. of creations. continuance and dissolution. I am the knowledge of the Self among knowledge. of creations I am the beginning and the end as also the middle. I am the particular species of fish called makarah shark. too.31 Pavatam. I am the adih. middle-I am the origin. beginning. among fishes etc.32 O Arjuna sarganam. ca eva.Swami Gambhirananda 10.32 O Arjuna. of the purifiers. of those who debate I am vada. end.10. I am Ganga among rivers. 10.Swami Gambhirananda 10. srotasam. end.31 Of the purifiers I am air. Jhasanam. the madhyam. Sastra-bhrtam. etc. I am the shark. ca. among rivers. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . I am pavanah.

Pravadatam. that is termed Vitanda. Jalpa. who are both desirous of victory. which is preeminent since it is a means to determining true purport. jalpa: pointless debate. among knowledges. without establishing his own views. but here the mention is of all creations in general. This is the difference. knowledge of the Self. Vitanda: wrangling discussion. am vadah. I am the adhyatma-vidya. false generalization and showing the unfitness of the opponent to be argued with. But where one party establishes his viewpoint. Vidyanam. 423 . and Vitanda. with a veiw to determining true purport. Jalpa and Vitanda result only in a trial of streangth between the opponents. By the word pravadatam are here meant the different kinds of debate held by debators. it being the foremost because of its leading to liberation. and the other refutes it through circumvention.things possessed of souls were spoken of. Vada. aham. I. and refute the view of the opponent through circumvention (Chala) and false generalization (Jati) and by pointing out unfitness (of the opponent) tobe argued with (Nigraha-sthana). of those who debate. [Jalpa is that mode of debate by which both parties establish their own viewpoint through direct and indirect proofs. Hence I am that . [Vada: discussion with open-mindedness. viz Vada.

] I Mayself am the infinite time. Dispenser. and of the group of compund words I am (the compound called) Dvandva. [Dvandva: A compound of two or more words which. I am the akarah. I am the compund (called) Dvandva. I am the dhata. kalah. or.-Gloss of Sridhara Swami on this verse. I am the Dispenser with faces everywhere. the dispenser of the fruits of actions of the whole world. Samasikasya. of the group of compound words.] 10. aham eva. if not compounded.]-Tr. both unbiased. well known as 'moment' etc.33 Of the letters I am the letter a. I Myself. time.33 Aksaranam. visvatomukhah. Besieds.But the result of Vada is the ascertainment of truth between the teacher and the disciple or between others. endless. the measurer) even of time. 424 . letter a.-Tr. infinite. I am the supreme God who is Kala (Time.Swami Gambhirananda 10. with faces everwhere.. am the aksayah. would stand in the same case and be connected by the conjunction 'and'. of the letters. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

that which destroys life (is called sarva-harah). the words fame etc. I am He. and the prosperity of those destined to be prosperous. Of the feminine [Narinam may mean 'of the feminine qualities'. memory..] (I am) fame. srih. medha.e. the supreme God is the all-destroyer because He destroys everything during dissolution. Or.34 And I am Death.-Tr. and the other destroying life-.Swami Gambhirananda 10. eminence. speech. and the means to it.34 Death which is of two kinds-one destroying wealth. This is the meaning. According to M. [Here Ast. signify the goddesses of the respective qualities. intelligence 425 . Of whom? Bhavisyatam. these seven goddesses are the wives of the god Dharma. of those who are fit for attaining eminence.-Tr. speech. memory. intelligence. prosperity. of the feminine qualities. Narinam. the destroyer of all. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . fortitude and forbearance. According to Sridhara Swami and S. beauty. i. beauty. And I am udbhavah. adds: tatra yah prana-harah sah (sarva-harah ucyate)-Among them. the destroyer of all.10. fame.] is called sarva-harah. smrtih.S. I am kirtih. of those destined to be prosperous. I am that. vak.

Swami Gambhirananda 426 . Of the months I am Marga-sirsa. I am these excellent feminine quialities. I am Margasirsa (Agrahayana. and ksama. of the months. Gayatri. Masanam. 10. of the seasons. This is meaning.36 Of the fraudulent I am the gambling. spring. forbearance. of the metres. I am the sattva quality of those possessed of sattva. kusumakarah. Rtunam.. of the Sama-mantras. of the metres. spring. the Brhat-sama. fortitude. the foremost samnam. I am effort.35 I am also the Brhat-sama of the Sama (mantras).dhrtih. I am the irresistible command of the mighty. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 10. also. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Chandasam. I am excellene. and of the seasons.35 I am tatha. November-December).Swami Gambhirananda 10. I am the Rk called Gayatri. of the Rk-mantras having the metres Gayatri etc. by coming to possess even a trace of which one considers himself successful.

37 Of the vrsnis [The clan to which Sri krsna belonged. of the omniscient. adds yadavanam. known otherwise as the Yadavas.-Tr. of those who know of all things.Tr. of the Yadavas. effort of the persevering.-Tr. and. [Some translate this as 'the victory of the victorious'. of those possessed of sattva.] I am the jayah. of the fraudulent. 427 . I am the dyutam. And of the wise. (I am) Dhananjaya.36 Chalayatam.] I am Vasudeva.] I am Vasudeva. tejasvinam. Pandavanam. [The result of sattva. [Here Ast. of the Pandavas. your friend. of the Pandavas. I am Vyasa. Api. gambling. sattva quality. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of the wise.I who am this person. 10.] I am the vyavasayah. I am the sattvam. of the Vrsnis. muninam. viz virtue. you yourself. I am the tejah. etc. the omniscient Usanas. excellence of the excellent. of the deceitful. of the mighty.37 Vrsninam. such as playing with dice. [Some translate this as 'the splendour of the splendid'. Dhananjaya (Arjuna). of the thoughtful. irresistible command.] sattvavatam.Swami Gambhirananda 10. I am Vyasa. knowledge.10. detachment.

I am the righteous policy of those who desire to conquer. I am the omniscient Usanas (Sukracarya). that I am. I am jnanam.Swami Gambhirananda 10. righteous policy.e.. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .38 Of the punishers I am the rod. I am knowledge of the men of knowledge.Swami Gambhirananda 428 . of things secret. And guhyanam. of the those who know the past. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . which is the means of controlling the lawless. of those who desire to conquer. of the men of knowledge. the rod. I am verily maunam. 10. whatsoever is the seed of all beings. I am verily silence. O Arjuna. silence.38 Damayatam. of the omniscient (i. of the punishers. jagisatam. I am the nitih.39 Moreover. 10. I am dandah. And of things secret. present and future). There is no thing moving or non-moving which can exist without Me. knowledge.kavinam. jnanavatam.

cara-acaram. however.10. vibhutinam. limit. asti. which. vistarah. without Me. sarvabhutanam. yat api. can exist. no. from whatever I withdraw Myself will have no substance. divine.40 O destroyer of enemies. vina maya. manifestations. is the bijam. the source of growth . has been stated by Me by way illustration. This description of (My) manifestations. to mama. there is no limit to My divine manifestations. description. antah. of all beings. there is no thing. however. syat. O Arjuna. of (My) manifestations. Indeed. moving or non-moving. yat. moreover. it is not possible for anyone to speak or know of the limit of the divine manifestations of the of the allpervading God. this. Esah.Swami Gambhirananda 10. vibhuteh. As a conclusion of the topic the Lord states in brief His divine manifestations: Na tat asti bhutam. 10. tat. 429 . tu. whatsoever. na. divyanam. that I am.39 Ca. O destroyer of enemies. For whatever is rejected by Me.40 Parantapa. Hence the meaning is that everything has Me as its essence. My. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . there is. seed. and will become a non-entity.

for certain. possessed of vigour. 10. power (teja) as its source (sambhavam). of God's. on the other hand. tat tat. maya. has been stated. know. sattvam. verily. object in the world. endowed with majesty. O Arjuna? I remain sustaning this whole creation in a special way with a part (of Myself). English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .41 Yat yat. Me. eva. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . by way of illustration. possessed of prosperity. 10. is urjitam. what is the need of your knowing this extensively. you. partially. va. is eva. vibhutimat. by uddesatah. or is energetic. tvam. each of them.Swami Gambhirananda 10.42 Or. you know for certain each of them as having a part of My power as its source. srimad. whatever.Swami Gambhirananda 430 .41 Whatever object [All living beings] is verily endowed with majesty. as mama tejomsa-sambhavam. energetic. or. avagaccha. possessed of prosperity.prokatah. having a part (amsa) of My (mama).

I. this extensively-but imcompletely-in the above manner. Su. [A Form constituted by the whole of creation has been presented in this chapter for meditation. kim. by a part. Ar. by a foot [The Universe is called a foot of His by virtue of His having the limiting adjunct of being its efficient and material cause. 'All beings form a foot of His' (Rg. Thereby the unqualified transcendental Reality. as the Self of all things [As the material and the efficient cause of all things]. holding firmly. of tava jnatena. what is the need.] (of Myself).12. The Vedic text. 3. O Arjuna? You listen to this subject that is going to be stated in its fullness: Aham. your knowing. idam.. vistabhya. on the other hand.3) support this. whole. remain. etena bahuna. in a special way. or. ekamsena. becomes established. Tai. sustaining. supporting.] 431 .10. creation. 10. sthitah. krtsnam.3. Pu.90. this.e.42 Athava. implied by the word tat (in tattva-masi) and referred to by the latter portion of the Commentator's quotation (viz tripadasyamrtam divi: The immortal three-footed One is established in His own effulgence). jagat. i.

madanugrahaya.'] And (Your) undecaying glory. speech of Yours. supremely.e. mahah.2 O you with eyes like lotus leaves. and adhyatmasanjnitam. out of favour for me.This delusion of mine has departed as a result of that speech which is most secret and known as pertaining to the Self. Further. which. secret. this. tena. for my benefit. tvaya. mama. was uktam. (has been heard). i. as a result of that. my non-discriminating idea has been removed. by You. most. vigatah. the origin and dissolution of beings have been heard by me in detail from You. which is paramam. guhyam. too. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . ['From You have been heard the origin and dissolution of beings in You. of mine. 432 . and yat.Chapter 11 11. 11. delusion.1 Ayam. has departed. vacah..Swami Gambhirananda 11. and which was uttered by You for my benefit.1 Arjuna said -. uttered. known as pertaining to the Self-dealing with discrimination between the Self and the nonSelf.

3 O supreme Lord. etat. by me. 11. Power. of Visnu. undecaying. form. so. yatha. so it is. bhava-apyayau. to see. I wish to see the divine form of Yours. too. (Your) avyayam. 433 . purusottama. evam. rupam. Still. tvattah. glory.-has been heard-(these last words) remain understood. about Yourself. te. O supreme Person.2 Kamala-partraksa. O supreme Lord. You. attha. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of beings. from You. in detail-not in brief.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Sovereignty. it is-not otherwise. the aisvaram. srutau.3 Parama-isvara. Strength. endowed with Knowledge. atmanam. mahatmyam. bhutanam. and. O You with eyes like lotus leaves. of Yours. the origin and dissolutionthese two. divine. maya. O supreme Person. as.Swami Gambhirananda 11. speak. Ca. Valour and Formidability. tvam. as You speak about Yourself. iccahmi.Swami Gambhirananda 11. drastum. have been heard. vistarasah. I wish.

My. satasah. then. You show me Your eternal Self. 11. Being thus implored by Arjuna. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . i. O Lord of Yoga. of different kinds. pasya. manyase. in (their) hundreds. and.Swami Gambhirananda 11. drastum. yadi.11. behold. You. show. celestial. sahasrasah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . O Lord of Yoga. me. me. forms. me.5 The Blessed Lord said -. iti. therefore. maya. tat sakyam.4 O Lord. in thousands.e.O son of Prtha. to be see. it is possible. Master. yogeswara.Swami Gambhirananda 11. O Lord. their Lord is yogeswara. if. then. behold My forms in (their) hundreds and in thousands. by Arjuna. in large numbers.5 O son of Prtha. tvam. by me. and of various colours and shapes. Your eternal Self. for my sake. if You think that it is possible to be seen by me. tatah. darsaya. that. atha. You think. 434 . rupani. since I am very eager to see.4 Prabho. of yogis-Yoga stands for yogis. atmanam avyayam.

and nana-varnaakrtini. also. etc. 11. and amarutah. wonders. the many other. behold. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the eight Vasus. O scion of the Bharata dynasty.6 Pasya. vasun.11. rudran. of various colours and shapes-forms which have different (nana) colours (varna) such as blue. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. the Maruts. the two Asvins. the Rudras. who are divided into seven groups of seven each. having their parts differently arranged. the eleven Rudras. pasya. O Gudakesa (Arjuna). behold also the many wonders not seen before. of different kinds. O gudakesa. as also (different) shapes (akrtayah).Swami Gambhirananda 11. the twelve Adityas. the two Asvins and the Maruts. Bharata. Not only this much. adrstapurvani. divyani. not seen before-by you or anyone else in the human world. tatha.6 See the Adiyas. see. the entire Universe together with the moving and 435 . the Vasus. supernatural.7 See now.And they are nana-vidhani. bahuni. celestial. ascaryani. yellow. asvinau. adityan.

drastum. but. whatever else-even those victory.8 But you are not able to see Me merely with this eye of yours. now. entire.7 Pasya. 'whether we shall win. in My body. iha. etc. drastum. who have assumed the Cosmic 436 . if icchasi. concentrated at the same place. sa-cara-acaram.Swami Gambhirananda 11. mam. you would like. see. Universe. yat anyat.Swami Gambhirananda 11. as also. concentrated at the same place here in My body. bhold My divine Yoga. here. you are not able. na sakyase. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 11.the non-moving. I grant you the supernatural eye. ca. or whether they shall conquer us' (2. the krtsnam. to see them. Me. O Gudakesa. ekastham. to see. as also whatever else you would like to see. adya. defeat.6).8 Tu. existing together with the moving and the nonmoving. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . jagat. with regard to which you expressed doubt in. mama dehe.

tatah. eye. However. me. rupam. darasyamasa showed. te. merely. uktva. harih. dadami.form. showed to the son of Prtha the supreme divine form: English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Dhrtarastra. by which supernatural eye you shall be able to see Pasya. supreme. O King.O King. anena. the divyam. Narayana.Swami Gambhirananda 11. having spoken evam. thereafter. with this natural. form. svacaksusa. the superabundance of the power of Yoga [The power of accomplishing the impossible. to the son of Prtha. you. Yoga. thus. the great Master of Yoga-who is great (mahan) and also the master (isvara) of Yoga.] (Krsna) the great Master of Yoga.]. I grant. My. parthaya. caksuh. mahayogeswarah. yogam.e. supernatural. God's aisvaram. in the manner stated above. the paramam. thereafter. divine. eva. Hari. divine.S. having spoken thus. eye of yours. the Cosmic form: 437 . Hari [Hari: destroyer of ignorance along with its consequences. behold with that. 11.-M.9 Rajan.9 Sanjaya said -. i. aisvaram.

11. adorned with numerous celestial ornaments. Moreover. having many faces and eyes. abounding in all kinds of wonder. possessing many wonderful sights. adorned with numerous celestial ornaments. resplendent. anointed with heavenly scents. holding many uplifted heavenly weapons.10 A form aneka-vaktra-nayanam. infinite.Swami Gambhirananda 11. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . possessing many wonderful sights. and divya-aneka-udyataayudham. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . wearing heavenly garlands and apparel-the God wearing 438 . aneka-adbhuta-darsanam.10 Having many faces and eyes.11 Wearing heavenly garlands and apparel.11 Divya-malya-ambara-dharam.Swami Gambhirananda 11. This whole portion is connected with the verb '(He) showed' in the earlier verse. 11. holding many uplifted heavenly weapons. and with faces everywhere. as also anekadivya-abharanam.

suryasahasrasya. radiance. yadi syat. infinite. An illustration is once more being given of the effulgence of the Cosmic form of the Lord: 11. or in heaven which is the third as counted (from this earth). 439 . similar. sarvaascaryamayam. tasya. anointed with heavenly scents. with faces everywhere-He being the Self of all beings. divya-gandhaanulepanam. or 'Arjuna saw'. of that. and visvato-mukham. devam. of a thousand suns. resplendent. yugapat. that might be similar to the radiance of that exalted One.Swami Gambhirananda 11. divi. effulgence.12 Should the effulgence of a thousand suns blaze forth simultaneously in the sky. exalted One. The idea is that the brillinace of the Cosmic Person surely excels even this! Further. the Cosmic Person Himself. is to be supplied. might be-or it might not be-. that. anantam. abounding in all kinds of wonder.sa. simultaneously. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . blaze forth. sadrsi.celestial flowers and clothings. in the sky. mahat-manah. to the bhasah.12 Should the bhah. 'He showed (to Arjuna)'. utthita bhavet. boundless.

ekastham. saw. the whole diversely differentiated Universe united in the one (Cosmic form). Universe. krtsnam. became vismaya-avistah. of Hari. pravibhaktam. united in the one (Consmic form). there. then. (Arjuna). anekadha. tatra. at that time. in the body. in that Cosmic form. filled with wonder. the whole. and hrsta-roma.13 At that time. 11.Swami Gambhirananda 11. deversely. in the body of the God of gods. of the God of gods.14 Tatah. bowing down with his head to the Lord. Dhananjaya. and others. differentiated-into groups of gods.13 Tada. Arjuna. had his hairs standing on 440 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Dhananjaya.14 Then. Pandava. human beings. sarire. he.11. pandavah. devadevasya. filled with wonder. manes. having seen Him. jagat. Pandava saw there. sah. said with folded hands: English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . apasyat. with hairs standing on end. he.Swami Gambhirananda 11.

as also. rsin. sitting on a lotus seat.] sirasa. i. hosts of (various) classes of beings. gods. the divyan. all. with four faces. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . I see in Your body all the gods as also hosts of (various) classes of beings. devam. kamalasana-stham. and sarvan. 11.O God. the Ruler of creatures. bowing down. isam. bhuta-visesa-sanghan. I see. pasyami. to the Lord. perceive. all.e.15 Deva. with palms joined in salutation: How? 'I am seeing the Cosmic form that has been revealed by You'-thus expressing his own experience.Swami Gambhirananda 11. heavenly. O God. tava dehe. bowing down fully.15 Arjuna said -. pranamya. 441 . sitting on Mount Meru which forms the pericarp of the lotus that is the earth. he said. sitting on a lotus seat. the devan. in Your body. brahmanam. groups of moving and non-moving living things having different shapes. and all the heavely sages and serpents. Brahma the ruler.end. [With abundant respect and devotion. abhasata. sarvan. with folded hands. Brahma. Becoming filled with humility. who had assumed the Cosmic form. with his head. tatha. krta-anjalih. and besides.

bellies. I see not Your limit nor the middle. nor again.'] tava. I see not. Your. serpents-Vasuki and others. 11.sages-Vasistha and others. of You who are God! Furthermore. 11. nor again the beginning. and holding a disc.Swami Gambhirananda 11. bellies. having infinite forms. You. as having infinite forms all around.17 I see You as wearing a diadem. na madhyam. all around. and (the heavenly) uragan. nor again the beginning! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . na pasyami.16 Pasyami. mouths and eyes. nor the middle-what lies between two extremities. ananta-rupam. O Cosmic Person. O Lord of the Universe. Visveswara. aneka-bahu-udaravaktra-netram. a mass of brilliance 442 . na punah. beginning-I see not the limit (end) nor the middle.16 I see You as possessed of numerous arms. mouths and eyes. antam. O Cosmic Person. wielding a mace. I see. as possessed of numerous arms. ['I do not see-because of Your all-pervasiveness. the adim. sarvatah. end. O Lord of the Universe. visva-rupa. tvam.

and aprameyam. You are the most perfect repository of this Universe. tejorasim. samantat. beyond limitation. from all sides.. sarvatah diptimantam. You. glowing all around. one having it is kiriti. possessed of the radiance (dyuti) of the blazing (dipta) fire (anala) and sun (arka). the supreme One to be known.e. possessed of the radiance of the blazing fire and sun. This is my belief. difficult to look at from all sides. by seeing Your power of Yoga. a mass of brilliance. as though dipta-analarka-dyutim. holding a disc. wielding a mace. difficult to look at.Swami Gambhirananda 11.glowing all around.17 Pasyami. 443 . You are the eternal Person. tvam. i. i. and also cakrinam. 'For this reason also. immeasurable. at every point. You are the Imperishable. as kiritinam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . I see.18 You are the Immutable. durniriksyam. wearing a diadem-kirita is a kind of decoration for the head. I infer' that11. and immeasurable.e. gadinam. the Protector of the ever-existing religion.

supreme One. You are the sanatanah. Imperishable-there is no decay in You. Moreover. having the sun and the moon as eyes.Swami Gambhirananda 11.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and heating up this Universe by Your own brilliance. repositorywhere things are deposited. middle and end. my. nidhanam. This is me. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . You. Brahman. Protector (gopta) of the everexisting (sasvata) religion (dharma).Swami Gambhirananda 444 . eternal. of the entire creation. i. to be known-by those aspiring for Liberation. the paramam. Further.18 Tvam. matah. belief-what is meant by me. You are the param. having innumerable arms. the sasvatadharma-gopta. transcendental purusah. most perfect.19 I see You as without beginning. veditavyam. the ultimate resort. possessed of infinite valour. You are the avyayah. Immutable. Person.e. asya visvasya. having a mouth like a blazing fire. are the aksaram. of this Universe. 11.

as anadi-madhyaantam. having innumerable arms. sasi-surya-netram. this. having the sun and the moon as the eyes. heating up. tvaya. dipta-hutasavakram. tvam. O exalted One. between heaven and earth.20 Indeed. I see. Universe. antaram. sva-tejasa.11. Mahatman. possessed of infinite valour. this. pravyathitam.19 Pasyami. dyavaprthivyoh. having a mouth like a blazing fire.Swami Gambhirananda 11. direction. 11. idam. ca. who have assumed the Cosmic form. alone. the three worlds are struck with fear by seeing this strange.20 Hi. without beginning. or are 445 . this intermediate space between heaven and earth as also all the directions are pervaded by You alone. the disah. ananta-viryam. as also. You. intermediate space. visvam. O exalted One. are struck with fear. are pervaded. three worlds. tapantam. all. fearful form of Yours. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . vyaptam. the lokatrayam. indeed. who by nature are high-minded. by You. and also ananta-bahum. idam. middle and end. sarvah. ekena. by Your own birlliance.

Bhitah. with their palms joined. drstva. enter-are seen to be entering. Maharsisiddha [Siddha: A semi-divine being supposed to 446 . Groups of great sages and perfected beings praise You with elaborate hymns. tvam. strange.6)-. visanti. the Lord proceeds with the idea. 'I shall show the inevitable victory of the Pandavas. groups of gods. abdhutam.21 Ami hi. You. of Yours. grnanti. ugram. those very. this. 11. now.' Visualizing that. extol You. kecit. struck with fear. sura-sanghah.perturbed. Therefore.Swami Gambhirananda 11.saying 'May it be well!' English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . or whether they shall conquer' (2. Arjuna said: 'Moreover-'. idam. tava. the soldiers engaged in battle-groups of gods such as the Vasus who have descended here in the form of human beings for eliminating the burden of the earth. by seeing. form. in order to clear that doubt which Arjuna earlier hadas in. fearful. some extol (You) with joined palms. some among them. and unable to flee. astonishing. struck with fear. pranjalayah.21 Those very groups of gods enter into You. rupam. terrible. 'whether we shall win.

groups of great sages and perfected beings. puskalabhih. demons and Siddhasall of those very ones gaze at You. stutibhih. the gods visve. those who are. the Visve (-devas). the Adityas. as the battle became imminent.A. the rudra-adityah. 'svasti iti.]. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and usmapah. the Vasus. You.be of great purity and holiness. with elaborate.-V. and gandharvayaksa-asura-siddha-sanghah. uktva.22 Those who are the Rudras. the two Asvins. hosts of Gandharvas447 . tvam. stuvanti. the Usmapas. etc. saying. 11.S. the Maruts and the Usmapas.]-sanghah. marutah. Yaksas.-V.Swami Gambhirananda 11. the Vasus and the Sadhyas [sadhyas: A particular class of celestial beings.A. full. the Sadhyas-the groups of Rudras and other gods. Rudras and Adityas. vasavah. praise. May it be well!' And further. seeing protents foreboding evil. and said to be particularly characterized by eight supernatural faculties called siddhis. the Maruts. (a class of) manes. hymns. and sadhyah.22 Ye. and hosts of Gandharvas. and asvinau. Visve-devas.S. the two Asvins. being indeed struck with wonder.

with many bellies. are pravya-thitah. bahu-vaktra-netram. with many mouths and eyes. (i. demons-Virocana and others-. struck with terror.23 Mahabaho. having many arms. upam. and so am I. having numerous arms.e. thighs and feet. 11.viz Haha. I. Huhu and others-. Your. gaze. all of those very ones. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . vismitah eva. drstva. at You. immence. bahuudaram. very vast. and further. O mighty-armed One.) tvam. The reason of that is this: 448 . bahu-bahu-uru-padam. tva. sarve eva. seeing. form of this kind. For. seeing Your immense form with many mouths and eyes. fearful with many teeth. and bahu-damstrakaralam. Yaksas-viz Kubera and others-. am even aham. tatha.Swami Gambhirananda 11. and Siddhas-Kapila and others. and fearful with many teeth. being indeed struck with wonder. the creatures are struck with terror. and so also. viksante. thighs and feet. te. lokah. the creatures in the world. with many bellies.23 O mighty-armed One. mahat.

ca. Why? 11. samam. openmouthed. calmness of mind. I. openmouthed. peace. nabhah-sprsam.24 O Visnu. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .e. with many colours. verily.25 Having merely seen Your mouths made terrible with (their) teeth and resembling the fire of Dissolution. I .11. becoming terrified in my mind. diptam. do not find. seeing Your form touching heaven.Swami Gambhirananda 11. vyatta-ananam. Be gracious. O Abode of the Universe. (i. blazing. and. pravyathita-antara-atma. I have lost the sense of direction and find no comfort. seeing. do not find steadiness and peace.Swami Gambhirananda 449 . dhrtim. blazing. O Lord of gods. with many colours. na vindami. with firey large eyes. with fiery large eyes. tvam. hi.24 O Visnu.) possessed of many frightening forms. dipta-visala-netram. verily. aneka-varnam. steadiness. touching heaven. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . drstva. becoming terrified in my mind. You.

the sense of disah. Your. jagannivasa. and kala-anala-sannibhani. mouths. sarma. I have lost. ami. Drona and that son of a Suta (Karna). O Abode of the Universe! 'The apprehension which was there of my getting defeated by those offers. prasida.11. into You-this is to be connected with 'rapidly enter' in the next verse. damstra-karalani. direction-I do not know the directions as to which is East or which is West. na jane.26 Ca. since-' 11. na labhe. that too has cleared away. multitudes of the 450 . those. find no. similar to that.Swami Gambhirananda 11. putrah. saha.26 And into You (enter) all those sons of Dhrtarastra along with multitudes of the rulers of the earth. of Dhrtarastra. dhrtarastrasya. comfort. sarve. devesa. having merely seen. resembling the fire of Dissolution is kalanala. made terrible with (their) teeth. O Lord of gods. together with even our prominent warriors. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Therefore. be gracious. (also) Bhisma. tvam. all. mukhani.25 Drstva eva. sons-Duryodhana and others. avanipala-sanghaih. along with. te. and hence. and.

Swami Gambhirananda 11. among these who have entered the mouths. with their heads crushed! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Drona. into te. also Bhisma. mouths. kecit. As to how they enter. tatha. prominent warriors. terrible. they enter.-what kind of mouths?-bhayanakani. tvarmanah.rulers (pala) of the earth (avani). curnitaih. that. some. asau. our. rapidly. together with. in the gaps between the teeth. Besides. sticking. like meat eaten. crushed. in great haste. dasanantaresu. vilagna. son of a Suta.27 They rapidly enter into Your terrible mouths with cruel teeths! Some are seen sticking in the gaps between the teeth.27 Visanti. api. yodha-mukhyaih. he says: 11. Karna. 11. uttamangaih. asmadiyaih. Your.28 As the numerous currents of the waters of rivers rush towards the sea alone so also do those 451 . and. even. suta-putrah. with their heads. with cruel teeth. the commanders-Dhrstadyumna and others. vaktrani. are see. saha. Moreover. damstrakaralani. samdrsyante.

samrddha-vegah. sea.28 Yatha. with increased 452 . as. nara-loka-virah. vaktrani. patangah. currents of the waters.heroes of the human world enter into Your blazing mouths. blazing. heroes of the human worldBhisma and others.Swami Gambhirananda 11. so also. Your. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . flying insects. eva. visanti. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of flowing rivers. moths. in that very way do the creatures enter into Your mouths too. and how? In answer Arjuna says: 11. as. enter. glowing.29 Yatha. those. dravanti abhimukhah. ambuvegah. tatha. abhi-vijvalanti. rush towards. particularly the swift ones. enter into. mouths. the samudram.29 As moths enter with increased haste into a glowing fire for destruction. enter into. visanti. do ami. numerous. the bahavah. Why do they enter. nadinam. with increased hurry for destruction. tava.Swami Gambhirananda 11. alone.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . You taste. creatures. which are apurya. lokan. mouths..S. with flaming.30 You lick Your lips while devouring all the creatures from every side with flaming mouths which are completely filling the entire world with heat..-Tr. the use of kim ca (moreover) in the Comm. [M.together (saha) with the foremost (agrena). do the lokah. vaktrani.heat' to qualify 'fierce rays' in the second sentence. samantat. 453 . tejobhih. with increased hurry. tava.. samrddha-vegah. samagran. too. world. jagat. into a pradiptam. all. and S. jvalanam. while taking in. completely filling. glowing.S. S. fire. with heat. grasamanah. tatha eva. However. Your fierce rays are acorching. suggests the translation as above. vadanaih.haste.Swami Gambhirananda 11. You lick Your lips. mouths. the creatures. construe 'completely.30 O Visnu. for destruction. again11. for destruction. visanti. nasaya. samagram. jvaladbhih. nasaya. api. You. from all sides. the whole. in that very way.] Lelihyase. while devouring.. enter into. Your.

be gracious. bhasah. kah.31 Tell me who You are. ugrarupah. me. to You. Salutation be to you. to fully know. astu. I do not understand. who exist in the beginning. actions! 11. vijnatum. Namah. [Time: The supreme God with His limiting adjunct of the power of action. pravrttim. Your. bhavan. foremost among the gods. ugrah.Moreover. for. For I do not understand Your actions! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . I desire. fierce. Icchami.] grown in stature [Pravrddhah.32 The Blessed Lord said -. rays. be gracious. bhavantam. who. therefore11. deva-vara.-Tr. mighty-according to S. I desire to fully know You who are the Prima One. te. salutation. adyam. You are. You.Swami Gambhirananda 11. the all-pervading One. be. Prasida. fierce in form. 454 . O supreme God.31 Akhyahi. tava. Your. who are the Primal One. O Visnu. fierce in form. are pratapanti. Since You are of such a terrible nature.] and now engaged in annihilating the creatures. scorching. O supreme God.I am the worlddestroying Time. na prajanami. Hi. tava. tell.

ye. kalah. all the warriors who are arrayed in the confronting armies will cease to exist! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sarve. enjoy a prosperous kingdom. These have been killed verily by Me even earlier. Drona.Even without you. who are. and defeating the enemies. Since this is so11. Karna and others.Swami Gambhirananda 11. I am. arrayed. Time. rte tva.Swami Gambhirananda 455 . be you merely an instrument. pratyanikesu. lokan. all-from whom your apprehension had arisen. Hear the purpose for which I have grown in stature: I am iha. na bhavisyanti. without you. O Savyasacin (Arjuna). engaged. samahartum. will cease to exist.32 Asmi. pravrttah. in the connfronting armies-in every unit of the army confronting the other. grown in stature. warriors-Bhisma. the yodhah.33 Therefore you rise up. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the loka-ksaya-krt. worlddestroying. in annihilating. now. Api. pravrddhah. the creatures. avasthitah. (and) gain fame. even.

O Savyasachin. Do not be afraid. made lifeless. propersous. Drona and others. that is samrddham. that Arjuna has conquered the Atirathas [Atiratha-see note under 1. 11. be you. nimitta-matram. kingdom. even earlier. fame. a rajyam. eva maya. rise up. Arjuna was called so because he could shoot arrows even with his left hand. nihatah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . these. bhunksva. Fight! You shall conquer the enemies in battle. (and) labhasva. eva purvam. Duryodhana and others.6.-Tr. who are unconquerable even by the gods. by defeating. Jitva. verily by Me. Ete. and Jayadratha and Karna as also the other heroic warriors who have been killed by Me. gain. merely an instrument. uttistha. you. satrun.Swami Gambhirananda 456 . have been definitely killed. the enemies. Bhisma.33 Tasmat. free from enemies and obstacles. enjoy. Bhava.4. Such fame can be acquired only by virtuous actions. tvam. therefore.].11.34 You destroy Drona and Bhisma. the yasah.

jahi. As a mere instrument. in battle. uncertainty with regard to Drona and Bhisma is well-founded. protrating himself. Bhisma was destined to die at will. maya. said again to Krsna 457 . therefore he is referred to by his own name itself. do not. by Me. and was a son of the Sun. Yuddhyasva.Hearing this utterance of Kesava. and particularly. 11. and possessed heavenly weapons. with joined palms and trembling. destory them. Since Karna also was equipped with an unerring spear given by Indra. fight. Drona was the teacher of the science of archery. Jetasi.35 Sanjaya said -. Now then. So also Jayadratha-whose father was performing an austerity with the idea that anyone who made his son's head fall on the ground would have even his own head fall. tvam. you. born of a maiden (Kunti). be afraid of them. vyathisthah. he was his (Arjuna's) own teacher and most respected.11. 'who have been killed by Me. the sapatnan. killed. who have been hatan. you shall conquer. enemies-Duryodhana and others. Ma. rane. He fought a duel with Parasurama and remained unvanquished. and was equipped with heavenly weapons.' the Lord names Drona and those very warriors with regard to whom Arjuna had (his) doubts.34 By saying. Kiriti (Arjuna).

he is filled with joy. of Kesava. nama-skrtva. aforesaid. overcome by fits of fear. krtanjalih.35 Srutva. Kiriti. How? It is thus: Thinking that the helpless Duryodhana will be as 458 . The indistinctness and feebleness of sound in speech that follows as a result is what is called faltering (gadgada). this. prostrating himself. on being overwhelmed with affection. krsnam. etat. aha. again. he is overcome by sorrow. bowing down overcome by fits of fear: English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . vacanam. and when. bhuyah eva. said. Pranamya. on being struck with fear. bowing down with humility. A speech that is accompanied with (saha) this is sa-gadgadam. hearing. with joined palms. utterance. It is used adverbially to the act of utterance. with his mind struck again and again with fear-this is to be connected with the remote word aha (said). kesavasya. trembling. bhita-bhitah. At this juncture the words of Sanjaya have a purpose in view.Swami Gambhirananda 11. with a faltering voice-. A person's throat becomes choked with phlegm and his eyes full of tears when.with a faltering voice. sagadgadam. to Krsna. and vepamanah.

would conclude a treaty. This is befitting. run in all directions. that the Raksasas. are killed. and that all the groups of the Siddhas bow down (toYou). becomes delighted. O Hrsikesa. Under the influence of fate. This is the idea.It is proper. That also is with regard to a proper subject. since the Lord is the Self of all beings and the Friend of all. Dhrtarastra did not even listen to that! 11. it is proper. world. tava prakirtya.Swami Gambhirananda 11. stricken with fear. Or. This is how 459 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . by Your praise. -what is that?-that the jagat. the word sthane may be taken as qualifying the word 'subject' (understood) : It is proper that the Lord is the subject of joy etc.36 Arjuna said -. From that will follow peace on either side. becomes attracted.good as dead when the four unconquerable ones. So also it (the world) anurajyate.36 Sthane. viz Drona and others. that the world becomes delighted and attracted by Your praise. by reciting Your greatness and hearing it. losing hope of victory. becomes drawn (by that praise). prahrsyati. Dhrtarastra.

in all directions-that also is with regard to a proper subject. and. not bow down. You are the Immutable. (and) that which is Transcendental. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . He points out the reason for the Lord's being the object of delight etc. since You are the Primal Creator. bow down-that also is befitting. to the first Creator? Therefore You are fit for. therefore.] One. the siddhasanghah. that the raksamsi. who are greater (than all) and who are the first Creator even of Brahma! O infinite One. who are greater (than all)! Hence. kasmat.it is to be explained. why should these not bow down adi-karte. even. bhitani. api. O exalted One. Abode of the Universe. Further. stricken with fear. disah. run.37 Ca. And that sarve. supreme God. O exalted [i. not narrow-minded. of Brahma. and 460 .e.Swami Gambhirananda 11. brahmanah. the fit object of. should they na nameran.37 And why should they not bow down to You. te. namasyanti. gariyase. groups of the Siddhas-Kapila and others. of Hiranyagarbha.e. all. i.: 11. the Cause.being and non-being. to You. why. mahatman. delight etc. Raksasas. dravanti. for what reason.

are the aksaram.salutation as well. You are the supreme Resort of this world.38 You are the primal Deity. jagannivasa. the Universe is pervaded by You! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . which is heard of in the Upanisads. Abode of the Universe. Ka.-what is that?-sad-asat. the ancient Person. (You are) that Immutable of which these two-being and non-being-become the limiting adjuncts. cf. being and nonbeing.15)that is You Yourself. supreme God. Ananta. which (Immutable).Swami Gambhirananda 461 . This is the idea. tvam. You. Being is that which exists.2. is metaphorically referred to as being and non-being.11. that which is Transcendental. But in reality that Immutable is transcendental to being and non-being. 'That Immutable which the knowers of the Vedas declare' (8. You are the knower as also the object of knowledge. tat param yat. 1. nothing else. and the supreme Abode. as a result. Immutable. devesa. O infinite One. O You of infinite forms. and non-being is that with regard to which the idea of nonexistence arises. He praises again: 11.

purusah. Further. Resort. the Lord of the creatures. You are also the vedyam. Salutations! Salutation be to You a thousand times. is pervaded. and the param. Besides. tatam. Air. and agnih.Swami Gambhirananda 11. Death. Abode. the entire visvam. You verily are the param. tvaya. salutation to You again and again! Salutation! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . in which this entire Universe comes to rest at the time of final dissolution etc.39 You are Air. Death. by You. Fire. 462 .11. ancient. You are the vetta. dhama. 11. O You of infinite forms. yamah.38 You are the adi-devah. primal Deity. the puranah. the god of the waters. Fire. Anantarupa. Universe. eternal. and the Greater-grandfather. who have no limit to Your own forms. nidhanam. knower of all things to be known. varunah. Person-(derived) in the sense of 'staying in the town (pura) that is the body'.39 You are vayuh. supreme. the god of the waters. object of knowledge-that which is fit to be known. the supreme State of Visnu. because of being the creator of the Universe. suprem. the moon.

] owing to abundance of reverence and devotion. atha. eva.e. and pra-pitamahah. prajapatih. namah. salutation. sahasra-krtvah. a thousand times.2. salutation! The suffix krtvasuc (after sahasra) indicates performance and repetition of the act of salutation a number of times. behind.sasankah. O All! You are possessed of infinite strength and infinite heroism. the Great-grandfather. Punah ca bhuyah api namo te. purastat. salutations. namah. Salutation be sarvatah.]. hence You are all! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the Lord of the creatures. You pervade everything. salutation to You.Kasyapa and others [See note on p. be. The words punah ca bhuyah api (again and again) indicate his own dissatisfaction [Dissatisfaction with only a few salutations. to You. and. 11. even prsthatah.40 Salutation to You in the East and behind. So also. Salutation be to You on all sides in deed. the Father ever of Brahma (Hiranyagarbha). in the East.40 Namah. on all sides. salutation to You again and again. the moon. to You 463 . Namo. astu.Swami Gambhirananda 11. te. indeed. i. te.Tr.

' etc.41 Like a fool. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .' 'O Yadava. Not knowing what? In answer he says: idam.e. Tatah. no entity exists without You. i. hence. mahimanam. asi.41 Without knowing this greatness of Yours. sarvah.] may lack heroism or have little heroism.Swami Gambhirananda 11. in the matter of killing an enemy'. [Ast. everything. of 464 .' 'O friend. You. Samapnosi. tava.-Tr. You are. thinking (You to be) a friend. whatever was said by me (to You) rashly. sarvam.'11. O All! Tvam. the whole Universe. through inadvertence or even out of intimacy. are ananta-virya-amita-vikramah.-. virya is strength. Someone though possessing strength for the use of weapons etc. and vikramah is heroism..who exist everywhere. by Your single Self. addressing (You) as 'O krsna. sarva. ajanata. interpenetrate. this. You pervade. greatness-the Cosmic form. But You are possessed of infinite strength and infinite heroism. reads 'satru-vadha-visaye. All. therefore. 'Since I am guilty of not knowing Your greatness. possessed of infinite strength and infinite heroism. without knowing-.

that.Swami Gambhirananda 11. slightingly. through inadvertence. or. pranayena. discourteously treated. addressing You as. asi. was said. by me (to You). being in a distracted state of mind. 11. ajanata. In the clause. thinking (You). 'tava idam mahimanam. asatkrtah.' 'O Yadava. for that I beg pardon of You. whatever I have said because of that reason. maya. to be a friend. O Acyuta. pramadat. out of intimacy-itimacy is the familiarity arising out of love. sakha iti. yat. without knowing this greatness of Yours. or even. prasabham. while eating. 465 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of God. while on a seat. 'O Krsna.42 And.42 And that You have been discourteously treated out of fun-while walking.' 'O friend. in privacy. of the same age. then both the words would be in the same gender. yat. whatever. uktam. avahasa-artham. iti. va api. You have been.' idam (this) (in the neutor gender) is connected with mahimanam (greatness) (in masculine gender) by a change of gender. the incomprehensible One. while on a bed. even in public. erroneously matva.'-.Yours. slighted. If the reading be tava imam. rashly.

how at all can there be anyone greater even in all the three worlds. aprameyam. with a veiw to mocking. tat. who are beyond the means of knowledge. of You. tvam. Not only are Yur are Father of this 466 . to this (world) You are worthy of worship. the Teacher. in privacy.-where?-in these. or. cara-acarasya. the Father.43 You are the Father of all beings moving and non-moving.that You have been insulted ekah. the Progenitor.43 Asi. off all beings. while walking [Walking. while on a bed. that You have been insulted api. viz vihara-sayya-asana-bhojanesu. ksamaye. the incomprehensible One. pita. aham. i. and greater (than a teacher). There is none equal to You. moving and nonmoving. for all those offences. in the very presence of others-(-tat being used as an adverb). adhava. even. beg pardon. while on a seat. in the absence of others. I. sports or exercise].e. (I beg Your pardon) because. for that. lokasya. O You or unrivalled power? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and while eating.out of fun. in public.Swami Gambhirananda 11. 11. You are. O Acyuta. Acyuta. tat-samaksam.

since You are the guruh. api. even. O Lord. O you of unrivalled power? That by which something is measured is pratima. How are You greater? In answer he says: Asti. [He is the Teacher since He introduce the line of teachers of what is virtue and vice. can there be anyah. there is. for there is no possibility of two Gods.] forgive (my faults) as would a father (the faults) of 467 . and of the knowledge of the Self. lokatraye. how at all. abhyadhikah. na.] gariyan. tvat-samah. kutah eva.world. You who have no measure for Your power (prabhava) are a pratima-prabhavah. none other. Because all dealings will come to naught if there be many Gods! When there is no possibility of another being equal toYou. Apratima-prabhava means 'O You of limitless power!' Since this is so. in all the three worlds. You should [The elision of a (in arhasi of priyayarhasi) is a metrical licence. And He is greater than a teacher because He is the teacher even of Hiranyagarbha and others. apratima-prabhavah. You are also pujyah. anyone. greater (than a teacher). 11. Teacher. by bowing down and prostrating the body. greater. worthy of worship. I seek to propitate You who are God and are adorable.44 Therefore. equal to You.

lover. of a friend. iva.Swami Gambhirananda 468 . tvam. or as a priyah. by bowing down. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . forgives the faults priyayah.44 Tasmat.e. prostrating. the fautls sakhyuh. I seek to propitiate. pranamya. prasadaye. arhasi. adorable. of a friend. bear with. O God. You are Your part.45 I am delighted by seeing something not seen heretofore. as a friend. therefore. and pranidhaya kayam. the body completely down. as would. sodhum. a pita.Swami Gambhirananda 11. father. and my mind is stricken with fear. 11. i. God. should. of a son. friend.a son. O Lord. O supreme God. O Abode of the Universe. You. and as a sakha. laying. the Lord. and as a lover of a beloved. Deva. forgive all the faults putrasya. show me that very form. be gracious! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . forgive (my faults). and are idyam. of a beloved. who are isam.

delighted. O You with a thousand arms-in Your present Cosmic form.46 Aham.e. darsaya. prasida. appear with that very form with four hands. show. I am. tatha eva. jagan-nivasa. to see. tvam. O supreme God. deva. therefore. rupam. drastum. visva-murte.45 Asmi. is pravyathitam. O Lord. wielding a mace. Abode of the Universe. Therefore. adrsta-purvam. bhayena. O you of Cosmic form. hrsitah.46 I want to see You just as before. my.11. kiritinam. be gracious! 11. with fear. mind. wearing a crown. stricken. as also gadinam. i. 469 . bhava. And me. which is of my friend. that very. form. me. O You of Cosmic form. and cakra-hastam. icchami. to me. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Since this is so. You. Devesa.Swami Gambhirananda 11. want. sahasra-baho. drstva. just as before. I. wielding a mace. holding a disc in hand. wearing a crown. by seeing. something not seen heretofore-by seeing this Cosmic form of Yours which has never been seen before by me or others. and holding a disc in hand.. manah. O You with thousand arms. tat eva.

Noticing Arjuna to have become afraid. out of grace-grace means the intention of favouring you. this supreme. 470 . with four hands.Swami Gambhirananda 11. Cosmic. O Arjuna.Out of grace. tejomayam. primeval form-which (form) of Mine has not been seen before by anyone other than you. has been shown to you by Me through the power of My own Yoga. me. abundantly radiant. param. O Arjuna. primeval-that which existed in the beginning. tvat-anyena. of Mine. limitless. anantam. idam. caturbhujena. radiant. yat which form. na drstapurvam. by anyone other than you. all-comprehensive. supreme. the Cosmic form. with that very form-with the form of the son of Vasudeva. adyam. appear in that very form as the son of Vasudeva.apeear. has been shown. visvam. form. this. has not been seen before. reassuring him with sweet words11. infinite. The idea is: withdrawing the Cosmic form. rupam.47 The Blessed Lord said -.47 Prasannena. daristam. tena eva rupena. infinite. and withdrawing the Cosmic form. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Cosmic.

through the power of My own Godhood. the separate mention of the study of sacrifices is for suggesting detailed knowledge of 471 . through the power of My own Yoga.tava. (i. not even by rituals. be perceived in the human world by anyone ['By anyone who has not received My grace'. maya. atma-yogat. not by the study of the Vedas and sacrifices. to you.Swami Gambhirananda 11. He eulogizes that (vision): 11. not by severe austerities can I. by Me-who am racious. in this form.) not by the methodical study of even the four Vedas and the study of the sacrifices-since the study of the sacrifices is achieved by the very study of the Vedas. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .e.-Tr. not by gifts.] . 'You have certainly got all your ends accomplished by the vision of the form of Mine who am the Self [The word atmanah (who am the Self) does not occur in some editions. being possessed of that (intention of favouring you).48 Not by the study of the Vedas and sacrifices. O most valiant among the Kurus.48 Na veda-yajna-adhyayanaih.' Saying so. other than you.

which consists of fifteen mouthfuls at the full-moon. O most valiant among the Kurus. in the human world.-V.] so also. kuru-pravira. na ca kriyabhih.49 May you have no fear. is curtailed by one mouthful during the dark fornight till it is reduced to nothing at the new moon. by anyone other than you. which are frightful. tvadanyena. and may not there be bewilderment by seeing this form of Mine so terrible Becoming free from fear and gladdened in mind again. not even by rituals-by Vedic and other rituals like Agnihotra etc.A. in this form-possessing the Cosmic form as was shown.sacrifices. can I. see this very earlier form of Mine.] etc. 11. be perceived. In it the daily quantity of food. sakyah aham. by severe austerities such a Candrayana [A religious observance or expiatory penance regulated by the moon's phases. nrloke. and it is increased in a like manner during the bright fortnight. drastum. not by gifts-in such forms as distributing wealth equal to the weight of the giver. evam rupam.S. 472 .. nor even ugraih tapobhih. [This separate mention of the study of sacrifices is necessary because the ancients understood the study of Vedas to mean learing them by rote. na danaih.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 11.49 Ma te vyatha, may you have no fear; and ma vimudha-bhavah, may not there be bewilderment of the mind; drstva, by seeing, perceiving; idam, this rupam, form; mama, of Mine; idrk ghoram, so terrible, as was revealed. Vyapetabhih, becoming free from fear; and becoming prita-manah, gladdened in mind; punah, again; prapasya, see; idam, this; eva, very; tat, earlier; rupam, form; me, of Mine, with four hands, holding a conch, a discus and a mace, which is dear to you. 11.50 Sanjaya said -- Thus, having spoken to Arjuna in that manner, Vasudeva showed His own form again. And He, the exalted One, reassured this terrified one by again becoming serene in form. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 11.50 Iti, thus; uktva, having spoken; arjunam, to Arjuna; tatha, in that manner, the words as stated above; Vasudeva darsayamasa, showed; svakam, His own; rupam, form, as was born in the house of 473

Vasudeva; bhuyah, again. And the mahatma, exalted One; asvasayamasa, reassured; enam, this; bhitam, terrified one; bhutva, by becoming; punah, again; saumya-vapuh, serene in form, graceful in body. 11.51 Arjuna said -- O Janardana, having seen this serene human form of Yours, I have now become calm in mind and restored to my own nature. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 11.51 O Janardana, drstva, having seen; idam, this; saumyam, serene; manusam, human; rupam, form; tava, of Yours-gracious, as of my friend; asmi, I have; idanim, now; samvrttah, become;-what?sacetah, calm in mind; and gatah, restored; prakrtim, to my own nature. 11.52 The Blessed Lord said -- This form of Mine which you have seen is very difficult to see; even the gods are ever desirous of a vision of this form. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 474

11.52 Idam, this; rupam, form; mama, of Mine; yat, which; drstavan, asi, you have seen is; sudurdarsam, very difficult to see. Api, even; the devah, gods; are nityam, ever; darsana-kanksinah, desirous of a vision; asya, of this; rupasya, form of Mine. The idea is that though they want to see, they have not seen in the way you have, nor will they see! Why so? 11.53 Not through the Vedas, not by austerity, not by gifts, nor even by sacrifice can I be seen in this form as you have seen Me. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 11.53 Na vedaih, not through the Vedas, not even through the four Vedas-Rk, Yajus, Sama and Atharvan; na tapasa, not by austerity, not by severe austerities like the Candrayana; not danena, by gifts, by gifts of cattle, land, gold, etc.; na ca, nor even; ijyaya, by sacrifices or worship; sakyah aham, can I; drastum, be seen evamvidhah, in this form, in the manner as was shown; yatha, as; drstavan asi, you have seen mam, Me. 'How again, can You be seen? This is being answered: 475

11.54 But, O Arjuna, by single-minded devotion am I-in this form-able to be known and seen in reality, and also be entered into, O destroyer of foes. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 11.54 Tu, but, O Arjuna; bhaktya, by devotion-. Of what kind? To this the Lord says: Ananyaya, by (that devotion which is ) single-minded. That is called single-minded devotion which does not turn to anything else other than the Lord, and owing to which nothing else but Vasudeva is perceived by all the organs. With that devotion, aham sakyah, am I able; evamvidhah, in this form-in the aspect of the Cosmic form; jnatum, to to known-from the scriptures; not merely to be known from the scriptures, but also drastum, to be seen , to be realized directly; tattvena, in reality; and also pravestum, to be entered into-for attaining Liberation; parantapa, O destroyer of foes. Now the essential purport of the whole scripture, the Gita, which is meant for Liberation, is being stated by summing it up so that it may be practised: 11.55 O son of Pandu, he who works for Me, accepts Me as the supreme Goal, is devoted to Me, 476

is devoid of attachment and free from enmity towards all beings-he attains Me. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 11.55 Pandava, O son of Pandu; yah, he who; matkarma-krt, works for Me: work for Me is matkarma; one who does it is mat-karma-krt-. Matparamah, who accepts Me as the supreme Goal: A servant does work for his master, but does not accept the master as his own supreme Goal to be attained after death; his one, however, who does work for Me, accepts Me alone as the supreme Goal. Thus he is matparamah-one to whom I am the supreme Goal-. So also he who is madbhaktah, devoted to me: He adores Me alone in all ways, with his whole being and full enthusiasm. Thus he is madbhaktah-. Sanga-varjitah, who is devoid of attachment for wealth, sons, friends, wife and relatives, Sanga means fondness, love; devoid of them-. Nirvairah, who is free from enmity; sarvabhutesu, towards all beings-berefit of the idea of enmity even towards those engaged in doing unmost harm to him-. Sah, he who is such a devotee of Mine; eti, attains; mam, Me. I alone am his supreme Goal; he does not attain any other 477

goal. This is the advice for you, given by Me as desired by you.

478

Chapter 12 12.1 Arjuna said -- Those devotees who, being thus ever dedicated, meditate on You, and those again (who meditate) on the Immutable, the Unmanifested-of them, who are the best experiencers of yoga [(Here) yoga means samadhi, spiritual absorption.] ? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 12.1 The subject-matter stated in the immediately preceding verse, '...he who works for Me,' etc. is referred to by the word evam (thus). Ye bhaktah, those devotees who, seeking no other refuge; evam, thus; satata-yuktah, being ever-devoted, i.e., remaining unceasingly engaged in the works of the Lord, etc., intent on the aforesaid purpose; paryupasate, meditate; tvam, on You, in the Cosmic form as revealed earlier; ye ca api, and those others, again, who have renounced all desires, who have given up all actions; who meditate on Brahman as described (below), aksaram, on the Immutable; avyaktam, on the Unmanifested, which is so on account of being bereft of all limiting adjuncts, (and) which is 479

beyond the comprehension of the organs-in the world, whatever comes within the range of the organs is said to be manifest, for the root anj conveys that sense; but this Immutable is the opposite of that and is endowed with qualifications that are spoken of by the great ones; those again, who meditate on that-; tesam, of them, among the two (groups); ke, who; are the yoga-vit-tamah, best experiencers of yoga, i.e., who are those that are surpassingly versed in yoga? But leave alone those who meditate on the Immutable, who are fully enlightened and are free from desires. Whatever has to be said with regard to them, we shall say later on. As for those others12.2 The Blessed Lord said -- Those who meditate on Me by fixing their minds on Me with steadfast devotion (and) being endowed with supreme faiththey are considered to be the most perfect yogis according to Me. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 12.2 Ye, those who, being devotees; upasate, meditate; mam, on Me, the supreme Lord of all the masters of yoga, the Omniscient One whose vision 480

is free from purblindness caused by such defects as attachment etc.; avesya,by fixing, concentrating; their manah, minds; mayi, on Me, on God in His Cosmic form; nitya-yuktah, with steadfast devotion, by being ever-dedicated in accordance with the idea expressed in the last verse of the preceding chapter; and being upetah, endowed; paraya, with supreme; sraddhaya faith;-te, they; matah, are considered; to be yukta-tamah, most perfect yogis; me, according to Me, for they spend days and nights with their minds constantly fixed on Me. Therefore, it is proper to say with regard to them that they are the best yogis. 'Is it that the others do not become the best yogis?' No, but listen to what has to be said as regards them:' 12.3 Those, however, who meditate in every way on the Immutable, the Indefinable, the Unmanifest, which is all-pervading, incomprehensible, changeless, immovable and constant.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 12.3 Ye, those; tu, however; who, pari-upasate, meditate in every way; aksaram, on the Immutable; anirdesyam, the Indefinable-being unmanifest, It is 481

beyond the range of words and hence cannot be defined; avyaktam, the Unmanifest-It is not comprehensible thrugh any means of knowledge-. Upasana, meditation, means approaching an object of meditation as presented by the scriptures, and making it an object of one's own thought and dwelling on it uniterruptedly for long by continuing the same current of thought with regard to it-like a line of pouring oil. This is what is called upasana. The Lord states the characteristics of the Immutable [Here Ast. adds 'upasyasya, which is the object of meditation'.-Tr.] : Sarvatragam, all-pervading, pervasive like space; and acintyam, incomprehensible-becuase of Its being unmanifest. For, whatever comes within the range of the organs can be thought of by the mind also. Being opposed to that, the Immutable is inconceivable. It is kutastham, changeless. Kuta means something apparently good, but evil inside. The word kuta (deceptive) is well known in the world in such phrases as, 'kuta-rupam, deceptive in appearance,' 'kuta-saksyam, false evidence', etc. Thus, kuta is that which, as ignorance etc., is the seed of many births, full of evil within, referred to by such words as maya, the undifferentiated, etc., and well known from such texts as, 'One should know Maya to be Nature, but the Lord of Maya to 482

be the supreme God' (Sv. 4.10), 'The divine Maya of Mine is difficult to cross over' (7.14), etc. That which exists on that kuta as its controller (or witness) is the kuta-stha. Or, kutastha may mean that which exists like a heap [That is, motionless.]. Hence it is acalam, immovable. Since It is immovable, therefore It is dhruvam, constant, i.e. eternal. 12.4 By fully controlling all the organs and always being even-minded, they, engaged in the welfare of all beings, attain Me alone. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 12.4 Samniyamya, by fully controlling, withdrawing; indriya-gramam, all the organs; and sarvatra, always at all times; sama-buddhayah, being even-minded-the even-minded are those whose minds remain equipoised in getting anything desirable or undesirable; te, they, those who are of this kind; ratah, engaged; sarva-bhutahite, in the welfare of all beings prapnuvanti, attain; mam, Me; eva, alone. As regards them it needs no saying that they attain Me, for it has been said, '...but the man of Knowledge is the very Self. 483

(This is) My opinion' (7.18). It is certainly not proper to speak of being or not being the best among the yogis with regard to those who have attained identity with the Lord. But, 12.5 For them who have their minds attached to the Unmanifested the struggle is greater; for, the Goal which is the Unmanifest is attained with difficulty by the embodied ones. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 12.5 Tesam, for them; avyakta-asakta-cetasam, who have their minds attached to the Unmanifest; klesah,the struggle; is adhika-tarah, greater. Although the trouble is certainly great for those who are engaged in works etc. for Me, still owing to the need of giving up self-identification with the body, it is greater in the case of those who accept the Immutable as the Self and who kept in view the supreme Reality. Hi, for; avyakta gatih, the Goal which is the Unmanifest-(the goal) which stands in the form of the Immutable; that is avapyate, attained; duhkham, with difficulty; dehavadbhih, by the embodied ones, by those who identify themselves with the body. Hence the struggle is 484

greater. We shall speak later of the conduct of those who meditate on the Unmanifest. 12.6 As for those who, having dedicated all actions to Me and accepted Me as the supreme, meditate by thinking of Me with single-minded concentration only-. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 12.6 Tu, as for; ye, those who; sannyasya, having dedicated; sarvani, all; karmani, actions; mayi, to Me who am God; and matparah, having accepted Me as the supreme; upasate, meditate; dhyayantah, by thinking; mam, of Me; ananyena, with singleminded; yogena, concentration; eva, only-. That (yoga) is single-minded which has no other object than the Cosmic Deity, the Self. By thinking exclusively with that single-minded [The Ast. and the A.A. read 'kena, what?' in place of 'kevalena, exclusively'.-Tr.] (yoga)-. What comes to them? 12.7 O son of Prtha, for them who have their minds absorbed in Me, I become, without delay, the Deliverer from the sea of the world which is fraught with death. 485

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 12.7 O son of Prtha, tesam, for them who are solely devoted to meditating on Me; avesita-cetasam mayi, who have their minds absorbed in, fixed on, merged in, Me who am the Cosmic Person; aham, I, God; bhavami, become; na cirat, without delay;what then? soon indeed-the samuddharta, Deliverer-. Wherefrom? In answer the Lord says, mrtyu-samsara-sagarat, from the sea of the world which is fraught with death. Samsara (world) fraught with mrtyu (death) is mrtyu-samsara. That itself is like a sea, being difficult to cross. I become their deliverer from that sea of transmigration which is fraught with death. Since this is so, therefore, 12.8 Fix the mind on Me alone; in Me alone rest the intellect. There is no doubt that hereafter you will dwell in Me alone. [For the sake of metre, eva and atah (in the second line of the verse) are not joined together (to form evatah).] English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 486

12.8 Adhatsva, fix manah, the mind-possessed of the power of thinking and doubting; mayi, on Me, on God as the Cosmic Person; eva, alone. Mayi, in Me; eva, alone; nivesaya, rest; the buddhim, intellect, which engages in determining (things). Listen to what will happen to you thereby: Na samsayah, there is no doubt-no doubt should be entertained with regard to this; that atah urdhvam, hereafter, after the fall of the body; nivasisyasi, you will dwell; mayi, in Me, live in identity withMe; eva, alone. 12.9 If, however, you are unable to establish the mind steadily on Me, then, O Dhananjaya, seek to attain Me through the Yoga of Practice. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 12.9 Atha, if, however; na saknosi, you are unable; samadhatum, to establish, in this way as I have described; cittam, the mind; sthiram, steadily, unwaveringly; mayi, on Me; tatah, then; O Dhananjaya, iccha, seek, pray; aptum, to attain; mam, Me, as the Cosmic person; abhyasa-yogena, through the Yoga of Practice. Practice consists in 487

repeatedly fixing the mind on a single object by withdrawing it from everything else. The yoga following from this, and consisting in concentration of the mind, is abhyasa-yoga. 12.10 If you are unable even to practise, be intent on works for Me. By undertaking works for Me as well, you will attain perfection. [Identity with Brahman.] English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 12.10 If asamarthah asi, you are unable; api, even; abhyase, to practise; then, bhava, be; mat-karmaparamah, intent on works for Me-works (karma) meant for Me (mat) are mat-karma-i.e., you be such that works meant for Me become most important to you. In the absence of Practice, api, even; kurvan, by undertaking; karmani, works alone; madartham, for Me; avapsyasi, you will attain; siddhim, perfection-by gradually acquiring purification of mind, concentration and Knowledge. 12.11 If you are unable to do even this, in that case, having resorted to the Yoga for Me, thereafter 488

-Tr. renounce.. hearing.e. etc. tatah. sarva-karma means all works in general. According to M. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . by becoming yata-atmavan. 'May this work of mine please God. singing. controlled in mind. about God. See S. thereafter. In the present verse it is stated that the attitude should be. kartum. give up.S.11 Atha. In the present verse.] 489 . mat-karma in the earlier verse means bhagavata-dharma. i. you are unable. mad-yogam-asritah. [In the earlier verse it was enjoined that all works. to do. as a soldier would do for his king. be they Vedic or secular. asaktah asi. the results of all works. etat api.renounce the results of all works by becoming controlled in mind.' This very attitude involves dedicating of results to God.Swami Gambhirananda 12. if. having resorted to the Yoga for Me-the performance of those works that are being done by dedicating them to Me is madyogah. even this-what was stated as being 'intent on doing works for Me'. sarva-karma-phala-tyagam kuru. again. by resorting to that Yoga for Me. are to be considered as belonging to God and should be done for Him-not for oneself-. in that case.

knowledge.Now the Lord praises the renunciation of the results of all works: 12. Peace. from this renunciation of the results of actions. From renunciation.Swami Gambhirananda 12. The renunciation of the results of works (excels) meditation.12 Knowledge is surely superior to practice.'] santih. meditation associated with knowledge. surpasses even jnanat. surely.) Tyagat. 'May God be pleased. excels even dhyanat. -to what?-abhyasat. that knowledge. superior.] which is not preceded by discrimination. to practice [Practice-repeated effort to ascertain the true meaning of Vedic texts. [By dedicating all actions to God with the idea. Peace follows immediately. sreyah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . meditation surpasses knowledge. Dhyanam. undertaken along with knowledge. visisyate. the cessation of transmigratory 490 . in the way described before. ('Excels' has to be supplied. renunciation of the results of works.] is hi. Karmaphala-tyagah. [Firm conviction about the Self arrived at through Vedic texts and reasoning. meditation.12 Jnanam. in order to acquire knowledge.

' etc. Peace surely comes immediately to the enlightened man who is steadfast in Knowledge. not that it awaits another accasion.14). follows anantaram. And for this reason renunciation of the results of all works has been praised in. 2.3. by teaching about the successive excellence. for him has been enjoined renunciation of the results of all works as a means to Liberation. then. 'Knowledge is surely superior to practice. immediately. Should the unenlightened person engaged in works be unable to practise the disciplines enjoined earlier. From the renunciation of these. There is a similarity between renunciation of all desires and renunciation of the results of actions by an unenlightened person. For it has been taught as being fit to be adopted by one in case he is unable to practise the disciplines already presented [Presented from verse 3 onwards.existence together with its cause. Hence.] Objection: From what similarly does the eulogy follow? Reply: In the verse. on account of that 491 . it has been stated that Immortality results from the rejection of all desires. But this has not been done at the very beginning. 'When all desires clinging to one's heart fall off' (Ka. That is well known. And 'all desires' means the 'result of all rites and duties enjoined in the Vedas and Smrtis'.

similarity this eulogy of renunciation of the results of all actions is meant for rousing interest.attain Me alone' (4).. In. who is aware of idenity (of the Self with God). the Brahmanas of the present day are also praised owing to the similarity of Brahminhood. by saying that the sea was drunk up by the Brahmana Agastya. for God.. having declared that those who meditate on the Immutable are independent so far as the attainment of Liberation is concerned. '. therefore the Lord is pointing out that Karma-yoga is not suitable for the meditator on the Immutable. Here. have been spoken of by assuming a difference between God and Self. For. they are dependent on God. if they (the former) be considered to have 492 . As for instance. In this way it was been said that Karma-yoga becomes a means for Liberation. the Yoga consisting in the concentration of mind on God as the Cosmic Person. The Lord is similarly pointing out the impossibility of a karma-yogin's meditation on the Immutable.. 'they.since it involves renunciaton of the rewards of works. In (the verse). that others have no independence. 'If you are unable to do even this' (11) since it has been hinted that it (Karma-yoga) is an effect of ignorance. the Lord has shown in.I become the Deliverer' (7).. again. as also the performance of actions etc.

since the Lord in surely the greatest well-wisher of Arjuna. Consequently. Therefore. 'I shall speak of the group of virtues (as stated in). who is forgiving. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . since it involves a contradiction. which are the direct means to Immortality. no one who has realized his Self as God through valid means of knowledge would like subordination to another. speaking of them as objects of the act of deliverance will become inappropriate! And." etc. they would be the same as the Immutable on account of (their) having realized non-difference. He imparts instructions only about Karma-yoga. who is the same under sorrow and happiness. who has no idea of 'mine' and the idea of egoism. "He hwo is not hateful towards any creature.Swami Gambhirananda 493 . which involves perception of duality and is not associated with full Illumination.who are steadfast in full enlightenment and have given up all desires. to those monks who meditate on the Immutable. who is friendly and compassionate.become identified with God.13 He who is not hateful towards any creature. Also. with the idea.' the Lord proceeds: 12.

12. who has firm conviction. Nirmamah. one possessing that is karunah. who is forgiving. who has dedicated his mind and intellect to Me-he who is such a devotee of Mine is dear to Me. towards any creature: He does not feel repulsion for anything. 12. he who is not hateful. ksami. who is the same under sorrow and happiness. compassion towards sorrowstricken creatures. Maitrah.13 Advesta. nirahankarah. a monk. he in whom sorrow and happiness do not arouse any repulsion or attraction. for he sees all beings as his own Self. even for what may be the cause of sorrow to himself. who is a yogi. who remains unperturbed even when abused or assaulted.e. who has no idea of egoism. i.14 He who is ever content. he who is friendly-behaving like a friend. he who has no idea of 'mine'. who grants safety to all creatures. who has self-control. and compassionate: karuna is kindness. sarvabhutanam.Swami Gambhirananda 494 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . samaduhkha-sukhah. karunah eva ca.

14 Santustah satatam. is dear to Me.12. who has firm conviction-with regard to the reality of the Self. Yogi. me. Me alone.e. impatience. drdha-niscayah. yataatma. devotee of Mine. mayi. sah yah. 'For I am very much dear to the man of Knowledge. owing to whom the world is not disturbed. he who is ever content: who has the sense of contentment irrespective of getting or not getting what is needed for the maintenance of the body. a man of concentrated mind. is priyah.15 He. who is similarly eversatisfied whether he gets or not a good thing. whose body and organs are under control. too. he who is. and he too is dear to Me' (7. arpita-mano-buddhih. who is a yogi. to Me. who has self-control. to Me-(i.17).) a monk whose mind (having hte characteristics of reflection) and intellect (possessed of the faculty of taking decisions) are dedicated to. such a modbhaktah. who has dedicated his mind and intellect. It was hinted in the Seventh Chapter. who is free from joy. and who is not disturbed by the world. 12. dear. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . That is being elaborated here. fear and anxiety.Swami Gambhirananda 495 . fixed on.

to Me. shedding of tears. etc.Swami Gambhirananda 12. amarsa is non-forbearance. harsa-amarsa-bhaya-udvegaih. who is pure. so also. he who is not disturbed. is not disturbed. me. daksah. lokat. etc.12. 12.16 He who has no desires. muktah. na udvijate. objects. sucih. organs. he too. who is dextrous. by the world. udvega is distress. who is able to promptly 496 . who is impartial.-harsa is elation of the mind on acquiring a thing dear to oneself. is priyah. who is free from fear. fear and anxiety. he who is free from them-. lokah. yasmat. bhaya is fright. from joy. who is dextrous. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . he who has no desires with regard to covetable things like body. yah na udvijate. owing to whom owing to which monk.. the world. impatience..15 Sah ca. who has renounced every undertaking-he who is (such) a devotee of Mine is dear to Me.16 Anapeksah. not agitated. who is free. not afflicted. and is manifested as horripillation. (their inter-) relationship. who is pure. dear. endowed with external and internal purity.

who is free from fear. na dvesti. na hrsyati. he who. who gives up good and 497 . does not fret on getting an undesirable object. udasinah. gatavyathah. and na kanksati. the monk who does not side with anybody-friends and others. 12. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . me. he is priyah. does not hanker. who is filled with devotion-he is dear to Me. who gives up good and bad. dear. he who is apt to give them up (pari-tyaga) is sarvaarambha-parityahi.17 He who does not rejoice.understand in the right way the duties that present themselves. does not rejoice on getting a coveted object. who is impartial. to Me.17 Yah. sarva-arambhah means works undertaken out of desire for results to be enjoyed here or hereafter. does not lament. does not fret. does not lament on the loss of a dear one. devotee of Mine. sarvaarambha-parityagi. who has renounced every undertaking-works under-taken are arambhah. Further. subha-asubha-parityogi. does not hanker after an object not acquired.Swami Gambhirananda 12. he who is such a madbhaktah. na socati.

ca tatha. satrau ca mitre. happiness and sorrow. who is the same under cold. and so also. bhaktiman. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .19 The person to whom denunciation and praise are the same.bad. and so also in honour and dishonour. towards friend and foe. happiness and sorrow.18 Samah.Swami Gambhirananda 498 . homeless. who is apt to give up good and bad actions. and full of devotion is dear to Me. who is free from attachment to everything. in honour and dishonour. under cold. who is silent. Moreover. who is the same. and sanga-vivar-jitah. steady-minded. heat. heat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 12. who is the same sitausna-sukha-duhkhesu.18 He who is the same towards friend and foe. who is full of devotion-he is dear to Me.Swami Gambhirananda 12. manaapamanayoh. content with anything. 12. free from attachment to everything. in adoration and humiliation.

245. who has no fixed place of residence-'without a home' [ The whole verse is 'He.12). who have renounced all desires. nor a seat. nor the three places of pilgrimage.'].however is certainly the knower of Liberation who has attachment neither for a hut.] The group of qualities of the monks who meditate on the Immutable.19 Narah. content. he who is homeless. 'The gods know him to be a Brahmana who is clad by anyone whosoever' (Mbh. aniketah. further. who is silent. who is full of devotion-(he) is dear to Me. whose thought is steady with regard to the Reality which is the supreme Goal. as said in another Smrti. nor cloth. nor food. restrained in speech. mauni. nor for water. with anything-for the mere maintenance of the body. as has been said in. is being concluded: 499 . who are steadfast in the knowledge of the supreme Goal-which (qualities) are under discussion beginning from 'He who is not hateful towards any creature' (13). yena-kenacit. to whom denunciation and praise are the same. and bhaktiman. the person. sthira-matih. Sa. nor a home. steady-minded. [There is a repeated mention of Bhakti in this Chapter because it is means to the Knowledge which leads to the supreme Goal. tulya-ninda-stutih. santustah.12.

with faith. they are very dear to Me. unsurpassable Goal.'s reading is dharmamrtam-nectar in the form of virtue. and with faith seek for this ambrosia [M.20 But [Tu (but) is used to distinguish those who have attained the highest Goal from the aspirants. or because it is sweet like nectar.20 Tu. ambrosia that is indistinguishable from the virtues-that which is indistinguishable from dharma (virtue) is dharmya. ye bhaktah.Swami Gambhirananda 12. and this is called amrta (ambrosia) since it leads to Immortality-. this. the monks who have resorted to the highest devotion consisting in the knowledge of the supreme Reality. seek for. Virtue is called nectar because it leads to Immortality.] which is indistinguishable from the virtues as stated above. yatha-uktam.] those devotees who accept Me as the supreme Goal. to whom I. who accept Me as the supreme Goal. as stated 500 . who am identical with the Immutable. mat-paramah. those devotees of Mine. but.S. practise. and sraddadhanah.12. paryupasate.Tr. am the highest (parama). as mentioned above. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . dharmyamrtam. idam.

. who is pre-eminently fit for this purpose. very..above in.' etc. priyah. to Me. [Thus. that has been concluded here in..'(7. Hence. me. since his has the power to arouse the comprehension of the meaning of that sentence. dear. te. After having explained what was hinted in. who am theLord Vishnu. who has the qualifications mentioned in.] 501 . 'He who is not hateful towards any creature. This is the purport of the sentence. the supreme God. has the possibility of realizing the Truth from which his Liberation logically follows.17). and who practises sravana etc. 'He who is not hateful towards any creature. 'Those devotees are very dear to Me.' etc. 'For I am very much dear to the man of Knowledge.' Since by seeking for this ambrosia which is indistinguishable from the virtues as stated above one becomes very dear to Me. therefore this nectar which is indistinguishable from the virtues has to be diligently sought for by one who is a seeker of Liberation. are ativa. they. which is the means to Liberation.. the conclusion is that the meaning of the word tat (in the sentence tattvamasi) has to be sought for. one who aspires after the unqualified Brahman. after the consummation of meditation on the qualified Brahman. who wants to attain the coveted Abode of Visnu.

. is referred to.2 The Lord specifies the body as the object referred to by the pronoun idam (this). (this body) abhidhiyate.O son of Kunti.1 Sri Sankaracharya did not comment on this sloka. 13. Those who are versed in this call him who is conscious of it as the 'knower of the field'.2 The Blessed Lord said -. If this sloka is included. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Many editions of the Bhagavadgita do not contain this sloka. If this sloka is included.Swami Gambhirananda 13. the total number of slokas in the Bhagavadgita is 701.Chapter 13 13.1 Swami Gambhirananda has not translated this sloka. O son of Kunti. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . this body is referred to as the 'field'. the total number of slokas in the Bhagavadgita is 701. Many editions of the Bhagavadgita do not contain this sloka.Swami Gambhirananda 13. including the commentary by Sankaracharya. 502 .

understand Me to be the 'Knower of the field' in all the fields. who are versed in this.3 And. the word iti is used in the sense of 'as'. makes it an object of perception as a separate entity. is concious of.ksetram iti. ahuh. as the knower of the field. 13. who. who know the 'field' and the 'knower of the field'. They call him as the knower of the field. vetti etat. as the field-because it is protected (tra) against injury (ksata). The word iti is used in the sense of 'as'. In My opinion. Is it that the field and the knower of the field thus mentioned are to be understood through this much knowledge only? The answer is. yah. O scion of the Bharata dynasty.Swami Gambhirananda 503 . through knowledg which is spontaneous or is acquired through instruction. As before. an abject of his knowledge. tam. or because the results of actions get fulfilled in the body as in a field (ksetra). it. that is Knowledge which is the knowlege of th field and the knower of the field. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the field-makes it. They-who?-tadvidah. ksetrajna iti. knows. or because it perishes (ksi). no. the knower. wastes away (ksar). from head to foot. the body. call. him.

therefore. My. Me. viddhi. This is mama. ksetraksetrajnayoh. of the field and the knower of the field-which are the two knowables-. tat. which. the supreme God who is transcendental. as the enjoyer. and. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. Knowledge. then God will become a mundane being. if it be that in all the field there exists God alone. etc. and as beyond the range of such words and ideas as existece. mam. or. right knowledge.13. 'Knower of the field' with the characterisitics noted above. is the jnanam. there will arise the contingency of the negation of 504 . understand. nonexistence. is jnanam.who has become diversified by limiting adjuncts in the form of numerous 'fields' ranging from Brahma to a clump of grass-as free from differentiations resulting from all the limiting adjuncts. the knower of the field and God. God Vishu's.3 Ca api. and none else other than Him. due to the absence of any mundane creature other than God. opinion. since there remains nothing to be known apart from the true nature of the field. in all the fields. sarva-ksetresu. yat. that. matam. knowledge. and by which Knowledge the field and the knower of the field are made objects of knowledge. to be the ksetrajnam. Objection: Well. The idea is this: Know the 'Knower of the field'.

2.' etc. 'These two. All this becomes illogical if God and the individual soul be one. and enjoyment is the result of ignorance (see Ka. from the perception of variety in the world it can be inferred that mundane existence results from virtue and vice.2. two kinds of steadfastness have been stated. 505 . also has said so: 'Now. viz that which is know as Knowledge and that which is known as ignorance are widely contradictory. sorrow and their cause is apprehended through direct perception. In the first place.4. belonging (respectively) to those Knowledge and ignorance. 1. since the scriptures dealing with bondage. mundane existence which is characterized by happiness. Reply: No. and. 241.). Vyasa.2). because this becomes justifiable owing to the difference between Knowledge and ignorance. and similarly. there are these two paths' (Mbh Sa.6) etc. And it is understood from the Vedas. 1. Liberation and their causes will become useless. 'There are only these two paths. and they follow divergent courses' (Ka. And both these are undesirable. have also been pointed out to be contrary by saying that Liberation is the goal of Knowledge. Besides. and also becuase they contradict such valid means of knowledge as direct perception. the different results.mundance existence. Here (in the Gita) also. viz Liberation and enjoyment.

In his line is not born anyone who does not know Brahman' (Mu. 2. 'He becomes all this (Universe)' (Br. then there is truth.the Smrtis and reason that ignorance together with its effects has to be destroyed by Knowledge.1).1). 'Knowing Him in this way. they are: 'If one has realized here.15). He is like an animal to the gods' (Br. (the texts) with regard to the unenlightened person are: 'Then. One who knows Brahman becomes Brahman indeed.5). without knowing the Deity' (Sv.19). and I am another. And the Smrti texts (from the Gita) are: 'Knowledge remains covered by ignorance.9). 'Since by seeing equally the 506 ." does not know. 1.10). 1.4. 1. 6.) "He is one. 'The enlightened man is not afraid of anything' (Tai. then there is great destruction' (Ke.5). 3. Pu. 6). On the other hand. he is smitten with fear' (Tai. '(While he who worships another god thinking.2.8). 'When men will fold up space like (folding) leather.9. As for the Vedic texts. 'There is no other path to go by' (Sv.9). 'Living in the midst of ognorance' (Ka. 2. if he has not realized here. He who is a knower of the Self.10).7.4. 3. one becomes Immortal here' (Nr.2. (then) there will be cessation of sorrow. There are thousands of texts like these. 2. Thereby the creatures become deluded' (5. 'Here itself is rebirth conquered by them whose minds are established on sameness' (5.

of a tree is firmly regarded as a man. 'Men avoid snakes. For it is a well-known fact in the case of all creatures that their selfidentify with the body etc. tips of kusa-grass as also well when they are aware of them. who is reality is God Himself. takes birth and dies. the qualities of a man do not thereby come to exist in 507 . Similarly. etc. appears to have become a mundane soul owing to the various adjuncts which are products of ignorance. who identifies himself with the body etc. Some fall into them owing to ignorance. which are not-Self is definitely caused by ignorance. see the special result arising from knowledge' (Mbh. Just as. those who see the Self as different from the body etc. 201.28).God who is present alike everywhere (he does not injure the Self by the Self. which depends on the destruction of attachment and aversion. therefore he attains the supreme Goal)' (13. Thus. it is known that an unelightened person. It cannot be reasonably denied by anyone that. as for instance the individual soul becomes identified with the body etc.17). when a stump. the Knower of the field. there is the text. And as for reason. Sa. become liberated as a result of the cessation of righteous and unrighteous conduct. The being so. and who practises righteousness and unrighteousness under the impulsion of attachment and aversion.

. belong to the Self which is the knower? Reply: No. of the body etc. delusion. On the other hand.the stump. nor do the qualities of the stump come to the person. indeed belong to the knower. It is not proper that the Self should be identified with happiness. nor those of the body to consciousness.. though objects of knowledge. may it not be that the properties of the body. Objection: May it not be said that this is not so. then it will be necessary to explain the particular reason why some of the qualities of the object of knowledge-the field-superimposed through ignorance belong to the Self. like decrepitude and death. are equally the products of ignorance. which are verily objects of perception. sorrow. the illustration is not equally applicable. Thus. Therefore. are superimposed on each other through ignorance by their perceiver. similarly the property ofconsciousness does not come to the body. since there arises the contingency of (the Self) becoming devoid of consciousness! If qualities such as happiness. while 508 . etc. desire.. delusion. since they. etc. the mutual superimposition occurs verily between a knower and an object of perception. sorrow. in the case of the body and the Self. becuase of dissimilarity? The stump and the man. which are the field and are objects of knowledge.

the Knower of the field. For it is nowhere seen in the world that anybody is benefitted or harmed by a quality attributed to him through ignorance. and because they are either avoidable or acceptable.. There is no disagreement as to that. However. not the least touch of the mundane state is to be apprehended with regard to the almighty [see footnote on p. and p.5. diret. Hence.168. do not. like decrepitude etc. etc.decrepitude. This being so. nothing of the knower is affected thereby-in the same way as nothing of the sky is affected by the superimposition of surface. they are superimposed on the Self through ignorance. As for the statement that the illustration is not equally applicable-that is wrong. (On the contrary) it is possible to infer that they (happiness etc. (on it) by fools. death. even though He exists in all the fields. consisting of agentship and enjoyership pertaining to the objects of knowledge. the mundane state. Such being the case. since. Objection: How? Reply: Because what is intended as common between the illustration and the thing illustrated is merely the superimposition through ignorance.] God. etc.) do not pertain to the Self. that too has been shown to be inapt by 509 . is superimposed on the knower through ignorance. as for your contention that the illustration fails with regard to the Knower.

] Objection: Here it is asserted that if this be the case. are superimposed on the Self. which are matters of experience. but they cannot be superimposed on the experiencer. Since ignorance has the nature of covering. it makes one perceive contrarily.]. For decrepitude and death. are experienced when there are such defects as blindness etc. or it arouses doubt. And the three kind of ignorance.and they are not the qualities of the Self. [It is known through the process of agreement and difference that false perception etc. then ignorance is a quality of the knower? Reply: No. arise from some defects. [Etc: false perception and doubt. For it disappears with the dawn of discrimination. or it leads to non-perception. the experiencer. which are forms of tamas and have the nature of veiling. the answer is that this cannot be a universal proposition. for the defects such as blindness are seen to belong to the eye which is an organ. As for your notion that 'ignorance is a quality of the 510 .] Objection: May it not be that the Knower of the field becomes a mundane being owing to his having ignorance? Reply: No. it is indeed a notion born of tamas. viz non-perception etc. [If it be held that objects of experience may be superimposed on one another. because ignorance is of the nature of tamas.citing the example of decrepitude etc.

the Knower of the field. then there can never be a dissociation from them. As for example: Since such defects as false perception etc.experiencer. as heat is of fire.'this is not so. false perception. Besides. since there can be 511 . Just as blindness of the eyes does not pertain to the perceiver since on being curved through treatment it is not seen in the perceiver. in all cases. they are not qualities of the Knower in the same way that light is of a lamp. viz defects like blindness etc. pertain to some organ. it is denied by all schools of thought that in Liberation. not to the perceiver. the assertion which was made (by the Vedantin) in that connection. are seen to belong to the organ eye. and the very fact of being possessed of the quality of ignorance is what constitutes the mundane state of the Knower of the field. or their causes. And since they are objects of perception. Just because they are objects of perception. the Knower of the field. Again. doubt. "that the Knower of th field is God Himself and not a mundane being. similarly notions like non-perception.. they are cognized as different from one's own Self. do not belong to the perceiver. therefore false perception etc. there is any association with such defects as ignorance etc. and their causes should. " is improper. If they (the defects) be the qualities of the Self Itself. when all the organs depart.

e. bondage and 512 . etc. therefore it is established that the Knower of the field is ever identical with God. there will arise the defect of the uselessness of the scriptures. in those various schools). become useful in the state of bondage. Objection: Well. then. formless Self which is allpervading like space. Yet. if this be so. This follows alos from the utternance of the Lord. Similarly. and purposeful within the sphere of ignorance. etc. where it is admitted that the scriptures etc. for us all dualists. A defect that is admitted by all who believe in the Self is not to be explained by one alone! Objection: How has this been admitted by all? Reply: People of all schools of thought who believe in the Self admit that there is no worldly behaviour or the behaviour of a worldling in the liberated ones. it is not admitted that there is any possibility of such a defect as the scriptures becoming useless. 'Being without beginning and without qualities' (31). in their case (i. Reply: No. owing to the nonexistence of the world and the mundane creatures. not in the state of Liberation.no association with or dissociation from anything for the immutable. etc. Objection: Well. This is just as in the case of all the dualists. in our case let the scriptures be useless when the knowers of the field become identified with God. since this (defect) is admitted by all.

If this were possible at all. In this case also the assumption becomes falsified. or successive. then the states of bondage and freedom of the Self should be simultaneous. Moreover. may it not be that for the non-dualists. if they occur through some cause. since they are contradictory-like rest and motion in the same object. they cannot occur simultaneously. it being the creation of ignorance. become purposeless as they remain shorn of a subject-matter? Reply: No. become meaningful. since it is not logical that the Self should have different states. the state of bondage will have to be considered as being the earlier and having no beginning. when ascertaining the precedence and succession of the states of bondage and Liberation. therefore the state of bondage of the Self is not ultimately real. since duality deos not exist in truest sense. So. there arises the contingency of their being ultimately unreal. when things to be renounced or accepted as also the means thereto are real. then there will arise the contingency of there being no Liberation. then. since they do not exist inherently. but an end. and hence the scriptures etc. Should they occur successively and without being caused. On the other hand. As to that. And that is contrary to valid means of 513 . the scriptures etc.Liberation of the Self are real in the truest sense.

knowledge.e. it is not for the Advaitin (alone) to refute the objection. Surely. or a lunatic and such others. enjoyership) and the cause (i. Nor do the scriptures become purposeless. in the case of the enlightened persons. agentship) which are not-Self. if for avoiding the defect of noneternality the different states of bondage and Liberation be not assumed. Similarly it will have to be admitted that the state of Liberation has a beginning. even for the dualists such defects as the purposelessness of the scriptures become certainly unavoidable. For. it is impossible that. what to speak of a discriminating person! 514 . the situation being similar (for both).e. but no end. then. see water and fire or shade and light as identical. they can have Self identification with these as 'I'. not even a downright fool.which is certainly opposed to valid means of knowledge. On the other hand. because the scriptures are applicable to the commonly known unenlightened person. It is indeed in the case of the ignorant person-not in the case of the enlightened one-that there occurs the perception of identity of the Self with the effect (i. Thus. And it is not possible to established eternality for something that has states nd undergoes a change from one state to another. after the dawn of the realization of nonidentity of the Self with effect and cause.

the scriptures dealing with injunction and prohibition do not concern a person who sees the distinction of the Self from effect and cause. and am porhibited from adopting the means that leads to an undesirable result'? As for instance. even after having realized the Self as different from effect and cuase.Therefore.5. 'I have been ordered.17) we read. (1. 'I am enjoined to adotp the means that yields a desired result. it is quite reasonable from the standpoint of natural relationship. For. still there is the comprehension of the implication of the injunctions and prohibitions meant for one as being also meant for the other. such being the case.] that with regard to the scriptures one should have the understanding.' Visnumitra who happens to be there does not. conclude. Objection: Can it not be that. So also with regard to cause and effect. in the case of a father and son. 'Now therefore the entrusting: When a 515 . when Devadatta is ordered to do som work with the words. even though there exists the awareness of the distinction between each other. 'You do this. even on hearing the command. [In the (Br. [Natural relationship-Selfidentification with the body through ignorance. or between others.' But this conclusion is reasonable when the person for whom the order is meant is not understood.

and you are the world.4. the father has to accept them. it is understood that when a son in unable to perform his own duties. and then only one 516 . etc. So also in the case of brothers and others. though there is a comprehension of his own distinction from effect and cause. still. Similarly. It is only after one has followed (or eschewed) what is enjoined or prohibited by the scriptures that he comprehends his own distinction from the effect and cause. not before.] Reply: No. there is no contradiction in his understanding that the injunctions and prohibitions are meant for him. [In B. It has been enjoined here in this manner that the son should accept as his own all the duties thus entrusted to him by the father. "You are Brahman. and avoiding what is prohibited. one's mind becomes purified. since identification of the Self with effect and cause is possible only before attaining the knowledge of the Self as distinct (from them)."' etc. you are the sacrifice. Therefore these duties are not meant for the enlightened.S. in the case of the enlightened person also.man thinks he will die. he says to his son. Thus.26-7) it is said that the merit earned by the performance of scriptural duties helps to generate knowledge of Brahman. (3. body. owing to his earlier relationship with ignorance.. (By following what is enjoined.

under the idea that the other world does not exist. be not observed by those who have realized the Self as distinct and by those who view only the body as the Self. one who has inferred the existence of the Self on the ground of the wellknown fact that study of the scriptures dealing with injunctions and prohibitions becomes otherwise purposeless. 'One who desires heaven shall perform sacrifices'. Reply: No. However. who has no knowledge of the essential nature of the Self. then. because engagement in or abstention from actions follows from what is ordained by the scriptures. one who has realized Brahman-he does not engage in action. if (injunctions and prohibitions) such as. 'One should not eat poisoned meat. Similarly.' etc.-Tr.)] Therefore it is established that the scriptures dealing with injunctions and prohibitions are meant for the ignorant. even the person who does not believe in the Self does not engage in action. Objection: Well.) there would follow the uselessness of the scriptures. from the absence of any observer of those (injunctions etc. As for one who has realized the identity of the Lord and the knower of the field.understands he is different from cause and effectagentship and enjoyership. and in whom has arisen hankering for the results of actions-he faithfully 517 .

fools do not follow one who has discrimination. 'And understand Me to 518 .14). false knowledge cannot taint the supreme Reality. the mundane state consists of nothing but ignorance. the Absolute. Moreover. Verily has it been said (by the Lord). as at present. Besides. Hence. Therefore. And they are seen to get engaged in such acts as black magic. because (their) engagement in action is impelled by defects such as attachment etc. because discrimination arises in some rare person only.engages in action. by noticing abstention from action in the case of men with discrimination. Hence has this been said. This is a matter of direct perception to all to us. For. Moreover. For. some rare one among many people comes to possess discrimination. For. water in a mirage cannot taint the supreme Reality. Objection: May it not be that the scriptures will become meaningless when. ignorance cannot act in any way on the Knower of the field. 'But it is Nature that acts' (5. engagement in action is natural. the scriptures are not purposeless. Ignorance and its effects do not belong to the Knower of the feild. water in a mirage cannot make a desert muddy with its moisture. their followers too will abstain? Reply: No. and is an object of perception (to the ignorant man who sees it) just as it appears to him. Similarly.

when the activities of the aggregate of body and organs cease. etc. and the field is something different and an object of knowledge to the Knower of the field. and by continuing to dwell in His true nature 519 .] am I. engagement in aciton in impossible because of the absence of desire for results. what is this that even the learned say like the worldly people. This being so. On the other hand. wife. But I am a mundane being. his withdrawal from action is spoken of in a figurative sense. should they realize the unchanging Knower of the field.' Enjoyment and action are mere perversions. happy and sorrowful.be knower of the field. And it is my duty to bring about the cessation of worldly existence through the knowledge of the field and the Knower of the field. 'Knowledge remains covered by ignorance' (5. Some may have this other kind of learnedness: 'The Knower of the field is God Himself. 'May this be mine.' as also. 'Thus [Possessed of aristorcracy etc. Objection: Then.15). in the case of an enlightened person who has realized the changeless Self. the ignorant man engages in action owing to his desire for results.' 'This [Body.] verily belongs to Me'? Reply: Listen. then they will not crave for enjoyment or action with the idea. Hence. This is that learnedness which consists in seeing the field as the Self! On the contrary.

That Self-immolator. 'I shall render meaningful the scriptures dealing with the worldly state and Liberation'-is the meanest among the learned.' and he who. He will then become a mundane being. and thereby himself becoming deluded. Hence. understands thus. if the knowers of the fields are one with God. As for the objection that. then from the nonexistence of mundane beings will follow the absence of the mundane state. -these two objections have been refuted by admitting Knowledge and ignorance as having different characteristics. being devoid of any link with the traditional interpreters of the purport of the scriptures. one who is not a knower of the traditional interpretation is to be ignored like a fool. Objection: How? Reply: By saying that any defect imagined through ignorance does not affect the supreme Reality which is the substratum of that (imagination). and he who teaches that 'he (the taught) is not the Knower of the field. thinks.' and he who. befools others too. misinterprets what is enjoined in the scriptures and imagines what is not spoken there. the Knower of the field. In accordance with this an 520 . though he may be versed in all the scriptures.after directly perceiving through meditation God. if God be one with the knower of the field. and that. being under such an idea.

stands refuted by the explanation that the mundane state and the individual souls are imagined through ignorance. Should there be a conjunction. and hence it is verily a quality of the field. therefore the knower-the knower of the fieldcannot reasonably be tainted by the defects arising from it. Nor does the knower of the field become tainted thereby. then there will be no possibility at all of its (the latter's) becoming a knowable. not the quality of the knower of the field. Even the defect of the possibility of nonexistence of the mundange state. be qualities of the Self. Oh! Sir. because of knower cannot possibly have any conjunction with an object of knowledge. Objection: The defect of mundane existence in the knower of the field consists in his being possessed of ignorance. if being ignorant. consequent on the nonexistence of individual souls. which are its products are matters of direct experience.illustration was cited that a desert is not made muddy by water in a mirage. sorrowful. how is it that they are directly perceived? Or how can they be qualities of the Knower of the field? If the conclusion be that 521 . And sorrowfulness etc. etc. Whatsoever blemish-not existing in the knower of the field-you attribute to It is logically an object of experience. Reply: No. since whatever is known is an attribute of the field.

Hence the question is meaningless. Moreover. sorrowful. 'In whom is ignorance experienced?' Objection: How? Reply: If ignorance be perceived (by you). Here. when that possessor of ignorance is perceived it is not reasonable to ask. their relation also is directly perceived. the cattle and their owner are directly perceived. 'To whom do the cattle belong'. then you perceive its possessor as well. Reply: What will it matter to you if you know the relation of ignorance with a person who is not directly perceived as possessed 522 . (the opponent) asks: To whom does ignorance belong? (The answer is that) it belongs verily to him by whom it is experienced! Objection: In whom is it perceived? Reply: Here the answer is: It is pointless to ask. when an owner of cattle is seen. Objection: Well.are the qualities of the knower of the field and that they are directly perceived is a contradictory statement having only ignorance as its basis. is not the illustration dissimilar? Since.all that is known consititutes the field. does not become meaningful. Ignorance and its possessor are not directly perceived in that manner. to say that being ignorant. then. the question. 'In whom is it perceived?' For. in which case the question would have been meaningless. and that the one who knows is verily the knower of the field. etc.

of ignorance? Opponent: Since ignorance is a source of evil. for this would lead to infinite regress. ['After having perceived ignorance as an object of your knowledge. there cannot be someone who is a (separate) cognizer of the relation between the knower and ignorance. ignorance belongs to myself. then a separate cognizer has to be 523 . how can you who continue to be the knower cognize yourself as the knower of that ignorance? For this would lead to the contradiction of the same person becoming the subject and the object of cognition. but not through direct perception. Reply: In that case.'] the knowledge of the relation (of the Self) with ignorance which is an object of knowledge. Reply: If you know through inference. Besides. then how is the connection (between yourself and ignorance) known? Surely it is not possible for you the knower to have at that time ['When you are knowing your own ignorance. and a separate cognition of that (relation). you know ignorance as also yourself who possess it? Opponent: I know. Reply: He to whom ignorance belongs will get rid of it! Opponent: Indeed. therefore it should be got rid of.'] because the cognizer is then engaged in cognizing ignorance as an object. If the knower and the relation between the knower and the thing known be cognizable.

cause. etc. whether the knowable be ignorance or anything else. similarly.imagined. And when this is so. [Since the knower cannot be known. which is full of defects. he does not become a knowable. It is just like figuratively attributing the act of heating to fire merely because of its (natural) heat.' (2. Just as it has been shown here by the Lord Himself that identification with action.. 'While actions are being done in ever 524 . are figuratively attributed to the Self owing to their having been superimposed (on It) through ignorance. of him again a separate cognizer would have to be imagined! Thus. a knowable is verily a knowable. because it is the Immutable. even a knower is surely a knower. Of him.19). by nature. that is figuratively spoken of as the cognizer. therefore his relation with ignorance also cannot be known by himself or by anybody else] nothing of the cognizer-the knower of the field-is tainted by such defects as ignorance. Objection: May it not be said that the (Self's) defect is surely this. that the field.. and that action. is cognized (by It)? Reply: No. which is consciousness. another knower has to be imagined. cause and effect are absent in the Self. an infinite regress be comes unavoidable. sorrowfulness. Again. again. so has it been shown by Him in various places: 'He who thinks of this One as the killer. etc.

which is the supreme consummation of Knowledge' (ibid. 50) It is needless here to expatiate further.27). and in the following contexts also we shall explain accordingly.. in that case.' (5. 'The Omnipresent neither accepts anybody's sin. not by the enlightened.15). if identification with action. This very fact we shall explain under the verse. and it they be superimpositions through ignorance..11). O son of Kunti. too. Objection: Well. Reply: It is true that is comes to this.. '. cause and effect be naturally absent in the Self.in brief indeed.what that field is.... For it is proper to introduce briefly the subjectmatter that is sought to be explained.. we shall explain this elaborately under the verse. It has been explained by us. in the context dealing with the conclusion of the purport of the whole Scripture.way by the gunas of Nature' (3. in that very way.. what its changes 525 . summarizing the purport of the chapter dealing with the 'field' taught in the verses begining from 'This body... is being presented. And.' (18.. 13. Hence we conclude... The next verse. 'Since it is not possible for one who holds on to a body.'etc. '(Hear about). then it amounts to this that actions are meant for being undertaken only by the ignorant.4 Hear from Me in brief about (all) that as to what that field is and how it is.' etc... etc.

sah ca yah. tat. me. ca. understand. ca. as they have been described. and what His powers are. is. what His powers are. from Me. and who He. yat-prabhavah. separately by the different kinds [The 526 . and. which has been referred to as 'this'. from My utterance. the Knower of the field indicated above. yatah. yadvikari. and.4 Srnu. as to yat. hear.are.Swami Gambhirananda 13. that-the true nature of the field and the Knower of the field. in brief. and who He is. Yatprobhavah is He who is possessed of the powers arising from the adjuncts. about (all) tat. For making the intellect of the hearer interested the Lord praises that true nature of the field and the Knower of the field which is intended to be taught: 13. what effect (-arises is understood-). ksetram. and. ca. samasena. yadrk. i. how it is along with its own qualities. The word ca has been used (throughout) in the sense of and. that-tat stands for that which has been indicated as 'This body' (in verse 1). arises yat.5 It has been sung of in various ways by the Rsis.e. what its changes are. from what cause. having heard. and from what cause arises what effect. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .. field is. what.

in various ways. and. They are called padani since Brahman is reached. 1. ca. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . rsibhih. besides. by Vasistha and others. It has been sung of. vividhaih. bahudha. by the rational.] of Vedic texts.7). which are indicative of and lead to Brahman. known.different branches of Vedic texts. and also by the rational and convicing sentences themselves which are indicatvie of and lead of Brahman. To 527 . Vedic texts-chandas mean the Rg-veda etc. Brahma-sutras are the sentences indicative of Brahman. The Self is verily known through such sentences as.e. spoken of. i. by the convincing. hetumadbhih. sung prthak.5 Gitam. by them. chandobhih.Swami Gambhirananda 13. 'The Self alone is to be meditated upon' (Br. through them. by the different kinds of. and viniscitaih. by the Rsis. brahma-sutra-padaih eva. by those which are productive of certain knowledgenot by those which are in an ambiguous form.4. By them indeed has been sung the true nature of the field and the Knower of the field (-this is understood). sentences themselves which are indicative of and lead to Brahman. separately.

the great elements: Those elements which are great owing to their pervasion of all midifications. The word eva (itself) is used for singling out Prakrti (Nature). the Lord says: 13. intellect.Arjuna who had become interested as a result of the eulogy. objects of the senses.. The Prakrti divided eightfold [The undifferentiated (avyakta). As for the gross elements. egoism.6 Mahabhutani. the Undifferentiated. the source of egoism and consisting of the faculty of judgement. and which are subtle. which is the source of the great elements and consists of the idea of 'I'. ca. and the five objects of the senses. they will be spoken of by the word indriya-gocarah. egoism and the five uncompunded subtle elements] is this much alone. Buddhih. 'Maya of Mine. its cause.difficult to cross' (7. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Unmanifest itself. the ten organs and the one. The word ca (and) is used for joining the various 528 .14). intellect and the Unmanifest itself. mahat.Swami Gambhirananda 13. Ahankarah. egoism.. the avyaktam eva.6 The great elements. the power of God spoken of in. and.

the panca.. ten. sentience. objects of the senses-such objects as sound etc. indriya-gacarah. The followers of the Sankhya call these which are such the twenty-four categories. hands. together with its modifications. organs : The five. They are ten.7 Desire. 173). a man wants to have it under 529 . has been spoken of briefly. the eleventh. and.7 Iccha.categories. and the one-which is that?the mind. fortitude. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . five. desire: Having experienced again an object of that kind which had given him the feeling of pleasure earlier. The dasa. but not of the Knower of the field: 13. happiness. on p. (see fn. Ca.Swami Gambhirananda 13.-which are called motor-organs since they accomplish actions. Thereafter. possessed of the power of thinking etc. organs ear etc.this field. which are called sense-organs since they produce perception. etc. and the (other) five organs-organ of speech. indriyani. sorrow. Ekam ca. the Lord now says that even those qualities which the Vaisesikas speak of as the attributes of the sould are certainly the attributes of the field. repulsion. the aggregate (of body and organs).

field. the combination. Duhkham. sukham. having the quality of sattva-is the 'field' since it is an object of knowledge. ksetram. have been selected as suggestive of all the qualities of the internal organ. Similarly.the idea that it is a source of pleasure. happiness. That is this repulsion. by which are sustained the body and organs when they get exhausted-that too is the 'field' becuase it is an object of knowledge. So also dvesah. this. Sanghatah is the aggregate. sentience. and is the 'field' since it is an object of knowledge. has been 530 . Dhrtih. together with its modifications beginning from mahat (buddhi). sorrow-which is by nature adverse-. of body and organs. Desire etc. is the 'field' since it is a knowable. savikaram. Cetana. that. That too is the 'field' because it is an object of knowledge. fortitude. That is this desire which is an attribute of the internal organ. and pervaded by an essence in the form of a semblance of Consciousness of the Self. repulsion: Having experienced again an object of that kind which he had earlier felt as a cause of sorrow. tranquil.which is favourable. is a state of the internal organ. too. manifest in that aggregate like fire in a heated lump of iron. The Lord concludes what has been said: Etat. he hates it. and it is surely the 'field' since it is an object of knowledge.

briefly. which lead one to the knowledge of That (Knower of the field)-that group of humility etc. udahrtam.8 Humility. steadiness. for the present. service of the teacher.samasena. and is constituted by the aggregate of the constituents of the field has been explained in its different forms beginning from the great elements etc. the Lord Himself will narrate in the verse. unpretentiousness. ending with fortitude. 'This body is called the field' (1). cleanliness. togehter with His attributes. The Knower of the field whose qualities are going to be described. But. 531 . 'I shall speak of that which is to be known' (12). That 'field' which was referred to as. sincerity. and being endued with which a monk is said to be steadfast in Knowledge: 13. spoken of. and owing to the existence of which one becomes appropriately competent for the realization of that Knowable. forbearance. and by realizing which Knower of the field along with His majesty Immortality follows-of Him. which are referred to by the word Knowledge since they lead to Knowledge. non-injury. the Lord enjoins the group of disciplines characterized as humility etc. control of body and organs.

proclaming one's own virtues is dambhitvam.. and internally. for-bearance.8 Amanitvam. Adambhitvam. absence of cruely towards creatures. cleanliness-washing away the dirt from the body with earth and water. the absence of that is adambhitvam. 532 . non-injury. arjavam. removing the 'dirt' of the mind such as attachment etc. uprightness. Further. but which is inimical to the Self.Swami Gambhirananda 13. through acts of service etc. ksantih. humility-the quality of a vain person is manitvam. steadiness. unpretentiousness. boasting about oneself. remaining undisturbed when offened by others. the absence of that is amanitvam. service of the teacher. absence of crookedness. control of the aggregate of body and organs which is referred to by the word 'self'. saucam. restricting only to the right path that (aggregate) which naturally strays away in all directions. perseverance in the path to Liberation alone. sthairyam. attending on the teacher who instructs in the disciplines for Liberation. atma-vinigrahah. acarya-upasanam. Ahimsa. sincerity.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . by thinking of their opposites.

the attitude of dispassion.. diseases and miseries. Or. The evil in birth consists in lying in the womb and coming out of it.9 Vairagyam. diseases and miseries-seeing the evil in each one of them from 'birth' to 'miseries'. and also absence of egotism. seeing in old age the evil in the form of deprivation of intelligence. Similarly. non-attachment. seeing the evil in birth. janma-mrtyu-jara-vyadhi-duhkha-dosaanudarsanam. absence of egotism. indriya-arthesu. seeing. death. old age. strength and vigour. of it. with regard to seen or unseen objects of enjoyment. that (evil in the form of miseries) in birth 533 .Swami Gambhirananda 13. old age. absence of pride. and also. death. and becoming an object of contempt. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .9 Non-attachment with regard to objects of the senses. Seeing. viz sound etc. natural and supernatural. so also.13. thinking of the evil in death. so also with regard to miseries arising from causes physical. duhkha-dosa may mean the miseries themselves which are evil. as before. anahankarah. seeing the evil in birth. thinking of the evil in diseases like headtache etc. thinking. with regard to objects of the senses. eva ca.e.. In the same way. i.

From that follows the tendency of the organs towards the indwelling Self for the realization of the Self. Moreover.Swami Gambhirananda 13.10 Non-attachment and absence of fondness with regard to sons.-birth is miserable. and as such are not miseries in themselves.10 Asaktih. are miserable because they cause misery. not that they are miseries in themselves. etc. is in fact a 534 . is called Knowledge because it thus becomes a cuase of the rise of Knowledge. absence of fondness-abhisvangah. are perceivable events. dispassion arises with regard to the pleasures in the body. Birth etc.. The seeing of the evil in the form of misery in birth etc. wives. when one thinks of the evil in the form of miseries in birth etc. death is miserable. organs and objects.] Thus. 13. [Birth etc. old age is miserable. diseases are miserable.etc. non-attachment-attachment means merely the kind for things arising from association. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and constant equanimity of the mind with regard to the attainment of the desirable and the undesirable. homes. the absence of that is asaktih. and anabhisvangah.

' (it is understood that this fondness is) even with regard to others who are liked very much-retinue of sevants and so on. as for instance. and thinking 'I live'. wives. or. homes. nor does he become angry on the attainment of the undesirable.special kind of attachment consisting of the idea of self-identification. mental equipoise with regard to them. One does not become happy on the attainment of the desirable. always. etc. the attainment of the desirable and the undesirable. inclination to repair into a clean place. 535 . And nityam.' when some. without exception. 13. sama-cittatvam.body else lives or dies-With regard to what? In answer the Lord says: putra-dara-grhadisu. lack of delight in a crowd of people.' or.-with regard to what?-ista-anistaupapattisu. thinking 'I myself am happy. From the use of 'etc. And since both these (absence of attachment and fondness) lead to Knowledge.' when somebody else is happy or unhappy. with regard to sons. mental equipoise. 'I shall die.11 And unwavering devotion to Me with singleminded concentration. constant. 'I am sorrowful. therefore they are called Knowledge. equanimity of mind. And that constant equanimity of mind which is of this kind is Knowledge Further.

a multitude of people without culture. adoration with that. to Me. to God. with singleminded concentration.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . lacking in purity and immodest-. avyabhicarini.Swami Gambhirananda 13. Since the mind becomes calm in places that are indeed pure (or solitary). and the abstract form of that is vivikta-desa-sevitvam. or in a temple. one who is inclined to seek such a place is vivikta-desa-sevi. inclination to repair into a clean place-a place (desa) naturally free (vivikta) or made free from impurity etc. mayi. (but) not (so) in a 536 . etc. unwavering-not having any tendency to deviate. and hence He alone is our Goal'. tigers.11 Ca. That too is Knowledge. in crowd of people-an assemblage. lack of delight. on a bank of a river. bhaktih. with undivided concentration-ananyayogah is the decisive. unswerving conviction of this kind: 'There is none superior to Lord Vasudeva.. devotion. place made solitary (vivikta) by being situated in a forest. jana-samadi. occurs in pure (or solitary) places. Aratih. Hence the inclination to retire into clean (or solitary) places is called Knowledge. and snakes. therefore meditation on the Self etc. and. Vivikta-desa-sevitvam. not being happy. or. ananya-yogena.

gathering of pure and modest persons since that is conducive to Knowledge. Hence, lack of delight in an assembly of common people is Knowledge since it leads to Knowledge. Besides, 13.12 Steadfastness in the knowledge of the Self, contemplation on the Goal of the knowledge of Reality-this is spoken of as Knowledge. Ignorance is that which is other than this. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 13.12 Adhyatma-jnana-nityatvam, steadfastness in the knowledge of the Self: adhyatma-jnanam is the knowledge of the Self, etc.; constant dwelling in that is nityatvam. Tattva-jnanartha-darsanam, contemplating on the Goal of the knowledge of Reality: Tattva-jnanam is that (realization of Truth) which arises from the fruition of application to the disciplines like humility etc. which are the means to knowledge. Its Goal (artha) is Liberation, the cessation of mundane existence. Contemplation (darsana) on that is tattva-jnana-artha-darsanam. For, when one engages in contemplation on the result of the knowledge of Reality, one gets the urge to undertake the disciplines which are its 537

means. Etat, this-those that have been stated from 'humility' etc. to 'contemplation on the Goal of the knowledge of Reality'; proktam, is spoken of; iti, as; jnanam, Knowledge, because they are meant to lead one to Knowledge. Ajnanam, ignorance; is yat, that which is; anyatha, other; atah, than this-what has been stated above. Contrarily, arrogance, pretentiousness, cruelty, revenge, insincerity, etc. are to be known as ignorance so that, since they are the cause of the origination of worldly existence, they can be avoided. To the question as to what is to be known through the aforesaid Knowledge, the Lord says, 'I shall speak of that which is to be known,' etc. Objection: Do not humility etc. constitute yama and niyama [See fn. on p. 239.Tr.]? The Knowable is not known through them. For humility etc. are not seen to determine the nature of anything. Moreover, everywhere it is observed that whatever knowledge reveals its own object, that itself ascertains the nature of that object of knowledge (the knowable). Indeed, nothing else is known through a knowledge concerning some other object. As for instance, fire is not known through the knowledge of a pot. Reply: This is not a defect, for we have said that they are called 'Knowledge' because they lead one to Knowledge, 538

and because Knowledge.

they

are

auxiliary

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13.13 I shall speak of that which is to be known, by realizing which one attains Immortality. The supreme Brahman is without any beginning. That is called neither being nor non-being. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 13.13 Pravaksyami, I shall speak of, fully describe just as it is; tat, that; yat, which; is jenyam, to be known. In order to interest the hearer through inducement, the Lord speaks of what its result is: Jnatva, by realizing; yat, which Knowable; asnute, one attains; amrtam, Immortality, i.e.; he does not die again. Anadimat, without beginning-one having a beginning (adi) is adimat; one not having a beginning is anadimat. What is that? The param, supreme, unsurpassable; brahma, Brahman, which is under discussion as the Knowable. Here, some split up the phrase anadimatparam as anadi and matparam because, if the word anadimat is taken as a Bahuvrihi compound, ['That which has no (a), beginning (adi) is anadi.' Matup is used to denote possession. Since the idea of possession is a already 539

implied in anadi, therefore matup, if added after it, becomes redundant.] then the suffix mat (matup) becomes redundant, which is undesirable. And they show a distintive meaning: (Brahman is anadi, beginningless, and is) matparam, that of which I am the supreme (para) power called Vasudeva. Trully, the redundance could be avoided in this way if that meanig were possible. But that meaning is not possible, because what is intended is to make Brahman known only through a negation of all attributes by saying, 'It is called neither being nor non-being.' It is contradictory to show a possession of a distinctive power and to negate attributes. Therefore, although matup and a bahuvrihi compound convey the same meaning of 'possession', its (matup's) use is for completing the verse. [The Commentator accepts anadimat as a nan-tatpurusa compund. If, however, the Bahuvrihi is insisted on, then the mat after anadi should be taken as completing the number of syllables needed for versification. So, nat need not be compounded with param.] Having aroused an interest through inducement by saying, 'The Knowable which has Immortality as its result is beeing spoken of by Me,' the Lord says: Tat, that Knowable; ucyate, is called; na sat, neither being; nor is it called asat, non-being. Objection: After 540

strongly girding up the loins and declaring with a loud voice, 'I shall speak of the Knowable,' is it not incongruous to say, 'That is called neither being nor non-being'? Reply: No. What has been said is surely consistent. Objection: How? Reply: For in all the Upanisads, the Knowable, i.e. Brahman, has been indicated only by negation of all attributes'Not this, not this' (Br. 4.4.22), 'Not gross, not subtle' (op. cit. 3.3.8), etc.; but not as 'That is this', for It is beyond speech. Objection: Is it not that a thing which cannot be expressed by the word 'being' does not exist? Like-wise, if the Knowable cannot be expressed by the word 'being', It does not exist. And it is contradictory to say, 'It is the Knowable', and 'It cannot be expressed by the word "being".' Counter-objection: As to that, no that It does not exist, because It is not the object of the idea, 'It is non-being.' Objection: Do not all cognitions verily involve the idea of being or nonbeing? This being so, the Knowable should either be an object of a cognition involving the idea of existence, or it should be an object of a cognition involving the idea of non-existence. Reply: No, because, by virtue of Its being super-sensuous, It is not an object of cognition involving either, of the two ideas. Indeed, any object perceivable by the senses, such as pot etc., can be either an object of 541

cognition involving the idea of existence, or it can be an object of cognition involving the idea of nonexistence. But this Knowable, being supersensuous and known from the scriptures, which are the sole means of (Its) knowledge, is not, like pot etc., an object of cognition involving either of the two ideas. Therefore It is called neither being nor nonbeing. As for your objection that it is contradictory to say, 'It is the Knowable, but it is neither called being nor non-being,'-it is not contradictory; for the Upanisad says, 'That (Brahman) is surely different from the known and, again, It is above the unknown' (Ke. 1.4). Objection: May it not be that even the Upanisad is contradictory in its meaning? May it not be (contradictory) as it is when, after beginning with the topic of a shed for a sacrifice, [Cf. 'Pracinavamsam karoti, he constructs (i.e. shall construct) (the sacrificial shed) with its supporting beam turned east-ward' (Tai, Sam.; also see Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Monier Williams).-Tr.] it is said, 'Who indeed knows whether there exists anything in the other world or not!' (Tai. Sam. 6.1.1)? Reply: No, since the Upanisad speaking of something that is different from the known and the unknown is meant for establishing an entity that must be realized. [The Upanisadic text is not to be rejected on the ground that it is paradoxical, for it 542

is meant to present Brahman as indentical with one's own inmost Self.] But, '...whether there exists anything in the other world,' etc. is merely an arthavada [See note on p. 40. Here, the passage, '...whether there exists...,' etc. is to be interpreted as an arthavada emphasizing, the need of raising a shed, irrespective of any other consideration.-Tr.] connected with an injunction. From reason who it follows that Brahman cannot be expressed by such words as being, non-being, etc. For, every word used for expressing an object, when heard by listeners, makes them understand its meaning through the comprehension of its significance with the help of genus, action, quality and relation; not in any other way, because that is not a matter of experience. To illustrate this: a cow, or a horse, etc. (is comprehended) through genus; cooking or reading, through action; white or black, through quality; a rich person or an owner of cows, through relation. But Brahman does not belong to any genus. Hence it is not expressible by words like 'being' etc.; neither is It possessed of any qualitity with the help of which It could be expressed through qualifying words, for It is free from qualities; nor can It be expressed by a word implying action, It being free from actions-which accords with the Upanisadic text, 'Partless, 543

actionless, calm' (Sv. 6.19). Nor has It any relation, since It is one, non-dual, not an object of the senses, and It is the Self. Therefore it is logical that It cannot be expressed by any word. And this follows from such Upanisadic texts as, 'From which, words trun back' (Tai. 2.4.1), etc. Therefore it is logical that It cannot be expressed by any word. And this follows from such Upanisadic texts as, 'From which, words turn back' (Tai. 2.4.1), etc. Since the Knowable (Brahman) is not an object of the word or thought of 'being', there arises the apprehension of Its nonexistence. Hence, for dispelling that apprehension by establishing Its existence with the help of the adjuncts in the form of the organs of all creatures, the Lord says: 13.14 That (Knowable), which has hands and feet everwhere, which has eyes, heads and mouths everywhere, which has ears everywhere, exists in creatures by pervading them all. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 13.14 Tat, That-the Knowable; sarvatah-panipadam, which has hands and feet everywhere-. The existence of the Knower of the field is revealed 544

through th adjuncts in the form of the organs of all creatures. And the Knower of the field is spoken of as such because of the limiting adjuncts of the field. The field, too, is diversely differentiated as hands, feet, etc. All diversity in the Knower of the field, caused by the differences in the adjunct-the field-, is certainly unreal. Hence, by denying it, the nature of the Knowable has been stated, in, 'That is called neither being nor non-being.' Although the unreal form is caused by the limiting adjuncts, still, for the comprehension of Its existence it is said, '(It) has hands and feet everywhere, etc., by assuming this as a quality of the Knowable. Thus, as is well known, there is saying of the people versed in tradition, 'The Transcendental is described with the help of superimposition and its refutation'. Everywhere the hands, feet, etc., which are perceived as limbs of all bodies, perform, their duties due to the presence of the power of the Knowable (Brahman). Thus the grounds for the inference of the existence of the Knowable are metaphorically spoken of as belonging to the Knowable. The others have to be explained similarly. That Knowable has hands and feet everwhere. That which has eyes, heads, and mouths everywhere is sarvatoksi-siro-mukham. That which has ears every-where is sarvatah545

srutimat: sruti means the organs of hearing; that which has it is sruti-mat. Tisthati, It exists, remains established; loke, in the multititude of creatures; avrtya, by pervading; sarvam, them all. With this purpose is view, that as a result of the superimposition of the organs like hands, feet, etc., which are adjuncts, there may not be the misconception that the Knowable is possessed of them (adjuncts), the (next) verse is begun: 13.15 Shining through the functions of all the organs, (yet) devoid of all the organs; unattached, and verily the supporter of all; without quality, and the perceiver of qualities; English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 13.15 Sarvendriya-guna-abhasam, shining through the functions of all the organs: By the use of the words all the organs are understood ears etc., known as the sense-organs and motor-organs, as also the internal organs-the intellect and the mind, for they are equally the limiting adjuncts of the Knowable. Besides, the organs of hearing etc. become the limiting adjuncts from the very fact of the internal organ becoming so. Hence, the 546

Knowable gets expressed through determination, thinking, hearing, speaking, etc. that are the functions of all the organs, internal and external, which are the limiting adjuncts. In this way, It is manifest through the functions of all the organs. The idea is that, that Knowable appears to be as though active owing to the functions of all the organs, as it is said in the Upanisadic text, 'It thinks, as it were, and shakes, as it were' (Br. 4.3.7). For that reason, again, is It not perceived as being actually active? In answer the Lord says: It is sarvaindriya-varitam, devoid of all the organs, i.e. bereft of all the instruments of action. Hence the Knowable is not active through the functioning of the instruments of action. As for the Upanisadic verse, 'Without hands and feet He moves swiftly and grasps; without eyes He sees, without ears He hears' (Sv. 3.19), etc.-that is meant for showing that that Knowable has the power of adapting Itself to the functions of all the organs which are Its limiting adjuncts; but it is not meant to show that It really has such activity as moving fast etc. The meaning of that verse is like that of the Vedic text, 'The blind one discoverd a gem' (Tai, Ar. 1.11). [This is an artha-veda (see note on p.530), which is not to be taken literally but interpreted in accordance with the context.] Since the Knowable 547

is devoid of all the instruments of actions, therefore It is asaktam, unattached, devoid of all associations. Although It is of this kind, yet it is ca eva, also verily; the sarva-bhrt, supporter of all. Indeed, everything has existence as its basis, because the idea of 'existence' is present everywhere. Verily, even mirage etc. do not occur without some basis. Therefore, It is sarva-bhrt, the supporter of all-It upholds everything. There can be this other organs as well for the realization of the existence of the Knowable: Nirgunam, without quality-the qualities are sattva, rajas and tamas; that Knowable is free from them; and yet It is the guna-bhoktr, perceiver of qualities; i.e., that Knowable is the enjoyer and experiencer of the qualities, sattva, rajas and tamas, which, assuming the forms of sound etc., transform them-selves into happiness, sorrow, delusion, etc. Further, 13.16 Existing outside and inside all beings; moving as well as non-moving, It is incomprehensible due to subtleness. So also, It is far away, and yet near. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 548

13.16 Existing, bahih, outside- the word bahih is used with reference to the body including the skin, which is misconceived through ignorance to be the Self, and which is itself taken as the boundary. Similarly, the word antah, inside, is used with reference to the indwelling Self, making the body itself as the boundary. When 'outside' and 'inside' are used, there may arise the contingency of the nonexistence of That in the middle. Hence this is said: acaram caram eva ca, moving as well as not moving-even that which appears as the body, moving or not moving, is nothing but the Knowable, in the same way as the appearance of a snake on a rope (is nothing but the rope). In all empirical things, moving as also non-moving, be the Knowable, why should It not be known by all as such? In answer it is said: It is true that It shines through everything; still it is subtle like space. Therefore, although It is the Knowable, tat, It; is avijneyam, incomprehensible to the ignorant people; suksmatvat, due to Its intrinsic subtleness. But to the enlightened It is ever known from the valid means of knowledge such as (the texts), 'All this is verily the Self' (Ch. 7.25.2), 'Brahman alone is all this' (Nr. Ut.7), etc. It is durastham, far away, since, to the unenlightened, It is unattainable even 549

in millions of years. And tat, That; is antike, near, since It is the Self of the enlightened. 13.17 And the Knowable, though undivided, appears to be existing as divided in all beings, and It is the sustainer of all beings as also the devourer and originator. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 13.17 And further, tat, that; jneyam, Knowable; though avibhaktam, undivided, remaining the same in all beings like space; iva sthitam, appears to be existing; as vibhaktam, divided; bhutesu, in all beings, because It is perceived as existing in the bodies themselves. And just as a rope etc. are with regard to a snake etc. That are falsely imagined, similarly that Knowable is bhutabhartr, the sustainer of all beings, sinced It sustains all during the period of their existence; grasisnu, the devourer, at the time of dissolution; and prabhavisnu, the originator, at the time of creation. Further, it the Knowable is not perceived though existing everywhere, then It is darkness? Not! What then? 550

13.18 That is the Light even of the lights; It is spoken of as beyond darkness. It is Knowledge, the Knowable, and the Known. It exists specially [A variant reading is dhisthitam.-Tr.] in the hearts of all. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 13.18 Tat, that Knowable; is the jyotih, Light; api, even; jyotisam, of the lights-of the sun etc. For the lights like the sun etc. shine because they are enkindled by the light of consciousness of the Self, as is known from Upanisadic texts like, 'Illumined by whose light the sun shines' (Tai. Br. 3.12.9.7), 'By Its light all this shines variously' (Sv. 6.14), and from the Smrti also, as here (in the Gita) itself: 'That light in the sun...' (15.12), etc. It is ucyate, spoken of as; param, beyond, untouched by; tamasah, darkness; ignorance. For cheering up anyone who may become disheartened by thinking that Knowledge etc. is difficult to attain, the Lord says: It is jnanam, Knowledge-humility etc. (verse 7, etc.); jneyam, the Knowable, which has been spoken of in, 'I shall speak of that which is to be known' (12); and jnana-gamyam, the Known. The Knowable itself is referred to as jnanagamyam, 551

when after being known, It becomes the result of Knowledge. But when It is an object to be known, It is called jneyam. All these three which are such, visthitam, specially exist; hrdi, in the hearts, in the intellects; sarvasya, of all, of all creatures. For these three are, indeed, perceived there. This verse is begun for concluding the topic under discussion: 13.19 Thus has been spoken of in brief the field as also Knowledge and the Knowable. By understanding this My devotee becomes qualified for My state. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 13.19 Iti, thus; uktam, has been spokencommencing from 'I shall speak of that which is to be known' (12) and ending with 'It is spoken of as beyond darkness' (17); samasatah, in brief; the ksetram, field -beginning with the 'great elements' and ending with 'for titude' (5,6); tatha, as also; jnanam, Knowledge-beginning from 'humility' (7) and ending with 'contemplation on the Goal of the knowledge of Reality' (11); and the jneyam, Knowable. All this has been stated by way of summarizing the purport of the Vedas and the 552

know the modifications as also the qualities as born of Nature.6). The explanation as to how creatures have the two aspects. for that State of Mine.] of God. characterized as the field and the Knower of the field. the field and the Knower of the field. My devotee. He attains Liberation. There in the Seventh Chapter have been presented the two aspects [Cf. as their source is now being stated: 13.] to be verily without beginning. mad-bhavaya. the supreme Teacher. Vasudeva. for My State (bhava) -the State of being the supreme Self.Gita. all that verily is Lord Vasudeva. Vijnaya.16-18. becomes qualified. '(Understand thus) that all things have these as their source' (7. he upa-padyate. And it has also been said. by understanding.-Tr. the Omniscient. this. hears or touches.20 Know both Nature and also the individual soul [Prakrti is sometimes translated as matter. 15. the aforesaid true knowledge. 553 . who attributes the fact of being the Self of all to Me who am God. etat. Who is fit for this true knowledge? The answer is: madbhaktah. (and) whose conviction has been saturated with the idea that whatever he sees. viz the higher and the lower. and purusa as spirit.

know. without beginning. and the causality of the mundane existence would not be God's. therefore it is logical that even His aspects also should have eternality. Those two that have no beginning (adi).20 Viddhi. without losing its original independence. not primeval (not cause).English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Since the godhood of God is eternal. (According to them) thereby indeed is established the causality of God. are anadi.-V. individual soul. the aspects of God-to be api. anadi. verily. and which are beginningless. ubhau. the mundane existence would surely be their creation.Swami Gambhirananda 13. or in which the last member is defined or qualified by the first.] sense of na adi. both. and also the purusam. Nature and the soul. Again. prakrtim Nature. Some interpret the phrase anadi in the tatpurusa [Tatpurusa: Name of a class of compounds in which the first member determines the sense of the other members. are the sources of mundane existence. if Nature and soul themselves be eternal. Those two aspects through which God becomes the cause of creation. For God's god-hood consists verily in having the two aspects. That is wrong 554 .A. continuance and dissolution of the Universe.S.-these two.

Those modifications and qualities. but by God independently of those two aspects. Nature. ca eva. the body and the organs. there being nothing to rule over before the emergence of Nature and soul. modifications that will be spoken ofthe intellect etc. sorrow and attachment. How? Viddhi. the vikaran. as also. as prakriti-sambhavan.know those modifications and qualities as 'born of Nature'.because. Maya.] there arises the contingency of the absence of Liberation. there will arise the contingency of God ceasing to be God! And if the mundane state be uncaused [Uncaused. born of Nature. the qualities (sattva etc.e. all these become justifiable if God and the two aspects be eternal.] the scriptures becoming useless. [If God were.)-manifest in the form of the mental states of happiness. is the power of God. which is the cause of the modifications and which consists of the three qualities. which have that Nature as their source. independently of His two aspects. know. then it would be endless because there would be nothing to prevent liberated souls from being put under bondage again. i.. gunan. and the absence of bondage and freedom. On the other hand. Himself the sole cause of mundane existence. Which 555 . as transformations of Nature. not caused by Nature and soul.

prakrtih. Nature is said to be the cause.21 Karya-karana-kartrtve. And since the qualities-which are born of Nature and manifest themselves as happiness. Here. (lit) agentship. and karana are the thirteen [Five sense organs. by the word karya are understood the aforesaid elements that produce the body as also the objects which are modifications born of Nature. is said 556 . organs. intellect and ego. Nature. (therefore) they are implied by the word karana. are those modifications and qualities born of Nature? 13. The soul is the cause so far as enjoyership of happiness and sorrow is concerned. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . ucyate. With regard to this source of the body and organs. with regard to these body and organs consists in being the source of the body and organs. mind. sorrow and delusion-are dependent on the organs.Swami Gambhirananda 13. The kartrtvam. five motor organs.21 With regard to the source of body and organs. with regard to the source of body and organs: Karya is the body.] organs existing in it.again.

the fact of being the perceiver. modification) will mean anything that is the transformation of something. They themselves are called effect and cuase. Even if the reading be karya-karanakartrtva.] transformations of Nature. So the meaning of the compund will be: 'with regard to the source of the effect and the cause'. karya (effect. again.] modificaitons. egoism. bhoktrtve. the empirical being. five motor. the hetuh. and karana means the seven [Mahat. Or. cause. So far as the agentship with regard to these is concerned Nature is said to be the cause. in the sense of being the originator. and karana (cause) will be that which becomes transformed. and the five subtle elements.to be. so far as enjoyership. How. and mind) and the five objects (sound etc. cause. because of the same reason of being their originator. is concerned. they are the causes of mundane existence by virtue of this fact 557 . is the hetuh. by virtue of being the source of body and organs. sukha-duhkhanam. As to how the soul can be the cause of mundane existence is being stated: Purusah. is it asserted with respect to Nature and soul that. the knower of the field-all these are synonymous. the soul. of happiness and sorrow-which are objects of experience.). Nature is the cause of mundane existence. karya means the sixteen [The eleven organs (five sensory. Thus.

there can be mundane existence when there is a contact.of their (respectively) being the source of body and organs. happiness and sorrow. to experience them? On the other hand. Therefore it was reasonable to have said that. and cause and effect. and the state of mundane existence of the soul consists in its being the experiencer of happiness and sorrow. Contact 558 . the conscious being. and cause and effect as an object of experience and the soul opposed to it as the experiencer. and the perceiver of happiness and sorrow? As to this the answer is being stated: How can there be any mundane existence if there be no modification of Nature in the form of body and organs. How does it come about? This is being answered: 13. Nature and soul become the cause of mundane existence by (respectively) becoming the originators of the body and organs. and the perceiver of happiness and sorrow. therefore it experiences the qualities born of Nature.22 Since the soul is seated in Nature. It has been asserted that the state of mundane existence of the soul consists in its being the experiencer of happiness and sorrow. and there be no soul. between Nature-modified in the form of body and organs. What again is this that is called worldly existence? Worldly existence consists in the experience of happiness and sorrow. in the form of ignorance.

That very fact is stated here: Gunasangah. sad-asad-yoni-janmasu.] it enjoys. the cause. purusah.' Even though ignorance continues as a cause.Swami Gambhirananda 13.e.-Tr. as is affirmed by the Upanisadic text. prakrtijan. 4. is prakrtisthah. the qualitiesmanifest as happiness.e. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . is karanam. births in good and evil wombs. i. deluded.22 Hi. of birth..]. it resolves' (Br. sorrowful. (since the soul) has become identified with Nature. thinking thus. i. on this. the experiencer. enjoys. since.with the qualities is the cause of its births in good and evil wombs. Self-identification 559 . 'What it desires. sorrow and delusion. here means 'experiences'. is the contact. the self-identification. asya. the soul's. contact with the qualities.5) [See Sankaracarya's Comm. bhunkte.sorrow. which is characterized as ignorance and gets transformed into body and organs. learned. and delusion-when they are experienced. the soul. lit. of its.-Tr. born of Nature. with the qualitieshappiness. experiences. [Bhunkte. seated in Nature. therefore.4. still the main cause of worldly existence. 'I am happy. the experiencer's. gunan.

i. The good wombs are he wombs of gods and others. 'Self-identification with the qualities is the cause or its worldly existence through birth in good and evil wombs. evil wombs are the wombs of beasts etc. [Verse 12 deals with the refutation of alien elements. That knowledge about the field and the Knower of the field. From the force of the context it is to be understood that there is no contradiction in including even human wombs among 'good and evil wombs'. evil wombs are the wombs of gods and others. etc. accompanied with renunciation. has been presented earlier. are the causes of removing this (ignorance and self-identification with the qualities). This has also been said in. Or the meaning is. too.' where the words 'of worldly existence' have to be supplied.. And this is said so that they can be avoided. the qualities are the causes of worldly existence..by realizing which one attains Immortality' (12). through the process of refutation of elements alien (to the Self) and superimposition of qualities belonging to others (that are not the Self). '.. the desire for. and 560 . And in the scripture Gita it is a well-known fact that knowledge and dispassion. It amounts to saying that ignorancecalled 'being seated in Nature'-and the contact with.e.with the qualities is the cause of the experience of births in good and evil wombs.

the Sustainer. similarly. who while staying nearby does not Himself become involved: As when the priests and the performer of a sacrifice remain engaged in duties connected with the sacrifice.23 He who is the upadrasta. there is another (called Brahma) remaining nearby who is unengaged. and is the proximate (upa) observer (drasta) of the body and organs engaged in their duties. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 13. and who is also spoken of as the transcendental Self is the supreme Person in this body. intellect and the soul. who has characteristics other than theirs. is the upa-drasta. the great Lord. Witness. Or: The observers are the body. is versed in the science of sacrifices and witnesses the merit or demerit of the activities of the priest and the performer of the sacrifice. He who is not engaged in the activities of and is different from the body and organs. Of them 561 . the Permitter. the Experiencer.] A direct presentation is again being made of that (knowledge) itself: 13. mind.23 He who is the Witness. eyes.vere 13 with the superimposition of qualities belonging to others.

the body is the external observer. when the body and organs are engaged in their own functions. approval. even though Himself not engaged in the activities of the body and organs. Permitter: Anumananam. It witness everything. It is the upadrasta since. And He is the anu-manta. viz the conscious Self. Or. In this sense the Self is said to be the Sustainer. And that (continuance) is verily due to the consciousness that is the Self. organs. like the non-looker of a sarifice.] of some other entity. Or. Or. is the upadrasta. It is the bharta.Tr. Sustainer: Bharanam means the continuance in their own state of the body. because of being the most proximate observer. which reflect consciousness and have become aggregated owing to the need of serving the purpose [Viz enjoyment. He remains as a witness and never dissuades them. mind and intellect. He is the anumanta since. He appears to be favourably disposed towards and engaged in them. compared with which there is no other higher and inner observer. Proceeding inwards from that (body). 562 . the Self is the inmost as also the proximate observer. It is the bhokta. He is the anumanta because. means satisfaction with those performers (viz body and organs) as also their perfomances. The agent of that (approval) is the anumanta. The Self. or Liberation.

the transcendental Self. when born as though permeated by the consciousness that is the Self. iti. because He is the Self which has the characteristics of being the supreme Witness etc. are manifested differently by the Self which is of the nature of eternal Consciousness. spoken of.] Where is He? The parah. purusah. as. Person. body. the transcendental Self. 'He is the indwelling One. similarly.' [Ast reads atah in place of antah. dehe. sorrow and delusion in relation to all objects-. He is api ca.-Tr.Experiencer: As heat is by fire. the paramatma. in the Upanisads. also. In this sense the Self is said to be the Experiencer. of (all) those-beginning from the body and ending with the intellect-which are imagined through ignorance to be the indwelling Self. referred to. who is higher than the Unmanifest and who will be spoken of in. as the Self of all and independent. the experiences of the intellect-in the form of happiness. So the translation of the sentence will be: Therefore He is also referred to as the transcendental Self in the Upanisads. because.17). What has been 563 . suprem. 'But different is the supreme Person who is spoken of as the transcendental Self' (15. He is maheswarah. in this. the great God. is asmin. He is the great Ruler. uktah. He is paramatma. with the words.

24 Sah yah. gunaih. in whatever way he may live. it goes without saying that one who is firm in his own duty is not reborn. that Self possessed of the characteristics stated above. vartamanah. has been explained and conclude.. the qualities which are its modifications. From the word api it is understood that. Objection: Though it has been said that there is absence of rebirth after the 564 . Person. knows. the purusam. saha. will not be born. again-after the fall of this body of the man of realization.Swami Gambhirananda 13. in whatever way. which is characterized as ignorance. he who. in the manner described. he may live. to have been eradicated by Knowledge. sarvatha api.. and knows prakrtim. na abhijayate. i. as 'I myself (am That)'. he does not become born again for (taking) another body. vetti. '. 13.24 He who knows thus the Person and Nature along with the qualities will not be born again. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . he does not take up another body.also understand Me to be the Knower of the field' (2).e. along with. Nature as described above. bhuyah.presented in.

if the acquired merits become destroyed. 'Anyone who knows (that supreme) 565 . it is not understood that actions have distinctions [Since all actions arise from ignorance. 2. they are on the same level so far so they are opposed to Knowledge. Besides.].e.. Therefore. there can be no such distinction among actions as 'those which have started yielding results' and 'those that have not'.' Reply: No. still is not illogical that actions done (in the present life) before the rise of Knowledge and those done subsequently. Therefore it has been illogical to say. should be destroyed without yielding their results? Hence there should be three births! For destruction of acquired merit is not logical.8). it will lead to loss of faith everywhere as well as to the purposelessness of scriptures.dawn of Knowledge. 'he will not be born again. the actions of the three kinds. Otherwise. without exception. as also those done in the many past lives. for the burning away of all the actions of the man of knowledge has been stated in hundreds of Upanisadic texts such as: 'And all one's actions become dissipated' (Mu. to the same extent as actions that have produced the present birth and are yielding their proper results (cannot be destroyed). i.2. will produce three births or they all collectively will produce one birth.

. Mbh..] like ignorance and desires. This accords with reason also.. becomes Brahman' (op. Verily.-Tr.]. germinate the sprout of rebirth.3)..2. 5. since they coexist with Knowledge.9).. not the others. Objection: May it 566 . and He will also say so (later) [See 18. actions. because of the qualification. 'as a blazing fire reduces pieces of wood to ashes. Reply: No. Here also it has been said by the Lord in various places that actions which are associated with egoism and desire for results bear fruits. 6. so also the Self does not acquire another body due to evils that have been burnt by Knowledge (cf. Here too the burning of all actions has been stated in.'etc. 107). (4.Brahman.' so) all actions 'get completely burnt' (op. which arise from the seed of evils [Klesas. 'all actions' (4. 199.37).19-Tr. And there is also the verse: 'As seeds burnt by fire do not germinate. 'As the fibres at the tip of a blade of reed (become completely burnt.37).14. Va. evils-see note under 8. 3. 'For him the delay is for so long only (as he does not become freed)' (Ch.' etc.. Objection: It may be granted for the present that actions performed after the rise of Knowledge are burnt by Knowledge.24.2). But the burning away of actions done in this life prior to the rise of Knowledge and those done in the many past lives is not reasonable.66: 'I shall free you from all sins. cit. cit.

similarly it is not reasonable that actions which have not commenced producing their results should get dissipated. needed for action.not be that 'all actions' means those that are undertaken after Illumination? Reply: No. [The internal organ bearing the reflection of Consciousness. as for the statement. On the other hand. even while existing in their receptacle. when it has not acquired the momentum. actions that produced the (present) body verily continue. like an arrow that has been shot: As an arrow. 'just as actions that have produced the present birth and are already active in producing their results do not get dissipated even after Illumination. similarly. to exist as before until the dissipation of their inherent tendencies. similarly.'-that is wrong. actions which have not begun yielding their results may be rendered unproductive by Knowledge. freed earlier from a bow for hitting a target. But. when it has not been shot even though fixed on the bow. for there is no reason for the restriction (of the meaning). it 567 . even after fulfilling the purpose of maintaining the body. as that very arrow. even after piercing through the target comes to a stop only after falling down as a result of the dissipation of its initial momentum.] Hence. Objection: Why? Reply: Since they have already begun producing results. can be withdrawn.

the mountains meditate. 'He is not born again.Swami Gambhirananda 13.1). English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . pasyanti. from the citation of such illustrations as. as it were.is established that .' Here are being presented these meditation etc. it has been reasonable to state that on the fall of the present body of an enlightened person. some yogis. 'the crane meditates. as it were' (Ch. from the objects like sound etc.. realize. kecit. the indwelling conscious 568 . 7. and then withdrawing the mind into the indwelling conscious Self. Through that meditation. Thus.25 Through meditation some realize the Self in (their) intellect with the help of the internal organ. and others through Karma-yoga. through meditation: Meditation means contemplation (on the Self) after withdrawing into the mind with concentration the organs of hearing etc. others through Sankhya-yoga.25 Dhyanena. 'the earth meditates. which are the alternative means for the realization of the Self: 13. as it were.6. it follows that meditation is a constant and uninterrupted current of thought like a line of pouring oil.

eternal and different from the qualities. (others realize) with the help of that (action). Self. atmana. distinct from them. with the help of the internal organ that has been purified by meditation. karma-yogena. 'These qualities. viz sattva. This is how it is to be construed. through Karmayoga-action itself being the Yoga: Action performed with the idea of dedication to God is figuratively called Yoga since it leads to Yoga.atmanam.] 569 . This knowledge is itself called Yoga (concentration of mind) inasmuch as it is similar to Yoga in leading to the realization of the Self. [The best among the yogis are competent for meditation (dhyana). are objects of my perception.' This Sankhya is Yoga. the modiocre for reflection (Sankhya). and the lowest for Karmayoga. I am the Self. others. through purification of the mind and rise of Knowledge. And anye. others. in (their) intellect. rajas and tamas. [By Sankhya is meant that knowledge which arises from the foregoing reflection. through Sankhya-yoga: Sankhya means thinking. Anye. atmani.] Through that they realize the Self with the help of the internal organ. sankhyena yogena. a witness of their functions.

those who.. the best discipline for starting on the path to Liberation. anyebhyah. to whom hearing is the supreme course. certainly overcome death.26 Anye tu.13. accept only others' advice as most authoritative. It goes without saying that those discriminating people who are idenpendent in the application of the valid means of knowledge. srutva. ati-taranti. who are devoted to hearing. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .. having been told. take to thinking after hearing from others.e. mrtyum. i. themselves lacking in discrimination. 'Think only of this. certainly. being imbued with faith. That the knowledge of the identity of the Knower of the field and God leads to Liberation has been stated in.' Te api ca. after hearing. The implication is. they. take to thinking. ajanantah. death. who do not know thus. they. who are devoted to hearing.by realizing 570 .e. sruti-parayanah. agian..26 Others. cross over death. take to reflection. too. from the teachers. overcome. the mundane existence which is fraught with death.Swami Gambhirananda 13. i. '. even in one of these alternative ways. who do not know the Self as described above. upasate. eva. others again. thus. from others. too. evam.

know that to be from the association of the field and the Knower of the field! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .which one attains Immortality' (12). whatever. as originating ksetra-ksetrajna-samyogat.27 O scion of the Bharata dynasty. sanjayate. again. yavat kincit. moving or non-moving. is meant by this 'association of the field and the Knower of the field'? Since the Knower of the field is partless like space. comes into being. Objection: What. that.-as to whether they are without exception the Lord says-sthavara-jangamam. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. tat. For what reason is it so? To point out that reason the (next) verse is begun: 13. viddhi. Nor can it be an intimate and inseparable relation as between a thread and a 571 . from the association of the field and the Knower of the field. object. therefore Its conjunction with the field cannot be a kind of relationship like coming together of a rope and a pot through the contact of their parts. whatever object. comes into being. moving or non-moving.Swami Gambhirananda 13. sattvam. know.27 Bharatarsabha.

the Knower of the field)-which. This is like the association of a rope. Reply: The answer is: The association of the field and the Knower of the fieldwhich are the object and the subject. is devoid of all distinctions created by adjuncts.as identical with Brahman. owing to the absence of discrimination between them. After having known the distinction between and the characteristics of the field and the Knower of the field according to the scriptures. etc. as a consequence of the absence of discrimination between the real natures of the field and the Knower of the field. the above-described Knower of the field from the field whose characteristics have been shown earlier. with the superimposed snake. in accordance with 'That is neither called being nor non-being' (12).cloth. he who realizes the Knowable (i. nacre. This association of the field and the Knower of the field in the form of superimposition is described as false knowledge. and he who has the firm realization that the field is surely unreal like an 572 . and having separated. silver. like a stalk from the Munjagrass. and are of different natures-is in the form of superimposition of each on the other an also of their qualities. since it is not admitted that the field and the Knower of the field are mutually related by way of being cause and effect. respectively.e. etc.

. and it appears as though real-for him false knowledge becomes eradicated. an imaginary city seen in the sky. The cause of birth. etc.elephant created by magic. a thing seen in a dream. In 'He. and as the Imperishable among the perishable. Hence. since it is opposed to the right knowledge described above. Since the cause of his rebirth has been eliminated.28 He sees who sees the supreme Lord as existing equally in all beings. which is the remover of that ignorance.. still it is being stated over again in other words: 13. which is the absence of birth owing to the destruction of ignorance etc. viz the association of the field and the Knower of the field brought about by ignorance...Swami Gambhirananda 573 . 'He who knows thus the Person and Nature along with the qualities. has been a reasonable statement. has also been stated. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .will not be born again' (23) has been stated the result of right knowledge. the seeds of worldly existence.. therefore what was said in.. has been spoken of. although right knowledge. that the man of realization is not born again (23).'.

the supreme Lord. qualities can exist so long as the thing qualified exists. pasyati. mind. pasyati. all its preceding modifications become negated along with their effects. intellect. The Lord specifies them by the word vinasyatsu. How? For. After destruction there is no modification of an existing thing. organs. sees. without distinction. the Unmanifest and the individual soul. because the object itself becomes nonexistent.38. having His presence. beings. equally.-he who sees Him existing equally in all living things.13. and He also specifies Him. the supreme Lordthe Lord who is supreme as compared with the body. sees. Indeed. Hence it is 574 .28 Sah. Therefore. by the word avinasyantam. bhutesu. yah. existing.where?-sarvesu. who. by the reiteration of the absence of the last modification of an existing thing. samam. as tisthantam.-whom?-parameswaram. All other modifications of existing things that follow birth end with destruction.] of an existing thing have as their root that modification of an existing thing described as birth. in all. the Imperishable. among the perishable.-Tr. he. all living things from Brahma to the non-moving. all the modifications [See note 3 on p. This is meant for showing the absolute difference between the living things and God.

575 . As in comparison with one who. Objection: Is it not that all poeple see? What is the need of specification? Reply: True.' similarly. here as well. He sees who thus sees the supreme Lord as described. the man who sees the one undivided Self as described above is distinguished from those who contrarily see many and differentiated selves. 'He alone sees'.] and One.29 Since by seeing equally God who is present alike everywhere he does not injure the Self by the Self. This is the meaning. suffering from the (eye) disease called Timira. Hence the verse begins: 13. Others. 'He alone sees. and is also Unconditioned [Free from all modifications that things are subject to. The obove-described true knowledge has to be praised by stating its result. they see. sees many moons. the person who sees one moon is distingusihed by saying. but they see contrarily! Hence the Lord specifies. by saying 'He alone sees'.established that the supreme Lord is very greatly different from all beings. do not see because they see contrarily like the person who sees many moons. therefore he attains the supreme Goal. though seeing.

Goal.. samam. hinasti. does not. 'He does not injure. present alike.Swami Gambhirananda 13. they adopt 576 .' etc. sarvatra. gatim. For. isvaram. by seeing.29 Hi. And destroying even that. they take up another..? Reply: This defect does not arise. because it is logical with reference to an unenlightened person's ignoring the Self. Objection: Is it not that no creature whatsoever injures himself by himself? Why do you refer to an irrelevant thing by saying. who is samavasthitam. atmana. the param. all unillumined people ignore the very wellknown Self which is manifest and directly perceptible.which is like saying. Self. and regard the non-Self as the Self. tatah. yati. everywhere. injure... pasyan. and adopt another new self. as a result of that non-injuring. 'Fire should neither be lit on the earth nor in the sky. by the Self.-what follows from seeing equally?-he na. By performing righteous and unrighteous acts they destroy even that self which has been accepted. by realizing.e. in all beings. therefore. i. his own atmanam. since. called Liberation. he attains. supreme.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . equally. by his own Self. (by realizing Him) as described in the immediately preceding verse. destroying even that. God. Similarly.

even that remains as though destroyed for ever by ignorance. destroyers of the Self. Therefore he attains the supreme Goal. all unenlightened persons are. But that which is the Self in reality.] the Self by his own Self.e. the other person who has realized the Self as described does not injure in either way [i. and also the Self as the non-agent. he does not injure the Self by the Self. the result stated above comes to him. the Lord says: 13. because of the absence of any benefit from Its presence.another. i. Lest it be doubted that what was said in. verily. Thus. 'seeing equally God who is present in all beings.30 And he who sees actions as being done in various ways by Nature itself.e. So. On the contrary.-he sees. all unillumined persons are destroyers of the Self. is improper with regard to the selves which are diverse according to the differences created by the variety in their own qualities and actions. either through superimposition or through non-super-imposition. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . In this way they destroy the self that had been accepted successively.Swami Gambhirananda 577 ..

known otherwise as prakrti. the non-agent. tatha. 'However. prakrtya. in various ways. by that Nature.] which transforms itself in the form of cause and effects such as Mahat etc. This is the idea. sarvasah. atmanam. realizes. and that their manifestation is also from That.13. the Knower of the field. and also. pasyati. actions. then one becomes identified with Brahman. What is implied is that there is no valid proof about differences in the Non-agent who is devoid of qualities and is unconditioned like space. devoid of all adjuncts. 578 . eva. know Maya as Nature' (Sv. he. sees-he is the one who has realized the supreme Reality. karmani. 4.. as is said in the Upanisadic text.10). as akartaram. the Self. he who. sees. by Nature-Nature is God's Maya consisting of the three qualities. sah. being done.31 When one realizes that the state of diversity of living things is rooted in the One. mind and body. The Lord elaborates again in other words that very true knowledge: 13. those performed through speech. pasyati. being accomplished. as kriyamanani. itself-not by the other [Not by the Pradhana of the Sankhyas.30 And yah.

one realizes-having reflected in accordance with the instructions of the scriptures and the teachers. see Sankaracarya's Comm. Hence this is said: 579 . then. water is from the Self. memory [Smara. If the same Self be the Self in all the bodies. cit. existing in the one Self. coming into being and withdrawal are owing to the Self. brahma sampadyate. 7.1). food is from the Self' (op. that bhuta-prthak-bhavam. when. on Ch.13. one realizes as a matter of one's own direct experience that 'All this is but the Self' (Ch. manifestation. fire is from the Self.-Tr. one becomes identified with Brahman Itself. space is from the Self.1. This is the import.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and their vistaram.31 Yada. then there arises the possiblity of Its association with their defects. the state of diversity of living things. memory.2). eva. is ekastham.] is from the Self. 7.Swami Gambhirananda 13. tada. at that time. hope is from the Self.26. 'the vital force is from the Self. origination. anupasyati. at the time when.25. tatah. is also from That-when he realizes that origination in such diverse ways as. rooted in the One. 7.

even then. api. It suffers no depletion. ayam. This being so. this. has no parts.-Tr. It na. But this One. although. lipyate. For.32 Being without beginning and without qualities. karoti. therefore. paramatma. does not perish. being without qualities: indeed. being without qualities. supreme Self does not act.13. although existing in the body.]. that which has no cause is anadih. So also. is not. existing in the body-since the perception of the Self occurs in the bodies.Swami Gambhirananda 13.32 Anadivat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . being causeless. supreme Self. affected by the result of any action. immutable. Hence. Therefore It is immutable. Since this is so. That which has a cause undergoes loss of its own characteristics. sarira-sthah. But this One. nor is It affected [Also translated as tainted. one who is an agent of action becomes affected by its result. It si only something possessing qualities that perishes owing to the losss of its qualities. nirgunatvat. act. It na. does not. From the very fact that It does not act. It is said to be 'existing in the body'. this immutable. O son of Kunti. It does not suffer loss. being without beginning: Adih means cause. 580 . is avyayah.

since the Upanisadic philosophy as stated by the Lord is in every way difficult to understand and difficult to explain. if there be some embodied being other than the supreme Self who acts and becomes affected. [If the supreme One also acts like us. acts and becomes affected. Again. then it has been improper to say in. then it has to be stated who is it that acts and gets affected. It has been accordingly shown by the Lord in various places that there is no duty to be performed by those who adhere to this philosophy of discriminating 581 . Hence It is not affected by any result. Nature. the Jainas and the Buddhists.But this One is not an agent. but in reality it does not occur in the one supreme Self.' etc.. Or it has to be asserted that the supreme One does not exist. that acts in the body and becomes affected? On the one hand. if there be no embodied being who is different from God. Indeed. In this way empirical dealing becomes possible.14). This is the meaning. that the Knower of the field and God are one.] Thus. then He is no God. Objection: Who is it. which is nothing but ignorance. 'But it is Nature that acts' (5. again. Reply: As to that. the following refutation has been stated by the Lord Himself in. it has therefore been abandoned by the Vaisesikas. the Sankhyas. 'And also understand Me to be the Knower of the field.

33 As the all-pervading space is not defiled. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . dehe. similarly the Self.]. atma.33 Yatha.-Tr. 13. who are steadfast in Knowledge. the all-pervading. na. who have spurned actions arising out of ignorance. does not come into contact. still. is not defiled. is not. sarvatra. avasthitah. and who are mendicants belonging to the highest Order of monks. present. present everywhere in the body [The singular number is used to denote a class. i. the Knower of the field illumines the whole field. na upalipyate. all bodies. is not defiled. space. similarly. tatha. See S. Further.34 As the single sun illumines this whole world. everywhere. the Self. because of its subtlety.-though pervasive. 582 . in the body. saukmyat. upalipyate. The Lord cites an illustration to show like what It does not act and is not affected: 13. similarly. because of its subtlety. sarva-gatam. akasam.Swami Gambhirananda 13. O descendant of the Bharata dynasty.e. as.knowledge of the supreme Reality. defiled.

the one. viduh. in the manner described above. the supreme Self. this. the Knower of the field. lokam. whole.35 Ye. through the eye of wisdom-the eye is the realization in the form of the knowledge of the Self. jnana-caksusa. ksetram.e. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . illumines. imam. evam.-who?-ksetri.-they reach the Supreme. like the sun.Swami Gambhirananda 13.Swami Gambhirananda 13. viz that. sun. 5-6).English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . krtsnam. i. from the 'great elements' to 'fortitude' (cf. and the annihilation of the Matrix of beings.34 Yatha. prakasayati. field. as. world tatha. ravih. Here the illustration of the sun serves to highlight two aspects of the Self. 583 . the whole. ekam. thus.35 Those who know thus through the eye of wisdom the distinction between the field and the Knower of the field. similarly. krtsnam. and that It remains unaffected. though one. know. those who. illumines. This verse is meant for summarizing the idea of the whole of this chapter: 13. prakasayati. the Self is one in all the fields.

the particular mutual distinction. the Reality which is the suprme Goal. 584 . to Brahman.which arises from following the instructions of the scriptures and teachers. (those who know) the annihilation (moksanam) of that Matrix of beings. the distinction. ksetra-ksetrajnayoh. the annihilation of the Matrix of beings-the Matrix of beings is that which is described as ignorance and is called the Unmanifest. yanti. through that eye of wisdom. antaram. param. te. The idea is that they do not take up a body again. they. reach. beween the field and the Knower of the field as they have been explained. the Supreme. and bhuta-prakrti-moksam. go to.

Knowledge. 'Of all knowledges' does not mean 'of humility' etc.' They do not lead to Liberation. Hence the Lord praises it with the words 'supreme' and 'best'. of all knowledges-. but this (Knowledge) leads to Liberation.711). the best of all knowledges. by realizing which all the contemplatives reached the highest Perfection from here.-which is that?-jnanam. uttamam. (13. supreme-it is supreme because it is concerned with the supreme Reality. by realizing which. Pravaksyami. of the param. Yat jnatva. so as to arouse interest in the intellect of the listener.I shall speak again of the supreme Knowledge.Swami Gambhirananda 14. What then? It means 'among knowledges of all knowable things like sacrifice etc. bhuyah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .1 The Blessed Lord said -. 585 . again-even though spoken of more than once in all the preceding chapters.1 The word param should be connected with the remote word jnanam. I shall speak.Chapter 14 14. jnananam. by attaining which Knowledge. the best-since it has the best result.

] gatah. And the Lord shows the infallibility of this Perfection: 14. by following. this. the highest. called Liberation.2 Those who attain identity with Me by resorting of this Knowledge are not born even during creation. the monks [But not those who espoused monasticsim as a formality in in the fourth stage of life. however.sarve.e. jnanam. and this statement of the result is by way of eulogy-. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . mama sadharmyam. for. identity with Me the supreme God. itah. does not mean similarity of attributes.e. idam. by following the means to 586 . nor do they suffer pain during dissolution. by resorting to i. reached. upasritya.2 Agatah. all. distinction between the Knower of the field and God is not admitted. the contemplatives. unity with My real nature-sadharmyam.. attained. siddhim. from here-when this bondage of the body had ceased. in the scripture Gita. i. Knowledge as described. munayah. Perfection. param. those who attain.Swami Gambhirananda 14.

The Lord says that association of this kind between the field and the Knower of the field is the origin of all beings: 14. aham. even. Prakrti consisting of the three qualities. when even Brahma perishes.3 Mama. in that. occurs the birth of all things.e. i. is the yonih. sarge. Since it (Prakrti) is great (mahat) as compared with all its effects.A. upajayante.] of all its own transformations. during dissolution. viz the field and the Knower of 587 .] for all the creatures. and it is the sustainer (brahma) [Prakrti is brahma since it permeates all of its own products.e. adds 'karanam. which belongs to Me. I.-Tr. nor do they vyathanti. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . pralaye.Knowledge. My own Maya. Tasmin. possessed of the power in the form of the two aspects.Swami Gambhirananda 14. therefore the womb itself is qualified as mahat brahma. From that. are not. produced. na. in the womb which is the great-sustainer. In that I place the seed. api. cause' (-off all the creatures). suffer pain.G. they do not perish. i. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. born. womb [Here Ast.3 My womb is the great-sustainer. during creation. God.

O scion of the Bharata dynasty. mahat brahma. of all things. bija-pradah. whatever forms are born from all the wombs. who 588 . from all wombs-from the wombs of gods. bhavati. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .4 O son of Kunti. of them the great-sustainer is the womb. God. place. sambhavanti. sambhavah.Swami Gambhirananda 14. origination. am the pita. desire and activity. I am the father who deposits the seed.. te seed which is the cause of the birth of all things-.4 O son of Kunti. womb. which is characteristic of the formation of bodies. father. is the yonih. garbham.e. occurs. of those forms.. of them. tasam. are born. forms-that have their parts and limbs integrated. following the birth of Hiranyagarbha. I bring the field into association with the Knower of the field who conforms to the nature of the limiting adjuncts. sarva-yonisu. Aham. whatever. the birth. which exists as all the (various) forms. humans. manes. the great-sustainer. deposit. the seed-the seed of the birth of Hiranayagarbha. from that deposition of the seed.the field. dadhami. from that. cattle. i. murtayah. sarvabhutanam. source. 14. yah. etc. beasts. I. viz ignorance. Tatah.

. the avyayam.5 O mighty-armed one. being the immutable embodies being to the body. prakrtisambhavah. Being of the nature of ignorance. and extend upto the knees. born of Nature.. born of Nature. they bind the Knower of 589 . Nor is it meant here that quality and substance are different. which inhere in some substance. just as qualities are dependent (on some substance).Swami Gambhirananda 14. the agent of impregnation.' etc. dehe. rajas and tamas. rajas and tamas. dehinam. born of Maya which belongs to God. viz sattva. embodied being. (13. immutable-the immutability has been spoken of in the verse. bind. (Now) is being stated which are the qualities and how they bind: 14. gunah.31).desposits the seed.5 O mighty-armed one-who are possessed of hands which are great and mighty.. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . as it were. And they. the qualities are named sattva. the qualities. Therefore they are ever dependent on the Knower of the field. to the body. and is not a quality like colour etc. nibadhnanti. 'Being without beginning. The word guna is a technical term.

among sattva etc. pure-transparent.the field.31-2)? So. it binds through attachment to happiness and attachment to knowledge. sattva.Swami Gambhirananda 14. i. why as it contrarily said here that 'they bind'? Reply: We have rebutted this objection by using the word iva (as it were) in 'they bind. among them.a revealer of Consciousness.6 Tatra. it binds. 14. being pure like a crystal stone. harmless. being pure. Was it not said that the embodied one does not become defiled (see 13. and hence as illuminator..6 Among them. capable of resisting any form of ignorance. as it were'. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Objection. badhnati. Bringing about the 590 . O sinless one. [Nirmala. In this sense it is said that they bind. They come into being. i.. nirmalatvat. an illuminator. through attachment to happiness.e. O sinless one.-the characteristics of sattva itself is being stated firstsattva.] is an illuminator and is harmless. Anagha.e. making That (Knower) their sustainer.is prakasakam. as it were. and anamayam. How? Sukhasangena.

as it were. for the quality of an object cannot belong to a subject. of the field. therefore the Commentator imagines it as an attribute of the Self. from 'desire' to 'fortitude' (see 13. it binds also jnanasangena. which is not the Self.] of the Self and has the characteristics of non-discrimination between object and subject. adds 'asangam saktam iva. yet. since there is none other with which it can become associated and since it has no independence. which is an attribute [In reality. it is certainly through nescience. [Here Ast. which is the object. [Jnana.' means an instrument of knowledge. indeed. 'I am happy'. (S. through attachment to knowledge. is certainly an unreal contact with happiness.] makes one not possessed of happiness as though possessed of it! Similarly. in the form of the idea. though nescience has no connection with the Self. 591 . which is the subject. And it has been said by the Lord that all the qualities.-Tr.: Knowledge arising from the study of the import of various scriptures. and not Consciousness. derived in the sense of 'that through which one knows. (makes) the Unattached attached. as it were'. It makes (the Self) attached. that sattva apparently brings about the association with happiness.association of happiness. which is the object. with the Self. are. This as such is nescience. Therefore.6).

rajas to be ragatmakam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .7 Know rajas to be of the nature of passion. knowledge here is an attribute of the internal organ. know. the field.] of the Self. having the property of colouring. but not of the Self.] Because of its concomitance with happiness. born of hankering and 592 . jnanam. 14.or. and 'bondage' would become illogical.7 Viddhi. born of hankering and attachment. there could be no contact (between it and the Self). then there can be no question of the latter again becoming bound through association with the former. of the nature of passion (-raga is derived in the sense of that which colours-). but not to steadfastness in (the absolute) Brahman. means the scriptures. should be understood in the same sense as with happiness. Were it an attribute [If knowledge were a natural attribute of the Self. O son of Kunti. that binds the embodied one through attachment to action. through which the supreme God is known and which leads to devotional practices. trsnaasanga-samud-bhavam.Swami Gambhirananda 14. like the ochre pigment etc.. Association with knowledge etc.

of all embodied beings. mahanam. O son of Kunti. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. tamas. that tamas. which deludes. to be ajnanajam. karma-sangena. attachment is the clining-of the nature of fondness-of the mind to things in possession. know.8 On the other hand. know tamas. dehinam. Rajas binds through that. binds. binds. which is a cause of indiscrimination. that rajas. 14. that binds through inadvertence. laziness and sleep. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . nibadhnati. which deludes all embodied beings. laziness and sleep. tat. Deep involvement in actions related to seen or unseen objects is karmasangah.8 Viddhi. sarva-dehinam. through attachment to actions. born of ignorance. to be born of ignorance. pramada-alasya-nidrabhih.attachment-hankering is the longing for things not acquired. the third qualitty. The activities of the qualities are again being briefly stated: 593 . through inadvertence. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. tat. the embodied one.Swami Gambhirananda 14. that. nibadhnati.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . knowledge. and tamas by dominating over sattva and rajas.Swami Gambhirananda 14. covering up knowledge.14. When do the qualities produce the effects stated above? That is being answered: 14. to inadvertence. sattva increases by subduing rajas and tamas. leads pramade. the discrimination produced by sattva.10 O scion of the Bharata dynasty. Pramada means non-performance of a duty on hand. covering up. rajas (attaches is understood-) karmani. increases. tamas. sukhe. to action. tu. while tamas. avrtya. rajas to action. to happiness. uta. sanjayati. sattva. sattva attaches one to happiness.Swami Gambhirananda 14. comes into being.9 O scion of the Bharata dynasty.10 O scion of the Bharata dynasty.9 O scion of the Bharata dynasty. sattva bhavati. by 594 . also. abhibhuya. rajas by overpowering sattva and tamas. leads to inadvertence also. attaches one. while. jnanam. veiling. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sanjayati.

. when. happiness.11 When the illumination that is knowledge radiates in this body through all the doors (of the senses). (viz) ear etc. are the Self's 595 . in this. body. when this illumination called knowledge upajayate.11 Yada. then what is its indication? This is being answered: 14. When the quality called tamas increases by similarly dominating over sattva and rajas. that itself is jnanam. knowledge. it then produces its own effects-obscuring of knowledge. it produces its own effects-knowledge. prakasah. intelligence. Similarly. radiates. through all the doorsall the sense organs. dehe. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . then one should know that sattva has increased greatly. etc. is a function of the internal organ. then. then it produces its own effects-activity and hankering. the illuminationprakasa. When any quality preponderates. asmin. sarva-dvaresu. when the quality of rajas increases by overpowering both sattva and tamas. coming to its own. etc. When sattva increases.subduing both rajas and tamas. illumination.Swami Gambhirananda 14.

the desire to appropriate other's possessions.doors of perception. when rajas becomes predominant.e.) manifestation of joy. jayante. 596 . vidyat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . desire in general for all things. that. greatly [See A. uta. iti. movement. through all those doors. these indications. unrest. movement in general. asamah. This is the characteristics of rajas when it has become prominent: 14. attachment.. etc. viz the illumination that is knowledge. when the quality of rajas vivrddhe. undertaking of actions. lack of tranquillity-(i. then. etani. these come into being: avarice. tada. of actions. through this indication. unrest and hankering. and sprha.G.-of what?-karmanam. hankering. sattva has vivrddham. one should know. arambhah. increased.12 O best of the Bharata dynasty. pravrtih.]. undertaking.-Tr.Swami Gambhirananda 14. avarice. becomes predominant. come into being. lobhah.12 O best of the Bharata dynasty.

its [i. when tamas predominates these surely [i. and mohah. inadvertence and delusion.Swami Gambhirananda 14. jayante. i. then he attains the taintless worlds of those who know the highest (entities). surely.-M. inactivity.14. 597 . of non-discrimination.e.S. these indications.e.13 Kuru-nandana. and apravrttih. that is also owing to attachment and desire. nondiscrimination.] come into being: nondiscrimination and inactivity. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . which is a from of non-discrimination. come into being. pramadah.13 O descendant of the Kuru dynasty. when the quality of tamas vivrddhe. delusion. predominates. Whatever result is achieved even after death. every-thing is certainly caused by the qualities. O descendant of the Kuru dynasty.e. inadvertence.14 When an embodied one undergoes death while sattva is exclusively prodominant. etani. extreme aprakasah. without exception. By way of showing this the Lord says: 14.] effects. eva. stupidity.

Similarly.] uttamavidam. when one dies while tamas predominates. he takes birth among the stupid species.e. tainless. death.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . then. karma-sangisu. 598 . etc. pratipadyate.15 Pralayam gatva. yati. when one does.14 Yada. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . while the quality of rajas predominates.. gains. sattve pravrddhe. he is born. [Tu is used to exclude rajas and tamas.e. among human beings having attachment to work.-S.Swami Gambhirananda 14. which are free from the impurity of predominance either of rajas or tamas.] tada. he attains. worlds. i. an embodied one. among people attached to activity. rajasi. of those who have known the principles-mahat and the rest. i. undergoes. tu.15 When one dies while rajas predominates. 14.Swami Gambhirananda 14. the soul. [The worlds of Brahma. while sattva is predominant. jayate. deha-bhrt. he is born among people attached to activity. when. exclusively. of those who know the highest. pralayam. the amalan. stainless. lokan.

e. and is sattvikam. a product of rajas. pralinah.Tatha. i. of rajas. is duhkham.16 Ahuh. in that very way. mudha-yonisu. Tu. the result too is indeed sorrow. of good. such as animals etc. they. the result. But the result of rajas is sorrow. he takes birth. What else results from the qualities? 599 . tamasi. A summary of the idea of the preceding (three) verses is being stated: 14. among the stupid species. similarly. phalam. is verily nirmalam. So also ajnanam. the result. when one dies. that phalam. jayate. as before. In accordance with its cause.e. karmanah. pure. work. the wise persons. ignorance. rajasah. acts having the sattva quality.Swami Gambhirananda 14. the result of tamas is ignorance. but. while tamas predominates. (the result) tamasah. of tamas.16 They say that the result of good work is pure and is born of sattva. say. i. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of unrighteous acts that have the quality of tamas. sorrow. sukrtasya. is. of acts that have the qualitty of rajas-for the topic relates to actions. born of sattva.

From tamas are born inadvertence and delusion as also ignorance. eva ca. avarice. to be sure. ignorance [Absence of discrimination.17 Sattvat. sanjayate.17 From sattva is born knowledge [Knowledge acquired through the sense-organs. Tamasah. those who conform to rajas stay in the middle. knowledge. from sattva. to the actions of sattva quality. jnanam. go.18 Sattvasthah. go down.14.18 People who conform to sattva go higher up. and from rajas. avarice. those who conform to tamas.]. when it predominates. and rajasah.Swami Gambhirananda 14. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . as also ajnanam. in-advertence and delusion. from rajas. from tamas. is verily born lobhah. gacchanti.Swami Gambhirananda 14. is born. are born. both pramadamohau. verily. who conform to the actions of the lowest quality. 14. are 600 .]. Further. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . people who conform to sattva. to be sure. bhavatah.

stay. in the middle.'-that (association) is the cause of the individual soul's mundane existence characterized by coming to have births in good and bad species. gacchanti. the Lord has said that the nature of the qualities.e.] tisthanti. higher up. Tamasah. and the power to bind that the qualities have through actions conforming to them. that an individual soul has with the gunas-in the form of happiness.]. [Those who are endowed with sense-knowledge and actions consequent on the preponderance of rajas. who conform to actions of the lowest quality of tamas. 'the qualities. go. in the worlds of gods and others. are born. sorrow and delusion. those who conform to rajas. the foolish. undhavam. and also the 601 . those who are attached to its actions-sleep.-Tr. The association. the conduct conforming to the qualities.' 'I am ignorant. This was stated briefly in the earlier chapter.-. and which are matters of experience in such ways as. madhye. owing to the false ignorance in the form of 'being seated in Nature'. (i. Rajasah. laziness. etc.born. rajas and tamas.) they are born among cattle etc. Elaborating that here in the text beginning with. jaghanya-gunavrttasthah [A variant reading is vrttisthah. adhah. viz sattva.' 'I am sorrowful. among human beings. those who conform to tamas. 'I am happy. down. born of Nature' (5).

madbhavam. orgnas and objects. anupasyati. gunebhyah. to the qualities. sah. he attains My nature.e. that which. are the agents of all activities. drasta. gunebhyah.-all this is false knowledge. kartaram. the witness. standing as the witness of the activities of the qualities. knows. na anyam. than the qualities that have transformed into the shape of body. My nature. vetti. attains. it is necessary to state that Liberation follows from right knowledge. none other.e. Hence the Lord says: 14. and knows that which is superior [i. the witness. superior.as the agent-(i.course of a person under the bondage. and. How does he attain? That is being stated: 602 .] to the qualities. of behaviour conforming to the qualities. when. ca. different from.Swami Gambhirananda 14.19 Yada. Now. in all their modes. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .) he sees thus that the qualities themselves. he. adhigacchati. sees. it has ignorance as its root and is the cause of bondage. is param. after becoming illumined.19 When the witness sees none other than the qualities as the agent.

becoming free from birth. qualities as have been described. which are the origin of the body.-Tr. old age and sorrows. etan. [Some translate this as 'attains'. from birth death.20 Having transcended these three qualities which are the origin of the body. asnute.O Lord. which constitute the limiting adjunct Maya. experiences. which are the seed of the birth of the body. dehi. This is the idea. becoming free-even in this life.] amrtam. by going beyond the qualities14. having gone beyond-even while living. these. Getting a clue to a question from the statement that one experiences Immortality.20 Atitya. even in this life. gunan. vimuktah.14. and dehasamudbhavan. In this way he attains My nature. three. janmamrtyu-jara-duhkhaih.Swami Gambhirananda 14. trin. experiences Immortality. death.21 Arjuna said -. the enlightened one. the embodied one. having transcended. Immortality. old age and sorrow. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the embodied one. by what signs is one (known) who has gone beyond these three 603 .

22 The Blessed Lord said -. is his acarah. listen to them:' 14. and how does he transcend these three qualities? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and the means of transcending them have been asked by Arjuna. 'atitya vartate. he neither dislikes illumination (knowledge). who has gone beyond. 'With what sings does one who has gone beyond the qualities become endowed with?". katham. atitah. bhavati. (in what way) does he exist after transcending (the three qualities)?'-Tr. gunan. By way of replying to the two questions. signs.O son of Pandu. behaviour. trin. in what way.21 Prabho.qualities? What is his behaviour.] etan. by what. qualities? In this verse the signs of one who has gone beyond the qualities. 604 . nor does he long for them when they disappear. three. and. how. what. does he transcend. ativartate. qualities that have been explained? Kim.Swami Gambhirananda 14. is one (known). O Lord. gunan. kaih. lingaih. the Lord said: 'As for the question. [Ast. ca. etan. adds here. activity and delusion when they appear. trin. these. three. these.

delusion. activity. an effect of tamas. This is a matter of sorrow to me that there has been a deviation from my own nature'. pravrttim. so also. illumination (knowledge). in the form of illumination that is knowledge. 'In me has arisen a perception which is a result of tamas. 'In me has risen (the inclination to) action which is painful and is born of rajas.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Unlike a person having sattva etc. and moham. By that rajas I have been actuated. 'The quality of sattva. binds me by attributing discrimination to me and making me attached to happiness'-(by thinking) in these ways one dislikes them because of his being not fully enlightened.. who longs for the effects of sattva etc.22 Na dvesti. when they fully emerge in the form of objects (of experience)-. similarly. when they appear. he neither dislikes these. an effect of rajas. thereby I have become deluded'. 605 . prakasam.Swami Gambhirananda 14. carried away from my own nature. does not long for them in that way. The person who has transcended the qualities does not dislike them in this manner. sampravrttani. which withdraw themselves after becoming manifest to him. the person who has gone beyond the qualities na kanksati. an effect of sattva.

nivrttani. This is the idea. which have trasnformed 606 . he who. udasinavat. the qualities. who. sitting like one indifferent. gunah.23 He who. like one indifferent-as an indifferent man sides with nobody. is not. For dislike or longing. that. the Self-realized monk. yah. distracted from the state of Knowledge arising out of discrimination.23 He. when they disappear. this one. is not seen by another. This is not an indication that can be perceived by others. then. 'What is the behaviour of one who has gone beyond the qualities?': 14. vicalyate. which is a subjective experience of a person. it is merely subjective. Now. thinking iti. by the qualities. similarly. asinah. remains firm and surely does not move. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . na.Swami Gambhirananda 14. is not distracted by the three qualities. This point is being clarified as such: Yah. the Lord gives the reply to the question. thinking that the qualities alone act. sitting. he who. gunaih. What then? Since this characteristic is perceivable to oneself. set on the path leading to the transcendence of the qualities.

to whom a lump of earth.Swami Gambhirananda 14.[His apparent activity consists in the mere continuance of actions which have been subjectively sublated through enlightenment. tranquil. to whom censure and his own praise are the same. sama-duhkha-sukhah. i. he to whom sorrow and happiness are alike. 'yah anutisthati.e. to whom the agreeable and the disagreeable are the same. to whom the agreeable and the disagreeable are the same. act on one another. iron and gold are the same. organs and objects. avatisthati. does not. who is established in his own Self. becomes eva.24 Moreover. who is established in his own Self.] and an. iron and gold are the same. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . ingate. surely settled in his own nature-. to whom a lump of earth.svasthah. remains firm-avatisthati (instead of avatisthate) is used in the Parasmaipada to avoid a break in the metre. or there is different reading. who acts'-. who is wise. move.24 He to whom sorrow and happiness are alike. who is wise. 14. tulya-priya-apriyah.. samalosta-asma-kancanah. vartante. dhirah. tulya-ninda-atma607 .into body.

under honour and dishonour. both towards the side of the friend and of the foe-although from their own standpoint some may be unattached. he who is the same.Swami Gambhirananda 14. to whom. who has renounced all enterprise.e. sarva-arambha-parityagi. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . actions intended for seen or unseen results-).25 Further. 14. mitra-ari-paksayoh.25 He who is the same under honour and dishonour. censure and his own praise are the same-. who is equally disposed both towards the side of the friend and of the foe. 'equally disposed both towards the side of the friend and of the foe'. 608 . in others' view they may appear to be siding either with friends or foes. who is equally disposed. who has given up all actions other than those needed merely for the maintenance of the body. tulyah. i. tulyah. to which monk. unperturbed. hence it is said.samstutih. mana-apamanayoh.-he is said to have gone beyond the qualities. who is apt to give up all undertakings. still. who has renounced all enterprise (-those which are undertaken are arambhah.

The disciplines leading to the state of transcendence of the qualities. God. mam.' and ending with 'he is said to have gone beyond the qualities. Me. sevate. sitting like one indifferent. qualifies for becoming Brahman. so long as they are to be achieved through effort. he.sah. Now the Lord gives the reply to the question. serves. ucyate. yah. gunatitah.26 And he who serves Me through the unswerving Yoga of Devotion. perceivable to himself. a seeker of Liberation. he. which have been stated (in the verses) beginning from 'he who. having gone beyond these qualities. through the unswerving-that which never wavers-. gone beyond the qualities. Narayana residing in the hearts of all beings. But when they become firmly ingrained. who. Yoga of 609 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .' have to be practised by a monk. 'And how does he transcend the qualties?' 14. avyabhicarena.Swami Gambhirananda 14.26 And he-be he a monk or a man of action (rites and duties)-. is said to have. they become the indications. bhakti-yogena. of a monk who has transcended the qualities.

the inmost Self. etan. i. he.] itself being the Yoga-. How this is so is being stated: 14. of that which is immutable. these.Swami Gambhirananda 14. of that which is the 610 . am the pratistha brahmanah. of that which is indestructible. of that which is the Dharma.27 Hi. the Dharma and absolute Bliss. brahma-bhuyaya. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . samatitya. of that which is eternal. supreme Love. aham. and aikantikasya sukhasya.-bhuyah is the same as bhavanam-. and sasvatasya. through which one becomes united (with God) is yoga. realizable through the Yoga of Jnana which is called dharma (virtue). the eternal. avyayasya. Of Brahman of what kind? Amrtasya. having transcended. for. gunan. qualifies.27 For I am the Abode of Brahman-the indestructible and immutable. for becoming Brahman. sah. dharmasya.e. qualities as described. for Liberation. kalpate. Abode-that in which something abides is pratistha-of Brahman which is the supreme Self. I. becomes fit.Devotion-devotion [Bhakti (devotion).

This has been stated in. that power which is Brahman Itself. unquestionably certain Bliss born of that (steadfastness). through perfect Knowledge it (the former) is realized with certainty to be the supreme Self. which is the dharma having the characteristics of steadfastness in Knowledge. unfailing Bliss by nature. 'he qualifies for becoming Brahman'. am I.absolute. so also. etc. for the purpose of favouring the devotees. Or.' (The abode of Brahman) of what qualities? Of that which is immortal. brahman means the conditioned Brahman. 'Of that Brahman. Since the inmost Self is the abode of the supreme Self-which by nature is immortal etc. I Myself. of that which has the quality of deathlessness.) is referred to by that word. a power and the possesser of that power are non-different. comes forth. of that which is the eternal. 611 .. of that which is the absolute. therefore. The purport is this: Indeed.-'I am the Abode' is understood. since It (too. that power of God through which Brahman sets out. of that which is immutable. For. the unconditioned Brahman-and none else-am the Abode.-.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .1). it grows through the sturdiness of that very One.Brahman.1 Urdhva-mulam.Chapter 15 15.6. and That is the root (mulam) of this world. 2. takes the word visakha (boughs) 612 . He who realizes it is knower of the Vedas. which has its roots upward and the branches downward. is referred to by the word 'upward' because of Its subtleness in point of time by virtue of Its being the Cause. The great elements are its boughs [A. and also because of Its eternality and vastness. 'This has its roots above and branches below' (Ka. In the Purana also we have: It sprouts from the Root in the form of the Unmanifest.Swami Gambhirananda 15. is imperishable. and of which the Vedas are the leaves.1 The Blessed Lord said -.They say that the peepul Tree. that which has its roots upwards:. possessed of the unmanifest power in the form of Maya. is urdhva-mulam.G. The Tree of the World which is such. And it has abundance of intelligence as its trunk. This accords with the Upanisadic text. and the appertures of the organs as the hollows.

4. which does not (a) last (stha) even for the morrow (svah). It has virtue and vice as its beautiful flowers. extending downwards (adhah). that Tree with its branches downwards. as it were. [See under 7. so.-Tr.12-15. For. is asvatthah (lit. Ahuh. that the asvatthah.] egoism. the world has nothing but Brahman as its support. one does not return from that (bliss). and constituted by the enchantments of mundane 613 . they say. are its branches (sakhah). As. imperishable.in the sense of stambha.' (Cf. 47. so also. perhaps meaning the aerial roots. Having felled and split this Tree with the great sword of Knowledge. Peepul Tree. Peepul tree). subtle elements. which has the branches downwards-mahat. it has the objects of perception as its leaves. This eternal Tree presided over by Brahman is a means of livelihood to all creatures. and happiness and sorrow are the fruits it bears. and then attaining the bliss of the Self. undergoing destruction every moment. Mbh. its support. it has its branches downwards-. etat brahma-vanam means: This Tree has Brahman as its object of adoration. etc. is avyayam.] in it Brahman dwells for ever. and adhah-sakham.].) That Tree which has its roots upwards and is constituted by the enchantment of mundane existence.-Tr. And this verily is the resort of Brahman [Or.

As leaves serve as protectors of a tree. Having been in existence from time without beginning. will known as the sustainer of the beginningless and ceaseless series of bodies etc. They call that the imperishable. as it were. In this way the Lord euligizes the knowledge of the Tree together with its root.existence. is a vedavit. Yajus and Sama. apart from this Tree of the World along with its root. tam. as has been explained. indeed. An imagery of the other parts of that very Tree of the World is being presented: 614 . so the Vedas serve as the protectors of the world. are the parnani. that-the Tree of the World along with its root. for they reveal what are virtue and vice as also their causes and results. that Tree of the World is imperishable. he who. that Tree of the World of which. Yah. It is. leaves. knower of the Vedas. he. Since. knows. sah. veda. not even an iota of any other thing remains to be known. versed in the meaning of the Vedas. the Vedas in the form of Rk. i. chandamsi-chandas being derived in the sense of covering (protecting)-.e. therefore he who knows the purport of the Vedas is omniscient. Of that very Tree of the World here is another qualification: Yasya.

by the qualities sattva. strengthened. which are their materials. and M. adhah. ca. extending downwards and upwards. 'human beings' stands for the world of human beings. tasya. extending. 2.2. made stout. 'in accordance with their work and in conformity with their knowledge' (Ka. manusya-loke means a body distinguished by Brahminhood etc. of that Tree.2 Sakhah. rajas and tamas.7). upwards. And the roots. and 'Brahma ' for the 'world of Brahma' (Satva-loka). are strengthened by the qualities and have sense-objects as their shoots. So Dharma may mean the 'world of Death' (pitrloka). and visaya-pravalah. The sense-objects 615 . spread down-wards in the human world [According to A.2 The branches of that (Tree).S.G. as it were.].15. from the human beings to the immobile (trees etc. are the results of knowledge and actions. the branches. urdhvam.G. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . which. prasrtah. downwards.]. which are followed by actions. have the sense-objects as their shoots.-Tr.Swami Gambhirananda 15. and.). upto Brahmabeginning from the Creator of the Cusmos to Dharma (Death) [According to A. are guna-pravrddhah.

616 . They (these roots) are said to be karma-anubandhini since actions (karma) that are characterized as righteous and unrighteous follow as their product (anubandha). manusya-loke. spread. anusantatani. the material cause of the Tree of the World. And now. with the strong sword of detachment-. as it were. as compared with the world of gods. nor beginning. enter. Thereby the branches are said to have sense-objects as their shoots. the latent impressions of attraction.(sound etc. repulsion. into the world of human beings particularly-for it is well known that (only) here men have competence for rites and duties. has been stated earlier. etc. repulsion. which grow later on and become the cause of involvement in righteousness and and unrighteousness. The supreme Root.) succeed the rise of those (attraction. (i. etc. After felling this Peepul whose roots are well developed. roots. adhah. which are followed by actions. 15. as it were. born of the results of action are the subsidiary roots.) which are the results of actions. like new leaves from the branches (bodies etc.3 Its form is not perceived here in that way. downwards.e. And those mulani. nor its end.) sprout.). karmaanubandhini. nor continuance.

suvirudha-mulam.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . here. iha. continuance. drdhena. neither. water in a mirage. Its sampratistha. there exists neither. 617 . Therefore. the middle state. It is not comprehended by anyone that it comes into existence beginning from any definite point. so also. Peepul. as it has been presented. above described.3 But. being like a dream. is not perceived by anyone. its-of this Tree of the World which has been described. with the strong-hardened by a resolute mind directed towards the supreme Self.Swami Gambhirananda 15. limit. na. form. in that way. rupam. after felling. is not at all. jugglery. na. whose roots (mula) are well (su) developed (virudham). termination. its antah. enam. too. uprooting. together with its seeds. asanga-sastrena. perceived. and sharpened on the stone of repeated practice of discrimination. asvattham. end. with that sword of detachment-. sword of detachment-detachment means turn ing away from the desire for progeny. its beginning. this. the Tree of the World. an imaginary city seen in the sky. upalabhyate. For. it is by nature destroyed no sooner than it is seen. asya. Chittva. tatha. wealth and the worlds.

e. has to be sought for.15. by taking refuge in Him. they na. the magic Tree of the World. yasmin. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . in that. i. has ensued. pravrttih. I take refuge. bhuyah. Person.. return. like jugglery from a magician. where. prasrta. eva. State of Visnu. into which State.Swami Gambhirananda 15. gatah. tat. going. from whom has ensued the eternal Manifestation.4 Thereafter. Himself. realized. parimargitavyam. Who is that Person? That is being stated: Yatah. tam. for worldly life. entering. going where they do not return again: I take refuge in that Primeval Person Himself. purani. As to how It is to be sought for. padam.e. Primeval-existing from the beginning. i. from whom. from which Person. the eternal. adyam. nivartanti. who has been mentioned by the word State. that State has to be sought for. the Lord says: Prapadye. The search has to be carried on thus. Manifestation.4 Tatah. do not. purusam. What kind of persons reach that State? This is being answered: 618 . again. thereafter. that.

] who are ever devoted to spirituality. have got rid of. the men of self-control. free from (nir) pride (mana) and non-discrimination (moha).Swami Gambhirananda 15. who have conquered (jita) the evil (dosa) of association (sanga)-association itself being the evil. vimuktah.] vinivrtta-kamah. engrossed in that. whose desires have completely gone away without trace (ni). reach that undecaying State.15. adhyatma-nityah. dvandvaih. who are devoid of delusion. etc.5 Amudhah. jitasanga-dosah. who are free from. who are completely (vi) free from (nivrtta) desires (kamah). English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . reflecting and meditating on the Self. free from the dualities called happiness and sorrow. dislikes.5 The wise ones who are free from pride and non-discrimination. sukha-duhkha619 .. who have conquered the evil of association. the monks. the wise ones. [Engrossed in hearing. completely free from desires. ever engaged in reflecting on the nature of the supreme Self. [Hatred and love arising from association with foes and friends. who are nirmana-mohah. who are ever devoted to spirituality. the dualities-likes. those who have conquered that.

That [-this (word) refers to the remote word dhama (Abode) at the end of the verse-]. State. supreme. tat. That is My supreme Abode. which. My. avyayam. undecaying. as has been described above. 'reaching which they do not return'. The very State is being elaborated again: 15. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and which the sun etc. gacchanti. Is it not well known that all goings end. Objection: It has been said. reach. nor the moon.6 Neither the sun nor the moon nor fire illumines That. paramam. niether the sun-though possessed of the power of illumining everything. return. na sasankah. reaching which they do not return. that. they na. that Abode which is of the nature of light. verily. and unions are followed by separations? How is it said that there is no return for those who 620 .sanjnaih. that. called happiness and sorrow. tat. yat. Visnu's. na pavakah. in returning. do not. State. attaining. dhama. is mama.Swami Gambhirananda 15. illumines. padam. gatva. so also. do not illumine. reaching. the State of Visnu. That abode.6 Na suryah. Abode. nor even fire. nivartante. bhasayate. tat.

jiva-bhutah sanatanah.. As the sun (reflected) in water is a part of the (actual) sun.) in the world-. becoming the eternal individual soul. the cause of the reflection.. is removed.Swami Gambhirananda 15. adds 'narayanasya. a part. and goes to the sun itself and does not return when the water. and which abide in Nature. is destroyed. (i. of Narayana':-Tr. in the region of living beings. jiva-loke. or. fragment-these are all synonymous.7 It is verily a part of Mine which. as space enclosed in a pot etc.] which. being a part of Space does not return after being united with Space when the cause (of limitation).7 It is eva. listen to the reason: 15. viz pot etc. portion. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . will known as the enjoyer and agent. delimited by such adjuncts as the pot etc. so also even this part becomes similarly united with that very Self. mama.come to that Abode? Reply: As to that.. 621 . becoming the eternal individual soul in the region of living beings. [Here Ast. verily amsah. This being so. of mine.e. limb. of the supreme Self. draws (to itself) the organs which have the mind as their sixth.

it draws to itself. which have the mind as their sixth. the (sense-) organs-ear etc. How that individual soul.' Objection: How can the partless supreme Self have any limb. And this idea has been fully explained in the chapter (13) dealing with the 'field'. fragment or part? If it has limbs. which are located in their respective spheres such as the orifice of the ear etc. he departs taking these. 'by reaching which they do not return. imagined as a part of Mine. When (does it draw the organs)? 15. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . is imagined to be a part.8 When the master leaves it and even when he assumes a body. manah-sasthani. indriyani. as wind (carries away) odours from their receptacles. as it were. since Its fragment.. enters into the world and leaves the body are being stated: Karsati. then there arises the contingency of Its becoming destroyed through the dismemberment of the limbs! Reply: This fault does not arise. which is delimited by an adjunct arising out of ignorance.it has been rightly stated.Swami Gambhirananda 622 . which abide in Nature. and prakrti-sthani.

then he draws. Which. and even. these. the organs with the mind as their sixth. goes away totally [Samyak. as. vayuh. [When the soul leaves the body.Swami Gambhirananda 623 . eyes. utkramati. when.9 This one enjoys the objects by presiding over the ear. isvarah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . again.S. taking. it avapnoti. samyati. when. the second quarter of the verse is treated first for the sake of consistency. then it draws the organs (see previous verses) from that body.] Like what? In reply the Lord says: iva. In this way.. the master of the aggregate of the body etc. grahitva.-M. gandhan. the second quarter of the present verse is treated first. because going to another body follows the leaving of the earlier one. the wind (carries away).15. odours. the individual soul. from their receptacles-flowers etc. yat. leaves the body. etani. Thus.-M. totally-without returning in any way to the earlier body. are those (organs)? 15.8 Yat. he leaves. then.] Ca api. asayat.S. assumes a body other than the earlier one. skin and tongue as also the nose and the mind.

vimudhah. or experiencing. the ear. skin. as also. or in association with the qualities.10 Persons who are diversely deluded do not see it even when it is leaving or residing (in this body). the sixth-(presiding over) each one of them along with its (corresponding) organ. or bhunjanam. tongue. rasanam.. or sthitam. identified with. caksuh. and manah. the mind. it upasevate. in association with. Those with the eye of knowledge see. visayan. i. the ghranam. the qualities called happiness. nose. by presiding over. under such conditions. adhisthaya. experiencing sound etc. enjoys. while residing in the (present) body. sorrow and delusion-even when. utkarmantam. the embodied soul.10 Thus. srotram. sparsanam.9 Seated in the body. eyes. eva ca. the organ of touch.e.Swami Gambhirananda 15. this one comes very much within the range of cognition. or guna-anvitam. the persons who are diversely deluded as a result of their hearts being forcibly attracted by the enjoyments of seen and 624 .15.. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 15. when it is leaving the body-the body that was assumed earlier. the objects-sound etc.

which are the means of knowledge. yatantah. atmani.Swami Gambhirananda 15. the non-discriminating ones. akrta-atmanah.e. And the Lord regrets this saying. who have not desisted from bad 625 . jnana-caksusah. pasyanti. 'Alas! How sorrowful this is!' Those others. those having a clear vision. see this one. i. in themselves. however. see. yoginah. do not.11 And some. na.] who have the insight of under-standing which has arisen from the valid means of knowledge. again. the yogis of concentrated minds. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .' Acetasah. the Self under discussion. 'I am This.11 And the yogis who are diligent see this one as existing in themselves. who lack self-control. [Jnana-caksuh means the scriptures supported by reasoning. in their own intelligence. who have the eye of knowledge. existing. The non-discriminating ones who lack self-control do not see this onethough (they be) diligent. 15.. They realize. this one. evam. as avasthitam. who have not purified themselves through austerity and control of the organs. anu-pasyanti. see. who are diligent. pasyanti.unseen objects.

do not illumine though they are the illuminators of everything. in the sun. With a view to speaking of the all-pervasiveness of the State and the fact of Its being the substratum of all empirical dealings. do not.-know that light to be Mine.conduct. who are not tranquil and are proud by nature. this one. pasyanti. api. and of which State the individual souls. see. though. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and that which is in fire. sun. diligent-even though they be striving with the help of the valid means of knowledge such as the scriptures. the Lord speaks in brief through the following four verses of the divine manifestations of that State which the light of fire.12 Yat. are 'parts' of Space: 15. that which is. that which is in the moon.-what is that-the tejah. owing to their conformity with the diversity of limiting adjuncts. which abides in the sun. enam. are parts. aditya-gatam. etc. 626 .12 That light in the sun which illumines the whole world. na. just as spaces enclosed in pot etc.Swami Gambhirananda 15. and reaching which the aspirants of Liberation do not return again towards mundane existence. (they be) yatantah.

. radiance.) is specially mentioned. to be mamakam.. which is. Indeed. that. entire. which is in the sun. 'That light in the sun which. is greatly brilliant. brilliance. in fire.light. tejah. which is in the moon. but in a mirror etc.'etc? Reply: This defect does not arise. why is this particular mention. though in the same position. a wall. it is reflected according to the degree in which 627 . reveals. that ulluminating light which is. viddhi. But it is not that it (Consciousness) is abundant only there. because. ca. akhilam.. Objection. illumines. jagat. the sattva is very much in evidence. yat. as in the world. there can be an abundane [Ast.] (of Consciousness). know that light to be Mine. light. world. and which is in fire. and yat. therefore there is an abundance of the light (of Consciousness) in them alone. That light belongs to Me who am Visnu. a face. candramasi. owing to the abundance of the sattva quality. reads avistaratva (amplitude) in place of adhikya. tat. the whole. which bhasayate. is not reflected in wood. Since in the sun etc. Mine. the carrier of oblations. know. Or: The light that is Consciousness.-Tr. etc. in the moon.. That light belong to Me who am Visnu. agnau. And so it (sun etc. Is it not that the light that is Consciousness exists equally in the moving and the non-moving? Such being the case.

4. I make healthy and full of the sweet flavour of juices. 'He supported the earth' (op. 15. (and) which has penetrated the earth to support it. dharayami. 4. sustain. pusnami. barley.5). and owing to which the heavy earth does not fall and does not crumble. and. Soma means the moon. and most other translators.-Tr. osadhih. 'Entering the earth I sustain the moving and non-moving beings. and also. and the earth firm' (Tai.. I. sarvah. Further. through (My) power. by 628 .] which is of the nature of sap. ojasa.1.13 And entering the earth I sustain the beings through (My) power. Hence. so is it here.8. Sam. bhutani. the power that belongs to God and is free from passing and attachment. and nourish all the plants by becoming Soma [According to S. aham. the world. I nourish.they are more and more transparent. the earth.3). all.cit. the beings.1. avisya.Swami Gambhirananda 15. gam.. There is a similar mantra: 'By which the heaven is made mighty. it has rightly been said.' Moreover. etc. entering. bhutva. the plants-paddy.13 Ca. etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .8.

aham. Br. inflamed. prana-apana-samayuktah. 15. but it said to be located at the tip of the nose since its presence is directly felt there. mentioned in such Upanisadic texts as. Vaisvanara.8. Soma consists of all the juices.] with Prana and Apana. digest the four kinds of food.1). deham. I. Indeed. in association [i. which is of the nature of sap. rasatmakah. I Myself. 5.14 Taking the form of Vaisvanara and residing in the bodies of creatures. [Prana-that vital force which goes upward and has its seat really in the heart (cf.e. of creatures. Soma. Besides. Apana-that vital force which 629 . kindled. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 3. it nourishes all plants by infusing its own juice into everything. Tai. and asritah. by Prana and Apana. residing in.9. 'This fire that is within man and digests the food (that is eaten) is Vaisvanara' (Br. somah. praninam.Swami Gambhirananda 15. entering. the fire in the stomach. it is the source of all juices.14 Bhutva. the bodies. taking the form of. in association with Prana and Apana. vaisvanarah.5). of living beings.10.becoming. becoming that Vaisvanara.

sucking and licking. loss. 15. From Me are memory. mattah. the caturvidham. deterioration. Further. below the navel. The eater is the fire called Vaisvanara. four kinds of.] pacami. of memory and 630 . memory. I alone am the object to be known through all the Vedas.Swami Gambhirananda 15. digest. from Me. jnanam. knowledge and their loss.15 And aham. food-those that are eaten by masticating. and has its seat in the organs of excertion.15 And I am seated in the hearts of all.-Tr. the loss. from the Self. am seated. is not affected by the impurity of food. sarvasya.goes downward. knowledge. in the intellects. in the hearts. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . fire and Soma. swallowing. One who looks upon all that there is as being these two. and the eaten is the food Soma. similarly. The knowledge and memory of these creatures who perform good deeds come from Me in accordance with the good deeds. with regard to all the creatures. as the Self. are Smrtih. and their apohanam. I am also the originator of the Vedanta. of all creatures. san-nivistah. Therefore. and I Myself am the knower of the Vedas. hrdi. annam. I.

am the veda-vit. which arise from special limiting adjuncts. and aham eva. etc. In the verses beginning with. am the vedyah. the Lord called Naravana. the Lord says: 15. the one existing as Maya is called the immutable. the succeeding verses are begun with a view to determining the real nature of that very Lord as the Unconditioned and Absolute... I Myself..' (12). The mutable consists of all things.16 There are these two persons in the world-the mutable and the immutable. the source of the traditional school of the teachings of Vedanta. sarvaih. through all. In that connection. object to be known. have been stated briefly the majesty of God. by distinguishing Him from the limiting adjuncts. I am also the vedanta-krt.e. (viz) the mutable and the immutable.] all the teachings of the preceding and the immediately succeeding chapters. the originator of the Vedanta.knowledge of those who perform evil deeds comes from Me in accordance with the evil deeds. 'That light in the sun which. 631 . Now then. Aham eva. the Vedas. after dividing into three parts [The two limiting adjuncts-the mutable and the immutable-. vedaih. the supreme Self. i. knower of the Vedas. I alone. and the supreme Self. the knower of the teachings of the Vedas.

It is ucyate. things. the aksarah.Swami Gambhirananda 15. of countless transmigrating creatures is called the immutable person. deception. etc.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . is the kutasthah. That which is the receptacle of the impressions of desires. which are synonymous. persons. kuta is maya. the other person is the aksarah. the totality of all mutable things. immutable. two-grouped separately. consists of sarvani. since they are the limiting adjuncts of the supreme Person. owing to the countless seeds of worldly existence. which is the seed of the origin of the person called the mutable.]. all. Who are those persons? The Lord Himself gives the answer: Ksarah.16 There are imau. falsehood. Or. purusau. immutable. kutasthah. crookedness.e. these. actions. opposite of the former. i. bhutani. the ksarah. 632 . mutable-one group consists of the perishable. it does not perish. is that which exists like a heap. dvau. the mutable. because. loke in the world. called. the power of God called Maya. so called [Persons-so called only figuratively. Kutasthah is the one existing as Maya: Kuta means a heap. that which exists in the diverse forms of maya etc.

the paramatma.17 But different is th supreme Person who is spoken of as the transcendental Self. entirely contrary in characteristics from these. as. as compared with the selves like body etc. 633 . Person. loka-trayam. is the uttamah. who. and is the atma. udahrtah.15. most excellent.] avisya. who.17 Tu. iti. Self. upholds (them). by dint of His own active power inhering in the energy that is Maya. purusah. created by ignorance. and is the imperisahble God. supreme Self. consciousness. [Caitanya. untouched by the mutable and the immutable limiting adjuncts. supreme. and is by nature eternal. different. anyah. itself is the bala (energy). pure. He is paramah. the sakti (active power) therein is Maya.Swami Gambhirananda 15. but. the inmost Consciousness of all beings. permeating the three worlds. Through that He upholds. who is different in characteristics from these-the mutable and the immutable-. permeating. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . supreme. Hence He is the supreme Self. He Himself is being specially described: yah. conscious and free. spoken of in the Upanisads.

which is the seed of the Tree of worldly existence. the Lord reveals Himself saying. transcendental.18 Since I am transcendental to the mutable and above even the immutable. above. the akasarat. who is the Lord by nature. ksaram. (And He) is the avyayah. 634 . God. imperishable. aham. Bhuvah. even. I. atah. (Intermediate Space) and Svah (Heaven). hence I am well known in the world and in the Vedas as the supreme Person. since. Showing that the name is apt by virtue of its etymological significance. upholds (them) by merely being present in His own nature. which this worldly existence is. to the mutable-I am beyond the Tree of Maya.18 Yasmat. most excellent or the highest. called the Peepul Tree. immutable. bibharti.the three worlds-called Bhuh (Earth). and uttamah. 'I am the unsurpassable God': 15. am atitah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . as compared with api. This name-the supreme Person-of God as described is well known. the Omniscient One called Narayana.Swami Gambhirananda 15. isvarah.

19 Bharata. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. and bhajati. adores. Devoted persons know Me thus.hence. i. thus. he is all-knowing and adores Me with his whole being. (he becomes) omniscient. Thereafter. God. am prathitah. he who. mam.Swami Gambhirananda 15. they extol Me with this name. knows Me the supreme Person thus. and poets also use this name 'Purusottama' in their poetry etc. i. Me. and vede. as purusottamah. janati. the supreme Person. mam. in the Vedas. he. the supreme Person. evam. all-knowing. well known.he knows everything through self-identification with all-. being free from delusion. Me. sah. by virtue of being the most excellent as compared with the mutable and the immutable.e. loke. yah. knows. having the aforesaid qualifications. with his mind fixed on Me as the 635 . I. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . existing in all things. as 'I am this One'. aham.19 O scion of the Bharata dynasty. he who. being free from delusion. in the way described.e. purusottamam. sarva-bhavena. with his whole being. is sarva-vit. now is stated this result attained by one who knows the Self as described: 15. in the world.. asammudhah.

For. buddhva. most mystical. still this chapter itself is here referred to as such. 'He who realizes it is a knower of the Vedas' (1). not only has the entire meaning of the scripture Gita been stated here in brief. Although the Gita as a whole is spoken of as the scripture.20 O sinless one.Swami Gambhirananda 15. this most secret scripture) iti uktam. 636 . O scion of the Bharata dynasty.Self of all. it is being euligized: 15. has thus been uttered. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. Now then. And it has been said. most secret. 'I alone am the object to be known through all the Vedas' (15). (Thus. and this for eulogy as is evident from the context. maya.e. anagha. Understanding this. which has Liberation as its fruit. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary ..what is that?-sastram. by Me. this most secret scripture has thus been uttered by Me. but the whole purport of the Vedas also has been comprehended here. O sinless one. scripture-.20 This guhyatamam. one becomes wise and has his duties fulfilled. i. having stated in this chapter the knowledge of the real nature of the Lord.

For. There is also a saying from Manu: 'This. The idea is that nobody's duties become fulfilled in any other way. And it has been said. the scripture which has the purport as has been revealed. buddhiman. a twice-born has his duties fulfilled. this. but not otherwise.93). Since you have heard from Me this truth about the supreme Reality. Sm.33). not otherwise' (Ma. one becomes. The meaning is that what-ever a Brahmana has to do as a consequence of his special birth (as a Brahmana). wise. you have achieved your Goal! 637 . etat. and krta-krtyah. all that becomes accomplished when the reality of the Lord is known. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. verily. all actions in their totality culminate in Knowledge' (4. is the fulfilment of a Brahmana in particular.under-standing. syat. has his duties fulfilled. 12. 'O son of Prtha. therefore. by getting this.

Chapter 16 16. honest behaviour. learnt from scriptures and teachers. [Persons treading the path of Jnana-yoga 638 . steadfastness.e. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . mentally avoiding fraud..1 Abhayam. sattva-samsuddhih.Fearlessness.this [This-refers to all the three from 'fearlessness' to 'persistence in knowledge and yoga'. persistence in knowledge and yoga. austerity and recititude. purity of mind. i. falsehood. purtiy of the mind (sattva). in dealings. (scriptural) study. trickery. persistence in knowledge and yoga-jnana means knowledge of such subjects as the Self.. fearlessness. yoga means making those things that have been learnt matters of one's own personal experience through concentration by means of withdrawl of the organs etc. knowledge and yoga.Swami Gambhirananda 16.1 The Blessed Lord said -. charity and control of the external organs. etc. persistence.] is the principal divine characteristic which is sattvika (born of the sattva quality). sacrifice. in those two. That nature which may occur in persons competent in their respective spheres. jnana-yoga-vyavasthitih.

distribution of food etc. etc.]-that is said to be their sattvika attribute. tapah. noncovetousness. is referred to separately by svadhyaya. sacrifices-Agnihotra etc. yajnah. control of the external organs-the control of the internal organ. for unseen results. arjavam. modesty. santih. gentleness. absence of anger. and damah. charity. Danam. and sacrifices in honour of gods and others [Others: Those in honour of the manes. rectitude. which will be stated (17. according to one's ability. austerity. humans and other beings. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . straigthforwardness at all times-.Swami Gambhirananda 639 .2 Non-injury. absence of vilification. freedom from restlessness. renunciation. Further. sanctioned by the Vedas. 16. those concerning the body. will be referred to later. kindness to creatures..14-16). the fifth sacrifice. control of the internal organ. truthfulness. study of the Rg-veda etc. Brahma-yajna. whereas the others are found in both or only in the latter.] sanctioned by the Smrtis: svadhyayah. Some of the qualities mentioned in the first three verses occur only in the former.or Karma-yoga have sattvika qualities.-Tr.

fortitude. satyam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . hrih.2 Ahimsa. monasticism-for.. control of the internal organ. speaking of things as they are. absence of unnecessary use of organs such as speech. absence of anger. freedom from restlessness. apaisunam. 16. charity has been mentioned earlier. abstaining from giving pain to creatures. non-conveteousness. kindness. daya. absence of hardheartedness. its absence is apaisunam. forgiveness. gentleness. purity. renunciation. hands and feet-.3 Vigour.Swami Gambhirananda 640 . acapalam. absence of excitement of the organs in the presence of objects. akrodhah. aloluptvam. truthfulness. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. bhutesu. mardavam. tyagah. santih. absence of vilification-paisunam means backbiting. modesty. Besides. to creatures in distress. are (the qualties) of one born destined to have the divine nature. absence of haughtiness-these. non-injury.16. without unpleasantness and prevarication. freedom from malice. control of anger that might result when offened or assulatd by others.

na-atimanita. nature-of one destined to have divine 641 . absence of that. absence of internal perturbation when offened or assulated-absence of anger has been explained by us as the calming down of a perturbed mind. (the qualities) abhijatasya. absence of haughtiness-too much self-esteem (mana) is atimanah. thus. sampadam. fortitude. not the brightness of the skin. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. na-atimanita. divine. dhrtih. forgiveness and absence of anger are distinguished. and internal.e. purity of these two kinds. These (qualities) beginning with fearlessness and ending with this. and being rejuvenated by which the body and organs do not feel any fatigue. etc. absence of the feeling of one's being too honourable. the absence of such impurities as trickery. a particular function of the mind which removes the tedium of the body and organs when they become exhausted. with the help of earth and water. saucam.16. absence of hatred. one having that is atimani. purity-is of two kinds: external. bhavanti. freedom from malice.-what kind of nature?-the daivim. attachment.. adrohah. absence of the desire to injure others. vigour. of one destined to have. are.. ksama. forgiveness. its abstract form is atimanita. i. the cleanliness of mind and intellect.3 Tajah.

ignorance. false conception regarding what ought to be and ought not to be done.Swami Gambhirananda 16. Thereafter.4 O son of Prtha. using unkind words. e. self-conceit. religious ostentation. eva ca. etc. of one destined to have.e. to speak of a blind person as having eyes. anger. non-discriminating knowledge. atimanah. redeness. of one who is worthy of the excellence of the gods. i. as also. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . pride arising from wealth. of one who would be illustrations in future. [Another reading is abhimanah.-destined for what? in answer the 642 . haughtiness.attributes. anger as also rudeness and ignorance. dambhah.-Tr. the demoniacal nature is now being stated: 16.. darpah. parusyam..4 O son of Prtha. relatives. a lowly born man as born of aristocracy.g. and krodhah. pride and haughtiness.]. as explained earlier. an ugly person as handsome. and so on. (the attributes) of one destined to have the demoniacal nature are religious ostentation. and ajnanam. are (the attributes) abhijatasya.

do not. mata. nature.e. the Lord. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . for Liberation from the bondage of the world. says: ma. you are. born with the good fortune of having.Lord says-asurim. sampad. i. the demoniacal is considered to be for inevitable bondage. 643 . The consequences of these natures are being stated: 16.Swami Gambhirananda 16.. O son of Pandu! Asi. nature. divine. demoniacal. you are destined for an illustrious future. grieve. for inevitable bondage. or am I endowed with the divine nature?'-. nibandhaya. is vimoksaya. noticing Arjuna having this kind of inner cogitation-'Am I endowed with the demoniacal nature. destined to have. the divine. Do not grieve. is considered to be. demoniacal nature. sampadam. sampadam. Now. O son of Pandu! You are destined to have the divine nature.5 That which is daivi. daivim. nature. sacah. So also is the fiendish nature. The asuri. when such a statement was made. abhijatah.5 The divine nature is the Liberation.

elaborately-in. O son of Prtha.3. the two are the daiva.16. (1-3). are being spoken of as 'two creations of beings'. are the (kinds of) bhuta-sargau. divine. of men. O son of 644 .1). vistarasah. Hence. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and. the asura. For. has been spoken of. two. The persons themselves. The Lord speaks of the need of restating the two that have been already referred to: Daivah. the gods and the demons' (Br. 'Fearlessness. purity of mind.6 In this world there are are two (kinds of) creation of beings: the divine and the demoniacal.Swami Gambhirananda 16. proktah. who are created with the natures of gods and demons. in number. Which are those two creations of beings? The answer is. Sarga is derived from srj in the sense of that which is created. in this. asmin. But the demoniacal has not been spoken of in extenso. creation of beings. world. Hear about the demoniacal from Me. 1. eva ca.' etc. The divine has been spoken of elaborately. 'There were two classes of Prajapati's sons. loke.6 Dvau. all (persons) can rationally be divided into two classes. which accords with the Upanisadic text. the divine creation of beings. the demoniacal which are being discussed.

me. for. The demons are verily 645 . or even. the asuram. what is not to be done. from Me. what is to be done with regard to that which is a means to the human ends. do the asurah. so that this may be avoided. Nor only do they not know what is to be done and what is not to be done. acarah. pravritim. it becomes possible to eschew it: 16. from My speech which is being uttered in detail. viduh. the opposite of that (former) and from which source of evil one should desist. tesu. does saucam. or even good conduct or truthfulness exist in them. purity. or satyam. srnu.7 Na. when this is directly perceived. niether. na. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 16. understand. exist. good conduct. Upto the end of the chapter the demoniacal nature is being presented as the qualities of creatures. demoniacal. janah. nor. and nivirttim. hear of. in them.7 Neither do the demoniacal persons understand what is to be done and what is not to be done. understand. na api. demoniacal. persons.Prtha. nor does purity. truthfulness. vidyate.

they. that the jagat. what other (cause can there be)? There exists to other unseen cause such as 646 .8 Te. the domoniacal persons. is asatyam. it is anisvaram. Further. unreal-as we ourselves are prone to falsehood. apratistham. 16. Kama-haitukam and kama-hetukam are the same.bereft of purity and good conduct. it has no basis. it is aparaspara-sambhutam. It is born of mutual union brought about by passion! What other (cause can there be)? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . ahuh. born of mutual union. Hence they say that the world is godless. (That union is) kama-haitukam. without a God-nor is there a God who rules this (world) according to rigtheousness and unrighteousness (of beings). they are deceitful and given to speaking lies. Moreover. it does not have righteousness and unrighteousness as its basis. The whole world is born of the union of the male and female impelled by passion. world. it is without a God. Kim anyat. so is this whole world unreal. it has no basis.Swami Gambhirananda 16. brought about by passion.8 They say that the world is unreal. say.

(these people) who are nasta-atmanah. adopting 647 . Certainly. given to fearful actions and harmful. prabhavanti. whose intellect is indeed limited.Swami Gambhirananda 16. harmful. pride and arrogance. etc. of poor intellect. This is the construction.9 Holding on to this view. who have deviated from the disciplines leading to the other world. jagatah. inimical to the world. filled with vanity. and ahitah. engrossed with material things. unrigtheousness. i. this. wax strong. for the ruin. given to fearful actions-who are cruel by nature.e. alpabudhayah. This is the view of the materialists. etam.9 Avastabhya. the passion of living beings is the cause of the world. of poor intellect. ksayaya. of depraved character. holding on to.righteousness. drstim. of the world.10 Giving themselves up to insatiable passion. 16. 16. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . view. (these people) who are of depraved character. wax strong for the ruin of the world. ugra-kamanah.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . feeling sure that this is all. 16. constantly burdened 648 . filled with vanity. insatiable. duspuram.bad abjectives due to delusion. innumerable. evil intentions. and asuci-vratah.Swami Gambhirananda 16. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . mohat.e. giving themselves upto.. holding that the enjoyment of desirable objects is the highest goal.11 Upasritah. having impure resolves.11 Beset with innumerable cares which end (only) with death. they pravartante. they engage in actions. bad objectives. owing to non-discrimination. engage in actions in the world. pride and arrogance. grhitva. aparimeyam. dambha-mana-mada-anvitah. and having impure resolves. asad-grahan. i. cares-worries that defy estimation of their limits!.10 And asirtya. kamam.Swami Gambhirananda 16. passion-a kind of desire. adopting. cintam. due to delusion. beset with. Further.

iti. giving themselves wholly to passion and anger. being impelled. this is all16. pralayantam. arthasancayan. ihante.. they endeavour to amass wealth through foul means for the enjoyment of desirable objects. through foul means. kama649 . holding that the enjoyment of desirable objects is the highest goalkama is derived in the sense of 'that which is desired for'. etavat. asa-pasa-sataih. by stealing others' wealth.. viz the enjoyment of desirable objects.e. by hundreds of these. considered their enjoyment to be the highest. being lured from all sides. niscitah. etc. is the highest human goal. having passion and anger as their highest resort.12 Baddhah. having their minds convinced thus that this alone.12 Bound by hundreds of shackles in the form of hope. anyayena. kamakrodha-parayanah. they endeavour. that.Swami Gambhirananda 16. bound. i. which end (only) with death. feeling sure. viz sound etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . to amass wealth. giving themselves wholly to passion and anger. kama-upabhoga-paramah. by hundreds of shackles in the from of hope-the hopes themselves are the shackles.with cares.

I am the lord. not for righteous acts. dhanam. is in hand. this. me. asti.Swami Gambhirananda 650 . bhavisyati. this other. has been gained. again. will come.13 'This has been gained by me today. again.13 Idam. this wealth also will come to me. I am the enjoyer. I am well-established. to me. This is in hand. punah. this. are of this kind: 16. idam. mighty and happy. this thing. I shall acquire. by me.' English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .' English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . wealth. maya. 16. Thereby I shall become rich and famous.14 'That enemy has been killed by me.bhoga-artham. and I shall kill others as well. manoratham. idam. adya.Swami Gambhirananda 16. And idam. labham. also. too. prapsye. desired object which is delectable to the mind. I shall acquire this desired object. in the next year. for the enjoyment of desirable objects-in order to enjoy desirable objects. Their intentions. today. api.

in respect of sacrifices also I 651 . Not only am I a man. others are born to be but a burden to the earth! 16.15 'I am rich and high-born. is there. has been killed. enjoyer. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sadrsah. From that point of view also there is none equal to me. the other wretched ones. Aham. who else. I am rich in wealth. similar. hatah. abhi-janavan. and grandsons born of sons and daughters.14 Asau. well-established in every respect-I am blessed with sons. and I am siddhah. naya. aparan. maya. but I am also balavan. to me? Besides. I shall give. that. happpy. my seven generations are endowed with Vedic learnig etc. I am the bhogi. enemy. asti. mighty. who else is there similar to me? I shall perform sacrifices.'-thus they are diversely deluded by non-discrimination.16. I shall rejoice. What will these pitiable persons do? There is none equal to me at all. Kah anyah. named Devadatta.Swami Gambhirananda 16. yaksye. I shall kill. lord. I. and I myself am sukhi. by me. am the isvarah. high-born in respect of my lineage. I shall perform sacrifices. and hanisye.15 Adhyah. unconquerable satruh.

prasaktah. 16.16 Aneka-citta-vibhrantah. modisye. are they ajnanavimohitah. [Vaitarani: It is the most terrible place of punishment. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . they fall into a foul hell. and I shall derive intense joy. caught in the net of delusion. Iti. in the enjoyment of desirable objects. being immersed in that itself. into a foul. they patanti. subject to various indiscrimination. diversely deluded by nondiscrimination. hell. confounded variously by thoughts of the kind stated above. bewildered by numerous thoughts. fall. engrossed. enshrouded by that. owing to the sins accumulated thereby. moha-jalasamavrtah. lack of understanding.shall defeat others. (and) engrossed in the enjoyment of desirable objects. a river filled with all kinds of filth652 .Swami Gambhirananda 16. Dasyami. that itself is like a net because of its nature of covering. I shall rejoice. such as Vaitarani. kamabhogesu. caught in the net of delusion-moha is non-discrimination. narake. asucau.16 Bewildered by numerous thoughts. I shall give-to actors and others. thus.

avidhi-purvakam. yajnate.Swami Gambhirananda 16. te.17 Atma-sambhavitah. perform sacrifices.. with ostentation and regardless of the injunctions. and so on. The other hells are Tamisra. Raurava. stabdhah. namayajnaih. dambhena.blood. 653 . with ostentation. Kumbhipaka. having minds that are not humble.] 16.17 Self-conceited. dhana-mana-mada-anvitah. haughty. they perform sacrifices which are so in name only. hair. they. haughty. which are so in name only. regardless of the injunctions-without subsidiary rites and proper methods of performance as enjoined. self-conceited. hot and fetid. filled with (anvita) the pride (mana) and intoxication (mada) of wealth (dhana). English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and running with great impetuosity. Andhatamisra. bones etc. with religious hypocricy. considering themselves by themselves to be possessed of good qualities-not considered to be so by holy men. filled with pride and intoxication of wealth.

which seeds to defear others and is associated with passion and desire.-samsritah. passion with regard to women and others. and constructs the last portion thus: '. one may combine this verse with the preceding verse by taking 'perform sacrifices' as the finite verb. S.-Tr... hating. and is the source of all ills as also of all evil deeds. egotism-that which considers the Self to which have been imputed actual and imaginary qualities as 'I am this'. arrogance. adds the verb prabhavanti. krodham.18 Ahankaram. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . hating Me in their own and others' bodies. wax strong. arrogance.'] envious by nature. darpam. which is called ignorance and is most painful. kamam. from verse 9.the envious ones wax strond. on the upsurge of which one transgresses righteousness.Swami Gambhirananda 16. passion and anger.18 Resorting to egotism. pradvisantah. power. S. a particular defect abiding in the mind. (they become) [As the finite verb is missing in the verse. anger at things tha are undesirable.16. however.' Following S. power.. resorting to these and other great evils. 654 . and further. so also balam. we have supplied 'they become'.

the vilest of human beings. atma-paradehesu.19 Because of their defect of unrighteousness. hurl. who are opposed to the right path. which are full of evil deeds. kruran.Swami Gambhirananda 16. in the worlds-who are on the paths leading to hell. verily. all tan. (they become) abhyasuyakah. samsaresu. evil-doers in the worlds. hateful of Me. and asubhan. ksipami. cruel. who are hostile to the pious people. cast.. who are the nara-adhaman. into the demoniacal. intolerant of the qualities of those who tread the right path. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . asurisu. eva. 16. classes-tigers. vilest of human beings. ajasram. verily into the demoniacla classes. loins. God-transgression of My commands is hatred (towards Me). who are evil doers. aham. envious by nature. in their own and others' bodies as the witness of their intellects and actions. 655 . those. I. etc. cruel.mam. yonisu.19 I cast for ever those hateful. Me. indulging in that. who are dvisatah. for ever. The verb cast is to be connected with 'into the classes'.

attain conditions lower than that. in births after births.' This is being stated as a summary of all the demoniacal qualities. Me. and going downwards. mam. (births) asurim. what is implied by saying. yonim. 'by not attaining the virtuous path enjoined by Me. they attain. who am God. conditions.16. Since there is not the least possibility of attaining Me.Swami Gambhirananda 16. among the demoniacal. species. O son of Kunti. janmani janmani. fools. O son of Kunti. gatim. 'without ever reachin Me'. without ever reaching Me. is. tatah adhamam. approaching. being born in every birth into species in which tamas prevails. the mudhah. being born. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the foods. non-discriminating ones.20 Apannah. (and) by the avoidance of which (three) they (all the demaniacal qualities) become 656 . having acquired. yanti. aprapya eva. lower even than that. without ever reaching.20 Being born among the demoniacal species in births after births. The triplet-under which are comprehended all the different demoniacal qualities though they are infinite in number.

door. It is that by the mere entry into which the soul perishes. This is a eulogy of renunciation. tyajet. is of three kinds-passion. of hellfor entering it. passion. 16.e. krodhah. it ceases to be fit for attaining any human goal. which is the nasanam. therefore one should renounce this group of three-passion etc. hence it is said that it is the door which is the destroyer of the soul. i. and also lobhah. Since this door is the destroyer of the soul. which is the destroyer of the soul. Which is that? Kamah. anger. these three. Thereby he attains the highest Goal. narakasya.22 O son of Kunti.is being stated: 16. and which is the root of all evils. dvaram. anger and also greed. of the soul.21 Idam. a person who is free from these three doors to darkness strives for the good of the soul. destroyer. etat trayam. is trividham of three kinds. Therefore one should forsake these three. Tasmat. therefore.21 This door of hell. atmanah. 657 .Swami Gambhirananda 16. this.rejected. greed. one shoud forsake.. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

he who acts under the impulsion of passion. gatim.22 O son of Kunti. the good. Hence. i. Tatah. strives for.-for what?sreyah. etaih. doors to darkness. as well.-he does not attain perfection. Both can be undertaken on the authority of the scriptures. who is vimuktah. from these. tamo-dvaraih.Swami Gambhirananda 16. three. the param. as a result of that striving. a person. atmanah. suprme. nor the supreme Goal. which are doors to the darkness of hell consisting of sorrow and delusion. narah. [Not only does he attain Liberation by renouncing the demoniacal qualities. Liberation.23 Ignoring the precept of the scriptures. nor happiness. acarati. he attains.e. free. yati. freed from three three which are such.] The scripture is instrumental in this complete renunciation of the demoniacal qualities and striving for what is good. and on the dispelling of which he strives. but he also secures happiness in this world.e. not otherwise. i.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of the soul: debarred by which (doors) he could not strive earlier. Goal. passion etc. 658 . thereby.. tribhih. 16.

you ought to perform (your duty) here. therefore. as regards the determination of what is to be done and what 659 .English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . After understanding (your) duty as presented by scriptural injunction. the scripure. authority. the means of knowledge. setting aside. karya-akarya-vyavasthitau. ignoring. your.23 Utsrjiya.24 Therefore. happiness in this world. nor even the param. nor even sukham. he who. kama-karatah. siddhim.24 Tasmat. gatim. does not. sastram. he. under the impulsion of passion.Swami Gambhirananda 16. na. acts. perfection.Swami Gambhirananda 16. is te. the precept of the scriptures. pramanam. fitness for Liberation. the scripture is your authority as regards the determination of what is to be done and what is not to be done. which is th source of the knoweldge of what is duty and what is not-called injunction and prohibition. sah. 16. sastravidhim. vartate. attain. supreme best. Goal-heaven or Liberation. yah. avapnoti. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

is not to be done. after understanding. duty. here. in the form. jnatva. that which is your own karma. you ought. to perform. 'Here' is used for pointing out the sphere in which one is intitled to perform his duties. precept. as presented by that. as presented by scriptural injunction-vidhana is the same as vidhi. sastra-vidhana-uktam. Therefore. 660 . kartum. it iha. arhasi. 'you should do'. 'you should not do'.

tamas? This is what is meant: Does the adoration of gods and others that they undertake come under the category of sattva or rajas or tamas? By 'those who. who. what is the state [i.23-4.] by ignoring the injunctions of the scriptures? Is it sattva. the injunctions of the Vedas and the Smrtis? Is the state of those who are such sattvam. setting aside. 661 . or tamah. ['But' is used to present a standpoint distinct from the earlier ones understand from 16.] O Krsna. ka.. yajante. by ignoring. what. adore gods and others. the unjunctions of the scriptures.1 Arjuna said -. ye. distribute wealth etc.e.-S. but. utsriya. or.But. where do the rites undertaken by them end?] of those who. endued with faith.Swami Gambhirananda 17. sraddhaya. sattva. rajas. rajas or tamas? English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . adore [Adore-perform sacrifices. rajah.1 Tu. being anvitah. sastra-vidhim. with the idea that there is something hereafter. state. with faith. of those-whosoever they may be. endued. aho. is the nistha.Chapter 17 17. in honour of gods and others. of Krsna. tesam.

. it cannot be imagined that even when they are aware of some scriptural injunction about worship of gods and others. are not meant here by 'those who. discard them and worship the gods and others in ways contrary to the injunctions. adore by ignoring the injunctions of the scriptures' are here meant those who. is 662 . adore.2 The Blessed Lord said -.. Hence. But. ignoring scriptural injunctions. and yet they engage in the worship of gods and others enjoined by those scriptures by becoming imbued with faith! Therefore. on the other hand. worship gods and others by merely observing the conduct of their elders. 'being endued with faith'. endued with faith. adore by ignoring the injunctions of the scriptures' are here meant those very ones mentioned earlier.That faith of the embodied beings. though aware of some scriptural injunction. For. not finding any injunction which can be characterized as 'enjoined by the Vedas' 'or enjoined by the Smrtis'. born of their own nature. by 'those who.' Why? Because of the qualifying phrase. An answer to this question relating to a general topic cannot be given without splitting it up.17. those who. they discard this out of their faithlessness.endued with faith.

etc. concerning worship of ghosts. Srnu. acquired in the past lives. the state about which you ask. and related to worship of gods.. Nairrti and others). Raksas (ogres. Hear about it. 663 . tam. This person is made up of faith as the dominant factor. of the embodied beings. born of sattva.2 Sa.3 O scion of the Bharata dynasty. what arises out of that is svabhavaja-. rajas and tamas. that faith. is trividha. rajasi. sraddha.threefold-born of sattva. Thus it is of three kinds. which becomes manifest at the time of death. the faith of all beings is in accordance with their minds. hear. born of their own nature-by svabhava (nature) is meant that latent impression of virtuous acts etc. born of tamas. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . He is verily what his faith is. that. faith. about it. svabhavaja. as it is being stated. born of rajas.Swami Gambhirananda 17. and tamasi. That (faith) is threefold as follows: 17. goblins and others. dehinam. threefold. of three kinds. concerning worship of Yaksas (a class of demigods. Kubera and others). sattviki.

If this is so. yah yat-sraddhah.3 O scion of the Bharata dynasty.Swami Gambhirananda 664 . And. sah. is sraddhamayah. the demi-gods and ogres. How? Sah. that.4 Those having the sattva quality worship the gods. this. and other people possessed of tamas worship ghosts and the hosts of spirits. Hence the Lord says: 17. made up of faith as the dominating factor. he. in accordance with the internal organ which is imbued with particular impression. bhavati. what follows? The answer is: Ayam. is eva. verily. sarvasya. the transmigrating soul. is to be inferred from the grounds of his actions such as worship of gods etc. the sraddha. as a consequence.Swami Gambhirananda 17. in accordance with their minds. those having rajas. is. a person's steadfastness in sattva etc.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . person. purusah. faith. the individual soul. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sattvaanurupa.which is the faith of that individual-he surely conforms to his faith. of all beings.

austerity.5 Ye. people. undertake severe austerities not sanctioned in the scriptures. devan. those. How? 17. rajasah. those steadfast in sattva. and bhutaganan. those having the sattva quality. severe. becomes devoted to the adoration of gods. and possessed of passion. yajante. creatures are mostly rooted deeply in rajas or tamas. janah. in the context of abandonment of scriptural injunctions. As regards that. Thus. given to ostentation and pride. But. attachment and strength. possessed of tamas. they. the gods. the demi-gods and ogres. pretan. the hosts of spirits-Sapta-matrkas (the Seven Mothers) and others. productive of pain to oneself as also to creatures. yajante. who tapyante. ghoram. asastra-vihitam. have been determined through their effects. the states of sattva etc. perform. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 17. janah. and anye. worship. those having rajas. being dambh-ahankara665 . it is only one in thousands who. (worship) yaksa-raksamsi. persons.5 Those persons who. other. being established in sattva. to be sure. ghosts. tamasah. undertake. tapah.4 Sattvikah. worship. not sanctioned by the scriptures.17.

given to ostentation and pride. viz succulent. all the organs in the body as also even Me who reside in the body. bhutagramam. Know them so that they may be avoided. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .6 (And who. being nondiscriminating. who reside in the body as the witness of its actions and intellect-non-adherence to My injunctions itself is 'torturing Me'.]-. torture eva. and kama-raga-bala-anvitah. know. as also.-know them as possessed of demoniacal conviction. impelled by the strength of passion and attachment. in the body. sarirastham. them. torture. as possessed of demoniacal convictions.) acetasah. all the organs. attachment and strength [Kama-raga can also mean desirable objects and the desire to enjoy them. is 666 .6 (And who. Me. asura-niscayan. karsayantah.Swami Gambhirananda 17.samyuktah. tan. 17. or possessed of passion. oleaginous. even. The liking of persons possessing the qualities of sattva. rajas and tamas for foods that are divided into three groups. ca. torture. antahsarira-stham. etc.. viddhi. This is an instruction. mam.) being non-discriminating.

listen. Srnu. 17. and accept food with the characteristics of sattva.. rajas and tamas (in oneself) from the indications of the degree of one's preference for particular foods as are succulent. api tu. Similarly. Listen to this classification of them. similarly. which is going to be stated.] who eat it. bhavati. which is dear to all. to imam. etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of three kinds. one may avoid foods having the characteristics of rajas and tamas. also. austerity and charity. sarvasya. 667 . classification. so also yajnah.7 Aharah. is. bhedam. trividhah. adds praninah (creatures). tesam. of food etc. and so also are sacrifices. so also. sacrifices. tapah. also are being explained here under three categories according to the distinguishing quality of sattva etc. dear. is of three kinds.Swami Gambhirananda 17. food. this. and undertake only those born of sattva. tatha. which is priyah. austerity. oleaginous. danam. charity. So that one may reject those known to be born of rajas and tamas.7 Food also. of them.-Tr..respectively being shown here so that. by knowing the presence of the qualities of sattva. to all [Here Ast. sacrifices etc.

strength. salty. health delight. and which are succulent. happiness and delight. foods. sour. 17.Swami Gambhirananda 17. succulent. dry and burning. oleaginous. and which production pain. oleaginous. health. snigdhah. agreeable. firmness of mind or vigour. happiness-pleasure of mind. firmless of mind.] and which are rasyah. substantial and agreeable. are dear to one having rajas. sthirah.] and hrdyah. are dear to one endowed with sattva. strength.8 Aharah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . pungent. 668 . to one's liking.8 Foods that augment life. firmneess of mind. [Beneficial to the body for long. sorrow and disease.9 Foods that are bitter. are sattvika-priyah. very hot. delight-great joy even at seeing other persons prosperous.17. substantial. ayuh-sattva-bala-arogyasukha-priti-vivardhanah. [Life-a brilliant life. strengthability of body and organs. dear to one endowed with sattva. lasing in the body for long. that augment life.

food. dear to one having rajas. and so on-).] and burning.Swami Gambhirananda 17. dry [Without fat. grief arising from not having that desired food. pungent.9 Foods that are katu-amla-lavana-atyusnatiksna-ruksa-vidahinah. 17. but here it is translated as 'not properly cooked to avoid tautology. sour.Swami Gambhirananda 17. which produce pain. viz bitter etc. not properly cooked [Yata-yamam lit. is dear to one possessed of tamas.] are rajasasyaistah. which is yata-yamam. very hot (-'very' is to be connected with all. too. bitter. [Pain. and duhkha-sokaamaya-pradah. that is very bitter. lacking in essence. immediate suffering. very sour. salty.10 Food which is not properly cooked. means 'crooked three hours ago'. that which has lost its essence.. putrid and stale.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 669 . for the next word gata-rasam. and even ort and that which is unfit for sacrifice. sorrow and disease.10 Bhojanam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sorrow.

sacrifices of three kinds are being stated: 17. which is in accordance with the injunctions. which. is ijyate. remnants of a meal. manah samadhaya. is done through sattva. with the mental conviction. sacrifice. by persons who do not hanker after results.Swami Gambhirananda 17. (and is) performed by persons who do not hanker after results. that. stale. their duty is to accomplish the sacrifice 670 . that which is unfit for sacrifice. yastavyam.. performed. gata-rasam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . (and) yah. and paryusitam. vidhi-drstah. Now then. puti.this kind of food is tamasa-priyam.] (-because food that has lost its essence is referred to by the word gatarasam-).means lacking in essence.-Tr. cooked on the previous day and kept over-night. a-phalaakanksibhih. eva. which is known through scriptural unjunctions. it is surely obligatory. and amedhyam. and even ucchistam.11 Sah. that. yajnah. ort. dear to one possessed of tamas. iti. putrid.11 That sacrifice which is in accordance with the injunctions. lacking in essence. and with the mental conviction that it is surely obligatory.

'I have no human goal to achieve through this'-. 17. in which food is not distributed. yajnam. for ostentation. result. having in view.just as it should be-with the firm idea. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . in which offerings are not made to priests. O greatest among the descendants of Bharata. yat.13 They declare that sacrifice as 'done through tamas' which is contrary to injunction.12 Tu. as also for ostentation. api ca. in which mantras are not used. tam. know. O greatest among the descendants of Bharata. is ijyate. as also. that which. performed. abhisandhaya. is said to be a sacrifice which is sattvikah. dambhartham. but.-know that sacrifice to be done through rajas. bharatasrestha.Swami Gambhirananda 671 . viddhi. sacrifice. that. done through rajas. 17.Swami Gambhirananda 17. a phalam. done through sattva. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .12 But that sacrifice which is performed having in veiw a result. to be rajasam. and which is devoid of faith.

twice-borns. they delclare. bodily. asrstannam. as tamasam. contrary to injunction. saucam. straightforwardness. tapah. in which food is not distributed-a sacrifice in which food (annam) is not distributed (asrstam) to Brahmanas. 672 . purity. are said to be. arjavam. purity. venerable persons and the wise. now is being stated the three kinds of austerity: 17. devoid of faith. in which mantras are not used. intonation and distinct pronunciation. sariram.14 Deva-dvija-guru-pujanam.13 Paricaksate. the worship of gods. adaksinam. opposed to what is enjoined. twice-borns. which is bereft of mantras. celibacy and non-injury. After that. sacrifice.17. and which is sraddhavirahitam. ucyate. celibacy. brahmacarayam. which is vidhi-hinam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . venerable persons and the wise. and ahimsa. non-injury. mantra-hinam. in which offerings are not made to priests as prescribed.-are said to be bodily austerity.14 The worship of gods. that yajnam. done through tamas. straightforwardness.Swami Gambhirananda 17.

etc. 13-15. in which the body predominates. beneficialness. speech. austerity accomplished through the body: that which can be performed by the agent. vakyam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .-Tr. which is not hurtful to creatures which is satyam.15 That speech which causes no pain. 17. (i. The ca (and) is used for grouping together the qualifying characteristics. agreeability. priya-hitam. agreeable and beneficial. agreeable and beneficial with regard to facts seen or unseen-. 'these five are its causes' (18. which causes no pain. that. for the Lord will say.-is said to be austerity of speech. etc. When a sentence is used in order to make another understand. true. [See 18.]. As in 673 . which is true. as well as the practice of study of the scriptures.15 Yat. if it happens to be avoid of one or two or three among the qualitiestruthfulness.15). and nonhurtfulness-.) with the whole group of body and organs.austerity. then it is not austerity of speech. 'Speech' is qualified by characteristics such as being not hurtful.Swami Gambhirananda 17.e. anudvegakaram.

the practice of the study of scriptures. as is enjoined. tranquillity of mind. my boy. saumyatvam.' Svadhyaya-abhyasanam. 17. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .16 Manah-prasadah.Swami Gambhirananda 17. ucyate. austerity. tapah. is the highest austerity of speech: As for example. making the mind free from anxiety. reticence. ca eva. What. is that austerity (of speech)? That utterance which is true as also not hurtful.the case of a truthful utterance there would occur a want of austerity of speech if it be lacking in one or two or three of the others. vanmayam. the utterance. withdrawal of the mind. Thereby you will gain the highest.-these are what is called mental austerity. of speech. as well. gentleness. in said to be. and similarly. 'Be calm. again.16 Tranquillity of mind. 674 . there would be no austerity of speech even in a beneficial utterance which is without one or two or three of the others. so also in the case of an agreeable utterance there would be no austerity of speech were it ot be without one or two or three of the others. purity of heart. Practise study and yoga. and is agreeable and beneficial.

-is being stated: 17. the attitude of a meditator. iti etat. called. reticence is explained as control of the mind with regard to speech. these are. 675 .17 When that threefold austerity is undertaken with supreme faith by people who do not hanker after results and are self-controlled. [Kindliness towards all. The context being of 'mental austerity'. verbal and mental austerities undertaken by poeple are divided into three classes-of sattva etc. etc. maunam (control of the mind) is the mind's withdrawal with regard to speech alone. maunam may mean thinking of the Self.. austerity. so maunam means control of the mind. absence of trickery while dealing with others. How the above-described bodily. what is ucyate.gentleness-that which is called kindliness of spirit. bhava-samsuddhih. tapah. manasam. they speak of it as born of sattva.] atma-vinigrahah. [Or. this is the distinction-. reticence-since even the control of speech follows from the control of mind. and also not entertaining any evil thought towards anybody.] a certain condition of the mind resulting in calmness of the face. maunam. from everything. therefore the cause is implied by the effect. withdrawal of the mind-withdrawal of the mind in a general way. mental. purity of heart.

for earning a 676 . satkara-mana-pujartham. uncertain and transitory. threefold-based on three factors. which is being discussed. who are self-controlled. the noble people paricaksate. and also ostentatiously. trividham. sraddhaya.Swami Gambhirananda 17. with the highest. that. speak of it. naraih. faith. tapah.-that is spoken of as born of rajas. by people.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . who do not hanker after results.17 When tat. with supreme. aphalaakanksibhih. which is kriyate. and yuktaih.who are devoid of desire for results. by its performers. 17. undertaken. undertaken. paraya. is taptam. austerity. being honoured and worshipped.Swami Gambhirananda 17. practised. that. belief in God and the other world.18 Yat.18 That austerity which is undertaken for earning a name. as sattvikam. belonging to this world. tapah.-that austerity which is of this kind. austerity. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . born of sattva.

that.. by causing pain to oneself. 17.e. belonging to this world. etc.] calam. austerity. born of rajas. is spoken of. feeding. for these-. which is kriyate. va.) for being spoken of thus: 'This Brahmana. salutation. that. tat. ostentatiously. tapah. as rajasam. atmanah. parasya. or. under-taken. or for the destruction of others-that is said to be born of tamas. [i. being honoured and worshipped-for earning a name. for being worshipped with washing of feet. and also. who is given to austerity.19 That austerity which is undertaken with a foolish intent. (that) austerity which is performed dambhena. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .e. tat. with a conviction arising out of nondiscriminating. (i. etc. transitory. to oneself (to one's body etc. is 677 .19 Yat. utsadanartham. causing pain.. proktam. pidaya. of another. that. adoration. is pious'. for the destruction. mudha-grahena.name.). uncertain-its result being unpredictable. with a foolish intent. ca eva. and adhruvam.Swami Gambhirananda 17. for being honoured by (others') standing up respectfully. iha. yielding fruits only in this world.

expecting reciprocation-with this purpose in view: 'In time.22 The gift which is made at an improper place and time. that.udahrtam. pariklistam. which. is made. va punah. born of rajas. uddisya. 17. gift. diyate. given. with reluctance.21 But the gift which is given expecting reciprocation. said to be. its phalam. he will render service in return'-. is declared to be born of tamas. grudgingly.Swami Gambhirananda 17. without proper treatment and with disdain. considered to be..that is considered to be born of rajas. born of tamas. with a desire for. Now the classification of charity is being spoken of: 17. with a desire for its result. yat. prati-upakara-artham. 'To me will accrue some unseen reward of this gift'-. and which is given grudgingly. tat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . is smrtam. but. rajasam. 678 . an austerity tamasam.21 Tu. or again. and to undeserving persons. the danam. resultthat. and which is diyate. or again.

. which. and apatrebhyah. 6. This advice is being imparted for making sacrifices. that. 'Tattvamasi. and 'Sadeva somya idamagra asit. with disdain.1)-in these texts Brahman is indicated by the words Om. thieves and others.8. is given. diyate. tamasam. etc. etc. etc. Om is Brahman' (Tai.. worship. danam. and avajnatam. perfect: 17.]this is considered to be the threefold designation of Brahman. at an improper place and time-in an unholy place full of barbarians and impure things. gift. sat. washing of feet.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . yat.22 Tat. to undeserving persons. adesakale. with insults to the recipient.7). without proper treatment. O amiable one' (Ch. Thou art That' (Ch. to fools. This was Existence alone in the beginning. austerities. without sweet words. born of tamas. The Brahmanas and Vedas and the 679 . declared to be. Existence': 'Om iti brahma. gifts.23 'Om-tat-sat' ['Om. 6. That. at an improper time: which is not well known as productive of merit.-. without such specially as Sankranti etc.8. are proper-asatkrtam.Swami Gambhirananda 17.and even when the place etc.1). 1. is udahrtam.2. tat.

acts of sacrifice.23 Om. sat-iti.24 Therefore. tat. The Brahmanas and the Vedas and the sacrifices were vihitah. sat. pura. considered. by that threefold designation. always commence after uttering the syllable Om. regarded. threefold. mention by name-nirdesa is that by which a thing is specified. 17. charity and austerity as prescribed through injunctions.]-this is said by way of eulogizing the designation. tat.Swami Gambhirananda 17. is smrtah.Swami Gambhirananda 680 . by the knowers of Brahman. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .. then this is corrected by uttering one of these words-Om. this. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . of those who study and expound the Vedas. tena.sacrifices were ordanined by that in the days of yore. to be the trividhah.] created. nirdesah. designation. ordainded. in the Vedanta. in the days of yore [In the beginning of creation by Prajapati. brahmanah. of Brahman. [When some defect arises in sacrifice etc.

commence. om iti. moksa-kanksibhih.Swami Gambhirananda 17. by persons aspiring for Liberation. kriyah. yajna-dana-tapah. results of actions. as ordained by the scriptures. yajna-tapah-kriyah. of those who study and expound the Vedas. ca. acts of sacrifice.. the syllable Om. 17. the various.25 After uttering the word tat. after uttering. charity and austerity-acts in the form of sacrifice etc. brahma-vadinam. pravartante.. vividhah. satatam. anabhisandhaya. kriyante. without regard for. acts of sacrifice and austerity as also the various acts of charity are performed without regard for results by persons aspiring for Liberation. which is a name of Brahman. as also. are performed. etc. such as gift of land. therefore. udahrtya. acts of sacrifice and austerity. vidhana-uktah. acts of charity. always. gold. dana-kriyah. phalam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .17.24 Tasmat.25 After (uttering) the word tat. as prescribed through injunctions. The use of the words Om 681 .

the use of the word sat is bieng presently stated: 17. prayujyate.26 This word sat is used with regard to (something) coming into being and with regard to (someone) becoming good. so also sadhu-bhave. prasaste karmani.and tat has been stated. O Son of Prtha. is uttered. So also. 682 . a name of Brahman.Swami Gambhirananda 17. with regard to an auspicious rite. word sat. sadbhave. yujyate (-which is the same as prayujyate-). is used. so also. word sat. is used. sat iti. Thereafter. with regard to that. the sat-sabdah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . such as mirage etc. this.26 Etat. Tatha. O son of Prtha. with regard to (something) coming into being-with regard to coming into existence of something that was not there. with regard to (someone) becoming good-sadhu-bhava means coming to possess good conduct by an evil person who had bad behaviour. the word sat is used with regard to an auspicious rite. as for instance the birth of a son who was not there before.

).28 O son of Prtha. verily. in austerity. etc.Swami Gambhirananda 17. meant for these-for sacrifice. the acts of sacrifice. in charity. in sacrifice. austerity and charity is spoken of as sat. in the act of sacrifice. verily. sat iti. since in all cases everything is performed with a predominance of faith. for God. is eva.. as also whatever austerity is undertakne or whatever is done 683 . austerity. i. as sat (good). called as sat (good). charity and austerity. the karma. abhidhiyate. that ucyate.17. called.27 And sthitih. or for Him whose names are under discussion. even. steadfastness. sat iti. And eva.e.27 And the steadfastness in sacrifice. whatever is offered in sacrifice and given in charity. tad-arthiyam. in this way. the steadfastness that is tapasi. And even the action meant for these is. even when they are devoid of sattva and goodness. is spoken of. that is yajne. And as regards those (sacrifice etc. therefore17. become good and endued with sattva by he use of the three names of Brahman with faith. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . by learned persons. action. as sat. Thus. and the steadfastness that is dane.

is taptam. (performing sattvika) sacrifices) etc. pretya. iha. although involving great effort. is said to be of on avail. poured as oblation. all that ucyate.. who destroy any defect that might arise in sacrifice etc. [Thus it is established in this chapter that. nor here. performed without faith. e. only those shall attain to Liberation who steadfastly resort to sattva alone by partaking of sattvika food. whatever tapah. since it is outside th course of discipline leading to Me. done without faith. na ca tat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . by uttering the names of 684 . and. na. for producing (some) result. so also. austerity.g. faith. asat iti. And it is of no consequence after death. given in charity to Brahmanas. but are possessed of (either of the) three characterisitcs of sattva. nor even for any result. is said to be. whatever is krtam.28 O son of Prtha. praise. and dattam.without faith. because it is condemned by the wise. etc. (rajas) etc. Ca. it is of no consequence.Swami Gambhirananda 17. to te exclusion of rajasika and tamasika food etc.without.. offered in sacrifice. salutation. whatever is hutam. after death. among persons who are not at all versed in the scriptures.. of no avail.

and who have attained to the realization of Truth arising from one's being endowed with such disciplines as hearing and and thinking (sravana.] 685 . who have fully purified their intellect. manana) of.Brahman. and meditation (nididhyasana) on Brahman.

and Lord Vasudeva had killed him. of tyaga. Kesi was a demon who had assumed the form of a horse.O mighty-armed Hrsikesa. i. icchami. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . kesi-nisudana. to know. prthak. Therefore. the real meaning.- 686 . tyagasya. O slayer of (the demon) Kesi. severally. the meaning of the word tyaga.e. used in various places in the preceding chapters. ca. through their mutual distinctions. are not explicit in their implications.Swami Gambhirananda 18. i. The word sannyasa and tyaga. as also. Hence He is addressed by that name (Kesi-nisudana) by Arjuna. I want to know serverally the truth about sannyasa as also about tyaga. veditum.e. sannyasasya. i.1 O mighty-armed Hrsikesa.1 Arjuna said -. I want. the meaning of the word sannyasa. tattvam. in order to determine them for Arjuna who had put the question.Chapter 18 18. O slayer of (the demon) Kesi. the intrinsic nature.e. the truth. of sannyasa.

to be the nyasam. Objection: Well.The learned ones know sannyasa to be the giving up of actions done with a desire for reward. viduh.2 Some kavayah.2 The Blessed Lord said -. of actions. sannyasa. prahuh. The adepts call the abandonment of the results of all works as tyaga. sannyasam. as tyagam. learned ones. e. know.Swami Gambhirananda 18. Vicaksanah. kamyanam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .g. done with a desire for reward. abandonment of the results of all actions.the daily obligatory and the occasional (nitya and naimittika) that are performed. means the giving up of the results accruing to oneself from all actions. the meaning of the word sannyasa. Horse-sacrifice etc. Even if 'the giving up of actions for desired results' or 'the abandonment of results' be the intended meaning. karmanam. the learned ones. Sarva-karma-phala-tyagah. they do not imply distinct categories as do the words 'pot' and 'cloth'. tyaga. in either case the one meaning of the words sannyasa and tyaga amounts only to tyaga (giving up). giving up. speak of that. call. the adepts. the non-performance of what comes as a duty.18. as the meaning of the word tyaga. is it not 687 .

charity and austertiy should not be given up.). for the Lord will say. that the result of daily obligatory (nitya) duties accrue to those who are not sannyasins (monks).3 Some learned persons say that action. 18. '. 'The threefold results of actions-the undesirable. and also... and others (say) that the practice of sacrifice. Indeed. the Lord asserts in. should be given up. it is only in the case of sannyasins (monks) alone that there is no connection with the results of actions. beset with evil (as it is). English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .accrue after death to those who do not resort to tyaga (renunciation)' (abid. It is the intention of the Lord that the nitya-karmas (daily obligatory duties) also have results.that they say the daily obligatory (nitya) and the occasional (naimittika) rites and duties have no results at all? How is the giving up of their results spoken of-like the abandoning of a son of a barren woman?! Reply: This defect does not desire. the desirable and the mixed-accrue after death to those who do not resort to tyaga'.Swami Gambhirananda 688 . 'but never to those who resort to sannyasa (monks)' (12). by showing that.

tyajyam.3). beset with evil (as it is).3). it (action) is to be given up dosavat.through the Yoga of Action for the yogis' (3. the practice of sacrifice. becuase they are the cause of bondage. just as those who are qualified for rites and duties and who have their distinct steadfastness are being considered here in the chapter summarizing the entire scripture. but not with regard to the monks who are steadfast in Knowledge and have gone beyond the stages of life. These alternatives are with regard to only those who are qualified for action. all actions. action. that dosavat. just as defects such as attachment etc. prahuh. Ca and. in that very context. This discussion is not concerned with those who are held to be outside the scope of eligibility for action in the assertion (by the Lord). Objection: Well..-What is it?.3 Eke. some. are renounced. apare. should be given up even by those who are eligible for actions (rites and duties). (say) that yajana-danatapah-karma. let 689 . na tyajyam. others. Or.karma. learned ones. similarly. should not be given up. charity and auterity. subscribing to the views of the Sankhyas and others. though they have been dealt with earlier in '.. manisinah. 'The steadfastness in the Yoga of Knowledge by men of realization was spoken of by Me in the days of yore' (see 3.18. say.

because it is not logical that their renunciation should result from delusion and sorrow (cf. for it has been shown that desire etc. who are unelightened about the Self. 'I certainly do not do anything' (see 5.8).28). Reply: No. on account of which they should give up obligatory duties out of delusion. 7 and 8). for.. In fact. the men of renunciation in the real sense have been particularly pointed out in. are alone condemned as persons who. resort to renunciation. And this is done with a veiw to eulogizing the renunciation of the results of rites and duties by the unenlightened men of action.6). Therefore. '. they renounce with the conviction that 'action belongs to the organs' (see 3. The men of realization do not perceive in the Self the sorrows arising from physical torment. Therefore. and for whom renunciation is possible out of delusion and from fear of physical trouble. the mode of renunciation of an enlightened person was shown in. Besides. 'who has 690 .having given up all actions mentally' (5.even the men of realization who are steadfast in Knowledge be considered here. Nor do they perceive actions in the Self. they do not renounce action but of fear for physical trouble and pain. being possessed of tamas and rajas.. are attributes only of the field (body) (see 13.13). those others who are qualified for rites and duties.

it having been enjoined on Arjuna who was unenlightened and incapable of undertaking the various alternatives (paths) as 691 . 'From renunciation immediately (follows) Peace' (12. It is only the abandoning of the results of action which. '. content with anything. it is not sannyasa in the primary-sense-the renunciation of all actions.. for the next adducing the reason is meant for eulogy. by virtue of its being imbued with the quality of sattva. 19)..12). Just as. may it not be argued that the actions entirely' (11). steadyminded' (12. may it not be argued that the word sannyasa is certainly used in the primary sense because it is impossible to abandon all works? Reply: No. homeless.' 'who is silent.renounced ever undertaking.16. The Lord will further say. and also (while determining) the characteristics of one who has transcended the gunas (Chapter 14).which is the supreme consummation of Knowledge' (50). Therefore the monks steadfast in Knowledge are not intended to be spoken of here. is a mere eulogy of renunciation of the fruits of action. Objection: According to the reason shown in the text.. 'Since it is not possible for one who holds on to a body to give up actions entirely' (11). is spoken of as sannyasa in contrast to the renunciation of actions which is possessed of tamas etc.

For.. they do not come within the purview of the alternative veiws. which is characterized by renunciation of all actions. But the enlightened ones who have realized the supreme Truth are competent only for steadfastness in Knowledge. Therefore these alternative veiws regarding sannyasa and tyaga are concerned only with those who are qualified for rites and duties. No one can point an exception to the proposition that 'having given up all actions mentally. (the embodied man of self-control) continues happily.4 O the most excellent among the descendants of Bharata. Thus has this been pointed out by us in connection with the text. hear from Me the firm conclusion regarding that tyaga..21) as also in the beginning of the third chapter. 'Since it is not possible for one who holds on to a body to give up actions entirely' (11). meant for eulogizing the renunciation of the resorts of all actions.' (2. 18.. O greatest among men.13). tyaga has been clearly declared to be of three kinds..he who knows this One as indestructible.without doing or causing (others) to do anything at all' (see 5. so also is this sentence.stated earlier. not for anything else. '.. Hence.. 692 .

under the classes of tamasa (those based on tamas [Tamas: darkness. Since it is difficult to comprehend this idea. for. hear. in the case of one who is unenlightened and who is qualified for rites and duties-but not in the case of one who has realized the supreme Goal-.45. srnu. O greatest among men. and note under 2. niscayam.4 Bharata-sattama. The Lord has used the word tyaga with the idea that the (primary) meanings of tyaga and sannyasa are verily the same. has been clearly declared. to be trividhah. Hi. mental darkness. me. tyaga. Also see 14. threefold. of three kinds.Swami Gambhirananda 18. samprakirtitah.]. the firm conclusion. from My statement.8. from Me. regarding these alternative veiws on tyaga and sannyasa as they have been shown.-Tr. tyagah. purusavyaghra.therefore no one else is capable of speaking the truth in this connection. understand. ignorance.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . etc. has been distinctly spoken of in the scriptures. one of the three qualities of everything in Nature. O the most excellent among the descendants of Bharata. regarding that tyaga. 693 . that the primary meanings of the words tyaga and sannyasa can be threefold under the classification based on tamas etc. tatra tyage.

tat. listen to the firm conclusion of the Lord with regard to the supreme Truth as revealved by the scriptures. karyam. again. pavanani. verily. is this firm conclusion? In reply the Lord says: 18.Hence.5 Yajna-dana-tapah-karma. manisinam. it is surely to be undertaken. is not to be abandoned. austerity. Why? Yajnah. of those who do not seek results for themselves. surely. Sacrifice. charity and austerity is not to be abandoned. the practice of sacrifice.e.6 But even these actions have to be undertaken by renouncing attachment and (hankering for) results. i. This is My firm and best conclusion. 18.5 The practice of sacrifice. to be undertaken. is eva. of the wise. charity and austerity-this threefold practice. sacrifice.Swami Gambhirananda 18. 694 . the causes of sanctification. charity and austerity are verily the purifiers of the wise. and tapah. are eva. na tyajyam. danam. the purifiers. charity. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Which. it. O Parhta.

this. have to be undertaken by a seeker of Liberation. kartavyani. is me. have to be undertaken. but. matam. 'hear from Me the firm conclusion regarding that (tyaga)' (4) and also adduced the reason that they are purifiers. This is the firm and best conclusion'. and uttamam. Having promised. 'by giving up 695 . best. this sentence does not introduce a fresh topic. by renouncing. niscitam. api. sangam. which have been spoken of as purifiers.6 Tu. viz sacrifice. The implication of the word api (even) is: 'Even these acts. tyaktva. charity and austerity. the utterance. these. 'Even these actions have to be performed. therefore (in their case) it is illogical to say. For it stands to reason that the phrase 'even these' refers to some immediate topic under discussion.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . attachment to them. Iti.Swami Gambhirananda 18. Others explain (thus): Since the nityakarmas have no results. and by giving up (hankering for) their phalani. conculsion. even. results. is only by way of concluding the promised subjectmatter. My. which are causes of bondage to one who has attachment and who hankers after their results. firm.' But the phrase 'even these' is not used in relation to other acts. actions. karmani. etani.

45). how can there be any association with actions done for desired results? Moreover. on the strength of the texts [Which support the two earlier arguments. '. The meaning of the phrase etani api (even these) is that. 'sacrifice. 'even these rites and duties.. who are drinkers of Soma. and in.21).' that even the nityakarmas have results. and since.. 'the Vedas have the three qualities as their object' (2. which are undertaken for desired results and are different from the nityakarmas. 'Those who are versed in the Vedas. it has been definitely stated that actions done for desired results are causes of 696 . '. have to be undertaken... since they have been denigrated in.9).20).(pray for the heavenly goal by worshipping) Me' (9.].. For a seeker of Liberation who wants to give up even the nityakarmas from fear of their being causes of bondage. and 'they enter into the human world on the exhaustion of their merit' (9. What to speak of the nityakarmas like sacrifice... the phrase etani api cannot apply to actions done for desired results (kamyakarmas). charity and austerity are verily the purifiers. charity and austerity!' (Reply:) This is wrong since it has been established by the text.indeed.by actions other than that action meant for God' (3. actions is quite inferior' (2.49).attachment and (hankering for their) results'.

through delusion. Parityagah. Giving up that through delusion is declared to be based on tamas. 697 . niyatasya tu karmanah. Besides. because what is desired is the purification of unenlightened persons. the abandoning.7 The abandoning of daily obligatory acts (nityakamas) is not justifiable. Niyata is that duty which must be performed. Therefore the giving up of that through delusion is declared to be based on tamas. is declared. by the seeker of Liberation who is as yet unenlightened and is fit for rites and duites. based on tamas. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .7 Therefore. of that. That an act is niyata (obligatory) and it is relinquished is contradictory. through ignorance. na apapadyate. sannyasah.Swami Gambhirananda 18. of the daily obligatory duty. parikirtitah. giving up. is not justifiable. tasya.bondage. for delusion is tamas. 18. and also because they are far removed from the context. mohat. of the daily obligatory acts. to be tamasah.

na labhet (shuld rather be labhate). kuhkham.Swami Gambhirananda 18. having resorted. by giving up attachment and the result as well. merely. from fear of physical suffering.-that renunciation is considered to be based on sattva. Which. which follows from renunciation of all actions as a consequence of Illumination. eva. karma. action. out of fear of bodily pain. is the renunciation based on sattva? 18. tyaga-phalam. will surely not acquire the fruits of renunciation. will eva. to renunciation. [As being impossible to accomplish. rajasam. tyagam.8 Whatever action one may relinquish merely as being painful.] kayaklesa-bhayat. O Arjuna. sah.9 Whatever obligatory duty is performed just because it is a bounden duty. he. 698 . one may relinquish. surely. again. not acquire. from fear of physical suffering.18. whatever.8 Yat. the result called Liberation. arising from rajas. krtva. iti. he. based on rajas. as being. fruits of renunciation. having resorted to renunciation based on rajas. tyajet. painful. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

Why is the relinquishment of 699 . Hence it has been well said. accomplished. Or. 'by giving up the result'. kriyate. sah. giving up of attachment and (hankering for) the resutls of daily obligatory duties. a bounden duty. just because.9 Yat. the result. is considered. As to this. it is karyam. and phalam. sangam. under discussion? As regards this. based on sattva. iti eva. tyagah. the Lord aborts even that imagination by saying. whatever. We said that the Lord's utterance is proof of the fruitfulness of daily obligatory duties. tyaktva. 'by giving up attachment and the result'. arising from sattva.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . matah. is not the threefold relinquishment of actions. that. niyatam karma. by giving up.Swami Gambhirananda 18. Objection: Well. as well. attachment. to be sattvikah. even if the niyakarmas be understood (from the Lord's worlds) to be fruitless. still the ignorant man does certainly imagine that the nityakarmas (daily obligatory duites) when performed produce for oneself a result either in the form of purification of the mind or avoidance of evil. ca eva. the renunciation based on tamas and rajas have been stated. daily obligatory duty. O Arjuna. is performed. renunciation. also called sannyasa.

Vyakarana (Grammar). the third is a Ksatirya!' Reply: This is not wrong. Of them two are versed in the six auxiliaries [The six auxiliaries are: Siksa (Phonetics). and refined by the nitya-karmas. While on this subject. who performs the nityakarmas by giving up attachment and hankering for results. there is. 'Three Brahmanas have come. by condemning 'renunciation of actions' on account of its being based on rajas and tamas. When it is pure and tranquil.] of the Vedas. indeed. of hankering for results. Chandas (Meter. Since.' The internal organ of a person who is qualified for rites and duties. the 'renunciation of desire for results of actions' is being praised on account of its being based on sattva. for this is meant as a eulogy on the basis of the common factor of renunciation. becomes pure on account of its being untainted by attachment to results etc.-Tr. 'that renunciation is considered to be based on sattva. Nirukta (Etymology). by saying. and Jyotisa (Astronomy).attachment and (desire for their) results spoken of here as the third? This is like somebody saying. for that very person whose 700 . Prosody). it becomes capable of contemplating on the Self. the similarity of the fact of renunciation. Kalpa (Code of Rituals and Sacrifices). Between renunciation of actions and renunciation.

because he finds no purpose in it. again. action. he does not hate. who is wise and freed from doubts. befitting activity. Who. daily obligatory duties. therefore the Lord says: 18. is he? Tyagi. does not hate unbefitting action.10 Na devesti.internal organ has become purified by performing the nityakarmas and who has become ready for the knowledge of the Self. That is to say. nor does he become attached to befitting activity. the process by which he can become steadfast in it has to be stated. by thinking that this is the cause of Liberation by virtue of its being the cause of purification of the mind. he does not entertain any liking even for it. karma. unbefitting. he does not become attached to.Swami Gambhirananda 18. akusalam.10 The man of renunciation who has become imbued with sattva. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 'What is the usefulness of this which is a cause of transmigration through fresh embodiment?' Na anusajjate. rites and duties meant for desired results-with the idea. who 701 . rise of Knowledge and steadfastness in it. the man of renunciation. kusale.

. Again. i. characterized as knowledge of the Self. '. it is being stated as to when that person does not hate an unbefitting act and does not become attached to a befitting activity: When he has become sattva-samavistah. and hence medhavi. he. which is the means to the knowledge that discriminates between the Self and the not-Self. The person competent (for rites and duties) who. wise-endowed with intelligence (medha). freed from doubts-one whose doubts created by ignorance have been sundered.having given up all actions mentally. 702 . intuitive experience. He is a tyagi who performs nityakarmas by relinquishing attachment to those acts and (their) results.e. having gradually become purified in mind through the practice of Karma-yoga in the way described above. sattva.. chinnasamsayah. which is devoid of modifications like birth etc. imbued with sattva. has realized as his own Self the actionless Self... when he is filled with.has become so by having given up attachment and rewards of action in the manner stated above. one who is freed from doubts by his firm conviction that nothing but abiding in the ture nature of the Self is the supreme means to the highest Good. possessed of. one possessed of that is medhavai (wise)-. and owing to the very fact of being wise.

5.13). for the unenlightened person-who. which is characterized as 'actionlessness'. the purpose of the aforesaid Karma-yoga has been stated through the present verse.remaining at without doing or causing (others) to do anything at all' (cf. holds on to the body owing to the erroneous conception that the body is the Self. since. attains steadfastness in Knowledge.' because of the persistence of his idea that the Self is the agent-it is not possible to renounce actions totally. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and who has the firm conviction. In this way. In order to point out this idea the Lord says: 18. therefore he has competence only for performing enjoined duties by giving up fruits of actions. 'I am the agent. on the other hand. for one who holds on to a bodyone who maintains (bibharti) a body (deha) is 703 .11 Deha-bhrta. while being qualified (for rites and duties). therefore he.11 Since it is not possible for one who holds on to a body to give up actions entirely. who renounces results on actions is called a man of renunciation. But he is not to renounce them (actions). On the other hand.Swami Gambhirananda 18.

Hence. relinquishes only the hankering for the results of actions while performing the nityakarmas. and who is devoid of the idea that the body is the Self. and the mixed-accrues 704 . 'He who knows this One is indestructible. Again. sakyam. asesatah. tyaktum. it is na. yah. tu. who does not hold on to the body. a man of renunciation-even though he continues to be a man of rites and duties. renounce. totally.called a deha-bhrt. called. to give up. for that unenlightened person who holds on to the body.' etc. he. for he has been excluded from the eligibility for agentship by such texts as. renounces results of actions. since. what is that purpose which is accomplished through renunciation of all actions? This is being stated: 18. possible.12 The threefold results of actions-the undesirable. karma-phala-tyagi. who. he.. actions. Therefore total renunciation of actions is possible only for one who has realized the supreme Truth. not. entirely. This is said by way of eulogy. the desirable. therefore the ignorant person who is competent (for rites and duties).. but not a so a man of discrimination. on the other hand. tyagi iti. is abhidhiyate. sah. One who has selfindentification with the body is called a deha-bhrt. karmani.

the undesirable. results. having a mixture of the desirable and the undesirable. the men with rites and duties. the desirable. threefold-of three kinds. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . pretya.after death to those who do not resort to renunciation. consisting in (birth in) hell.. consisting in (birth as) gods and others. istam.Swami Gambhirananda 18. a source of great delusion and appearing as though close to the indwelling Self. to those who do not resort to renunciation. bhavati. of actions characterized as the righteous and the unritheous. who are not men of renunciation in the truest sense. accrues. after the fall of the body. phalam. karmanah. etc. the mixed. it is phalgu (unsubstantial). The derivative sense of the word phala (pha-la) is this: On accunt of being accomplished through the operation of diverse external accessories. and a result of ignorance. but never to those who resort to monasticism. after death. atyaginam. (among) animals. to the unilllumined. and misram. anistam.these results that are of these kinds. comparable to the charm cast by jugglery.12 These trividham. consisting in (birht as) human beings. 705 .

action.). never.and as a consequence it undergoes layam (disappearance). 706 . because action. learned from Me these [Another reading is etani. Therefore it is only for those who have realized the supreme Truth that it is possible to become a monk who renounces actions totally. sannyasinam. to the class of monks called paramahamsas who remain steadfast in Knowledge alone. But the renunciation of all actions is not possible for an unenlightened person who perceives the locus (the body etc.-Tr. Tu.] five factors for the accomplishment of all actions.13 O mighty-armed one. For. to those who resort tomonasticism for the sake of the highest Reality. This is the meaning. na kvacit. it cannot be that those who are devoted wholly to steadfastness in complete enlightenment do not dig out the seed of transmigration. accessories and results are superimmpositions on the Self through ignorance. which have been spoken of in the Vedanta in which actions terminate. This the Lord shows in the following verses: 18. (The result that is of this kind accrues to those who do not resort to renunciation). but. agentship and accessories as the Self.

proktani. in which actions terminate. five. i. '.13 O mighty-armed one.46).33). In the texts. me. and 'O son of Prtha. imani. sarva-karmanam. the Lord praises those accessories in the succeeding verses as fit for being known-. these. reflection and meditation' are referred to as the subject-matters. siddhaye. That in which occurs the culmination (anta) of that krtam is krtantam. from Me. 'Thou art That'.. accessories.. the termination of actions. Krtam mean action. and also 'hearing. all actions in their totality culminate in Knowledge' (4. which are going to be statedfor drawing the attention of his (Arjuna's) mind and for showing the difference among these categories [Categories: locus (body) etc]. panca. nibodha.Swami Gambhirananda 18. of all actions. learn. which have been spoken of. and That means Brahman. for the accomplishment.e. factors. sankhye. karanani. the Lord 707 . the word Thou means the individual Self. krtante.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . The comprehension of their unity.] to be known are fully (samyak) stated (khyayante)-. Krtante qualifies that very word (Vedanta).as much utility as a man has in a well' (2. in Vedanta-sankhya is that scripture where the subject-matters [In the sentence.

] who has assumed the characteristics of the limiting adjuncts.. due to which it appears to possess their characteristics and become identified with them. and.' Which are they? This is being answered: 18. as also karta. organ of excertion and that of generation). speech. the body. knowledge. the divine is here the fifth. nose. tongue and skin).. tatha. the locus. the basis.. feet. twelve [The five organs of knowledge (eyes. happiness. karanam. organs. etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the many and distinct activities. the enjoyer [The individual Self which has intelligence etc.14 Adhisthanam. ears. the five organs of actions (hands.which have been spoken of in that Vedanta where actions culminate and which is meant for the knowledge of the Self.Swami Gambhirananda 18. Hence (it is said): '. the different kinds of. which. which is the seat. the agent. sorrow. the ears etc.shows the cessation of all actions when the knowledge of the Self dawns. of the manifestation of desire. 708 . hatred.14 The locus as also the agent. the different kinds of organs. as its limiting adjuncts. prthak vidham.

action.the mind and the intellect. with the body. whch are consequent on the fact of living (i.e. the Sun and the others who are the presiding deities of the eye etc. here. cesta. and hence they are understood by the very.] in number. not conforming to the scriptures. and even such activities like closing the eyes etc. and. use of the 709 . speech and mind. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . narah. the fifth-completing the five. conforming to the scriptures. and prthak. is atra. distinct. inhalation. are of different kinds for the experience of sound etc. unrighteous. with these three-sarira-vanmanobhih. viparitam. be it nyayyam. va. a man. the divine. rigtheous. just. its reverse.. instinctive acts)-they also are certainly the result of righteous and unrighteous acts done in earlier lives. prarabhate.. activities connected with air-exhalation.. in relation to these four.15 Yat.Swami Gambhirananda 18. i. 18. daivam. or. pancamam. performs. karma. whatever. the vividhah. speech and mind. etc. be it just or its reverse. of it these five are the cuases. ca eva.e. many.15 Whatever action a man performs with the body.

anyone.Swami Gambhirananda 710 . ete. Even at the time of reaping the fruits (of actions). causes. five. that man does not perceive (properly). perceives the absolute Self as the agent. '. who. of it.16 This being the case.words 'just and its reverse'-. 18. are divided into three groups and spoken of in.. are not the locus etc.performs with the body. the cause of all actions? Why is it said. etc. as mentioned. they are experienced mainly through these (three).] . and has a perverted intellect.' etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . these. All actions described as 'enjoined' or 'prohibited' are mainly based on the three. panca.) [Seeing etc. 'performs with the body. are accomplished by the eye etc. body etc. owing to the imperfection of his intellect. hearing. are the hetavah.. tasya. there is no contradiction with the assertion that the five are the causes.. which are characteristics of life and are subsidiaries to these (body etc. which are part and parcel of the body etc. of all activities without exception. speech and mind'? Reply: This fault does not arise.. Objection: Well. Hence. Seeing.

pasyati. Even the person who.. Hence. perceives. and by reasoning-. absolute Self as the agent. Tatra evam sati. therefore he is said to have a perverted intellect. 711 . agent-thinking. the absolute. why?-akrta-buddhitvat.16 Tatra is used for connecting with the topic under discussion.-Tr. he. This is the meaning. man of perverted intellect. but since a person thinks that the Self is the agent. pasyati. perceive (properly) either the truth about the Self or about actions. atmanam. tu. pure. na. 'I myself am the agent of the actions being done by them'. Therefore he is a durmatih. owing to his having an imperfect intellect. in the sense that his intellect is contemptible. does not. owing to the imperfection of his intellect.18. looks upon the distinct [Ast. as the kartaram. is surely of imperfect intellect. believing in the Self as distinct from the body etc. anyone. when actions are thus accomplished by the five causes mentioned above.]. that man. kevalam. this being the case. an unenlightened person..-this portion has to be connected with 'perverted intellect' by way of causality [Actions are done by the body etc. Self. omits anyam (distinct). who. too. sah.]yah. as a consequence of imagining the Self as identified with them. owing to his intellect not having been refined by the instructions of Vedanta and the teachers. perverse.

nor does he become bound-even by killing these creatures! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .corrupted.e. or like one thinking the moon to be moving when (actually) the clouds are moving. (14). He does not perceive even while seeing-like the man suffering from Timira seeing many moons. is the man of right intellect who perceives correctly? This is being answered: 18. are verily the agents of all actions. But I am the 712 . thinking oneself to be moving when others (the bearers) are moving. in whom does not occur the notion in the form.g. he who sees thus: 'These five. 'I am the agent'. i. whose intellect is not tainted. Who. the person whose intellect is refined by the instructions of the scriptures and the teachers. who has na..Swami Gambhirananda 18. ahankrtah bhavah. or like the one seated on some conveyance (e. not. viz locus etc. imagined in the Self through ignorance. the feeling of egoism. and reason. not I.17 He who has not the feeling of egoism. again. and the cause of repeatedly undergoing births and deaths.17 Yasya. he who. he does not kill. palanquin).

the internal organ. Objection. kill-he does not perform the act of killing.absolute. hatva. superior to the (other) superior immutable (Maya)" (Mu. is na. iman. as a result. sah he.e. Objection: Even if this be a eulogy. 'I have done this. Is it not that the Self 713 . the Lord says. 2. nor even does he become connected with its result. by killing.1. 'Without vita force. even. the fruit of an unrighteous action. unchanging witness of their functions. all living beings. which is the limiting adunct of the Self. I shall enter into hell'. i.1)'. become bound. whose. for this becomes logical from the ordinary and the enlightened points of view. nor does he become bound'. he has a good intellect and he perceives (rightly). by identifying the body with the Self. Api. lokan. 'even by killing he does not kill'? Reply: This defect does not arise. pure. lipyate. nor does he nibadhyate. by taking His stand on the supreme Truth as explained above (the Lord says). By adopting the empirical point of view (which consists in thinking). and. tainted. buddhih. whose intellect does not become thus tainted. 'I am the slayer'. 'even by killing'. is it not contradictory to say. creatures. intellect. yasya. does not hanti. these. not. Thus both these surely become reasonable. without mind. does not become regretful thinking. 'he does not kill.

the Smrtis and logic. And the changelessness of the Self is well known from the Upanisads. 'Actions are being done by the gunas themselves' (see 3.. 'It thinks. in the Gita itself this has been established more than once in such texts as.This is unchangeable' (2. the Self being changeless by nature.. And from the standpoint of reason also. because. agentship through combination is not logical. the word kevalam is merely a reiteration of an established fact.31). as it were' (Br. as it were. there is no possiblity of Its becoming united with the locus etc. and shakes.. 4. for the changeless Self there can be no combination with anything whatsoever. Even if mutability (of the Self) be 714 . 'this . Hence. As to that.certainly does act in combination with the locus etc.. independent of others and changeless.7)..3. For it is only a changeful entity that can possibly be united with another.27). 'the absolute Self as the agent' (16)? Reply: There is not such fault.supreme Self does not act.although existing in the body' (13. the royal path is to hold that the true nature of the Self is that It is partless. which conclusion follows from the use of the word kevala (absolute) in the text. 'It is said that.. and in the Upanisads also in such texts as..25). the absoluteness of the Self being natural. But. Therefore. or come to have agentship through combination.

'This One does not kill.19). or as surface or dirt attributed through ignorance to the sky by foolish people is not of the sky. which adduce the reason for this.because of the absence of the thought 'I am doing'. It should have a change that is Its own. [Some translate this portion thus: '.] After having declared. also are verily their own. As the quality of silver is not of nacre.. having stated the immutability of the Self through such texts as. similarly.. and not of the Self.-Tr.in the absence of egotism and of all taint in the mind'.. becuase of the absence of his being tainted by the idea that actions are done by himself.. that is not his. cannot be attributed to the agency of the Self. Hence it has been well said that the enlightened person 'does not kill. or. the changes in the locus etc. and also due to the taintlessness of the mind'.21)-that the enlightened man has no eligibility for rites and duties. 'Never is this One born' (2. an action done by someone else cannot be imputed to another by whom it has not been done! As for what is imputed (on somebody) through ignorance.. 'he who knows this One as indestructible' (2. nor is It killed' (2. and having deliberated in various places on that (cessation) 715 . having briefly stated at the commencement of the Scripture-in. '.20) .accepted. nor is he bound'. etc. Indeed. The functions of the locus etc.

Thus.' If this be so.. the Lord. the object and the subject. all actions resulting from ignorance become abandoned (by them). in various places by dealing with it topically. viz the undesirable etc. the object the knowledge and the knower-this is the threefold inducement to action. this is how the purport of the scripture Gita has been summed up. nor does he become bound. The comprehension of actions comes under three heads-the instruments. understood after deliberation by the learned ones possessing a sharp intellect. now is being stated what promts actions: 18. because of the illogicality of their entertaining the idea of being embodied. then it becomes established that the three kinds of results of actions.which has been mooted in the middle (of the Scripture). In order that this which is the essence of the teachings of all the Vedas should be. it becomes inevitable that the results do accrue to others. do not accrue to the monks. And hence.18 Knowledge. since it is reasonable that. as a consequence of a reversal of this. Thereafter. by way of summarizing the purport of the Scripture. it has been explained by us in accordance with the scriptures and reasoning. 716 . concludes here by saying that the enlightened person 'does not kill.

Swami Gambhirananda 18. the comprehension [It is well know that actions are based on the threeinstrument etc. viz instrument etc. threefold. mind and body become comprehended under the three. trividhah.-thus. three heads.. viz knowledge etc. the experiencer.] are possible. After that. jnana means knowledge concerning all things in general-): so also jneyam. it is when the three. iti. 717 . This is what is being stated: Karma-sangrahah. For. a product of ignorance. rejection or indifference.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . what are initiated by the five. the object of knowledge (-that also is a reference to all objects in general-). three classes. viz locus etc. karmacodana. the knower. similarly.18 Jnanam.] of actions. who partakes of the nature of the limiting adjuncts. this tripartite group formed by these is the trividha. inducer of all actions in general.. and are grouped in three ways according to the differences of their being based on speech. knowledge (-being derived in the sense of 'that through which something is known'. inducement ot action. combine that commencement of all actions meant either for acceptance or rejection [Acceptance. comes under. viz karanam. parijnata.

Indeed. rajas and tamas. Hear about them also as they are. who employs the instrument etc.19 Knowledge.)..e. Hence is this 'threefold comprehension of action'.the instrument (-derived in the sense of that through which anything is done-). the object (-derivatively meaning that which is most cherished by the subject and is achieved through an act-). the external (organs) (ear etc. action becomes included in these three. action and agent are stated in the teaching about the gunas to be only of three kinds according to the differences of the gunas. Sangrahah is derived thus: that in which something is comprehended. i.) and the internal (organs) (intellect etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the subject (agent). Hence it is begun: 18. karma. and karta. instrument and result are all constituted by the gunas. it becomes necessary to state the three fold variety in them based on the differences among the gunas. Now then. The comprehension of action (karma) is karma-sangrahah. viz sattva.Swami Gambhirananda 718 . since action. who partakes of the nature of the limiting adjuncts.

i. as they are. guna-sankhyane.e. by way of showing that they have no classification other than that based on the gunas-). is concerned. are stated. api. of three kinds. in the philosophy of Kapila. though it is contradictory so far as the non-duality of the supreme Reality. about them. and karta. according to the differences of sattva etc. guna-bhedatah. also. yathavat. hear. Those followers of Kapila are acknoweldge authorities in the ascertainment of the functions of the gunas and their derivatives. tani. too. knowledge. Hear about knowledge etc. the accomplisher of actions. Therefore there is no contradiction. procyate. that scripture. which is defined as 'that which is most cheirshed by the subject'. in the teaching about the gunas. Even that philosophy teaching about the gunas is certainly vaild so far as it concerns the experiencer of the gunas. action-not the objective case in the technical sense. as established by reason and as propounded in the scriptures. The idea is . karma. and all their diversities created by the differences of the gunas. Srnu.19 Jnanam. to be eva. Brahman. is being referred to by way of eulogy of the subjectmatter going to be spoken of. 'Concentrate your mind on the subject going to be 719 .18. agent. tridha. according to the differences of the gunas. only (-only is used for emphasis. Hence.

Being 720 .e. eternal and immutable. to be sattvikam.Swami Gambhirananda 18. knowledge. Entity-the word bhava is used to imply an entity-. in all the deversified things. undivided.' And now the threefold classification of knowledge is being stated: 18. jnanam. vibhaktesu.20 Viddhi. yena. tat. undecaying-that which does not undergo mutation either in itself or by the mutation of its qualities-' i. avyayam. in the different bodies. bhavam. in all things begining from the Unmanifest to the unmoving things. realization of the Self as non-dual. undivided Entity in all the diversified things. iksate.20 Know that knowledge to be originating from sattva through which one sees a single. complete realization. undecaying. and through which knowledge one sees that Entity to be avibhaktam. sarvabhutesu. originating from sattva. know. in all things. undivided. one sees. like Space.taught. ekam. that. i. a single. the single Reality which is the Self. in every body. The idea is: that Reality which is the Self remains.e. through which knowledge. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

22 But that (knowledge) is said to be born of tamas which is confined to one form as though it 721 . originating from rajas.'-. knowledge. viddhi.. those that are the dualistic philosophies are incomplete. tat. amidst all things. apprehends-since knowledge cannot be an agent of hends-since knowledge cannot be an agent of action. 18. nana-bhavan..]. to be rajasam. knowledge. apprehends the different entities of various kinds as distinct [As possessing distinct selves.based on rajas and tamas.Swami Gambhirananda 18. as distinct. vetti. i. prthagvidhan.. 18. as separate in each body. jnanam. and hence are not by themselves adequate for the eradication of worldly existence.21 Tu. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the different entities. but. which.through which one apprehends. amidst all things. those possessing diverse characteristics and different from oneself. 'that.e. prthakrvena. sarvesu bhutesu. that. of various kinds.21 But know that knowledge to be originating from rajas which.. therefore the meaning implied is.. yat. know.

'-as the naked Jainas hold that the soul conforms to and has the size of the body. saktam. This kind of knowledge is indeed found in non-discriminating creatures in whom 722 . not concern with truth and triivial. from. said to be. yat. tamasam.. that knowledge. truth. to one. that without this is . which is. thinking. not concerned with truth-tattvartha. means some-thing just as it is. there is nothing beyond it. as though it comprehended everything. on account of the very fact of its being irrational.22 But tat. karye. trivial. because it is concerned with trifles or is productive of little result. remaining confined thus to one form. 'The Self. to one body or to an external image etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . is udahrtam. confined.were all. bereft of logic. is only this much. as though it were all. or (as others hold) that God is merely a stone or wood-.Swami Gambhirananda 18. ahaitukam. born of tamas. ekasmin. that (knowledge) which has this (truth) as its object of comprehension is tattvarthavat. a-tattvarthavat-. which is irrational. which is irrational. atattvarthavat. and which. or God. krtsnavat. is alpam.

aphala-prepsuna. sattvikam.23 The daily obligatory action which is performed without attachment and without likes or dislikes by one who does not hanker for rewards. is said to be.tamas predominates. which. Now is being stated the threehold division of action: 18. by an agent who is the opposite of one who is desirous of the fruits of action. that (action). the daily obligatory. sanga-rahitam. born of sattva. karma. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . without likes or dislikes. yat.Swami Gambhirananda 723 . without attachment. action. and which is highly strenuous. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 18. 18. performed. tat. that is said to be born of sattva. by one who does not hanker for rewards. araga-dvesatah. is krtam.23 Niyatam. ucyate.24 But that action is said to be born of rajas which is done by one desirous of results or by one who is egotistic.

va. the agent is one who has not realized the Self and is possessed of egoism. (and) without 724 . saahankarena. even though not possessing knowledge of the Self. by one who is egotistic. and bahulaayasam. is said to be. is kriyate.25 That action is said to be born of tamas which is undertaken out of delusion. accomplished by the agent with great effort. which. action. What then? It is used in contrast to the absence of egotism in an ordinary person versed in the Vedic path. udahrtam. is spoken of as being free from egotism thus-'This Brahmana is free from egotism'. 'sahan-karena va' is said in contrast to him only. born of rajas. which is highly strenuous. kamepsuna by one desirous of results. there is no question of his being desirous of results or of being an agent of actions requiring great effort.18. or. done. 18. Therefore. For in the case of the knower of the Self. Even of actions born of sattva. what to speak of actions born of rajas and tamas! In common parlance. who is not egotistic in the real sense. Punah (again) is used to complete the meter.24 But tat. 'Egotistic' is not used in contrast to knowledge of Truth. a person versed in the Vedic path. yat. karma. rajasam. that.

undertaken. born of tamas. loss-that losss which is incurred in the form of loss of energy or loss of wealth in the course of any action. introduces this verse with 'Idanim kartrbhedah ucyate. harm and ability.'-Tr. tamasam. out of delusion. consequence. is arabhyate. which. anapeksya. 725 .]. not egotistic. ksayam. suffering to creatures. karma. loss. ucyate.26 [Ast. and unperturbed by success and failure is said to be possessed of sattva. is said to be. prowess-one's own ability fest as. ability. and paurusam.] The agent who is free from attachment [Attachment to results or the idea of agentship. himsam. Now is being stated the distinctions among the agents. from 'consequence' to 'ability'.-without consideration of these. action. mohat.25 Tat. that. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . its anubandham. 18. yat.Swami Gambhirananda 18. non-discrimination. the result which accrues later. harm. 'I shall be able to complete this task'. without consideration of.consideration of its consequence. endowed with fortitude and diligence.

in the fruition and non-fruition of any action under-taken-led only by the authority of the scriptures. cruel by nature. [Etc. who is desirous of the results of actions. stands for attachment to work. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . free from attachment-one by whom attachment has been given up. unperturbed. not given to asserting his ego.27 The agent who has attachment.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . dhrti-utsaha-samanvitah. karma-phala-prepsuh. anahamvadi.]. said to be. who is mukta-sangah.27 Karta. covetous. by success and failure. not by attachment to results etc. the agent. and nirvikarah.Swami Gambhirananda 18. siddhi-asiddhyoh. who has attachment. unclean and subject to joy and sorrow is declared to be possessed of rajas. ragi. endowed with fortitude and diligenc.-the agent who is such.Swami Gambhirananda 18. 18. who is desirous of the 726 . he is ucyate. not egotisic.26 Karta. sattvikah. the agent. possessed of sattva.

parikirtitah.-Tr. naive. and harsa-soka-anvitah. having a nature that cuases pain to others. hiding his own powers. lubdhah. stabdhah. rajasah. subject to joy and sorrow. asucih. [A variant reading is naikrtikah. unbending like a staff-he does not bend down to anyone. 18. morose and procrastinating is said to be possessed of tamas. unsteady. naiskrtikah. affected by these two.28 The agent who is unsteady. of very unrefined intelligence. possessed of rajas. cunning. unclean. greedy for other's property. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .results of actions. deceitful. devoid of internal and external cleanliness. joy and sorrowjoy at the acquisition of desired objects.Swami Gambhirananda 18.] lazy. himsatmakah. sorrow at getting undesired objects and losing coverted objects. naive. is declared to be. one who is subject to those-. covetous. and does not part with his own (when) at holy places. prakrtah. cruel by nature. and elation and dejection may occur to that very person from his actions being aided or hindered. wicked. like a child. 727 . sathah.28 The agent who is ayuktah. deceitful. unbending.

the classification dhrteh. procyamanam. of fortitude. possessed of tamas. listen to the classification of the intellect as also of fortitude.Swami Gambhirananda 18. lazy.29 O Dhananjaya. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . listen. 18. ca eva. not inclined even to his own duties. srnu. trividham. morose. alasah.-one who is such. postponing duties for long. buddheh. elaborately.] not accomplishing even in a month what is to be done today or tomorrow. visadi. sattva etc. as also. according to the gunas. -this much is an apporistic statement-. he ucyate. to the classification. given to destroying the livelihood of others. and dirghasutri. while it is being stated. gunatah. which is threefold according to the gunas.29 O Dhananjaya. adds here. tamasah.-Tr. always slow by nature'. asesena. just as it is. which is threefold. ever in a mood of dejection. without omitting 728 . 'sarvada mandasvabhavah. bhedam. is said to be.wicked. [Ast. while it is being stated elaborately and severally. of the intellect. procrastinating.

duty and what is not duty.30 O Partha. he won immense human and divine wealth (dhana). and it adds sastrabuddheh before kartavya-akartavye729 . 18. and bondage and freedom. the path of renunciation. which is the cause of bondage. what is enjoined or prohibited. that intellect is born of sattva which understands action and withdrawal. which is the cause of Liberation-since action and withdrawal are mentioned in the same sentence along with bondage and freedom. duty and what is not duty.Swami Gambhirananda 18. intellect. adds laukike vaidike va (ordinary or Vedic injunctions and prohibitions) after vihita-pratisiddhe. and prthaktvena. karya-akarye.e. therefore they mean 'the path of rites and duties and of renunciation'-. and nivrttim. Arjuna is called Dhananjaya because. is sattviki. in the course of his expedition to conquer all the qaurters. the path of rites and duties. severally. the sources of fear and fearlessness. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sa. understands. vetti. pravrttim. [Ast. action. withdrawal. which. born of sattva. i. that.30 O Partha.anything. ya. buddhih.

Swami Gambhirananda 18. is rajasi. that intellect is born of rajas with which one wrongly understands virtue and vice as also what ought to be done and ought not to be done. born of rajas. sa. the cuases of fear and fearlessness. undertaken according to place.31 O Partha. knowing is a function of the intellect. yaya. intellect. buddhih. Bhayaadhaye. that. the sources of fear and fearlessness. action and inaction. prajanati. along with its cause. but the intellect is the possesser of the function. with regard to seen or unseen objects.-Tr. one 730 . and moksam. i. In this context. results.e. 18. bondage.what ougth to be done or ought not to be done by one who relies on the scriptures. bandham. time. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .] what ought to be done or ought not to be done. etc. with which. Fortitude also is only a particular function of the intellect. With regard to what? With regard to action leading to seen or unseen. freedom.31 O Partha. along with its cause.

vice. with which one restrains the functions of the mind. what ought not to be done-those very 'duty' and 'what is not duty' as stated earlier. not by discerning it from all points of view. karyam. yaya. as also.] ca eva. what ought to be done. dharmam. what is prohibited by them. karya and akarya respectively refer to the actual doing of what ought to be done and the not doing of what ought not to be done.Swami Gambhirananda 18.33 O Partha. dhrtya. virtue.understands. that is unfailing. (-is connected with the remote word) avyabhicarinya. (the firmness that is) ever associated with samadhi (absorption in Brahman).33 O Partha. wrongly. yogena. through concentration. dharayate. that firmness is born of sattva. and akaryam. not truly. with which. the firmness that is unfailing through concentration. [By dharma and adharma are implied the seen and the unseen results of actions as revealed by the scriptures. the firmness. ayathavat. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . as prescribed by the scritpures. 18.-what?-manah-prana731 .e. one restrains. and adharmam. vital forces and the organs. i.

concentration.Swami Gambhirananda 18. 732 . which is of this kind. when restrained with firmness. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Sa.indriya-kriyah. prasangena. is sattviki. the firmness with which one holds on to righteousness. What is mean is that when one restrains the functions of the mind. and becomes phala-akanksi. dharma-kama-arthan. a person dharayate. righteousness. desirous of their fruits. that firmness is born of rajas. Indeed.34 Tu. the dhrtya. they do not incline towards objects prohibited by the scriptures. with which. as the occasion for each arises. holds on to. firmness. that.34 But. being desirous of their fruits as the occasion for each arises. covetable things and wealth. dhrtih. 18. firmness. but. one does so through yoga. the functions of the mind. O Partha. vital forces and organs with unfailing firmness. O Partha. vital forces and organs-restrains them from tending towards the path opposed to the scriptures-. covetable things and wealth-entertains the conviction in the mind that these ought to be pursued always. born of sattva. yaya.

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . durmedha. After that. holds fast to. bhayam. 18.35 That firmness is mata. considered to be.35 That firmness is considered [Some editions read partha in place of mata (considered). considering them to be greatly important to himself.. that. does not give up-indeed. visadam.] to be born of tamas due to which a person with a corrupt intellect does not give up sleep. due to which. sa. sleep.-Tr. tamasi. svapnam. eva ca. firmness. sorrow. na vimuncati. a person with a corrupt intellect. as also. fear. sensuality. sorrow. born of rajas. yaya. enjoyment of objects-mentally holding these as things that must always be resorted to. The threefold division of action as also of agents according to the differences of the gunas has been stated. madam.Swami Gambhirananda 18.according as the situation arises for holding on to any one of dharma etc. despondency. sokam. now is being stated the threefold division of results and happiness: 733 . born of tamas. fear. like a drunkard thinking of wine. despondency as also sensuality. is rajasi. dhrtih.

and S. and in the experinece of which joy one nigacchati. hear. O scion of the Bharata dynasty. tu. one delights. O scion of the Bharata dynasty.e. three kinds of.S. abhyasat. certainly attains.36 Idanim. the cessation of sorrow-. the trividham. owing to habit. joy. srnu. due to frequent repetition. that in which. arises from the purity of one's intellect-that joy is spoken of as born of sattva. ramate. be attentive to what I say.-Tr. as regards. Yatra. take the second line of this verse along with the next verse referring to sattvika happiness. [S. me.37 That which is like poison in the beginning.Swami Gambhirananda 18. derives pleasure.36 Now hear from Me.18. duhkhantam. but comparable to nectar in the end. as regards the three kinds of joy: That in which one delights owing to habit. 734 . now. and certainly attains the cessation of sorrows. from Me i.] English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 18. and which. sukham.

the phrase atma-buddhi-prasadajam may mean 'arising from the high degree of clearness of that atma-buddhi (knowledge of or connected with the Self)'. etc. but like poison at the end. therefore it is born of sattva. meditation and absorption. poison. when it arises from the maturity of knowledge. since they involve great struggle. a source of pain. that joy which is. in the beginning-when it first comes in the early stages of (acquisition) of knowledge.as sattvikam. pariname. like. arising from the contact of the organs and (their) objects. spoken of. trasparence like water. detachment. is like nectar in the beginning. 18.37 Yat. arises from the purity (prasada). of one's intellect (atma-buddhi). that. in the end. 735 . comparable to nectar.. Or. joy. born of sattva.Swami Gambhirananda 18. iva. detachment.38 That joy is referred to as born of rajas which. is proktam. agre. visam. sukham. tat. but amrtopamam. by the learned ones . and which atmabuddhi-prasadajam.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .

[Prajna. said to be.] retentive faculty. is smrtam.Swami Gambhirananda 18. like nectar. agre. but iva. both agre. and. beauty.39 That joy is udahrtam. because it causes loss of strength. born of rajas. tamasam. in the intial moments. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . like. that. is amrtopamam.Swami Gambhirananda 18. wealth and diligence. born of tamas. both in the beginning and in the sequel.39 That joy is said to be born of tams which. poison.38 Tat. which. visayaindriya-samyogat. after 736 . yat. as rajasam. in the beginning. in the sequel. anubandhe. ca. and because it is the cause of vice and its consequent hell etc. sukham. laziness and inadvertence. wisdom. yat. pariname. vigour. 18. which. is delusive to oneself and arises from sleep. the capacity to understand whatever is heard. visam.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . in the beginning. joy. referred to. at the end-at the end of full enjoyment of the objects (of the senses). arising from the contact of the organs and (their) objects.

gunaih. divi. from these. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . in heaven. in the world. again. Therefore. agent and resuls737 . gunas.]. sattvam. va punah. trubhih. delusive. free. characterized by action. sattva etc.Swami Gambhirananda 18.40 There is no such entity in the world or. now is begun a verse in order to conclude this section [The section showing that all things in the whole of creation are under the influence of the three gunas. can be [-this is connected with the preceding portion 'na tat. syat. three. muktam.40 Na asti. laziness and inadvertence. yat. born of Nature. or non-living things. and nidra-alasya-pramadauttham. an entity devesu. It has been said that the entire transmigratory state together with its roots. living creatures like men and others. tat. 18.the end (of enjoyment). to oneself. there is no such (entity)'-]. atmanah. there is no. is mohanam. or. ebhih. which. prakrtijaih. arises from sleep. prthivyam. among the gods. entity. again.. which can be free from these three gunas born of Nature. such. among the gods in heaven.

which has its roots upward' etc.. 'The duties of the Brahmanas. which must be put into practice by those who long for the Goal of human life. since all things consist of the three gunas.consisting of the gunas. rajas and tamas-. the Ksatriyas and the Vaisyas. Hence. with the strong sword of detachment. and projected by ignorance. It has been further said that. etc. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . 'after felling that (Tree).41 O scorcher of enemies. the duties of the Brahmanas.. Hence begin the verses. the Ksatriyas and the Vaisyas. (15.. there arises the impossibility of the eradication of the cause of worldly existence. and it has also to be shown that the import of all the Vedas and the Smrtis. as to that. '.1). And this also has been said through the imagery of the Tree in the verse. it has to be shown how it can be eradicated. as also of the Sudras have been fully classified according to the gunas born from Nature.'. thereafter. the purport of the scripture Gita has to be summed up. is an evil. Besides. And.3-4). that State has to be sought for' (15. is verily this much. 18.Swami Gambhirananda 738 .. sattva.

have been fully classified. sudranam. have been prescribed by making distinctions among them. according to the gunas. brahmana-ksatriya-visam. symbolizes a second birth. owing to their having a single birth. karmani. with rajas as the subordinate (quality). In accordnace with these the duties such as control of the internal organs. Similarly. etc.-according to what?-gunahi. svabhavaprabhavaih.41 Parantapa. the duties. of the Brahmanas. the Ksatriyas and the Vaisyas. born from Nature. for the natures of the four are seen to be 739 .] they have no right to (the study of) the Vedas. of the Surdras-the Sudras have not been included with the others (in the compund word) because. as also. His Maya consisting of the three gunas. ca. pravibhaktani. with tamas as the subordinate (quality). with sattva as a subordinate (quality). of the Brahmanas and others have been classified. the source of the nature of the Sudras is tamas.18. in the case of the other three castes. O scorcher of enemies. Or (the meaning is): The source of the nature of the Brahmanas is the quality of sattva. [Sudras have no right to be invested with the sacred thread which. Nature means the Praktrti of God. 'Born from Nature' means 'born of these three gunas. the source of the nature of the Ksatriyas is rajas. the source of the nature of the Vaisyas is rajas.

they are said 740 . Objection: Well. lordliness.. therefore a specific cause [i. Or. though the duties have been divided by the scriputres.tranquillity. For. industriousness and dullness respectively. sattva. the duties like controlling the internal organs etc. the tendencies are the efficient cause. not without reference to the gunas. which are born of Nature. of the Brahmanas and others classified and enjoined by the scriptures? Why is it said that they are classified according to the gunas sattva etc. have been classified in keeping with the effects of the gunas.e.? Reply: This objection is not valid. of the Brahmanas and others have been classified even by the scriptures verily in keeping with the specific qualities sattva etc. rajas and tamas. the duties such as control of the internal organs etc. Since the manifestation of the gunas cannot logically be uncaused.] has been posited by saying that Nature is the cause. svabhava (nature) means the (individual) tendencies of creatures earned in their past lives. and Nature is the material cause. certainly. Thus. are not the duties like controlling the internal organs etc. which have become manifest in the present life for yielding their own results. The gunas which have that svabhava as their source (prabhava) are svabhava-prabhavah gunah. born of Prakrti. Hence.

to have been classified according to the gunas. knowledge as also wisdom [Knowledge refers to the understanding of subjects presented by the scriptures.] and faith. as also vijnanam. jnanam. 16. purity.42 The natural duties of the Brahmanas are the control of the internal and external organs. forgiveness. damah. control of the internal organs. tapah. existence of God. eva ca. forgiveness. the feeling of conviction with regard to the existence of God and 741 . etc. the natural duties of the Brhamanas. straightforwardness. control of the external organs-these bear the meanings as explained earlier (see 6. saucam. as explained before (17. austerity. 16.3). straightforwardness. wisdom means making them matters of one's own experience. of the Brahmana caste. the idea of truth [Truth of the scritpures. arjavam. again.42 Svabhavajam brahma-karma. are samah. purity. Which. knowledge. ksantih.4.14). English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . are those duties? They are being spoken of: 18. simplicity.Swami Gambhirananda 18. In place of astibhavah Ast reads astika-bhavah. austerity-bodily austerity.7. faith.3. astikyam. wisdom. as already explained (in 13. 10.1).

capability. By svabhavajam (natural) is conveyed the very same idea as was expressed in 'classified according to the gunas born from Nature' (41). of the Ksatriya caste.] respect for the teaching of the scriptures. capability engagement without confusion in duties which suddenly present them-selves. being sustained by doggedness. not fleeing from enemies. boldness. danam.Swami Gambhirananda 18. api ca. boldness. are sauryam. ksatra-karma. isvarabhavah. 18. yuddhe. Tr. generosity and lordliness. the natural. generosity. apalayanam.43 Svabhavajam. and also. fortitude. [A variant reading is ksatram karma. and also not retreating from battle. fortitude.43 The natural duties of the Ksatriyas are heroism. not retreating.-Tr. daksyam.] enjoined duties of the Ksatriyas. tejah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . lordliness. heroism. dhrtih. from battle.the other world. 742 . manifesting (exercising) rulership over those who have to be ruled. being free in the distribution of gifts. as is seen in the case of one who is not depressed under all circumstances.

44 Svabyavajam. consisting of buying and selling. experience after death the fruit of their actions. When rightly pursued. with greater piety. api. Sudrasya. too. of the Sudra. vaisya-karma. Orre who rears cattle (go) is goraksa. of the Vaisya caste.44 The natural duties of the Vaisyas are agriculture. caste and family. Of the Sudras. is paricaryatmakam. cattle-rearing and trade. the natural duty is in the form of service. in the form of service. cattle rearing and trade: Krsi is tilling of land. who are true to their own duties. And after that. agriculture. Vanijyam means the occupation of a trader. wealth. karma. duties of the Vaisyas. the natural. svabhavajam. the natural. 743 . animal-husbandry. the abstract form of that word is gauraksyam. the natural result of these duties enjoined for the castes is the attainment of heavenwhich act is evident from such Smrti texts as. are krsigauraksyavanijyam. as a result of the remnants of their merits they are born in some excellent region.Swami Gambhirananda 18. too. 'People belonging to the castes and stages of life. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . conduct. learning.18. duty. longevity.

through what means.2. How then? Srnu. 2. the person qualified therefor. Does the complete success follow merely from the fulfilment of one's own duty? No.3). which follows from the elimination of the impurities of body and mind as a result of fulfilling his own duty. sva744 . yatha. complete success.happiness and intelligence' (Ap. But this result that is going to be stated follows from a different cause: 18. that. And in the Puranas also it is particularly mentioned that poeple belonging to the (different) castes and stages of life come to have specific results in the form of different worlds. man attains complete success. Dh.45 Being devoted to his own duty. attains. narah. Hear that as to how one devoted to his own duty achieves success. hear. which has different characteristics as stated above. being devoted to his own duty. characterized as the ability for steadfastness in Knowledge.2.45 Sve sve karmani abhiratah. man. etc. as to how. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 18. Su. tat. labhate. samsiddhim.

of living beings. 18. from which God. is superior to another's duty well performed. by which God. one does not incur sin. abhyarcya. 18. God. origin. tam. and by whom is all this pervaded. and yena. of creatures. vindati. from whom. one devoted to his own duty. Him. worshipping. acheives. success. pervaded.karma-niratah. svakarmana.bhutanam. a human being. is tatam. idam. (though) defective. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sarvam. merely in the form of the ability for steadfastness in Knowledge.-or. By performing a duty as dictated by one's own nature. 745 . by adoring. from which internal Ruler comes the activities. yatah. all.46 Manavah.Swami Gambhirananda 18. siddhim. achieves.47 One's own duty. with his own duties stated above. siddim. . comes pravrttih.46 A human being achieves success by adoring through his own duties Him from whom is the origin of creatures. success. therefore. vindati. by whom. this world. Since this is so. as allotted to each caste.

746 . one's own duty. one does not incur. a duty.47 Svadharmah. another's duty. a person does not incur sin while performing his duties which have been dictated by his own nature. one should not give up the duty to which one is born.48 O son of Kunti. so one does not incur sin by performing a duty dictated by one's own nature. even though it be faulty. well performed. (he) surely cannot remain even for a moment without doing work (cf. and that someone else's duty is fraught with fear. as dictated by one's own nature-this phrase means the same as svabhavajam (born from Nature) which has been stated earlier-. is sreyan. as in the case of a worm born in poison.Swami Gambhirananda 18. more praiseworthy than. kilbisam. by performing. It has been siad that. also that. Hence18. svabhavaniyatam. As poison is not harmful to a worm born it it. paradharmat. karma. though vigunah. su-anusthitat. na apnoti. one who does not have the knoweldge of the Self. 3. superior to. defective-the word though has to be supplied-.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .5). sin. Kurvan.

Swami Gambhirananda 18. Opponent: Well. api.-what?-the karma. faulty. duty. na tyajet. sahajam. O son of Kunti. which devolves from the very birth. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . all undertakings (whatever are begun are arambhah. fire. Another's duty. with smoke. according to the context-). The meaning is: Since action cannot be totally given up by an unelightened person. being constituted by the three gunas (-here.. the fact of being constituted by the three gunas is the cause-).48 Kaunteya. or 747 . even though. i. as. is dhumena. with evil. too. surrounded. are avrtah. dosena. Hi. even though (he may be) fulfilling somebody else's duty. iva. for. it be sadosam. which comes into being concurrently. consisting as it is of the three gunas. one should not give up. is fraught with fear.e. agnih. 'all actions'. to which one is born. therefore he should not relinquish it.For all undertakings are surrounded with evil. One does not get freed from evil by giving up the duty to which one is born-called one's own duty-. is it that one should not abandon action because it cannot be given up completely. sarva-arambhah. as fire is with smoke.

sanjna (notion). it is possible to entirely give up actions. But. vijnana (momentary consciousness). and inactive when that very thing does not act. Then there is also a third standpoint (as held by the Vaisesikas): When a thing acts it is active. as it is in the case of the momentary five [Rupa (from). or is it that action itself is the agent. vedana (feeling). may it not be that total relinquishment is itself an impossibility? Is a person ever-changeful like the gunas of the Sankhyas.] follows from the giving up of the duty to which one is born? Counterobjection: What follows from this? Opponent: If it be that the duty to which one is born should not be renounced because it is impossible to relinquish it totally.] forms of mundane consciousness propounded by the Buddhists? In either case there can be no complete renunciation of action. In their case there can be no distinction between action and agent. then the conclusion that can be arrived at is that complete renunciation (of duty) is surely meritorious! Counter-objection: Truly so. samskara (mental impressions)-these have only momentary existence. But the speciality of the third point of view is that a thing 748 .is it because evil [Evil resulting from discarding daily obligatory duties. simply due to the fact of their being momentary. If this be the case here.

(2. this that the non-existent becomes existent. and after origination continue for a little while. then. if things like a dvyanuka (dyad of two anus. Objection: How? Vedantin: As to this. and an existing action gets destroyed. even though not the view of the Lord. the existent which was verily nonexistent comes into being. indeed. 'Of the unreal there is no being..is not ever-changing. What then? A nonexistent action originates in an existing thing. [Here Ast. Vedantin: The defect indeed lies in this that.. Objection: What defect can there be if it be that this view.. not in being the substratum of action. and again become absolutely non-existent.] What is wrong with this point of view. 'sadeva asattvam 749 . This is what the followers of Kanada say. The view of the followers of Kanada is. adds.' etc. and that itself is the agent. nor is action itself the agent. in that acase. this veiw is not in accord with the Lord's view. and the existent becomes nonexistent. [Their view is that agentship consists in 'possessing the power to act'. Objection: How is this known? Vedantin: Since the Lord as said. yet conforms to reason? Vedantin: The answer is: This is surely faulty since it contradicts all valid evidence. The thing-in-itself continues to exist along with its power (to act).16). atoms) be absolutely nonexistent before origination.

which are being produced be of the nature of (potentially) existing things. that which is verily existent becomes nonexistent'. etc. and it depends on other causes for the manifestation of name and form. remains latent in its material cause. If such things as pot etc. before origination a thing. [According to Vedanta. or that it depends on some cause. non-mateial (noninherent) and efficient causes. since this is not seen in the case of nonexistent things like horns of a hare. then it can be accepted that they originate by depending on some cause which merely manifests them.] a non-entity becomes an entity. a pot. e. when they speak of 750 . and it comes into being with the help of what are called material (inherent). clay for instance. But it cannot be said that nonexistence has origination in this way. with its name and form unexpressed.apadyate. then the non-enity that is to take birth is comparable to the horns of a hare before it is born.g.] Moreover. because the conviction will be lacking that the existent is existent and the nonexistent is nonexistent! Further. if the nonexistent becomes existent. and an entity becomes a non-entity! If this be the view. and the existent becomes non-existent. then nobody will have any faith while dealing with any of the means of valid knowledge objects of such knowledge.-Tr.

For nobody can establish through any valid means of knowledge that a son of a barren woman can have any existence or relationship or cause. Vedantin: No. as also with existence. through the inherent (or inseparable) relationship called samavaya. it becomes an existent thing by its inherent relationship with its causes. Vaisesika: Is it not that relationship of a non-existent thing is not at all established by the Vaisesikas? Indeed. After becoming connected. they (the Viasesikas) hold that such a thing as a dvyanuka (dyad) comes to have relationship with its own (material) causes (the two atoms) and existence. it becomes connected with its own causes. for it is not admitted (by them) that anything has existence before the (samavaya) relationship (occurs). It is surely not held by the Vaisesikas that 751 . [The effect (dyad) has inherent relationship with existence after its material causes (the two atoms) come into association. viz the atoms.] It has to be stated in this regard as to how the nonexistent can have an existent as its cuase.origination. but later on. what is said by them is that only existent entities like dvyanuka etc. or have relationship with anything. depending on the operation of its own causes. have the relationship in the form of samavaya with their own causes. and that it is nonexistent before origination.

it has to be admitted (by them) as the last aternative that nonexistence itself has some relationship! Vaisesika: Well. have any existence before the potter. Vedantin: No. Nor do they admit that clay itself takes the shape of a pot etc. nobody can show any distinction (as regards nonexistence itself)! There being no distinction. alone comes into a relationship with its own (material) cause. nonexistence after destruction. As a result. because this is not seen in the case of a son of a barren woman etc. then the distinction between the (two) nonexistences has to be explained. nonexistence) as nonexistence of one. Through such descriptions ( of abhava. If the antecedent nonexistence (prag-abhava) of the pot etc. antecedent nonexistence. etc. to say that:) 'it is only the "antecedent nonexistence" of the pot which takes the form of the pot through the (action of) the potter and others. (his) stick. nonexistence of two. it is not contradictory even for a nonexistent thing to have the relationship in the form of inherence. wheel. (therefore. and comes into a relationship with the existing pot-halves which are its own 752 . though as nonexistence both are the same. mutual nonexistence and absolute non-existence. start functioning. but not so the nonexistence of the son of a barren woman etc.a pot etc. nonexistence of all.

Vaisesika: Well. is fit for such empirical processes as origination etc. in the origination of a transformation that did not exist before.'-all this is incongruous. since as nonexistence it is indistinguishable. Hence.(material) causes and becomes fit for all empirical processes [Such as production. yet there 753 . it is not at all said by us that the 'antecedent nonexistence' becomes existent. too.] but the "nonexistence after destruction" of that very pot does not do so.] and its destruction. or a cloth's becoming a cloth. etc. goes against valid evidence. whereas only the "antecedent nonexistence" of things called dvyanuka etc. [Etc. Even if manifestation and disappearance of anything be accepted. the existent itself becomes existent . as for instance. etc. like nonexistence becoming existent. stands for 'mutual nonexistence (anyonyaabhava)' and 'absolute nonexistence (atyantaabhava)'. destruction. as are 'absolute nonexistence' and 'nonexistence after destruction'. since they believe in the origination of some new attribute [i. too. Even the theory of transformation held by the Sankhyas does not differ from the standpoint of the Vaisesikas. though it. This.] are not fit for any empirical processes. the "nonexistence after destruction". is nonexistence. a pot's becoming a pot.e. Vedantin: In that case.

can indeed totally renounce actions when ignorance has been dispelled through Illumination. Objection: If the Self be immutable. destruction. for it is illogical that there can (then) remain any trace of what has been superimposed through ignorance. (of an effect) are merely particular states of its cuase. etc. is surely superimposed on the Self through ignorance. Hereby is also refuted the idea that origination etc. Indeed. then how does the 'renunciation of all actions' become illogical? Vedantin: If the adjuncts (i.e. action. This veiw of the Lord has been stated in the verse. body and organs) be real or imagined through ignorance.' (2.5). it is only the one entity called Existence that is imagined variously through ignorance to be possessed of the states of origination. no trace remains of the 754 . As thelast alternative.will be contradiction with valid means of knowledge as before in the explanation of existence or nonexistence of manifestation and disappearance. on the other hand. From this point of view it has been said that an unenlightened person is incapable of totally renouncing actions even for a moment (cf. 3.. 'Of the unreal there is no being. while the others are inconstant.16). the idea of existence is constant. which is their attribute. For. The enlightened person. in either case.. like an actor (on a stage).

What was verily spoken of as the success arising from Karma (-yoga).49 Asakta-buddhih. Hence the (following) verse is begun: 18. superimposed by the vision affected by (the disease called) Timira when the desease is cured. he whose intellect. the utterance. remains unattached.49 He whose intellect remains unattached to everything.e.13).-the fruit of that (fitness). to 755 . English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . becomes justifiable. characterized as 'steadfastness in Knowledge' consisting in the perfection in the form of the state of one (i. etc. the internal organ. attains through monasticism the supreme perfection consisting in the state of one free from duties. etc.two moons. a monk) free from duties. has to be stated. This being so. as also. characterized as the fitness for steadfastness in Knowledge. sarvatra. who has conquered his internal organs and is desireless. 'having given up all actions mentally' (5. 'Being devoted to his own duty' (45) and 'A human being achieves 'success by adoring Him through his own duties (46).Swami Gambhirananda 18.

. whose thirst for his body. achievement of the state of remaining established in one's own real nature as the actionless Selfwhich is different from the success arising from Karma (-yoga). Accordingly has it been said. wife and others who are the cuases of attachment. adhigaccahti..everything. naiskarmya-siddhim...-he who is such a knower of the Self. through monasticism. i..having given up all actions mentally. attains.. and vigata-sprhah. supreme. his state is naiskarmyam. sannyasena. jitatma. who is desireless. who has conquered his internal organs.13). perfection consisting in the state of one free from duties. Or. and is of the form of being established in the state of immediate Liberation. most excellent.e. the paramam. with regard to son. this phrase means 'achievement of naiskarmya'. '. One is said to be free from duties from whom duties have daparted as a result of realizing that the actionless Brahman is his Self. life and objects of enjoyment have been eradicated.without doing or causing (others) to do anything at all' (5. The stages through which one who has attained successwhich has the aforesaid characteristics and which 756 . That siddhi (perfection) which is this naiskarmya is naiskarmya-siddhi. through perfect knowledge or through renunciation of all actions preceded by this knowledge.

one who has achieved success.arises from the performance of one's own duties mentioned earlier as worship of God-. in brief. from My utterance-. samasena. that process by which one who has achieved success attains Brahman. O son of Kunti.50 Understand for certain from Me.50 Nibodha. has achieved success in the form of fitness of the body and organs for steadfastness in Knowledge. understand for certain. how siddhim praptah. no. With this is view the Lord says: 18. indeed. achieves perfection-in the form of exclusive adherence to Knowledge of the Self and consisting in the state of one free from duties-have to be stated. and in whom has arisen discriminative knowledge. me. (-the reiteration of the phrase siddhim praptah is meant for introducing what follows. Is it elaborately? The Lord says. by worshipping God through one's duties. eva. from Me. in brief indeed.Swami Gambhirananda 18. what is that succeeding subject for which this 757 . O son of Kunti. which is the supreme consummation of Knowledge. one who. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . which comes from His grace.

is the para.2) and 'Self-effulgent' (Br. consummation. Of what kind is it? It is of the same kind as the realization of the Self.. supreme. 4.8). 'that process by which one.attains Brahman. which. of Knowledge. the contingency arises of the Self's being of the nature of darkness. apnoti. that process in the form of steadfastness in Knowledge. and established through reason. jnanasya. Pseudo-Vedantin: Is it not heard of in such texts as. In order to point out-as 'It is this'-the realization of Brahman which was promised in. nistha.14.. brahma. Of what nature is It? As has been described by the Lord and the Upanisadic texts. Of what? Of the knowledge of Brahman. When the Self is denied of possessing forms of substance. Of what kind is that? As is the Self. quality. i. 'Of the nature of effulgence' (Ch. because those sentences are meant for refuting the idea that the Self is of the nature of darkness.e. that the Self has form? Objection: No.reiteration stands is being answered:) yatha tatha. Objection: Is it not that knowledge takes the form of its object? But it is not admitted anywhere that the Self is an object. 3. etc. or even that It has form.9).. the supreme culmination.3. 3. Brahman. ya. that process by which. by which that process of acquiring steadfastness in Knowledge by which. attains. th supreme Self-. 758 .' the Lord says. 'radiant like the sun' (Sv.

Since it can be established that the Self is supremely taintless.15). are meant for rebuting this. 1. can there be the knowledge of the Self? For. Moreover. like the Self. 'His form does not exist within the range of vision. 'Formless' (Ka. And it has been said that the Self has no form.' etc. and from such texts as. all knowledge that there can be with regard to objects assumes their respective forms.15). therefore it stands to reason that the intellect can take a form resembling the consciousness of the Self. then how can there be the consummation [Firmness in Self-realization. touchless' (ka.9: Sv. Therefore it remains unproved that there can be any knowledge which takes the form of the Self. 'radiant like the sun.3. pure and subtle.3.The sentences. and it can also be established that the intellect can have taintlessness etc. Hence 759 .3. How. 4. 'soundless. then. the organs become impressed with the semblance of the mind.20). nobody sees Him with the eye' (Ka. if both knowledge and the Self be formless. The mind becomes impressed with the semblance of the intellect. and the body becomes impressed with the semblance of hte organs. And this follows from the specific denial of from by saying. 2.] of the (repeated) contemplation on that (knowledge of the Self)? Vedantin: No. etc. 1. which show that the Self is not an object of perception.

which is more internal than that (intellect) and is within the domain of (primordial) ignorance. but not the knowledge of the Self that is Consciousness. who hold that the body is identical with consciousness. For it is the Self which is experienced as possessed of the forms of all the various objects that are superimposed (on It) through ignorance. form. the cause of mis-conceived Selfhood is the semblance of the Consciousness that is the Self. in every case. say that a person is a body endowed with consciousness. Indeed. Some accept as the Self the Unmanifest [The inmost Ruler (antaryamin). called the Undifferentiated. there are others who say that the mind is identical with consciousness. What then? Only the eradication of the superimposition of name. etc. beginning from the intellect to the body.it is that the idea of the body itself being the Self is held by ordinary people.]. so also there are others who say that the organs are identical with consciousness.. It is evidently because of this that the Buddhists who uphold the view of 760 . is what has to be undertaken. The Lokayatikas (materialists). Hence. possessing a semblance of Consciousness. knowledge about the Self is not a subject for injunction. which are not the Self. and still others who say that the intellect is identical with consciousness.

and that it is not in need of any other valid proof since they hold that it is selfcognized.' etc. but no effort is needed for knowing Brahman (Consciousness). there is nothing more blissful. easily realizable. (9.2). who have not heard the Upanisads. 'directly realizable. some wiseacres assert that the intellect cannot comprehend the entity called the Self since It is formless. what is to be undertaken is only the elimination of the superimposition on Brahman through ignorance. However. very far and different. for It is quite self-evident! It is because the intellect is distracted by particular appearances of name and form imagined through ignorance that Brahman. righteous. This is truly so for those who have not associated with a traditional line of teachers. complete steadfastness in Knowledge is impossible. Therefore. easily realized and nearer to oneself than this Self. But to those whose intellect has become free from external appearances and who have obtained the grace of a teacher and serenity of mind. manifest. even though self-evident. And thus it has been declared. nearer than all else and identical with oneself. 761 .(momentary) consciousness have concluded that there is no substance at all apart from (momentary) consciousness. appears to be concealed. difficult to realize. hence. well known.

that which is called the Self is never an object which is not well known. attainable. because in their case there is no perception of any other thing apart from the Consciousness that is the Self.whose intellects are too much engrossed with external objects. rejectable or acceptable to anyone at any time. Were that Self to be indeed not self-evident. it is night to the seeing sage' (2. We have already said how this is certainly so and not otherwise.-Tr. the latter portion of this sentence is: svarthah sarvah pravrttayah vyarthah prasajyeran. all activities meant for one's own benefit would become meaningless. [According to Ast. the cessation of the perception of differences in the form of external things is alone the cause of resting in the reality of the Self. For.]. who are the opposite of these.69). all activities would become meaningless. it 762 . and who have not applied themselves diligently to the perfect means of knowledge. For it cannot be imagined that they could be undertaken for unconscious objects like the body etc. It has been stated by the Lord also. which are within the realm of duality involving the knower and the known. 'That during which creatures keep awake. on the other hand. For those. Therefore. Besides. it is absolutely impossible to have the idea of reality with regard to empirical objects.

cognition of an object is dependent on knowledge.cannot be that pleasure is for pleasure's sake. Had knowledge been not self-evident. it could have been sought for like any object of knowledge. or that sorrow is for sorrow's sake. 3.'s reading.4. without which they would become meaningless. for the realization of the Self which is innermost (in relation to the body etc. all empirical dealings are meant for culminating in the realization of the Self. Even to those who hold that knowledge is formless and not cognized by direct perception. Moreover..'.. Hence it is established that steadfastness in the knowledge of the Self is a fact very well known to the discriminating people. 763 . all religious activities as well are necessary. Hence it has to be admitted that knowledge is as immediate as pleasure etc. sacrifices etc. [According to B.. just as for knowing one's own body there is no need of any other (external) means of knowledge so also there is no need of any other means of knowledge.).] a knower seeks to perceive through knowledge such objects of knowledge as pot etc. And in that case.26.S. And this follows also from the impossibility of a desire to know (knowledge).-Tr. as [This is Ast.] Therefore. others read tatha. are meant for leading to the realization of the Self. 'On the strength of the Upanisadic sanction of sacrifices etc.

Therefore knowledge is quite self-revealing. but only for the removal of the notion of what is not-Self. free from maya 764 . visuddhaya.51 Being endowed with a pure intellect. form and colour. being endowed. [In place of anatma-buddhi-nivrttau. and eliminating attachment and hatred. Hence. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .-Tr. steadfastness in Knowledge is easy of accomplishment.-Tr. touch. for the termination of thinking what is not the Self as the Self'.Swami Gambhirananda 18. Ast.51 Yuktah.] Consequently. has 'anatmani atma-buddhi-nivrttau. and controlling oneself with fortitude. It is being stated how this supreme consummation of Knowledge is to be attained: 18. effort is not needed for knowledge.similarly the knower would have sought to perceive knowledge through another knowledge! But this is not the case. buddhya.]. rejecting the objects-beginning from sound [Sound. taste and smell. with an intellect-which is identical with the faculty of determination. pure. and for the very same reason the knower also is self-revealed.

mountain caves. controlling. with steadlines. has speech. and vyudasya. laghuasi. is habituated to eating a little-repairing to solitary places and eating sparingly are nentioned here since they are the causes of tranquillity of mind through the 765 . the objects. raga-dvesau. one who resorts to solitude. the aggregate of body and organs. is habituated to repairing into such solitary places as a forest.. subduing. oneself. and niyamya. eliminating. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Therefore. to whom meditation and concentration are ever the highest (duty). visayan.52 Vivikta-sevi. with fortitude. atmanam.Swami Gambhirananda 18. tyaktva. attachment and hatred with regard to things which come to hand for the maintenance of the body-. bank of a river.(delusion). and who is possessed of dispassion. etc. 18. rejecting.52 One who resorts to solitude. beginning from sound -from the context it follows that 'rejecting the objects' means rejecting all things which are meant for pleasure and are in excess of those meant only for the mere maintenance of the body. sabdadin. body and mind under control. dhrtya. eats sparingly. eats sparingly.

anger and superfluous possessions. ever possessed. one to whom these meditation and concentration are the highest (duty) is dhyana-yoga-parah-. who has speech. one to whom meditation and concentration are ever the highest (duty)meditation is thinking of the real nature of the Self. desire.-. free from the idea of possession. body and mind under control.Swami Gambhirananda 766 . 18.53 (That person. i. (ever) is used to indicate the absence of other duties like repetition of mantra [A formula of prayer sacred to any deity. and serene. Having all his organs withdrawn thus.elimination of defects like sleep etc. Samupasritah. one who is fully possessed. dhyanayoga-parah nityam.) having discarded egotism. and concentration is making the mind one-pointed with regard to the Self itself. is fit for becoming Brahman.S. the person steadfast in Knowledge. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .A. pride. absence of longing for objects seen or unseen-.e. dispassion. of vairagyam. Further.] etc. Nityam. force. yata-vak-kaya-manasah.-V.

the monk who is effortless and steadfast in Knowledge.. darpam. discarding them as well. parigraham. 'An elated person becomes proud. and for the very same reason.13. 18.18. Su. becoming devoid of the idea of 'me' and 'mine' even with regard to so much as one's body and life. superfluous possessions-even after removing the defects in the organs and the mind. egotism. not the other kind of strength consisting in the fitness of the body etc.4). balam. there arises the possibility of acceptance of gifts either for the maintenance of the body or for righteous duties. etc. becomes fit. i. kamam. 767 . organs. serene. becoming a mendicant of the param-hamsa class.e. krodham. pride. thinking of the body. brahma-bhuyaya. for becoming Brahman. ahan-karam. a proud man transgresses righteousness' (Ap. which follows elation and leads to transgresson of righteousness-for the Smrti says. as the ego. force-which is associated with desire and attachment. kalpate. 1. nirmamah. anger. withdrawn. Dh. desire. free from the idea of possession. having discarded.53 (That person) vimucya.54 One who has become Brahman and has attained the blissful Self does not grieve or desire. santah. becuase being natural it cannot be descarded-. aversion.

desire. For it does not stand to reason that in the case of a knower of Brahman there can be any hankering for something unattained.] has attained the blissful Self. the indwelling Self. the same. Or. he attains supreme devotion to Me. 6. towards all being-i. (in place of kanksati) teh reading may be na hrsyati. he verily judges what is happiness and sorrow in all beings by the same standard as he would apply to himself (cf.54 Brahma-bhutah.Becoming the same towards all beings.Swami Gambhirananda 18. Becoming samah. Prasannaatma is one who has attained this in the present life itself. but the meaning is not 'seeing the Self alike in all 768 . attained Brahman through the above process. and prasanna-atma. na.. nor kanksati.32). sarvesu bhutesu. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . this nature of one who has attained Brahman is being restated.e. By saying 'he does not grieve nor desire'. socati. grieve-does not lament for the loss of something or the lack of some quality in oneself. [Prasada means the manifestation of the supreme Bliss of the Self as a result of the total cessation of all evils. does not become elated. one who has become Brahman. does not.

] and one-without-a-second. 769 . as to yavan. as to what and who I am. 18. and yah asmi. abhijanati. 'Through devotion he knows Me'-.55 Bhaktya. he knows. he enters (into Me) immediately after that (Knowledge).adore Me' (7. (he attains) devotion which is described as Knowledge. Me. as the 'fourth' in.. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .55 Through devotion he knows Me in reality. for this will be spoken of in (the next verse). having known Me in truth. Then. absolute.four classes of people.16). devotion to Me. Then. through that devotion described as Knowledge. param. tattvatah. with the extensive differences created by limiting adjuncts. who I am when all distinctions create by the limiting adjuncts are destroyed-Me who am the supreme Person comparable to space [In points of all-pervasiveness and non-attachment. in reality.beings'. '. labhate. through devotion. the one who is of this kind and steadfast in Knowledge.. he.. supreme. attains. madbhaktim. birthless.. mam. what I am. to the supreme Lord. homogeneous Consciousness.Swami Gambhirananda 18.

having known. immortal.understand Me to be the "Knower of the field". (13. tadanantaram. Opponent: Has it not been contradictory to say. [In place of phalantarabhava-jnana-matram eva. since 770 . then. Vedantin: There is no such fault. he enters without delay'. Here. What then? What is meant is the absolute Knowledge itself that has to no other result. Hence. it is contradictory to say one knows not through knowledge. immediately after that (Knowledge). jnatva. reads 'phalantarbhavat jnanamatram eva. it is not meant that the acts of 'knowing' and 'entering immediately after' are different. tattvatah. at that very moment the knower knows that object. mam. Me. but through steadfastness in knowledge which is a repetition of the act of knowing. he enters into Me. 'having known. in truth.Tr. How it is contradictory? Opponent: The answer is: Whenever any Knowledge of something arises in a knower.. thus. Ast. Myself. since there is no other result'. he knows Me through that which is the supreme steadliness (nistha) in Knowledge? Vedantin: If it be asked. visate. fearless and deathless.. Tatah.] for it has been said. 'And. And therefore. absolute Knowledge itself. he does not depend on steadfastness in Knowledge which consists in the repetition of the act of knowing.ageless. by saing.2).

and which remains associated with the renunciation of all actions that arise from the perception of the distinction among their accessories such as agent etc. 7. etc. depending on purity of the intellect etc. which are the auxiliary cuases of the origin and maturity of Knowledge-continues in the form of the conviction that one's own Self has been realized. 'one knows Me through devotion in the form of 771 . Immediately after that the idea of difference between the Lord and the Knower of the field vanishes totally.16). then that continuance is called the supreme steadfastness (nistha) in Knowledge. and humility etc. There-fore the statement. This steadfastness in Knowledge that is such has been spoken of as the highest. Through that highest devotion one realizes the Lord in truth. and which has nothing to contradict it. the fourth kind of devotion in relation to the three other devotions viz of the afflicted.the culmination of Knowledge-which (Knowledge) is associated with the causes of its unfoldment and maturity. (cf.in the conviction that one's own Self has been realized is what is referred to by the word nistha (consummation): When knowledge-which concerns the identity of the 'Knower of the field' and the supreme Self. and which unfolds from the instruction of the scriptures and teachers..

Su. And that is opposed 772 .9. Dh. In is not porper that those texts should be meaningless. etc. 'Knowing (this very Self the Brahmanas) renounce. 21. since they occur in their own contexts. Liberation consists in being established in the changeless real nature of the indwelling Self. in this sense.13). 24. it is not possible that one who wants to go to the eastern sea and the other who wants to go in the opposite direction to the western sea can have the same course! And steadfastness in Knowledg consists in being totally absorbed in maintaining a current of thought with regard to the indwelling Self.44).and lead a mendicant's life' (Br. as for instance. monasticism means renunciation of rites and duties. There are also the texts. 329. which enjoin renunciation become meaningful.1). History.2). all the scriptures-consisting of Vedanta (Upanisads etc. Thus.40.steadfastness in Knowledge'. 331. 2.1). 3.5. 'Having renounced the Vedas as well as this world and the next' (Ap. 'Therefore they speak of monasticism as excellent among these austerities' (Ma. Sa. Indeed. And here (in the Gita) also various relevant) passages have been pointed out. Nor are they merely eulogistic.). Besides. and 'Give up religion and irreligion' (Mbh.. 'Monasticism verily became supreme' (ibid. Na. And. Mythology and Smrtis-.. is not contradictory.

to coexistence with duties. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .Swami Gambhirananda 773 . follows stead-fastness in Knowledge.56 Ever engaging even in all actions. It has been the conclusion of those versed in the valid means of knowledge that the difference between them is as wide as that between a mountain and a mustard seed! Therefore it is established that one should have recourse to steadfastness in Knowledge only. one to whom I am the refuge. immutable State through My grace. like going to the western sea. with a veiw to generating a firm conviction with regard to it (the purport of the Scripture): 18. culminating in the result. The fruit of the attainment of success from the Yoga of Devotion consisting in worshiping the Lord with one's own actions is the ability to remain steadfast in Knowledge. by relinquishing all rites and duties. attains the eternal. from which. Liberation. That Yoga of Devotion to the Lord is now being praised in this concluding section dealing with the purport of the Scripture.

am the refuge. accepting Me as the supreme-you to whom I. 'Whatever you do. eternal.27). immutable. the sasvatam. one who has totally surrendered himself to Me. ever. sarva-karmani. whatever you eat' (9. i. by resorting-resorting implies not taking recourse to 774 . mayi. kurvanah api. have your mind ever fixed on Me by resorting to the concentration of your intellect. grace. to whom I. are matparah. God's. one to whom I am the refuge. to Me.18. padam. mat-prasadat. mentally. and matparah.57 Cetasa.e.Swami Gambhirananda 18.e. satatam. maccittah bhava. to God. even the prohibited ones. becoming so. sarva-karmani. ever. madvyapasrayah. attains. therefore. have your kind fixed only on Me. all actions meant for seen or unseen results. Vasudeva the Lord. engaging even in. am the supreme. avyayam. Vasudeva. even he. with a discriminating intellect.57 Mentally surrendering all actions to Me and accepting Me as the supreme. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . sannyasya. upasritya. Since this is so. 18. through My. State of Visnu. all actions. i. surrendering. in the manner described in. apnoti.56 Sada.

on the other hand.58 Maccittah. sarva-durgani. you do not listen out of egotism. buddhi-yogam. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . Atha cet. 18. you will get destroyed. you. will not accept. you will cross over. you will get destroyed.anything else-. ahankarat. to the concentration of your intellect. out of egotism. My words. will not listen to. mat-prasadat. if. tarisyasi. you will cross over all difficulties through My grace. all cuases of transmigration which are difficult to overcome.Swami Gambhirananda 18. Having the intellect (buddhi) concentrated on Me is buddhi-yoga. will court ruin. through My grace.58 Having your mind fixed on Me. on the other hand. alldifficulties. having your mind fixed on Me. na srosyasi. Why should I follow another's bidding?' 775 . then vinanksyasi. tvam. thinking 'I am learned'. And this should not be thought of by you-'I am independent. If.

I shall not fight'. born of nature [Svabhava means those tendencies which are created by good bad 776 . you! 18. te. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . that.60 And because of nibaddhah. vyava-sayah. by relying. this'na yotsye. because prakrtih. (Your) nature impel you! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .59 Yat. will verily do that which you do not wish to do owing to indiscrimination.59 That you think 'I shall not fight'. determination. O son of Kunti.Swami Gambhirananda 18. you. this.60 Being bound by your own duty born of nature. egotism. duty. mithya.18. vain. of yours.tvam. will impell. svena. asritya.Swami Gambhirananda 18. niyoksyati. svabhavajena. karmana. is esah. by relying on egotism.-vain is this determination of yours. being securely bound. . you think. on ahankaram. your own nature of a Ksatriya. manyase. being helpless. resolve. nature. by your own.

in the region of the heart. and which become the cause of performance of duties. owing to indiscrimination.]-herosim etc.1). sorrow. sarva-bhutanam. Isvarah.9. the Lord . you avasah. the Lord resides in the region of the heart of all creatures. i. etc. revolving through Maya all the creatures (as though) mounted on a machine! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . that duty. tat. 'The day is dark and the day is arjuna (white) (Rg. yat. karisyasi api. to do. will verily do. being helpless. wish.e. experience of happiness. O son of Kunti.Swami Gambhirananda 18. which duty. mohat. resides. O Arjuna-one whose self is naturally white (pure). in the present birth. of all creatures. do not. revolving. kartum.61 O Arjuna. hrd-dese.-S. This follows from the Vedic text. For.actions performed in previous births. tisthati. How does He reside? In answer the Lord says: bhramayan. mayaya. 6. through 777 . remains seated.61 Arjuna. Narayana the Ruler. one possessing a pure internal organ. renunciation. as stated (in 43). 18. under another's control. you na. icchasi. of all living beings.

in Him. Bhramayan. through God's grace.Maya. tam eva. for getting rid of your mundane sufferings. take refuge. The word iva (as though) has to be thus understood here. prapsyasi. mounted on a machine. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . mounted on a machine-like man' etc. 18.62 Take refuge in Him alone with your whole being. as though yantra-arudhani. all the creatures.. Peace. and the 778 .while revolving').Swami Gambhirananda 18. O scion of the Bharata dynasty.. Tatprasadat.. is to be connected with tisthati. O scion of the Bharata dynasty.62 Gaccha saranam. the supreme. param. sarva-bhavena. revolving. made of wood. the highest Tranquillity. the Lord alone. you will attain. through His grace. 'resides. through delusion. resides (conveying the idea. with your whole being. santim. sarva-bhutani. Through His grace you will attain the supreme Peace and the eternal Abode.

knowledge. therefore I shall speak what is beneficial to you. eternal. contemplating on. more secret. it is extremely profound. Vimrsya. the Scripture as imparted. pondering over. to you. as a whole. and also on all the subjects dealt with. maya. the supreme State of Mine who am Visnu. mystical. yatha icchasi tatha. do as you like.] which is moe secret than any secret. 'Once again. i. this. Pondering over this as a whole. Abode.e. has been imparted. which is guhyataram. asesena. do.e. kuru. etat. as you like. jnanam.63 Te. akhyatam. than any secreti. guhyat.Swami Gambhirananda 18. 18. iti.63 To you has been imparted by Me this knowledge [Derived in the instrumental sense of 'means of knowledge'. this. the scripture Gita. 779 . spoken of. hear what is beng said by Me:' 18. sthanam.64 Listen again to My highest utterance which is the profoundest of all. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary .sasvatam. by Me who am the omniscient God. Since you are ever dear to Me.

dear.Swami Gambhirananda 18. istah. Neither from fear nor even for the sake of money am I speaking! What then? Iti. profundest of all. to you. be a sacrificer to Me and bow down to Me.Swami Gambhirananda 780 . (This) truth do I pormise to you. highest. unwaveringly. for that reason. utternace. to me.64 Srnu. te. beneficial. drdham. which is sarva-guhyatamam. asi. you are. vacah. listen. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . That is indeed the most beneficial of all beneficial things. what is the highest means of attaining Knowledge. I shall speak. My. be My devotee. (For) you are dear to Me. tatah. therefore. vaksyami. though it has been repeatedly stated. to Me.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . paramam. bhuyah. me. since. ever. considering that. most secret of all secrets. again.65 Have your mind fixed on Me. 'What is that (You are going to tell me)?' In answer the Lord says: 18. what is hitam. (Thus) you will come to Me alone.

in this matter I make this true promise. there-after. alone. namaskuru. i. My devotee. be a madyaji. and knowing for certain that liberation is the unfailing result of devotion to the Lord. the Lord says: 18. you will come. (Therefore) do not grieve. has to be spoken about. dear. I sahll free you from all sins. mam. promise. bow down. mam. by surrendering all ends. to Me. asi. with the idea that complete realization. be engaged in sacrifices to Me. to you. be mad-bhaktah. te. you are. to Me. which is the fruit of adherence to Karma-yoga and which has been enjoined in all the Upanisads. priyah. (This) satyam. take refuge in Me alone. esyasi.e. have your mind fixed on Me.sacrificer to Me. For. Having summed up surrender to God as the highest secret of steadiness in Karmayoga. 781 . The idea conveyed by the passage is: Having thus understood that the Lord is true in His pormise. eva. me. means and needs to Vasudeva only.66 Abandoning all forms of rites and duties. Offer ever your salutations to Me alone. Continuing thus in them. one should have dedication to God as his only supreme goal.18. truth: do I pratijane.65 Bhava manmana. to Me.

329. the Self of all. the same in all. as is enjoined in Vedic and Smrti texts like. birth. Still. sarvapapebhyah. 'One who has not desisted from bad actions' (Ka. moksayisyami. from all sins. [Being a Ksatriya. free from being in the womb.English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . the Lord. I. It has also been stated. all forms of rites and duties: Here the word dharma (righteousness) includes adharma (unrighteousness) as well. what is intended is total renunciation of all actions. aham. 'Give up religions and irreligion' (Mbh. tva. you. Sa. who have this certitude of understanding. By revealing My real nature. destroy 782 . shall free. from all bondages in the form of righteousness and unrighteousness. Parityajya.66 Sarva-dharman.40). for. That is. Arjuna is not qualified for steadfastness in Knowledge through monasticism in the primary sense.] saranam vraja. residing in their hearts. abandoning all rites and duties. the Gita being meant for mankind as a whole. in Me alone.Swami Gambhirananda 18. 'I. old age and death-by knowing that I am verily so.2. know it for certain that there is nothing besides Me. the Imperishable. mam ekam. etc.24). existing in all beings. take refuge. 1. monasticism is spoken of here by accepting Arjuna as a representative man.

having known Me in truth.47). Hence this has to be investigated more extensively. i. would be the result of this inquiry? Vedantin: Well. he enters (into Me) immediately after that (Knowledge)' (55).the dark-ness born of ignorance with the luminous lamp of Knowledge' (10. therefore the doubt may arise that they. in combination as well. Texts like. ma. point to the attainment of Liberation through Knowledge alone. '(you undertake) action itself (4. again. etc. or is it action.e. has knowledge been established as the supreme means to Liberation. sucah. etc. agent and result is 783 . the Gita. may become the cause of Liberation. Objection: What.12). is exclusively the cause of the highest good. Knowledge of the Self. do not sorrow..11).15). Since both Knowledge and action are thus enjoined as duties.by realizing which one attains Immortality' (13. grieve. it culminates in the result that is Liberation. The idea of distinction among action. show that actions have to be under-taken as a matter of compulsory duty.. through the removal of the idea of differences. '. however. 'Your right is for action alone' (2. the resut will verily be this: The ascertainment of one of these as the cuase of the highest good. Therefore. for. 'Then. or both? Why does the doubt arise? (Because) the passages like. do not. In this scripture.

there is none else other than myself because. since Knowledge. Objection: In that case. when it (Knowledge) arises it despels the idea of differences which is the cause of engagement in action. 'My work. Indeed. This ignorance in the form. The fact that Knowledge. therefore it is illogical that it should have action as its means. ever exclusive Knowledge is purposeless. free from action and result. since Liberation is not a product. which removes the darkness of ignorance. The word 'however' above is used for ruling out the other two alternatives. Vedantin: No. an eternal entity cannot be produced by either action of Knowledge. Besides. I shall do this work for that resut'. 'I am the absolute.ever active with regard to the Self because of ignorance. The dispeller of this ignorance is this Knowledge regarding the Self-in the form. non agent. culminates in Liberation as its result is directly perceived in the same way as is the result of the light of a lamp which removes ignorance the 784 . I am the agent. nor by a combination of Knowledge and action. being the destroyer of ignorance. culminates in Liberation which is directly experienced result. has been at work from time without beginning. This refutes the two other alternative views by showing that the highest good cannot be attained through mere actions.

. 'producing fire by friction' etc. free from the wrong notions of snake etc. the result of light amounts to the mere (awareness of the) rope. there is no possiblity of (the agent etc.form of sanke etc. when Knowledge which resutls in Liberation is attained. in which accessories such as the agent and others operate. in the case of the agent and the other factors engaged in the 'act' of steadfastness in Knowledge which has a tangible result. So is the case with Knowledge. Objection: May it not be argued that this is possible like the acts of eating and Agnihotra sacrifice etc. 'seeing (or lighting of) fire' etc. and which have perceivable results. As in the case of the acts like 'cutting down'. similarly. Indeed.) engaging in any other activity giving some other result apart from 'splitting into two'. Just as there is no 785 .? [As such a common action as eating can go hand in hand with such Vedic rites as the Agnihotra-sacrifice.] Vedantin: No. and darkness from objects such as rope etc. actions can be combined with Knowledge. there is no possibility of (their) engagement in any other action which has a result different from that in the form of the sole existence of the Self. since it is unreasonable that. Hence. there can remain a hankering for results of actions. so. steadfastness in Knowledge combined with action is not logical.

e. digging etc. then one will incur evil in the form of going to hell etc. or having a longing for it! Hence. because. As for the view that Liberation is attainable through Knowledge alone.] in connection with a well. it is opposed (to action).. Counter-objection: If this be so. Besides. action does not constitute the means to the highest good. Indeed.e. i. it is wrong. similarly when Knowledge which has Liberation for its result is attained there can be no possibility of hankering for any other result or any action which leads to it. because from non-performance of nityakarmas one incurs sin. freedom (of the Self) is eternal. Nor do Knowledge and action in combination. if nityakarmas [As also the occasional duties (naimittika-karmas). Verily. when somebody is engaged in actions aimed at winning a kingdom. when there is a flood all around. For.desire for an action or its result [Action. Knowledge which has Liberation as its result can have no dependence on the assistance of action. bathing etc. 786 . darkness cannot be the dispeller of darkness. etc. Further. being the remover of ignorance. Objection: Not so. i. result.] which are prescribed by the Vedas are not performed. Therefore Knowledge alone is the means to the highest good. pond. there can be no possibility of his engaging in any activity for securing a piece of land.

therefore they cannot be exhausted? Pseudo-Vedantin: No. since the suffering of pain from the effort involved in the nityakarmas can reasonably be (considered to be) the experiencing of their [i. therefore Liberation consists in the mere continuance of the Self in Its own natural state. but have not commenced bearing results-there is no possiblity of their being experienced. of actions done in 787 .then. hell.. Liberation is attained without effort. since Liberation cannot come from action. etc. and as a result of not doing any prohibited action (nisiddha-karma) there will not be any possibility of birth in an undesirable body. from relinquishing actions meant for desired results (kamya-karmas) there will be no possibility of being born in some desirable body. since in the case of actions done in many past lives-which are calculated to yield such results as attainment of heaven. Thus. for Liberation is eternal. as a result of performing nityakarmas there will not be incurring of evil. and since one does not have attachment etc.e. Since there is no cause to produce another body when the present body falls after the results of actions that produced this body get exhausted by experiencing them. Objection: May it not be argued that. will there not arise the contingency of there being no Liberation at all? Pseudo-Vedantin: Not so.

and since actions that have begun bearing their fruits get exhausted merely through their being experienced. may be considered as being meant for eliminating the sins incurred earlier. since the nityakarmas. and since it is mentioned in the Puranas and the Smrtis that Liberation follows only from Knowledge. And. if there be no scope of their 788 .] results. also because there is the Upanisadic statement that Liberation for an unenlightened person is as impossible as the rolling up of the sky like leather (Sv.8). there is no other way to go by' (Sv. 'Knowing Him alone. Or.20). one goes beyond death. And so. 6. which have not commenced bearing their fruits. which states that for Liberation there is no other path but enlightenment. therefore Liberation is attained without effortprovided no fresh actions are performed. as there is the possibility of the persistence of sins which were incurred in the past but have not yet commenced yielding results.past lives. 3. (From your view) it also follows that there is no possibility of the exhaustion of the results of virtuous deeds which have not as yet begun yielding their fruits. Vedantin: No.-Tr. since there is the Upanisadic text. similarly there can be the possibility of the persistence of virtues which have not yet begun bearing fruits. like expiations.

attain to a high. since the Sruti [See Ch.. and engaged in their own duties' ['. but apart from being what they are. because actions which have not become operative cannot yield any result. therefore the exhaustion of (the fruits of) actions (through nityakarmas) is not possible. .2.] (Ap. Besides. and there is the Smrti text.23.2. they have no other result because this is not mentioned in the Vedas and they are enjoined on the basis of the mere fact that one is alive'-(this is) not so. that the pain one suffers from the effort involved in performing the 789 . being painful in themselves. 'Persons belonging to castes and stages of life. 2. As for those who say. cannot be eradicated through any means other than Knowledge.2.5. And since attachment.. which are the causes of virtue and vice.'-Tr. 1. hatred and delusion.3). immeasurable happiness.1 and Br. Su.] mentions that nityakarmas have heaven as their result. Besides. 'The nityakarmas.being exhausted without creating another body. etc. therefore the eradication of virtue and vice becomes impossible. then there is no possibility of Liberation. there is no ground for experiencing a particular consequence in the form of pain [Pain involved in the performance of nityakarmas.16-Tr. must surely be the result of evil deeds done in the past. Dh.] The statement..

it is out of context to say this. it does not stand to reason that the result of any action which did not become operative at the time of death to yield its fruit is experienced in a life produced by some other actions. Further. disease etc. that the pain resulting from the effort in 790 . and is meant for enjoying the result in the form of heaven! Besides. then it will certainly not be possible to suppose that they (the sins incurred in the past) are the causes of such obstacles as the pairs of opposites (heat and cold.. Indeed. Otherwise. and that the result of sins incurred in the past will be only the pain arising from the exertion in performing nityakarmas. Since there can be numerous kinds of sins with results productive of various kinds of sorrows. but not the sufferings like carrying stones on the head etc. etc.nityakarmas is the result of sinful acts done in past lives. that (pain arising from the effort in performing nityakarmas) cannot be the same as the consequence in the form of the particular suffering arising from sin. is false. therefore.). there will be no reason why the fruit of some action that is to lead to hell should not be experienced in a life that is produced by such actions as Agnihotra etc. if it be imagined that their (sins') result will be merely in the form of pain arising from the effort in undertaking the nityakarmas.

Objection: How? Vedantin: What is under discussion is that the sin committed in the past. And there arises the contingency of the injunction to perform nityakarmas becoming void.performing nityakarmas is the result of sinful acts done in the past. In that context you say that pain resulting from the effort in undertaking nityakarmas is the result of action which has begun bearing fruit. because the sinful deed which has begun bearing fruit can ligically be dissipated only be experiencing its result. if you think that all sins committed in the past have begun yielding their results. then it is unreasonable to specify that the pain resulting from the exertion in performing the nitya-karmas is their only result. [The pain arising from bodily excercise is the result of the excercise itself. not of that which has not yet commenced yielding fruit! On the other hand. Further. To imagine that it is the result of something else is illogical. and not the result of any past sin! Similarly. then it is seen to arise from the very effort in undertaking nityakarmas-as in the case of excercise etc. cannot be dissipated. which has not begun to bear fruit. and need not be imagined to be 791 . the pain resulting from undertaking nityakarmas is the consequence of that performance itself. if pain be the result of nityakarmas enjoined by the Vedas.

may become the fruit of that very fact of one's being alive-which was itself the occasion (for enjoining the nityakarmas)-. This being the case. but not so the pain from performing kamya-karmas (rites and duties undertaken for desired results). any more than expiation is. because both the nityakarmas and expiatory duties are indistinguishable so far as their being occasioned by something is concerned. it is untenable to assume on the ground of 792 . if the suffering arising from expiation be the reslut of that very sin which is its cause.] And if the nityakarmas have been enjoined simply on the basis of a person's being alive. there is the other fact: There can be no such distinction that only the pain resulting from the performance of nityakarmas is the result of past sinful deeds. Thus the latter also may be the result of past sinful acts. An expiation that has been enjoined following a particular sinful act is not the result of that sin! On the other hand. because the pain in performing Agnihotra-sacrifice etc. though prescribed merely on the fact of one's being alive. then the pain from the effort in performing nityakarmas. it is unreasonable that it should be the result of sins committed in the past. Moreover. is the same when it is performed as a nityakarma or as a kamya-karma.the result of any past sin.

therefore the result of the Agnihotra and other sacrifices performed with a desire for results will get exhausted through the suffering involved in the exertion in undertaking it (the 793 . and yet that niyakarma has no result! Moreover. Thus. It also involves this contradiction: It is contradictory to say that through the performance of nityakarma a result of some other action is experienced. Hence. when Agnihotra and other sacrifices are performed for desirable results (KamyaAgnihotra). the (Vedic) injunction being unjustifiable otherwise. since the Kamya-Agnihotra (as an act) is dependent on and not different from the NityaAgnihotra. And when this is admitted. since no result is enjoined in the Vedas for nityakarmas and since its prescription cannot be justified on any other ground. which are performed as nityakarma (Nitya-Agnihotra) become accomplished simultaneously (on a account of its being a part ofthe former).circumstantial inference that. it can be inferred that nityakarmas have got some result other than the pain arising from the effort in undertaking them. therefore pain from the effort in performing nityakarmas is the result of sinful past deeds. then the Agnihotra etc. it is again a contradiction to say that that very experience is the result of the nityakarma.

there is this other consideration: Actions which have not been enjoined or prohibited (by the scriptures) produce immediate results. processes of performance. if the result of Kamya-Agnihotra etc. but the Kamya (-Agnihotra) has exalted results like heaven etc. were they to do so. But those enjoined or prohibited by the scriptures do not produce immediate results. Besides. (in 794 . On the other hand. etc. then even the suffering arising from the exertion in performing them ought to be necessarily different (from the suffering involved in the Nitya-Agnihotra). merely as a consequence of the fact of desire for results. because it contradicts what is directly perceived.Nitya-Agnihotra). gets exhausted through the suffering arising from the effort in performing them. viz heaven etc. be different. and injunctions concerning unseen results. And it cannot be imagined that only the fruit of (Nitya-) Agnihotra etc. for the pain resulting from the effort in performing only the Nitya-(-Agnihotra) does not differ from the pain resulting from the exertion in undertaking the Kamya (-Agnihotra). then there would be no effort even with regard to heaven etc.. And that is not the fact. though as acts there is no essential difference between them (the Nitya and the Kamya) and there is no additional subsidiary part.

And hence. For.19). eternal' (2. i. 'through the Yoga of Knowledge for the men of realization.21). 'But.. 'Remaining absorbed in the Self. 'The embodied man. action is said to be the means.having given up all actions mentally. enlightenment alone. 'I do'... is the cuase of the total dissipation of actions done through ignorance. 'For (the sage) who wishes to ascend (to Dhyana-yoga). not the performance of nityakarmas. thinking thus: "The organs rest on the objects of the organs"' (3. the knower of Reality should think.. and steadfastness in Knowledge-after renunciation of all actions-is meant for the enlightened: 'both of them do not know' (2..the kamya-Agnihotra). 'he who knows this One as indestructible.28).does not become attached.e.when he has ascended (when he is established in the Yoga of Meditation).the one who is a knower.8). be they good or bad. Thus has it been established (in the following passages) that action (rites and duties) is meant for the ignorant. through the Yoga of Action for the yogis' (3. it can never be established that nitya-karmas have no unseen results. Therefore. 'the ignorant. continues' (5. "I certainly do not do anything"' (5. who are attached to work' (3.3). 795 . the unenlightened person thinks..13).26)... all actions have for their origin ignorance and desire.

-they remain involved in practices which. do not accrue only to the 796 . 'who are desirous of pleasures. 12). (cf.6-11).inaction alone is said to be the means' (6. the unenlightened who perform their rites and duties. But those who meditate on the indefinable Immutable take recourse to the disciplines stated in the passages beginning with 'He who is not hateful towards any creature' (12.21).e. i. the unenlightened persons who perform rites and duties 'do not reach Me. attain the state of going and returning' (9.10).' Those who perform works for the Lord and who.18). culminate in giving up the fruit of actions (cf.22) and endowed with steadfast devotion. (This is) My opinion' (7. they worship (Me) the Self which has been described as comparable to space and taintless. and also resort to the path of Knowledge presented in the three chapters beginning with the Chapter on the 'field'. 12. in a descending order. are ignorant persons performing rites and duties. 'becoming non-different from Me and meditative' (9. though they be the most devout. viz the undesirable etc.. and 'I grant that possession of wisdom by which they reach Me' (10.3). 'noble indeed' are all the three (classes of) unenlightened persons.13) and ending with that Chapter. 'but the man of Knowledge is the very Self. The three results of actions.

(it can be proved. is still perpetrated by one who has defects such as ignorance. It does accrue to the others who are not monks.-because impulsion to any action is otherwise not possible-. Objection: May it not be argued that it cannot be proved that all actions are due to ignorance? Reply: No. etc. Objection: May it not be held that impulsion to nityakarma etc. As such an action as killing a Brahmin. naimittika and kamya actions. who continue in the supreme steadfastness in Knowledge. Such is this distinction made in the scripture Gita with regard to what is duty and what is not. so also is it with regard to the nitya.mendicants belonging to the Order of Paramahamsas (the highest Order of monks)-who have renounced all actions that originate from the five causes beginning with the locus (cf. is not possible if the Self be not 797 . 14). who know the real nature of the Lord.20). and who have taken refuge in the unity of the real nature of the Lord with the Self. the ignorant persons who perform rites and duties.) as in the case of slaying a Brahmin. passion. even though known to be a source of evil from the scripture prohibiting it. still they are meant only for the ignorant. who possess the knowledge of the oneness and nonagentship of the Self (17. Although the nityakarmas are known from the scriptures.

9.26). so is the case here. As with regard to one's own son it is said (in the Veda). viz heaven etc. he will not perform the nityakarmas etc.4.] Reply: No. the Self which is distinct from the body'. and in common parlance also it is said.known as a distinct entity? [Unless one knows the Self to be distinct from the body etc. [As the use of the word 'I' with regard to a son is figurative. since it is seen that with regard to actions which are of the nature of motion and are accomplished by the not-Self. 'It is you yourself who is called the son' (Sa. it is not false? Reply: No. 'This cow is my very life'. one engages in them with the idea. Br. Ast. so also with regard to the body. occurs in a figurative sense. occurs in a figurative sense. reads 'deha-vyatiriktatmani.:) In place of vyatiriktatmani.] also will become figurative.] Objection: Can it not be said that the notion of egoism with regard to the aggregate of body etc. 'I do. Objection: The notion of 'I' with regard to the aggregate of one's own body etc. 14. the effects of the notion of egoism.] This is certainly not a false notion.' [The actionless Self is not the agent of the movements of the body etc. a false notion (of identity) occurs in the 798 . However. meant for results in the other worlds. since its effects [i. Still agentship is superimposed on It through ignorance.e. (Tr.

when the distinction between them is not evident (due to darkness). Reply: A figuratively expressed notion cannot lead to an effect in the real sense. because that (notion) is used for the eulogy of its basis with the help of a word of comparison which remains understood. On the contrary. but it does so falsely. cannot be held to have been done by the Self which is the real subject of the notion of 'I'. does not occur in a secondary sense. 'Devadatta is a lion'. [Therefore the idea of 'I' with regard to one's body etc.-are meant only for eulogizing Devadatta and the boy who are the basis (i.e. which is the 'Self' in a figurative sense. this boy cannot be a fire.' Similarly.] And with regard to the subjects of the figurative notions. 'like a fire'.case of a stump and a man. 'The boy is a fire'-implying 'like a lion'. But no action of a lion or a fire is accomplished because of the use of the figurative words or ideas. actions done by the figurative lion or fire cannot be considered to have been accomplished by the real lion or fire. For.. As for instance. actions done by the aggregate of body etc. Nor is any action of the real lion and 799 . such sentences as. one experiences the evil effects of false notions. the subjects of the two sentences). on the basis of the similarity of cruelty. one understands. etc. 'This Devadatta cannot be a lion. the tawny colour.

I am not fire. From these arise desire and repulsion.fire accomplished through the (figurative) cruelty or tawnyaness. And those who are praised know.' As for the assertion made by some that the Self acts through Its own memory. vice and the experience of their results are cuased by the identification (of the Self) with the aggregate of body etc. for they are based on false knowledge. for. 'I am the agent.] Just as in this life virtue. and not. which are the causes of activity-that is not so. Such experiences create impressions in the mind. [False knowledge gives rise to the ideas of the desirable and the undesirable. it is my work. 'The action of the aggregate (of body etc. etc.) do not belong to me who am the real Self'. and attraction. Memory. repulsion. their purpose is fully served by being used for eulogy. indeed follow from the tendencies born from the experience of the desirable and the undesirable results of actions (-which actions themselves arise from the notions of the 'desirable' and the 'undesirable') caused by false knowledge.. desire. effort. 'I am not a lion. from which are born memory etc. deisre and effort. and neither is the work of a lion or fire mine.' So the more ligical notion is. so also was it in the previous birth. etc. 800 . Actions which follow give rise to the experience of their desirable and undesirable results.

. that is a metaphor based on the relationship between the begotten and the begetter. mundane existence becomes impossible. and so. because in common life it is not seen that anybody who knows. As for that notion of considering the son to be oneself-as mentioned in. And from this it becomes proved that the absolute cessation of mundane existence is caused by steadfastness in Knowledge. Thus it can be inferred that past and future mundane existence is without beginning and is a product of ignorance. therefore. 14. since self-identification with the body is nothing but ignorance. mistaken perceiving a stump to be a man.. when the (ignorance) ceases. is nothing but ignorance.4.26)-. However.and even in the life preceding that. Besides. The identification of the Self with the aggregate of body etc. 'It is you yourself who is called the son' (Sa. Br. there remains so possibility of re-birth. are different from me'.can be accomplished through something considered 801 . and the cattle etc. entertains the notion of 'I' with regard to them. one may out of indiscrimination entertain the idea of 'I' with regard to the aggregate of body etc. 'I am different from cattle etc.9. accompanied by renunciation of all rites and duties. not so when perceiving them as distinct. And no real action like eating etc.

by an ascription of relationship (to the Self). 'I am fair'. therefore.'. Objection: Since an injunction relating to an unseen result is valid. So long as ignorance lasts. identification of the Self with the body etc. at that time (i. 'I am tall'. ignorant poeple who say. may it not be said that the purposes of the Self are accomplished by the body and organs which are figuratively considered to be the Self? Reply: No. But in the case of discriminating persons who possess the knowledge.) 802 . they (body etc. identification of the Self with the aggregate of body and organs is seen only in the case of non-discriminating. since it (i.) with the Self exists so long as the false notion is there.) come to be regarded as the Self. immature. organs.e. this identification (of body etc.e. Objection: How then? Reply: Although the Self is devoid of relationship. simultaneously with that knowledge). there does not arise the idea of egoism with regard to the body etc. and ceases to exist when it is not there. since the thinking of them as the Self is the result of ignorance. are not the Self in a figurative sense. just as actions of the real lion or fire (cannot be accomplished) by someone metaphorically thought of to be a lion or fire. For. The body. Hence. etc. 'I am different from the aggregate of body etc. still. verily through a false notion.metaphorically as the Self.

ceases in the absence of the false notion, therefore it is a creation of that (false notion), and not a figurative notion. It is only when the common and the uncommon features of the lion and Devadatta, or of fire and the boy, are known distinctly, that a figurative notion or verbal expression can occur; not when the common and the uncommon features are unknown. As for the argument that (the figurative notion should be accepted) on the authority of the Vedas, we say, 'No', because their validity concerns unseen results. The validity of the Vedas holds good only with regard to matters concerning the relation between ends and means of Agnihotra etc., which are not known through such valid means of knowledge as direct perception; but not with regard to objects of direct perception etc., because the validity of the Vedas lies in revealing what is beyond direct perception. Therefore it is not possible to imagine that the idea of egism with regard to the aggregate of body etc., arising from an obviously of false knowledge, is a figurative notion. Surely, even a hundred Vedic texts cannot become valid if they assert that fire is cold or nonluminous! Should a Vedic text say that fire is cold or non-luminous, even then one has to assume that the intended meaning of the text is different, for otherwise (its) validity cannot be maintained; but 803

one should not assume its meaning in a way that might contradict some other valid means of knowledge or contradict its own statement. Objection: May it not be said that since actions are undertaken by one possessed of a false idea of agentship, therefore, when the agent ceases to be so ['According to you (the Vedantin), an ignorant man alone can be an agent. Therefore, when he becomes illumined, he will cease to be ignorant and consequently the Vedas will cease to be valid for him.'] the Vedas will become invalid? Reply: No, since the Vedas become logically meaningful in respect of knowledge of Brahman. [Though the Vedic injunctions about rituals etc. be inapplicable in the case of an enlightened person, still they have empirical validity before enlightenment. Besides, the Vedas have real validity with regard to the knowledge of Brahman.] Objection: May it not be said that there arises the contingency of the Vedic texts enjoining knowledge of Brahman becoming as invalid as those texts enjoining rites and duties? Reply: No, since there cannot possibly be any notion which can remove (the knowledge of Brahman). Unlike the manner in which the idea of egoism with regard to the aggregate of body etc. is removed after the realization of the Self from hearing the Vedic injunctions regarding the 804

knowledge of Brahman, the realization of the Self in the Self can never be removed in any way in that manner by anything whatsoever-just as the knowledge that fire is hot and luminous is irremovable-, since (Self-) realization is inseparable from its result (i.e. cessation of ignorance). Besides, the Vedic texts enjoining rites (and duties) etc. are not invalid, because they, through the generation of successively newer tendencies by eliminating the successively preceding tendencies, are meant for creating the tendency to turn towards the indwelling Self. [The Vedic injunctions make people up rituals etc. by giving up their earlier worldly tendencies. Thereby their minds become purified. The purified mind then aspires to know the indwelling Self. Thus, since the ritualistic injunctions are meant for making a person turn towards the knowledge ofthe indwelling Self, they are not invalid.] Although the means be unreal (in itself), still it may be meaningful in relation to the truth of the purpose it serves, as are the eulogistic sentences (arthavada) [See note on p. 40.-Tr.] occuring along with injunctions. Even in the world, when it becomes necessary to make to child or a lunatic drink milk etc. it is said that it will help growth of hair [Cuda, lit. hair on the top of the head; or single lock of hair left on the crown of the 805

head after tonsure. See V.S.A.] etc.! Before the dawn of Knowledge, the (ritualistic) Vedic texts concerned with a different situation [The situation obtaining before the dawn of Self-knowledge.] are also as valid in themselves as are direct perception etc. occuring due to Self-identification with the body etc. On the other hand, as for your view 'The Self, though inactive by Itself, acts through Its mere proximity; and that itself constitutes agentship of the Self in the primary sense. Just as it is well known that a king, though not himself engaged in a battle, is, merely by virtue of his being in charge, said to be fighting when his soldiers are fighting, and that he is victorious or defeated; similarly, as the commander of an army acts through his mere orders, and it is seen that the results of the actions accrue to the king or to the commander; or, just as the actions of the priests are ascribed to the sacrificer,-in that very manner are the actions done by the body etc. ought to be of the Self because the result of those actions accrues to the Self. And, as the agentship of a magnet which, in fact, is not active, is attributed to it in the primary sense because it causes a piece of iron to move, similar is the agentship of the Self'-that is wrong, since it will amunt to an inactive entity becoming an agent. Objection: May not agentship be of various kinds? 806

Reply: No, for in the case of the 'king' and others it is seen that they have agentship even in the primary sense. As for the king, he fights even through his personal engagement. And he has agentship in the primary sense by virtue of making (his) warriors fight, distributing wealth, and also reaping the fruits of victory or defeat. Similarly, the agentship of a sacrificer is primary by virtue of his offering the main oblation and giving gifts due to the priests. Therefore it is understood that the agentship which is attributed to an inactive entity is figurative. If primary agentship consisting in their personal engagement is not perceived in the case of the king, a sacrificer and others, then it could be assumed that they have primary agentship owing to the mere fact of their presence, just as a magnet has by virtue of making the iron move. But in the case of the king and others it is not perceived that they have no personal engagement in that way. Therefore, even the agentship owing to mere presence is a figurative one. And if that be so, the connection with the result of such agentship will also be figurative. No action in the primary sense is performed by an agent figuratively thought to be so. Hence the assertion is certainly wrong that owing to the activities of the body etc. the actionless Self 807

becomes an agent and experiencer. But everything becomes possible due to error. This is just as it happens in dream or in jugglery! Besides, in deep sleep, absorption in Brahman, etc. where the current of the mistaken idea of Self-identity with the body etc. ceases, evils like agentship, enjoyership, etc. are not perceived. Therefore this delusion of mundane existence is surely due to false knowledge; but it is not reality. Consequently, it is established that it ceases absolutely as a result of full enlightenment. Having summed up in this chapter the import of the whole of the scripture Gita, and having again summarized it specially here at the end (in verse 66) for the sake of emphasizing the purport of the Scripture, now after that, the Lord states the rules for handing down the Scripture: 18.67 This (that I have taught) you should not ever be taught to one who is devoid of austerities and to one who is not a devotee; also, neither to one who does not render service, nor as well to one who cavils at Me. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda

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18.67 Idam, this Scripture; which has been taught by Me te, to you, for your good, for terminating mundane existence; an vacyam, should not be taught (-na is connected with the remote word vacyam-); atapaskaya, to one who is devoid of austerities. It should kadacana, never, under any condition whatsoever; be taught abhaktaya, to one who is not a devotee, who is devoid of devotion to his teacher and God, even if he be a man of austerity. Neither should it be taught even asurusave, to one who does not redner serviceeven though he may be a devotee and a man of austerity. Na ca, nor as well; to him yah, who; abhyasuyati, cavils; mam, at Me, at Vasudevathinking that I am an ordinary person; to him who, not knowing My Godhood, imputes self-adulation etc. to Me and cannot tolerate Me. He too is unfit; to him also it should not be imparted. From the force of the context it is understood that the Scripture should be taught to one who has devotion to the Lord, is austere, renders service, and does not cavil. As to that, since it is seen (in a Smrti)-'to one who is intelligent or to one who is austere'-that there is an option between the two, it follows that this should be imparted either to an austere person given to service and devotion, or to an intelligent person endowed with them. It should 809

not be imparted to an austere or even an intelligent person if he lacks service and devotion. It should not be taught to one who cavils at the Lord, even though he be possessed of all the good qualities. And it should be taught to one whoserves his teacher and is devout. This is the rule for transmitting the Scripture. Now the Lord states the fruit derived by one who transmits the Scripture: 18.68 He who, entertaining supreme devotion to Me, will speak of this highest secret, to My devotees will without doubt reach Me alone. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 18.68 Yah, he who; abhi-dhasyati, will speak of, i.e., will present with the help of the text and its meaning, as I have done to you; imam, this; paramam, highest-that which has Liberation as its purpose; guhyam, secret, as spoken of above-(i.e.) the text in the form of a conversation between Kesava and Arjuna; madbhaktesu, to My devotees. How will present? This is being stated: Krtva, entertaining; param, supreme; bhaktim, devotion; mayi, to Me, i.e., entertainting an idea thus-'A service is being rendered by me to the Lord who is 810

the supreme Teacher'-. Tho him comes this result: esyati, he will reach; mam, Me; eva, alone. He is certainly freed. No doubt should be entertained in this regard. By the repetition of (the word) bhakti (devotion) [In the word madbhaktesu.], it is understood that one becomes fit for being taught (this) Scripture by virtue of devotion alone to Him. Besides, 18.69 And as compared with him, none else among human beings is the best accomplisher of what is dear to Me. Moreover, nor will there be anyone else in the world dearer to Me than he. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda

18.69 Ca, and; tasmat, as compared with him, with the one who hands down the Scripture; na kascit, none else; manusyesu, among human beings; is priya-krt-tamah, the best accomplisher of what is dear; me, to Me, i.e., among the present human beings, surely none else other than him exists who is a better accomplisher of what I cherish. Moreover, na bhavita, nor will there be in future; anyah, anyone else, a second person; bhuvi, in he 811

world, here; priyatarah, dearer; tasmat, than him. [It may be argued that, since for a seeker of Liberation meditation is the best means for It, therefore he will have no inclination to transmit scriptural teachings. To this the Lord's answer is: One longing for Liberation has a duty to impart this scriptural teaching to one possessing the aforesaid qualities.] 18.70 And he who will study this sacred conversation between us two, which is conducive to virtue, by him I shall be adored through the Sacrifice in the form of Knowledge. This is My judgement. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 18.70 Ca, and; even he yah, who; adhyesyate, will study; imam, this; samvadam, conversation, the text in the form of a dialogue; between avayoh, us two; which is dharmyam, conducive to virtue, not divorced from virtue; tena, by him; this will be accomplished through that study; aham, I; syam, shall be; istah, adored; jnana-yajnena, through the Sacrifice in the form of Knowledge. Iti, this is me, My; matih, judgement. As compared with the 812

various sacrifices, viz rituals, loud prayer, prayer uttered in a low voice and mental prayer, the Sacrifice in the from of Knowledge is the best [See 4.33.] because it is mental. Hence, the study of the scripture Gita is praised as that Sacrifice in the form of Knowledge. Or, this (verse) may merely be a judgement about the result. The idea is that the result of the study is comparable to the result of the Sacrifice in the form of the knowledge of gods and others. Now, this is the reward for the hearer: 18.71 Any man who, being reverential and free from cavilling, might even hear (this), he too, becoming free, shall attain the blessed worlds of those who perform virtuous deeds. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 18.71 Yah narah, any man who; being sraddhavan, reverential; and anasuyah, free from cavilling; srnuyat api, might even hear this text-the word even suggests that one who knows the meaning (of the Scripture) hardly needs to be mentioned-; sah api, he too; becoming muktah, free from sin; prapnuyat, shall attain; subhan, the blessed, auspicious; lokan, worlds; punya-karmanam, of 813

those who perform virtuous deeds, of those who perform rites like Agnihotra etc. In order to ascertaini whether or not the disciple has comprehended the meaning of the Scripture, the Lord asks (the following question), the intention of the questioner beings, 'If it is known that it has not been comprehended, I shall again make him grasp it through other means.' Hereby is shown the duty of the teacher that a student should be made to achieve his goal by taking the help of a different method. 18.72 O Partha, has this been listened to by you with a one-pointed mind? O Dhananjaya, has your delusion caused by ignorance been destroyed?

English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 18.72 O Partha, kaccit etat, has this that has been said by Me; been srutam, listened to, grasped through hearing; ekagrena, with a none-pointed; cetasa, mind? Or have you been inattentive? O Dhananjaya, kaccit, has; te, your; ajnanasammohah, delusion caused by ignorance, 814

bewilderment, natural indiscrimination; been pranastah, destroyed, for which purpose has there been this effort on your part for hearing the Scripture, and on My part, the effort of being a teacher? 18.73 Arjuna said -- O Acyuta, (my) delusion has been destroyed and memory has been regained by me through Your grace. I stand with my doubt removed; I shall follow Your instruction. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 18.73 O Acyuta, (my) mohah, born of ignorance and the cause of all evil in the form of mundane existence, and difficult to cross like an ocean;l nastah has been destroyed. And smrtih, memory, regarding the reality of the Self-on the acquisition of which follows the loosening of all the bonds; labdha, has been regained, tvat-prasadat, through Your grace maya, by me, who am dependent on Your grace. By this question about the destruction of delusion and the answer to it, it becomes conclusively revealed that the fruit derived from understanding the import of the entire Scripture is this much alone-which is the destruction of 815

delusion arising from ignorance and the regaining of the memory about the Self. And similarly, in the Upanisadic text beginning with 'I grieve because I am not a knower of the Self' (Ch. 7.1.3), it is shown that all bonds become destroyed when the Self is realized. There are also the words of the Upanisadic verses, 'The knot of the heart gets untied' (Mu. 2.2.8); 'at that time (or to that Self) what delusion and what sorrow can there be for that seer of oneness?' (Is.7). Now then, sthitah, asmi, I stand under Your command; gatasandehah, with (my) doubts removed. Karisye, I shall follow; tava, Your; vacanam, instruction. By Your grace I have achieved the goal of life. The idea is, there is no duty, as such, for me. The teaching of the Scripture is concluded. There-after, now in order to show the connection (of this) with the (main) narrative-. 18.74 Sanjaya said -- I thus heard this conversation of Vasudeva and of the great-souled Partha, which is unique and makes one's hair stand on end. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 18.74 Aham, I; iti, thus; asrausam, heard; imam, this; samvadam, conversation, as has been 816

narrated; vasudevasya, of Vasudeva; and mahatmanah, parthasya, of the great-soulded Partha; which is adbhutam, unique, extremely wonderful; and roma-harsanam, makes one's hair stand on end. 18.75 Through the favour of Vyasa I heard this secret concerning the supreme Yoga from Krsna, the Lord of yogas, while He Himself was actually speaking! English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 18.75 And vyasa-prasadat, through the favour of Vyasa, by having received divine vision from him; aham, I; srutvan, heard; etat [The Commentator uses etam in the masculine gender, in place of etat in the text, because it refers to the masculine word samvada.] (should rather be etam), this; guhyam, secret dialogue, such as it is; concerning the param, supreme; Yogam, Yoga-or, this dialogue itself is the Yoga because it is meant for it-; krsnat, from Krsna; yogeswarat, from the Lord of yogas; kathayatah, while He was speaking; svayam, Himself; saksat, actually; not indirectly through others. 817

18.76 And, O king, while repeatedly remembering this unique, sacred dialogue between Kesava and Arjuna, I rejoice every moment. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 18.76 And, rajan, O king, Dhrtarastra; after having heard, samsmrtya samsmrtya, while repeatedly remembering; imam, this; adbhuttam, unique; samvadam, dialogue; kesava-arjunayoh, between Kesava and Arjuna; which is punyam, sacred, removes sin even when heard; hrsyami, I rejoice; muhuh, muhuh, every moment. 18.77 O king, repeatedly recollecting that greatly extraordinary form of Hari, I am struck with wonder. And I rejoice again and again. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary - Swami Gambhirananda 18.77 And, rajan, O King; samsmrtya samsmrtya, repeatedly recollecting; tat, that; ati-adbhutam, greatly extraordinary; rupam, form, the Cosmic form; hareh, of Hari; mahan vismayah me, I am 818

the Lord of yogas. matih. And hrsyami. the wielder of the bow. great abundance of fortune. prosperity.78 To be brief. victory. of the bow called Gandiva. punah punah. conviction. yatra. there is Krsna.struck with great wonder. fortune. victory. since they originate from Him. I rejoice. nitih. on that side of the Pandavas. the side on which. the wielder of the bow. there are fortune. 819 . Such is my conviction. my . the side on which. are srih. the Lord of yogas-who is the Lord of all the yogas and the source of all the yogas. and where there is Partha. unfailing. where. yogeswarah.78 Where there is Krsna. Such is me. tatra. dhanurdharah. English Translation of Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary . and dhruva. and there itself is bhutih. vijayah. 18. where.Swami Gambhirananda 18. prudence. there is Partha. again and again. prosperity and unfailing prudence. there. and yatra.