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TH E O NATURALIS R A

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REDACTA AD UNICAM LEGEM VIRIUM IN NATURA EXISTENTIUM,

**V C T O P^ROGERIO JOSEPHO BOSCOVICH
**

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**

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A THEORY OF

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY

PUT FORWARD AND EXPLAINED BY

ROGER JOSEPH BOSCOVICH,

S.J.

**LATIN ENGLISH EDITION
**

FROM THE TEXT OF THE

FIRST VENETIAN EDITION

**PUBLISHED UNDER THE PERSONAL SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE AUTHOR
**

IN 1763

WITH

A SHORT LIFE OF BOSCOVICH

CHICAGO

1922

LONDON

OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY

LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS

**PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN
**

BY

BUTLER

&

TANNER, FROME, ENGLAND

Copyright

PREFACE

text presented in this volume is that of the Venetian edition of 1763. This edition was chosen in preference to the first edition of 1758, published at Vienna, because, as stated on the title-page, it was the first edition (revised and enlarged) issued under the personal superintendence of the author. In the English translation, an endeavour has been made to adhere as closely as possible to a literal rendering of the Latin ; except that the somewhat lengthy and complicated sentences have been broken up. This has made necessary slight changes of meaning in several of the connecting words. This will be noted especially with regard to the word " adeoque ", which Boscovich uses with a variety " " " thus of shades of meaning, from " indeed ", " also or further ", through ", to a decided " " therefore ", which would have been more correctly rendered by ideoque ". There is " and so " ; only one phrase in English that can also take these various shades of meaning, viz., " and this phrase, for the use of which there is some justification in the word adeo " itself, has been usually employed. The punctuation of the Latin is that of the author. It is often misleading to a modern reader and even irrational but to have recast it would have been an onerous task and something characteristic of the author and his century would have been lost. My translation has had the advantage of a revision by Mr. A. O. Prickard, M.A., Fellow of New College, Oxford, whose task has been very onerous, for he has had to watch not only for flaws in the translation, but also for misprints in the Latin. These were necessarily many ; in the first place, there was only one original copy available, kindly loaned to me by the authorities of the Cambridge University Library ; and, as this copy could not leave my charge, a type-script had to be prepared from which the compositor worked, thus doubling the chance of error. Secondly, there were a large number of misprints, and even omissions of important words, in the original itself ; for this no discredit can be assigned to Boscovich for, in the printer's preface, we read that four presses were working at the same time in order to take advantage of the author's temporary presence in Venice. Further, owing to almost insurmountable difficulties, there have been many delays in the production of the present edition, causing breaks of continuity in the work of the translator and reviser ; which have not conduced to success. We trust, however, that no really serious faults remain. The short life of Boscovich, which follows next after this preface, has been written by Dr. Branislav Petronievic, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Belgrade. It is to be regretted that, owing to want of space requiring the omission of several addenda to the

; ;

HE

text of the Theoria itself, a large Petronievic has had to be left out.

amount

of interesting material collected

by Professor

The

has been

financial support necessary for the production of such a costly edition as the present met mainly by the Government of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes ;

and the subsidiary expenses by some Jugo-Slavs interested in the publication. " " After the Life," there follows an Introduction," in which I have discussed the ideas of Boscovich, as far as they may be gathered from the text of the Tbeoria alone this also has been cut down, those are to the reader in Boscovich's which clearly presented parts own Synopsis having been omitted. It is a matter of profound regret to everyone that this discussion comes from my pen instead of, as was originally arranged, from that of the late whose untimely death threw Philip E. P. Jourdain, the well-known mathematical logician into my far less capable hands the responsible duties of editorship. I desire to thank the authorities of the Cambridge University Library, who time after time over a period of five years have forwarded to me the original text of this work of Boscovich. Great credit is also due to the staff of Messrs. Butler & Tanner, Frome, for the care and skill with which they have carried out their share of the work and which were thanks for the accorded to my special unfailing painstaking courtesy my demands, frequently not in agreement with trade custom.

;

;

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J.

M. CHILD.

MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY,

December, 1921.

LIFE OF

]HE

**ROGER JOSEPH BOSCOVICH
**

By BRANISLAV PETRONIEVIC'

still

Slav world, being

in its infancy, has, despite a considerable

number

men, been unable to contribute as largely to general science It has, nevertheless, demonstrated as the other great European nations. its capacity of producing scientific works of the highest value. Above as I have elsewhere it indicated," all, possesses Copernicus, Lobachevski, Mendeljev, and Boscovich.

of scientific

In the following article, I propose to describe briefly the life of the the first Jugo-Slav, Boscovich, whose principal work is here published for the sixth time edition having appeared in 1758, and others in 1759, 1763, 1764, and 1765. The present text is from the edition of 1763, the first Venetian edition, revised and enlarged. On his father's side, the family of Boscovich is of purely Serbian origin, his grandfather, Bosko, having been an orthodox Serbian peasant of the village of Orakova in Herzegovina. His father, Nikola, was first a merchant in Novi Pazar (Old Serbia), but later settled in Dubrovnik (Ragusa, the famous republic in Southern Dalmatia), whither his father, Bosko, soon followed him, and where Nikola became a Roman Catholic. Pavica, Boscovich's mother, belonged to the Italian family of Betere, which for a century had been established Bara Betere, Pavica's father, having been a in Dubrovnik and had become Slavonicized

;

poet of some reputation in Ragusa. Roger Joseph Boscovich (Rudjer Josif Boskovic', in Serbo-Croatian) was born at Ragusa on September i8th, 1711, and was one of the younger members of a large family. He received his primary and secondary education at the Jesuit College of his native town ; in 1725 he became a member of the Jesuit order and was sent to Rome, where from 1728 to 1733 he studied philosophy, physics and mathematics in the Collegium Romanum. From 1733 to 1738 he taught rhetoric and grammar in various Jesuit schools ; he became Professor of mathematics in the Collegium Romanum, continuing at the same time his studies in theology, until in 1744 he became a priest and a member of his order. " De Maculis In 1736, Boscovich began his literary activity with the first fragment, " " De Solis ac Lunse Defectibus ; and almost every Solaribus," of a scientific poem, succeeding year he published at least one treatise upon some scientific or philosophic problem. His reputation as a mathematician was already established when he was commissioned by Pope Benedict XIV to examine with two other mathematicians the causes of the weakness in the cupola of St. Peter's at Rome. Shortly after, the same Pope commissioned him to consider various other problems, such as the drainage of the Pontine marshes, the regularizaIn 1756, he was sent by the republic of Lucca to Vienna tion of the Tiber, and so on. as arbiter in a dispute between Lucca and Tuscany. During this stay in Vienna, Boscovich was commanded by the Empress Maria Theresa to examine the building of the Imperial Library at Vienna and the cupola of the cathedral at Milan. But this stay in Vienna, which lasted until 1758, had still more important consequences ; for Boscovich found time there to finish his principal work, Theoria Philosophies Naturalis ; the publication was entrusted to a Jesuit, Father Scherffer, Boscovich having to leave Vienna, and the With first edition appeared in 1758, followed by a second edition in the following year. both of these editions, Boscovich was to some extent dissatisfied (see the remarks made by the printer who carried out the third edition at Venice, given in this volume on page 3) ; so a third edition was issued at Venice, revised, enlarged and rearranged under the author's personal superintendence in 1763. The revision was so extensive that as the printer " " it remarks, ought to be considered in some measure as a first and original edition ; and as such it has been taken as the basis of the translation now published. The fourth

and

fifth editions

followed in 1764 and 1765.

tasks which Boscovich was commissioned to undertake was that of measuring an arc of the meridian in the Papal States. Boscovich had designed but he was perto take part in a Portuguese expedition to Brazil on a similar errand

One

of the

most important

;

"

**Slav Achievements in Advanced Science, London, 1917.
**

vii

viii

A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY

suaded by Pope Benedict XIV, in 1750, to conduct, in collaboration with an English Jesuit, Christopher Maire, the measurements in Italy. The results of their work were published, in 1755, by Boscovich, in a treatise, De Litter aria Expedition^ -per Pontificiam, &c. ; this was translated into French under the title of Voyage astronomique et geograpbique dans VEtat de VEglise, in 1770. By the numerous scientific treatises and dissertations which he had published up to 1759, and by his principal work, Boscovich had acquired so high a reputation in Italy, nay in Europe at large, that the membership of numerous academies and learned societies had In 1760, Boscovich, who hitherto had been bound to already been conferred upon him. In this year we find Italy by his professorship at Rome, decided to leave that country. him at Paris, where he had gone as the travelling companion of the Marquis Romagnosi. Although in the previous year the Jesuit order had been expelled from France, Boscovich had been received on the strength of his great scientific reputation. Despite this, he did not

feel easy in Paris ; and the same year we find him in London, on a mission to vindicate the character of his native place, the suspicions of the British Government, that Ragusa was

being used by France to fit out ships of war, having been aroused ; this mission he carried out successfully. In London he was warmly welcomed, and was made a member of the Royal Society. Here he published his work, De Solis ac Lunce defectibus, dedicating it to the Royal Society. Later, he was commissioned by the Royal Society to proceed to California to observe the transit of Venus ; but, as he was unwilling to go, the Society sent him to Constantinople for the same purpose. He did not, however, arrive in time to make the observation ; and, when he did arrive, he fell ill and was forced to remain at Constantinople for seven months. He left that city in company with the English ambassador, Porter, and, after a journey through Thrace, Bulgaria, and Moldavia, he arrived finally at Warsaw, in Poland ; here he remained for a time as the guest of the family of PoniatowsM. In 1762, he returned from Warsaw to Rome by way of Silesia and Austria. The first part of this long journey has been described by Boscovich himself in his Giornale di un viaggio da Constantinopoli in Polonia the original of which was not published until

1784, although a French translation had

in 1779.

appeared in 1772, and

a

German

translation

Shortly after his return to Rome, Boscovich was appointed to a chair at the University but his stay there was not of long duration. ; Already, in 1764, the building of the observatory of Brera had been begun at Milan according to the plans of Boscovich ; and in 1770, Boscovich was appointed its director. Unfortunately, only two years later he was deprived of office by the Austrian Government which, in a controversy between Boscovich and another astronomer of the observatory, the Jesuit Lagrange, took the part of his opponent. The position of Boscovich was still further complicated by the disbanding of his company ; for, by the decree of Clement V, the Order of Jesus had been suppressed in In the same second now free for the visited 1773. time, again year Boscovich, Paris, where he was cordially received in official circles. The French Government appointed him director " of and Boscovich became a Optique Marine," with an annual salary of 8,000 francs

of Pavia

;

French subject. But, as an ex- Jesuit, he was not welcomed in all scientific circles. The celebrated d'Alembert was his declared enemy on the other hand, the famous astronomer, Lalande, was his devoted friend and admirer. Particularly, in his controversy with Rochon on the priority of the discovery of the micrometer, and again in the dispute with Laplace about priority in the invention of a method for determining the orbits of comets, did the enmity felt in these scientific circles show itself. In Paris, in 1779, Boscovich published a new edition of his poem on eclipses, translated into French and annotated, under the title, Les Eclipses, dedicating the edition to the King, Louis XV. During this second stay in Paris, Boscovich had prepared a whole series of new works, which he hoped would have been published at the Royal Press. But, as the American War of Independence was imminent, he was forced, in 1782, to take two years' leave of and here, absence, and return to Italy. He went to the house of his publisher at Bassano in 1 785^ were published five volumes of his optical and astronomical works, Opera pertinentia ad opticam et astronomiam. Boscovich had planned to return through Italy from Bassano to Paris indeed, he left Bassano for Venice, Rome, Florence, and came to Milan. Here he was detained by illness and he was obliged to ask the French Government to extend his leave, a request that was His health, however, became worse and to it was added a melancholia. willingly granted. He died on February I3th, 1787. The great loss which Science sustained by his death has been fitly commemorated in the eulogium by his friend Lalande in the French Academy, of which he was a member and also in that of Francesco Ricca at Milan, and so on. But it is his native town, his beloved Ragusa, which has most fitly celebrated the death of the greatest of her sons

;

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**A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY
**

in the

ix

" This magnificent tribute from his native eulogium of the poet, Bernardo Zamagna. town was entirely deserved by Boscovich, both for his scientific works, and for his love and

for his country. Boscovich had left his native country when a boy, and returned to it only once afterwards, when, in 1747, he passed the summer there, from June 20th to October 1st ; but he often intended to return. In a letter, dated May 3rd, 1774, he seeks to secure a pension " I as a member of the Jesuit College of Ragusa ; he writes : always hope at last to find

work

my true

peace in

my own

country and,

if

God

permit me, to pass

my

old age there in

quietness."

Although Boscovich has written nothing in his own language, he understood it peras is shown by the correspondence with his sister, by certain passages in his Italian fectly and also by his Giornale (p. 31 In a dispute with letters, p. 59 of the French edition). " we will notice had who called him an said he here in the first place d'Alembert, Italian, that our author is a Dalmatian, and from Ragusa, not Italian and that is the reason why * That his Marucelli, in a recent work on Italian authors, has made no mention of him." feeling of Slav nationality was strong is proved by the tributes he pays to his native town and native land in his dedicatory epistle to Louis XV. Boscovich was at once philosopher, astronomer, physicist, mathematician, historian, In addition, he was a diplomatist and a man of the world ; engineer, architect, and poet. and yet a good Catholic and a devoted member of the Jesuit order. His friend, Lalande, " Father has thus sketched his appearance and his character Boscovich was of great he had a noble expression, and his disposition was obliging. He accommodated stature himself with ease to the foibles of the great, with whom he came into frequent contact. But his temper was a trifle hasty and irascible, even to his friends at least his manner gave that impression but this solitary defect was compensated by all those qualities which make up a great man. He possessed so strong a constitution that it seemed likely that but his appetite was large, and his he would have lived much longer than he actually did belief in the strength of his constitution hindered him from paying sufficient attention to the danger which always results from this." From other sources we learn that Boscovich had only one meal daily, dejeuner. Of his ability as a poet, Lalande says " He was himself a poet like his brother, who was also a Jesuit. Boscovich wrote verse in Latin only, but he composed with extreme ease. He hardly ever found himself in company without dashing off some impromptu verses to well-known men or charming women. To the latter he paid no other attentions, for his With such talents, it is not to be wondered at that austerity was always exemplary. he was everywhere appreciated and sought after. Ministers, princes and sovereigns all received him with the greatest distinction. M. de Lalande witnessed this in every part of Italy where Boscovich accompanied him in 1765." Boscovich was acquainted with several languages Latin, Italian, French, as well as his native Serbo-Croatian, which, despite his long absence from his country, he did not forget. Although he had studied in Italy and passed the greater part of his life there, he had never penetrated to the spirit of the language, as his Italian biographer, Ricca, notices. but in spite of this fact, French men His command of French was even more defective of science urged him to write in French. English he did not understand, as he confessed in a letter to Priestley although he had picked up some words of polite conversation his in London. during stay The greater part of it has been published in His correspondence was extensive. the Memoirs de VAcademie Jougo-Slave of Zagrab, 1887 to 1912.

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.

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.

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;

;

"

*

Oratio in funere R.

J.

Boscovichii

...

a Bernardo

seq.

Zamagna.

Voyage Astronomique,

p.

750

;

also

on pp. 707

Journal des Sfavans, Fevrier, 1792, pp. 113-118.

INTRODUCTION

the title to this work to a very large extent correctly describes the contents, yet the argument leans less towards the explanation of a theory than it does towards the logical exposition of the results that must follow from the acceptance of certain fundamental assumptions, more or less generally admitted by natural philosophers of the time. The most is the doctrine of of these as enunciated important assumptions Continuity, " by Leibniz." This doctrine may be shortly stated in the words Every" ; or, in the phrase usually employed by Boscovich thing takes place by degrees Nothing happens -per saltum." The second assumption is the axiom of Impenetrability ; that is to say, Boscovich admits as axiomatic that no two material points can occupy the same spatial, Clerk Maxwell has characterized this assumption as " an or local, point simultaneously. concession to the unwarrantable vulgar opinion." He considered that this axiom is a or prejudgment, founded on experience of bodies of sensible size. This opinion prejudice, of Maxwell cannot however be accepted without dissection into two main heads. The criticism of the axiom itself would appear to carry greater weight against Boscovich than against other philosophers ; but the assertion that it is a prejudice is hardly warranted. For, Boscovich, in accepting the truth of the axiom, has no experience on which to found his they are Euclidean points, acceptance. His material points have absolutely no magnitude " There is, therefore, no reason for assuming, by a sort of induction (and having no parts." Boscovich never makes an induction without expressing the reason why such induction can be made), that two material points cannot occupy the same local point simultaneously ; that is to say, there cannot have been a prejudice in favour of the acceptance of this axiom, derived from experience of bodies of sensible size ; for, since the material points are nonextended, they do not occupy space, and cannot therefore exclude another point from Perhaps, we should say the reason is not the same as that which occupying the same space. makes it impossible for bodies of sensible size. The acceptance of the axiom by Boscovich is purely theoretical ; in fact, it constitutes practically the whole of the theory of Boscovich. On the other hand, for this very reason, there are no readily apparent grounds for the acceptance of the axiom ; and no serious arguments can be adduced in its favour ; Boscovich 's own line of argument, founded on the idea that infinite improbability comes to the same thing as impossibility, is given in Art. 361. Later, I will suggest the probable source from which Boscovich derived his idea of impenetrability as applying to points of matter, as distinct from impenetrability for bodies of sensible size. Boscovich's own idea of the merit of his work seems to have been chiefly that it met the would constitute " a mighty advance in requirements which, in the opinion of Newton, " derivation, from the phenomena of Nature, philosophy." These requirements were the and the explanation of the manner in which the properties of two or three general principles and actions of all corporeal things follow from these principles, even if the causes of those Boscovich claims in his preface to the principles had not at the time been discovered." that he has far first edition gone beyond these requirements ; in that he has (Vienna, 1758) reduced all the principles of Newton to a single principle namely, that given by his Law

ALTHOUGH

:

:

;

;

of Forces.

who

the writing of this work was a request, made by Father Scherffer, of the first Vienna edition during the absence of Boscovich ; he took eventually charge Boscovich applied to to Boscovich the suggested investigation of the centre of oscillation. " this investigation the principles which, as he himself states, he lit upon so far back as the Of these principles he had already given some indication in the dissertations year 1745." De Viribus vivis (published in 1745), De Lege Firium in Natura existentium (1755), and others. While engaged on the former dissertation, he investigated the production and destruction of velocity in the case of impulsive action, such as occurs in direct collision. In this, where it is to be noted that bodies of sensible size are under consideration, Boscovich was led to the study of the distortion and recovery of shape which occurs on impact ; he came to the conclusion that, owing to this distortion and recovery of shape, there was produced by the impact a continuous retardation of the relative velocity during the whole time of impact, which was finite ; in other words, the Law of Continuity, as enunciated by

The occasion that led to

XI

xii

INTRODUCTION

if

Leibniz, was observed.

mainly,

not

this change.

at this time (1745) Boscovich was concerned of the facts change of velocity, and not with the causes for solely, The title of the dissertation, De Firibus vivis, shows however that a secondary

It

would appear that

with the

also held the field.

consideration, of almost equal importance in the development of the Theory of Boscovich, The natural philosophy of Leibniz postulated monads, without parts, extension or figure. In these features the monads of Leibniz were similar to the material

" " " Boscovich opposes this idea of a force and in this first living," or lively dissertation we may trace the first ideas of the formulation of his own material points. Leibniz denies action at a distance ; with Boscovich it is the fundamental characteristic of

vis viva.

;

1 points of Boscovich ; but Leibniz ascribed to his monads perception and appetition in addition to an equivalent of inertia. They are centres of force, and the force exerted is a

a material point.

The principles developed in the work on collisions of bodies were applied to the of the centre of oscillation. During the latter investigation Boscovich was led to a

on the mutual forces between the bodies forming a system of three ; and from this there followed the natural explanation of a whole sequence of phenomena, mostly connected with the idea of a statical moment ; and his initial intention was to have published a dissertation on this theorem and deductions from it, as a specimen of the use and advantage of his principles. But all this time these principles had been developing in two directions, and mathematically philosophically, and by this time included the fundamental notions of the law of forces for material points. The essay on the centre of oscillation grew in length as it proceeded ; until, finally, Boscovich added to it all that he had already published on the subject of his principles and other matters which, as he says, " obtruded themselves on his notice as he was writing." The whole of this material he rearranged into a more logical for a (but unfortunately study of development of ideas, non-chronological) order before by Boscovich, in Art. 164, the whole of his Theory is contained in his statement " Matter is To this composed of perfectly indivisible, non-extended, discrete points." assertion is conjoined the axiom that no two material points can be in the same point of space at the same time. As stated above, in opposition to Clerk Maxwell, this is no matter of prejudice. Boscovich, in Art. 361, gives his own reasons for taking this axiom as part of his theory. He lays it down that the number of material points is finite, whereas the number of local points is an infinity of three dimensions hence it is infinitely improbable, i.e., impossible, that two material points, without the action of a directive mind, should ever encounter one another, and thus be in the same place at the same time. He even goes further he asserts elsewhere that no material point ever returns to any point of space in which it has ever been before, or in which any other material point has ever been. Whether his arguments are sound or not, the matter does not rest on a prejudgment formed from experience of bodies of sensible size ; Boscovich has convinced himself by such arguments of the truth of the principle of Impenetrability, and lays it down as axiomatic and upon The consequence of this axiom this, as one of his foundations, builds his complete theory. is there can be no such thing as contact between any two material immediately evident two be contiguous or, as Boscovich states, no two points of matter cannot points points can be in mathematical contact. For, since material points have no dimensions, if, to form an imagery of Boscovich's argument, we take

that

:

problem theorem theorem

publication. As stated

;

;

;

;

;

tical

squares ABDC, CDFE to represent two points in mathemacontact along the side CD, then must also coincide with AB, and EF with that is the points which we have supposed to be ; contiguous must also be coincident. This is contrary to the axiom of Impenetrability ; and hence material points must be separated always

two

little

CD

CD

O

U

Ir

no matter how small. This finite interval however by has no minimum nor has it, on the other hand, on account of the infinity of space, any maximum, except under certain hypothetical circumstances which may possibly exist.

a finite interval,

;

Lastly, these points of matter float, so to speak, in an absolute void.

each is postulated to Every material point is exactly like every other material point have an inherent propensity (determinatio) to remain in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line, whichever of these is supposed to be its initial state, so long as the point is not subject to some external influence. Thus it is endowed with an equivalent of inertia as formulated by Newton but as we shall see, there does not enter the Newtonian idea

; ;

of inertia as a characteristic of mass.

The

propensity

is

is

to the

monad by Leibniz

;

with

this difference, that it

not a

**akin to the characteristic ascribed symptom of activity, as with
**

between Boscovich and Leibniz.

**Leibniz, but one of inactivity.
**

1

See Bertrand Russell, Philosophy

of

Leibniz

;

especially p. 91 for connection

and this acceleration produced by the distance between them. ascribing point by a prejudice. Boscovich's own words. . according to Boscovich. ascribed by Boscovich to his pairs of points.64Thus it would appear that in the Theory of Boscovich we have something totally . there is a mutual vis between every pair of points.ds j-r-ds " " " evident that the word vires. i. His material point is defined to be without parts. in aliis ad recessum mutuum. " " it cannot have any mass. however. vis. vis acceleratrix (acceleration).e.dv). and not infinitesimal.. then. If. as we understand i. where it is v. on the other hand. The measures of these propensities. if sufficiently close together. vis mortua (the antithesis of vis viva. : A A A . quantity of matter " force " to the of the term) existed between two points. divided by the number of points of matter composing that body. i. Thus we have vis viva (later associated with energy). This is corroborated by the statement of Boscovich that the areas under the arcs of his curve are proportional to squares of velocities which " is in accordance with the formula we should now use for the area under an acceleration" I See Note (f) to Art. For the mass of a point is the whole mass of a body. apparently asserted nothing more than the fact of gravitation a propensity for approach according to the inverse square of the distance and Boscovich imitates him in this. considered as and therefore. translated forces. had many different meanings or rather that its meaning was given by the descriptive adjective that was associated with it. apello vim. : : . the body to each will give point of B. The sole such the simultaneous existence of two points of matter . prejudiced Laws of Motion. although there are some points of similarity with the ideas of Newton. i. it has no volume characteristic that has a finite measure is the relative acceleration terms. pair of points a mutual attraction or repulsion . yet the Theory of Boscovich differs from that of Newton in being purely kinematical. quam ipsam determinationem The cause of this determination. Newton even. Boscovich does not seek to explain . which are truly centres of force. and. at a relatively much greater distance from every point of the body. he merely postulates the propensities. . which are all exactly similar and this number Boscovich asserts is finite. body B will give to Similarly . more especially in the postulation of an acceleration of the relative velocity of every pair of points of matter due to and depending upon the relative distance between them. tendencies for mutual approach or recession of the two points. space graph (Area J f. if not to all of us. without . each point each point of B an acceleration /. as given in " Censeo Art. or propensity. in enunciating his law of universal gravitation. this mass must be finite. Again. 9. are igitur bina quaecunque materise puncta determinari asque in aliis distantiis ad mutuum accessum. since the volume is an infinitesimal of the third order.e. The Newtonian idea of mass is replaced depends solely upon " dimension " the " mass " different it is a mere number. for approach or recession. we consider with Clerk Maxwell that each point of matter has a definite small mass." strictly means accelerations .INTRODUCTION xiii Further. to Boscovich at least is unimaginable. as such it can have no mass. in consequence. namely. are really accelerations. vis matrix (the real equivalent of force. if the slightest .. are the ordinates of what is usually called his curve of forces. since it varied with the mass directly). 118." which in the case of bodies of sensible size is more correctly called " force " (vis matrix). (according ordinary acceptation there would be an infinite acceleration or retardation of each point relative to the other. It follows immediately that the density of a material point must be infinite. he ascribed mass to a material point of Boscovich. infinite density. the magnitude of which depends only on the distance between them. disappears when it is remembered that the word used by the mathematicians of the period of Boscovich. that there can be no force without mass. Each of these points. Hence.. since a point has no magnitude. He understood that Boscovich ascribed to each . will exert on another point of matter. the same acceleration very approximately. Clerk Now. Hence. by something totally " " of a body is simply the number of points that are combined to form the body. if we have two small bodies A and B. seejalso Art. matter.e. and / is the mutual of material of will give to pair points at a distance s from one another . At first sight.e. as by Newton's This apparent incongruity. and can exert no force. no matter how small. vis descensiva (moment of a weight hung at one end of a lever). = = = different from the monads of Leibniz. The mutual vires. and so on. zero. situated at a distance s from one another (the wording of this phrase postulates that the points of each body are and if the number very close together as compared with the distance between the bodies) between any of points in B a acceleration and are respectively and b. an acceleration equal to a/. there would seem to be an incongruity in this supposition for. without any endeavour to explain this acceleration or gravitation . in mass to a Boscovichian of seems to have been obsessed Maxwell. and the therefore to the whole of B. that very prejudice which obsesses most scientists of the present day. if not of an infinite order. the accelerations of the relative velocities. depending on the distance between the points at the time under consideration. as understood by Leibniz).

But the term " force. which we have agreed to call an attraction. apart from the resistance of the air and so on. in which x represents the interval between two points. let us now consider the curve of Boscovich. 394. alone existed outside the mind. Now. 393." To sum up. as a philosopher. Boscovich. but as becoming so in relation to other material points. a single and thus single points might point would give no sense-datum apart from another point . consciously or unconsciously. can assign and not force.xiv INTRODUCTION body the j from A and B. " further sections will cut empty intervals and not matter and yet he has postulated that there is no minimum value to the interval between two material points." The admission of infinite componibility is necessitated by his definition of the material point . however. zero mass. but that matter is interspersed in a vacuum and floats in it. but he admits infinite componibility. namely. the Boscovich comes to the same thing " mass " of Newton. that in the continual division of a " as soon as we reach intervals less than the distance between two material points. cf ." His material In fact. . the body A would give the body C an acceleration equal to af. a branch asymptotic to the axis of intervals . not a force. or a selfdetermined infinitely small. Nevertheless. gives to his curve. Leaving. and exert zero force. This seems to be the logical deduction from the strict sense of the definition given by Boscovich what Boscovich himself thought is given in the supplements that follow the third part of the treatise." as the cause of acceleration is not applied by Boscovich to material When Boscovich investigates the points . In other words. Although. this question of the philosophical standpoint of Boscovich to be decided by the reader. or in extension. he denies infinite divisibility . if one material point points have zero volume. The denial of infinite divisibility " is necessitated his denial of by anything infinite in Nature. . at a distance are proportional to the number of points in the bodies producing " mass " of these accelerations . in Art. : : : be considered . but a system of relations . hardly knowing which point of view is the logical outcome of his definition of a material point. it would seem that the curve of Boscovich is an acceleration-interval graph and it is a mistake to refer to his cosmic system as a system of " force-centres. since it has no parts. nor is it used in the Newtonian sense at all. the phraseology of " attraction " and " repulsion " is so much more convenient than that of " acceleration of the velocity of " and " acceleration of the velocity of recession. and having no last term." he introduces the idea of a cause. Boscovich denies that there is any possibility of a fortuitous circumstance (and here indeed we may admit a prejudice derived from is . he appeals to the scale of in there is no infinite number which but. whether we are to consider Boscovich as. in Art. what we call fortuitous is merely something for which we. again. from which it follows that all bodies have their velocities of fall towards the earth equally accelerated. but then only more or less as a convenient phrase. it follows that the number of points in a mass must be finite. the attraction or repulsion between two hence. experience . as he says. when the interval is large. but an as . namely. if we placed a third body. however small. not perceptible in themselves. since he denies the existence of the infinite and the infinitely small. from experimental data. Boscovich himself appears to be uncertain of his ground. seem that the system of Boscovich was not a material system. it approximates to the " hyperbola " x*y c. For. There is still another point to be considered before we take up the study of the Boscovich curve . C Similarly. the scale of integers is a integers. thus. no cause)." that it will be used in what approach follows as it has been used throughout the translation of the treatise. then this single external point could in no way be perceived. a fresh point can always be placed between any two points without being contiguous to either. Thus. and the body B would give the body C an acceleration equal to bf. if it were not for the fact that he asserts. The practical test for this question would seem to be simply whether the divisibility of matter was considered to be limited or unlimited." The whole question is still further complicated by his remark. since points of matter (except at what he calls the limiting intervals) must be finite the attractions of masses are all by observation finite. 7. and y the vis corresponding to that interval. into any space. " attraction of bodies. To evade the difficulty thus raised. that his view is that " the Universe does not consist of vacuum interspersed amongst matter. meaning thereby. the acceleration given by standard body " " C A the same for either. That is. in Art. after a study of the supplements that follow the third part of the treatise. an atomist in the strict sense of the word. It would. the accelerations given to a A an acceleration equal to bf. . numerically. The latter word is merely a convenient phrase to describe the " product " of " mass " and " acceleration. for he states that in our limited intelligence. C. yet with him the existent thing is motion . body. sequence of numbers increasing indefinitely. and there were no material point forming part of the mind. as the to the bodies and B Further. there may be crowded an indefinitely great number of material points this number can be still further increased to any extent and yet the number of points finally obtained is always finite.

: repulsion is sufficiently increased to prevent nearer approach. the equation of the curve. there must be a continuous curve. and the area under this branch of the curve must be indefinitely great. Hence it is not too much to suppose that somewhere between 1741 and 1755 : he had tried to find means of overcoming this discrepancy . in the treatise itself. with more justice. while rapidly Newton had found over three-score curves with equations of the third degree. For the inverse square law. and he was thus led to suppose motion under an inverse square law. it is that as the degree of a curve rises. For the inverse fourth or higher power. indefinitely very which necessitates a finite of two material points is always destroyed before actual contact interval between two material points. when they are so close together that this great mutual a that. That is to say.INTRODUCTION acceleration of the velocity of approach. it would be a breach of continuity if it ever departed from it. the branch must be asymptotic to the axis of ordinates Boscovich however considers that this does not involve an infinite ordinate at the origin. Boscovich concludes that the degree of its equation is very high. De Motu Corporis attracti in centrum published a dissertation of which the full title is immobile viribus decrescentibus in ratione distantiarum reciproca duplicata in spatiis non resistentibus. cannot be exactly this for. infinite. to represent " force " at all other distances hence the curve must cut the axis at some point in the . As stated above. Boscovich argues. This final branch. if any finite arc of the curve ever coincided exactly with hyperbola the hyperbola of the third degree. . must be of the form P-Qy are functions of x alone. even if it is not bility. parallel to the asymptote at the . with a one-valued ordinate for any interval. or even where the force varied inversely as the interval. the possibility of other asymptotes. Lastly. . he gives some very ingenious arguments against forces that are attractive at very small distances and increase indefinitely. argues that this law of force must be impossible. i. that is to say. asserted that on approaching the centre of force the particle must be annihilated Boscovich. no matter how great. the limiting case of an elliptic orbit. and so come into agreement with the limiting case of the elliptic orbit. Now it is to be observed that this supplement is quoted from his dissertation De Lege also that in 1743 he had Firium in Natura existentium. since a velocity of mutual approach may be supposed to be Two points are said to be in physical contact. even = Q . points giving zero action for material points situated "at the corresponding distance from one another. the greater the number of possible intersections with a given straight line . of any magnitude. he considers orbital motion. it is highly probable that there are a great many intersections of the curve with the axis . the conic sections of the second degree. however. and deduces that after a finite time the particle must be nowhere at all. known . Now. considering this case. can have no minimum. in the case of rectilinear . ordinate is one-valued. since the repulsion increases the for small intervals. Hence the ordinate to the curve near the origin must be drawn in the opposite direction to that of the ordinates for sensible distances. and thence argues that the force at infinitely small distances must be repulsive and increasing indefinitely. such as would be the case where the law of forces was represented by an inverse power of the interval. Hence he concludes that the inverse square law is observed approximately only. Since Boscovich has these two asymptotic branches. in opposition to mathematical contact. since the transcendent. there was a departure that the attraction was replaced by a from the law on near approach to the centre of force for this obviously would lead to as the distance decreased repulsion increasing indefinitely an oscillation to the centre and back. and he postulates Continuity. the number of curves of that degree increases very there is only one of the first degree. Boscovich postulates the axiom of Impenetrability as applying in general. Thus we have a curve winding o. However. and nobody had tried to find all the curves of the fourth degree. . when the transverse velocity at the end of the major this leads to rectilinear motion of the particle to the axis is decreased indefinitely. and the impossibility of encounter under any circumstances the interval however. . because the interval between two material points is never zero or..e. is taken which does not agree with the otherwise proved centre of force and a return from it oscillation through the centre of force to an equal distance on either side. but apparently discards it for certain mechanical and physical reasons. he shows that the attraction of a sphere upon a point on its surface would be less than the attraction of a part of itself on this point for the inverse third power. where P and about the axis for intervals that are very small and developing finally into the hyperbola of the third degree for sensible intervals. He does not lose sight of this latter possior the ordinate must become between. . . which in this case is an equiangular spiral motion. of the quality or quantity of his ordinates. Since his curve is not one of the known curves. which was published in 1755 . xv For small intervals he has as yet no knowledge In Supplement IV. as stated in Supplement III. Euler. But the higher the degree of a curve. vice versa. . velocity of relative approach. at large distances. I therefore suggest that it was this consideration that led Boscovich to the doctrine of Impenetrability. .

then no point outside our universe could ever enter within it. say baryc analysis of Leibniz. where it is shown that. This elegant little theorem does not in exact on the form of the of curve forces. on collision. Boscovich points out that no philosopher has attempted to prove the existence of a centre of gravity. with geometrical centroid which Leibniz seems to have confused a centroid before his conversation with Huygens. by a sufficiently great difference of the velocity being induced by the action of a fourth point passing sufficiently near the third point. are necessary foundations for the centroTake a plane outside. and the deductions from it. one suggestion that is very between these points of intersection. there is no centre of magnitude. . of his time were much philosophers perturbed over the idea that. this point is the centroid . . 266-278. somehow or other. goes off to infinity in the positive direction . approximately confocal ellipses. takes great pains to show that all the phenomena discussed can be explained on the assumption of a number of points of intersection of his curve with the axis. after cutting the axis (as again it may do. beyond of at the curve after forces. as well as for solids that have weight. . so long as there are portions of the any way depend curve winding about the axis for very small intervals between the points. it would appear that position of forces as a working hypothesis. : .e. Boscovich. or rather a whereas. however. the curve had an asymptotic repulsive branch and went on as a sort of replica of the curve already obtained. all the points of all the bodies under consideration find the sum of all the distances of all the points from this plane . the origin is discussed in full. this is a plane such that the sum of the distances of all the points from it is zero . even for a triangle. the sum of the distances of all the points on one side of this plane is equal arithmetically to the sum of the distances of all the points on the other side. especially distances of the solar for the which the inverse square law obtains approxisystem. If the steady motion in a stable orbit is disturbed. yet reality infinite. observing algebraic sign. when a force was resolved into two forces at a sufficiently obtuse angle. Then. however. by the mass of the particle. it once more begins to wind round the axis and finally has an asymptotic attractive branch. Then it is evident that the universe in which we live is a self-contained cosmic system .INTRODUCTION is not lost The consequence of one occurring at a very small distance from sight of. least.. be useful to point out certain matters which seem more than usually interesting. If some of the points are conglomerated to form a particle. the force itself might be less than either of origin. indeed. touching the axis (as it may do. Thus space might be in could be and never as finite. i. for no point within it can ever get beyond the distance of this further asymptote.resolution and comFrom what Boscovich says. perceived except The use Boscovich makes of his curve. beyond this further asymptote.e. this third point will leave its orbit and immediately take up another stable orbit. after some initial oscillation about it.. the strength or weakness of his attacks on the theories of other philosophers. . in relation to recent work. are left to the consideration of the reader of the text. Hence follows the theorem for the statical moment for lines and planes or other surfaces. divide this sum by the number of points draw a plane to the left of and parallel to the chosen plane. It is sufficient. it looks almost as if (again. since it does not mately coincide exactly with the hyperbola of the third degree). somehow or other) he had seen some description of " The Method " of Archimedes. Thus there is a possibility of infinite space being filled with a succession of cosmic systems. the sum of the distances for each of the points is equal to the distance of the particle multiplied by the number of points in the particle. and of the use Leibniz later made of the principle of moments . each of which would never interfere with any other . This existence proof. for the reason given above). For he proceeds to define the centre of gravity geometrically. in relation to recent statements of Einstein and Weyl. for the next point. A third similar plane cuts this straight line in a point . i. 230236 . to draw the reader's attention to Art. and to prove that there is always a centre of gravity. in which the third point is in a state of steady motion . there is a series of orbits. due solely to the mutual forces exerted on a third point by two points separated by a proper interval. however. The argument is shortly as follows to the right of. Find a similar plane of equal distances in another direction this intersects the first plane in a straight line. is the subject-matter of Art. it has the unique property that all planes through it are planes of equal distances. Another interesting point. these orbits are alternately stable and stable. or suppose that. especially Guldinus . a mind existing in any one of these universes could never perceive the existence of any other universe except that in which it existed. It would appear especially that he is. Suppose that interesting. It may. Boscovich has apparently considered the work of Pascal and others. at a distance from it equal to the quotient just found. and to the articles which follow on the agreement between . the ingenuity of his explanations and their logic.. combined with different characteristics of the arcs that lie There is. aware of the mistake made by Leibniz in his early days (a mistake corrected by Huygens according to the statement of Leibniz). If in addition.

that. These three sections are full of interest for the modern reader. 505. but this motion is that of the " particles of fire. Art. . amongst others. Boscovich deduces from his theory the theorems. purely derived from the theory of mutual actions between points of matter. The first is that at this time it would appear that the nature of negative numbers and quantities was not yet fully understood. intentionally or unintentionally. Boscovich has apparently made a slip over the negative sign intention is clear. and the centre of . alternate attraction and repulsion. only comand therefore the difficulty does not arise. or of a motion of it. however. which is appended at the end of this volume. particle " fits " of It is to be noted that the case. to make his curve more symmetrical. if completed." No attention will be called to this part of the work. and therefore reflection is a case of impact. The second point is that Boscovich does not seem to have any idea of integrating between limits. : . It is obvious. continues it to the left of the origin as a reflection in the existence . postulated by Newton. intervals ." a lack of this substance. 141. because with Boscovich light is matter moving with a very high velocity. the curve and the He assumes that ordinate ag this he does by the use of the calculus in Note (1) on p. that it " " Cold is may be a fermentation of a sulphurous substance with particles of light. = = as the (p. o. follow as a natural consequence of the winding portion of the curve of Boscovich. however. beyond an of admiration for the great ingenuity of a large part expression sion of it. of the law of the lever this is well worth study. In Art. Boscovich does not look on either of these as being in themselves existent his entities are modes of existence. which deals with the application of the Theory to Physics. 5). in his Theory. 328-346 we have a discussion of the centre of oscillation. namely. This comes under the section on Mechanics. and he is able to give an explanation of the propagation of the disturbance purely by means of the mutual forces between the particles of the medium. 1. Boscovich. in the equation P-Qy Note. 298-306 we have a mechanical exposition of reflection and refraction of light. as there is no attempt made to follow out the . that the centres of suspenand oscillation are interchangeable. the existence of a sine law is demonstrated. He has to find the area. The work is completed in a letter to Fr. avoids this difficulty. and not line symmetry about the axis of ordinates. There is a metaphysical appendix on the seat of the mind. he also gives a rule for finding the simple equivalent pendulum. If this perpendicular is not all is refracted the enters the and in which medium. This is followed by two short discussions of a philosophical nature on Space and Time. percussion is investigated as well for masses in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. in Fig. 25. if distances to the left of the origin stand for measured in the opposite direction to the ordinary (remembering that of the two points under consideration one is supposed to be at the origin). and masses lying in a straight line. Thus.INTRODUCTION the resolutes. 134. and P and Q as equation to the curve may be obtained. bounded by the axes. velocity destroyed. when showing how the x* as his variable. the curve of Boscovich. by taking z functions of z. Boscovich uses the result to prove the non-existence of vires vivce. There are two points of historical interest beyond the study of the work of Boscovich that can be gathered from this volume. In Art." if it is a motion . the correct notion that sound is a longitudinal vibration of the air or some other medium . Boscovich. philosophical Supplement V is a theoretical proof. . In this connection referred to above. temporal and local. I on p. . 410. Scherffer. the surface being that part of space in front of the physical surface of the medium in which the particles of light are near enough to the denser medium to feel the influence of the last repulsive asymptotic branch of the curve of forces. In the third section. axis of ordinates. an alternative reason is however given. in that it depends " " upon the destruction of the whole of the perpendicular velocity upon entering the surface of a denser medium. Boscovich evidently has naturally do not look for much that is of value. 294 we have Boscovich's contribution to the controversy over the correct " measure of the " quantity of motion but. In Art. should have point symmetry about the origin. and on the and attributes of GOD. and that the distance between them is equal to the distance of the centre of percussion from the axis of rotation . then the force just the other side of the axis of ordinates must be but the repulsion is in the opposite direction repulsive to the ordinary way of measuring it. In Art. it cannot be said to lead to anything conclusive. 507 he certainly states that the cause of heat is a " vigorous internal motion " . and its nature. no attempt has been made to amend the Latin. In this connection he adds that there position are no signs in Nature of anything approaching the vires viva of Leibniz. where each mass is connected with the different centres. we But. As a matter of fact. in Art. and therefore should appear on the curve represented by an ordinate of attraction. change in either the velocity or the square of the velocity. xvii Boscovich points out that. there is no resolution.

and he could make his own laws about these so that they suited the geometrical it was not necessary that they should obey the laws problems to which they were applied Boscovich's mistake is.xviii INTRODUCTION is nm + A. a work in five quarto volumes. of course. we may mention In astrojust a few of his discoveries in science. A the infinite when n = m. and considered the rings of Saturn. which seem to call for special attention. and in this he is probably deceived by . . then faced with making necessity " n = m. He the of area at the origin. parallel postulate numbers. being the initial area n constant of integration. very great importance in the history of the development of mathematical thought. and thus the area becomes is : still more . before Lobachevski and Bolyai. we of this error for so long a time. in order to bring out the versatility of the genius of Boscovich.xy if is gt is is still : is this makes the divisor zero . death of Boscovich . infinity. seems The persistence to lend corroboration to a doubt as to whether the integral sign was properly understood as a summation between limits. under the title of Opera pertinentia ad Opticam et Astronomiam. He states that. In mechanics and " " geodesy. He gave methods for determining the orbit of a comet from " " three observations. published in 1785. he successfully attacked the question of the earth's density and perfected the apparatus of the measurement of the In mathematical theory. the constant is A is indeed zero but if n If n is ow/( "~m) n than m. From the latter easily seen that since the zero. namely. he invented a prism with a variable angle for measuring the refraction and dispersion of different kinds of glass . xmy n = and obtains the integral . and put forward a theory of achromatism for the objectives and oculars of the telescope. that of inequality that were true for ordinary numbers. and hence of indeed it was an error in his case . Mention must however be made of one other work of Boscovich at least . and that this sum could be expressed as the difference of two It appears to me that this point is one of values of the same function of those limits. In what was then the subsidiary science of optics. and infinite. spot he carried out some investigations on the orbit of Uranus. M. we must have . A= is less equal to or greater than m. greater than m. the Bernoullis and others on the calculus. Finally. n > m >o oo The historically interesting Wallis point about this is that it represents the persistance of an error originally made by " in his Ariihmetica Infinitorum (it was Wallis who invented the sign oc to stand for simple Wallis had justification for his error. J. infinite. infinite if n<^m. using the formula it is nm xy -f- A. Some idea of how prolific Boscovich was as an author may be gathered from the catalogue This catalogue has been taken from the of his writings appended at the end of this volume. for the area. if /o). from 1655 to 1 75%> during which have the writings of Newton. where A the = o. . C. . for his exponents were characteristics of certain infinite series." Put into symbols..B. of assuming that the constant is zero in every case . nomical science. It was felt to be an impossible task to make this list complete up to the time of the 1763. the impossibility of a proof of he seems to have recognized. " " and considered the theory of the logarithms of negative Euclid's . says the equation of the curve I. The page numbers on the left-hand pages of the index are the pages of the they correspond with the clarendon numbers inserted original Latin Edition of 1763 throughout the Latin text of this edition. N. he was apparently the first to solve the problem of the body of greatest attraction . he speaks of the use of a telescope filled with liquid for the purpose of measuring the aberration of light he invented a prismatic micrometer contemporaneously with Rochon and Maskelyne. because infinite He The area when more when n<jn. the argument Since -OT<O." the value of i/o. . and brings the list up to the date of its publication. and for the equator of the sun from three observations of a . end of the original first Venetian edition. and an incomplete continuation did not seem desirable. Leibniz. and advanced the theory meridian. the constant m . instead of initial area n is m ^B/("-* l) -}- A.

1. for just as 9> af ter a li . p. after conjunction 25. for in one plane read in the same direction 47. 199. may be founded read in what it consists. P..345 p. footnote. 91. . . note. p. p. for the agitation will read the fluidity will 3 2 > for described read destroyed 1- 1. 2 of marg. 67. 39. 27. p. 62. from end. Art. 8. for so that read just as 1. 5 from bottom. Art. for fire read a fiery and insert a comma before substance XIX . it is allowable for me read I am for disposed . motion. for others read some. Art. 115. meaning add of the same point of space Alternative rendering : and these properties might distinguish the points even in the view of the followers of Leibniz nothing add in the strict of the term 1.. 1. 41. literally on which .CORRIGENDA Attention is called to the following important corrections. Pp.. is exerted . p. marg. 73. Alternative rendering : Not to speak of the actual form of the leaves present in the seed 25. 307. p. unless in the original libet is to be a misprint for licet 1. 129.. 125. misprints involving a single letter or syllable only are given at the 1. the pores of a sponge did for impenetrability . 1. 33. 117. is read so that may be itself 1- ne a dd but not parts of the line 61. transpose by and on I. S3> 1. 49. 1. 162. 4 from bottom. 1. 323. 1. p. 1. 126. and alternative renderings . p. 85. 357. as (with fluids) takes place read motion from taking place 1. for ignored read 1. it is that acquirere is intended for acquiescere. 1. after the left add but that the two outer elements do not touch each other 28. p. for on what they 1. p. 5 from end. 233. 44. 26. 1. 214. omissions. end of the volume. p. urged in reply -possible 1. for two little spheres read one little sphere p. 1. for base to the angle read base to the sine of the angle vary insert inversely for last line. note. p. for precisely read abstractly 29. others of others 5 1. 5. for be at read bisect it at 24. after 27. with a corresponding change in the translation p. after p. 6 from bottom. 167. Alternative rendering: These instances make good the same point as water making taken its way through p. p. 47.

THEORIA PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS .

& quidem nunc etiam in reliquis omnibus Europse partibus. ut novam Operis editionem curarem accedebat illud. si Diaria publica perlegeris. sine ulla perturbatione sententiarum. fcecunditatem summam. ut lacunulae implerentur quae aliquando idcirco & quatuor supererant. & casu quodam Viennae. quod quidem ipso praesente fieri facile potuit. donee demum ex tarn redux hue nuper se contulit. ac propugnatis exponitur. quo se ad breve : : tempus contulerat. post cujus innumera obrepsisse typorum menda discessum suscepta ibi fuerat. videbit sane discrimen. . ac praeter correctores nostros ipse omnem haud quidem sibi ita fidit. initium anni 1761 Systema continet Naturalis Philosophise omnino novum. . ac usum amplissimum ac omnem. quo plausu exceptum per Europam. derivandam intimius velit conspicere. & a pluribus habetur pro archetype. & corrupta ipsum eorum omnium correctionem meditari. aut nuspiam venalia prostant. consulas ea. arctissimum partium nexum mutuum. ac contemplari. cum ea sit ut quanquam ipse humanas mentis conditio. & toto adstitit editionis tempore. quod jam ab ipso Auctore suo vulgo Boscovichianum appellant. simul praela sudabant. exponitur. sed & in pluribus elementaribus libris pro juventute instituenda editis adhibetur. E minoribus mutatiunculis multae pertinent ad expolienda. quod plures ph'ylirae a diversis compositoribus simul adornabantur. vel dissertatibi offero. & auctum ipsum edition! praesentem haberem. At id quidem per hosce annos obtinere non licuit.TYPOGRAPHUS VENETUS LECTORI PUS. : : : quibus Opus perpolitum redderetur magis. ac editum. Id quidem in pluribus Academiis jam passim publice traditur. inter ut omittam caetera. ac longa peregrinatione is etiam in corrigendo diligentiam adhibuit . censebam. Et quidem editionem ipsam e Viennensi exemplari jam turn inchoaveram cum illud mihi constitit. per universam Europam disseminandum. admodum inordinata. necesse est. atque originaria editio haberi debet. sunt tamen etiam nonnulla potissimum in paginarum fine exigua additamenta. quod jam ab annis quinque Viennse editum. quod Viennensia exemplaria non ita facile extra Germaniam itura videbam. ut in eadem re diu satis intente defigi non possit. quam qui cum Viennensi contulerit. & declaranda plura loca . & ordinis. sit . summopere displicere esse autem multa. utut expetita. vel mutatiunculas exiguae factae post typographicam constructionem idcirco tantummodo. nihil omnino effugisse censeat. digestum. inprimis ea. tionibus impressis. & vero etiam additamentis. aut vix uspiam systema vero in Italia natum. nee tantum in annuis thesibus. Naturam ex unica simplici lege virium consulat. videbis sane quo id loco haberi debeat. Viennensem editionem ipsi Auctori. cum nonnullis mutationibus. Haec idcirco ut prima quaedam. eo universam fere Europam peragrante . ac ab Auctore suo pluribus hie apud nos jam dissertationibus adumbratum. hoc Opus Haec omnia me permoverant jam ab initio. Verum qui omnem systematis compagem. Italicis potissimum typis. & curantem omnia per sese. quae in Bernensi pertinent ad quse si. quam late patet. quas Algebraicas formulas continent. Illud ergo summopere desideravi. noveris sane. ut exemplar acquirerem ab ipso correctum.

different parts . but also in several . however. to give a better finish to the work. I was greatly desirous of obtaining a copy. founded on a copy of the Vienna edition. as luck would have it. . from the name of its author. I was unable to procure during the last few years. it is even now a subject of public instruction in several Universities in in yearly theses or dissertations. in addition to our regular proof-readers. there was the fact that I perceived that it would be a matter of some difficulty for copies of the Vienna edition to pass beyond the confines of Germany indeed. without causing any disturbance of the sentences or the pagination. . & that thought right as the of an Italian I had in fact already commenced an edition preferably product press. together with certain additional matter. It follows that this ought to be considered in some measure as a first & original edition . from a single simple law of forces any one who wishes to make a deeper study of it must perforce study the work here offered. that innumerable printer's errors had crept in . however. I therefore put shape published it that it should be disseminated throughout the whole of Europe. & stayed here to assist me during the whole time that the edition was in hand. with what applause offer to you has been received throughout Europe since its publication at Vienna five years ago. Many of the minor alterations are made for the purpose of rendering certain passages more elegant & clear there are. no matter how diligently they are inquired for. or scarcely anywhere. or its great fertility & wide scope for the purpose of deriving the whole of Nature. . whither he had gone for a short time. . this could easily be done presses were kept hard at work together. if you refer to the numbers of the Berne Journal for the early part of the if now It year 1761. He. were ill-arranged and erroneous . & its outlines had already been sketched by the author in several dissertations published here in our own land though. which is already commonly known as the Boscovichian theory. the close relation that its several parts bear to one another. explained. in which he has been travelling through nearly the whole of Europe until at last he came here. merely for the purpose of filling up gaps that were left here & there these gaps being due to the fact that several sheets were being set at the same time by different compositors. the work which I you have read the public journals. especially at the foot of a additions or also. As a matter of fact. slight slight changes made after the type was set up. both printed & books issued for the instruction of the young it is elementary introduced. as he returned home from his lengthy wanderings. any one who compares it with that issued at Vienna will soon see the difference between them. you will not fail to see how highly it has been esteemed. and four As he was at hand. in her widest range. & that he should superintend the whole thing for himself. it is expounded not only debated . in addition. Not to mention others. mind that it cannot concentrate long on the same subject with sufficient attention. including certain alterations. . they are to be found on sale nowhere. That being the case. that many passages. All these considerations had from the first moved me to undertake a new edition of the work . who wishes to obtain more detailed insight into the whole structure of the theory. himself also used every care in coreven then. revised & enlarged himself I also wanted to have him at hand whilst the edition was in by progress. This. & by many considered as their original. he has not sufficient confidence in himself as to recting the proof that not the For it is a characteristic of the human imagine slightest thing has escaped him. that the author himself had in mind a complete revision. taken in hand there after his departure . . contains an entirely new system of Natural Philosophy. page. however. a little while ago. when it came to my knowledge that the author was greatly dissatisfied with the Vienna edition. The system had its birth in Italy.THE PRINTER AT VENICE TO THE READER ! OU will be well aware. in the rest of Europe. Any one. at the present time. especially those that contain Algebraical formulae. however. lastly. the system itself was finally into and at Vienna.

quse nondum absoluta sunt. discerptus additamenta & plura in iis. Hie catalogus impressus fuit Venetisis ante hosce duos annos in reimpressione ejus poematis de Solis ac Lunae defectibus. pertinent ad sedem animse. aggressurus illico post suum regressum in Urbem Romam. & correctam. in qua dissertatiuncula demonstrat Auctor non esse. & Supplementorum ordo mutatus est itidem quse enim fuerant 3.4 TYPOGRAPHUS VENETUS LECTORI : : nam numerus 82 Inter mutationes occurret ordo numerorum mutatus in paragraphis in Appendice demum est in fuerat 261 deinde is. quam magnificentissime potero. quod pluribus numeris complectitur dissertatiunculam integram de argumento. quorum collectionem omnem expolitam. ubi ipse adornaverit. Accesserunt per totum Opus notulae marginales. Postremo loco ad calcem Operis additus est fusior catalogus eorum omnium. omnium suorum Operum Collectionem. jam fuerat alia occurrit. typis ego meis excudendam suscipiam. nunc autem est tertium. in quibus eorum. continuationem meditatur. Illi 2 nam eorum usus in ipso Opere ante autem. 534 factse sunt & mutatiunculse nonnullae. quorum ope unico obtutu videri possint omnia. quse hue usque ab ipso Auctore sunt edita. quo properat. quod prius primum. quae pertractantur argumenta exponuntur brevissima. sunt I. & 4. . tu laboribus nostris fruere. Haec erant. accessit in fine Scholium tertium. quae te monendum censui . cur ad vim exprimendam potentia . : quaepiam distantiae adhibeatur potius. quam functio. & vive felix. Porro earn. ac eorum. quse post num. quod ante aliquot annos in Parisiensi Academia controversise occasionem exhibuit in Encyclopedico etiam dictionario attactum. qui de novo accessit totus 5 . & in memoriam facile revocari.

82 in the into five Appendix. for which those that are not yet finished This catalogue was printed in Venice a couple of years ago city he is preparing to set out. with all the sumptuousness at my . by the help of these. Such were the matters that enjoy the fruit of our labours. in preference now III. Later. in which the arguments dealt with are given in brief . there has them give a short to a function. why any one power of the distance should be employed to express the force. parts . To that for use in this work before the others. several years ago caused a controversy in the University of Paris. consisting of several articles that between but complete dissertation on that point which. when his revision of them is complete. in connection with a reprint of his essay in verse on the eclipses of the Sun and Moon. at the end of the work. &. a somewhat full catalogue of the whole of the author's Of these publications the author publications up to the present time has been added. command. that which was additional matter that is entirely new the paragraphs. May you & live in happiness. Thus. . I thought ought to be brought to your notice. the whole matter may be taken in at a glance and recalled to mind with ease. revised and corrected. formerly Art.THE PRINTER AT VENICE TO THE READER Among the more Important alterations will be found is 5 a change in the order of numbering . I propose to undertake the printing of this complete collection of his works from my own type. but is been added a third scholium. 261 is now broken up have been made in the passages also several additions and 534. This was done because they are required which was formerly numbered I. Short marginal summaries have been inserted throughout the work. following Art. Lastly. Art. The order of the Supplements has been altered also those that were formerly num: bered III and IV are now I and II respectively. intends to make a full collection. the same point being also discussed in the In this dissertation the author shows that there is no reason Dictionnaire Encydopedique. together with a continuation of this he proposes to do after his return to Rome. both some slight changes that relate to the Seat of the Soul.

non ut civem suum tantummodo. raro admodum per . . & sacrorum non ea tantum urbs. qua animi moderatione. & . exceres curam exterum hominem. NUNC PR^TEREA ET CARDINALEM EMINENTISSIMUM. ut saepe. .EPISTOLA AUCTORIS DEDICATORIA EDITIONIS VIENNENSIS AD CELSISSIMUM TUNC PRINCIPEM ARCHIEPISCOPUM VIENNENSEM. accedente Romani in qua Tu quidem personam itidem. Princeps Celsissime. si forte inter assiduas sacri regirninis curas importunus interpellator advenio. & destinatus muneris vixdum capta. istos Tibi tarn celeres dignitatum gradus quodammodo veluti coacervavit. atque ditio. qua diliVetus nimirum illud celeberrimum labore tanti Sacerdotii munus obire pergas. sed ut Parentem amanquanquam tissimum habuit. altissime jam insederat animo. semper. quas a Natura uberrime congestas habes. & singular! cura. & demissione quadam. dignum tantis dotibus explicandis theatrum. quam agis. ut Te Romas dantem operam ipsa age. Dum Romse in celeberrimo illo. ac vigilantissimi quam sacrorum Antistitis partes agas. & angitur dum scilicet minore. atque ibi dum post tantos Aularum strepitus ea. quae ad sacra pertinent. quo cum Tibi ab juventute. videt tras. atque in omne hominum genus charitate. haesit firmissime. sed Naturalis Philosophise principia continentem. accesserat Pontificem exercenda . diligenPontificis Auctoritate collocatum . & ingenti admiratione defixa obstupescit. quod agis. quas exercitatione. & libellum Tibi offero mole tenuem. quam in isto tanto constitutus fastigio adminis- universa Regalis Urbs. tot Imperatorum sedem. quam unius anni intervallo ab Ipsa Augustissima Imperatrice ad Regalem hanc Urbem.BIS veniam. ad Hispanicum Regem ab Successor. id in omni reliquo inprimis dotibus. primum. ut. atque assiduo labore comparasti. atque in hac Celsissima Archiepiscopali Sede. Aulicas. curandis vel per Te ipsum usque adeo. gentia. collegio toti apud Romanum Vacciensis Ecclesia adepta est Christianum Antistitem decet. Augustissima Imperatrice summa Aulae in quibus cum utriusque approbatione versatum per annos quinque ditissima appellant. & Tibi tute diuturna virtutibus. tissime sustinens. cum repente MechHetrusca Imperialis Legatio in ilia Ecclesia liniensi Archiepiscopo administranda amplissima Adjutor datus. totus es in gravissimis Sacerdotii Tui expediendis negotiis. . Te. quod studiis Novi ego quidem. in eo totus sis. ET EPISCOPUM VACCIENSEM CHRISTOPHORUM E COMITATIBUS DE MIGAZZI IA. Sacerdotales occupationes. Videt utique Imperialis haec Aula. cognoscerem. ac Austriacae Dominationis caput. possessione prsestantissimi Romanorum ad gravissima tractanda negotia Legatus es missus. quam Principum admirationem excitavit ubique. mihi fors obtigit. conciliavit amorem alia munera ut ab aliis sublimiora honorificentiora illud est factum. ac diligentia Religionem administras. personam sustineas. quam geris. quod Auditorum Rotae Christiano orbi jus diceres. atque quodammodo velut avulsum. & omnium una tarn amplissimorum munerum adjectum tarn multis Tibi commissorum cursu atque idipsum & unde populorum. quern adhuc ereptum sibi dolet. atque abstractum rapuerint. sancvarias observatum inter tarn tissime forenses. in iis omnibus. nee arcana Religionis mysteria. eocatum videt. sed universum Hungariae Regnum.

each ever more exalted & honourable than the preceding. Hardly had you entered upon the duties of that most distinguished appointment. & his future successor. the seat of a long line of Emperors. & stands wrapt with an overwhelming admiration. had already fixed itself deeply in your mind. in So that not charity towards the whole race of mankind. & those virtues which inopportune moment borne you away a captive. under Austria. THEN HIS HIGHNESS THE PRINCE ARCHBISHOP OF VIENNA. has looked upon you. & sacerdotal. entirely your time is taken up with sustaining the reputation that you bear. with what care. both peoples & princes alike. but the whole realm of Hungary as well. perchance I come to disturb at an if you have acquired for yourself by daily practice & unremitting toil. or in attending to all those things that deal with the sacred rites with your own hands so much so that we often see you officiating. sustaining with the utmost diligence the part you play so well. Whilst there. whom she still mourns & sorrows for. giving judicial decisions to the whole Christian world in that famous College. than you were despatched by the August Empress of the Romans as Legate on a mission of the greatest importance. rather as a well beloved father. the Rota of Auditors. there was added the duty of acting on the Tuscan Imperial Legation at the Court of the Roman Pontiff. Suddenly you were appointed coadjutor to the Archbishop of Malines in the administration of that great church. has so to speak heaped upon your shoulders those unusually rapid advances in dignity that have been your lot. you administer the offices of religion & discharge the sacred rights with that moderation of spirit & humility that befits a Christian prelate. has in a sense seized upon you . one that merely deals with the prinI know full well how ciples of Natural Philosophy. you throw yourself heart and soul into the business of discharging the weighty duties of your priesthood. to this exalted Archiepiscopal see. as one of her own citizens nay. throughout your whole career. though of foreign race. after less than a year had passed. Here too. Of a truth. & even administering the Sacraments. COUNT DE MIGAZZI. now that you have been taken from her. . that well-known old saying. AND NOW ALSO IN ADDITION HIS EMINENCE THE CARDINAL. the great distractions of a life at Court being left behind. Most Noble Prince. Your strict observance of this maxim in particular. courtly. such as you administer from the highly exalted position to which you are ordained . in every land & at the same time it has earned for you their deep affection. has remained firmly implanted there during the whole of the remainder of a career in which duties of the highest importance have been committed to your care.AUTHOR'S EPISTLE DEDICATING THE FIRST VIENNA EDITION TO CHRISTOPHER. only that city & the district in its see. You occupied yourself on this mission for the space of five years. the whole of this Royal City sees. when chance first allowed me to make your acquaintance while you were studying in Rome. to the entire approbation of both Courts. she sees you recalled by the August Empress herself to this Imperial City. forensic. & offer a in size . BISHOP OF VACZ OU will pardon me. with a singularly attentive care. It has aroused the admiration of all. & the capital of the Dominions of she sees you appointed. " What you do. & in performing the duties of a highly conscientious Prelate. the unremitting cares of your Holy Office. one too that contains none of the volume so inconsiderable you inner mysteries of Religion. Whilst you were in Rome. nay. DO. & then the wealthy church of Vacz obtained your services. joined with those numerous talents so lavishly showered upon you by Nature. & the auspices of the authority of the Roman Pontiff. in our : . The consequence was that one office after another. you exert yourself to carry out the duties of so great a sacred office. what toil. For. This Imperial Court sees. a worthy stage for the display of your great talents ." which from your earliest youth.

& vero etiam evertant penitus. Philosophicas hasce meditationes meas. Argumentum pertractat sublime admodum. & ad ipsum Divinum tantae molis Conditorem assurgit.8 EPISTOLA AUCTORIS DEDICATORIA PRI1VLE EDITIONIS VIENNENSIS tempora exemplo. turn demum Deum & omnem animo cum & videantur. ac Tuo vellem Nomine insignitum. quod ad supremi sacrorum Moderatoris curam pertinet providere. quae ad diversa prasstanda phaenomena sunt adhibendas. & Mechanicae mihi constitutionem & simplicem continuam. atque inter orum aliis coagmentata conjunguntur ibidem. ubique prodat applicatione non ex arbitrariis hypothesibus. quasi vilem aliquam. ipsum sapientissimum Mundi sibi mente excusserint. sed cum eodem apprime consentiens. Est autem & illud. ac tantulae libellum molis homini ad tantum culmen sum tamen inde evecto porrigerem. Sacerdotali offerat. inter gravissimas istas Tuas Sacerdotales curas. quam belle ab ipsa arbitror cum Sacerdotii sanctitate penitus consentire. quae infinites casus perspiciat. profecto perniciosissimis. absterritus. ne. Est ille quidem satis tenuis libellus. quae sensim Religionem quod quidem jam corrumpant. religionem. quae neque sed omni praejudicio seposito. comprobo. & combinationes elementorum. ac eruant a fundamentis dudum tristi quodam Europae fato passim evenire cernimus. Providentiam admiratus. prava teneris mentibus irrepant. atque tribunal tanti Sacerdotum Principis Universae Physicae Theoriam. consideratione Naturae ad caslestium rerum contemplationem disponitur animus. imbuti principiis juvenes. ut eas ubique vel definiat. e superiore loco docentum audiamus. inquam recessum. contemplationem omnino ego quidem dignissimas Mirum enim. & immensa Mentis Divinae vis ubique ac in Naturam requiritur. sed ex sola continua ratiocinatione deducta. & Tua ipsius voce populos. & publico operatum. ne cum eo ad tantum Principem accederem. ubi demum cum : . nemo sane me Habetur impudentiae arguat. quae maxime omnium per celebrantur. usihaec tempora tatisque plurimam discrepans. turn ad Mechanicam primum. Tibi sisterem. quae erumpunt undique. in : casu. in quo Theoriam meam expono. eo plerumque tantummodo rem deducens. elementorum materiae. tiones complector meas. sua generales materiae ipsius proprietates. & nobile. ne in prima ingenuae juventutis institutione. nee novi hanc indolem. Moderatorem Quamobrem qui veluti ad Fabricatorem. agendi ratio. & uberrimos usus ubi brevi quidem libello. ac ipsa etiam Sacramenta administrantem videamus in templis. gliscente in dies malo. a utcumque inter se componerem. infinitam ejus Potentiam Sapientiam. atque ad omne virtutum genus inflammantem. cum Newtoni viribus inducentibus in aliis distantiis accessum mutuum. at non & tenuem quoque rem continet. si minus infiliclter me gessero. atque compaginarem vero etiam exorsus & inconcussis. Ejusmodi autem est omnis. in eo novum quoddam Universae Naturalis Philosophiae genus a receptis hue usque. & repulsiones appellant enim ego conciliandi studio hinc. vel adumbret leges. quae semper a naturalibus studiis exordium ducit. legem virium in Natura existentium unicam. uti sunt simplicia atque inextensa Leibnitianelementa. & inde decerpsi quaedam ad arbitrium selecta. rem is quidem praestet sequissimam. quanquam etiam ex iis. inducat. & fictitiis commentationibus. sed admodum diuturnas annorum jam tredecim meditaexpono. legitima ratiocinatione principiis ad nexu deveni & continue conclusionum usus. ad quas combinationes Conditoris Supremi consilium. sed Philosophicas etiam perquisitiones universam Naturae esse & censeo. quae mutuum : : . & ad rem aptissimos seligat. uniformis se ut eadem in iis omnibus ita exhibuit. & novam potissimum Theoriam sistat. Quod enim ad primum pertinet Christiano Antistite caput. ubi si quid praestitero. nee alienum quidpiam ab ejus munere . & tanto indignam fastigio rem offeram. & praecipua corporum discrimina. . ac perniciosa principia. non Theologicas tantum. Nee vero exigua libelli moles deterrere me debuit. deinde ad Physicam applico. in quo illustrando omnem ego quidem industriam coUocavi. receptis communiter. & utique se produnt. ut fucatis sibi sapere quibusdam. vindico Id mihi quidem argumentum est operis. quas vulgo attractiones. hanc animi constitutionem Novi ego quidem haec omnia haec nostra . casu se veluti quodam praecipua quasque mirum sane in modum compacta.

& to give honour to the Divine Founder of such a mighty structure. Supreme of such a sets before the so to Universe. and fictitibus explanations. by fate. then I apply it. interlocking and as it were cemented together of the followers of Leibniz. let no one accuse me of of such dispresumption. simple. that it is part of the duty of a religious superior to take care that. carrying on my conclu. If in ingly sublime and noble idea this I have somewhat succeeded. naught but one that could survey the countless cases. in every case. harmony with it. Moreover it is in all its parts of such a kind as defines. if I have not failed altogether. lost in astonishment at His infinite Power & Wisdom & Providence. select those most suitable for the purpose. stitution of yet of duties those your priestly office. just as it suited me for the purpose of making them agree & form On the contrary. he be offering him Nor would is correct. & indeed are those commonly accepted . & the mighty power of a Divine Mind are absolutely necessary . . are present day. & afterwards to Physics. Nor. as if I were offering some worthless thing. & in investigations quite of all the works of Nature is in complete accord with the a my opinion. Universe. continuous law for the forces that law explained to me the constitution of the elements of matter. With should that it of of eminence nor desiring heights that not I think these the first of heads. the matter that it contains is not unimportant as well. & I am . in all directions is & in all things. in the first instance to Mechanics. as the canker spreads most are the truth but that counterfeit made to imbibe principles actually pernicious docfrom their banished until have to have attained wisdom trines. single. or such pernicious principles as may gradually corrupt the belief in things Divine. but from a single continuous chain of reasoning. is new. only theological but also philosophical regard to for consideration matters are suitable by a Christian prelate . not from arbitrary hypotheses. improper ideas do not insinuate themselves into tender minds . which break forth & disclose themselves all this . should the inconsiderable size of my little book deter me from approachIt is true that the volume of the book is not very great. & started from a connected whole. at the present time & differs widely from any that are generally accepted practised the most distinguished theories of the although it so happens that the principal points of all in a truly marvellous way. Europe and. . one who prince of judgment-seat speak & more of the priesthood as yourself a theory especially one that general Physical Science. in which I explain. & set forth the many advantages to be derived from it. elements so too are the simple unextended combined in it 'some distances & mutual at as well as the Newtonian forces producing mutual approach " it so I use the words separation at others. although the book is but small. . " one selected thing happens because I have not. in such a manner that the same uniform method of action in all things disclosed itself at all points . in eagerness to make the whole consistent. nor offering bear the hall-mark of your name. all over unhappy have been who at an ever increasing rate. & uproot it from its very foundations. & by a continuous chain of deduction I arrived at a The application of this exist in Nature. and introduce them into the scheme of Nature. in the earliest training of ingenuous youth. here and another there. I yet include the well-nigh daily meditations of the last thirteen years. & the chief characteristics of bodies. and also hear you with your own voice exhorting the people from your episcopal throne. Here. There also this further point. which always takes its start from the study of the wonders of Nature. .AUTHOR'S EPISTLE DEDICATING THE FIRST VIENNA EDITION churches (a 9 somewhat unusual thing at the present time). things. one that tinguished honour. even destroy it altogether. I put on one side all prejudice. This is what we nay. the laws of Mechanics. Hence. something unworthy Natural In it is contained a new kind of Universal Philosophy. but ing with it so great a prince. of adverse decree some have seen for a long time taking place. usually called attractions and repulsions. the combinations of the elements that must be employed of the Founder For these combinations the wisdom of the Supreme different phenomena. do not think that they they Head of the and the Allwise Founder and of minds all thoughts of religion God. contemplation For it is marvellous how exceedingly prone the mind becomes sanctity of the priesthood. The theory it develops is a strik& I have done my very best to explain it properly. to pass from a contemplation of Nature herself to the contemplation of celestial. prove & defend my theory . these philosophical meditations of weighty amongst all in bulk to one who has attained to such so inconsiderable a volume of mine . secondly. & inciting them to virtue of know full well the extent of your genius. I am well aware of I mind . fundamental principles that are incontestable. & your connot afraid on that account of putting into your hands. every kind. is doing nothing but what absolutely that is in complete one the but on contrary anything inconsistent with his priestly office. being deduced. the general properties of matter itself. This then is the argument of my work. young men. or to produce suggests. I used perfectly sound arguments.

EDITIONIS VIENNENSIS placitis. prodit bus negotiis. Haec sunt. Idibus Febr. sed quantum fieri per me potuit. ac ingenti clamore quodam efnagitabat tanta erga me humanitas Tua. nee in tanto dedignatus fastigio. qua jam olim immerentem complexus Romae. ac devinct: issimum. molestioriplusquam duplo aucta. sed omnem in eodem adornando. intentos conatus meos nam quidquid eo in genere meditando assequi possum. quae meum Tibi consilium probent. quern laborem postremo hoc mense. MDCCLFIIL JESU . Inde vero jam facile intelliges. sed etiam apprime decet turn ipsius argumenti vis. est duplex primo quidem ipsum argumenti genus. quod usque adeo voluminis molem contraxit. cur ipsum laborem meum ad Te deferre. & vero etiam in publicum. Princeps Celsissime Tu. omni benevolentiae significatione prosequeris. & jam ad exteras quoque gentes pervasit sed ea nunc primum tota in unum compacta. quae me Viennam adduxerant. communibus Philosophorum consentio . in dies nimirum discessuro. qua soles humanitate auctorem excipere. & Tuo nuncupare Nomini non dubitaverim. totum ibidem adhibui. hie etiam fovere pergis. fovebisque. Dederam ego quidem dispersa dissertatiunculis variis Theorise meae qusedam velut specimina. quae nimirum confirmat. quod in hisce terris vix adhuc nota. quae habemus jam pro compertis. & quodammodo veluti posthumam post ipsum ejus discessum typis mea : impressam. dum in Italiam rediturus opportunam itineri tempus inter assiduas nives opperior. ex meis etiam deductionibus sponte fluunt. & si forte adhuc consilium ipsum Tibi visum fuerit improbandum . & curis omnibus exsolutus suscepi. Accedit autem & illud. opus excipe. parente velut hie orbatam suo. quae inde & in Italia Professores publicos nonnullos adstipulatores est nacta. Dabam Viennce in Collegia Academico Soc. Patrocinio indiget. quod Christianum Antistitem non modo non dedecet. ut idcirco nihil arbitrer a mea tenuitate proferri posse te minus indignum. Ratio ex iis. obtinebit sane validissimum. cui ut aliquem offerrem laborum meorum fructum quantumcunque. & ubi ea. Vale. si Tuo Nomine insignata prodeat in publicum. animum saltern aequus respice obsequentissimum Tibi. quod. & secura vagabitur Tu enim illam.io EPISTOLA AUCTORIS DEDICATORIA PRIM. atque dignitas. & erigit nimium fortasse impares. exposcebat sane. vel etiam ignota penitus Theoria : : . & ad communem mediocrum etiam Philosophorum captum accommodando diligentiam adhibui. & in publicum prodeuntem tueberis. quae proposui.

whilst I wait for seasonable time for my return journey through the everlasting snow to Italy. the nature of my theme is one that is not only not unsuitable. For you will protect & cherish it. are the & this has in some measure helped to diminish the natural results of my deductions also I had size of the volume. From this you will readily understand why I have not hesitated to bestow this book of mine upon you. at least regard favourably the intentions of your most humble & devoted servant. beg you to receive the work with the same kindness as you used to show to its author &. secondly. & to dedicate it to you. . & therefore needs a patron's support . to honour me with every mark of your goodwill. & do not disdain. February i$th. I have applied the whole of it to this matter . & consequently I think that nothing less unworthy of you can be produced by my poor ability & that I should offer to you some such fruit of my labours was surely required of me. & will go on its way in security if it comes before the public franked with your name. the matter being indeed more than doubled in amount. Such are my grounds for hoping that you will approve my idea. as far as in me lay. bereaved as it were of that parent whose departure in truth draws nearer every day . 1758. most High Prince. I have however used my utmost endeavours in preparing it. and of all other cares . from your exalted position. I . gone. But now for the first time is it published as a whole in a This work I have single volume. My . There is still a further consideration. long ago in Rome you had enfolded my unworthy self in it. and adapting it to the ordinary intelligence of philosophers of only moderate attainments. now accepted as established. if not quite. that my Theory is as yet almost. the power & dignity of the theme itself.AUTHOR'S EPISTLE DEDICATING THE FIRST VIENNA EDITION sions for the 11 most part only up to the point where I finally agreed with the opinions comheld monly amongst philosophers. earnest. of my general in short several dissertations issued at odd times . if perchance the idea itself should fail to meet with your approval. being quit of the troublesome business that brought me to Vienna. on its publication here. & here now you continue to be my patron. already published some instances. carried out during the last month. & has already made its way into foreign countries. & this it will obtain most effectually. in the first place. & on that account the theory theory has found some supporters amongst the university professors in Italy. but. University College of the Society of Jesus. which doubtless gives strength & vigour to my efforts perchance rather feeble. Whatever in that respect I could gain by the exercise of thought. for the consideration of a Christian priest . was twofold . as can be seen from what I have said. VIENNA. namely. but is suitable in a high degree. Farewell. reason. so to speak. since it will be seen in print only after he has . & as it were clamorously demanded by your great kindness to me . or where theories. nay rather posthumous. unknown in these parts.

ac simplicem algorithmum. eandem in pluribus secat punctis : rectce a fine segmentorum erectce perpendiculariter usque ad curvam. ejusmodi quantitatum pendentium. sed nee geometries demonstrations occurrunt. quo segmenta referunt distantias. sum usus in ipsa prima operis & imaginationem & legem virium ab ilia parte. ut heec posterior. quce majorem Algebra. ubi illce ipsce perpendiculares rectce directionem curva ab alter a axis indefiniti plaga migrante ad alteram. vis. ubi ad Mechanicam applicatur Theoria. Ejusmodi est ipsa ilia curva. rejectis in adnotatiunculas. alibi a me jam edita. sed W & & Geometries cognitionem requirebant. sed nusquam penitus evanescat. ut omnia. quce axis dicitur. In secunda parte. ac eesdem ex attractivis migrant in repulsivis. in fine operis apposui. Id quidem nullas requirit mutant. 12 I. vel etiam ex parte explicadeductam. prout ejusmodi rectce sunt itidem majores. dilucide exponerentur. vel per geometricam curvam . vel erant paginarum quarundam invenies. dicitur nimirum recta cruris asymptotus cujuspiam curvce. quce Supplementorum complicatiora aliquando. verum ece nihil aliud exhibent.a geometricis. quce y curvam. in aliis repulsiva. quam nunc uberius pertractandum. ac tertia parte non tantum sublimiore Geometria. nisi imaginem quandam rerum. ipsius secundum rectam ipsam. tertia applicationem ad Physicam. quce majores sunt. ubi ea addidi. paucissimis qiiibusdam. cum ipsa recta in infinitum producta. sed certa quadam. ita ad curvilineum arcum itidem in infinitum semper accedit magis. quce a distantiis pendet. nullcs analyticee. sed ilia ita. aliquando etiam ab algebraicis demonstrationibus abstinere omnino non potui . 5" mutatis distantiis mutatur continua lege. Porro hue res omnis reducitur. ipso -primes partis exordia. quce legem virium exhibet. Porro illud inprimis curandum duxi. vel ibi explicantur. aut Calculo indigerent. circa quam etiam serpit. y geometricas demonstrations. qua per illam exprimitur . nee Et quidem in prima. quce vel ad prima pertinent Geometries elementa. quibus indigeo. occasione verim. atque augendam etiam. ac edita itidem jam alibi. & Consider atio porro attenta curvce propositce in Fig. Leges a uti variationis se invicem binarum Jiic sunt distantia. & primas In prima quidem parte occurrunt Figures geometricce complures. exprimunt vires. quce prima fronte videbuntur etiam complicate? rem ipsam intimius non perspectanti . unde crus asymptoticum curvce appellatur . sit. quce ipsis oculis per ejusmodi figuras sistuntur contemplandce. appellavi nomine. ac tempore. Notissima y autem etiam est significatio vocis Asymptotus. quas in fine autem admodum pauca. ut vix unquam requirant aliud. Trigonometries notiones maxime simplices. notissimce sunt. &rationis. rejecta in expressam exhibeat. illis idcirco nunquam invicem convenientibus. qua idcirco Supplementa formula analytica. sed meram cognitionem vocum quarundam. Invenio ego quidem inter omnia materice puncta vim quandam mutuam. Queedam W ece ejusmodi sunt. quam liceret. vel minores . vindicationem : secunda applicationem- & satis uberem ad Mechanicam . ac ejus analyticam deductionem. vel minores. vel vice versa. punctum a abscissa rectce Curva linea protenditur quoddam. ubi adhibentur. quce sentio de spatio. exprimi possunt vel per analyticam formulam. Philosophic Naturalis Theoriam ex unica lege virium ubi jam olim adumbraverim. quarum prima continet explicationem Theories ipsius. Theories mece consentanea. ut in aliis attractiva y y prior expressio & multo plures cognitiones requirit non ita adjuvat. qua Libuit autem hoc opus invenies in susceperim. Habetur in recta indefinita. ut distantia productum minuatur in infinitum. quam Euclideam Geometriam.AD LECTOREM EX EDITIONS VIENNENSI amice Lector. ad Algebram pertinentes. & y dividere in partes tres.

& that there should be no need for possible. & winding about it. was for . I. & relegated to the Supplements the analytical formula which represents the curve. may be represented one as distance another. from attractive Now which either belong to the first elementary principles of "geometry. and from the same idea we speak of the branch of a curve as being asymptotic thus a straight line is said to be the asymptote to any branch of a curve when. these forces are greater or less. but never altogether vanishes. there higher geometry nor are there any by geometry. & does not assist the imagination in the way that the latter does. Thus. A careful consideration of the curve given in Fig. & even in some cases I have had to give algebraical But these are of such a simple kind that they scarcely ever require anything more proofs. It is true that in the first part there are to be found a good many geometrical diagrams. than Euclidean geometry. as far as me to take the greatest care that everyshould be clearly explained. depending upon either by an analytical formula or by a geometrical curve . its analytical deduction & the third an demonstration . which at first sight. For I have thought fit to divide the work into three parts the first of these contains the exposition of the Theory itself. & also have been already published elsewhere. analytical calculations. so as to cut it in several places. & changing as this distance changes . & sometimes repulsive. as well as in the third. this requires no geometrical proof. I have collected these under the heading Supplements . all of which have higher algebra been already published elsewhere. but always Laws of variation of this kind between two quantities follows a definite continuous law. & the law of forces which the curve exhibits. I find that between all points of matter there is a mutual force depending on the distance between them. A curve is drawn following the general direction of this straight line. Hence I have employed the latter method in the first part of the work.THE PREFACE TO THE READER THAT APPEARED EAR from IN THE VIENNA EDITION & its Reader. the first and most elementary ideas of trigonometry. a fixed point is taken . according as such perpendiculars are greater or less . it approaches nearer and nearer to the curvilinear arc which is also prolonged indefinitely in such manner that the distance between them becomes indefinitely diminished. as the curve passes from one side of the axis of indefinite length to the other side of it. which is called the axis. application to Physics. before the text is considered more closely. . you have before you a Theory of Natural Philosophy deduced a single law of Forces. I have not been able to do without geometrical proofs altogether . curve that represents the law of forces is an instance of this. & of the way in which the relation . if the straight line is indefinitely produced. & to a certain extent explained & also the occasion that led me to undertake a more detailed treatment & enlargement of it. or were of a rather more complicated nature. You will find in the opening paragraphs of the first section a statement as to where the Theory has been already published in outline. whenever these perpendiculars change their direction. & force do in this instance. which In are in accord with my main Theory. I decided. with the exception of a very few are no proofs by analysis that are absolutely necessary. thing. . In a straight line of indefinite length. The term Asymptote is well known. The very of these diagrams are set before the eyes for contemplation. & in them I have included my views on Space & Time. the second a fairly full application to Mechanics . & are thoroughly well known. that required a knowledge of foot of a page. & geometry. Then perpendiculars that are drawn from the ends of the segments to meet the curve represent the forces . so that it is sometimes attractive. and vice versa. & even these you will find relegated to brief notes set at the I have also added some very few proofs. & segments of the straight line cut off from this point represent the distances. or for the calculus. & they pass which by means forces to repulsive. where the Theory is applied to Mechanics. and easy The most important was point. at the end of the work . or are such as can be defined when they are used. the second part. But these present nothing else but a kind of image of the subjects treated. but only a knowledge of certain terms. in the first part. but the former method of representation requires far more knowledge of algebraical processes. will appear to be rather complicated. so that the straight line & the curve . The whole matter reduces to this. never really meet.

y & & mutua" & quidem talia revera existere ostendunt phenomena Naturce. sed multo magis opus ipsum diligentius pervolventi. quanquam res ita. quam hie subjicio . mutata distantia ipsi attractive suc" cedentem. prolatis quce per repulsivam. specificis prceditas esse qualitahabent. qui ad duo. . vim vim Us. hoc utique est nihil dicere : at ex licet ipsorum causce quce & & quantur. impulsio legitima principium ratiocinatione deductum ? At id -per meam unicam. est utique admodum necessaria ad intelligendam Theoriam ipsam. cujus ope. duo. ab eo. simplicem virium legemprcestari. ubi is quidem magnos in Philosophia progressus facturum arbitratus eum. ubi tf? ea ipsa tria. attractivam. potissimum si viva accedat Professoris vox mediocriter etiam y y & ii versati in Mechanica. posse per solam diversam ipsorum punctorum dispositionem aliam particulam per certum intervallum vel perpetuo attrahere. supponuntur utique nonnulla. illas consimilis sui. quod ille primus veritates partem attente legerit. omnem Theories. per quas eae sint. ipsa impenetrabilitas. repellere. sed ut universales Naturce leges. qualia nimirum sunt gravitas. ut etiam sine ullo Geometries adjumento percipiantur. sed ea ipsa Us. prceditis lege virium proposita. corporearum principiis consetibus occultis. id vero magnus esset factus in Philosophia progressus. cum Hcec ibi Newtonus. Quare motus Naturam universam latissime pateant" per causce principia supradicta proponere non dubito. sua principia protulit. paucorum admodum explicatione vocabulorum accidente. in tertia parte adhibitis. y ut deductionum compagem aliquanto altius inspexerit. collocatorum. intuebitur per evidentiam ex ipsis demonstrationibus haustam. atque id sint. quce demonstrantur in secunda . qui Geometric penitus ignari sunt. diver see respectu sarum ejusdem particulce. quibus res ipsce sunt formatce. ut tironum. qui earn omittat. nondum fuerit explicatum. qui geometricas demonstrationes fastidiunt. sine qua omnino incassum tentarentur cetera . sed sane etiam mediocrium. ac ex secunda erutas. motusque leges passivas illas. Quid igitur. ut etiam ad reducantur unicum quceque. vel nihil in earn agere. perficiens nimirum magnos omnes corporum ccelestium motus attractione gravitatis. vel perpetuo tertia parte In sunt admodum & & quce respectu diveripsum viribus admodum diversis. distantias. facile admodum exponi pauca. quce ex vi ista necessario oriuntur . Affirmare. hie secundus easdem quodammodo per fidem Geometris adhibitam credet. ut etiam. videbit.14 AD LECTOREM EX EDITIONE VIENNENSI nexus inter vires. pro certo habeo. Hujusmodi inprimis est illud. singulas rerum species vim certam in agenda Naturce vel tria derivare generalia motus deinde explicare. explicationem Physicce. verum etiam motum perpetuo accipere a certis principiis cohcerentia corporum. quce specificis rerum formis oriri Nam principia fingantur. earn ipsis oculis intueantur omnino perspicuam. explicari poterant. actiones ex istis rerum omnium quemadmodum proprietates. partium ac aliam particulam alicubi etiam urgeant in latus. phcenomenis principia. ad. ex quibus inter se diversis eorum alia prcecipua aliqua tantummodo explicari posse censuit. hcec addidit : Atque hcec quidem omnia si ita sint. captum non excedat. rem ita patentem omnibus reddi posse. sarum particularum diversee & diver y Verum diligentius qui esse. & " Porro Aliquanto autem inferius de primigeniis particulis agens sic habet : videntur mihi hce particulce primigenice non modo in se vim inertice habere. patebit est & & y & sane consideranti operis totius Synopsim quandam. jam Natura perpenderit. me in hoc perquisitionis genere multo ulterius olim Newtonus Is enim in postremo Opticce questione progressum quam ipse desideravit. Atque hcec quidem principia considero non ut occultas ex qualitates. ipsce penitus possunt sine Us ipsa demonstratio baberi non poterit . unde plurium phcenomenorum explicatio in Physica sponte fluit. cujus ea est prcecipua qucedam veluti clavis. immo etiam longe infra mediocritatem ejusmodi est. ut idcirco in eo differre debeat is. vel tria generalia motus principia ex Naturce phcenomenis derivata pheenomenorum explicationem reduxerit. ff causa fermentationis. omnes particularum suarum motus alia aliqua vi attrahente. qui secundam Geometriam calleat. etiamsi principiorum istorum nondum essent cognitce. est inter repellente. qua particulas universa valde erit simplex. actuosis. ac spero. quce est mutua inter minores fere corpora ilia omnia. particulam compositam ex punctis etiam homogeneis.

That being the case. . in which he has been travelling through nearly the whole of . I was unable to procure during the last few years. in the rest of Europe. in her widest range. and four As he was at hand. especially at the foot of a for additions or also. the system itself was finally into and at Vienna. & its outlines had already been sketched by the author in several dissertations published here in our own land though. especially those that contain Algebraical formulae. as luck would have it. Not to mention others. slight slight changes made after the type was set up. both printed & debated . & that thought right as the of an Italian I had in fact already commenced an edition preferably product press. any one who wishes to make a deeper study of it must perforce study the work here offered. For it is a characteristic of the human mind that it cannot concentrate long on the same subject with sufficient attention. a little while ago. there was the fact that I perceived that it would be a matter of some indeed. you will not fail to see how highly it has been esteemed. & by many considered as their original. came here. the work which I you have read the public journals. but also in several elementary books issued for the instruction of the young it is introduced. from the name of its author. from a single simple law of forces . in addition to our regular proof-readers. however. taken in hand there after his departure that innumerable printer's errors had crept in that many passages. revised & enlarged himself I also wanted to have him at hand whilst the edition was in progress. until at last he & . that the author himself had in mind a complete revision. The system had its birth in Italy. founded on a copy of the Vienna edition. when it came to my knowledge that the author was greatly dissatisfied with the Vienna edition. contains an entirely new system of Natural Philosophy. however. no matter how diligently they are inquired for. . himself also used every care in correcting the proof . page. including certain alterations. He. Any one. any one who compares it with that issued at Vienna will soon see the difference between them. however. it is even now a subject of public instruction in several Universities in different parts it is expounded not only in yearly theses or dissertations. without causing any disturbance of the sentences or the pagination. were ill-arranged and erroneous . . Europe . by he should superintend the whole thing for himself. Many of the minor alterations are made for the purpose of rendering certain passages more elegant & clear there are. All these considerations had from the first moved me to undertake a new edition of the work . together with certain additional matter. they are to be found on sale nowhere. however. I was greatly desirous of obtaining a copy. merely the purpose of filling up gaps that were left here & there these gaps being due to the fact that several sheets were being set at the same time by different compositors. even then. who wishes to obtain more detailed insight into the whole structure of the theory. I therefore put shape published it that it be should disseminated throughout the whole of Europe. or scarcely anywhere. in addition.THE PRINTER AT VENICE TO THE READER \ OU will be well aware. with what applause offer to you has been received throughout Europe since its publication at Vienna five years ago. stayed hand. if you refer to the numbers of the Berne Journal for the early part of the if now It year 1761. lastly. & that . This. which is already commonly known as the Boscovichian theory. . he has not sufficient confidence in himself as to imagine that not the slightest thing has escaped him. this could easily be done presses were kept hard at work together. difficulty for copies of the Vienna edition to pass beyond the confines of Germany at the present time. to give a better finish to the work. as he returned home from his lengthy here to assist me during the whole time that the edition was in wanderings. It follows that this ought to be considered in some measure as a first & original edition . whither he had gone for a short time. explained. the close relation that its several parts bear to one another. or its great fertility & wide scope for the purpose of deriving the whole of Nature. As a matter of fact.

paucorum admodum explicatione vocabulorum accidente. cum Quare nondum fuerit explicatum. factus Philosophia progressus. duo. in tertia parte adhibitis. captum non excedat. singulas rerum y y principia supradicta proponere per Naturam universam latissime pateant" Hc?c ibi Newtonus. collocatorum. rem ita patentem omnibus reddi posse. principiorum istorum cause? nondum essent cognite?. corporearum principiis consevero id esset in etiamsi magnus quantur. attractivam. que? specificis rerum formis oriri Nam principia fingantur. qui secundam Geometriam calleat. cohcerentia corporum. pro certo habeo. actuosis. motusque leges passivas illas. Quid igitur. alia preecipua aliqua tantummodo explicari posse censuit. Hujusmodi inprimis est illud. . y mutua. ac me in hoc perquisitionis genere multo ulterius diligentius olim Newtonus desideravit. per quas eae vim certam in agenda habent.14 AD LECTOREM EX EDITIONE VIENNENSI nexus inter vires. est inter repellente. quod ille primus veritates legerit. prolatis qua per repulsivam. quibus res ipse? sunt formates. sua principia protulit. distantias. unde plurium pheenomenorum explicatio in ftuit. vel perpetuo repellere. actiones rerum omnium ex istis quemadmodum proprietates." Aliquanto autem inferius de primigeniis particulis agens sic habet : " Porro videntur mihi he? particule? primigeniee non modo in se vim inertice habere. y ac aliam particulam alicubi etiam urgeant in latus. Is enim in postremo Opticce questione esse. qualia nimirum sunt gravitas. y diverse? respectu partium ipsum viribus admodum diversis. videbit. facile admodum exponi . Ferum omnem y perpenderit. ut spero. progressum quam ipse vim vim Us. species specificis preeditas esse qualitatibus occultis. cujus ope. qui geometricas demonstrationes fastidiunt. quiz particulas " y y y y y quidem talia revera existere ostendunt phenomena Nature?. ex quibus inter se diversis eorum ea ipsa tria. vel tria generalia motus principia ex Nature? pheenomenis derivata phe?nomenorum explicationem reduxerit. minores fere omnes particularum suarum motus alia aliqua vi attrabente. perficiens nimirum magnos omnes corporum ccelestium motus attractione gravitatis. ubi is quidem magnos in Philosophia progressus facturum arbitratus eum. Atque heec quidem principia considero non ut occultas ex qualitates. que? ex vi ista necessario oriuntur . he?c addidit : Atque he?c quidem omnia si ita sint. phcenomenis generalia principia. licet ipsorum cause? que? sint. ac ex secunda erutas. motus non dubito. legempr<zstari. earn ipsis oculis intueantur omnino perspicuam. jam Natura universa valde erit simplex. impulsio principium legitima ratiocinatione deductum ? At id per meam unicam. cujus ea est prcecipua queedam veluti clavis. hoc utique est nihil dicere : at ex Nature? vel tria motus derivare deinde explicare. immo etiam longe infra mediocritatem ejusmodi est. intuebitur per evidentiam ex ipsis demonstrationibus baustam. potissimum si viva accedat Professoris vox mediocriter etiam & y & ii versati in Mechanics. ut idcirco in eo differre debeat is. ipsa impenetrabilitas. hie secundus easdem quodammodo per fidem Geopartem attente metris adhibitam credet. quanquam sine Us ipsa demonstratio haberi non poterit . sine qua omnino incassum tentarentur cetera . illas cedentem. Physica sponte deductionum compagem aliquanto altius inspexerit. que? demonstrantur in secunda admodum pauca. Affirmare. mutata distantia ipsi attractive? sucqui Theorie?. In sunt tertia parte supponuntur utique nonnulla. que? respectu diverdiversarum ejusdem particulce. quam hie subjicio . particulam compositam ex punctis etiam bomogeneis. vel nihil in earn agere. quee est mutua inter corpora ilia omnia. sed ut universales Nature? leges. consimilis sui. ad explicationem Physics. ab eo. verum etiam motum perpetuo accipere a certis principiis causa fermentationis. ut penitus etiam sine ullo Geometric adjumento percipiantur. qui earn omittat. preeditis lege virium proposita. qui Geometric? penitus ignari sunt. qui ad duo. explicari poterant. ubi ut etiam ad reducantur unicum quczque. posse per solam diversam ipsorum punctorum dispositionem aliam particulam per cerium intervallum vel perpetuo attrahere. simplicem virium est y y y y y sane consideranti operis totius Synopsim quandam. atque id y sarum particularum diversee sint. & Us.patebit sed multo magis opus ipsum diligentius pervolventi. sed sane etiam mediocrium. ut etiam. sed ea ipsa possunt res ipsee ita. ut tironum. est utique admodum necessaria ad intelligendam Theoriam ipsam.

that the author on sale & . with what applause offer to you has been received throughout Europe since its publication at Vienna five years ago. & that I had in fact already commenced an edition preferably as the product of an Italian press. All these considerations had from the first moved me to undertake a new edition of the work in addition. That being the case. as luck would have it. Not to mention others. As he was at hand. Any one. however. slight slight changes made after the type was set up. if you refer to the numbers of the Berne Journal for the early part of the if now It year 1761. together with certain additional matter. were ill-arranged and erroneous . they are to be found . no matter how diligently they are inquired for. that many passages. especially at the foot of a for additions or also. the work which I you have read the public journals. already been sketched by the author in several dissertations published here in our own land . there was the fact that I perceived that it would be a matter of some indeed. though. in the rest of Europe. It follows that this ought to be considered in some measure as a first & original edition any one who compares it with that issued at Vienna will soon see the difference between them. himself had in mind a complete revision. as he returned home from his lengthy wanderings. without causing any disturbance of the sentences or the pagination. especially those that contain Algebraical formulae. however. I therefore thought it right that it should be disseminated throughout the whole of Europe. Many of the minor alterations are made for the purpose of rendering certain passages more elegant & clear there are. who wishes to obtain more detailed insight into the whole structure of the theory. whither he had gone for a short time. from a single simple law of forces . himself also used every care in coreven then. when it came to my knowledge that the author was greatly dissatisfied with the Vienna edition. the system itself was finally put into shape and published at Vienna. I was unable to procure during the last few years. & stayed here to assist me during the whole time that the edition was in hand. . He. you will not fail to see how highly it has been esteemed. . page. & that by he should superintend the whole thing for himself. & by many considered as their original. however. however.THE PRINTER AT VENICE TO THE READER |JOU will be well aware. founded on a copy of the Vienna edition. . difficulty for copies of the Vienna edition to pass beyond the confines of Germany at the present time. revised & enlarged himself I also wanted to have him at hand whilst the edition was in progress. explained. in her widest range. easily be done . The system had its birth in its outlines had Italy. this could presses were kept hard at work together. I was greatly desirous of obtaining a copy. from the name of its author. in addition to our regular proof-readers. As a matter of fact. and four . including certain alterations. in which he has been travelling through nearly the whole of Europe until at last he came here. . merely the purpose of filling up gaps that were left here & there these gaps being due to the fact that several sheets were being set at the same time by different compositors. the close relation that its several parts bear to one another. . it is even now a subject of public instruction in several Universities in different parts it is expounded not only in yearly theses or dissertations. or its great fertility & wide scope for the purpose of deriving the whole of Nature. both printed & debated but also in several elementary books issued for the instruction of the young it is introduced. contains an entirely new system of Natural Philosophy. mind that it cannot concentrate long on the same subject with sufficient attention. any one who wishes to make a deeper study of it must perforce study the work here offered. which is already commonly known as the Boscovicbian theory. nowhere. taken in hand there after his departure that innumerable printer's errors had crept in . a little while ago. to give a better finish to the work. . This. lastly. or scarcely anywhere. he has not sufficient confidence in himself as to recting the proof that not the For it is a characteristic of the human imagine slightest thing has escaped him.

quae pertractantur argumenta exponuntur brevissima. continuationem meditatur. Hie catalogus impressus fuit Venetisis ante hosce duos annos in reimpressione ejus poematis de Solis ac Lunae defectibus. & UK autem. Postremo loco ad calcem Operis additus est fusior catalogus eorum omnium. in quibus eorum. tu laboribus nostris fruere. ad pertinent : . in qua dissertatiuncula demonstrat Auctor non esse. & sedem animse. quae hue usque ab ipso Auctore sunt edita. quorum collectionem omnem expolitam. quod pluribus numeris complectitur dissertatiunculam integrant de argumento. & vive felix. 534 factae sunt & mutatiunculae nonnullae. typis ego meis excudendam suscipiam. Porro earn omnium suorum Operum Collectionem. jam sunt i. & correctam. quse nondum absoluta sunt. ac eorum. ubi ipse adornaverit. quo properat. usus in ipso Opere ante alia occurrit. cur ad vim exprimendam potentia . quorum ope unico obtutu videri possint omnia. qui fuerat 261 discerptus est in 5 de novo accessit totus additamenta plura in iis. Haec erant. quam functio. 2 : nam eorum quaepiam distantice adhibeatur potius. quam magnificentissime potero. Supplementorum ordo mutatus est itidem quae enim fuerant 3.4 TYPOGRAPHUS VENETUS LECTORI : nam numerus 82 Inter mutationes occurret ordo numerorum mutatus in paragraphis demum in Appendice deinde is. nunc autem est tertium. accessit in fine Scholium tertium. quod ante aliquot annos in Parisiensi Academia controversiae occasionem exhibuit in Encyclopedico etiam dictionario attactum. aggressurus illico post suum regressum in Urbem Romam. & 4. . quae te monendum censui . & in memoriam facile revocari. Accesserunt per totum Opus notulae marginales. quae post num. quod prius fuerat primum.

may be represented either by an analytical formula or by a geometrical curve . analytical calculations. before the text is considered more closely. very few proofs. should be clearly explained. but only a knowledge of certain terms. which either belong to the first elementary principles of geometry. as well as in the third.THE PREFACE TO THE READER THAT APPEARED from IN THE VIENNA EDITION & its Reader. I have not been able to do without geometrical proofs altogether & even in some cases I have had to give algebraical But these are of such a simple kind that they scarcely ever require anything more proofs. higher geometry or for the calculus. with the exception of a very few & my main Theory. if the straight line is indefinitely produced. it. was for me to take the greatest care that everythat there should be no need for thing. it approaches nearer and nearer to the curvilinear arc which is also in such manner that the distance between them becomes prolonged indefinitely indefinitely diminished. In the second part. there are no proofs by analysis . Thus. but never altogether vanishes. will appear to be rather complicated. straight winding places. which The most important point. nor are there any by geometry. and vice versa. A careful consideration of the curve given in Fig. you have before you a Theory of Natural Philosophy deduced a single law of Forces. that required a knowledge of higher algebra & geometry. but the former method of representation requires far more knowledge of algebraical processes. & sometimes repulsive. or are such as can be defined when they are used. according as such perpendiculars are greater or less . the first of these contains the exposition of the Theory itself. never really meet. & are thoroughly well from attractive Now known. but always follows a definite continuous law. I have collected these under the heading Supplements . I decided. & to a certain extent explained & also the occasion that led me to undertake a more detailed treatment & enlargement of it. The very curve that represents the law of forces is an instance of this. You will find in the opening paragraphs of the first section a statement as to where the Theory has been already published in outline. so that the straight line & the curve . & of the way in which the relation . . its analytical deduction the second a fairly full application to Mechanics demonstration & the third an . & they pass . or were of a rather more complicated nature. application to Physics. as the curve passes from one side of the axis of indefinite length to the other side of it. & changing as this distance changes . For I have thought fit to divide the work into three parts . and easy are in accord with . whenever these perpendiculars change their direction. where the Theory is applied to Mechanics. and from the same idea we speak of the branch of a curve as being asymptotic thus a straight line is said to be the asymptote to any branch of a curve when. which by means forces to repulsive. & does not assist the imagination in the way that the latter does. 13 I. & the law of forces which the curve exhibits. these forces are greater or less. all of which have been already published elsewhere. which is called the axis. & in them I have included my views on Space & Time. the first and most elementary ideas of trigonometry. . & even these you will find relegated to brief notes set at the I have also added some foot of a page. of these diagrams are set before the eyes for contemplation. A curve is drawn point represent following the general direction of this & about so to as cut it in several Then perpendiculars that line. It is true that in the first part there are to be found a good many geometrical diagrams. that are absolutely necessary. as far as was possible. a fixed point is taken & segments of the straight line cut off from this the distances. this requires no geometrical proof. so that it is sometimes attractive. Laws of variation of this kind between two quantities depending upon one another. as distance & force do in this instance. which at first sight. The whole matter reduces to this. in the first part. Hence I have employed the latter method in the first part of the work. I find that between all points of matter there is a mutual force depending on the distance between them. But these present nothing else but a kind of image of the subjects treated. & also have been already published elsewhere. & relegated to the Supplements the analytical formula which represents the curve. In a straight line of indefinite length. The term Asymptote is well known. than Euclidean geometry. are drawn from the ends of the segments to meet the curve represent the forces . at the end of the work .

qui earn omittat. quam hie subjicio . quod ille primus veritates legerit.i 4 AD LECTOREM EX EDITIONE VIENNENSI distantias. quidem talia revera existere ostendunt y y quantur. facile admodum exponi y . impulsio reducantur ad principium unicum legitima ratiocinatione deductum ? At id per meam unicam. repellente. ques per repulsivam. Quare motus Naturam universam latissime pateant.odum necessaria ad intelligendam Theoriam ipsam. particulam compositam ex punctis etiam homogeneis. singulas rerum species specificis presditas esse qualitatibus occultis. cohesrentia corporum. mutata distantia ipsi attractives suc" hesc addidit : cedentem. simplicem virium legem presstari. presditis lege virium proposita. immo etiam longe infra mediocritatem ejusmodi est. per quas eae vim certam in agenda habent. vim vim attractivam. sea sane etiam mediocrium. actiones rerum corporearum omnium ex istis principiis consequemadmodum proprietates. qua respectu diversee diver sarum sint. quam ipse desideravit. & Us. atque id & diver y deductionum compagem aliquanto altius inspexerit. rem ita patentem omnibus reddi posse. ac ex secunda erutas. potissimum si viva accedat Professoris vox mediocriter etiam versati in Mechanica. sed ut universales Natures leges. qui ad duo. ut penitus etiam sine ullo Geometries adjumento percipiantur. ut ipsa etiam impenetrabilitas. actuosis. id vero magnus esset factus in Philosophia progressus. sua principia protulit. ex quibus inter se diversis eorum ea ipsa tria. qui geometricas demonstrationes fastidiunt. earn ipsis oculis intueantur omnino perspicuam. motusque leges passivas illas. etiamsi principiorum istorum nondum essent cognites. sed ea ipsa possunt res ipsez ita. Verum omnem y ut & y y & causa fermentationis. ques demonstrantur in secunda admodum pauca. prolatis Us. nondum fuerit explicatum. ut nexus inter & y & ii etiam. consimilis sui. ejusdem particules. alia prcscipua aliqua tantummodo explicari posse censuit. vel perpetuo sarum particularum diversee ipsum viribus admodum diversis. respectu partium ac aliam particulam alicubi etiam urgeant in latus. hoc utique est nihil dicere : at ex deinde explicare. paucorum accidente. sine qua omnino incassum tentarentur cetera . Quid igitur. sed multo magis opus ipsum diligentius pervolventi. vel tria generalia motus principia ex Natures phesnomenis derivata phesnomenorum explicationem reduxerit. ubi is quidem magnos in Philosophia progressus facturum arbitratus eum. captum excedat. vel tria derivare generalia motus principia. Affirmare. vires. . posse per solam diversam ipsorum punctorum dispositionem aliam particulam per certum intervallum vel perpetuo attrahere. qui Geometries penitus ignari sunt. quanquam sine Us ipsa demonstratio haberi non poterit . qui secundam Geometriam calleat. est utique ad. ques ex specificis rerum formis oriri fingantur. spero. principia y y Nam phesnomena Natures. pro certo habeo. explicari poterant. non collocatorum. Hujusmodi inprimis est illud. cum Newtonus. in tertia parte adbibitis. est ea cujus prescipua qucsdam veluti clavis. ques est inter particulas " illas mutua. phesnomenis Natures duo. ut idcirco in eo differre debeat is. ut tironum. qucs est mutua inter minores fere corpora ilia omnia. vel nihil in earn agere. qualia nimirum sunt gravitas. jam Natura universa valde erit simplex. ques ex vi ista necessario oriuntur ." per causes principia supradicta proponere non dubito. cujus ope. repellere. licet ipsorum causes ques sint. ab eo. unde plurium phesnomenorum explicatio in Physica sponte ftuit. me in hoc perquisitionis genere multo ulterius olim Newtonus Is enim in postremo Optices questione progressum esse. ad explicationem Physices. hie secundus easdem quodammodo per fidem Geopartem attente metris adhibitam credet. admodum explicatione vocabulorum In sunt tertia parte supponuntur utique nonnulla.rn. videbit. ubi quesque. perficiens nimirum magnos omnes corporum ceslestium motus attractione gravitatis. omnes particularum suarum motus alia aliqua vi attrahente. Atque hesc quidem principia considero non ut occultas qualitates." Porro Aliquanto autem inferius de primigeniis particulis agens sic habet : videntur mihi hce particules primigenics non modo in se vim inerties habere. verum etiam motum perpetuo accipere a certis principiis qui Theories. intuebitur per evidentiam ex ipsis demonstrationibus haustam. quibus res ipscs sunt formates. patebit ibi est Hcsc y y y y y sane consideranti operis totius Synopsim quandam. Atque h<sc quidem omnia si ita sint. ac diligentius perpenderit.

due to which it has a definite mode On the other hand. instance. & may even urge that fact a the two. But it is of such a nature that it does not go be quite useless to try to pass on to those of very moderate ability. which gravity. this would indeed be a mighty advance in philosophy. There is thus bound to be a difference between the reader who has gone carefully through the second part. & therein he states his opinion that he indeed will have made great strides in philosophy who shall have reduced the explanation of phenomena to two or three general principles derived from the phenomena of Nature & he he his from one which forward own themselves another. that a particle composed of points tricians. the facts in question . & can be completely understood without any assistance from geometry. or continually repel." These are the words of Newton. be reduced to a single principle. to which the rest. & him who omits the second part have been proved in the second part. By his help. since they are clearly to be perceived throughout the whole range of : : Anyone who shall have studied somewhat closely the whole system of my Theory. . Nature. deduced by a process of rigorous argument will be quite clear that this is exactly what is done by my single simple law of forces. as it does. in the last " " in his Opticks. although no real demonstration is possible without them. that metry. for those who do not care for geocertainly assumed. then if not the that What some of the could be only thought only explained. or of classes not of even beyond the capacity of beginners." " he is speaking about elementary particles. brought differing by principles. with forces that upon. & laws of motion. I do not consider these the cause fermentation. gives a perfectly natural explanation of many physical readily ing of an attractive force. gravity. all differ widely. is absolutely necessary for the underit is as it were the chief key. for constantly acquire of & the cohesion of solids. which is mutual between any two of those particles. it appears to me that these not an essential only possess property of inertia. another particle situated at a known distance from both in respect of different particles & in respect of different parts of the same another particle in a direction at right angles to the line joinparticle . or have no effect at . but also other important principles. without which it would standing of the Theory itself. may. I hope. & are now employed in the third part for the exfrom the demonstrations of these facts. given the explanation demonstration. is really equivalent to saying nothing at all. will see. after stating the facts that could be explained by means of his Questions phenomena. For he. even if the causes of those principles had not at the time been discovered. some other motions of their force of attracall the smaller by particles accomplishes nearly Farther on. to a law of forces as stated. For these reasons I do not hesitate in bringing forward the principles of motion given above. the phenomena of Nature two or three general principles.PREFACE TO READER THAT APPEARED IN THE VIENNA EDITION between the forces 15 the distances is represented by it. been created. accommotions of the heavenly bodies. to anyone who studies a kind of synopsis of the whole work. such as impenetrability & impulIt sive force. & what I deduce from it. merely by altering the arrangequite homogeneous. the subject can be made clear to every one. To assert that each & every species is endowed with a mysterious property characteristic to it. idea of the subject by ocular In the third part. planation of Physics. even far below the level of mediocrity especially if they have the additional assistance of is a teacher's voice. subject ment of those points. to derive from in action. either continually attract. &. some of the theorems that have been proved in the second part are few such . when tion or repulsion. even though he only moderately familiar with Mechanics. which I add below but it will be iar more clear to him who studies the whole work with some earnestness. by the attraction of plishing all the mighty and Nature is a mutual force between any two bodies of the whole system . then the whole of Nature must be exceedingly simple in design. has added these words things are as stated. but there are very can be quite easily stated in such a manner that they metrical proofs. & a repulsive force that takes the place of the attractive force when " Now if all these the distance is altered. motion from the influence of certain active principles such as. elementary particles are the which necessary consequences of this property . he says Moreover. may get a perfectly good ignorant of geometry. ! . & who is well versed in geoin that the former will regard the facts. phenomena three he mentions. it . & then to explain how the properties & actions of all corporate things follow from those principles. to be certain mysterious qualities feigned as arising from characteristic forms of principles of Nature. . through the evidence derived whilst the second will credit these same facts through the mere faith that he has in geomeA specially good instance of this is the fact. & similar in all its parts. although their nature has not yet been elucidated. that I have advanced in this kind of investigation much further than Newton himself even thought open to his desires. so that those of them that are quite of but a few terms. For the phenomena of Nature show that these principles do indeed exist. & this too. but they also though only passive. I am sure. by the influence of which these very things have laws but as universal things.

19 num. & ordinatarum exprimentium vires. inextensis. ac ex unico simplicissimo. qua binae elastri cuspides conantur ad es invicem accedere. II Inde ad num. indivisibilibus. quae sunt in textu. in ac exprimit : demum quo differat ab hyperbola ibidem & gradus tertii. ac a se invicem distantibus. jam eo consilio rem aggressus . 19 ad 28 expendo effugium. : 7 Turn usque ad num. tractae. qui elementares corporum particulas assumunt prorsus duras qui autem omnes utcunque parvas corporum particulas molles admittunt. ilia 1 6 Hisce expositis gradum facio ad exponendam totam illam analysim. & solidissima ratiocinatione deduci totam. ac elegantissimo theoremate profluentibus omnino sponte. II expono Theoriam ipsam : habeant singula vim inertiae. turn decrescentem. sit repulsiva. & vero etiam earum transitum a positivis ad negativas. repente mihi in opus integrum justse molis evaserit tractatio. quando. vel vice versa. & directio vis ipsius. imminuta distantia in infinitum. evanescat. si cum inaequalibus velocitatibus deveniant ad immediatum contactum.SYNOPSIS TOTIUS OPERIS EX EDITIONE VIENNENSI PARS I sex numeris exhibeo. sive a repulsivis ad attractivas. minuatur. quae puncta praeterea vim activam mutuam pendentem a distantiis. quae continuitatis lex cum (ut evinco) debeat omnino observari. qua quidem responsione uti non possunt Newtoniani. : : A * Series numerorum. abeuntem iterum in repulsivam. illud infero. in quo ab utraque discrepet. cuivis utcunque magnae. cum dissertatiunculam brevem meditarer. & qua occasione Theoriam meam invenerim. Contendo nimirum usque ad numerum 19 illud. & Corpusculares generaliter. difficultatem non effugiunt. cujus curvae ductum. sed transferunt ad primas superficies. & nimirum. in collisione corporum debere vel haberi compenetrationem. ut & materiam constantem punctis . & quemadmodum iis nunc inventis. data distantia. vel velocitatum differentiae. & oscillationis centrum. vel con: prorsus simplicibus. vel elasticas. quid alibi promiserim pertinens ad aequilibrium. ac ubi hucusque de ea egerim in dissertationibus jam editis. antequam ad contactum deveniant corpora. quo pacto id non sit aggregatum quoddam virium temere coalescentium. sed per unicam curvam continuam exponatur ope abscissarum exprimentium distantias. debere mutari eorum velocitates per vim quandam. & quidem excrescens in infinitum aucta autem distantia. donee demum in majoribus distantiis abeat in attractivam decrescentem ad sensum in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum quern nexum virium cum distantiis. quid cum Newtoniana Theoria. in quibus committeretur omnino saltus. frustra adhibitum ad eludendam argumenti mei vim. evanescentem. idque per multas vices. quae Newtonianum gravitatem argumentum. vel violari legem continuitatis. vel a se invicem recedere. & lex continuitatis violaretur ibidem quendam verborum lusum evolvo. 16 . 16 ostendo. quid ea commune habeat cum Leibnitiana. ac ostendo. oculis ipsis propono in vi. prout sunt plus justo distractae. mutata autem distantia. & divisionem propono operis totius. & vero etiam utrique praestet addo. quae sit par extinguendse velocitati. qua ego ad ejusmodi Theoriam deveni. detur & magnitude. & ex qua ipsam arbitror directa. quibus tractari incipiunt. & naturam expono. vel puncta. mutetur in attractivam crescentem primo. qui negant corpora dura. quo ad eludendam argumenti mei vim utuntur ii. velocitate mutata per saltum. quae. mutetur vis ipsa.

so also is magnitude & the direction of this force are given . one another. for they assume that the elementary particles of solids are perfectly hard. quite unexpectedly to me. is & from positive to negative. & from which I believe I have deduced the whole I contend indeed. Moreover. the force will be diminished. vanishes. vanish. that. yet do not escape the difficulty. either there must be compenetration. & here a sudden change would be made & the Law of Continuity violated. From this . from of it by a straightforward & perfectly rigorous chain of reasoning. Now since the Law of Continuity must (as I prove that it must) be observed in every case. & in fact also increases indefinitely whilst if the distance is increased. 19 to Art. or the Law of Continuity must be violated by a sudden change of velocity. if the bodies come into immediate contact with unequal velocities. This connection between the forces & the distances. I proposed to write a short essay thereon but when I set to work to deduce the matter from this principle. In the same connection I consider a certain verbal quibble. & so on many times over . I start to expound the whole of the analysis. the force is repulsive. in which the matters given in the text are first discussed. by which I came upon a Theory of this kind. until at greater distances it finally becomes an attractive force that decreases approximately in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances. or points . & nature of this curve . These statements having been made. I me : lished evolved my Theory. In addition I state what I have published else- and consists of points that are perfectly simple. but transfer it to prime surfaces. From here on to Art. developed into a whole work of considerable magnitude. their velocities must be altered by some force which is capable of destroying the velocity. the discussion. both the but if the distance is altered. or by recede from. the force altered . those who admit that all the particles of solids. 1 6 I show that it is not merely an aggregate of forces combined haphazard.until Art. according as they are pulled apart. or drawn together. I the force with which the two ends of a spring strive to approach towards. . then decreases. be changed to an attractive force that first of all increases. & conversely. I infer that. having found out that these matters followed quite easily from a single theorem of the most simple & elegant kind. n 16 19 my reasoning. * These numbers are the numbers of the articles. & separated from one another that each of these points has a property of inertia. . or from repulsive to attractive. if the distance is given. in the collision of solid bodies. I explain the Theory itself : that matter is unchangeable. by more than the natural amount. Finally. before the bodies reach the point of actual contact. II. From Art. by means of abscissse I expound the construction representing the distances & ordinates representing the forces. & in addition a mutual active force depending on the distance in such a way that. what it differs from either of these. of no extent. 19. here on until Art. & I show how it differs from the hyperbola of the third degree which represents Newtonian gravitation. is again turned into a repulsive force. however small they may be. 7 diminished indefinitely. or the Corpuscularians in general. 17 C . adopted for the purpose of evading the as a matter of strength of my argument by those who deny the existence of hard bodies fact this cannot be used as an argument against me by the Newtonians.SYNOPSIS OF THE WHOLE WORK PART I (FROM THE VIENNA EDITION) N the led first six articles. which i * Newton in superior to where about equilibrium & the centre of oscillation & how. are soft or elastic. what to it. here too I set forth the scope of the whole work & the nature of the parts into which it is divided. & in what it is really them both. indivisible. but that it is represented by a single continuous curve. & where I have discussed it hitherto in essays already pubalso what it has in common with the theories of Leibniz and state the time at I . & if the distance . or the difference of the velocities. no matter how great that may be. . used in a vain attempt to foil the force of their passing illustrate . 28 I consider the artifice.

ac ubi id adhiberi possit. quod in momento temporis. ultimam nimirum seriei praecedentis. sive transitus ab attractione ad repulsionem. & primam novas. sed debere mutationem velocitatis incipere ante contactum ipsum. conclusit. velocitatem ab actuali secerno. quorum alterum ad finem praecedentis seriei statuum pertinet. 74 hanc vim debere esse mutuam. in maximis autem debere esse e contrario attractivam. turn & illud. Id autem ut illustrem. ac in ipsum inductionis principium inquirens usque ad num. & turn sensim plures. per saltum. & in Geometria turn num. & inde infero num. in significatione vocis motus. quod per inductionem evinco. 32 a : : 48 52 Post probationem principii continuitatis petitam ab inductione. 73 74 75 His expositis conclude jam illud ex ipsa continuitate. in quo fieret saltus. ubi potentialem quandam. & contra secundum contra primum effugium evinco impenetrabilitatem ex inductione . exhibeo. 72 considero velocitatem ipsam. debere vim ipsam imminutis distantiis crescere in infinitum ita ut par sit extinguendae velocitati utcunque magnse . in quo transitur a non esse ad esse. & agere in partes contrarias. dissolutis. usque ad num. aliam num. post epilogum eorum omnium. diligenter evolvo. ex necessitate utriusque limitis in quantitatibus realibus. quae nimirum nee suo principio. 52 expono difficultatem quandam. & evincam. nonnullis etiam. id principium applico ad excludendum saltum immediatum ab una velocitate ad aliam. debere haberi mutationis causam. ac solutionem ipsius fuse evolvo. Hinc num. & multa. collisione corporum. quid mutatio continua per gradus omnes intermedios. ut mei argument! vis elidatur. rem ipsam illustrans exemplo impenetrabilitatis erutae passim per inductionem. ac ejus legem exquirendam propono. debere in infinitum augeri. imminutis in infinitum etiam distantiis. affirmat quispiam. quod & inductionem laederet pro continuitate amplissimam. ad contactum immediatum cum ilia velocitatum inaequalitate in quo scilicet contactu primo mutaretur vel utriusque velocitas. 44. 28 & 29 binas alias responsiones rejicio aliorum. in quo a Mac-Laurino dissentiam. 80 invenio illud. alter dicuntur materiae puncta adhuc moveri ad se invicem. Geometria etiam ad rem oculo ipsi sistendam vocata in auxilium. donee demum ejus vim ac sequentibus numeris casus evolvo 45 applicem ad legem continuitatis demonstrandam quosdam binarum classium. sum. ubi corpus quodpiam velocius lentius. vel seriebus quantitatum realium finitis. movetur post aliud deveniri non posse. cui aequivocationi totum 30 30. contemplatus ego quam cum ego eandem illaesam esse debere ratus ad totam devenerim Theoriam meam. ubi localiter omnino quiescunt. 32 ad 38 expono. quae de lege continuitatis sunt dicta. & non esse. 63. continuitatis legem violari. : 63 Num. expono aequivocationem quandam innititur. alterum ad sequentis initium. Hinc num. quae inde contra meae Theoriae probationem objici possunt. prima materiae elementa compenetrari. cum tamen duas simul velocitates idem mobile habere omnino non possit. vel alterius. quarum altera. 73 infero. & 31 ostendo. & induceret pro ipso momento temporis. qui considerata eadem. appellari posse repulsivam ejusmodi vim mutuam. Ejus rationis vim ostendo in motu locali. sine transitu per intermedias. ac num. quae ad ipsarum naturam. binas velocitates. ac mutationes pertinent.1 8 SYNOPSIS TOTIUS OPERIS 28 Sequentibus num. quae appelletur vis turn num. : : : . ac formam totius curvae per ordinatas suas exprimentis virium legem determino. in ipsam continuitatis legem inquire. ac Geometriam etiam ad explicationem rei probo primum ex inductione. ut appello. ut meae deductionis vim exponam. ac etiam repulsionem plurimos ejusmodi limites invenio. 75. quas petitur sequentibus duobus numeris ex eo. quae nimirum excludat omnem saltum ab una magnitudine ad aliam sine transitu per in subsidium advoco turn earn 39 intermedias. 48 ejus probationem aggredior metaphysicam quandam. uti est gravitas inde vero colligo limitem inter attractionem. unde habeatur ejusdem principii vis. videatur juxta ejusmodi Theoriam debere simul haberi ipsum esse. in quibus continuitatis lex videtur laedi nee tamen laeditur. nee suo fine carere possunt. quid ipsa sit. & vice versa. In ejusmodi autem perquisitione usque ad num. Hie igitur.

the points of matter are said to & my be moved with regard to one another. After this proof of the principle of continuity procured through induction. ." Then. an equivocation upon which the whole thing depends. however great that velocity may be. 74. in Art. & also in geometry. even when they are absolutely at rest as regards In reply to the first artifice. I infer that there must be a cause for this change begin which is to be called " force. 38. I settle several difficulties that can be brought in to the of my Theory. That is to say. I give by way of illustration an example in which impenetrability is derived & lastly I apply the force of the principle to demonstrate entirely by induction the Law of Continuity. in Art. it appears according to a theory of this kind that we must have at the same time both existence and For one of these belongs to the end of the antecedent series of states. someone states that there is compenetration of the primary elements of matter . either at the beginning or the end. ciple & where it can be used. Then in Art. I find that. that expresses by its ordinates the law of these forces. 80. in Art. 44. in order to evade reasoning. Carrying on this investigation as far as Art. who. from here on to Art. indeed very many more. but is not however really violated. & the initial velocity of the consequent series in spite of the fact that it is quite impossible for a moving body to have two different velocities at the same time. & what is meant by a continuous change through all intermediate stages. that assumption At this point therefore. 75. I show in what respect I differ from Maclaurin. of such limit-points. in consequence. such as to exclude any sudden change from any one magnitude to another except by a passage & I call in geometry as well to help my explanation of the through intermediate stages matter. . demonstrate the force of this reasoning in the case of local motion. 72. 30. I refute a further pair of arguments advanced by others . as I call it. in which the Law of Continuity appears to be violated. . 31. Hence I infer that there must be a limit-point forming a boundary between attraction & & then by degrees I find more. I set forth its nature. which is derived from the fact that. matter. & from repulsion to attraction . & the non-existence. . this would be contrary to the very full proof that I give for continuity. in the next two articles. : 30 32 39 45 48 S2 63 73 74 75 . when one body with a greater velocity follows after another body having a less velocity. Further. . having considered the same point as myself. . in Art. 73. In Art. & that it acts in opposite directions the proof is by induction. 63. I investigate the Law of Continuity and from Art. Then. 48. in Art. Hence. except by passing through intermediate velocities . I undertake another proof of a metaphysical kind. In the articles that follow I consider certain cases of two kinds. or of one or the other. I infer that such a mutual force may be said to be repulsive & I undertake the investigation of the law that governs it. . in order that it may be capable of destroying any velocity. came to the conclusion that in the collision of bodies whereas I obtained the whole of my Theory from the the Law of Continuity was violated this law must be unassailable. whilst the force must be indefinitely increased as the distance is indefinitely decreased. in in giving a visual representation of the and I call as well to assist geometry problem . I prove that this force is a mutual one. 32 to Art. repulsion or points of transition from attraction to repulsion. up opposition proof This done. of them being changed suddenly at I assert on the other hand that the change in the velocities must the instant of contact. & I determine the form of the entire curve. . . 52 I explain a certain difficulty. after summing up all that has been said about the Law of Continuity. depending upon the necessity of a limit on either side for either real quantities or for a finite series of real quantities & indeed it is I impossible that these limits should be lacking. in the second. there would be the final velocity of the antecedent series. . 1 show whence the force of this principle is derived. I then conclude from the principle of continuity that. as it would lead to our having two velocities at the instant at which the change occurred. From this. it is impossible that there should ever be absolute contact with such an inequality of velocities . I find that this force must increase indefinitely as the distance is diminished. before contact. . Moreover. I apply the principle to exclude the possibility of any sudden change from one velocity to another. Then I investigate its truth first of all by induction &. I consider velocity itself and I distinguish between a potential velocity. a case of the velocity of each. . it must be on the contrary attractive at very great distances. Moreover. itself. in the first of these. & an actual velocity I also investigate carefully many matters that relate to the nature of these velocities & to their changes. investigating the prinof induction as far as Art. I expose an equivocation in the meaning of the term motion.SYNOPSIS OF THE WHOLE WORK 19 28 In the next articles. at the instant at which there is a passage from non-existence to existence. 28 29. as is the case for gravitation. I prove the principle of impenetrability by inducposition. that is to say. in order that the strength of my deductive reasoning might be shown. tion & in reply to the second. . I consider fairly fully' the solution of this other to the beginning of the consequent series. in order to illustrate & prove the point.

ita etiam inextensa esse debeant. invenio in homogenietate tanta primi cruris in ex minimis distantiis. 101 ad 104 ostendo. nee adesse semper omnimodam inter appellant. a num. inextensio transitum a vacuo continue per saltum ad materiam densitatis. & analogiam demonstro. cum & idea earum sit admodum ad Mechanicam vero pertineat omnis distincta.20 8 1 SYNOPSIS TOTIUS OPERIS . nexum distantiis in immensum auctam omnem dissolveret. : : Eo usque virium legem deduce. adeoque plurimos secum afferat virium transitus a repulsivis ad attractivas. ac demum contra puncta ilia indivisibilia. gantur multiplices. 99 in illud. 104 attractiones. Ostendo autem. qui a datis viribus etiam sine immediate impulsu oriuntur. & multiplicitatem transituum : Primo quidem. quae peti possit conjungi analogia quiete. a quibus differant tantummodo ut minus a majore. & postremi attractivi. 104 1 06 pluribus punctis rectam secare possunt. Usque ad num. quod pertinet legem. : . Ostendo nimirum usque ad num. nee quietem omnimodam in Natura haberi usquam. Hie fructum. an hasc elementa. nihil gravitas exhibetur. quae nusquam axem secans attractiones solas. ac definio turn num. primo quidem contra vires in genere. ut iis etiam faciam satis. an ejusmodi elementa sint censenda ac primo quidem argumentum pro homogeneitate saltern in an homogenea. qua serie continua momentorum temporis. quo repulsivi omnis in materia est penitus homogenea. elementorum materiae. ut simplicia esse debent. ex arcubus natura diversis esse positive & deductam totam curvas formam. ut rectam in plurimis punctis secet. unde tantum proveniat discrimen in compositis massulis. 100 Ea ad probationem Theoriae pertinent qua absoluta. quae in ejusmodi Theoria ut minui in infinitum potest. eo in . turn contra meam hanc expositam. eandem exclude inductionis principio. sed omnino simplicem. ubi ad contactum deventum est. & simplice per aliquam possit vel omnipraesentiae Dei turn corporis partem divisibilem. . quam in anima indivisibili. & extensam passim admittunt in nimirum debeat unicum ab cum earn. ob repulsionem in minimis nam ea. vires hasce non esse quoddam occultarum qualitatum genus. non posse omnes repulsiones a minore attractione desumi repulsiones ejusdem esse seriei cum attractionibus. & difficultatem evolvo turn earn. ac ob sublatum limitem determinationis quantum prosit simplicitas. colligo autem ingentem ejusmodi 91 inquire usque ad num. nihil ex inductione. ac lex positive comprobata tractatio de Motibus. ubi ostendo. quam virtualem extensionem . non ad heterogeneitatem deducere. atque earn ipsam . . repulsionibus & vice versa. & 101 inextensa. quam itidem ostendo. ob summotum continuam. ostendens usque ad num. & spatium analogiam. vel solas pro distantiis omnibus repulsiones exhibeat sed vires repulsivas. probatam. comprobatamque virium legem. haberi potius. uti in extensione virtuali unicum spatii punctum cum momentum temporis cum serie continua punctorum spatii conjungeretur. & eo in immensum plures sunt numero . ac exposita ilia. sive ut a ex negativum positivo ipsa curvarum natura. & existentia. potissimum vero ob sublatum omne continuum coexistens. quae. A num. quae debent esse simplicia. heterogenea virium ad totam eo. . 116. naturam nos ad homofrondibus. sed patentem sane Mechanismum. 91. 88 tempus. quam pro curva. si forte ipsa elementa partibus constarent. quo sublato & gravissimae difficultates plurimse evanescunt. quae vires exprimat. indicium pro curva ejus naturae. quae vel objectae jam sunt. gradum vel objici posse videntur mihi. & foliis geneitatem elementorum. ubi curva quaeritur. antequam inde fructus collihie facio ad evolvendas difficultates. quibus contra ejusmodi homogenietatem evinci ex principio Leibnitiano indiscernibilium. His definitis. quae totam curvas formam impetunt. ad 106 nullum committi saltum in transitu a ad ostendo. 88 inquire in illud. ita potest in infinitum etiam augeri. qui inani vocabulorum quorundam sono perturbantur. quo pendet impenetrabilitas. ut in ac per inductionem. quae ex ipsa ejusmodi virium lege deducuntur. indivisibilitas. & infinitum actu existens habetur nullum. 81 eruo ex ipsa lege constitutionem elementorum materiae. & ostendo. non esse temere coalescentem. quae peti ab exemplo ejus generis extensionis. augeri ultra densitas nequaquam potest. dum in communi. quo altioris sunt gradus. Inde vero ad objectiones gradum facio. sed in possibilibus tantummodo remanet series finitorum in infinitum producta. cum nimirum per omnes inter medias quantitates is transitus fiat.

at all distances. that can be derived from either " the Leibnizian principle of I also show whence arise indiscernibles. These matters are all connected with the proof of my Theory. as to whether these elements. for the elements of matter. Next. as far as Art. those differences. First of all then. 88. most especially. as far as Art. I find my first evidence in favour of homogeneity at least as far as the complete law of forces in the equally great homogeneity of the first repulsive branch of my curve is concerned of forces for very small distances. Then I pass on to consider the objections that are made against the whole form of my 104 106 curve. having exI what is called " virtual it the of in Art. In tive branch. & finally against those indivisible. and a multiplicity of transitions are directly demonstrated. in order that I may satisfy even those who are confused over the empty sound of certain terms. differing from them only as less does from more. 104 to 106. in Art. for this transition is made through every intermediate quantity. since sort of mysterious qualities both the idea of them is perfectly distinct. they do density way place. 8r. or in the case of the omnipresence a pervading of GOD.SYNOPSIS OF So far I THE WHOLE WORK 21 have been occupied in deducing and settling the law of these forces. such as we see in boughs & leaves . 81 plained extension. & not to heterogeneity. I derive . . I investigate. 101 to 104. for if by chance those elements were made up of parts. since it does not cut I . account quite simple. I proceed to consider the objections to my theory. first against forces in general. for here in truth one point of space must be connected with a continuous series of instants of time. than for assuming a curve that. that are so great amongst small composite bodies. as far as Art. before I start to gather the manifold fruits to be derived from it. the very nature of the curves (for which. Further. from here on to Art. indivisibility. 99. or negative from positive. perfect rest anywhere in Nature. I consider the point. I point out that repulsive forces. To Mechanics belongs every discussion concerning motions that arise from given forces without any direct impulse. by induction & analogy. just as in virtual extension a single instant of time would be connected with I show that there can neither be a continuous series of points of space. I also gather a large harvest from such a conclusion as this showing. & thus give a large number of transitions of the forces from repulsions to attractions). as well as their existence. & vastly more such curves there are). IO o 101 Art. the more points there are in which they can intersect a right line. non-extended points that are deduced from a law of forces of this kind. the higher the degree. whilst in the ordinary theory. as they must be simple. 116. nor can there be at all times a perfect analogy between time and space. & non-extension in the elements of matter. & I prove. Further. For they do away with the idea of a passage from a continuous vacuum to continuous matter through a sudden change. Moreover I show that there is nothing that can be proved in opposition to homogeneity such as this. In this connection. I deduce that there is more reason for assuming a curve of the nature of mine (so that it may cut a right line in a large number of points. in a Theory like mine. . show indeed. & in addition the law that governs them is demonstrated in a direct manner. that these forces are not some but that they form a readily intelligible mechanism. the point as to whether elements of this kind are to be considered as being homogeneous or heterogeneous. any away with the idea of everything continuous coexisting & when this is done away with." reject by principle induction. that all repulsions cannot be taken to come from a decreased attraction that repulsions belong to the self-same series as attracFrom tions. the repulsion would destroy all connections between them. . nothing infinite is found actually the only thing possible that remains is a series of finite things produced indeexisting . as soon as contact takes as it can be indefinitely decreased the cannot in be further increased. can be just as well increased to an indefinite extent. I show that no sudden change takes place in passing from repulsions to attractions or vice versa . & of the last attrac- QJ by which gravity is represented. I show. ." or by induction. I then consider the difficulty which may be brought forward from an example of this kind of such as is generally admitted in the case of the indivisible and one-fold soul extension divisible & extended portion of the body. the majority of the greatest difficulties vanish. Also they render unnecessary any limit to density this. These must be on of the repulsion at very small distances being immensely great . from this law the constitution of the elements of matter. upon which depends impenetrability. These things being settled. or repulsions alone. secondly against the law of forces that I have enunciated & proved. Next I consider the difficulty that may be brought forward from an analogy with rest . . & the whole form of the curve is a matter of deduction & I also show that it is not formed of a number of arcs differing in nature connected together haphazard . will represent attractions alone. But. Having accomplished this. the axis anywhere. must therefore be also of no extent &. : : gg . that the very nature of things leads us to homogeneity. such as either have been already raised or seem to me capable of being raised . Then. the great advantage of simplicity. 91. finitely.

autem existentiam 143 probetur argumentis a me institutis hoc ipsum. ut in ipsa idea corporis videatur includi extensio continua. qua deveniri licet. exhibens methodum. ac illud explico. & uniformem mente resolvi in curvas ilia lex virium possit plures. 153 ostendo. 131 a viribus transeo ad elementa. primo quidem usque ad num. per unicam illam continuant. cum ejus formae curva plurium asymptotorum esse possit. & vero etiam aliae plures attractionis. in reliquis affectari quodammodo ubi & exempla evolvo continuitatis in quaedam primo aspectu violatae. 172 in ipsos arcus inquire. & inextensa. proxime. alii asymptotici. Eorum considerationem aggressus. quod quidem facile possumus. nee ullum haberi extensum continuum. nimirum in solis motibus . \ 153 num. quantum libet. 143 ostendo. ut puncta inextensa. ut hie ostendo. desumi quod pro ejusmodi lege possit ex eo. : exclude. & ex ea assumpta ajunt) per intussumptionem. nisi A num. cohaerentem. & quae tandum . ac ibi quidem primam hanc partem absolve. 140 ostendo. ubi ipsum Optimismi principium ad trutinam revoco. & in se simplicem curvam . quorum naturam in Supplementis multo uberius expono. quae nimirum in minimis distantiis attractionem requirit crescentem in infinitum. enuncio. quod cuipiam visa sit omnium optima. & indissolubilis . quod partem pertinet. quid mihi sit spatium. ipsorum vel inde probari. non (ut . & iis proprietatibus praeditam. . ubi continuitatem admittam. unde fiat. 124 nee vero ex Astronomia deduci ejusmodi legem imaginarias resolutiones exhibeamus in accurate servatam ipsis Planetarum. ut extensio continua 140 Num. & idcirco electa ab Auctore Naturae.22 SYNOPSIS TOTIUS OPERIS simplicitatem in Supplementis cvidentissime demonstro. quod nimirum earn haurire non possumus per sensus. cur omnium optima ejusmodi lex censeatur Supplementis vero ostendo. ad qua. quibusdam proprietatibus luminis. ipsam non esse uspiam accurate in ejusmodi ratione. quae jam olim contra Zenonicos objecta. inductionis principium contra ipsa nullam habere vim. non esse. qua fit. cur punctorum inextensorum ideam non habeamus. est satis soluta. & inextensa. quas in tamen ad tertiam ibi multo uberius pertraccorporibus experimur. ac in aliis quibusdam casibus. quae imminutis in infinitum distantiis excrescat in infinitum. quid tempus. quantum haec mea puncta a spiritibus differant ac illud etiam evolvo. afficiunt. quae per plures exponantur. ubi in ipsam . 166 hujus partis argumentum propono sequenti vero 167. 124 expendo argumentum. qui fieri inde praejudicia profluant. in massam coalescant. nunquam ab inextensis effici omnino non possit. & quidem grandiores. ac . PARS 166 1 II 68 Num. ipsa possit ad aequationem ejusmodi curvse simplicem. & : 131 Num. potius absurda deducet ejusmodi lex. 121 121 refello. me non inducere primum in Physicam puncta indivisibilia. Ostendo autem. Porro continuitatem ipsam ostendo a natura in solis motibus obtineri accurate. Postremo possit. in vero illud etiam evinco. A 165 idearum nostrarum originem inquire. cum eo etiam Leibnitianae monades recidant. prima elementa esse indivisibilia. alii repulsivi. sed ad summum ita prorsus ut differentia ab ea lege sit perquam exigua ac a num. & primum ostendo. & in quibusdam consectaria notatu digna. quorum alii attractivi. in quibus quaedam crescunt per additionem partium. quae potissimum in curva virium consideranda sint. & Cometarum distantiis. quorum alter respectu alterius vices agat unius. sed sublata extensione continua difficultatem auferre illam omnem. quos solae massae. atque idcirco eandem nos ipsi debemus per reflexionem efformare. componatur. expono. Ceterum illud ostendo. ut & illud. autem loco num. & a se invicem distantia. A num. quae objici possunt a lege gravitatis decrescentis in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum. quod continuitas se se ipsam destruat. 165 innuo. Mundorum prorsus similium seriem posse oriri. a quibus tamen omnibus ilia reapse unica lex. ubi casuum occurrit mira multitudo.

as some have thought. I point out the only connection in which I shall admit continuity. Consequently we have to build up the idea by a process of reasoning & this we can do without any difficulty. From Art. some of which are attractive. I show that the law is nowhere exactly in conformity with a ratio of this sort. unless we add explanations that are merely imaginative . continuous & one-fold curve that I give. 172 of which will act upon all the others as a single inviolate elementary system. and not by intussumption. & that on that account it was selected by the Founder of Nature. in the very idea of a body & in this connection. From Art. I assert. by arguments originated by that the elements are indivisible & non-extended. & that there does not myself. I investigate the origin of our ideas & I explain the prejudgments that arise therefrom. & that is in motion. endowed with those properties that we experience in bodies. for continuity is On this self-contradictory. much more 153 165 PART II and in Art. In addition. This finishes the first part. I point out that I am not the first " monads " to introduce indivisible & non-extended points into physical science for the of Leibniz practically come to the same thing. . & at a distance from one another. nor. however. as it is termed. & these too must be of considerable size. investigate the Here arcs of the curve. such as in some of the properties of light. it is the best of In connection with all. and these may be represented by several corresponding curves. the difficulty arising from the fact that by no possible means can continuous extension be is . 167 I declare what In Art. which was raised against the disciples of Zeno in years gone by. 140 no extent. Coming to the consideration of these matters. I start to give a refutation of those objections that may be raised from a consideration of the fact that the law of gravitation. decreasing in the inverse duplicate ratio of the distances. 172. as far as Art. fully in the . & that it should increase indefinitely. there can arise a series of perfectly similar cosmi. 131 I pass from forces to elements. 1*1 made up from indivisibles . 124 onwards. I first of all. show that the principle is of induction yields no argument against these 140 demonstrated by that principle. In Art. each From Art. by rejecting the idea of continuous extension. this law of forces may be mentally resolved into several. some repulsive and some asymptotic. 143 onwards. Further in the Supplements. I first of all show the reason why we may not appreciate the idea of non-extended points it is because we are unable to perceive them by means of the senses. in Art. I remove the whole of the difficulty. that is followed with perfect accuracy even at the distances of the planets & the comets. 166 168 . In Art. I state the idea that I have with regard to space. Supplements. . which are only affected by masses. may be compounded from all of these together by means of the unique. but one merely that is at most so very nearly correct. However. such as that. things of I In Art. . & in certain other cases where things increase by addition of parts. 121.SYNOPSIS OF THE WHOLE WORK 23 but that it is absolutely one-fold. I2 i 124 diminished indefinitely. since a curve of this kind is capable of possessing a considerable number of asymptotes. this I examine the principle of Optimism. Finally. in favour of a law of this sort from the view that. 153 onwards. I show that continuity itself is really a of motions only. & has never been answered satisfactorily namely. This one-fold character I demonstrate in the Supplements in a very evident manner. & there it will be much more fully developed. property Here I also consider some examples in which continuity at first sight appears to be violated. . a marvellous number of different cases present themselves.. that the difference from the law of inverse squares is very From Art. actually unique. can a law of this kind be deduced from astronomy. Although. assumption it may be proved. I show how greatly these points of mine differ from objectI consider how it comes about that continuous extension seems to be included souls. & to some of them there are noteworthy corollaries . & also time the nature of these I explain rather their existence : j . 1 66 I state the theme of this second part matters are to be considered more especially in connection with the curve of forces. belongs to the third part . I show to what absurdities a law of this sort is more likely to lead & the same thing for other laws of an attraction that increases indefinitely as the distance . But I show that. This. demands that there should be an attraction at very small distances. giving a method by which a simple and uniform equation may be obtained for a curve of this kind. & that in all other things it is more or less a false assumption. I lightly sketch what might happen to enable points that are of no extent. to coalesce into a coherent mass of any size. . & I reject it moreover I prove conclusively that there is no reason why this sort of law should be supposed to be the best of all. as I there point out. primary exist anything possessing the property of continuous extension. Further.! examine the value of the argument that can be drawn slight. yet that law. 165.

& liquationem per celerem motum punctis impressum. 189 a consideratione curvae ad punctorum combinationem gradum facio. 189 Num. & quae tertium punctum non ad accessum urgeant. quanto id usui futurum sit in parte tertia ad exponenda cohaesionis varia genera. sive sibi relinquantur. 179 areas contemplor arcubus clausas. quorum : vires generaliter facile definiuntur data ipsorum positione quacunque verum utcunque data positione. conformitas. ubi etiam pro appulsibus considero recessus in infinitum per arcus asymptoticos. 264 considero. Ad num. methodo. 222. quam possit. fermentationes. vel recessum tantummodo respectu eorundem. 238 contemplor tria puncta posita non in directum. sive projiciantur utcunque. 223 a viribus binorum punctorum transeo ad considerandum totum ipsorum systema. vel decrement! quadrat! velocitatum. evolvo. vel in Natura admitti possint. quae communiter quid ac adhibetur. & variationem ingentem. quibus bina puncta agunt in tertium. & ad alia plura. 223 228 Hie jam num. & ingens sane discrimen in distantiis particularum perquam exiguis ac summa in maximis. & : & expono. emissiones vaporum. vel curvarum aliarum mira occurrit analogia limitum quorundam cum limitibus. quae ad centrum graviin quavis massa esse aliquod. quae pertinent ad virgas rigidas. vel parvae. & usque ad num. luculenter A num. quas pertinent ad eorum vires mutuas. esse unicum in ostendo. superiores quatuor pyramidibus singulae massis. 204 ad 239 multo uberior consideratio trium punctorum. quo pacto determinari generaliter possit. sunt autem mensura incrementi. quos habent bina puncta in axe curvae primigeniae ad se invicem. sive id jaceat in recta. 189 inquire in appulsus curvse ad axem. quantus inde itidem in Physicam usus proveniat. illud innuo in antecessum. quas multo generaliores redduntur inferius. 204 ago de systemate duorum punctorum. ac primo quidem usque ad num. ubi in tribus etiam punctis tantummodo adumbrantur. sive in recta ipsi perpendiculari. & curva retro redeat. vel nee attrahitur. significo. flexiles. 214 quaedam evolvo. sed & in latus. conflagrationes. 228 contemplor tria puncta in directum sita. ubi & conjunctione ipsorum exposita in distantiis limitum. ac ad vectem. mollitiem. celeritate nondum a Geometris inventi sunt motus ita. num. & oscillationibus variis. utut tantummodo numero trium. sive nullam externam punctorum aliorum actionem sentiant. SYNOPSIS TOTIUS OPERIS 179 Ad. multo generaliora fiunt. persequor usque ad num. sive tangatur. proprietates luminis. sive perturbentur ab eadem. cujusmodi discrimen cum in massis haberi debeat multo majus. situm in omnibus absolvi calculus diversae : 222 eadem distantia a medio eorum intervallo. sive limites. qua junguntur. ubi de massis. quae respondentes segmento axis cuicunque. oriantur inde. quos dico limites. in quibus gravitas agit. quae itidem inferius. & eorum intervallum secante bifariam. & motus. illud indico. Sequentibus autem binis numeris generalia quaedam de expono systemate punctorum quatuor cum applicatione ad virgas solidas. esse possunt magnitudine utcunque magnae. quod quanto itidem ad Naturae explicationem futurum sit usui. quarum infimae ex punctis quatuor. & suppleo. ac ordines particularum varies exhibeo per pyramides. elasticas. 204 Succedit a Num. rigidas. num. vel perpetuo attrahitur. sive is ibi secetur ab eadem (quo casu habentur transitus vel a repulsione ad attractionem. sive in perimetro ellipsium quarundam. flexiles. & quorum maximus est in tota mea Theoria usus). ac a num. . 238 specimen applicationis exhibetur ad soliditatem. & intestinum 24 tatis pertinent. 209. sive in in quibus aequilibrio sint. vel ab attractione ad repulsionem. ubi & soliditatis imago prodit. 240 ad massas gradu facto usque demonstro generaliter. ea pertractans. 221 ipsis etiam oculis contemplandum propono ingens discrimen in legibus virium. ex coalescant. & qui transitus. constructis ex data primigenia curva curvis vires compositas exhibentibus turn sequentibus binis numeris casum evolvo notatu dignissimum. ex quorum mutuis viribus relationes quaedam exurgunt. quae pertinent ad vires ortas in singulis ex actione composita reliquorum duorum. Hinc usque ad num. desit ad habendam demonstrationis vim. Demum usque ad num. punctum tertium per idem quoddam intervallum. vel perpetuo repellitur.24 172 element!. atque ibidem multo major varietas casuum indicatur pro . nee repellitur . pariunt combinationes punctorum. elasticitatem. in quo mutata sola positione binorum punctorum. Usque ad num. ut generaliter pro & casibus 209 214 221 Vires igitur.

172 179 cut by the latter. I consider. conflagrations. elasticity and flexibility. fermentations. the great use that will be made of this also in Physics. 179. of the other two together. which I return to later in much greater generality . may arise from such a case. this deficiency lacking . I make an anticinote of the use to which this will be put in the third part. either rigid. concern their mutual forces. . Moreover. or limits. as well as many other things . 1 investigate the approach of the curve to the axis . recession to infinity along an asymptotic arc . Then. are treated much more generally later Then right on to Art. . l %9 of explaining various kinds of cohesion. for three points only. for the purpose great patory is ' . but. whether they are left to themselves or proHere also. I consider the areas included by the arcs. 189. or in the right line that is the this I do by constructing. too. when it comes to a question of rigorous proof . or continually repelled. 264. & a truly immense difference between the several cases when the distances are very small. I consider certain only three in number. & liquefaction. 209. 240 as far as Art. a really important one. curves representing the composite forces. either great or small . may be of any magnitude whatever. having explained the connection between jected in any manner whatever. Then up to Art. although they are From that. Here we come across a marvellous analogy between certain limits and the limits which two points lying on the axis of the primary curve have with & here also a much greater variety of cases for masses is shown. Then in the two articles that follow. & only one. 204 to Art. mined for any given positions of the points . from Art. but also in a direction at right angles forth an analogy with solidity. In Art. 209 214 221 222 22 3 24 . in Art. at any and the same definite interval situated at the same distance from the middle point of the interval between the two points.SYNOPSIS OF THE WHOLE WORK 25 to Art. from perpendicular which bisects the interval between them the primary curve. together with their application to solid rods. I state some general propositions with regard to a system of four points. & the curve once again recedes from the axis. in Art.' & use very largely in every part of my Theory & also when the former is touched by the latter. I point out. & the huge variation that different combinations of the points beget. on to Art. 238. From Art. will be either continually attracted. and motions. I pass from the forces derived from two points to the consideration of a whole system of them . & I set forth in clear terms the point that is in the usual method. I study three points situated in a right line. I consider the case. things that have to do with the forces that arise from the action. I show how it can in general be determined. There 204 the motions have not yet been obtained by geometricians in such a form that the general calculation can be performed for every possible case. when any position & velocity are given. the properties of light. emissions of vapours. and with the lever. flexible or elastic. 222. each of which is formed of four points in the most simple case. by merely changing the position of the two points. & different cases of oscillations. both rigid and flexible I also give an illustration of various classes of particles by means of pyramids. as far as Art. 221. I work out those things that First. and. 214. as far as Art. these. on account of a quick internal motion being impressed on the points of the body. in any given mass. too. I pass on from the consideration of the curve to combinations of points. follows. I give ocular demonstrations of the huge differences that there are in the laws of forces with which two points act upon a third. whether they affected external action of other are by points. & how these urge the third point not only to approach. . these. as a case of approach. when I consider masses. the third point. & whether such are admissible in Nature. whether it lies in the right line joining them. & of four of such pyramids in the more complicated cases. on as both when the former far as Art. or recede in this connection there comes from. 189. & I prove that in general there is one. 239. So I proceed to consider the forces. or moving in the perimeters of certain ellipses or other curves. in this connection also are outlined. or are not so disturbed. matters that have to do with rods. not lie in a right line. and I investigate what transitions. I pass on to masses & consider matters pertaining to the centre of gravity . themselves. or neither attracted nor repelled & since a difference of this kind should hold to a much greater degree in masses. in the two articles that then follow. whether they are in equilibrium. . respect to each other & an example is given of the application to solidity. At this point then. from the mutual forces of which there arise certain relations. as far as Art. I consider three points that do on. & the motions distances of the these limits. 204. which I call limits. . the much more fruitful consideration of a of three The forces connected with them can in general be easily detersystem points. in which case there are transitions from repulsion to attraction and from attraction to repulsion. corresponding to different segments of the axis. 223. on each of the points. moreover they measure the increment or decrement in the squares of the velocities. 228. I deal with a system of two points. in which. & the greatest conformity possible at very great distances such as those at which gravity acts & I point out what great use will be made of this also in explaining the constitution of Nature.

sequalem summae ponderum totius systematis. ac ostendo illud. 276 congressus obliques. vel. 313 theoremata evolvo plura. in hac posteriore concipiantur binae vires contrarise adjectas. ac ad massas etiam quotcunque. ac nisum centri in fulcrum. & accuratissime celebre turbato. sive vires constanter in accessu attrahant. unde fiat. unde turn omnium vectium genera evolvo. definiendamque ex Mechanica requiritur. . quid accidat. quae ad luminis reflexionem.26 SYNOPSIS TOTIUS OPERIS profero tionem. quse pro ipsis viribus vivis afferri solent. ad distantiam. si ingens. & reflexionis. ut illud. quse consideratio nihil turbet phenomena . qua generaliter in centrum gravitatis inquire : exemplum quoddam ejusdem generis. inde num. 279 ad 289 ostendo aut motuum resolutionem. ubi & illud notissimum. sed in ilia priore A conspirantium summa semper maneat. 297 occasione inde arrepta aggredior qusedam. ubi usque ad num. jam illud considero. 307 313 A num. facta suspensione per centrum gravitatis haberi aequilibrium. 307 inquire in trium massarum systema. idcirco in collisionibus pertinent. quae ad aequilibrium pertinent divergentium utcumque virium. ut nihil inde pro virium vivarum Theoria deduci possit. ubi tantummodo plura 2Q7 A num. sive jam attrahant. quod passim sine demonstratione assumitur. & quae ad prseponderantiam. eas directiones vel esse inter se parallelas. & explico casuum genera. quod sequent! 278 transfero ad incursum etiam in haberi in Natura veram virium. vel repellant constanter. quern singularum directio continet cum sua ejusmodi distantia. quae ad legem in continuitatis motibus sancte servatam. principium momenti deduce pro machinis omnibus colligo : Eorum theorematum fructum ut & illud. ut illud & simplex. & virgarum nectentium suppleant vices. quae prima fronte virium resolutionem requirere videntur. quod ad numerorum pertinet multiplica- ope demonstro admodum statu centri gravitatis per illud expedite. 264. corporum. & communicationem motus in congressibus directis Theoriam a resolutione motuum reduce legibus. vel sustinente puncto. sed per intermedias alias. massam alteram habere tantummodo priores rationes duas elisa tertia. quorum numero ad compositionem num. & refractionem explican- dam. binarum massarum vires acceleratrices esse semper in ratione composita ex tribus reciprocis rationibus. nimirum systemate quiescente. quarum singulas cum centro conversionis. 289 ad 297 leges expono compositionis virium. cum eorum . unde demum pateat ejus ratio. & nonnulla. 328. & ad virium compositionem per parallelogramma. sequalitatem actionis. Theoriam extendens ad casum etiam. in Mundo & reactionis in massis collisionem corporum. ubique in motu ac reflexo. ubi omnia evolvo. quo pacto in compositione decrescat vis. & elegans. sed imaginariam tantummodo. & resolutionis. quae ad oscillationum accuratiorem Theoriam necessaria sunt. omnia. relationem itidem vis absolutae ad relativam in obliquo gravium descensu. ubi repellant : & quid. & usque ad num. sinum. diligenter expono. quae pertinent ad earumdem compositarum virium rationem ad se invicem. 278 270 eandem plagam num. quo massae non in se invicem agant mutuo immediate. & massae ipsius earn vires autem motrices habentis compositam vim. internas vires mutuas numquam Newtoni theorema de 264 265 266 Ejus tractionis fructus colligo plures : conservationem ejusdem quantitatis motuum in 276 277. sed in ipso centro debere sentiri vim a fulcro. quam alia methodo generaliore turn vero ejusdem exhibeo analoga illi ipsi. ac elementa profero. cum sine iis explicentur itidem explico ex iis phsenomenis. quse nexum concilient. 321 deducens inde usque ad num. sinus anguli. si scabrities superficiei agentis exigua sit. per quoddam commune punctum transire omnes 321 theoremata alia plura. 265. in resolutione crescat. prorsus elementaria. quae pertinent ad directionem virium in singulis compositarum e binis reliquarum actionibus. : . nullam planum immobile ac a num. & ipsius aequilibrii centrum. & impedito omni partium motu per aequilibrium. totam massam concipi posse ut in centro gravitatis collectam. 289 num. non nisi proxime tantummodo observari. leges vulgo definitas. contrariis elisis . si utrinque turn usque ad indefinite producantur. 277. 307 relationes varias persequor angulorum incidentisa. num. distantise ipsarum a massa tertia. & alia quavis assumpta massa connexas concipio.

oblique impacts motions to compositions. all that is done is to suppose that two equal & opposite forces are added on. & in reflected motion. or I also consider what will attract at one time & repel at another. . continually attract. Thus it comes about that nothing can be deduced from this in favour of the Theory of living forces. sine and mass for the other first two ratios. each of which I suppose to be connected with the centre of rotation & some other assumed mass. or continually repel. that. the latter I prove by another more general method. & some theorems that are requisite for the more accurate theory of oscillations these. one of the theorems that I obtain is. 1 state the laws for the composition & resolution of forces here also I give the explanation of that well-known fact. 279 to Art. in the collision of solid bodies. I extend the theorem to to the case in which the masses do not also. . as far as Art. 276. whilst in the second. if a lever is suspended from the centre of gravity. such as the theorem. 265 the then the collision of solid bodies. that of the sine of the angle which the direction of each force makes with the corresponding distance of this kind. relating preponderance mutually act upon one another in a direct manner. with extreme rigour that well-known theorem of Newton. I explain also many of the phenomena. analogous to that which I use in the general Then by its help I prove very expeditiously & investigation for the centre of gravity. & the centre of equilibrium. . In Art. & what if it is very great. I investigate the system of three bodies . Art. & that of the mass itself on which the force is acting. so long as the system is in a state of rest & all motions of its parts are prohibited by equilibrium. I gather several good results from this method of treatment. from Art. I evolve several theorems dealing with the direction of the forces on each one of the three compounded from the combined actions of the other two . I seize the opportunity offered by the results just mentioned to attack certain matters that relate to the law of continuity. . Then. then there is equilibrium but a force should be felt in this centre from the fulcrum or sustaining point. 313. & in this connection I consider & explain all sorts of cases. some one common point. I make out the various relations between the angles of incidence & reflection. but through others intermediate between them. & from this I derive the principles of moments for all machines. which supposition has no effect on the phenomena. & I show that. which are usually brought forward as evidence in favour of these living forces. 307. 2I . as far as Art. which is everywhere assumed without proof. though quite elementary. & the pressure of the centre on a fulcrum. I then collect the results to be derived from these theorems. the rest being equal & opposite cancel one another . are therefore only approximately followed. equal to the sum of the weights of the whole system . that deals with the multi& to the composition of forces by the parallelogram law . I & plication of numbers. I pass to impact on to a fixed plane. that force decreases in composition. 264. whether the forces. as usually stated. theorems relating to the equilibrium of forces diverging in any manner. in which he affirmed that the state of the centre of gravity is in no way altered by the internal mutual forces. I explain with great care. From Art. & in the article that follows. as far as Art. 328. increases in resolution. such as the following very simple & elegant theorem.' In Art.SYNOPSIS OF I THE WHOLE WORK 27 bring forward a certain example of the same sort. 278. 321. the conservation of the same quantity of motion in the Universe in one plane in Art. 297. as the bodies approach one another. Then I consider all the different kinds of levers . that are required for the explanation & determination of the also the relation of the absolute to the relative force in reflection & refraction of light the oblique descent of heavy bodies . which connect them together. to the correalso that the motive forces only have the sponding distance. 289 I show that there can be no real resolution of forces or of motions in Nature. deriving from them. : . 307 onwards. or all pass through supply. and also to any number of masses. & supply the place of rods joining them . but only a hypothetical one . 297. that the accelerating forces of two of the masses will always be in a ratio compounded of three reciprocal ratios namely. that these directions are either all parallel to one another. in which at first sight it would seem that there must be resolution. 264 265 . in Art. principles. 277 I reduce the theory of these from resolution of in Art. derived from mechanics. the laws. From Art. & from that. which in all cases of motion is strictly observed . . from which there follows most clearly the reason. 289 to Art. as far as Art. that of the masses being omitted. 266 276 277 278 279 . I make out several other theorems dealing with the ratios of these same resultant forces to one another ^j. since everything can be explained without them in the same connection. happen if the roughness I also state the first of the acting surface is very slight. in this connection. . 289 . From this. when they are produced indefinitely on both sides. why the whole mass can be supposed to be collected at its centre of gravity. but always remains equal to the sum of the parts acting in the same direction as itself in the first. ' 207 . that of the distance of either one of them from the third mass. and the equality of action and reaction amongst masses communication of motions in direct impacts & the laws that govern them.

nee in attractione maxima in contactu. deinde vero attingo ilia etiam. : : : punctorum 398 divisibilitati in infinitum vulgo admissae subpossit esse utcunque magnus . turn usque ad num. 399 ad 406 gravitatem deduco ex mea virium Theoria. pertinentia quae mihi communia sint cum ceteris omnibus. 371 materis proprietates deduce. 375 de extensione ago. quae pertinent ad velocitatem fluidi erumpentis e vase. & mira quaedam phenomena hue pertinentia explico admodum expedite. cur fibrae ante fractionem distendantur. ejus analogiam & cum centre 347 348 Collecto ejusmodi fructu ex theorematis pertinentibus ad massas tres. materiae elementorum. prorsus aequivalentem. in qua omnes e Theoria mea turn usque ad num. 358. quse cum mihi sint simplicia prorsus. quas habet punctum. & primo quidem ad pressionem. uberius promoveri deberet itidem centrum re indicata. : : PARS 358 360 III 371 375 383 388 358 propono argumentum hujus tertise partis. ipsi. singillatim. illud. ubi & problema generale propono quoddam hue pertinens. vel contrahantur. mea Theoria retinet omnem densitatem massam. ubi & illud expono. usque ad num. sive sint in eadem recta. 388 notatu scitu non indigna. Inde ad num. quamobrem stituo componibilitatem in infinitum. turn a num. quam duplicis generis agnosco in meis punctorum ago aliquanto inextensorum massis. ubi etiam de ea apparenti quadam compenetratione ago. hanc secundam partem partim indicatis. ac in communi sententia . quid requiratur. inextensa. sive ad num. ad summas virium.28 SYNOPSIS TOTIUS OPERIS 328 num. quemadmodum conclude. 391 ago de aequalitate actionis. exponi posse per Logisticam. quae mihi quidem in materia. quae ex punctis varia persequor earum discrimina & : . 398 divisibilitas. quae vim suam in turn ad num. mirum in modum conformant. quam ostendo. cujus digna continentur consectaria vires ipsas. innuo num. quse Theoria per systema quatuor massarum. ut fixae in unicam massam non coalescant. sed adhuc eadem praebet phaenomenae sensibus. percussionis inde evolve. 328 ad 347 deduce ex iisdem theorematis. quae acquiretur in efHuxu res videtur obtingere quibus partim expositis. qui fieri possit. cohaerentibus particulas. qui est itidem veluti alter sistere. & corporibus non est continua. si compressio fluidi sit proportionalis vi comprimenti. tanquam ramum quendam e communi trunco. & Motuum Continuitate. ubi illud innuo quae pertinent ad fluidorum Theoriam.ago usque ad num. 398 immutabilitatem primorum pertinet. & cum Newtonianis potissimum. ac de luminis trarlsitu per substantias intimas sine vera compenetratione. vel repulsa a punctis singulis alterius massae . 419 A cohacsione gradum facio num. vel massa attracta. ac vice versa repulsivas punctorum esse in alias si eadem vis sit curvas. & ad exhibendam perennem phasnomenorum seriem aptissima. quae pertinent ad centrum oscillaad axem quotcunque massarum. quod ad Naturae phenomena explicanda His evolutis addo num. vires ostendo autem ratione reciproca distantiarum. praeter & in fluidis gravitate nostra terrestri prseditis pressiones haberi debere ut altitudines . excolendum aliquanto tionis A 344 extendi generalem diligentius. sed in limitibus inter repulsionem. Succedit usque ad num. expono quasdam. 419 ad efformantur. qua oscillationis exhibeo. sive in piano perpendiculari rotationis ubicunque. sed qui in data quavis mole numerum Num. sunt utique & immutabilia. & attractionem . cur massa fracta non iterum coalescat. 426. & illud explico. & cadendo per altitudinem expono. aquae ipsam. de quibus . quam ego ita admitto. nee in quiete connee in motu conspirante. nee in pressione fluidi cujuspiam. ut quaevis massa existens realium habeat finitum tantummodo. 348 ad finem hujus partis. demonstratum a Newtono. ac molem. quibus Theoria mea innititur. & ad habendum solidorum nexum. Inde ad num. & particulares plerasque generales de fusius impenetrabilitate. 419 ago de A quidam ramus. rem. & reactionis. quod gravitas generalis requirere videretur. 383 figurabilitatem perseqUor. in quibus omnibus sunt quaedam Theoriae meae propria De Mobilitate. insensibilis. 347. ubi etiam de Geometria ago. quae ad cohaesionem pertinentia mihi cum reliquis Philosophis communia sint. & innuo. cohaesione. ut ea sit sequalis velocitati. 399 406 num.

419. theorems with regard to pressure. as far as Art. . Then. then the matter can be represented by the logistic & other curves subject to our terrestrial gravity pressures should be found proportional to the depths. I state the theme of this third part . I evolve from it the centre of percussion. I deal with a certain 358 360 my 371 375 Theory depends. 375. 347. which I remark is of a twofold kind in masses of non-extended points . but takes place & limits between repulsion and attraction. 426. namely. substitute infinite multiplicity Hence . although in any given mass this finite number of those forces. 391. upon which this I admit 398 . 399 to Art. 348 PART my III apparent case of compenetrability. as far as Art. for infinite divisibility. as commonly accepted. concerning sums of forces. acting on a point. once broken. greatest at actual contact. Then. From Art. Then. I deal with extento the above. according to my idea. & first of all. as far as Art. as if it were a particular branch on a 398 399 common trunk . in connection with which I mention that one which was proved by Newton. nor on the pressure of some fluid. if the compression of a fluid is proportional to the compressing force. 1 pass on from cohesion to particles which are formed from a number of & I consider these as far as Art. having stated this. in this connection also. as far as Art. to be gone into more fully. 388 then. from Art. others that relate to the centre of oscillation of any number of masses. & I show the analogy between it & the centre of oscillation. & investigate the various distinctions cohering points . After that. in it I derive all the general & most of the special. I deal somewhat more at length with the subject of impenetrability. & my conclusions with regard to the subject corroborate in a wonderful way the hypothesis . 1 derive gravity from my Theory of forces. Important theorems on mobility & continuity of motions are to be found from here on to Art. i. & conversely. 4J 9 . just as it is seen to happen in the These things in some part being explained. problem relating or contracted before fracture fibres are stretched the why I intimate which of my ideas relative to cohesion are the same as those on the held by other philosophers. nor on motion that is the same for all parts. why masses. as far as Art. in Art. properties of matter from Theory. 358. 406. I touch upon those things that relate to the velocity of a fluid issuing from a vessel & I show what is necessary in order that this should be equal to the velocity which would be acquired by falling through the depth itself. 348 to the end of this part. in all of these subjects there are certain special points of my Theory that are not unworthy of investigation. & in some part case of an efflux of water. if the same force is insenalso that in fluids sible. only to the extent that any existing mass may be made up of principle a number of real points that are finite only. due to the separate points of another mass. In Art. 328 to Art. which conserves all its power under my Theory. 371. I bring this second part to an end. namely. & the passage of light through the innermost parts of I also explain in a very summary manner several bodies without real compenetration From here on to Art. I deal with cohesion. striking phenomena relating sion this in my opinion is not continuous either in matter or in solid bodies. I expound certain theorems that belong to the theory of fluids .. in this connection also I explain that the fixed stars do not all coalesce into one mass. my 39 1 may be as great as you please. In Art. I deal with the equality of action & reaction. which is also as it were another branch I show that this is not dependent upon quiescence. I show that. I which comes to exactly the same thing. as universal gravitation. & yet it here I yields the same phenomena to the senses as does the usually accepted idea of it also deal with geometry. 344 347 obtain all such results from theorems relating to three masses. & to be extended so as to include the general case of a system of solid bodies . & hence are splendidly adapted for explaining a continually recurring set of phenomena. I deduce from these same theorems. I . these are quite simple in composition. I discuss figurability.SYNOPSIS OF THE WHOLE WORK 29 328 From Art.e. or an attracted or repelled mass. that of the immutability of the primary elements of matter . then the repulsive forces between the points are in the reciprocal ratio of the distances. Moreover. Having considered these subjects I add. as far as Art. 419. they are everywhere unchangeable. to this. & especially with the followers of Newton. or anywhere in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation . whether they are in the same right line. this theory wants to be worked somewhat more carefully with a system of four bodies. & . . 347. merely indicated. 383. volume. . . in Art. can happen would seem to be required under it how 406 attraction I is solve. 398. do not again stick together. Then follows divisibility. nor on the idea that the . Then. each in turn . mass & density. I intimate the matters in which I agree with all others. as far as it is concerned with the explanation of the phenomena of Nature. a general propose. that. 359. After that. of no extent.

quo pacto possit fermentatio desinere & num. cum a solo numero. 454. & generationem aeris 464 crystallizationem cum certis ostendo illud num. atque id ipsum ex potissimum repetens viribus circumquaque aequalibus illorum vero ex inaequalitate virium. generibus figuris . & fluidorum resistentiam quoque . 483. a densitate possit tarn cohaesionem habere. ut ex uno ad alium delata limitem puncta. . vel attrahat. . 473. 490 ostendo. 426 ad 446 de solidis. cur non quaevis massa. nimirum repetens a magna inter limites proximos distantia. ubi una particula unam aliam possit in certis tantummodo superficiei partibus attrahere. vel & nimirum corpus. possint itidem diversae in diversis partibus ejusdem particulae respectu diversarum partium. in quo a fragilibus discrepent ostendo autem. qua fiat. : 463 deflagrationem. flexiles. turn ab igne ad lumen ibidem transeo. num. & malleabilibus ago. & circa se maxime in gyrum mobilibus. & ingentes intestines motus allapsu tenuissimae lucis genitos. actionem majorem corporum eleosorum. 467 gradum facio ad ignem. posse admodum facile ex certis particularum figuris. 458 volatilizationem. quod discrimen itidem pertinet ad varia & discrimen inter solida. quo gravitate esse penitus uniformes. & proinde se ad priorem restituant locum hasc a limitum frequentia. & distributione punctorum pendeat illud. & 457 liquationem binis methodis. autem data quavis figura discrepare plurimum in numero. 466. & mollibus. & opacitatem num. 426 A num. minore densitate componi. & humiditate ago. elasticas. ac unde punctorum. 462 ebullitionem cum variis evaporationum . fragiles. 453 praecipitationem. atque ingenti vicinia. ex quibus omnia lucis phaenomena oriuntur. ibi quiescant itidem respective. 472. & turn illud superficierum locis. quarum ipsae tenacissimae sint. particulas esse. & 455 commixtionem plurium substantiarum in unam turn num. 465. ac demum . nullam resist- . 452 explicans dissolutionem. attingo. 450 452 Num. & effervescentiam. ac plura inde consectaria deduce usque ad num. 467 persequor chemicas operationes . quae e massa constanti debeat esse ad sensum constans. & nullo modo pendere. & distributione & oriantur admodum inter se diversae vires unius particulae in aliam. . tenuitatem num. ut id nihil sit aliud. vel respectu ipsius sit prorsus iners eo dimcilius debere in dissolubiles minores sint autem addo. & proinde cogere ad certam quandam positionem acquirendam respectu ipsius. 471 . plerisque debere esse admodum (uti observamus) diversas. A propagationem rectilineam per media homogenea. ut data particula datam aliam in datis earum distantiis. & fluida diligenter expono. haec omnia discrimina multo sit altero densius. quo pacto varias induere possint figuras quascunque. & fluidis. 456. ilia puncta longe dimota a locis suis. : quae itidem ad diversa pertinent soliditatis genera. cujus proprietates praecipuas. quam multo minorem soliditatem. quod multo majorem. 487. nisi unicus itidem hujus veluti trunci foecundissimi ramus e diversa cohaesionis ratione prorumpens. & in aliis proprietatibus : . totum etiam Atomistarum. quo pacto non omnia fermentescant cum omnibus. & retinendam. ut iis. vel repellat. Demum ostendo. 467 471 substantiae lucis 472 fermentatione num. Varia autem distinguo fluidorum genera. 461 emissionem efHuviorum. vel etiam respectu ejusdem partis particulse alterius. ut & de viscositate. ut prius. idem ubique genus virium sentiant. & viribus quibusdam in latus. nimirum emissionem num. in ejus leges inquirens. . refractionem ad 487.30 SYNOPSIS TOTIUS OPERIS ostendo nimirum. num. 475 ad 483. quorum efformatio nullam habet difficultatem. pellucidatem. ac de organicis. 451 ad num. 488. 489 : turn num. 503. & ad certas figuras determinatis corporibus. 450 inquire in vulgaria quatuor elementa turn a num. ut quaevis ex proprietatibus expositis aeque possit cum quavis vel majore. & fuse explico usque ad num. calorem. propono num. quarum tenacissime sint . Turn vero de ductilibus. quae diversitas multo major in majoribus massis esse debeat. & apparentem tantummodo compenetrationem a num. ac singulas a Theoria mea deduce. 446 de A num. 446 ad 450 ago de elasticis. quaecunque punctorum dispositio habeatur. & sulphurosorum in lumen num. qui mihi est fermentatio quaedam cum sulphurea quadam substantia. qua fiat. celeritatem 474. Demonstro autem & illud. fluida sit . & Corpuscularium systema a mea Theoria repeti ita. utut constans ex homogeneis punctis. horum naturam cohaesionum genera ex motu faciliori particularum in gyrum circa alias. ostendens. reflexionem ad angulos aequales inde ad 484. & discrimen profero inter virgas rigidas. quibus certam positionem ad se invicem servare debeant.

distinguish rigid. volatilization & effervescence in Art. disposition & very different forces for the action of one particle upon another. and from certain lateral forces which help them to keep a definite position with regard to one another. deriving the nature of the latter from the greater freedom of motion of the particles in the matter of rotation about one another. 462. rectilinear propagation in is tion at equal angles to Art. of which the formation . is a fluid. Thus. Lastly. 453. 450. 450 452 in Art. I also show that the whole also of the keep system of the Atomists. this being due to the forces being nearly equal . I show. 426 to Art. & that of the latter to the frequency & great closeness of the limits. surface. from the idea of particles of definite so that it comes to nothing else than shape. 454. explain with great care the difference between solids & fluids . 458. fluids. I between various kinds of fluids & I cite the distinction between also. 461. heat & the great internal motions arising from the smooth passage of the extremely tenuous light in Art. & no difficulty . 457. or on the same part of another particle. 473. merely apparent. From fermentation I pass on. precipitation in Art. & therefore return to their natural positions . 466. how in a given shape they may differ very greatly of the Also that from this fact there points forming them. 446. on account of which it comes about that points that have been moved from one limit to another. Moreover I show that all these differpointing they fragile cularians. with elastic bodies. 488. a body that is much more a much greater or a much less solidity and . pellucidity & opacity in Art. the greater action of oleose & sulphurous bodies on light in Art. 467. & those that are soft. 426 flexible. 474. & a compenetration that from Art. 467. velocity in Art. & 446 ences are in no 455. the greater is the diffialso given. the distances between them and the positions of their surfaces being Then I state in addition that the smaller the particles. . 452. 446 to Art. Then I deal with ductile and malleable solids. breaking forth from it on account of a different manner of cohesion. emission of effluvia (which from a constant mass ought to be approximately constant) in. 472 . . crystallization with definite forms of crystals in Art. to fire. Art. in moreover. upon investigate govern From Art. 464 & lastly. from which all the phenomena of light arise. in these one particle can only attract another particle in certain of the thus urge it to take up some definite position with regard to itself. I also touch the resistance of & the laws that it. out how differ from solids. liquefaction by two methods in Art. & even these in a high degree capable of rotary motion about one another. . 487. dense than another body cohesion than another in way dependent on density may have either . I treat of chemical operations I explain solution in Art. how 467 471 472 There I pass on from fire to light. " In Art. when I deal with viscosity & humidity & also in dealing with & those solids bounded by certain fixed figures. that is to say. 465. so that one given particle either attracts. up to Art. can . it is that any one thing does not ferment when mixed with any other thing. & refraction to Art. & from this I deduce several it is how possible for fermentation to cease. or repels. of different parts of this particle . 450 I consider what are commonly called the " four elements then from Art. which. & Corpusbe quite easily derived by my Theory. 475 483. 451 to Art. . which offer great in the arise I WHOLE WORK 31 number & show how it is possible for various shapes of all sorts to be assumed. on account of which it comes about that points that are far removed from their natural positions still feel the effects of the same kind of forces. offering a high resistance to deformation another single branch of this so to speak most fertile trunk. & that of the former from the inequality of the forces. in spite of its being constantly made up of homogeneous points. resistance to rupture . parts it there. reflec- . for instance. 463.SYNOPSIS OF THE between them. emission in Art. 456. I deal with those things that relate to the different kinds of solidity. on to Art. or is perfectly inert with regard to another given particle. in Art. tenuity in Art. elastic organic bodies presents & fragile rods. 1 consider solids & fluids. 487. & in Art. remain there in relative rest as they were to start with. For that depends solely on the number & distribution of the points. which I look upon as a fermentation of some substance in light with some sulphureal substance . disposition of the points may be be should different from one another we observe to be the quite (which properties they & that this difference to be much in masses. deflagration & generation of gas in Art. ebullition & various kinds of evaporation in Art. . & I deduce & fully explain each of them in turn as far as Art. so that. fact. I set forth in Art. any of the properties set forth may just as well be combined with any density either greater or less. case) ought greater larger From Art. I attribute the nature of the former to the existence of a large interval between the consecutive limits. the difference between which is I also a matter of different kinds of cohesion. I show the reason why it is that not every mass. 483. the mixture of several substances to form a single mass in Art. & also for the action upon other different parts of it. 489. 503. that they ought to be quite uniform as regards dissociating them culty no matter what the but in most other gravitation. 484. the chief properties of propositions. 471. Then I homogeneous media.

ubi totam etiam de frigore. adeoque quid transformatio mesa absolve. singillatim persequor. quse accidentialia attributa. quern nexum habeat cum corpore. quse est intervalla. num. & facilioris & num. 497 vices illas a Newtono detectas facilioris reflexionis. ubi sapore. & partem hanc tertiam Theorise ad Metaphysicam pertinente innuam hie illud tantummodo. quas ad particulares . De Appendice : . quae nexum habeant cum ipsa Theoria mea. & calore Franklinianam Theoriam ex meis principiis explico. quo prsecipi: : 514 tationes. ac num. radios alios debere reflecti. me ibi anima de anima illud exponere inprimis. quse censeri debeant essentialia. 514 de electricitate. Demum num. & 496 deduce duas diversas dispositiones ad asqualia redeuntes entiam veram & transmissus eruo. 502 diffractionem expono. 498 illud. quid forma. alios transmitti in appulsu ad novum medium. Demum num. 499 & 500 expono. ipsius & existentiam me ac pluribus evincere. & ejusdem causam. 493 ortum ducat. ac 515 magnetismum persequor. 514. & eo plures reflecti. atque dissolutiones. & quid materia sit. tam directionem explicans. ex quo uno omnis naturalium colorum pendet Newtoniana Theoria. 516 Hisce expositis. quo obliquitas incidentise sit major. ago brevissime num. & Sapientiam inprimis. sit. ac num. ac num. quse ad oculos pertinet. 492 cur lumen cum e 494 unde diversa refrangibilitas majo obliquitate incidens reflectatur magis. unde discrimen in intervallis vicium. quantum spiritus a materia differat. 495. qua gradum in antecessum veluti delibasse sit satis. quse ex mea generali virium Theoria eodem fere pacto deducuntur. & odore. num. & quomodo in ipsum agat turn de DEO. 491 explico. 503 de turn aliis quator de tactu. 503 504 507 511 Post lucem ex igne derivatam. eandem ad bina tantummodo reducens principia. quam attractionem magneticam. unde sint phosphora. quaedam inchoata refractio. 501 miram attingo crystalli Islandicse proprietatem. hsec tantummodo. 516 ad finem usque generalem corporum complector naturam. iterum a num. ac num. ac sequentibus tribus numeris de sono deinde vero usque ad num.etiam proprietates pertinent. quid alteratio. pati. Sed innuo ex faciendum ad revelationem Providentiam. sive reflexio.32 SYNOPSIS TOTIUS OPERIS unde num.

491 I explain the origin of bodies emitting light. & in connection with it. I once more consider. quity of incidence. both magnetic direction attraction. which is a kind of imperfect refraction or reflection. I investigate magnetism. so to speak. in Art. 499. 498 I deduce that some rays should be easier reflection & easier transmission. 514. which has to do with vision. Then. 515. After light derived from fire. S3 54 57 5 1 1 5H 516 bring to a close the third part of my Theory. These things being expounded. the greater the number of reflected rays. what things ought to be considered as essential. 493. & these are derived from my general Theory of forces in almost the same manner as I have already derived . that it suffers no real resistance. what matter is. & what as accidental. His Wisdom and Providence. theory to two principles only. of . After that. & in Art. given my preliminary foretaste quite sufficiently. . Finally. the general nature of bodies. 494 the origin of different degrees of refrangibility. though but slightly. 500 I state the this origin of the difference between the lengths of the intervals of the alternations . I prove that He must exist by many arguments that have a close connection with this Theory of mine . in the next four articles. all of which relate to special properties. I deal with electricity of I reduce this means by my principles . greatly expound especially Then the connection between the soul & the body. & the manner of its action upon it. from which there is but a step to be made towards revelation. In Art. here I explain the whole of the Franklin theory as far as Art. 497. 502 I explain diffraction. in Art. in the articles from 516 to the end. upon in Art. & I deduce that there are two different dispositions recurring at equal in Art. in Art. discovered by Newton. I touch upon the wonderful property of Iceland spar & its cause. its form. taste & smell in Art. . attributes & and also the nature of transformation and alteration are investigated. 501. explaining precipitations & solutions. 490. 496 intervals & Finally. I bring out those alternations. & that the greater the obli- in Art. 503. reflected & others transmitted in the passage to a fresh medium. in Art. 495. hence. I consider touch. each in turn . is the soul from matter.SYNOPSIS OF THE WHOLE WORK 33 show. I will mention here but this one thing with regard to the appendix on Metaphysics . cold & heat also. I very briefly deal with of sound in the three articles that follow next. I especially mention. 514. with regard to GOD. 492 the reason why light that falls with greater obliquity is reflected more strongly. different that I there more how namely. alone depends the whole of the Newtonian theory of natural colours. & in Art. But I think thus I that I have. in Art.

dum e notissimis principiis alia ex aliis consectaria eruerem. in ultima resolutione ad homogenei- demum simplicitatem summam. ita connectitur. & se contingentibus inextensis oriatur in quo contra Zenonem & dirficultas olim sane aut soluta satis. nihil & possit analysis. minus inter se diversa principiorum genera. analytica deductio^ Cujusmodi systema> Theoria exhibeat. turn quia nullam extensionem continuam admittit. sive : attractivas. 2. omnino possunt. quae ex contiguis. & vindicatio. quo ulterius promoveri homogeneitatem devenire debere. proprietatibus corporum generalibus sane omnibus. sed etiam quse ipsa puncta ad determinent recessum. quamvis itidem eo majores in . ubi attractio desinat. quae ab iis tribus A Distat itidem a . ibi. eo ad majorem simplicitatem. qui casus est infinities improbabilis. motus in iis omnibus aliquis inde ortus est cum hoc meo. & ab utroque plurimum dissidet at utroque in immensum simplicius. expressam unica. aut solvenda. id quidem ex Leibnitii Theoria elementa prima simplicia. . determinationes ad motum in omnibus reliquis immutentur. omni massarum discrimine a sola dispositione. quod ea. systema exhibet medium inter Leibnitianum. qui habetur in algebraicis formulis. ut ad habeatur. . ac prorsus inexhabet ex Newtoniano systemate vires mutuas. ipsa nos Naturae analogia adeo ducit. quas vulgo attractiones nominant . immo reliqua quamplurima. jam nunquam quidem proposita. per unicam explicat legem virium. & [2] peculiaribus quibusque praecipuis per accuratissimas demonstrationes deducendis est profecto mirum in modum idoneum. XT Newtonus & principiis omnino non pendent. Newtonus idem in postrema Opticse Quaestione proposuit.[I] PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA PARS I Theorice expositio. ac chemicae resolutiones inprimis. & principium rationis sufficients usque adeo a Leibnitianis depraedicata. incipiat repulsio. quae atque id ipsum ita. fermentationis. gravitatis. turn in eo. sed negativas. quae r\ r\ r in ipsa postremo (Juaestione (Jpticae conatus est expncare per tna pnncipia. & id & ipsum indicio est. in quo differat a Newtoniano & ipsi praestet. cohsesionis. quod nimirum ut. ac exemplo transitus a positivis ad negativa. quod in mi-[3]-nimis distantiis vires admittat non positivas. contra quam quidem indiscernibilium principium. Distat autem a Leibnitiana Theoria longissime. In quo differat a Leibnitiano & ipsi praestet. 34 sive repulsivas. quae pro aliis punctorum distantiis a & quidem ex ipso itidem Newtono non ejusmodi vires tantummodo. vel unica continua geometrica curva turn in eo. mutata distantia. in quibus cum ad adeo pauciora numero. & Theoria. Illud autem utrique systemati & commune quaevis particula materiae cum aliis quibusvis. uti Newtonus. : vice versa. 3. se invicem aliae sint determinent ad accessum. quod nimirum In quo conveniat systemate & Newtoniano. in quam incidi jam ab Anno 1745. & diversa combinatione derivato. in compositorum corporum analysi deveniatur. & Newtonianum. quod remotis. & appellantur repulsiones ejusmodi. & nisi forte elidantur omnes oppositas. & discriminis rationem in massis. cum Leibnitiano. meo quidem judicio. lRIUM mutuarum ex utroque habet plurimum. ad quam : : homogeneitatem in elementis. adeoque tatem. : Habet tensa . eandem vim adhuc habet contra Leibnitianum systema turn quia homogeneitatem admittit in elementis. Newtoniano systemate quamplunmum. illustravit. de compenetratione omnimoda inextensorum contiguorum. & ex qua ipsam simplicium materise elementorum constitutionem deduxi. utcunque mutationem utcunque exiguam in positione unius cujusvis. & ex pluribus inter se commixtis non composita algebraica formula.

avail in not the slightest degree. that ought to be attained . for. was suggested by Newton in the Questions on Optics '. the factors that determine the motions of all the rest are altered &. considers forces of a kind that engender recession. due to the change of position in question. distance. or one & not of several formulae compounded together by algebraical formula. For another thing. 4. & still less different from one another in nature strongly suggests that. with a change of last of his this idea. .A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY PART I Exposition ^ ^Analytical Derivation ' & Proof of the Theory of sys- I. it has very much in common deriving 2. of the this highest degree. * surpasses. which vary as the * { s ^" distances of the points from one another vary. it admits homogeneity amongst the elements. all the general properties of bodies. which do not three follow from those Further. . & are commonly called attractions but also it It which is . Chemical operations especially do so . employed by Newton. indeed holds to those simple & perfectly non-extended primary elements upon what there is " to founded the theory of Leibniz & also to the mutual forces. . thus. ^i ^^ HE following Theory of mutual forces. between either of the theories of Newton & Leibniz & my own namely. there. the characteristic of the theory of Newton ton *& Leibniz. i i i i. it is undoubtedly suitable in a marvellous degree for . & very many other things as well. the idea is introduced in such a manner that. should as the at we result of a final decomposition. 35 . as Newton supposed. . can. it deals not only with the kind of forces. small distances are not positive or attractive. still holds the same force against the system of Leibniz. Theory also differs as widely as possible from that of Newton. but negative or repul3. as it is immensely more simple than either. How it differs from. homogeneity. whilst I lit upon as far back as the year The kind 6 was studying various propositions arising from other very p^ents. My X . & certain of the special properties also. . & differs very much from either &. well-known principles. HOW it differs from. . in accordance with a change in the position. . length. Further. For one thing. reason. as used in algebraical formulas. will take place in every one bable). since the result of the analysis of compound substances leads to classes of elementary substances that are so comparatively few in numit ber. f-\ i in the last of his Questions on Uptics endeavoured to explain by the three principles of gravity. unless it happens that they all cancel one another (& this is infinitely improsome motion. the difficulty raised in times gone by in opposition to Zeno. & the reason for the difference amongst masses. simplicity. because it explains by means of a single law of forces all those things that Newton himself. the principle of & the doctrine of sufficient indiscernibles. in such a way that. the theory of Newton. the further be the the can & greater analysis pushed. homogeneity & have. which oblige the points to approach one another. For one thing. composed a it admits forces that at very continuous curve. i . that any particle of matter is connected with every other particle. all distinction between masses depending on relative position only. cohesion & fermentation nay. For another by single geometrical thing. & from which I have derived the very constitu- with both. & different combinations of the elements . presents a system that is midway between that of Leibniz & that of Newton . $^ . Nature herself provides us with the analogy. my Theory differs in a marked degree from that of Leibniz. for this homogeneity amongst the elements. with regard to compenetration of all kinds with non-extended consecutive points. which I 1745. in my opinion at least. in addition. this law is expressed by a single altogether principles. where attraction ends. Against simplicity homogeneity & simplicity. as a matter of fact. repulsion begins ' . But it because . & he illustrated it by the example of the passage from Moreover there is this common point positive to negative. by in means of the most rigorous demonstrations. of them. tion of the simple elements of matter. & are called repulsions. & never really or satisfactorily answered (nor can it be answered). of any one of them. no matter how great is the distance between them. so long & strongly advocated by the followers of Leibniz. no matter how slight. non-extended points touching one another here. does not admit the continuous extension that arises from the idea of consecutive.

" Quae ad ejusmodi Theoriam pertinentia hucusque sunt edita. simplicissima natures principia. & omnem hanc rerum farraginem animo pervolventi. . mathematicus materiae contactus habeatur. mrftenso vacuo ita Prima elementa materiae mihi sunt puncta prorsus quod quidem indivisibilia. T rj r^ A. & centrum piano & ad sublimiores alias fluunt. sine : eorum enim contiguitatem nullam admitto possiconpenetratione ipsorum punctorum bilem . 1754. ut nee quidem longe aliunde desumo . 5. idem prorsus spatii vulgo concept! punctum indivisibile occupari ab utroque debere. ubi & quae in dissertatione De centra Gravitatis edideram. & & excrevit opusculum. adeoque nee revera ullce leges pro Us conditcz . quo trium massarum in se mutuo agentium comparantur vires. si distantia duorum materiae punctorum sit nulla. mentionem & de centre feci. ac inertia carentes. quae ipsius determinationem Ibidem autem de sequilibrii a subsidiariis tantummodo principiis quibusdam repetunt. quod simplicitatem. omnia pendere a compositione virium. Societatis Collegio nostros Mathesim docet . . . quae vel olim animo conceperam. quod admodum facile fieri potest. ac in meis Supplementis Stayanae Philosophiae versibus traditae. cujus primus Tomus prodiit A. & . demum & Theoriam omnem exposuerim ordine suo. ut nulla Naturae vi dissolvi possit compages. cujus quidem in supplementis illis 4.36 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA Unde illud necessario consequitur. nee ullus infinitum. protuli aliorum methodos praecipuas quasque. centre agens illud affirmavi si ad genuina. & editum. nisi forte ne effugerit quidem. ad Mechanicam prius. vel modo sese obtulerunt scribenti. quas adhaesio ipsi. ante & ml<mm missum. edita Anno 1741. : & & & nentibus. est absolute infinita. omni gravitate. & alia adjeci quamplurima. ex quo theoremate asquilibrium. & vindicarim." occasio se mihi praebuisset inquirendi in ipsum oscillationis centrum Scherffero nostro viro doctissimo. in memoratis dissertationibus ordine suo digessi omnia. De Lumine . turn ad Physicam fere universam applicaverim. paucis proposui oscillationis agens. : . In Natura nullce sunt rigidce virgce.. invenietur. quamvis ita cohasrentia. quas ex ipsa mea Theoria per notissimam legem compositionis virium. ac omne quidem & vectium genus. centrum etiam pro ad axem oscillationis quo perpendiculari. & aequalitatis inter actionem.tionibus meis. dispersa quaevis indefinite augeri potest. Ubi de ipsa ctum quid pro. viribus parallelis animatarum. . ut bina sunt. & amplissimum ipsius per omnem Physicam demonstravit usum vir e nostra Societate doctissimus Carolus Benvenutus In ea Synopsi proposuit idem & meam in sua Physics Generalis Synopsi edita Anno 1754. me. & adhaesio labefactari. ut ilium appellare soleo. ut eiementa ini 7. sed penitus evanescere non potest. . quo distantise in infinitum decrescant.. adhuc latuerit. 1755 eadem autem satis dilucide proposuit. & partibus a se invicem distinctis composita. deductionem aequilibrii binarum massarum. ut aequilibrii. De Lege virium in natura existentium A.. &. Cogitaveram ego quidem edere cum consectariis. De Leee Continuitatis De viribus vivis. me in quarto ejusdem Philosophiae tomo ex genuinis principiis investigaturum. casu. sed illud arbitror omnino certum. C5 principiis corporum A. casu incidi in theorema simplicisimum sane. & inextensa. & reactionem. cohaesio a contactu immediate oriatur. Qua occasione hoc Cnp turn 'opus. ubi & quae maxima notatu digna erant. 1755. continentur dissertaA. & admodum elegans. respectu virium nobis cognitarum. 3. [4] quod 6. fere sponte consequitur. infiexiles. ac breve Theoriae meae specimen quoddam exponere . . Porro cum nuper ex me is ipsa fortasse tanta sua simplicitate effugit hucusque Mechanicorum oculos . promisi. ad lib.. sed paullatim oscillationis oscillatio fit in latus in & momentorum mensura pro machinis. quae in a se invicem distent per aliquod intervallum.. De divisibihtate materite. quam ego immediatus. sed alicubi jam ab alio quopiam inventum. 1757. qui in eodem hoc Academico urgente principiis. res exigatur. sic itidem oscillationis centrum. a quibus nimirum viribus omnia Natures pb&nomena Ibidem autem exhibitis aliorum methodis ad centrum oscillationis pertiproficiscuntur. & inextensionem inducit elementorum. quibus in se invicem agunt particula materice . & minui. percussionis sponte quod perquisitiones viam aperit admodum initio brevi dissertatiuncula hoc theorema tantummodo patentem. quae ipse variarum figurarum voluit. 1748.

deriving it from The occasion that request of Father Scherffer. deduction of the equilibrium of a pair of masses actuated by parallel forces. totally devoid of weight neither are there laws so. but has at some time previously been discovered & published by some other person. De Lege virium in natura existentium. & from it. I asserted merely subsidiary principles. opens also a beautifully clear road to other and more sublime investigations. occupied by . If the matter is worked back to the really any genuine simplest natural principles. & the equality between action & reaction this I mentioned in those Supplements. too. showing its application to Mechanics in the first place. lately I had own my principles. The primary elements of matter are in my opinion perfectly indivisible & nonextended points they are so scattered in an immense vacuum that every two of them are ^biVnon^xtended this interval can be indefinitely & they are not separated from one another by a definite interval c increased or diminished. it may not have come to my notice). by a learned member of our Society. until ended in & giving a demonstration of its and then to almost the whole of Physics. then the very same indivisible point of space. the centre of What to us are concerned. . . known & where I Theory is contained in my when * issued in De Viribus De dissertations. principiis made> corporum. points themselves On the contrary I consider that it is a certainty that. De divisibilitate materia. such as & to bodies composed of parts perfectly himself postulated for various figures from one another. dealing with the centre of equilibrium. 1757. it will be found that everything depends on the comthe forces with which the particles of matter act upon one another . but can never vanish altogether without compenetration of the for I do not admit as possible any immediate contact between them. such as I had used for the centre of equilibrium." Moreover. Lumine. From this theorem there come. in the fourth volume of the Philosophy. which had all been already set forth in my my Theory. to the usual idea of must be both & we have true it. here very forces. some of which had entered my mind previously. the measurement of moments for machines. th^theory'* & a promise that i 1754. 37 although these also become greater & indefinitely. I would investigate by means of genuine principles. according together. To it I also added not only those matters that seemed to me to be more especially worth mention. if the distance between two points of matter should become absolutely nothing. has already been published relating to this kind of De y . at the occasion to investigate this centre of oscillation. 6. inflexible. as the distances decrease cohesion is not a consequence of imme- diate contact. vivis. nor is it possible to get any immediate or. 1748. having stated the methods of others for the determination of the centre of oscillation. the equilibrium & all the different kinds of levers. as far as the broken or the adherence weakened by any force in Nature Newton distinct . of an orderly manner in the dissertations mentioned above. from which the forces with which three masses mutually act upon one another are easily to be found this theorem. I promised that. & thus my to give some sort of brief it specimen length. position of from these as a matter of fact. truth. 1745. : y & W y oscillation as well. all phenomena of Nature take their origin. which follows quite naturally from my Theory by the well-known law for the composition of forces. . I happened to hit upon a matter. whilst others in some sort pb truded themselves on my notice as I was writing & turning over in my mind all this conglomeration of material. is in his opinion unlimited. really most simple & truly elegant theorem. as may very easily have happened. This idea naturally leads to simplicity & non-extension of the elements. in his Physics In this synopsis he also at the same time gave my Generalis Synopsis published in 1754. issued in verse. Now. Whilst doing this. 1755. Carolus Benvenutus. as I indeed deduce from totally different considerations . dealing methods of others who to derive the determination of this centre from worthy sought Here also. idea was to publish in a short esssay merely this theorem some deductions up Initially. The same theory was set forth with of which the first volume was published in 1755. From this it follows of necessity that greater indefinitely. I stated the most noteFurther. & also the centre of percussion it . . a man of much learning. as I usually term it. though. but also a large number of other things. But little by little the essay grew in setting forth in an orderly manner the whole of the theory. section book & there also I set of forth 3. who teaches |^ mathematics in this College of the Society. rigid.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY sive . perchance owing to its extreme simplicity. 4 briefly what I had published in my dissertation De centra Gravitatis. although bound together so closely that the ties could not be this adherence. considerable lucidity. forces 5. has escaped the notice of mechanicians up till now (unless indeed perhaps it has not escaped notice. & its extremely wide utility in the matter of the whole of Physics was demonstrated. as the natural consequences. with the centre of oscillation. mathematical contact between the parts of matter. & in my Supplements to the philosophy of Benedictus Stay. founded on them. . the centre of oscillation for the case in which the oscillation takes place sideways in a plane perpendicular to the axis of oscillation. The primary eie7. " In Nature there are no rods that are inertia . Lege Continuitatis.

Eorum inertias vis cujusmodi. & a determinatione ad recessum migrantis in determinationem ad accessum. & communem methoexistant dum compositionis virium. quae determinatio in aliis distantiis alium habeat nisum. in vires alus re. . ego quidem non quaere veniendi spem habeo . quam ego quidem exposui in dissertatione De Maris aestu fcf in Supplementis Stayanis Lib. si forte moveatur motu quopiam. . inadjecto. . incipiant esse perpetuo attractivae. vinum ejusmodi exempia. evanescat. ac PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA omnimodam conpenetrationem. determinationem ad recessum. mutuae variatae secundum distantias. in quo continemur nos. istud sit. quod idem sane censeo de ea virium lege. vel punctis . pulsivae : eo nomine non agendi modum. & oculis ipsis. eo majorem. accedere. quam ipsam determinationem appello - . ut in quadam perquam exigua evadat vis nulla turn adhuc. compresso elastro. antequam eorum distantia evanescat distantiis vero auctis minuuntur ita. sed materiam in vacuo disseminatam. . corpora . . compresso elastro. libera .. non ab immediata cuspidum actione in se invicem. abeuntes in repulsivas. vel algebraicam formulam exponi possit. munem Eorundem mutuae distantiis tivae. in immensum & magnas. . I. parallelogrammorum ope. quae. distantia : eodem pacto crescentes. quam dicimus. ex hujusmodi determinatione sequi debeant ipsa materia puncta inertia: vis. ubi ad aliquanto atque per ad sensum reciproce distantias ventum sit. virium earundero Lex autem virium est ejusmodi. ad quam gradum jam facio. & motuum. & solum persequor exemplum determinationis ad accessum. turn decrescentes. sed adhuc perquam exiguis. ita. . mutuum materiae puncta determinari asque in aliis distantiis igitur bina quaecunque 1 . . adeoque ab attractiva ad repul- parvas distantias sivam. componendi per notam. quo distantiae ipsae minuuntur in infinitum. quibus rationihus evinci putem. & in determinationem ad recessum mutabitur. aucta distantia. an a pendeat Supremi Conditoris lege. ad se invicem accedant. majores & Id quidem respectu ejus spatii. : Verum habemus etiam imaginem ejusmodi . sed respectiva & . ut pares sint extinguenmajores velocitati utcunque magnae. vis ad recessum minuitur..ad . cujus vero magnitude mutatis distantiis mutetur & ipsa secundum certam legem quandam. donee in quadam distantia decrescit turn distantia adhuc aucta. & ea variata itidem variatae. id vices in distantiis plurimis. . cum qua punctum alterum ad alterum possit cuivis [6]-dae 10. & iis mutatis mutatas. inertiae vis. & migret etiam ab altera in alteram. atque innatantem. atque eo in infmitum. quas inter bina quaevis puncta agnosco a distantiis pendentes. an ab aliquo iis nee vero. absolutam omnino demonstrari non posse . quam oh causam ejusmodi respectivam inertiam excogitarim. ut in minimis distantiis sint repulsivae. praecedentem motum cum mo-[5]-tu quern determinant vires mutuae. donee. acquirunt vice versa. evanescentes. In ea determinatione stat ilia. g j n n . * r XT motus umiormis in directum l) m quo semel sint posita. . in posteriore repulsivam. . atque ad omnes repraesentari. mutentur in attractivas. nihil ego in ea re a reliquis (a) W omnia quis nostris observari sensibus possunt. & forma totius intermediae laminae plicatae sed hie physicam rei causam non merer. sed ea hue non pertinent. evanescentes. . ubi etiam illud occurrit. habemus exemplum in ipsa in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum. in aliis g y Censeo attrac. W differo . . . Quamobrem non vacuum ego quidem admitto disseminatum in materia. & Ibi enim si duae cuspides. an ab ipsa punctorum natura. quae per geometricam lineam curvam. & fiat prorsus nulla eo ac si e contrario crescit. incipit determinatio ad accessum. . sce r admitto determinationem perseverandi in eodem statu quietis. qua. sed a natura. . distantia aucta distantia cuspidum. si seorsum smgula in JNatura vel si alia alibi extant puncta. undecunque provemat. . migrantes iterum in attractivas. 13 . . in r priore casu attractivam. J ' . . prime quidem crescentes.. quod quiddam spatium si quiescat. cuspidum perpetuo Ea determinatio oritur utique evanescet. juxta generalem quandam omnibus com. accessum. . legem. in alns ad recessum mutuum. . & recessum. si velim quasrere. sive a determinatione ad accessum ad determinationem ad recessum nusquam migrat. i . magis magis cuspides a se invicem recedunt quo quae perpetuo distantia minuatur determinatio ad accessum itidem minuetur. deinde decrescentes.38 haberi veram. & Newtoniana generali gravitate mutata idcirco numquam pertinentis. ipsam determinationem expnmens. turn bcec mea erit quiedam non absoluta. '. uti moris est apud Mechanicos Vis mutuae a distantia pendentis. sed v im. in elastris inflexis vis . quern motum . e positiva in negativam migrare potest. quo magis. quodcunque.

admit an inherent propensity to remain in the The nat ure ? f the * uniform motion in a straight line. there begins a propensity to approach. if each exists by itself in Nature. As an attribute of these points I . whatever its origin. what motion ought these points of matter to comply with owing to this kind of propensity ? In that case Ms force of inertia that I postulate is not absolute. if this space is at rest. in the distances & repuithis term does not denote the mode of action. pertaining to Newtonian distances tive . which are all still very^ minute until. which is extremely small. () in which they are initially the" possess. & For passes from a propensity to recession to a propensity to approach. same 1 state of rest. according to a certain law common This propensity is the origin of what we call the force of inertia to them all. are Now. on the contrary. . & become repulsive forces. Then as the distance is still further increased. indefinitely greater greater. and all bodies that can be observed by our senses.. but if perchance space itself moves in some way or other. arguments by which I think it is proved that it is impossible to show that it is generally abxlute. Now the law of forces is of this kind the forces are repulsive at very small dis. of which the magnitude changes as the distances change this is in accordance with a certain definite law. vanishes. applies pass consider that any two points of matter are subject to a determination The mutual forces 9. But I do not delay over the physical cause of the thing it & all distances either great or small. & becomes changed This propensity certainly does not arise from the immeinto a propensity to recession. as the distances change. & in an equal degree recede from one another at other distances. vanish. but the second case repulsive propen. If now. finally. until at a certain distance it vanishes and becomes absolutely nothing. interspersed in a vacuum & floats in it. I therefore to approach one another at some distances. depending on the distances & changing. I see no hope of finding the answer and I truly think that this also the to law of to which I now on. but relative . . when we get to comparatively great distances. then diminish. to is an inherent propensity compound (according to the usual well-known composition of forces & motions by the parallelogram law). there set. before ever the distance between them vanishes. no matter how large it may be. in bent springs we have an illustration of that kind of mutual force that varies according as the distance varies. vanish. I do not seek to know did wish to do so. & visualized in the manner customary with Mechanicians. with which one point may approach another.^mpies this kind. section (a) contained. if the two ends of the spring approach one another on compressing the spring. they acquire a propensity for recession that is the greater. and the 13. from a propensity to approach to a propensity to recession. Then. for a very great number of distances. or on some attribute of them. But. throughout the vastness of space. We have an example of a force dependent on distance. which increases more & more as the ends recede further & further away from one another.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 39 Therefore indeed I do not admit the idea of vacuum compenetration in every way. But if there are also other points anywhere. in turn. & become once more attractive & so on. sity itself. in the idea of general gravitation that changes according to the inverse squares of the this. . which in the same way first increase. Further. and also in the Supplements to Stay's Philosophy. ' ' ' Stw^*^!* . I consider that matter is but interspersed amongst matter. these at first increase. the force of recession is diminished. then diminish. & varying with varying distance. as indeed I explained both in the dissertation De Maris Aestu. . the forces are change-d to attractive forces . in such a manner that they are capable of destroying any velocity. . the action of ends one diate another. on account of the law governing it. . i. ' ' . the propensity to approach also diminishes. if the distance is still further increased. Here also will be found the conclusions at which I arrived with regard to relative inertia of this sort. which can be represented by a geometrical curve or by an algebraical formula. I do not differ from other philosophers with regard to the matter in question . they are diminished in such a way that at a certain distance. as the distances are diminished indefinitely.The Iaw of forces for the pomtsbecome & & tances. propensity being characterized by one endeavour at some distances & another at other distances. but from the nature & form of the whole of the upon folded plate of metal intervening. . they begin to be continually attractive approxi1 : & This indeed holds true for that space in which we. When the distance between them is increased. if the distance between the ends is increased. at this this . & 8. & changing from one propensity to another. the distance between the ends is continually diminished. here. and vice versa. But these things do not concern us at present. book I. : from being attractive to being repulsive. the preceding motion with the motion which is determined by the mutual forces that I admit to act between any two of them. can never pass from positive to nega- thus on no occasion does pass I only describe it as an juncture example of a propensity to approach & recession. forces. the more the distance diminishes between them as the spring is compressed. 10. whatever it may be. This determination I call force in the first case attractive '. the force becomes nothing. or of ' ' .e. whether this is dependent upon an arbitrary law of the Supreme Architect. or on the nature of points even if I itself.

ut nunquam in earn recidat. De Lege virium in exposui in dissertationibus Naturam existentium a Physics Generalis P. vel attractivam. minuuntur ipsae etiam. Hujusmodi curva linea est admodum apta ad sistendam oculis ipsis ejusmodi satis est. & iterum mutabit : . quae si augeatur. & virium iis abscissa expressarum. ad quern ipsa refertur curva. abeunt ex positivis in negativas. temere j nter t coagmentatis coalescens complicata. ubi evanescet turn aucta abscissa in Ad. ubi evanescet. circa quam habentur bini curvae rami hinc. ut quis earn intueatur nee Geometram. mutantibus ubi autem arcus curvae aliquis ad rectam quampiam axi perpendicularem vel vice versa in infinitum productam semper magis accedit ita ultra quoscumque limites. punctorum quorumcunque a se invicem . uti innui superius. & decrescentes ad sensum in ratione reciproca duplicata abscissarum Ao. jacens ex parte opposita axis respectu primi cruris. & prout curva accedit ad axem. ordinata minuetur. & Cometarum distantiis longe majores. dicitur abscissa. db . & ex diversis legibus at simplicissima. & De Lumine Num. exprimunt distantias binorum expressa videlicet per : 1*1* A 1 1 " J" 1 punctorum a se invicem illae vero. . semper magis accedit ad rectam AB productam ultra quoscunque limites. perpetuo imminutam in accessu b ad E. & in ipsa ut in imagine quadam solemus intueri depictas res qualescunque. ubi curva axem secat. vel oppositas. & ab altera ejus vel recedit. 5. Si ' . minuatur pariter ultra quoscunque limites . & ED [7] asymptosimiles. & refert distantiam duorum materiae d!nate exprimentes vires. & prorsus incomposita esse potest. In Fig. ac sunt perpendiculares lineee ab axe ad curvam ductae. quae dicuntur ordinatae. exprimibihs per COIlLlIlUtllTl CUf VclIUi Hujusmodi se i lex primo aspectu videtur . De viribus vivis a Num. Ad axem C'C perpetuo primum accedit. sed paucas is arcus desinit in alterum Demum R. vs. ubi ad alteram jacent axis partem. ut abeat in Ab. Num. & abibit in br. in ea curvae forma ordinatam ag augeri ultra quoscunque limites. In ejusmodi curva eae. tarum. Ad. ibi vires ipsae in infinitum exhibent vires attractivas . vel augentur directionem ordinatis. b. virium illarum indolem contempletur. erigatur usque ad curvam recta ipsi perpendicularis segmentum axis Aa. rcpulsivas. L. quin uspiam recessus mutetur in accessum. Leg is simpiicitas ii. perpendicularis ag. directionem regressa in mn ad illam priorem. prorsus inter se. br. ac flexibus continuis contoradmodum quetur circa ipsum. & ad ipsum accedit ad sensum ita. mutabit ordinata directionem in dh ac ex parte opposita augebitur prius usque ad F. P. per ejusmodi curvam exprimi eas ipsas vires. prout jacet respectu axis ad partes D. : : ubi jacent ad alteram. Benvenutus eandem protulit a ideam. 68. initio . ex quovis axis puncto a. donee ad ipsum deveniat alicubi in E turn eodem ibi secto progreditur. qui nimirum ad partes BD. quern arcum asymptoticum appellant Geometrae. En brevem quandemejus ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum a recta BA. turn decrescet per il usque ad G. & iterum ipsum axem secat in G. Patet autem. & ab ipso perpetuo recedit usque ad quandam distantiam F. R. vel simphcem Algebraicam iormulam. i. referunt vires quae quidem. N. : : excrescunt. admodum unicam contmuam curvam. directionis constantis. Mutationes ordina14. & directionis mutationem factam in omnibus sectionibus I. P. Quamobrem illud est manifestum. & Abscissae exprimenSta 13. parte transit ad alteram.4 PHILOSOPHI/E NATURALIS THEORIA id vel utcunque augeantur distantiae etiam in proportionales quadratis distantiarum. & inde aequales. dicitur ordinata. quorum alter DEFGHIKLMNOPQRSTV habet inprimis arcum ticum. Av. 51. 108. d. fiant ordinatas op. quod alterum crus ipsum habet axem pro asymptoto. si indefinite producatur ultra quoscunque limites. atque infinitum. ut distantiae ab ipso sint in . exhibet. Ab. Ejusmodi curvam exhibui. quas Geometrae abscissas dicunt. tantummodo. figura ejusmodi crus TpsV. postquam recessum in accessum mutat. Forma ius. uti sectiones I. L. Axis C'AC habet in puncto A asymptotum curvae rectilineam AB indefinitam. vel saltern donee ad distantias deveniatur omnibus Planetarum. a S> ^ r ^h exhibet vim repulsivam. quin unquam ad eandem hinc vero versus DE perpetuo recidit ab eadam recta. N. immo etiam perpetuo deveniat versus V ab eadem recedunt arcus reliqui omnes. ut id praestare possit requirit legem. donee post evanescentiam. quern pariter secat in punctis quamplurimis. & sunt segmenta axis. & in sua Synopsi Num. curvae ips- 12. si Aa.

A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY .

PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA o .

the direction of the ordinates being changed in consequence. is called the ordinate. ag. segments of the axis to which the is referred. & it will become br. in such a manner that. which is an asymptote to the curve . until it meets it in some point E . respect to the first branch & approaches it approximately in such a manner that the distances from the axis are in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances from the straight line AB. after position mn on the same side of the axis as at the start. the ordinates decrease approximately in the inverse ratio of the squares of the abscissae Ao. R. at which point it will vanish. as I intimated above. and. the ordinates take the several positions indicated by op. & so indeed will all the rest of the arcs continually recede from this straight line towards V. the ordinate will change its direction clear that. with successive changes of curvature. ~ . of AB. there is erected a straight line per. such as I. the ordinate ag will be increased Change the abscissa Aa is in the same way diminished beyond all bounds . vanishing & changing direction at all points of intersection with the axis. N. or at any rate until we get to distances that are far greater than all the distances of the planets & comets. or dh. When the curve cuts the axis & passes from one side of it to the other. De Lumine (Art. which are equal & similar to DEFGHIKLMNOPQRSTV. if it is . indefinitely produced. the ordinate will once more change its direction as it returns to the Finally. namely. br. & represents the distance of any two points of matter from forces. it can be represented for of a continuous instance by a single continuous curve. 14. De lege virium in Natura existentium (Art. such as ag. 5). in a curve of this form. at which point it vanishes . will . It is sufficient for anyone merely to glance at it. or db then the segment of the axis. as I. has first approach nearer & nearer to the straight line AB when it also is produced indefinitely. 68) Benvenutus published the same thing in his Synopsis Physicce Generalis (Art. When any arc of the curve approaches ever more closely to some straight line perpendicular to the axis and curve . Then the abscissa being increased until it becomes Ad. but will never reach it then. the perpendicular. & at the same time cuts it in a number of points that is really large. even if this goes on beyond all limits. & those. . Aa.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 43 mately inversely proportional to the squares of the distances. re- . vs as it becomes db. although only a very few of the intersections of this kind. & it cuts the axis once more in & . the curve winds about the axis. & will reached. when it will G : unchanged. & in it. such as a. A law of this kind will seem at first sight to be very complicated. 51). These. one. & to be the result The simplicity of of combining together several different laws in a haphazard sort of way but it can be of the law can ^ re ^. here the direction remains P. 12. or by an algebraical formula. until the point F is be decreased through the value il until the point is attained. If from any point of the axis. one on each side - of the . or Ad. repulsive forces & according as the curve approaches the axis or recedes from it. just as in a picture we are accustomed to view all manner of In a curve of this kind. represent forces. 1 j o v j i v i r presented by means the simplest kind & not complicated in the slightest degree . Finally the arc of the curve ends up with the other branch TpsV. R. curve A curve of this sort is perfectly adapted to the . i i i 1 - those lines. Hence it is perfectly evident that. namely. it will continually recede from this straight line. which will continually diminish as b approaches to E. we can & . This will give you some idea of its nature in a few words. or on the opposite side. they too are diminished or increased. N. so on.The abscissae res pendicular to it to meet the curve. Av. yet the curve never quite reaches the line (such an arc is called asymptotic by geometricians). is called the abscissa. is if increased and becomes Ab. things depicted. br. in the direction DE. at the point G. when they lie on the other side. so will he perceive the nature of these forces.graphical representation of this sort of law. ^Jg Ab. according as the ordinate lies axis on the side towards D. Of these. b. G . I set forth and explained a curve of this sort in my dissertations De Firibus vivis The form and Father curve (Art. 108). & this represents the one another . which represent the distances of two points from one another we called ordinates. & it does not require a knowledge of geometry to set it forth. P. namely of all an asymptotic arc ED this indeed. force. when they lie on one side of the axis represent attractive forces. with regard to the in Now it is beyond if all bounds. there are two branches of the curve. In Fig. which is repulsive or attractive. continually receding from the axis until it arrives at a certain distance given by the point F after that the recession changes to an approach. then the forces themselves will increase indefinitely. then it cuts it at this point & passes on. The first arc continually approaches one another in every way. the axis C'C.t. produced ever so far in the direction ED. fbat the or- & tlfey reprSent! the latter be increased in the opposite direction at first. i the axis C'AC has at the point A a straight line AB perpendicular to itself. lying on the opposite side of the axis with and this second branch has the axis itself as its asymptote. L. the forces pass from positive to negative or vice versa. lines drawn perpendicular to the axis to meet the curve. the ordinate will be diminished. that geometricians call abscissae. L. 11. by a curve of this kind. are shown in the diagram. or d. This holds good as the distances are increased indefinitely to any extent. 13.

Laesio legis Continu- cOTpus^efocruTimmediate incurrat in minus velox. vel vice versa . utrumque per saltum. & 8 . usus. omnes mihi profluunt generales. & qua ratione materiae simplicitatem eruerim. nee ad singulares proprietates derivandas in genere afHrmo. quae juxta communem omnium Mechanicorum sententiam velocitates vel generant. in attractivas. ut idcirco nulla habeatur mutatio e positivo ad negativum. omni-[8]-bus ordinatis vs. & tempusculis. a Natura. apud Newtonum est hyperbola DV gradus tertii. Ex hujusmodi autem virium lege. eas haberi per diversam combinationem. quae nimirum eandem ubique virium : Continuitatis. atque aliis meditationibus illustravi. mihi agendi modum submovendum esse illud incidit. Concipiantur duo corpora aequalia. quae moveantur in directum versus eandem id. . quorum latera exprimant vires. atque aliae vires ejusmodi in earn inquirere productionem velocitatis.exprimentis quse nimirum. jacentibus nuspiam pertractandorum. 2. quern secat. quse a viribus vivis repetunt. & praecipuae quacque particulars proprietates coretiam porum.44 repulsivas. ubi tota velocitas momento temporis produci creditur ab iis. & progressu curvae earn a N e w. quee nimirum momento temporis finitam velocitatem inducant. abeuntes. auctis imminutas. quam legem quidem satis [9] valida turn Continuitatis appellant. tempusculis singulis aequalibus. inducant velocitates. ut ipso momento temporis. abeunte hoc a 12 ad 9. mutatasque donee demum in satis magna distantia evadant attractive ad sensum in ratione per vices reciproca duplicata distantiarum. & vero etiam plerique ex iis. ac iterum evenescentes. in & ostendam hac & ea evolvo in via. vel motibus componatur vis. Discrimen legis virium : gravitate 15. & 8i. tus componentes. caeterum utraque per ductum exponitur curvae continue habentis duo crura infinita asymptotica in ramis singulis utrinque in infinitum productis. qua antequam parte secunda. quae per impulsum censetur fieri. qui idcirco percussionis vim infinities majorem esse censent viribus omnibus. sine ullo transitu per intermedios gradus n. quae e quibus combinationibus phasnomena. & Isesione illius. Si hoc posterius cum sua ilia velocitate illaesa deveniat ad immediatum contactum gradus cum illo priore oportebit utique. op. turn evanescentes. Haec virium lex a Newtoniana gravitate differt in ductu. mutata directione. ut in fig. susTmrnedUatTalin lege eum Verum re altius considerata. ex attractione in repulsionem. sed combinationes ipsas evolvo. : PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA & imminutis in infinitum distantiis auctas in infinitum. & omnia. illud posterius minuat velocitatem suam.uti superius innui. qua ratione evinci posse existimabam. bt. quam quidem legem in Natura existere. Cum anno 1745 De Viribus vivis dissertationem conscriberem. Neque enim fieri potest. &c. qui Leibnitianam tuentur sententiam. origo ejusdem ex 17. ut per aliquam utcunque exiguam continui 18. habeat gradus velocitatis 6. legem. & geometrice demonVerum stro. turn quas difHcultatem aliquam videantur habere posse. nimirum quod ex pluribus viribus. quo ad contactum devenerint. & corporum species oriri debeant. 1 6. quae pressionem solam momentis singulis exercent. & ex solis principiis Mechanicis notissimis. illam elementorum positivis rationibus ad earn virium legem devenerim. & illud primus suam augeat. quibus prima. vel mo- FIG qui per solam velocitatem vires vivas metiuntur. actionum leges haberi debere. & quidem En autem ratiocinationem ipsam. . & 7 10. vel utcunque inducunt proportionales sibi. ac eandem agendi rationem adhibeat impulsum nimirum immediatum alterius in & immediatam alterum. ac novis sum ac deinde aliis. alias pro percussionibus ejusmodi. repeterem immediate a sola velocitate genita per potentiarum vires. ag ex parte attractiva. 9^. & quod vires ejusmodi in punctis singulis. hu us toniana ejus usus in Physica ordo : jacens tota citra axem. vel motus quidam ope parallelogrammorum. & hanc sine saltu quodam. elasticitas. si recta utamur ratiocinandi methodo. quod praecedit. id vero. illo a 6 ad 9. uti est gravitas. vel motus proportionales sibi. corporis percussionem haberi non posse sine ilia productione finitse velocitatis facta momento temporis indivisibili. . dissolvam. quod ipsum persequitur 12. quibus ccepi aliquant: o diligentius agunt. pl a g am & > . Statim illud mihi sese obtulit. V Occasio inveniendae Theories ex consideraticine impulsus. primo confirmavi. tertia.

. do I assert that they to be obtained owing to some special combination of points . 9$ & 8f. The cause of w^s the^pposftion raised to the Law he idea' impulse. who think. without the production of a finite velocity taking place in an indivisible instant of time. & so on. & the greater number of ' ' those who measure living forces by means of velocity only. & with the help of well-known mechanical principles only. Suppose there are two equal bodies. become attractive differs & are sensibly proportional to the inverse squares of of gravitation enunciated i . from attraction to repulsion. Nor. on the contrary I ought consider the combinations themselves. for instance. at the body moving more slowlv instant of time at this contact the hindermost body should diminish which very happened.e. - velocity undiminished. at a distance comparatively great they finally the distance. actions must obtained different time. & was in front. that the force of percussion is infinitely greater than all It immediately forced itself upon forces which merely exercise pressure for single instants. & by what direct reasoning. 2. which is that according to Newton. lying 6 use ln Physics i r i i the which it does not cut at one side of all the on axis. gravity. is DV. continuous curve possessing two infinite asymptotic branches in each of its members. a mode of action must be withmethod of such we employ a straightforward argument. could not be obtained. are first of all diminished. produce in them velocities that are proportional to themselves from these alone. according to the generally accepted view taken by all Mechanicians. & the one behind a degree represented by 12. or that the forces of this kind. its velocity. for the purpose of deriving special properties. if 17. ought to arise from this or that combination. take. derive from these living ' forces . & the foremost body increase its velocity. I say. & other forces of the same kind. & had derived everything that they who adhere to the idea of Leibniz. & theret fore there is no change from positive to negative. & so on alternately . as the distances increase. again vanish. & the which in case adheres one drawn from Nature. 1 8. this induce a finite velocity in an instant of of which me that. as I intimated above. every same mode of action. I came to the conclusion that really immediate impulsive action of one body on another. I have arrived law of forces. & that this could be shown The following is the line of argument that I to be so by a sufficiently valid argument. 16. each of the laws is represented by the construction of a vice versa. carefully production in which the whole of the velocity is credited with being produced in an instant of time by those. there have burst forth on me in a regular flood all the general & some of the most important particular properties of bodies. all the matters mentioned the construction ic. laws for their when I considered the matter more thoroughly. come to consider. afterwards ' possible difficulty. I then began to investigate somewhat more elasticity. really be from the rest. for percussions kind. . by this aw f forces i thus. ^ J"* violation of the 1 more tod^movrng swiftly comes hind. because of that. either generate. For it cannot possibly happen the intermediate degrees.. such as that a force or motion can be compounded from several forces or motions by the help of parallelograms whose sides represent the component forces or motions. . then become changed in direction & so attractive. to & the same law of forces. indeed. & prove geometrically what phenomena. I was putting together my dissertation De Firibus vivis. a hyperbola of the third degree. moving in the same straight line & in the same direction & let the one that is in front have a degree of velocity represented by If the latter. or On the other hand. op. the curve given in & Newton's law of i t s gravitation Fie. as. Now. is that of which velocity thought to arise through impulsive action. should ever reach with the former body which it would be necessary that.. & this would have to be accomplished without any sudden change or violation of what is called the Law of Continuity . without any passage through & 7. which are initially repulsive & increase indefinitely as the distances are diminished indefinitely. bt. the order in which any point altogether e s ects are to such as vs. with^another : n . & by what argument I have made out the simplicity of the elements then I will give an explanation of every point that may seem to present any of matter above. ^ ^ . in each case by a sudden change one of them would pass from 12 to 9. show in this first part in what way. but which. However. it struck me that. ordmates.e. J This law of forces ii -nii & development from the law i i Newton in Difference between ' or the curve that represents it i i r nil' . if produced to infinity on both sides. I will at this . i. then vanish.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 45 represent the forces in question. In the year 1745. The occasion that o^my^L^Trom the of consideration im P ulsiv e action. velocities that are proportional to themselves & the intervals of time during which they act . or in some way induce. until at length. or what Of course. from a law of forces of this kind. . & change their direction. which. ag lie on the side of the axis representing attractive forces. 10 & 8. before I species of bodies. the other from 6 to 9. this law indeed I considered as existing in Nature. acting on single points for single small equal intervals of time. & immediate percussion. the body that was be6. I say I had derived everything directly & solely from the velocity generated by the forces of those influences. fresh reflection. then in every case its come into absolute contact with. both in the second part and in the third. I & confirmed it by further arguments & made it clearer employed initially . i.

quidquid est. quo fit immediatus contactus. distinctos. Ea uti non posse. \. quae idcirco comprimi parietes soiidos. durante contactu. soiida. . divisamque parietes. Ii enim debent admittere. debet utique esse aliquid. habeatur. est indivisibilis limes. in ipso indivisibili momento temporis. quo sunt n. redit omnis eadem vel argument! prima. quam illud. quo pacto corpora omnia partes non habeant penitus solidas. & vero etiam debet in infinitum ii indigent. atque actu interpositis poris incapacem. ut in ipsis intermedios gradus transitu facto. qui difficultatem omnem submoveri posse censeant. quae autem in una magnitudine ad aliam sine transitu per intermedias omnino vetat. contactus fiat. Sunt. id sane velocitatem mutare debet per saltum. 2 i. cum adhaesione infinita. Deinde vero illud omnino intelligi circa superficiem pores. & subsequens. in ipso primo initio contactus. . vel punctis. Quidquid punctis. in quo exeritur impenetratibilitatis vis. ac ornn i no non possint. quod inter tempus continuum ut punctum apud Geometras praecedens contactum. qui omissis infinitis intermediis velocitatibus . ut. qui nullam in corporibus divisione tamen inextricablies qua admittunt particulam utcunque exiguam compressionis omnis expertem penitus. Quod ad 9 gradus velocitatis. vel in altero imminuta utcunque. & in eo continuitatis lex abrumpi 22. quam in materia agnoscunt passim omnes Physici. *! aliquas postremas sane non potest. debet. & vis compressionis incapacem. Nam in primis elementis illis & prorsus Extensionem primoT con1 illaesa. sententia admissa. si continua sit. dicendo. poris plures pororum ipsorum Illud sane intelligi non potest. dum se duo globi contingunt. continuus haberi debeat alicujus in se determinatae crassitudinis paries usque ad non . [10] & compressione partium fieri posse. non possunt. parietem habeat utique poris expertem. id quidem ita se habere debere. quod nimirum impenetrabilitati occasionem in prascedente augeri id. in quo omnis argumenti superioris legis Con- iprimis su^r debus. ig. laesa penitus ilia continuitatis lege. introcessione. aliquis & primum porum. At ea etiam. utcunque penitus inintelligibili. quam primum. vel in utcunque inaequalibus de quovis alio transitu ad numeros Nimirum ille posterioris corporis excessus graduum 6 momento temporis auferri quosvis. & omnis corporibus velocitas immutetur per omnes argumenti vis eludatur. particulam quamcunque tamen ipsis iterum velut in distinctam. Si enim aliquando alterum corpus jam habuit 7 gradus velocitatis. quae nimirum se mutuo immediate contingunt. & idcirco pars aliqua corporis cum ob sequentis cum aliqua antecedentis corporis parte compenetrari debuit. si corpora dura habeantur. omnium proximus porus. proinde anterior ejus superficies debuit transcurrere ultra illius posteriorem superficiem.46 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA temporis particulam ejusmodi mutatio fiat per intermedios gradus. obtineri omnino non poterit. vis in ipsa . . quae in anteriore adsunt sequentis corporis parte. & 7. corpus secundum debuit moveri cum velocitate majore. buendam omnino esse. quae nimirum nullam compressionem sentiant. quod & quam ipsi triimpenetrabilitatem. facile evincitur. & duris. nullam mutationem figurae & quoniam hsec a multis excluduntur penitus a Natura . praestet. nullus sit extimus. & alterum adhuc retinet 1 1 . & cogat motum in sequente corpore minui. In materia quidem. & 6. ubi e vacuo spatio transitur ad corpus. enim sit id. & ultima corporum se immediate contingentium superficie. quod effluxit ab initio contactus. . divisibilitas in infinitum haberi at actualis divisio in infinitum difficultates secum trahit sane potest. qui fiat. sive aucta in priore. solidis. redit omnis argumenti vis impossibilitate absoluta mutationis figurae. redit prorsus illaesa. quicunque cum Newtono. vel quomodo. qui externae superficiei quod eodem recidit. superficies congruant. quod utique sine saltu. & vero etiam r j o & cum plerisquc veterum Pnilosopnorum pnma elementa matenae omnino dura admittunt. nimirum si sit aliquis. corporibus aequalibus diximus de transitu immediato utriusque recurrit utique in iisdem. sine transitu per intermedia. sive imminuta velocitate in ipso. ad id tempus. Objectio petita dl a ' cofporum. fieri omnino non possit oportuit sane. in in vel s { nullae continuae quo lineis. mutatio velocitatum facta fuerit itum ab per saltum sine transitu per intermedias. est limes indivisibilis inter duo continue lineae segmenta. toto illo tempusculo. qui admittunt ele- menta dura - soiida. quando velocitates erant 12. poris utique carens . . adeoque plus percurrere spatii. & in praecedentis posteriore. & aucta in altero. & 2O ea responsione uti fa mpr j m i s _.

are dealt with . pression or alteration of shape. . thus. admit the primary elements of ^"admit^oiid * ton. when the velocities were respectively 12 Si 6. . it may & must be sub. If matter is continuous. There are some people. & here then the whole force of the argument used above applies perfectly unimpaired. . if there are no continuous surfaces rate. in passing from vacuum to solid matter. whereas by many philosophers hard bodies hard are altogether excluded from Nature . hence it must traverse a greater distance in space than the other. has to be got an instant of time. so long as two spheres touch one another. 20. whether by diminishing the velocity of this body. & on that account mary ^resT* walls them. in the first place. however small. it is possible. & certainly these parts touch one another immediately. who think that the whole difficulty can be removed by An objection deed r nyil saying that this is just as it should be. . all intermediate stages . until the time at which they are 1 1 & 7. 21. This. & which can be proved to be rightly attributed to it. amounting to 6 degrees. It follows that the front surface of the second body must have passed beyond the back surface of the first body & therefore some part of the body that follows behind must be penetrated by some part of the body that goes in front. or by diminishing somehow the velocity of the one & increasing & this cannot possibly be done in any case. however. the second body must be moved with a greater velocity than the first . & this violates the Law of Continuity. in every case holds good for such equal bodies. without any passage of impenetrability. if there were one. must certainly & by change the velocity suddenly. 19. into many boundary particle up. the passage being made through thus the whole force of the argument will be evaded. if hard bodies. ^nce o1 & these bodies the velocity is changed. then to the lines or points. in that indivisible instant of time which is an indivisible limit between the continuous time that preceded the contact & that subsequent to it (just in the same way as a point in geometry is an indivisible limit between two segments of a continuous line). & these walls again are distinct from the pores themwalls.bounding altogether incapable of being compressed. a pore that is the last & nearest to the external surface certainly has a wall that is free from pores & incapable of compression . or for bodies that are unequal in any way. at the instant at which immediate contact is obtained. by introcession & compression of their parts.This re P'y cannot indeed many of the ancient philosophers as well. Now. There really must be. . this reply can not be used by anyone who. & causes the motion of the body that follows to be diminished. whatever the manner may be in which contact congruent. Next it is truly impossible to understand in the slightest degree how all bodies do Continuous extennot have some of their last parts just near to the surface perfectly solid. unimpaired to those body that is ject to infinite divisibility . possessing infinite adhesion is For the whole force of argument then applies quite perfectly impossible to alter. which all Physicists in all quarters recognize in matter. in bodies that are For they must admit the idea that every perfectly free from. Now what has been said in the case of equal bodies concerning the direct passing of both to 9 degrees of velocity. a definite shape that it hard elements. matter to be absolutely hard solid. such as indeed experience no com- In fact. & in the hindmost part of the body that is in front . Moreover. for it to happen that in ^ ex bodies. 22. we are not then bound to encounter some continuous wall of empty some definite inherent thickness from the surface to the first pore.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 47 that this kind of change is made by intermediate stages in some finite part. takes place. from which the force of impenetrability is derived. this infinite division is required its train by those not admit that there are any particles. For if at any time the one body then had 7 degrees of velocity. there must be something in every case that certainly affords occasion for impenetrability. & that of the one in front to be increased. concerning any other passage to any numbers. For. the other would still retain 1 1 degrees . in the commencement of contact. It is quite impossible to understand why it comes about that. the excess of velocity in the hindmost body. or by increasing the velocity of the other. Now & & & my solid and hard primary elements that are in the anterior part of the behind. compression. during the whole time that has passed since the beginning of contact. this wall being everywhere devoid of pores nor why. there does not exist this pore at least. without the sudden change that of the other that is obtained by omitting the infinite number of intermediate velocities. but actual division carried on indefinitely brings in difficulties that are truly inextricable . although it may be quite unintelligible. which absolutely denies the possibility of a passage from one magnitude to another without passing through intermediate stages. so to speak. whatever it may be. & without any passage through intermediate stages who do . of continuous time. on account . no matter how small. for these pores selves. a change of velocity taking place suddenly. of is marked off & divided the action by interspersed pores. following New. even if this idea is admitted. rid of in . easily through intermediate stages . whilst the bodies remain in contact. this cannot possibly happen. & incapable of. which comes to the same thing in the end. Violation of the then the whole force of the same argument applies to the first or last surface of the bodies ta^s'piace^any in prime surthat are in immediate contact with one another or. & therefore.

ac velocitatem. Quo minor est evanescat & ac crassitudine eo minor est evanescente. Motus. Superficies est nihil corporeum.. vel venire superficiesi dimensionum. post si & modo . ad immediatum contactum deveniant. uti quidem omnino remanent in superficie. Haec quidem evidentia sunt. evanescit remanet utique tribus . si vero massae nomen tribuendum sit soli corpori. extensionem tribuentibus materise. ut ea laedatur saltern in velocitate 27.'. quod censendum sit. superficiei. ac ut altera harum erit nihil ratione sed erit sane nihil in alterius in ita alterius motus erit non sua ratione. Hinc autem in iis ipsis massa quaedam considerari potest duarum etiam nullius continuae dimensionis. _. & motus. superficies realis extimus binis linea. qui dicat. & motum corporum metiuntur per massam ejusmodi. vel 24. tacam. cum illo velocitatum discrimine.unius. & extensione carens sic etiam in Physica . atque elementis agnoverunt Fuit sane. massa. sed reales. . superficiei est nihil. : . velocitate. sed numeri punctorum motus 'debeat con. exin ?P<! n e- possit. ut superficies binas. superficiem. quae unicam. & ejusdem . quin immo & & minui . omnibus speciebus tribuendus erit. Est. in verbis. aliquid in iis ratione sui. ex.. ut ipsam vim mei argument} Physici universi. impenetrabilitas corporibus tribuenda sit.. corporis limes. non pars. i oportet Kesponsionis ini- & massa. in iis committi saltum idcirco. ejus limes ultimus realis. quae superficiebus. quibus punctum. vel numerum punctorum in velocitatem ducta . limes realis superficiei.. lineae. punctum. diversa genera constituunt. evanescente una e & dimensionum. lineae.* -m centrum nommant motum ac centri utique punctum rhysici. si eae reapse remanent. gr. sed in minimis etiam quibusque corporum particulis. partes habet. corpore. r . Motum tnbui fore. punctorum quotcunque motus pro mensura habebit quantitatem vel lineae. . sed non habetur in communi corpus augeri potest. superficiei..-KT discrimine ad invicem velocitatis ubi cum lex infnngi debeat. m pnsmatis. si factum ex disquisitione omissa de notione motus. est aliquod. nullum nullum . & & eodem pacto linea in ratione quidem ac ipsum demum punctum est aliquid in . atque labefactari. uti bus. uti revera est. velocitas reliquarum & massae. licet in ratione lineae sit nihil. sunt tamen non utique intellectu confictae. vel tantummodo. dimensionibus.^punctmn! posita extensione e - contmua. pro quantitas ejus genere designetur . cujus Objectio motns. quas nimirum reales dimensiones cum ipso aliquas habent. ipsa ejusmodi crassitude. & continuitatis si ea ad contactum immediatum deveniant gravitatis & motum tribuunt & superficiebus & q u id em jp Mechanici vulgo '. omni dimensione. quam iste ad motus rationem. turn motus quidem corporis mensura erit massa in velocitatem ducta . ac in ea violari continuitatis lex jam toties memorata.48 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA debet.. trabilitate admissa in minimis particuiis. habere a non convemant. . Massam vulgo appellant quantitatem materiae. lit passim punctis./ . ita ti -. & ejus velocitatis mutatio haberi deberet per saltum. corpus. ludendo. superficies quae binas. . Verum hac omni punctorum. eruntque quatuor motuum genera. quod motus q uan titas definiri poterit per productum ex velocitate. si ad ipsum immediatum contactum illo velocitatum discrimine Id vero est sane aliquid in quacunque e sententiis omnibus continuam deveniatur. ubique non corpus trina praeditum dimensione. & punctis 2J 7. mquit. sed aliquid in ratione linese suo genere. in iis sententiis debent. Fore. non purum nihil. Utrobique alterum alterius est limes. & translationem vel modi. saltus omnino committi debet. linea unam. & Porro in ejusmodi motibus extiappellationem requirit.. i\/r x motum. linae. j lex violari. j- i i j se & ejus confu- acce dant corpora. sive altitudmem. vel linearum. Earn quidem non in integris tantummodo corporibus.. quae remanet. ut ajebam. quod - gt Sj lineis. Verum qui sic ratiocinatur. ut omnino dubitari non quin continuitatis . &. 28. imeis. At quemadmodum in ipsa geometrica quantitate tria genera sunt quantitatum. . ut quatuor sunt in alterius quantitatum. etiam usurpetur nomen massae generaliter. . habens unicam.. & quatuor nihil superficial. solidi. Est nimirum realis affectio qusedam corporis. & saltus m Naturam induci. videlicet lineae limes punctum. punctorum. realis superficiei limes linea. petita vucemassa. ^11^^ accedit linese limes q UO(J trinam dimensionem habet. tribus extensionis speciebus praeditum . . ac realem motum. vel marum saltern superficierum. massa autem est supera Mechanicis habet pro mensura massam in velocitatem ductam j /-^ ficies baseos ducta in crassitudmem. praedita lineae indivisibilis limes punctum. in eo ixda- r I2 i 2Q r Continuitatis i^ punctis. qui meam editam Theoriam. punctis. superficies. punctorum . quae massam habeant nullam. Imeam. motus. esse affectiones idcirco quaedam. sed motus utique iis superficiei. inprimis ludit in ipsis vocibus. realis qua affectiones utcunque in iis sententiis sint prorsus inseparabiles [n] ab ipso corpore.. & massa . massa. QUO pacto nomen 8 25.

And this property too. by playing with words. a line. & the motion the i Now all of bodies c something when compared with a line & lastly a point is a definite class. the last real boundary of a body. thus. there are four kinds of quantity. or a line./-! r i j j j j T of Continuity is infringed. a body is considered to be endowed with three species of extension . so the motion of the one will be as nothing compared with the motion of the other. a mass can be considered to be of two dimensions. then both the mass & therefore the motion must vanish - as well. then indeed the motion of a solid body will be measured by the mass multiplied by the velocity but the motion of a surface. & a line one) they also have real motion & movement of translation along with the body itself hence in these theories they must be certain conditions or modes of it. Objection derived 1 mo/io^w^idi say that motion has. & in the elements as There was one. there will still fated^tf^the^idea remain the velocity of the remaining dimensions & this will persist so long as the dimen. the less the mass & the motion . but something in its own class. just as in a geometrical quantity a or a solid having three dimensions. iv - are to ascribe impenetrability to bodies. merely playing with words. Someone may say that there is no sudden change made. & but that does not they form four different kinds. if immediate contact is arrived Moreover. & not entirely nothing. * . 27. Hence the less the thickness. compared with those of as each its own class. Commencement the answer to tl is measured by mass SUrlclCC.^ p<X ^' pOintS. There is nothing solid about a surface mean that there is also nothing superficial about it . as for instance in prisms.of the velocity of sions persist. . as they do persist undoubtedly in the case of a surface. a sudden change must certainly be made. which I have already mentioned so many times. body with one to which is added the boundary of a line. He may . Now. or any number of points will have as their measure the quantity of the surface. or line. & that a sudden change is introduced into Nature. or even of no continuous dimension. a surface with two. although nothing in comparison with a line. something Hence also in these matters.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY that the at 49 Law of Continuity with such a difference of velocity. . I must confess. namely. the real boundary of a surface. for a solid. . \ is is some- supposed to ex- lst ' . or able they surface has may boundary of a line. a real boundary of these conditions. but in a definite . a surface. There is some its last real boundary. Motion at any rate will be ascribed in all these cases. as we really should. in this kind of motions of ultimate surfaces. In the same way a line is nothing indeed when compared with : of this kind & . omitting all debate about the notions of motion & mass. 28. or points. nay. Hence the change P mts in its velocity must have been made suddenly. or lines. & not a part of it . a line. . having indeed certain real dimensions . undoubtedly some point. but yet really something. OF of ls ? : -_* there are three kinds of cl ii 11116. are nevertheless certainly not & fictions of the brain. Ii the mass. as I said above. i is * man who reasons in this manner is first of commonly called quantity of matter. if for these also. we shall be able to define the quantity of motion by the product of the velocity & HOPS. if the thickness vanishes. to be endowed with two . 23. according to Mechanicians. (for instance. however inseparitself. These things are so evident that it is absolutely impossible to doubt that the Law objection derived from the admission i /. a surface. as its measure. the one is a boundary of the other. & a line quantities. also mass is the surface of the base multiplied by the thickness or the altitude. sort in every one of the ideas real condition of the body. a two dimensions. a line or a point. the velocity. and. with one & the indivisible boundary of the line.of the points. not in whole bodies only. So also in Physics. having no mass. lacking dimensions altogether. is violated. a surface. namely. . of one. But if the term mass is only to be used in connection with a solid body. this centre is minateiy the'i^w points. & there will be four kinds of motion. * . when bodies O f impenetrability in verv small P ar approach one another with a difference of velocity & come into immediate contact. a surface. namely. a point. & the Law of Continuity must be violated. which the objector of Continuity is viodemands for the idea & name of motion. - - i . 24. & not a body endowed with three dimensions. Indeed. is recognized by Physicists universally. after I well. but only numbers of points. or The manner in 25. or for points . the mass multiplied by the do not accord with surfaces & P mis velocity . cannot have any motion. if they arrive at immediate contact with a difference of velocity as above. a point . there is in truth always something of this that attribute continuous extension to matter. we ' t ion. a line. In both subjects. But. the term mass is employed in a generalized term motus is bound to u faces ? j sense. On the other hand. if the product of it is at least a fact the velocity & the mass vanishes when one of the three dimensions vanish. Mechanicians themselves commonly ascribe motion to surfaces. who. but real things. if only & ' . to be a point. it certainly has parts & can be increased or diminished. or the number. its own : ' ! 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 * 1 1 1 i . 26. . But. & thereby the Law of Continuity. - . just as quantity of wn'^ma^and^the this kind is indicated. multiplied by the velocity. lines & Motion is ascribed 3 Physicists universally speak of the motion of the centre of gravity . or a point. Mass . but in any of the smallest particles of bodies. because it must be considered that a surface. as class of the latter will be as nothing compared with the class before it. be in these theories from the body a real & its surface. & of no extension. must be broken & destroyed.

uti superius innui. in eo sita est.. in quo quidem is censuit violari jam necessario legem cum ipsam. in non imaginarie tantummodo. Sunt realis affectio rei mobilis fundata in ipsis modis localiter existendi. ac ea consectaria persecutus. . Quod duo corpora magis a se ipsis invicem distent. & incrementa. directa ratiocinatione delatus sum ad earn. Is itidem ludit in voce motus.. duas monades sibi etiam mvicem pro confutatio ex occurrentes cum velocitatibus quibuscunque oppositis aequalibus. quse ego quidem adhibeo. post ipsum contactum r i. PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA minimas corporum particulas post contactum superficierum com& non nihil. Fuit itidem e ' . & ego. summover- 30. localiter celerius moveantur. si a spatio percurso sestimetur. ac tueri posset. & post contactum mo-[i3]-mento temporis in eo casu abrumpuntur . cum etiam ipse ni s j onem co corporum contemplatus vidisset. qua proinde retenta contactum ipsum immediatum submovendum censui in collisionibus corporum. & quibus ea innititur. ut quaevis r iiad aliam migrat. & quae ibi abrumpuntur per saltum. quos quidem gradus Maupertuisius ita accepit. in collisione intermedium retinuerint) continuitatis legem deseruit. cujus inductionis vis quae quibus in locis usum habeat. an alius quisquam omnem omnium corporum immediatum contactum subducere sit ausus antea. atque infregit. quod de Newtoni Compertis inscripsit. ipsam omnino e Natura submoveri non posse. U fien t^'t f Ast ego cum ipsam continuitatis legem aliquanto diligentius considerarim. & quodammodo inexplicabilem. ab una i T magmtudme . vir celeberrimus. arbitratus sum. cum spatium sit nihil extingui per gradus.. debeat transire per omnes intermedias ejusdem generis magnitudines. . ut viderimus in ipsa immediatum contactum. quam unam habemus & in Physica investigandis generalibus naturae legibus idoneam.50 infringeret. (nee vero scio. j dum quantitas. Continuitatis lex. & Philosophus Mac-Laurinus. voce exponam.. atque impulsionem cum At quoniam de impulsione. 4. 31.. sed eo vero per immediatum contactum saltus utique induceretur in eo . Leibnitianorum familia. locali progressione. . quos inter Maupertuisius. ipsam continuitatis legem deferendam censuit. qua in se mutuo agunt. Qui jegem Continuitatu. Eodem nimirum in nostris de corporum collisione contemplationibus devenimus Mac-Laurinus. . contactu ille ne dubitari quidem posse arbitrabatur. sese premendo invicem. & analogiae. sine . corporis nimirum alterius. ./>jj j j dimcultatem mutatione. -i progressionem. Solet etiam idem exprimi nominandi transitum per gradus intermedios. Lex quid Continuitatis sit discn: men inter status. sunt ea. qui post evulgatam Theoriam meam cen. vel lentius realiter diversum . 2 Q. quia per gradus extinguatur energia ilia. nihil esse. licet spatium pure imaginarium sit nihil. quod casu. . 32. qui modi etiam relationes inducunt distantiarum reales utique.. erant aliqua ante contactum. nee vero sunt nihil . lib. . vel actionis modo. quae utcunque exiguo saltu utique violatur nihilo minus. utcunque aliqui aeris velum. & velocitas motus ipsius. & esse. Objectio a motus assumpta . quam superius exposui.. Et sane summus nostri aevi Geometra. affirmavit. quam maximo nimi-[l4]-rum magnum. ejusmodi amoveri posse dicendo. & parvum sint tantummodo respectiva & jure quidem id censuit si nomine graduum incrementa magnitudinis cujuscunque momentanea intelligerentur. absurdam etiam censuit. quasi vero quaedam exiguae accessiones fierent momento temporis. ut evidentissime constat. ajebat. est aliquid quo ego superius sum usus.' . vel minus pergere moven . Theorise exortus.. quam in eo casu omnino violari affirmavit in eo opere. quae ad continuitatis legem retinendam argumenta me movent. de qua hie agimus. & immediate corporum continuitatis lege conciliari non posse. ad minimas quasque particulas extendendae. Et sane sunt alii nonnulli. quam adhibet pro mutatione quacunque. qui ipsam continuitatis legem nequaquam admiserint. perpenderim. Motus locaiis. Ea. virium mutuarum legem. ubi ipsa. quae ex ipsa continuitate servata sponte profluebant. cap. penetrari post ipsam compenetrationem mutari velocitates per gradus. revera omnmo nihil motum utique perseverare. quod continuitatis legem in collisione corporum facta per immediatum contactum conservare. I. quae consectaria suo quaeque ordine proferam. At id facile demonstrari ipsum potest contrarium illi inductioni. suerit. quorum locorum unus est hie ipse impenetrabilitatis inferius sit. & actione.. attigero. reahtate motus . Ham . ac de Republica Litteraria optime meritus.

because the energy with which they act upon one another. if it were estimated by the but the motion would go on & be destroyed space passed over. Not that they are nothing although purely imaginary space is nothing.-I . these steps indeed by saying that the passage is made by intermediate stages or steps Maupertuis accepted.. or more slowly to account for this there must be someIn this something there would thing that is not altogether imaginary. These. i. & that after compenetration the velocities were changed gradually.. . after I had published my opinion that this kind of difficulty could be removed by saying that Theory. .. one of the followers of Leibniz who. thought that the Law of Continuity ought to be abandoned. in from one as . intimated above. . go on moving without any local progression. & for action & mode of action. (that is to say. What the power of this induction is. 4. were something definite before contact. & after contact in an instant of time in this case they are broken off. He asserted that. & in a measure inexplicable.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 51 had published my Theory. I was led by straightforward reasoning to the law that I have set forth above.. who has had the courage to deny the existence of all immediate contact for any bodies whatever. & the velocity of that motion are what I am dealing with. investigating the deductions that naturally sprang from the conservation of continuity. But it can be easily proved that this is contrary to that induction & analogy. the law was violated. of another body). impulsive whereas he came to the be no doubt about conclusion that there could But. In this he thought that the Law of Continuity was already of necessity violated. such as we have in Physics. or at a less or for the fact that they are moved in position more quickly. if by the name of steps we are to understand momentaneous we here deal . & he rightly thought as he did. To account for the fact that two bodies stand at a greater distance from one another.. in the question under consideration. For.. . consists in the idea that. Maupertuis. must pass through distinction between The same notion is also commonly expressed stat<~ s & incre- with . I will set forth later. 32. one peculiarly adapted for the investigation of the general laws of Nature. thought it was senseless. there are some others too. no matter how small. 31. Maclaurin. the fact of impulsive action & immediate contact between the bodies. . I will bring forward when I come to touch upon those arguments that persuade me to retain the Law of Continuity. He also is playing with the meaning of the term motus. Thus. any quantity. although there are some who would retain a thin layer of air. contact. . TT would. Hence. the law of mutual forces. These deductions. They are real conditions of the movable thing depending on its modes of extension as regards position & these modes induce relations between the distances that are certainly real. Indeed the finest geometrician & philosopher of our times. I came to the conclusion that immediate contact in the collision of solid bodies must be got rid of &. be induced. bk. Nor indeed do I know of anyone else before me.''. . . each set out in order. The Law j . magnitude to another. . Local motion. but considered that they were very small additions made in an instant of time. which he uses both for any change.. in regard investigations myself contact & action could immediate not be reconciled with the Law of collision. since the space was nothing by degrees. of Continuity. a sudden change through immediate 29. . & the over fundamental ideas on which it to the conclusion came that pondering depends. after considering the Law of Continuity somewhat more carefully. 30. he impeached & abrogated the Law of Continuity. alter they came into contact. & where it can be used (one of the cases is this very matter of extending impenetrability to the minute particles of a body). But . used fora"change^ refutation from the reality of local tion. in general in the case of collision.. thisLaw. would be gradually destroyed. namely. True.. in no less a degree than by a very great one. endeavoured to overcome the force of the argument I had used by asserting that the minute particles of the bodies after contact of the surfaces were subject to compenetration in some measure. but real & diverse. publishing his idea in maintain & i^ oi continuity the work that he wrote on the discoveries of Newton. Continuity. in between the two in collision. since it had to be be done. it.. who would not admit the Law of Continuity at all & amongst these. after he too had considered the collision of solid bodies & observed that there is nothing which could There are some who d 5 preserve the Law of Continuity in the collision of bodies accomplished by immediate contact. chap. Maclaurin came to the same conclusion as to our on the collision of bodies with for we both saw that. . mo- . by mutual pressure. as'shouid it certainly could not be withdrawn altogether out of Nature. . two monads colliding with one another with any velocities that were equal & opposite . -11 ments.. retained. it is perfectly evident. a man of great reputation & the highest merit in the world of letters. rle added that that progression would indeed be absolutely nothing.. passing all intermediate magnitudes of the same class. of a truth. large & small are only relative terms . as I J he nature of the Law of Continuity . . also There was Objection to the expressed his . . . . Th e origin of my I. the law being indeed violated by any sudden change. & these are here broken off suddenly. .

Quod si assumatur tempusculum quoddam continuum non mutet recessum a recta AB arcus ipse utcunque exiguum ita. exiguam. ut sit primus post ipsum accessu aliquo sed differentia. M. ut sit M primum post ipsum sed vel congruunt. ad magnitudinem HI. Quantitas KM N LN MN status singuios menta^vero'utcun" que parva temC ntinuis torum 36. utcunque eadem contorqueatur. Quemadmodum in in . particulam vero temporis utcunque limites. quod ad rem facit. Quo minor est ibi eo minus est id & ilia evanescente. . " omnes. habebitur quantitas NO. quia a magnitudine FG. MN. & finita K KL H Idem in quantitate variabili expressa : aequivocatio voce gradus. quam habet momento temporis F. Utcunque exiguum sit incrementum ON. . appellari status quidam variabilis illius quantitatis. & e converse nullam fore ordinatam magnitudinis intermediae inter FG. ac data lege variationis. momenta facto : inter jacet inter ipsa tempusculum continuum per alia divisibile in infinitum . incretempusculis. KM continuum. quam eo indivisibilis limitis . ipsas. & gradus nomine deberet potius in-[i5]-telligi illud incrementum NO. Cuicunque momento temporis F. respondere u ddam q. quam quaedam Exprimat prior ex iis tempus. erunt partes continui temporis respondentes ipsis lines continue itidem & partibus. hoc etiam evanescit.PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA Verum Geometriae usus ad earn exponendam : menta. usque ad lineam omnes intermedias. temporis particula congruant momenta K. inveniri potest tempusculum continuum. Si jam a quovis puncto rectae AB. 35. quae inter ejusmodi status est. vel intermedia alteri praecedenti momento. saltus utcunque exiguus momento factus. continua ut singulis momentis singuli status respondeant . H. vel intercipiunt lineolam continua bisectione per alia intermedia puncta perpetuo divisibilem in infinitum. Sed omissis aequivocationibus ipsis. M. ducta LO ipsi parallela. in accessum . ordinatae transeuntis per & FIG. & momento cuivis respondet determinata magnitudo. aliae magnitudines. quae respondet momento temporis H. . . in continuitatis ilia variabilis per hanc variabilem ordinatam expressa mutatur juxta legem. ubi incrementum KM.. intermedio non respondeat. mutat i nem ner i alicubi per incrementa. si ac a puncto G . respondentes intermediis momentis K. ut F. facile patet & accurate demonstrari potest. ilia magnitudo KL nomine gradus intelligi solet. uti solet id ita intelligendum est . . 37. Potest quaevis magnitudo KL. vel decrementa momenta tempera punctis. illud.Atque sic quidem intelligitur. quo ea Transitus sine saltu. MN. ac nullus itidem est quantitatis continuo variabilis status ita momentaneo continuo statui. quo pacto fieri possit transitus per intermedias intermedios status. ipsi semper respondet tempusculum Nullum est in linea punctum ita proximum puncto K. cui aliqua ordinata non respondeat . FG. Sit recta quaedam AB in 33. nullum fore punctum intermedium. erigatur ordinata perpendicularis FG. in alicubi per . ut sit primum post ipsum. transit per omnes intermedias magnitudines KL. . Id sane admodum facile concipitur ope Geometriae. quas in schemate exhibito est incrementum magnitudinis ejus quantitatis continuo variatae. accessione. Eodem pacto nullum est in tempore momentum ita proximum sed vel idem momentum sunt. Notari mud temporis potest tantummodo. per gradus intermedios. 34. ut ubi K'L' abeat in N'M' per O'N' quin immo si linea CDE. respondebunt abeat pars linese CDE. sive natura lineae ipsam exprimentis. HI momentis autem intermediis aliis K. MN NO . a mosunt indivisibiles earum mentis. KL. quod tamen eS t Vere 1 m" s ed u " 'ida 1 m ' reaiis status. tempus Geometria in lineis puncta sunt indivisibiles limites continuarum lineas partium. NO. debetur intermedio tempusculo . etiamapositivis ad negativa permhiium. tempusculum appellabo. 3. quod est particula continui temporis. non nisi continuis lineis expressa.. variabilem. fig. ubi illud dicitur. 3. ad I continua. H. ut inter puncta L. est accessio incremenfacta non momento temporis. sed tempusculo continuo. quod quidem aequivocationibus omnibus occasionem exhibuit. quae partium nee inpospunctis respondent terum alio sensu agens de tempore momenti nomen adhibebo. quse legem . M. respondebit sua ejus quantitatis magnitudo Fluxus m agnit u d i CD . quanquam aliquando etiam ille status. per decrementa. quae alicui puncto inter F. & proximus praecedenti quacunque utcunque exigua accessio advenerit. ut ubi KL abit. non vero partes linese ipsius utique in ipsis horologiis circularis peripheria ab indicis cuspide denotata definire. . per magnitudines quin ullus habeatur ' r -. ad referatur linea alia CDE. HI. quod ab una magnitudine ad aliam per omnes intermedios gradus transeatur . & FKMH K' M' D' habitam etiam pro infinitesima. ea poterit repraesentare quantitatem quampiam continuo nes HI. ita tempore distinguenda. .

. in other places by ' 37. just as in geometry. conf the time in the case of circular clocks by marking off the periphery with the end of a pointer. which is a part of continuous time. i tain real state. also vanishes. K. correspond its own magnitude of the quantity FG. "n s ta t s ^eTes^ Let the first of them represent the time. that it is the next after it lies between them a continuous interval that can be divided indefinitely at other intermediate instants. & any increment. we shall obtain the quantity that in the figure as drawn is the increment of the magnitude of the continuously varying quantity. it passes represented equithrough all intermediate magnitudes KL. when dealing with time. or the nature of the line that represents it. I shall term a tempuscule. that it is the next after it but either the points coincide. & points L & draw LO parallel to AB. But if we take a definite small interval of continuous time KM. points are the indivisible boundaries of the continuous parts of a line. which are the indivisible boundaries of those parts of time. M N . not an instant 01 time. M . it is possible to find a small interval of continuous time in which the increment took place. through intermediate states. so that between the the arc does not alter from recession from the line AB to approach. negative zero zero howT' 11 i It can merely be remarked that change in some places takes place by increments (as when ever s not real y becomes decrements (as when K'L' nothing. than that of the indivisible boundary . no matter how the curve twists & turns. & to every instant there corresponds a definite magnitude. In future I shall not use the term instant in any other sense. or the magnitude accustomed to be called by the name step. themselves also continuous. distinction must be made between parts of continuous time. to which some ordinate does not correspond &. there will mediate values. Now. To any instant of time F. ON i if M . . which it has at able 35. DC. no matter how small. Explanation by the se f be any straight line (Fig. no matter how small. which correspond to these parts of a line. increments is accomplished. other magnitudes KL. without any sudden change being made. & instants of time. CD MN . & it can be rigorously proved. idea can be very easily assimilated by the help of geometry. there is no intermediate point K. & by the name step we ought rather to understand the increment is although sometimes also the state. there always corresponds to it some continuous interval KM. The Let AB 1^ there are erected at right angles The flux f the or ~ S to it ordinates FG. However small the increment may > intervals of coni i Tru mi 1 here is no tinuous time. there is no ordinate of intermediate between & to which there does not correspond a point HI. there is no instant of time that is so near to another instant that has but either they are the same instant. In the same way. that. 3). in an instant of time. being given the law of variation. or through intermediate from^positive to through through stages. point in the straight line AB so very close to the point K. HI. which correspond to the intermediate oUhe term Itep^ instants K. FG variable quantity that is represented by this variable ordinate is altered in The same 1 accordance with the Law of Continuity . it is very evident. Now the smaller the interval of time KM. no matter how small. there is no state of a continuously varying quantity so very near to a preceding state that it is the next state to it.' 1-11 11 respond to instants. which corresponds to the instant H. conversely. some momentary addition having been made any difference that exists between two states of the same kind is due to a continuous interval of time that has passed in the meanwhile.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 53 : increments of any magnitude whatever. in time. & correspond to points.H on the straight line AB . : states cor- m < i . or H. but this indeed affords opportunity for equivocations of all sorts. KL . magnitude intermediate between F & H. so. or they intercept between them a short length of line that is divisible & again & again indefinitely by repeated bisection at other points that are in between K. to meet the line of these ordinates can be taken to . the smaller is this increment & as that vanishes when the . or small interval of time. w the instant of time F.through^ ail *inter sent a quantity that is continuously varying. can be called a state of the variable quantity. the increment Any magnitude KL. but acerby the addition of NO). LN NO M NO NO MN NO . But the idea should be interpreted as follows single states correspond to single instants of time. coincide. instants of time K. 34. any repre. there proceeds a continuous & finite part of the line CDE. . Similarly. if from the point G. the point is this . KL that addition of single 36. when it is said that from one magnitude to another there is a passage through all intermediate stages or steps .but increments however sma11 to tinuous time. For instance. no matter how small. & a small part of time. but increments or decrements only to small intervals of continuous time. for. to which as axis let any other line CDE be referred. Hence. MN. "^s*** Now. M. But. or HI & to other intermediate instants will correspond. to the magnitude HI. If now from any points F. or there gone before it. all 1111 111- /i : KL MN . but in a small interval of con. 33. In this manner we can understand how it is possible for a passage to take place Passages without 1 8 intermediate magnitudes. omitting all equivocation of this kind. even though it is considered to be infinitesimal. from the magnitude FG. 1( The holds quantity . in the same manner as it is customary to specify ted by points.

. & vindicata continuitatis lege. earn. numero a Geometria. quam in velocitatibus. ut in particulis aeris In iis. Solis semper cum aliqua exigua obliquitate projiciuntur. ut videre est in pendulis. quae. sed realis quidem status. prout diversis occasionibus . omnes retrogradationes fiunt paullatim. negativa appellentur. transitus fit a positi-[i6]-vis ad negativa.._ J . hoc pacto. : continuis cursum peragunt suum. quae habebat.g . primo inquirerem. is casus locum non habet. " habetur autem Quin agimus non mutanda per saltum in corporum collisionibus. . & inductionis vim consulamus. absumptis. & omnibus ejusmodi viribus. uti in laminis. in qua negativa etiam. _ . ac in stationibus tamen habetur semper. quae nullum uspiam habet saltum. in orbibus ad hyperbolas potius accedentibus.hie esset ~ P -n i j mductionem Post dissertatioms De lege Continuitatis numerum 138. quiescente penitus Tellure. . quod motus omnes in lineis continuis fiunt nusquam abruptis. . cum infinities infinitam improbabilitatem habeat motus accurate verticalis inter infinities infinitas inclinationes. atque hinc etiam dies paullatim diameter non per saltum. mutatur per omnes & distantise saltum distantiarum. omnes semper. . qui iis omnibus. ab uno loco ad alium devenitur. neque densitatem. in quo nunquam Longum : . ac eandem probationem adhibet Benvenutus in sua Synopsi Num.. . ea considerata. id ipsum sit non nihilum revera in se ipso. transitus quos ego persecutus sum partim in dissertatione adjecta meis Sectionibus Conicis. Proponitur probanda existentia _. Ejus probatio ab satis erit exscribere in ordinem redacta inde excerpere . cum earn pendentes. vim magneticam a distantiis pendere lege continua vim elasticam ab inflexione. ut ordinata M'N'. censui. partim Algebra 14. & deinde mutari in negativam PQ. qui quidem motus accurate verticalis. contradicentibus nonnullis. ac vice versa quanquam. unde consequitur illud. in & simul in dissertatione De Lege Continuitatis . quae utique a distantiis fit gradus in eo numero ad pendet particularum in aliam. ubi nulla quantitas in innnitum excrescit. . cum decrescat in ratione reciproca servent vires illse ipsae. contrariam. utrumque veri status. Videmus pariter. habentem videlicet directionem RS. Algebraicis formulis. conscripta sunt. Planetae.54 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA variationis exhibit. distantiam a dato loco nunquam mutari in aliam. & semper exiguus quidem motus.. & haberetur [17] ascensus rectilineus. ope cujus inductionis earn demonstrare conatus sum in pluribus e memoratis dissertationibus. .-. vel a distantia.. . & . Immo omnes alii motus a gravitate itidem servant . Et in Geometria quidem habetur a positivo ad negativa uti etiam in transitus. puncto M' allapso ad evanesceret. sed per vespertinum crepusculum abit. quo magis ex oppositae parte crescit. & cometse in lineis . petitam praecedente ampia. nisi ductu continue aliquo. quos gignunt. atque a motu locali. eo minor censetur in ratione priore. omnes ab elasticitate. Naturae analogiam. duplicata per intermedias magnitudines. seclusa ^aeris & quidem resistentia. . uti inferius innuam. quam posse . in ascensu corporum gravium. quam per innnitum. mutari non possint. temporis AB. 119. earn Philosophi arbitrantur. cum in habemus si non eandem omitti omnino unicam. Gravia itidem oblique projecta in lineis itidem pariter continuis motus exercent suos. earn in Natura existere r Exposita plerique r P . quo. tarn transeundo per nihilum.-. & ductus. aes alienum contrahit perpetuo majus. singula Jy r mductione satis . quas magis hie ad rem faciunt. in se positivi. D pergit perpetuo se habere pejus. continuitatem Nam gravitas. vel divitiarum. potest ibidem evanescere magnitude. plurimum distant. quibus gignuntur. vel descensus. & motibus. & non. transeundo per nihilum. Sic immo in motibus ipsis continuitas servatur etiam in eo. continuitas habetur compressi. . sed in nisi Physica. a vi magnetica. & sub sensum non cadentes. ut ut ad habeatur pro nihilo in consideration quadam tantummodo. tarn in lineis quae describuntur. . . quae pariter per intermedias magnitudines mutantur. fortuito parabolicis obvenienfe. quemadmodum in ratione possessionis.s. repetuntur non nulla. sed per auroram venit. Ego. legis Continuitat. & curvam continuam a in hypothesi Telluris^motae casu exhibent etiam pro projectionis nulla ventorum vi deflectente motum. vel descendit.. qui sunt priorem seriem pertinentes negative quodam modo. continuo motu supra horizontem ascendit. Plurimos ejusmodi motus videmus.. vel. alicubi secet rectam. in quibus etiam locis. licet exiguas. nimirum in parabolis. uti supra mnui. nisi transeundo per intermedias ubi de velocitate nimirum motuum velocitates. .

Thus explained & defended. . there is no passage from positive to negative. where no quantity ever increases to an infinite extent.propose prove 6 to exist in there are as I mentioned some who above. It would take too long to extract . since there is an infinitely infinite probability against accurate vertical motion. or vice versa. namely. also preserve continuity For gravity. In the same sense. the second case has no place . this nothing is not really nothing in itself. the more it increases in the opposite sense. Again heavy bodies projected obliquely follow their courses in lines also that are just as continuous . the passage being made not only through nothing. These are the words continuity is preserved also in the fact that all motions take place in continuous lines that are not broken anywhere. both as regards the sort. as they were written on several different occasions. as they belong to the first set in a certain negative way. In these too. in the ascent of heavy through all intermediate magnitudes 39. since it diminishes in the inverse ratio of the squares of the dispreserve it. & in the same manner descends. is itself changed through every intermediate stage. happening fortuitously. unless the passage is made through the value nothing. nor the density. to say one having an opposite direction the less it is to be considered in the former sense (just as in the idea of property or riches. which are true states. LaVof^Continuity deny it. hence. we always get continuity. a man goes on continuously getting worse off. & by the help of this induction I endeavoured & arrange in order here each of the passages in be sufficient if I give Art. the step is made in that article to the velocities of motions. if we neglect the resistance of the air. in which there is no sudden change anywhere. & the distances cannot be changed suddenly. considered that it was absolutely impossible that it should be left out of account. except by passing through intermediate stages). but a certain real state & it may be considered as nothing only in a certain sense. & all retrogradations are & in stationary positions the motion is always slight indeed. from which the motions arise. the Law of Continuity is considered by most philoso. Although. We see a great number of motions of this kind. the other in my Algebra ( 14). Proof by induction s these essays it will ~^^ for the : . or RS. which depends altogether on the distances between the particles. cuts the straight AB. they are always projected with some slight obliquity. as the diameter of the sun ascends above the horizon. After induction derived in the preceding article from geometry. & deductions. if the hypothesis that the Earth is in motion is adopted. & also in algebraical formulae. & from local motion. 55 becomes N'M' by the subtraction of O'N') moreover. in any point. namely. if the line CDE. if the Earth were at rest. but yet there is gradual hence also daylight comes gradually through the dawn. where we are dealing with the idea that the velocity is not changed suddenly in the " Moreover in motions themselves collision of solid bodies. tances. although. not suddenly. or magnetic for the forces themselves. too. They give a continuous curve also for the case of accurate vertical projection. . . we have this passage from positive to negative. which have more to do with the matter now in hand. each in its own continuous line. . The planets & the comets pursue their courses. after everything he had has been In Geometry too taken away from him. but if that is taken into account. power of induction . they are called negative. phers when first I investigated the matter. Nature. & both . though I. . & be changed into a negative magnitude PQ. then the magnitude can vanish at that point (just as the ordinate M'N' would vanish when the point M' coincided with D). which represents the law of variation. as I point out below. but also through infinity . in which passage from one position to another never takes place unless by some continuous progress (the consequence of which is that a distance from any given position can never be changed into another distance. Now. bolae. such I have discussed. & Benvenutus also used the same form of proof in his Synopsis (Art. I to with Nature & to the to prove the law in several of the dissertations that I have mentioned. in parabolae. & goes through the always some evening twilight. if we have regard to the unparalleled analogy that there is 38. & no wind-force deflected the motion. all that depend upon elasticity. 138 of the dissertation De Lege Continuitatis. when. are positive in themselves. Similarly we see that magnetic force depends on the distances according to a continuous law that elastic force depends on the amount of bending as in plates. in which. All other motions that depend on gravity. he continues to get deeper & deeper into debt). or In these. but in Physics.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY . which is the axis of time. there are some repetitions. lines which they describe & also in the velocities which are changed in similar manner as is seen in pendulums. that is & this. of . into another density. the one in a dissertation added to my Conic Sections. negatives. them together in my essay De Lege Continuitatis . 119). & in the motions that arise from them. then in orbits that are more nearly hyperbolae. & all other forces of the according to distance as in particles of compressed air. force. but by a continuous motion. rectilinear ascent & descent would be obtained. from out of the infinitely infinite number of inclinations (although slight & not capable of being These motions are indeed very far from being paraobserved).

qui tanto laxiores sunt. quod qusedam impenetrabilitatem corporum admittimus perstare simul in marmora. in quibus continuitas in Natura observatur. an ea lex observetur. Inductio. sed semper mutatio reflectitur. in quibus tamen manente in ipsa cuspide unica tangente continuitatem videbimus infra. casibus. potius. figurabilitem. exiguo numero sint . quantum observando licet deprequibus ' hendere. & frondes. vel cuspis. in quo servari eontinuitas non servetur. : Ejus ope extensionem. si quse prima fronte contraria videantur. & parva sunt respectiva. adeoque siqua fuisset analogise Isesio. & eae an eo potissimum pacto concilientur. nee retro cursus imminuta velocitate per omnes gradus. indicio est. Si Sic quia conditiones habeantur . lumen in oleum videamus intra licet ut alia. . impenetrabilitatem omnibus tribuerunt semper Philosophi etiam veteres. generalem gravitatem plerique e recentioribus addunt. & nostrorum sensuum sunt exigua. quas videtur affectare in avium unguibus. 135). Hinc nee ulli in naturalibus motibus habentur anguli. habent arborum folia. poterat ilia multo facilius cadere intra limites nobis sensibiles. dissertaejusdem " Sic autem habent ibidem tionis De Lege Continuitatis. infra eos. ac rami. sed ad investigationis principia pertinet. . debet omnes singulares casus. quae pendeant a ratione totius. aliis corporibus resistere. : quam esse. ut deprehendi debeat. Primum evincitur ex eo. > <l ubique. vel affcctat. partem numeri 134. insinuari. vacuos ea trabilitate. phsenomenum crystalla. Habet locum laxior qusedam inductio. quae habemus prae manibus. debet omnino id efficere. re accuratius perspecta. Satius est generaliter provocare ad exhibendum casum in Natura. adeo nimirum propinquos nihilo. quas Natura videtur affectare in spinis. easdem ad quascunque utcunque exiguas particulas debemus transferre nisi positiva aliqua ratio obstet. ea debemus censere communia etiam infra eos limites nam ii limites respectu rerum. dicendo. per corporum poros corpora permeare. nimirum quae relationem non habent ad nostros sensus. microscopii saltern ope videri solet curvatura. ut demonstrationis vim habeat. Ea in Natu-[i8]-rae legibus stabiliendis locum habere non potest. quam etiam habent alvei fluviorum semper. quae si juxta . & nisi sint ejusmodi. videmus in iis. continuitatem vel observat accurate. nisi forte alicubi cuspides continuae occurrant. quod magna.56 PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA in aliis & mille ejusmodi. in quibus mutationes velocitatis fiunt gradatim. inductio ad legem stabiliendam censeri debet idonea. ac ea ne in ipsa quidem corporum collisione recedamus." Duplex inductionis vimhabeatittductio incompieta. ne in eorum locum adveniant. si resistendo sint imparia. Infinitum esset singula persequi. ea in in U3e habemus Natura. in reliquis vero. & rostro. nee vero anguli exacti habentur in corporibus ipsis. ut ab Sed de inductionis natura. quam eodem nee obest. eadem licet. contradistincta a ratione partis. nisi fit paullatim. quae. & loco cedere. quaecunque . Ea diligentissime continuitatem servat omnia. vel primi generis. nequaquam possit. qui ad trutinam ita revocari possunt. ac insensibilia dicuntur ea. Quare ubi agitur de quse respectu nostrae molis. Praeterea. sunt accidentales. ii non in iis omnibus inveniatur. debet esse ejusmodi. turn ex aliis pluribus 40. cum ilia lege possint omnia conciliari . qusecunque proprietates absolutae. corpora conciliari cum ipsa impene& Videmus enim hoc facile gemmas. quse intra absolutis communia non proprietatibus respectivis. & totum 135. in quibus utcunque videatur tennis acies. quicunque haberi possunt percurrere. limites continentur nobis sensibiles. (Num. Inductio amplissima turn ex hisce motibus. ut adhiberi possit. Quod nulla ceciderit. qui omnino exhiberi non poterit. mobilitatem. seu multitudinis. quibus eodem argumento corporibus & inertiam. nullam Id indicium non est evidens. deteguntur generaliter in massis sensibilibus corporum. ut inprimis in omnibus iis superest via. & vi. ut sunt in se. videmus corpora tarn multa. durissima. vel secundi generis. immediate innotescere. leges investigantur. habent directionis lapides quicunque. hie inserere in libet itidem usu Physica. exem P n s ac velocitatibus. Inprimis ubi generales Naturae inventionem vix alia ulla inductio vim habet & ad earum maximam.

properties.. unless some positive reason prevents this are of such a nature that they depend on argument having to do with a body as a whole.-.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY bodies. Now. should certainly be that of keeping us from neglecting it even in the case of collision of bodies.& . as far as can be gathered from direct observation. . induction should take account of every single case that can possibly happen. we shall see below that continuity is still preserved. philosophers add inertia & universal gravitation. in contradistinction to an argument dealing with a part only. For these limits. whether they can be made to agree in this way better than in any other whatever. induction has very great power . Hence it follows that no degrees." 40. we should consider these things to be still common to those beyond those limits. That is to say. in all of them the same result is arrived at & that these cases are not merely a few. with regard to such matters as are self-contained. before it can have the force of demonstration such induction as this has no But use is made of an induction of a less rigorous place in establishing the laws of Nature. however fine an edge gradually perfect angles or point in them may seem. in the leaves. The proof comes in the first place from the fact that great & small are relative terms. or with a group of particles. path is not retraced before the velocity has been diminished through all All these things most strictly preserve continuity. since we are left with a single tangent at the extreme end. which are more open. although the latter are very hard bodies such as oil into marble. Because then none did happen thus. can all of them be made to agree with the law although. mobility. & there is scarcely any other method beside it for the discovery of these laws. if those which at first sight appeared to be contradictory. & thus. met with in are natural but in case a motions. . even the ancient philosophers attributed & to these properties. by supposing phenomenon that the former bodies enter and pass through empty pores in the latter bodies (Art. Moreover. . to our senses. & stones of all kinds unless. sharp angles change of direction occurs every neither do occur in bodies themselves.. which she is seen to do in the claws & the beak of birds in these. rather than that both should occupy the same place at the same time. for it is absolutely impossible for any such case to be brought forward. either of the first kind. as well as from a large number of other examples. where the changes of velocity occur the gradually. . than beyond them. in the other cases. . one can usually detect curvature by the help of the microscope if nothing else. The effect of the very complete induction from such motions as these & velocities. 134 & the wjiole of Art. where indeed they are so nearly nothing. for instance those that bear no relation 135). . none. it must be of such a nature type that in all those cases particularly. boughs & branches of trees. induction of a two*old . By its assistance. it is If such conditions obtain. & its use in Physics. & not relative. no matter how small such as that they they may be. such as we have in Nature. We have this gradual change of direction also in the beds of rivers.. 135 from my dissertation De Lege The passage runs thus " Especially when we investigate the general laws Continuitatis. for. As regards the nature & validity of induction. in order that this kind of induction may be employed. . when we consider absolute. of Nature. this would be far more likely to happen between the limits sensible to us. we are bound to attribute these same properties also to all small parts whatsoever. . which generally proves successful if it is carried out in accordance with certain definite wisely . are generally found to exist in sensible masses of bodies. or of the second kind.. then it must be considered impossible to know directly anyhow. This sign is not evident. it is a sign that there is in a & & . Thus. For we see that this can very easily be reconciled with the idea of impenetrability. as we see that so many of the bodies around us try to prevent other bodies from occupying the position which they themselves occupy. if there should be any violation of the analogy. are accidental . therefore we admit the Nor is there anything against the idea in the fact that we see impenetrability of bodies. whatever absolute properties. I may here quote part of Art. kil \ d ' when incomplete induction has vaii- why : . or give way to them if they are not capable of resisting them. maintains continuity or tries to do so. in which continuity is not preserved . It would take far too long to mention every it is more than sufficient single thing in which Nature preserves the Law of Continuity to make a general statement challenging the production of a single case in Nature. on further & more accurate investigation. in some cases perchance. & light into crystals & gems. where Nature c e in every case. that the induction is adapted to establishing the law. In addition. 57 thousand other things of the same kind. however. but belongs to the principles of investigation. figurability. to all bodies extension. & those things are called insensible which are very small with respect to our own size & with regard to our senses. which can be examined in a manner that is bound to lead to a definite conclusion as to whether or no the law in question is followed. . & impenetrability the the the use of same method of most of later by reasoning. whatever we perceive to be common to those contained within the limits that are sensible to us. which Nature is seen to affect in thorns. Therefore. there may be continuous pointed ends. certain bodies penetrating into the innermost parts of others.

Ejus appiicatio ad impenetrab. quascunque utcunque exiguas quidem debere particulas corporum. quod ilia corpora. nee totum sine partibus haberi transferri ad partes. in quse se ejusmodi substantiae insinuant. physicum adjicio. respectu eo. accidentale respectu materiae. satis est. praesumptio. neque enim geometrica continuitas necessaria est ad hanc physicam propugnandam. non debemus inferre. replicari. si in aliis casibus habeatur conciliandi observationem cum ipsa proprietate. Sic etiam siqua proprietas ita pendet a ratione aggregati. quod habeatur in majoribus massis. adeoque. habebitur errorem sed contra ut committatur error. hujusmodi Requiritur 41.htatem. ubi per inductionem impenetrabilitas corporum accipitur pro generali in exemplis Habentur quidem & casus. ut habeat aliquid. lacdi uti est in collisio casus ac si sunt habeatur. se rem habere. vel ac magna compenetrari. Est de ratione figurabilis. corpora quidem tamen posse. quod ipsis majoribus massis competit. successum habere solet. je ge ]sj aturaEi Nam impenetrabilitatem ipsam magnorum corporum observamus potissimum pacto legem. in quibus earn sane innumeris tot corporum. non sit accidentale respectu ejus denominationis nostrorum sensuum. generaliter n< in determinare observations non immediate quibus possumus. & marmora penetrat. primo. in quibus primo aspectu timeri possit defectus proprietatis ipsius. eo ipso modo fieri aliquando conciliationem. alii ad physicam. nonnulli. quod ab alio distet. & inertia carere non posse. earn haberi in particulis minoribus. esse coloratas. sensibile. replicari. esse sensibile. Id ipsum fit. atque < & illam & probandam ut nullus iis sit ea adhibetur. ob rationem nimirum eandem. qua ipsum phsenomenum cum ea lege conciliari Nonnullos ejusmodi casus protuli in memoratis dissertationibus. quibus eadem prima fronte corporum . donee positiva ratione evincatur oppositum. non debent inductionis vi transferri ad particulas . vel sine inertia esse exiguas eorum partes. quia quibus per rem cui quantitates exemplo geometrico illustro. coloratum. a toto. ex [19] . quos 633 permeent. positive demonstretur. hinc eae proprietates. quorum alii ad geometricam continuitatem pertinent. petita ab eo. Hoc satis est reliquae inductionis vi. ac multo minus videre possumus illud. eo 42. aliter enim probabilitas esset exigua . In illis prioribus non immorabor . casibus." Et impenetrabili- ultatem tvtad""pCT "* ad inductionem ipsam quid requu-a: legem per ejusmodi inductionis ad evinci. atque insinuatur. & ubi At praesto est conciliatio phasnomeni cum impenetralux per vitra. non videmus. ut dicere debeamus. earn non deficere . si pro iis casibus haberi possit ratio aliqua id multo magis. ad duas classes reducitur majoris adhibui. his patet. earn violari. ut in & ejus conciliationis exemplum. vel totius. . potest. idcirco. nisi ratio positiva obstet. an eadem per quibus ea videatur casibus. & gemmas traducitur. ut est. sed earn ut exemplum quoddam ad confirmationem quandam inductionis altera est eorum Posterior. compenetrari quasdam prudentes fieri Cum fallere . Ex & impenetrabilitatem. ut saepe & ilia prior. inveniantur. etiam pro iis admittendam debet illam nos movere ad inductio. Sic contra hasce regulas peccaret. in plurimis casibus observetur.Eodem igitur pacto in lege ipsa continuitatis agendum est. ut habeat partes sive in quavis sensibili massa. poros habeant. in intermedias saltus nos saltum omittimus videtur committi casuum. quae pertractamus. & extensi. : . multo magis vitrorum. violari quis credent. [ 2O ] - violari videatur possit. . quam habemus. ineunda est ratio aliqua. ut est hoc ipsum. & continuitatis genus abunde probari. vel aggregate debet ab ea separari non possit Est de ratione totius. ut partes habeat. non insinuari eas substantias nisi per poros. bilitate.58 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA id indicium possit regulas fiat. quascunque. licet in quovis aggregate particularum materiae. Et quidem haec conciliatio exemplum habet manifestissimum Poros marmorum illorum. quae per poros ingentes aqua immissa imbuitur. in quo evinci possit. Non est necessarium illud. casus observatus. ut ipsum potest. At si proprietas sit respectiva. & positive ostendi possit. Hinc addendum fuit. & in spongia. & ne ibi quidem violari generalem utique impenetrabilitatis simiiisad continuitatem duo cas: Ilia tarn ampla 43. ut nee ea. etiam in jure appellant. uti revera potest. ut ubi oleum per ligna. . minoribus non competit cum ejusmodi magnitudinis discrimen. hanc ad gradus utcunque exiguos momento temporis adjectos ilia ad ut inductionem autem ad exten(jj quam proprietas. qui diceret.

induction. There is a very evident example of this reconpossess pores which they can permeate. Also it is required that no case should be observed. trability. in such a way that it cannot be considered apart from the whole. particles with respect to the term sensible or coloured. if a property is relative with respect to our senses. in physics. It is not necessary that. I brought forward several cases of this kind in the dissertations I have mentioned. offending against these rules to say that large bodies indeed could not suffer compenetration. quired for this pur- required that the property. & others to physical continuity. induction if we can say that the matter can be explained in this way better than in any other. reduces to two classes . . some of which I will not delay over pertained to geometrical continuity. made in an instant of time. must be observed in a very large number of cases for otherwise the probability would be very small. It satisfies the general force of that these substances do not penetrate except by pores. it be would Thus. the first of these for geometrical continuity is not necessary for the defence of the physical The latter. or be without inertia. no matter how small. as they call it in law." Now. which is saturated with water introduced into it by means of huge We do not see the pores of the marble. or be deficient in inertia. in wood and marble. if there are some cases in which the law at first sight seems to be violated. into which substances of this kind work their way. & . be transferred from the whole. Hence those properties. as is in every case possible. that it should be directly proved that there is no failure. such as when oil penetrates works its way through them. neither must it (that is to say. we must deal with the Law of Continuity. the latter to all additional steps. then. Now. & all the more so.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY chosen error rules. the Law Both impenetra41. In the same way. nor can there be a whole without parts. and then add one intermediate quantities with a jump. of in42. : . as it is to be coloured. for the proof of which it is to be used. may presumption against until direct evidence to the contrary can be brought forward. . So also if any property depends on an argument referring to an aggregate. On the other hand. gems. From what has been said it is quite evident that both impenetrability of Continuity can be proved by a kind of induction of this type . & it can be positively proved that sometimes reconciliation can be obtained in that way. as well I used it as an example in confirmation of a wider induction. as for instance in the collision of bodies. but not in the case of small of this since a distinction accidental with respect to matter. or when light passes through glasses & But we have ready a means of making these phenomena agree with impenetrability. strated by indueS however small. if in other cases an example of reconciliation can be obtained. 59 it may happen that an such an . It is on account of its being figurable & extended that it has some thing that is apart from some other thing. still less those of glass & far less can we see pores. to use this kind of & & & c^bf pose. must not however be transferred by the power of induction to each & every particle. Also. It is sufficient if in those cases some reason can be obtained which will make the observation agree with the property . from a result obtained for the larger masses we cannot infer that the same is to be obtained in its smaller particles for instance. then. It is on account of its being a whole that it has parts . to parts of it. as a which one would think that it was violated. but yet very small parts of them could suffer penetration. in which it can be proved that it is violated. in the first place. is not accidental kind. For we observe this impenetrability of tr'abiuty. The full Similar application 43. be made but there is : . or the aggregate . or in any sensible mass. the former must be dTm""^ extended to all particles of bodies. when the impenetrability of solid bodies is accepted Application lmpene " law of Nature through inductive reasoning. or a whole. in those cases in which at first sight it is feared that there may be a failure of the property. it is . although they are found in any aggregate of particles of matter. Hence we should add unless some positive argument is against it. & therefore that it has parts. & that in this case there is absolutely no contradiction of the general law of impeneindeed also cases. then. or the aggregate. through which each phenomenon can be reconciled with the law. or enfolding. variety as very frequently the former. & the first of these classes is that class in which a sudden change seems to have been made on account of our having omitted the I give a geometrical illustration. some method must be followed. error. by that same argument). or enfolding. that it is the same thing to be sensible. " induction that we possess should lead us to admit in general this law even in those cases in ^sisses "oT cases which it is impossible for us to determine directly by observation whether the same law which there seems * holds good. derived from the fact that those bodies.* There are large bodies in innumerable examples of the many bodies that we consider. This is just what does happen. which is true in the case of large masses. ciliation in a sponge. since the indication may possibly be fallacious.

ut nimirum dicamus fieri tempore 1I AppUcatio ipsorum 47. PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA 44. & alia ut ac idcirco tensionem. : temporis velocitas in globum inducitur. & fines continenter non fluunt. perpetuo accelerantes. continuitatem nequaquam violari. FIG. sumantur segmenta AC. qui continuitatem servant . Concipiatur parallelus integer Telluris. & sine ulla violatione . si diem concipiamus intervallum temporis ab occasu ad occasum. : admodum evidens momento temporis . in quibus semper immediate etiam demonstrari potest illud. sed a nobis per saltum accipiuntur. & dilatari aer. sive qua vis alia lege ab ea disjungatur. manu lapidem tenens. dies praecedens a sequent! quibusdam anni temporibus differt per plura secunda. differunt per quanti- EG FEGH BACD EK FEGH tates finitas : si enim capiantur CI. DCEF. At seriem quidem continuam ii dies nequaquam constituunt. qui haberentur. inter jacens inter fines partium omnium proportionalium. sequales in IK . qua videtur aliquid momento temporis peragi. ut inter trientem. qui minus differat. Successionem multo etiam melius videmus in globe. ut elasticitate sua globum acceleret. Hsec exempla . 4. videtur momento temporis emitti globus. 4. GH. assumeretur via oscillat in acre . & sequens postremus. Id sane ubique accidit. illud praestant. ubi initium secundae magnitudinis aliquo intervallo distal ab initio primas sive statim veniat post ejus finem. Illorum omnium dierum magnitudines continenter fluunt sine ullo saltu nos. EF. & inde ad immediate cujusdam seriei termini ita. & tamen secunda a prima. pars incrementi ipsius ut idcirco a prima ad secundam magnitudinem areae itum sit sine transitu per intermedias. cujus pre-[2i]-cedens dies in . qui objiciant pro violatione at perbrevi. foramine constitute aliquanto infra objicit aquae quandam momento velocitatem oriri temporis finitam. quod unquam habitum quaevis alia ejus dimidium. & arcus erit BD transferatur se- DIKF sit incrementum cundae supra primam. quo sunt continuo ductu disposita loca omnia. quod videtur immediate advenire totum absque eo. & fine.vel quadrantem posterioris. Secunda classis casuum est ea. id accidat DCEF sine ullo saltu. ubi videtur fieri saltus sine ullo intermedio die. in & tamen : velocitatem finitam nequaquam produci. quod aqua per pores spongiae ingressa respectu ut ea ad emuxum aquK impenetrabilitatis. in quibus Sic ubi pendulum initia. tium. ac fines continenter fluunt donee ad eundem redeatur locum. Tempore ad excursum opus est. peragitur tempore successive. . quod ad omnes ejus generis casus facile transferri potest. CD. ut incipiendo ab AC desinat in CE magnitude areae BACD per omnes intermedias bacd abit in magnitu. In axe curvae cujusdam in fig. saltum committimus non Natura. vel tempus in ea impensum. ubi tormentum bellicum exploditur. vel etiam ab ortu ad occasum. quae eandem latitudinem geographicam habent ea singula loca suam habent durationem diei. continua ilia serie primus. & secundae oscillationis arcu in aequalem partium numerum diviso. At in priore casu superficiem ipsius aquae. Exempla ne secundi UtS 46. vel . dinem Quando exempla dierum. & musculos. & omnium ejusmodi dierum initia. in quibus accessio e vase. : confecta. & videntur continue erigantur ordinatae AB. quod quidem fit omnino per omnes gradus. . continuitatis. quod debeat inflammari tota massa pulveris pyrii. iOTime sed non momento' tem. ad fibrarum velocitatem aliquam sensibilem demus lapidi. si primae. eo citius. intermediis omissis. retinemus. sed nunquam momento est. qui ab elastro sibi relicto propellatur quo elasticitas est major. CE. BACD.continuitatis casum. patet vel inde. sed Sunt. ut ab ilia transeatur. Sic etiam. ac intermedii termini continua serie fluente a prima oscillatione ad secundam essent ii. & ipsum aliquandiu. ejusmodi manum retrahimus. spirituum per nervos. DC. & physica oscilla- tionum consequen- 45. ac totam celeritatem acquirere at id successive fieri. est in sed & sequens oscillatio per finitam magnitudinem distat a praecedente initium & finis ejus finite intervallo temporis distat a prascedentis initio. responsione uti possimus in aliis casibus omnibus. vel quadrantem prioris arcus. si enim ac aequalis AC motu continue feratur ita. area BA. & trientem.6o Exemplum geometricum primi geneubi nos intermcdias magnitudines omittimus. utcunque brevissimo. At ibi omittuntur a nobis termini intermedii. aequalia. Atque huic similis responsio est ad omnes reliquos casus ejusmodi. Area. ut & tertia a secunda. ipsi statim det velocitatem quo quisquam alius finitam e vase effluentis. ris. videtur fieri tota momento aliqua magnitudinis temporis . Sic in pliysicis. acl DCEF.

kind where Ivl to one another . the greater the speed but in no case is the speed imparted to the ball in an instant of time. in the case of water flowing from a vessel. . Thus. where the preceding day is the first of that continuous series. the from the fact that the whole mass of gunpowder has to be inflamed and the gas only has to be expanded in order that it may accelerate the ball by its elasticity . in the which kind. & ends of this kind change uninterruptedly until we get back again to the of nings days same place. and other things of that sort . and this latter The continuous nature of this is far better seen in the certainly takes place by degrees. as an objection in favour of a breach of continuity. the preceding day differs from that which follows it at certain times of the year by several seconds in which case we see that there is a sudden change made. of 47.g s particularly in all other cases in which some addition to a magnitude seems to have taken place entirely in to the flow of water from a vesse1 that it takes place in an exceedingly an instant of time. time. so that we can make use of this reply *. & not Nature. & the begingeographical latitude. or indeed any other part of the increment so that. But both the beginthe & the end of the second differs from & the end of the first ning beginning by a finite interval of time & the intermediate terms in a continuously varying series from the first oscillation to the second would be those that would be obtained. when a pendulum oscillates in air. : when ha ppen = this will physical casTof Consecutive da OI consecutive y^ . 46. & the arc BD to if is . . .A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 61 Geometrical ex44. the ball seems to be driven forth and to acquire But that it is done continuously is clear. Let us consider a complete parallel of latitude on the Earth. then the area area beyond the first . we draw back the hand. equal 6 be erected. by a finite quantity. CE. f^an^nstant^of time. if an opening is made below the level of the surface of the water. if the arcs of the first & second oscillations were each divided into the same number of equal parts. & yet the second differs from the first. the oscillation that follows differs from the oscillation that has gone before by a finite magnitude. & the path traversed (or the time spent in traversing the path) is taken between the ends of all these proportional paths such as that between the third or fourth part of the first arc & the third or fourth part of the second arc. Application s e which we employed in the matter of impenetrability . . in order to give a definite sensible velocity to the stone. ' say . will be the increment of the second transferred to the position IK . but are observed by us discontinuously. case of a ball propelled by releasing a spring here the stronger the elasticity. 45. These examples are superior to that of water entering through the pores of a sponge. 4) let there be taken the segments AC. CI. & this is carried by a continuous motion in such a way that. gives to it a definite velocity all at once another raises an objection that favours a breach of continuity. . without doubt we may . although this is exceedingly short. made the sudden Similar to this is the answer to all the rest of the cases of the same change. DCEF. EK are taken equal to BA. . So too when an engine of war is exploded. for the passage of cerebral impulses through the nerves and muscles. we go from the first to the second magnitude of area without itself : DIKF But in this case we omit intermediate terms passing through intermediate magnitudes. . beginnings & the ends do not change uninterruptedly. CD. For there is need of that a finite velocity is in no wise produced in an instant of time. & let the ordinates AB. if the whole of its speed in an instant of time. but very short. This argument can be easily transferred so as to apply to all cases of this kind & in such cases it can always be directly proved that there is no breach of continuity. The areas BACD. The second class of cases is that in which something seems to have been done in an instant of time. and then retain the stone in it for some time as we continually increase its velocity forwards. & also the third from For the second. along which in a continuous sequence are situated all those places that have the same Each of these places has its own duration of the day. & hence without any breach of continuity. which maintain the continuity for if ac is equal to AC. omit intermediate seem to be terms of some continuous series such that we can pass directly from GH EG FEGH BACD DCEF and then on to FEGH. starting from the position AC it ends up at the position CE. But the fact is that these days do not constitute a continuous series. and therefore. where. if we look upon the day as the interval of time between sunset & sunset. by omitting the intermediates. interval of time. & this seems to be directly arrived at as a whole without that which at any one time is considered to be the half of it. In the axis of any curve (Fig. EF. DC. holding a stone in his hand. . in consequence. Similarly. . The magnitudes of all these days continuously alter without there being any sudden change it was we who. Examples of the ^iS? is the^chan'e very rapid. for the tension of the fibres. but . a But in the first case it is perfectly clear finite velocity is produced in an instant of time. the case in which a man. Thus in physics. without there being any intermediate day for which the change is less. There are some who bring forward. then the magnitude of the area BACD will pass through all intermediate values such as bacd until it reaches the magnitude of the area DCEF without any sudden change. but still it is really done in a continuous. or even between sunrise & sunset. & the day that follows is the last of the series. Indeed this always happens when the beginning of the second magnitude is distant a by definite interval from the beginning of the first whether it comes immediately after the end of the first or is disconnected from it by some other law.

linea dirimens binas superficiei continuae partes latitudine caret . ac illsesa penitus lege continuitatis. . communis esse debet limes. quo esset in primo puncto posterioris lineae. in qua immediatus ab una parte fit transitus ad aliam . Neque enim aqua. remotio vero operculi. dirimens & crassitudine caret. tinuitatis : tam uberem quidquam poterunt 48. Illaesa igitur esse debet continuitatis lex. esset peretur posterius eo momento. haberi debet series quasdam magnitudinum ejusmodi. superincumbentis aquae orta. ut nimirum inter tempus 49. Et ibi quidem. uti superiusexposui. & in aquae effluentis exemplo res eodem redit. ruptam. contra me affirmet. necesse . in qua est limes. contigua esse terminus utriusque & aliud momentum debeat intercedere semper sed inter momentum. contigua esse non possint. ilia enim non idcirco momento itidem temporis omnis ilia velocitas produceretur auferri. quod quidem ita se habere optimi quique Physici affirmant. quo deberet saltus fieri. vel iis similes. Eodem autem pacto idem debet accidere contmuum praecedens.. . & est unica. nisi foramen aperiatur. At ejusdem con- idem > in tempore 6 ti ua^'evide" quibusdam. . ut non unico momento. cum duo contigua indivisibilia. alterum initium sequentis. in quo ego hie ea accipio. casus allati hucusque. & prima seriei sequentis. sive manu fiat. inde autem patentissima est. ut indivisibilis . sunt : sed omnino debet per continuam aliquam & nullibi inter- inde rationem ejus rei admodum manifestam. quo esset in puncto postremo anterioris. in qua quod Aristoteles ipse olim notaverat. tius in praecedentem cum consequente conjungat. deberent haberi duae magnitudines. . sed successive aliquo tempore.. . postrema seriei praecedentis. . quorum lineae segmenta discriminans. nullum conficitur. sed a pressione : Transitus ad meta- continuis umcus. in eo sensu accepta. Id ipsum vero adhuc multo evidentius habetur in illis rerum statibus. principium utique. non a percussione aliqua. quodvis possint. quo [23] Nam illo haberi posse saltum immediatum ab una ad alteram. determinatam magnitudinem differat. supponatur jam definitum. & tertio casu inter ea momenta intercederet tempus aliquod continuum divisibile in infinitum per alia momenta intermedia. Quin immo in illo quantitatum per aliquam binae in magnitudines simul haberi non possunt. cum bina momenta temporis. ajunt. sed non omnino nullo potest. .. petitam ab ipsa continuitatis natura. & per [22] omnes intermedias magnitudines progignatur velocitas... & abrumpi series accessu aliquo momentaneo. qui praecedentia cum consequentibus conjungit.. quascunque utcunque contortas. qui momento omnem illam velocitatem progigni. in communi omnium sententia. uti supra innuimus. quae continuo tempore duret. quod quaerimus. qui Sic superficies duo solida idcirco etiam indivisibilis est in ea ratione. id ipsum multo evidentius genere. & proposui in dissertatione De Lege Continuitatis. sive percussione aliqua. aliam metaphysicam rationem adinveni. ut velocitatem progignat. nimirum an in collisione corporum communicatio motus fiat momento temporis. si etiam concipiamus momento temporis impedimentum tudines. sane notissimum. sed debet velocitatem suam acquirere per omnes gradus nisi illud ipsum. sed cujus ratio non ita facile ahunde redditur. . quae & ab momento temporis. Si alicubi linea motus abrumvel momentum temporis. etiam in tempore.62 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA brevissimo. operculo dimoto. nempe momento temporis ilia cuivis respondeat sua. ut Hinc temporis effluet . in quo habetur phsenomenum omnibus patebit in ipso * r . infinities infinitae & in immensum productas quaquaversum. dimensione omni alterum sit finis prioris segmenti. ipnisi per Hneam contin- o> \& quidem satis r locali motu. continuum aliquod tempus divisibile in infinitum. En . an per omnes intermedios gradus. punctum continuae nee duo sunt puncta contigua. utique per omnes intermedias magnitudines. Et eodem pacto in quavis quantitate. est. petat. & inextensa haberi non possint sine compenetratione. ut in Geometria. \ . quod sit nee duo momenta. Corpus a quovis loco ad alium quemvis devenire utique potest motu continuo per lineas r > . vel anterius ? In primo. in quibus ex una parte quovis momento haberi debet aliquis status ita. non potest fieri momento temporis. & ex alia duos simul ejusmodi status habere non potest. oriri utique non continuas accessiones nisi tempusculo admodum parvo. & coalescentia quadam in unum. inde cur motus calls non fiat. & magniVerum eo omisso. ut nunquam sine aliquo ejus generis statu res esse possit . vel esset idem. per nam pressio tempore indiget. Quamobrem in . . nee ad earn evertendam contra inductionem. & continuo subsequens unicum habeatur momentum. quae numero abire.

however. . as they call it. instant. the whether done by hand or by a blow. contiguous to one another . at which it was at the first point of the second part of the line. but between one instant & another there must always intervene some interval of continuous time divisible indefinitely. . Nay even in that class of quantities. . according to the general opinion lid. in favour of this continuity. Hence also in the case of water flowing from a vessel it reduces to the same example so that the velocity is generated. cannot possibly be considered to exist. Moreover I discovered another argument. . in which we cannot have two magnitudes at the same time. whether in collision of bodies communication of motion takes place in an instant of time or through all intermediate degrees and magnitudes. but from a pressure arising from the superincumbent water. 1 . Now this very point is still more clearly seen in those states of things. . & the other the beginning of the next . that is to say. namely. in any quantity which lasts for a continuous interval of time. phenomenon quite If the in the motion line should be broken at any point. in regard to which Hence the reason 10 " the phenomenon is perfectly well known to all the reason for it. there must be obtained a series of magnitudes of such a kind that to each instant of time there is its corresponding magnitude & this magnitude connects the one that precedes with the one that follows it. one of which is the end of the first segment. 49. m others - 50. of no extent. considered in the sense in which I have intermediate instants . not from some blow. . get from any one position to any other position in any case by a continuous motion along any line whatever. would be after the instant. which mor^eviis the indivisible boundary of either. that between similarly for time y a preceding continuous time the next following there should be a single instant. two magnitudes would necessarily be obtained. and passes through all intermediate magnitudes . In the same way. and certainly passes through every intermediate magnitude. unless the hole is opened. there would intervene between the two instants some definite interval of continuous time divisible indefinitely at other for two instants of time. & differs from the former by some definite magnitude. when the sudden change should take place. not in a single instant. In the first & third cases. which is however not absolutely nothing for pressure requires time to produce velocity. except by continuous additions in a very short interval of time. or produced ever so far in any direction these lines being infinitely infinite in number. but in some continuous interval of time. none the more on that account would the whole of the velocity also be produced in an instant of time for it is impossible that such velocity can arise.:! derived from any other source. as Aristotle himself long ago remarked. a in the case of con"11 ^' &S "* metaphysical one. should anyone assert in opposition to me that the whole of the speed is produced in an instant of time. is not so easily ^Jj^ Recurs. this should also happen with regard to time. in which on the one hand there must be at any instant some state so that at no time can the thing be without some state of the kind. unless there is compenetration & a coalescence into one. but must acquire its own velocity by degrees unless we suppose that the matter under investigation is already decided. any point. There cannot be two instants. In the same way. the last of the first series & the first of the next. and that the Law of Continuity is not violated. instant of time. cannot be effected in an instant of time. A body can continuous line. at which it was at the last point of the first part of the line. Also in this matter. But it is bound to travel by some continuous with no break in it at Here then is the reason of this line. and indeed all the most noted physicists assert that this is what really happens. for two contiguous indivisibles. as we intimated above. . . The above will be sufficiently clear in the case of local motion. But even if that is left out of account. nor are there two contiguous points. that there cannot be any sudden change from one to another. whilst on the other hand it can never have two states of the kind simultaneously. either the clearly explained.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 63 short interval of time. this very point can be deduced far more For at that clearly. nor will the cases Passing to a metahitherto brought forward. having derived it from the very nature of continuity . whilst it follows most clearly from this idea. 48. namely. & if also we assume that the barrier is removed in an instant of time. way. no matter how contorted. nor others like them. dent in some than & ^ . & the lid removed & the removal of : . or before it. a surface of separation of two solids is also without thickness & is single. a point determining segments of a continuous line has no dimension at all . or it would be the same instant. & published it in my dissertation De Lege g'^n^iy Continuitatis. namely. then he must use a petitio principii. For the water can-not flow out. there must be a common boundary which joins the things that precede to those that follow & this must therefore be indivisible for the very reason that it is a In the same boundary. have any power at all to controvert this haveT'smrie'iinUt law in opposition to induction so copious. & the series be broken by some momentary definite addition. The Law of Continuity ought then to be subject to no breach. & in it there is immediate passage from one side to the other the line of separation of two parts of a continuous surface lacks any breadth . of everybody.

Objectio ab esse. Quamobrem primo. quae sibi in sine ullo immediato hiatu. nee cum hoc esse suum non esse conjunget simul at si densitas certa per horam duret. quo adeoque supra saltus itidem ille haberi dicitur. accideret binis momentis G. uti vulgo fieri concipitur. quod sit ejus limes. & superficies sine linea esse non potest unde ita in ut in casu figurae 6 binae ordinatae necessario respondere debeant eidem puncto haberi necessario debent & finita reali serie statuum . nee haberi possint Quamobrem puncto Saltus ipse. . quod nullas proprietates habet. D G H FIG. sed per ipsum esse immediate. quia dux simul haberentur distantiae. diversi status rei cujuspiam. caloris itidem. ordinata omnibus punctis rectae in secundo binae responderent GD. in quibus nimirum omnibus id corpus esset in binis locis. quia binae simul altitudines mercurii in instrumento haberi deberent eodem momento temporis. si status simul bini necessario consequitur. . binas GD. . nee simul in locis pluribus . ordinata est relatio quaedam distantly. . Seriei finita. omnino non possunt. & non esse conjungend s in creatione & annihiiatione. habentur binae ordinatae respondentes eidem perpendiculari axis. Cum igitur . utique non potest ac unicus determinatus caloris gradus. adeoque ubi jacent in recta eadem punctum axi bina curvarum puncta. ac per ordinatas ad lineas CD. uti de loco momento. o J r ibus exemphs / T pluribus haberi i existens nee nullibi esse possit. si nee o-[24]-mni statu carere res possit. existentes termini esse debent non vero . . 7. ut in In pnmo casu nulla responderet congrueret. 6. terminus. puncto H. & frigoris mutatio in quod utique sine replicatione haberi non potest thermometris. absurdum. erit utique. & directe excluditur. H L G FIG. ut hie linea finita sine : & & fit. reales itidem. & postremo. quod ipsum pforsus Videtur nimirum inde erui. vel punctumi H jiaceret r post G. ut in 6 7. antecedentibus. & postremo momento temporis ejus continui. deberet accidere. quam habet respondente. Atque idem in quavis reali serie accidit . est. . & dupla. sed omnium etiam intermediorum. i . debebit utrumque conjungi. HE GK LN D E." in ipso transitu a non esse ad esse. abruptas alicubi. tione e metaphysica. 52. & Hinc sit si realium statuum seriei altera series communi termino conjuncta earundem. Contra hoc argumentum videtur primo aspectu adesse aliquid. B A L . realium itidem statuum succedat. realis. vel frigoris quae quidem theoria innumeris casibus puncto primo. & H. ut aliis utamur exemplis. binae debebunt esse densitates nimirum & simplex. quo res est. & corpus saltus ille : exempl G vel ipsum prsccederet. Exponantur per rectam ex GeoAB ratiocinatempora. adeoque replicaretur in terio haberetur replicatio non tantum respectu eorum binorum momentorum. M o J impossibilem esse & creationem rei cujuspiam. & tamen ipsi illustrando idoneum est maxime. turn momento temporis in aliam mutetur duplam. qui nimirum At quoniam non esse est merum nihilum ejusmodi series bini . non fit per saltum. . duraturam itidem per alteram sequentem . quod utique fieri non potest ex fig. evertat. in secundo casu idem esset eodem illo memento in binis locis. : . GH HE . quod fieri cum quovis momento determinate unica altitude haberi debeat. [25] quod horas dirimit. quod est pariter aptari potest. 01 enim conjungendus est postremus terminus praecedentis seriei cum primo sequentis . haberi simul status duplex qui cum haberi non possit omnino non potest. uti diximus. . & eidem puncto in tertio vero binae HI. vel vice versa. & non erit. Sic. quae sunt reales binarum realium serierum termini. distantia unius corporis ab alio mutari per saltum non potest. communis. sint bini limites limitem nullum extremum requirit. vel duae densitates. horam momento temporis. Responsio in promptu . saltum ilium committi non posse. puncto G. nihili. & binae LM. Idem ope Geometric magis adhuc oculis ipsis subjicitur. ac idem simul erit. simul. . ponderis atmosphaerae mutatio in barometris. ut in Fie. ilia vias mutatio. Scintentum. quas exigat. Ductis ordinatis c DG. consequentibus ipsa limitis ratione.PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA primo casu in omnibus iis infinitis intermediis momentis nullibi esset id corpus. vel cum ipso EH. 6 immediate succederent puncto cuivis intermedio nam curvae cum puncto axis sibi . ac ejus soiutio. qui in continuis debet esse idem. Illustratio ejus 51. quae non eodem momento debebuntur status. 5. & existentis. nee densitas. . GH FIG. postremus quavis primus saltus debet eo confici diximus si saltus fit. & . EF.

a twofold state at one & the same time. . HI. a series of this kind requires no last limiting limits. to any intermediate point L. then it necessarily follows that the sudden change cannot be made. neither can there be a surface without a line. when two points of the curve lie in the same straight line perpendicular with it to the axis. sudden change. . Now the ordinate is some relation as regards distance. which will last for another hour . in any finite real series of there must of be a first term & a last & so if a sudden states. In the third case. illustration of this SSyT^STS reasoning being H . 6 two ordinates must necessarily correspond to the same point. which is not connected with it by a common term. Since then a body that exists can never be nowhere. . Now since this can never happen. Let times be represented by the straight line AB. then in that instant of time which separates the two hours. . as in Fig. either the point will fall after the point G. and two. & then at one & the same time the same thing will both exist & not The answer to this is immediate. during which the matter exists. nor in several places at one & the same time. as I explained above. & but one definite degree of heat. which is absurd. both the antecedents & the consequents in a continuous set. & these are real terms of two real series. the change in the weight of the air in barometers. which a point on the curve bears to the point on the axis that corresponds & thus. not such as end up in absolute nothing. of existence to one of non-existence. necessity change is made.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 65 considered them. On the other hand if a given density persists for an hour. each to be a boundary to it. . Against this argument it would seem at first sight that there is something ready to hand which overthrows it altogether whilst as a matter of fact it is peculiarly fitted to together of existence * non-existence a. or cold. the simple & the double. it will be necessary that the two are connected together . as we said above with regard to position. would correspond to the same point H. at all those infinite intermediate instants the body would be nowhere at all in the second case. Again. For this sudden change. it T i < -i i . then in the passage from a state its solution. cannot be a finite line without a first & last point. cannot be contiguous. G . it would be at the same instant in two different places & so there would be replication. are impossible. no ordinate will correspond to any one of the points of the straight line second case. namely those which are their two But since non-existence is mere nothing. at which the sudden change is said to be accomplished. GK. and HE would correspond to the same point in the third case. EH are drawn. to make use of other illustrations. the last term of a series that precedes is to Or annihilation be connected with the first term of the series that follows. from the very nature of a limit. Wherefore. thing. a thing which is quite impossible without replication. Thus. would take place & H. Wherefore in the first case. its > & destruction. & then is changed in an instant of time into another twice as great. If the ordmates DG. nor is it possible that there should be two states at the same time. but is immediately & directly cut off by fact of existence. It seems that from this argument it follows that both the creation of any the time of creation . which has no properties. . at the first & at the last instant of that continuous interval of time. 52. For at any given instant there must be but one height. to the same point G. . term. which immediately succeed the one the other without any direct at the two instants them this is between quite impossible. Hence it comes about that in the case of Fig. GD GH G . GD. 51. we have two ordinates corresponding to the same point of the axis. 7. there would not only occur replication in respect of these two instants but for all those intermediate to them as well. there would have to be two densities at one & the same time. Wherefore. HE. it will certainly exist . 5 or it will coincide with it. which should gap be the same for. Similarly. as in Fig. does for then there would necessarily be at one & the same time two not happen suddenly different heights for the mercury in the instrument & this could not possibly be the case. . i -11 rf >r r or. there can certainly be no alteration of path & no . & its non-existence will not be connected with its existence simultaneously. no more can its density or two densities. LM. LN. & but one definite degree of cold & this argument can be applied just as well to innumerable other cases. the distance of one body from another can never be altered for there would be at one & the same time two distances.t exemplify it. then indeed there must be two states at the same instant. there must be at the instant. The same thing can be visualized better with the aid of Geometry. Hence.& common to. 6 or it will fall before it. & diverse states of any thing by ordinates drawn to meet the lines CD. as in Fig. . or vice versa. if it is bound to happen. & . In the first in the case. EF. which are discontinuous at some point. that is real & existent must themselves be real & existent. suddenly. in all of which the body would forsooth be in two places at the same time. two. if the thing in question can neither be without some state at each instant. The same thing happens in any series of real things as in this case there as has been said. it follows that this sudden change is also quite impossible. the change of heat. For the ends of a finite series exist. if to one series of real states there succeeds another series of real states also. in thermometers. two ordinates.

consider- Illustratio ulterior geometrica. & annihilationem. petita geometrico ex exem- D Solutio ex meta- physica atione.66 Unde hue transferenda solutio ipsa. . Applicatio ad creationem. PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA Solutio plo.

m or M'. I i 67 A explained this very point clearly enough. . expressed by the ordinates to the curved line PLg & let this curve correspond to the whole time AE in such a way that to every instant C of the time there corresponds an ordinate CL. Then. there must of necessity be an end to either series. in creation & annihilation. . imaginary. Any real series must have a real beginning & end.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY n D. '' then. That which does not exist can have no true & on that account does not require a last term of its kind. 8 but I will here of the & of the the as so that articles. matter metaphysically. if that point is taken away. hence that point would be before & contiguous to the point g & this is absurd. Eg. Continuity have been adduced. 'IT made ^ dissertation The s " 166 from which the solution . on the other hand. if at the instant E there is bound to be a sudden change from the ordinate Eg to the ordinate EG. & the quantity.exampief" Now suppose that an unlimited straight gents EGF. 8. 157. so that the end of the series that precedes occurs at some instant. it will meet the circle in two points. " In Sotoion 54. The property in which there is no ordinate. beginning with Art. by means of ordinates drawn perpendicular to that straight line also let the two tan. m' value of the ordinate there will be obtained & Hm. or H'M' & H'm'. & not a non-existence.e. preceding the instant E. in which the ordinate does exist." " The reason why this should happen is immediately evident. in which it does not the lifetime. of the ordinate. nor does it bring in anything absurd in its train.. if i I & 1 illustrated by geometrical figures also I u to be borrowed. & passing from one magnitude to another. & for the E'G'F'.. the term at In the first case the term which is naught is not reckoned in either end of a series which has real existence is given. C. a T j v it mistake not. . preceding series has likewise no first term whilst the real series contained within the interval EE' must have both a first term & a last term. . Thus. tion& annihilation. finite in magnitude not associate with will of kind & this state existence will be a state of existence of some will is . At the instant E we get the first term of the sub& at the instant E' we have sequent series without the last term of the preceding series the last term of the preceding series without the first term of the subsequent series. at all instants of which there is no ordinate. For between any one point & any other point there must lie some line & if such a line does not intervene. But.? c*. & the whole ordinate E'G' of finite magnitude is destroyed. well. Hence nothing can be absent. i. from an imaginary quantity. let GMM'm be a circle. & E'G'. then those points must coalesce into one. For it is impossible that in the whole line PLg the last point alone should be missing because. Y f' . & separated from it by an interval of continuous time. Further illustration i i i i i i i by geometry. line perpendicular to the axis AB is carried with a continuous motion from A to B. EG EG . of which it is the & of itself it will exclude nonseries. . yet the line is Bound to have an end to it. but the properties of a real absolute entity are also real. These will appear below. as an application for the sake of which all these things relating to the Law of to the matter in question -11 . as it were. except it be a short length of line gL. namely existence. Fig. . some additions that reduced to the same thing. M. tangent position preceding subsequent to the tangent E'F'. . point E' is the boundary between the preceding time EE'. as the geometricians call it. since the fact of existence of itself excludes non-existence" " This indeed will be still more evident. Sol tion from a Sderatwn!* . as we have shown in the same dissertation De Lege Continuitatis. & yet there is no connecting together of the states of existence & non-existence. in i my .. . The not exist." between passing from absolute nothing. . if we consider some r 56. It is allowable for me to quote in this connection the whole of nine articles from that dissertation. is EE' its production is at E & its destruction at E'. to absolute nothing there belong no real properties . to a state of existence. where a real magnitude is bound . wherever it falls between the two tangents EGF. ' JIT. Hence. there is a distinction . the instant E the boundary between the preceding continuous time AE. & that end must also be a point . can be produced or destroyed. finite in amount In the second case. or a first. correspond to the interval EE' only . Also. there will be no ordinate to the circle. . does not have a last term & the subsequent series. derived HM . numbering diagrams change they may agree with those already given. The real terms of this series of themselves exclude the term of no value. Application to crea- . if we consider the 55. referred to a given straight line AB as axis. as at HI or HT. E'G'F' be perpendiculars to the axis. Such an ordinate . the last of the one series & the first of the other. HM . When it reaches some such as the CD or as C'D' EF. . or a non-existence I Of a truth there is an existence.T real quantities. .. & the first & last a quantity can be produced or destroyed. . . or it will be impossible &. & if the line AB represents time. "Evidently. or a first term & a last. in which the ordinate does the subsequent continuous time EE'. The whole ordinate represented by of finite magnitude is produced. . lege vmum in Natura existentium. itself a state of non-existence. to that instant E there must of necessity correspond both the ordinates EG. & the subsequent time E'B. preceding series of 11 T. But what happens at this production & destruction ? Is it an existence of the ordinate. in which the ordinate does exist..

quod vero habent nomina ad arbitrarium instituta. compenetratio est reale aliquid ejusdem prorsus generis. momento temporis. quemadmodum & supra innuimus. Ubi & punctum E in linea altera alterius cum altera coit. licet alio insignitus. ut a decem palmis distantiae demptis 5. : ubi devenitur ad quantitatem secundi generis. & interitu. & constructionibus veras sufficit. . compenetrata. binorum modorum. infinitas dicantur distantiae positivae. secunda alterum Ubi in solutione puncta. nimirum determinatio perseverandi in eodem loco status quidam realis puncti existentis est vis nulla. & ad idem genus pertinent . nomine Linea AB. & sibi occurrentes ibidem). & reales determinationes accipit . & distantiam [27] 59." videri Aliquando nihtium id. nihil. & sive GM'. quo saltus committitur. quae quidem unica nomen peculiare sortita cum illas numero est. HM'. in situ EF non habetur verum nihilum. vel abibit in negavel retro positiva regredietur tivam HM. Hae omnes inter se & & tamen simul etiam plurimum conveniunt nam reales sunt. sed nihil in ratione distantiae a nobis ita appellatae. nimirum determinatio retinendi praecedentem velocitatem. L . quod ipsis etiam solutionibus cum realis. Manet igitur illaesum argumentum nostrum metaphysicum pro exclusione saltus a creatione & annihilatione. ut nullam existentium (pertinet punctum esse compenetrapergat ultra ipsam in tionem. & negativarum vel tur ad metaphysicum conceptum reducta. In situ CD. Distantia distantia quaedam in situ EF H. & aliquam. relationes dicantur distantiae negativse. cum alise ex ejusmodi relationibus. nimirum sint relationes ortae a binis localibus existendi modis. ipsa GM'. " Et quidem . quibus ea existunt." nos imposuimus. videri quidem prima fronte.68 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA aliam transire debet per saltum . quibus existunt . Sed quoniam. sit limes quidam inter seriem G puncto ordinatarum positivarum CL. ab infinitis 5. Casus ordinatae respondentis lineae EF in fig. quantitate & palmorum 5. aliquando etiam realis seriei terminum postremum esse nihilum sed re altius considerata. 9." quid : quje videntur & sunt alidiscrimen inter radicem ima- ginariam. relatio dicatur compenetratio. reales existendi modos. quae Bini locales existendi distan t i a earn nullam. sive perseverantia in eodem modo locali existendi status quidam realis est velocitas nulla puncti existentis. & zero. non problematum. Sed. sive nihilo aequalis. & interitum considerandum geometricas contemplationes assumpsimus. sive ortu. . HM positivarum CL. nihilum . problema peculiarem [28] 61. sed status quidam itidem realis. ut CL. quod est aliquid. imaginaria sit radix equationis cujuspiam. cum remaneat compenetratio) ablatis autem aliis quinque. quas evanescet. cum alterius congreditur. ut prius. si res altius considere. . remanent distantiae ista omnia realia sunt. alii alias. cujus est distantia. adeo in . ubi puncto C sive retro resiliat per abeunte in E. & a se invicem admodum discrepantes unico vocabulo com- palmorum Nam ex prima ilia compenetrationem importat. realis genus Totum discrimen est in vocabulis. ut nihilum. plurimum discrepant differt plurimum a casu ordinatae circuli in prima existunt respondentis lineae CD figurae 8 sed in est. ad quam linea qusedam PL deveniat in G G ad lineam PL. Recta CD habebit ordinatam CL. . Diversa congruunt. 9. haec haec a distantia negativa continuam ablationem palmorum plectamur Alia. EG HM eodem prorsus 5. eodem pacto status quidam realis est quies. & ita porro haec a vero non esse. "At hie illud etiam notandum est . m modi numero relationes possunt constituere. HI habetur C. habetur nihil (non quidem verum nihil. punctorum habetur eorundem tratio. ordinata CL videtur abire in nihilum ita. turn rectse perpendicularis HI. relinquuntur 5. in positione ulteriori CD abibit in EF. punctum impossible devenitur ad determinationem problematum quantitatem primi generis. uterque terminus haberi deberet. & in quodam genere differunt." . & iterum positivarum HM'. . . sed reali. Sit in Fig. punctorum compeneest relatio quaedam M : FJG binorum modorum. modo inter se differant distantia palmorum 10 a distantia a distantia nulla. & ejusdem generis cum prsecedentibus. . non erit vere 58. quas eodem modo devenitur ad hasce posteriores per Eodem autem pacto infinitas ellipses. ita demptis aliis 5. quoniam ad ortum. infinitas. problema evadit impossible usque hoc secundo casu habetur verum nihilum. constituta quae compenetratio Ad idem seriei bina puncta itidem est relatio pertinere nimirum per binos " 60. E ad AB continuatas. unica hyperbolis interjecta parabola discriminat." " Ordinatam nullam. quae sit = o. cum negativae quinque palmi . . licet altera magis oblonga ab altera minus oblonga plurimum itidem diversa sit. omni reali proprietate carens in illo primo habetur aliquid realibus proprietatibus praeditum.

the latter from no distance (which however is something real that denotes compenetration). Hence. compenetration points . just as when five palms of distance are taken away from ten palms.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 69 to pass suddenly from one quantity to another. So much indeed that. CD . . point point CL seems to run off into nothing in such a manner that nothing." " In (where the Fig. AB. & s ' it is on two 60. Sometimes what is reall y some thingap- G ' When the ordinate 13 G . for compenetration is left). something '~" All these differ from so on. so that some of the relations of this kind. . we have given a certain distance between the points C." 61. a some so ' is no . But. HM ' . the problem turns out to be incapable of solution. For starting with the first quantity. the distance of ten palms ' from the distance of five palms. All of these differ from one another.r . But they have different names assigned to them arbitrarily. . L-D attains the position r. there is com- ^ . . once more positive. or production & destruction. that it is not in reality nothing. which will & vanish when. i. velocity a real state of an existent point. the second point cannot possibly exist. or HI. the others that follow are obtained in the same manner. namely.M . & a state of non-existence in the highest degree. let AB be a line. But if the matter is more deeply considered & reduced to a metaphysical concept. they differ amongst themselves in exactly the same way. so also is no force a real state of an existent point." " In this connection the following point must be noted. corresponding in of these other the case. Again. namely." . are called positive distances. to the line EF CD When. to HM'." " The whole difference i i in the words that Two sort i local & another in a high degree . for five palms of negative distance. a propensity to retain the velocity that it has already. in the position EF. but nothing in comparison with what we usually call distance . though designated by another name. In a similar manner a single intermediate parabola discriminates between an infinite number of ellipses & an infinite number of hyperbolas & this single curve receives a special name. although one that is considerably elongated may be very different from another that is i modes of existence can constitute some of another. or is solutions & constructions of the problems. "In the same way. if we take away another five. remains quite unimpaired. a propensity ^ndVet^re^eaJi^ ' ' d i sto remain in the same place . but some state that is also real and of the same kind as those that precede it. namely. which some line PL reaches at 59. ideas for the consideration of production & destruction. as CL. we receives a special sort of solution but when the result arrive at a quantity of the first kind. the relation EG is called compenetration. the problem is a quantity of the second kind. there is obtained a true nothing that lacks every real property . & is not an imaginary thing. we get something endowed with real properties. whilst under the one term we include an infinite number of them that to a certain extent are all different from one another. penetration. so when five more are taken away. In the position CD. equal to nothing. there is of these Now distance is a relation between the modes of existence compenetration points. r j we have given to an infinite number of the things in question. whe^thT'dlst^n' between two exist 1 gs u no " J thing. by a continual subtraction of five palms.. relations. modes of existence. will contain the ordinate CL. there is nothing left (& yet not really nothing. belongs being produced point another at this point) & suppose that PL either goes on beyond the point as GM. in the first case. other things that is . we find the last term of a real series is nothing. in this second case. gets to H. as the point L.L. less elongated. 9 differs altogether from the case of the ordinate of the circle In the first there exist two points. both terms must be obtained. real state rest. it seems also that sometimes But if we go deeper into the matter. line E to the line to the & both to meet one PL. ior they are real & to a certain extent identical. is a certain boundary between the series of positive ordinates CL & the negative ordinates or the positive ordinates CL & the ordinates HM' which are also positive. the ordinate & other. . there are left five palms. is something that is real. & after that. there is not an absolute nothing in the position EF. or Then _the straight line recoils along GM'. As we have used geometrical 58. there remain All of these are real & belong to the same class .e. Now when the one line meets the E the one the the of coincides with of the other. since indeed they are all relations arising from a pair of local modes of existence. 9. then at the instant in which the sudden change is accomplished. HM G of this two points real . in the further position of the perpendicular straight line HI. 8. & this again from a negative distance of five palms. founded as lies . as we remarked above. also is compenetration compenetration is a relation between two modes of existence something real of the very same nature as distance. in the solution of problems. which also supplies true & real values to the For the root of any equation that = o. will either pass on to the negative ordinate or return. no ' distance series "of some of one kmdT^f real ' ' ia & j yet agree with one j j quantities as some distance. & relations like are called negative distances. but there is to the line in Fig. or H. The case of the ordinate corresponding & zero/ in Fig. between HM. our argument on metaphysical grounds in favour of the exclusion of a sudden change from creation or annihilation. as before. a ' perseverance in the same mode of local existence.

quas & potest significare [29] quandam. potentials. continuitatis lex & inductione. & ordinata vim. non absolutus tineant determi-[3o]-nationem. est tantummodo conditionatus. quae num. cum scalas geometricas efformant pro motibus quibuscunque difformibus. habere non simul velocitates potest. velocitatis. si per contactum ante toto tempore subsequentis corporis superficies antecedens habuit 12 gradus ftJ ij t igitur contrahamus . quod est replicationem habendam momentis omnibus sequentis temporis. ubi in collisione corporum earn nego mutari posse per saltum ex hoc posteriore argumento. & praesentibus circumstantiis haberet ad occupandum illud determinatum spatii punctum determinato illo momento . . id mobile. ut singulas constituant statum mobilis. & 47 pertinentes ad velocitates. quo motus fiat. quod est absurdum. indivisibilis communis limes. area exprimat spatium itidem tempus. complectentium omnes circumstantias nimirum ut conpraeteritas. & sine conjunctione sui esse exstitit dum si prascedenti etiam seriei praecedentis. Apphcatio contmuitatis coiiisionem & interitu jam i satis. & in Stayanis Supplements distinxi. ad apto Scholiasticorum actuaiem. satis patet . " Firmum contmuo tempore tempore : manebit semper. qui tempus continuum praecedens. a Mechanicis. T Velocitatis . actuaiis. quamcunque. & 9 simul. debent esse unicus sequentis. nisi per intermedias Et quidem in ipsis motibus. habet ipsum mobile. sed requirit tempus continuum. .70 Conciusip prosolutione ejus objec- PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA fa. quam quidem ipsam intelligo. in quo turn est mobile. quas eo momento. quod itidem in aliis ejusmodi scalis. sive abscissa exprimente tempus.. g." leg is ad rum corpo- - iam vela. utcunque etiam variatam. Prima haberi non potest distinctione utique . utrobique esse illud At nee potentiales velocitates duas simul esse posse. si forte duret eo solo habere debet & ultimum terminum tempore. quam spatii percursi divisi per tempus. quia oporteret. ^ n omn ibus sequentibus occupare duo puncta ejusdem spatii. asquivocum est. quod ipsum aliquanto diligentius corpus . seriem realem ~igitur . ad occudiversam esse determinatum ad . momentum & subsequens.. in quo mobile est eo temporis momento. facile demonstratur. debere habere primum prmcipium. quae nimirum est determinatio. & sequenti 9. . . ex principio inductionis colligere sane possumus discedere in partes duas. adeoque requireretur actuaiis sit duplex. qui status respectu dispositionum. . momento temporis. area exprimat velocitatem jam genitam.necessaria ad aequivocationes evitandas. quas quidem duo & in dissertatione De Viribus Fivis. & formulis algebraicis fit passim. saltu facto momentaneo ipso initio contactus in ipso momento ea Duas enim debuisset habere & 12. . percurrendi motu asquabili determinatum quoddam spatium quovis determinato tempore. Dicitur utique idem mobile a diversis causis acquirere simul diversas velocitates. ut constet nobis. ut nimirum ab una velocitate ad aliam numquam transeatur. quo percurritur vocabulo potentialem appello. r nomen. habuimus 39. DUO & velocitatum genera. quod initio dati cujusdam temporis fuerit in dato spatii puncto. replicatio. . mutatse videri possent Quod autem pertinet ad metaphysicum argumentum. & metaphysico r ' etiam in velocitatis commumcatione retmeri omnmo idcirco abunde nititur. primum est unicus indivisibilis limes inter ut & cum non esse. & esse simul in duobis locis ita. & hanc alteram intelligunt utique Mechanici. in quo turn est. ^5' J am vero velocitates actuales non posse simul esse duas in eodem mobili. ut nimirum spatium percursum alterum pro altera velocitate determinanda. & velocitatibus inductionem velocitates omnes sine saltu. stabile.. quas argumento debet. haberi admodum idem. . nimirum est relatio quaedam in motu asquabm velocitatem enim sigmncare actuaiem. . quam non facile. uti r passim usurpatur potest r T. . dirimente tempora demonstrabo. : potentials n< 'simul ne^etur vei exf<*a- tur compenetratfo. nimirum nunquam videamus idem mobile simul ex eodem loco Quamobrem habere simul illas duas potentiales velocitates est esse determinatum panda eodem momento temporis duo puncta spatii. quorum singula habeant suam distantiam ab eo puncto spatii. v finito duret. . quas a r & ultimum nnem i realem. quo dicitur habere illam potentialem velocitatem determinatam. quam habet mobile. sine ullo absurdo. quam ex omnibus praeteritis. & praesentes. hac potentiali velocitate usurpata. 46. . . ac difficultates solvimus num. sive determinatio. secunda habetur etiam momento quovis determinata . Nam velocitas potentialis est determinatio ad existendum post datum tempus continuum quodvis in dato quodam puncto spatii habente datam distantiam a puncto spatii. & ordinata sive abscissa exprimente velocitatem. sed eae componuntur in unicam ita. Sed haec de ortu. . & quidem etiam motum aequabilem requirit ad accuratam sui mensuram . Cum uspiam. & . saltum. si nulla vis mutationem inducat. quas sit tantummodo determinatio ad actuaiem.

. the one space being determined by the one velocity & the other by the other. the distinction being very necessary to avoid equivocations. when in collision of bodies I deny from the foregoing argument that there can be any sudden change. mean actual that is to a certain relation in uniform motion may velocity. This is absurd for a body cannot at the same time have two velocities. i r- i . nor being in two places at the same time in such a way that it is clear to us that it is in both. 46. is only conditional. & then without any sudden change. should at all times afterwards occupy two points of that space so that the space traversed would be twofold. 65. if the abscissa represents time & the ordinate force. 63. we never see the same movable body departing from the same place in two directions. on account of all past & present circumstances. As regards metaphysical argument. which the moving body occupied at the instant of time in which it is said to have the prescribed potential velocity. "Hence in all cases it must remain . a firm . Application of the ^The* co5ision"af solid bodies.. for other scales of the same kind.. then it would be necessary that the moving body.1 i. then the area will represent the velocity already produced. it must have both a last term of the preceding series & a first term of the subsequent series just as an instant is a single indivisible boundary between But what I have said about the continuous time that precedes & that which follows. without any absurdity coming in. for instance. This is always the case. such indeed as I understand it to be. Two Clty< kinds of veio- P tentlal & I4 is impossible velocities" have two either actual or ^given) or forced we 'S to are admit. For potential velocity is the propensity that the body has. in cases in which they might seem to be subject to sudden changes. . & 9. . . So that indeed there can never be any passing from one velocity to another except through all intermediate velocities. I call potential velocity. both in the dissertation De Firibus Fivis & in the Supplements to Stay's Philosophy ." to come back at last to our point. Wherefore to have at one & the same time two potential velocities is the same thing as being prescribed to occupy at the same instant of time two points of space each of which has its own distinct distance from that of that the point space body occupied at the start & this is the same thing as prescribing that there should be replication at all subsequent instants of time. given by the space passed over divided by the time taken to traverse it. That is to say. is bound to have a first beginning & a final O f this difficulty. I made the distinction between these two meanings. not absolute. the body would be bound to have 12 degrees of velocity. whenever algebraical formulae & this potential velocity are employed . Now it is quite clear that there cannot be two actual velocities at one & the same time in the same moving body. end. but requires continuous time for the motion to take place it also requires uniform motion in order to measure it accurately. c which lasts for some finite continuous . would have for occupying that prescribed point of space at that particular production . if perchance it lasts for that interval of time only. Thus an actual replication would be required & this we can clearly prove in a perfectly simple way from the principle of induction. say. both on induction & on metaphysical reasoning & on that account it should be retained in every case of communication of velocity. or a propensity possessed by the movable body (should no force cause an alteration) for traversing with uniform motion some definite space in any definite time. 71 &stable conclusion that any real series. if in the whole time before contact the anterior surface of the body that follows had 12 degrees of velocity & in the subsequent time had 9. Conclusion in favour of a solution c time. It may mean also something which. with regard to the dispositions that it has at that instant (these include all circumstances both past & present). as I will now demonstrate somewhat more carefully. But if it existed at a previous time as well. which at the beginning of a certain time occupied a certain given point of space. . each involves the propensity which the body. For it 64. no matter how it is varied. 47.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 62. Because. . The term velocity. as it is used in general by Mechanicians is equivocal. The former cannot be obtained in an instant of time. at one & the same time. . a sudden change being made at the instant of first contact then at the instant that separates the two times. the Law of Continuity is solidly founded But. . then the area will express the distance passed over . the latter being taken to be but the propensity for actual velocity. penetration . at the end of any given continuous time. & without any linking up of its existence with a state of non-existence. if geometrical measured diagrams for any non-uniform velocities whatever. it can be easily proved that it is also impossible that there should be two potential velocities at the same time.. The latter can be determined at any given & it is this kind that is everywhere intended by Mechanicians. adopting a term used by the Scholastics. It is commonly said that a movable body acquires from different causes several velocities simultaneously but these velocities are compounded into one in such a way that each produces a state of the moving body & this state. . . We have employed induction for actual motions & velocities in Art. or again. & destruction is already quite enough. the abscissa represents time & the ordinate velocity. The latter is a propensity for actual velocity. 39 & solved difficulties with regard to velocities in Art. For. . for existing at a certain given point of space that has a given distance from that point of space. . when they make instant In which. . Again.

sed realis interitum habeatur absurdi quidpiam. vel saltern aliquis status. e duodecim rebus inter se distinctis. qui simul cum puncti alio reali statu determinatae illius intereuntis. ac tempore. n U accurate talis . succederet. & prsesentibus est absolutus. qui licet alio vocabulo nihilum quoddam. ubi ostensum Nam in primis 12 gradus velocitatis non sunt quid est. & interire reliquos tres. ut datis intervallo. gr. nee oriri velocitatem totam corporis. & occurrent primo. Praeterea corporis. nee interire momento temporis posse. determinationem. & omnium praeteritarum nam toto prsecedenti tempore habita fuisset realis series statuum cum ilia priore. Sed id ipsum itidem lis etiam pertinet. quod superius dictum fuit. temporis nisi aliunde ejusmodi determinatio per conjunctionem alterius causae. & dici velocitas nulla. GD D . sit 12 gradibus velocitatis transitur ad 9. & esse. vel possibili in Natura motu uniformi. si nimirum difformem habeat motum. quando a . Sic etiam in ordinatis GD. mutaretur. quae in Stayanis Supplementis exposui in binis paragraphis de spatio. puncto punctum G. revera. ad quod revera deveniri deinde debet dato illo si Porro patet ejusmodi temporis. status absolutus resultans ex omnibus eo momento praasentibus. vel puncti non simul intereuntis. momento status ex & punctum illud loci. ento te^oris'trari" sin ab una veioci- liai ^7' P atet auteni nmc illud evinci. nee in saltu per ipsa velocitas nulla corporis. quarum prima constitit in relatione distantiaa. quae diximus. qui quidem status pro circumstantiis futuris : omnibus praeteritis. cum neutra series realis sine reali suo .72 PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA . deberet eo momento temporis. admisso etiam ut existente. HE. haberi simul utraque determinatio absoluta respectu circumstantiarum omnium ejus momenti. ut secundum argumentum pro continuitatis lege superius allatum vim habeat suam. quos hie addam in fine inter nonnulla. vel orientis. nee hue transferri j demonstrat vindicatur. ejus exemplo. quae turn loco ipsius alia. ut & quietem. appellari soleat. puncti curvae a puncto axis G. punctum spatii distans per palmos 6 ad exigentem punctum distans per palmos 9 . vel puncti existentis potest utique nulla esse velocitas actualis. vel alias causa. ordinata sunt duae ordinatae. Jam vero si haberetur saltus a velocitate ex omnibus prsteritis. quod idem. compositum sed sunt unica determinatio ad existendum in punctis spatii distantibus certo 3 interire. quae composita dicitur. eruitur e reliquis. elapsis quibusdam temporibus aequalibus quibusvis. est tamen non nimirum determinatio ad quietem. cum nee in illorum duratione habeatur saltus. dicendo. nee ab una velocitate ad alteram abiri nequaquam hue possit sine transitu per intermedias. & actu devenitur ipsae nihil aliud agant. & quiete. adeoque eo momento. ut demonstrari at . simul utraque. & praesentibus circumstantiis exigente. quae hie etiam supplementa appellabo. post unum minutum. & toto sequenti deberet haberi cum ilia posteriore. momento Quovis 66. ex. quarum 9 manere possint. ut nullum effugium haberi possit contra superiora argumenta. existentis. ego quidem arbitrer in Natura reapse haberi nullam. argumentis. vel orientis velocitatis deberet conjungi . omnibus prseteritis. palmorumi2. quo fieret saltus. sed realis status. quanquam hanc ipsam. sed hue non 6 potentialis' li!itlS pertinet posse semper utique haberi debet aliqua velocitas potentialis. quam ille conditionatus status resultans e singulis conditionatus est. vel quidam status. quod ipsum etiam semper in saltern de be re hTbeTe statum reaiem ex Natura accidit. & praesentibus circumstantiis absolutes non posse eodem esse momento temporis duos sine determinatione ad replicationem. durare utique priores 9. vel jam egerit. utramque velocitatem habere conditiones necessarias ad [31] hoc. quod termino stare possit. & P osse quod de creatione. 6. sed Theoria. est unica determinatio ad existendum pro quovis determinato momento temporis sequentis in quodam determinato puncto spatii. atque disjunctis. ut monui. prseteritis circumstantiis & & ipsius mobilis. agentes sequentibus momentis non mutent . penitus praetermissis. secunda in relatione puncti curvae E a estibi axis ac H. componentibus velocitatibus non inducit ob id ipsum. & morte diximus cum nimirum non purum nihil. Sed agat. arbitror. licet sit itidem conditionatus pro si nimirum esedem. in quo nullum absurdum sit. ac secundo loco. non conjungi non esse simul. quae exprimunt velocitates in fig. in mea potissimuim non est quaedam pars ordinatae HE communis ipsi usque ad D. unde etiam fit.

or has already done so & then another propensity. 73 were it not for the fact that that particular propensity is for other reasons the by conjunction of another cause. But. 6. it is quite clear that from this it can be rigorously J proved r. one another. this always *? as I think can be proved. present although may & from & past & present circumstances. . Now. Again. do not change that propensity. that I will call by the name of supplements in this work as well they will be placed first & second amongst them.** . in which the sudden change takes place. namely. prescribed Hence it comes about that there can be no velocity that is being created or destroyed. putting on one side these considerations altogether. is not absolutely nothing. or even then each must have conditions that possible. tentlal vel - y except through intermediate stages. at the instant of time. nor can our arguments with regard to production & city to a* 11 ?1 in i r i T-i an instant of time. however. of which the first depends upon the relation of the distance . the first nine at least endure. if the same or other causes. of the point of the curve from the point on the axis. whilst the remaining three are destroyed . that the whole Rigorous proof that 67. . whole of the preceding time there would have been a real series of states having the former velocity as a term. GD. or at least some state. or absolute rest. is but a single propensity for at . 9 . For in the first place those twelve degrees of velocity are not something compounded of twelve things distinct from. compels a point of space to & jump from the 66.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY instant of time altered . in points of space at a certain interval. if we admit both uniform motion & rest as existing in Nature. ^^l P any rate. it be conditional for circumstances. . nor for a point that does pas s from one veionot perish or arise along with it . express velocities. which. yet is not definitely nothing. since that & this real existing point. or of an existing At any instant an ""** that is to say. which is here the point i . I have come to the conclusion. it is point. & which it actually does reach if these causes have no other effect. since neither in the duration of the former has there been any sudden change. of which nine can endure & three can be destroyed but are a single propensity for existing. & in the whole of the subsequent time there must be one having the latter velocity as a term hence at that particular instant each of them must occur at one & the same time. a propensity for rest. it is clear that we cannot have two such absolute states. with regard to the ordinates say twelve palms. amongst some matters. which in Fig. & then by asserting that there is nothing absurd in this. that in Nature there is not really such a thing as this state. So also. arising out of all the past example. common with it as far as the point but there are two ordinates. But the absolute propensity. away from the original position. & the velocity stated to be nothing. HE. i 1-1 i. D GD D G H . . it is the fact that (most especially in my Theory) the ordinate is not some part of the ordinate HE. since neither real series can stand good without each having its own real end term. velocity necessarily lead to the conclusion that according to the argument given above in support of the Law of Continuity it has its own corresponding force. there would be each of two absolute propensities in respect of all the circumstances of that instant & all that had gone before. . but is some real state state is bound to be connected with that other real state. That is to say. but it does not concern us at . state is any prescribed instant of subsequent time in existing a certain prescribed point of this space . & unconnected with. after the lapse of any given number of equal times of any given length. & the point of space to which it ought to get thereafter at the given instant of time. destruction be made to refer to this. which. . although usually referred to by another name. to a velocity that compels the point to move through 9 palms . absolute for all past & future circumstances. arising from a kind present. which acts at the time. But that idea also does not concern us at present. escape from the arguments I have given above. then. no velocity of a body. by saying that when the change from twelve degrees of velocity is made to nine degrees. If now there should be a present circumstances. or of an For. it follows from the rest of what I have said that. that of the namely. it is bound to have some potential velocity. from arguments that I gave in the Supplements to Stay's Philosophy in two paragraphs concerning space & time & these I will add at the end of the work. as I remarked. is may be nothing the case in Nature at least possible that the actual velocity of a body. Further. Further. Now. but is a real state. . after one minute for move through 6 palms. according to the instance of it given above. if the motion is non-uniform. will take the place of the former. nor is there anything absurd in the jump caused by the destruction of the latter. at the same time without prescribing replication . & that no passage from one velocity to another can be made at . existing For in the simultaneously. . this the conditional state arising from each of the component velocities does not induce all it is arising because of the very fact that conditional. velocity. acting during subsequent instants. it is impossible to e velocity of a body cannot perish or arise in an instant of time. where it was shown that non-existence & existence must be disconnected. which is termed compound. & the second upon the relation of the distance of point E on the curve from the on the axis. which arises from the combination of all the past & present circumstances of the moving body for that instant.

Cur adhibita col* 68. qui cum 12 velocitatis gradibus ut nimirum abeundo ad velocitatem aliam assequatur alterum praecedentem cum 6 haberetur saltus ab una velocitate ad aliam. exhibebit velocitatem actualem. . 10 designent AB. quod conficitur. Assumpto quovis : AD autem momento Q posterioris temporis sit D! L V N E Y tempore HK determinatae magnitudinis. quae aequetur velocitati cuidam data: CG. In velocitate actuali. & relationem G. Irrcgularitas alia in cxpressione actualis velocitatis. area IHKL divisa per tempus HK. ubi a velocitate aliqua transitur ad velocitatem nullam adhibui potius [32] in omnibus dissertationibus meis globum. quae aequetur velocitati primae quovis velocitas potentialis minor QR. jam nee erit sed datam minor quantitatem FE per ipsa facile demonstrari potest (&). & G constituunt duo reales modi existendi ipsorum. vel G. distantiae punctorum H. sed ut hasce ipsas considerationes evitarem de transitu a statu temporis intcrirc ad statum itidem realem. eaiuicm^aKanTpro Thcoria deducenda. & E duo reales modi existendi ipsorum. quamcunque . & momento sit velocitas ante & contactum. BC bina intermedias. Moveatur tempus HK versus B. Jam vero in hisce casibus utique haberi deberet saltus quidam. mv cem reali Atque hinc ego quidem potuissem etiam adhibere duos globos asquales. BFPO. quod sic facile ostenditur ope Geometriae. & H. & violatio legis continuitatis. per mutetur per saltum actualis. H existente in M citra B. diviso per tempus. capta VE asquali MN MO . & E duo reales modi existendi ipsorum. E. sive recta HI. spatium illi tem- pori respondens componetur ex binis MNEB. .74 Relationem distantiae PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA punctorum D. quae nimirum in ipso contactu deberent . sed adhuc . momento Quo pacto mutata velocitate tial! non potensaltum. ille &D sunt pars intermediorum inter E. in qua & intermedii modi possibles inter praecisiva. qui sibi occurrant cum velocitatibus sequalibus. quorum summa si dividatur per aequalis priori AD. si ad contactum deveniretur cum velocitatum discrimine aliquo determinato quocunque. quolibet potentialis ilia major post tempora H ~ HI. 69. sed in potentiali. ut infra dicemus. D. . & H. vel a nulla ad finitam. nee BF. Praeterea omissis etiam hisce omnibus ipse saltus a velocitate finita ad nullam. & summa priorum constat modis realibus omnium trium. semper eadem habebitur velocitatis mensura eo autem progressoin O ultra B. si earn metiamur spatio. Haec ultima relatio constat duobus modis realibus tantummodo pertinentibus ad puncta E. Sed nos indefinite concipimus possibilitatem omnium modorum realium intermediorum. haberi non potest. & donee K adveniat ad B. in quo evidentius esset absurdum. transitus utique fieret per omnes In fig. non quidem in velocitate actuali. & indefinita idea stat mini idea spatii continui . G. relationem distantias punctorum D.

by passing to some other velocity. The relation of the distance between the points & is determined the two real modes of existence peculiar to them. in order to avoid the very considerations just stated is employed with regard to the passage from a real state to another real state (when we pass from a definite velocity to none). according as this is taken to be greater or less. Hence. far other & different measures of the actual velocities will arise to correspond with the different intervals of time assumed for their measurement which is not the case for motions that are always uniform. i. 69. & the relation of the points the distance between the points & E by the two real modes of existence peculiar to them. usually employ the small space traversed in an infinitesimal interval of time. which in truth at the moment of contact would have to be the sameTirecfion for the destroyed in an instant of time. This thereby is the case. equal to some given velocity CG. if any actual velocity has to be found & determined by the quotient of the space traversed divided by the time taken. not indeed in the actual velocity. then EY = VN . Now. whilst sponding to that time will be composed of the two spaces MNEB. the relation of the distance between by & E by the two real modes of existence peculiar to them. but in the potential sudden change in In the velocity. when the whole of the interval of time has passed beyond B into the position QS. -that sudden change from a finite G D H H .A THEORY OF same NATURAL PHILOSOPHY D 75 as the point G. will give MX. G D . Hence the remainder (the gnomon NMOPFE) = MO.NX.(MN NX) = MO. The last of these relations depends upon the two real modes of existence that pertain to the the sum of the first & second depends upon all (or G). on division by MO. as I remarked above of motion. . however. beyond B to O. AD . Hence I might just as well have employed two equal balls.. K H M K MN MN MN X equal to 70. : : . velocity to none at all. ^^veioclty Geometry. In Fig. the whole MNYO = MO. which will i i made through all intermediate >> the representation of actual larity m irregu- XM velocity. " In evident. Q HK HK . MX. which follows another ball going in front of it with 6 degrees so that. or MO. ^^T^ might actual velocity. for VE = MO = NT. however. as I will remark later & on this disconnected & ill-defined idea is founded my conception of continuous also space the possible intermediate modes between & form part of those intermediate between E & H. (b) For if OP be produced to meet NE in T.- . . replacing VN hy EY. or HK. there is bound to be some sudden change & breach of the Law of Continuity. if the collision occurs with any given difference of velocities whatever. the measure of the velocity will always be the same. the area QRTS divided by the time QS now represents a constant velocity . From such the as foregoing reasoning MI i it is therefore clear that the change from the A further actual velocity preceding r . or BF (which is less than by the given quantity FE). & G. & the straight line VF is drawn to cut in then the quotient obtained by the division will be MX. respectively before & after & at any instant let the potential velocity be the greater velocity HI. BFPO. If then. and. Now. will represent the actual velocity. But we have some sort of ill-defined conception of the possibility of all intermediate real modes of existence. irregularity arising from the fact that the actual velocity out to be different for different magnitudes of the assumed interval of time HK. . velocities TV/TTT- HI i to the subsequent velocity i i i QR is be determined by the continuous straight line VF. we have EYEF=MO. Besides. at least in such cases as these. the change will at any not 'be a sudden 16 ***" rate be through all intermediate stages & this can easily be shown to be 50 by the aid of a ^ . there would be a sudden change from one & by this means the absurdity of the idea would be made more velocity to another . the result will not be equal to either (which is equal to the first AD). measured by the space traversed divided by the time. VE hy MO. .MX and this. For this reason there is no really accurate measure of the actual but a precise & distinct idea of it velocity in non-uniform motion. . I have preferred to employ in all my dissertations a ball having 1 2 degrees of velocity. For. But.NX. Let the time be moved towards B then until comes to B. 10 let AB.MN. goes on still remains on the other side of B at then the space corre. the area IHKL divided by the time HK. This holds until. omitting all considerations of this sort. D. & will be decreased or increased correspondingly. 68. cannot happen. for all motions in which the the does not remain same velocity during the whole interval as for instance in the case where. equal to the contact first velocity & at any instant of the time subsequent to contact let the potential be the less If any prescribed interval velocity velocity QR. if VE is taken equal to IL. or from none to a finite.EF. There some must turn is. Now. the straight line HI. of time be taken. . But it can easily be proved ( ) that. XM . BC represent two intervals of time. & upon these alone points E & three of the modes of the points E.e. colliding with one wh y the collision b another with equal velocities. & for this interval they consider that the motion is uniform. as a Mechanicians requires uniformity means to the determination of actual velocity. and the part FEYP= ET. and therefore VN.EF=VE. QR. Moreover VE VN=EF NX . so the point V is removed to a greater or less distance from E . if the sum of these is divided by MO. Therefore in non-uniform motions. . .

76. . datam quandam mensuram . ibi sua na t ura determinet per sese igitur vis ex . . quas nervorum ope exerimus. vel etiam. ubi ad se invicem accedunt. quod appellant est autem fortasse quaedam actio duplex semper aequaliter actionis. vel ea antecedentis augeri. ante contactum ipsum immediatum incipiant mutari Ue Vlm> velocitates ipsae. Atque hoc demum pacto illud constitit evidenter. inductio satis utrinque & aequaliter. utrumque corpus agere. & a ^ immediatum contactum devenire ea corpora non possunt uon i 73' praeceifaberimutationem veiocita. quo ad aequalitatem velocitatum deveniunt. quam nobis in utrumque simul. quam pro lege continuitatis in ipsis quoque velocitatibus. Causa vero mutans statum corporis in ordine ad motum. oportet. in infinitum excrescat ? an deveniat. earn ibi vim in non reducet inaequales illas velocitates. & illud admittere. quam accederent. an imminutis in immensum distantiis ad qua lege progredi debeat. habebitur ibi aliqua mutatio status. ad quam graduum. Hinc dicendam ejus . ' . corporibus. & quomodo. at nomims denmtione Uuaerendum jam ulterius. & reactionis aequalium elastrum binis in Ferrum. quod cum haberi nequeat. ilia debere esse mutuam. in ordine ad motum. & quae corpora ad recessum mutuum a se invicem. . casu corpus sequens impellatur exemplo si vis repulsiva. nimirum nisi in iis minuat consequentis corporis velocitatem augeat praecedentis. ut ad contactum immediatum deveniatur cum illaesis binorum corporum consequi debeat. opVidendum igitur aliunde. vel auk mutat simul. quam utique ampliorem etiam habere possumus. etiam ilia duo corpora nondum ad contactum devenerint. ut efficacius agamus. ubi id non admittatur. & in partes oppositas. . mutaretur deberet haberi & ultima velocitatum praecedentium B. . Ad impediendam violationem continuitatis satis esset. vel ea consequentis corporis minui. . 75. Hujusmodi 11 i appellari potest vis repulsiva. ubi Earn . quae ad partes oppositas agat. unde provenit principium. Videndum igitur. vim debere agere iSf-SSi m panes positas./ . quae adhibuimus pro lege continuitatis. /~ j i Ea vi debere totum crimen eHdi contactum. Ut in illo casu evitetur saltus . quasdam contrarias.dentibus velocitatibus . . quae effectum gignat. an vel sequentis ad 6. quas singulis At utique per saltum ipso momento ^' . uti demonstratum est. dicitur vis . ut cum ilia velocitatum inasqualitate deveniatur ad immediatum contactum atque id ipsum excludit etiam inductio. deberent a se invicem si solae velocitates essent. antequam ad contactum quamobrem possent utique devenire ad eum contactum At si in alio quopiam suis cum velocitatis gradibus 20. velocitatibus integris. quae actio ad aequalitatem nisi . r. vel in utroque. semper valide aliquid propellimus. primo loco proposui. utrumque Quidquid accidat. vel quietem. satis est in allato delati sumus. & magnes aeque se mutuo trahunt agens partes oppositas. si ejusmodi vis ageret in & alterum tantummodo e binis reducendo praecedentis velocitatem ad gradus 12. quid necessario haec analysis ulterius promovenda. : . Invenimus igitur vim . .76 " PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA yi- \mmc citatum ni non posse r" entia vciodtatum momentis temporis respondet sua. oppositum parietem simul repellamus. omnes vires nobis cognitas agere gravitatem ipsam generalem mutuam esse osten-[34]-dunt errores Jovis. quo ^ P" ma sequentium BF. nisi pede humum. adeoque habebitur aliqua mutationis causa. ex qua illud pro eo quoque casu debemus inferre. Id determinabitur per aliam Naturae legem. atque motibus velocitas potcntialis. fieri non potest per secundum ex argumentis. nee satis Ipsas nostrae vires. sed sed quia eae componuntur cum praecedentibus recedere tantummodo minus ad se invicem accedunt. qua nimirum evincitur. & velocitatibus propellit aequalibus globis asqualibus interjectum aeque utrumque urget. quibus. quaecunque ilia sit. producat hasc utique non recedunt. habebitur igitur vis aliqua. ac Saturni potissimum. . vel in altero Q am cum & corpore. vel quietem. En igitur inductionem. non licere continuitatis legem deserere in collisione corporum. uti & curvatura orbitae lunaris orta ex ejus gravitate in terram comparata cum aestu maris orto ex inaequali partium globi terraquei gravitate in Lunam. Prpmovenda ana- 72. extinguat velocitatum differentiam illam 6 ante : immediatum corpora devenirent eodem illo momento. esse quaerendam legem. corpore praecedente cum 6 . 74. in partes oppositas agunt. an agere debeat in alterum tantummodo. . ampla ostendit.

such as I gave in the first place for the in question. BF. to avoid a breach i. Now. that can be will resist them. & act m i i i i this only. unless it produces in them velocities that are & with these velocities. of the one which follows. The conclusion is potential velocity. & that too whilst the two bodies have not as yet come into contact. Hence a force of this kind. but only approach one another less quickly than they otherwise would have done. nor have we any power to set anything in motion. So also. perchance this may be a sort of twofold action that always produces its Iron & a loadstone attract one another with the effect equally in opposite directions. the bodies do not indeed recede from one another. That is to say. altering the velocity of the body in opposite directions. induction brings before us . t nat immediate i j jj i ^. since (as has been already proved) this ij 77 71. if they alone existed. it is necessary that commence to change that immediate change in the v'eio contact . it is sufficient. from other considerations. a that the state of a body as regards motion or But cause change. which gives the effect. if a force of The f rceo must V6 mutual. 72. or that of the one cit y & therefore going in front should be increased. Hence they might possibly at least come into contact t ^ But if in another at the instant in which they attained equality between the velocities. the way in which they err from their orbits & approach one another mutually. & whether. it attains any given measure. that it follows. That universal gravity itself is mutual is proved the aberrations of Jupiter & of Saturn especially (not to mention anything else) . in one or other of the & so there must be some cause for this bodies. the bodies would opposite in direction move away from one another. & at this point we are contact with a dif- The f i. by opposite direchelp produce tions . This point will be settled by another law of Nature. front to 12 degrees. always forces. whether it should act on one of the two bodies only. directions . in order that any sudden change may be avoided. it follows from first ference of velocities the second of the arguments that I used to prove the Law of Continuity. should destroy that difference of 6 degrees in the velocities before the bodies should destroyed by e have come into immediate contact. that by is to say. & the is of the subsequent impossible. 73. a spring introduced between two balls exerts an equal action on either of them at the same time. Law of Continuity. Hence. or whether it increases indefinitely. when the distances are indefinitely diminished. we must ried further. now & ' 1 . the law in which it is estabsufficiently copious lished that all forces that are known to us act on both bodies. There must be then. The whole differ76. . ^Sysis^tobe ca^ immediate contact with the whole velocities of both bodies unaltered. equally. Hence we must find out. or in both. of the body which is in front & diminishes that unless it increases that unequal velocities. Hence there must be some force. BE. of Continuity. Law & investigate the consequences that necessarily follow when this idea is not admitted . velocities. or that of the one behind to 6 degrees. with regard to motion or rest it is. In this manner it is at length clearly established that it is not right to neglect the immediate contact admit the idea that they can come into of Continuity in the collision of bodies. causes the change! Whatever happens. But. when the curvature of the lunar orbit arising from its gravitation towards the Earth is compared with the flow of the tides caused by the unequal gravitation towards Our own bodily the Moon of different parts of the land & water that make up the Earth. that is. each corresponding to its own separate instant of time. say. 20 of with the that was behind were case. such as a wall opposite. act in the of our which their effect muscles. and in opposite directions. that it cannot come about that the bodies come into immediate contact with the inequality of velocities This is also excluded by induction. in the case also of these velocities & motions. & from it we are bound in this case also to infer that the This action will not reduce to equality those two force acts on each of the two bodies. It r -I of the i Law i < i & how. & either that of the body that follows should be diminished. there will be some change of state at the time. or that both these changes should take place together. Since the bodies cannot come into immediate contact with the velocities they had a those velocities should before at first. or on both i would be enough.t t n a i certainly be changed suddenly at that instant ot time r> . whatever changes rest is called force. may be called a repulsive force. as they are compounded with those they had to start ball. the analysis must be carried further. 75. which ' ' & generates equal velocities in them. From this comes the principle that is called the principle of equal action & reaction . moving degrees velocity. in W the example under consideration. in order to get a better purchase. same strength .ii 11 IT kind should act on one of the two bodies 74. whilst the body have then found that the force must be a mutual force which acts in opposite Hence the force * one which from its very nature imparts to those bodies a natural propensity p u sive*r ^"1^ for mutual recession from one another. to which our arguments have led veiocities must *be the us. unless at the same time we press upon the earth with our feet or. if the repulsive force. In this case.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY would bound to have both the last of the preceding velocities. with. from the very meaning governing it is now We have now to go further & find the law to ^ found of the term. upon something that Here then we have an induction. - We . made indeed more ample still .

quam 6 discriminis si in gradus. quasdam data distantia quascunque esse ultimus limes virium in infinitum excrescentium. minore nimirum velocitate producta utrinque ad partes contrarias. ut sint pares velocitati extinguendae cuivis. evmc i t repulsionem attractivam nominavimus. Illud quidem ratiocinatione hactenus instituta immediate non deducitur. ilia vis in casu extinxit 6 tantummodo gradus discriminis. hujusmodi incrementa virium auctarum in infinitum respondere distantiis in infinitum imminutis. quam graduum 8. qui habebantur. Superessent igitur plures. Cum discrimen auferat. quas aliquo tempore agunt. Earn vim debere augeri in infinitum. facile est quod in secundo casu accidit respectu primi. quas remotiores particulse possint acquirere a se invicem. quo casu asymptotus AB non transiret distantiae initium binorum sed tanto intervallo per corporum. qui casus itidem uberrimum aperit contemplationibus fcecundissimis campum. quantus esset ille omnium distantiarum. quod cum fieri nequeat. sive ilia distantia asymptoti ab initio distantias binorum punctorum materiae. vis ulterior illud omne violari. & ad cometas etiam traductas. ac proinde lex continuitatis leges eruit. non extendi ad distantias vim quascunque. agat tempore poterit extinguere nisi pauciores. ut velocitatem producant. quas : Mechanicae. siderare. limes sed aliquem demum esse debere extremum etiam asymptoticum arcum curvas minimus habentem pro asymptote rectam transeuntem per ipsum initium distantiae. pluribus comprobant. & primo collocatae in distantia minore. elastris institui facile possunt. ut rem comprobent Rem experimenta confirmant . sed in magnis jam distantiis haberi determinationem ad accessum. Quin immo Keplerianae leges in Astronomia tarn feliciter a Newtono adhibitae ad legem gravitatis generalis deducendam. ac proinde aget accessus celerior. quae inde motuum . post ipsum. particulae materiae minores. ubi ad ipsum deveniretur contactum. & quidem in infinitum. de quo aliquid inferius . nimirum ad arcum ilium asymptoticum ED curae virium in fig. in mutuis incursibus velocitatem deberent posse mutare per saltum. & sui in gravibus oblique descendentibus ipsius. sic evincitur . utcunque magnae. & ibi 8 nam quam per saltum deberent velocitates mutari. sed aliquis arcus asympto-[36]-ticus postremus. pergendum est in consideratione legis virium. vires omnes nobis cognitas. in origine abscissarum. quam . distantiis : 77. idem consequentis corporis in tertio aliquo respectu secundi. inter 20 & 6 erant 14. debet utique aliquis esse ultimus asymptoticus arcus. utcunque magnae. aliquo in 78. in projectis in aliis & Astronomia confirmat in caelestibus motibus. Nam illud itidem amplissima inductione evincitur. agere in ratione temporis. quae habemus prae manibus. Debebit igitur ad omnem pro omni casu evitandum saltum Natura cavisse per ejusmodi vim. i propositum. ne compenetratio haberetur. Verum ea perquisitione hie omissa. quo agunt. Quando autem hue jam delati sumus. Devenimus igitur ad vires repulsivas imminutis distantiis crescentes in infinitum. oportet. quam quotidie experimur. quae in priore casu aliquanto ante contactum extinxerit velocitatis discrimen. atque ita crescat. gravibus. [35] Extingueret igitur in secundo casu ilia vis minus. quae imminutis quam asymptotum distantiis crescat in infinitum. quae priore si breviore in secundo non casu. ac id ipsum est eadem & in fundamentum totius . alii post alios. quam esset ille ultimus limes. quern in figura i proposui. vim in majoribus ^ tractfvam. & vires inducat imminutis in infinitum distantiis crescentes in infinitum ita. In primis gravitas omnium corporum in Terram. virium ulterius progredi. primo usque ad contactum extinxit tantummodo 6. Natura incommodo caverit per ejusmodi vim. & illud conaccidere aucta semper velocitate habente curva ali- . Quamobrem repulsiva. experimenta in pendulis. At breviore utique tempore nam cum majore velocitatum discrimine velocitas respectiva est major. cujusmodi est is. Posset pro hisce corporibus. quam pro minimis distantiis invenimus. quae habentur auctis distantiis. . & ita porro. & curvae earn exprimentis. satis > illam. haberi omnino debet. habentes ad exigua intervalla asymptotes inter se parallelas. imminutis. Ad summum in curva virium haberi possent plures asymptotici arcus. qui asymptotum habeat transeuntem per distantiarum initium. secante axem hmite. ut nimirum imminutis in secundo casu adhuc magis distantiis. ut par sit extinguendas cuicunque velocitati. igitur id accidere non possit . elisis omnibus illis 14 gradibus discriminis. si nullus ejusmodi haberetur arcus .78 PHILOSOPHL/E NATURALIS THEORIA turn vero ad contactum deveniretur cum differentia velocitatum majore.

A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 79 I? 3 O .

8o PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA o .

in a curve of forces there may be asymptotes parallel to one another several asymptotic arcs. then the smaller particles of matter. will not be able to destroy aught but a less number of degrees. & applied even to the comets. in order to guard against any Sn-ve"^* forces has sudden change at all in every case whatever. also 77. then. Nature would be sure to guard against this trouble by a force of such a kind as that which. so skilfully employed by Newton to deduce the law of universal gravitation. no matter how large it may be. if in the first case it had. the gravitation of all bodies towards the Earth. but at an interval after it as great as the beginning least limit of all distances that particles. this cannot be the case. propensity approach. Hence. . of the curve of forces exhibited in Fig. just at contact. For.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY body in front still 81 had its' a difference of velocity greater original 6 degrees . might acquire from one another. originally collected at a distance less than this final limit would be. Laws in astronomy. & increase indefinitely that is to say. as the passing through very beginning distances are indefinitely diminished.e. must be capable of . less than the distance of the asymptote from the beginning of the distance between the two points of matter. any asymptotic arc. 6 . putting this investigation on one side. We have arrived therefore at repulsive forces that increase as . on collision with one another. i. & so on. that there is some of final arc the curve But. led so far.. originally more remote. Hence. however great it may be. i. Hence the repulsive force. happens a third case. which act for any intervals of time so as to effects that are proportional to the times for which they act. . If there were no arc of this kind. will happen also in SThe distances Ire that. projected weights. suddenly changed. First of all. having at short intervals this case also opens up a very rich field for fruitful . owing to the greater difference of velocities. then they would come into contact with than 8 degrees. as this is having. to the asymptotic arc. some fixed distance that acts as a boundary limit to forces that increase indefinitely in this case the asymptote AB will not pass through the of the distance between the two bodies. it can also be proved by the fullest possible induction that all forces produce known to us.their velocities. the relative velocity is greater & therefore the approach is faster. Nature will necessarily have taken measures an asymptote at the ongm for this purpose by means of a force of such a kind that. as the velocity produced in the two bodies in opposite directions is less. when diminished. having for its asymptote asymptotic the straight line passing through the very beginning of the distance. as the distances are diminished the force increases indefinitely. one after the other. . & the curve that represents them. when the distances are still further diminished in the second case. which is an everyday The force at greater experience. 78. . Since. give & This is confirmed by experiments with heavy bodies descending obliquely the same things can be easily established in the case of springs so as to afford corroboration. then at rate there must be some which has an asymptote impossible. we must get on with the consideration of the law of forces. so that. i It is indeed true that by the reasoning given so far it is not immediately deduced that increments of the forces when increased to infinity correspond with the distances diminished to infinity. a further force eliminates all that difference. the & of the distances this leads us to forces . also velocity. compared with the second case & so on. in the second case the force would destroy less than 6 degrees of the difference. about which I will say something later. in the former case. proves sufficiently that the repulsion that we found for very small distances fv^he^curve^cutdoes not extend to all distances but that at distances that are now great there is a ting the axis at s for Moreover the Keplerian which we have called an attractive force. In general. & many other things they are corroborated also by astronomy in the matter of the motions of the heavenly bodies. & in such a manner that it is capable of destroying any velocity. that is to say. destroyed. Moreover it is the fundamental theorem of the whole of these are confirmed by experiments Mechanics. if it acts for a shorter time in the second case. one final asymptotic arc of the kind that I have given in Fig. is proved as follows. it is easy to go on further still & to consider nie fon: e mus * "* what in the second case when compared with the first. There may be for these bodies. ED. after that we have been ' the distances diminish. for. all of the 14 degrees of difference that there were originally being . increase indefinitely in such a way that they are capable of destroying any velocity. in which the velocity of the body that follows is once more increased. There would therefore be more than 8 degrees left over (for. show perfectly well that gravitation extends. Now it certainly will act for a shorter time . extinguished the difference of velocity some time before contact . . such as we have in consideration. & But there must certainly be some investigations. & then the velocities would have to be changed suddenly unless there was compenetration & thereby the Law of Continuity would be violated. Now. destroyed 6 degrees only. . However. Now. which in the first case destroyed only 6 degrees difference of velocity. to the magnitudes of the forces themselves. & from it are derived the laws of motion with pendulums. between 20 & 6 there are 14) when contact happened. that. which are obtained when the distances are increased.

& jam ad se invicem accedunt. est asymptoticus itidem. nisi si limites ibidem fieri alio distantiis. Hinc elementorum m carens partibus. sed habeat maximam illam attractivam. . respectu altenus totius habeat vires illas in minimis distantiis repulsivas. gravitatem vel in infinitum. Quamobrem virium curva arcum habet aliquem jacentem ad partes axis oppositas. ob in ilia tanta expansione. contingere. turn inde iterum ad repulsionem. cum duarum curvarum. in quo ab una ad alteram ex iis viribus transitus fiat. . in axem curva E. nam. ^ uos arcus ac [37] si gravitas generalis in infinitum protenditur. invicem particulae. fieri posse. ut discrimen sensu percipi nequeat nam cum ipso : inde ab axe prseter igitur plurimi limites. sive alias duas intersectiones. cum quibus particulam suam componit. ac redeunt. qua. prima protinus Id materiae elementa esse omnino simplicia. Quoniam. altera ipsam aeris. .1 vim. alter STV. esse locum sit limes attractionum. ut G& I.. quod ob illas repulsiones in minimis modo non potest.82 satis PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA ostendunt. & ad se invicem accedere utcumque. ac licebit progredi ad amovendas apparentes quasdam late Physicam qua exponendam. qui patet. vel quarum pars puncta smguia. jam recedunt cohaerentiam.. & quaedam hypothesis.. Plures esse debere. materiae ab iis viribus deducta. de qua agemus nam eadem materiae pars in iisdem distantiis respectu quarundam paucissimarum infra partium.. indicandam. . vel prsecedat propulsam. & cum in ante nulla & & elasticitatis vi satis se manifesto prodat repulsio. Quamobrem necessario inde consequitur. aliquem quo ejusmodi & repulsionum. ad earn tertii gradus hyperbolam. quae contiguitatem impediunt. adeo diversis velocitatibus eunt. ut particulae primigenias materias quarum altera tota i i . cujus ordinatae sunt in ratione reciproca Ac illud etiam hinc duplicata distantiarum. nee erit arbitraria difHcultates. quam initio proposui. & necessario fluit ex ilia constitutione virium. quantum sensu percipi possit. qualem initio proposui. imminutis in infinitum distantiis. possint penitus congruere. . At in primis id esset contra homogeneitatem materiae. se q u3ev i s respectu reliquarum partium eiusdem particulae non solum nullam habeat repulsivam r J r '-.. 3 79. . secet.. quorum prior & & ED & omnino non potest non enim posset ab eodem deinde discedere. . eadem propulsa. a se .. qui a fixis corporibus gignitur . plurimi flexus curvse hinc. in infinitum protenditur. qui oriuntur ex aqua. Objicit hie fortasse sj quispiam illud. & continuitatis laesionem. sed se tantummodo secare.. ad ejusmodi cohaesionem requintur geniae. in quibus. posteriores earn sequuntur. vis repulsiva augetur in infinitum nullam partem materias posse esse contiguam alteri parti vis enim ilia repulsiva alteram ab altera removeret. : quidem immediate. osculari possint in punctis quotcunque. : : . Habentur > b Tu- ayroptotL & flexibus. . atque transitus multo plures prorsus evincunt substantise molles. & a nullis contiguis partibus composita. qui nimirum est ille arcus STV figuras I. qua. . nobis indicat limites ejusmodi. 1. . in quibus compressiones plurimse acquiruntur cum distantiis admodum adversis. adeoque omnem saltum. in quibus cum gravitatis attractiones. facile patet. nt com r p O sitae quidem. utcunque exigui. una parte particularum repulsio retracta. sed illos Hinc tota m ribus curvae 80. & iterum inde ad generalis Effervescentiae. penitus congruere . ^ . Soiutio objectionis petitaeex eo quod vires repulsivas habere possent non 82. & in infinitum excrescunt. quin immo fuerit attractio. tamen omnibus limites haberi debent . qui accedat.. vel saltern per totum planetarium. Hinc habetur jam tota forma curvae virium. ne hoc opus plus aequo excrescat. asymptoticus est. . particulae primi.T-. quarum diversa natura est.. ad uberrimam applicationem ad omnem qua tantummodo. sed nulla Naturae vi divisibiles a se invicem. & ita accedit ad crus illud hyperbolae gradus tertii. directa ratiocinatione a Naturae phsenomenis.. haberet vim repulsivam. Duos iis alios linStes P n3enomen um vaporum. eo pacto evitari debere quemvis immediatum impulsum. patebit. habeantur in iis omnibus distantiis inter attractiones. indicant utique ejusmodi limites. & repulsiones. quae in minimis distantiis sunt repulsivae. & fermentationes adeo diversae. consequebatur. illae recedunt. ut idcirco a repulsione in minimis distantiis ad attractionem alicubi sit itum. . fuerit. respectu autem . ut pars altera alteram consequatur retractam. & cometarium systema extendi in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum. distantiis ad sensum non mutatis. quo facto omnis ilia Theoria. nulli arcus continui. ut cera. & genuinis Remanet jam determinanda constitutio primorum elementorum principiis deducta. 81. anteriore parte ad se attracta. quae nimirum requiruntur ad hoc.

asymptotic J r r i r i i i to the form of the hyperbola of the third degree mentioned above so closely that the difference from it is imperceptible . of two curves of different nature. that absolutely coincide they can only cut. of the same particle may not a very primary particles only have no repulsive force. at which the passage from one to the other of these forces that of gas produced from There are bound to i. The phenomenon of fixed bodies lead us to admit vapour arising from water. Therefore there are a large number of limit-points. in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances. & it will not appear to be a mere arbitrary hypothesis. or touch. of which the ordinates are in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances . or osculate one another in an indefinitely great number of points. at 1" 6 hmit would be an attraction due to cohesion. two other intersections. as far as can be perceived by our senses. Thus we now have the whole form of the curve of forces. & flexures intersections the axis. first on one side & then on the other side of the axis. a passage from repulsion at very small distances to attraction. soft substances like But the existence wax . in that case it would never depart from it. for the repulsive force would at once separate one from the other. the latter will recede from it. from Now this it is evident that there is is and this a limit-point for is some point E. no matter how short. in addition to two arcs. particles go & return with as many different velocities. which in the first But.e. those that are requisite to account for the fact that one part will follow the other when the latter is drawn out. with corresay. transitions. but indeed may have can have them great attractive force such as is required for cohesion of this sort . Therefore it necessarily follows that the primary elements of matter are perfectly simple. . & a large number of flexures on the curve. to prevent the work from growing to an unreasonable size. merely mentioning others. 81. STV. which. Since in these there would be initially no repulsion. in which attractions and repulsions. cannot take place in any way. 80. nay rather there sages. unless there are limit-points there in all those distances between attractions & repulsions namely. ED. but it cannot altogether coincide with it. because. 82. & that they are not composed of any parts contiguous to one another. & by the force of its elasticity . we will consider later for the same part of matter. is continued to infinity & is asymptotic. at the same distances with regard to those very few parts. that. because the repulsive force is indefinitely increased when the distances are indefinitely diminished. we are bound to avoid all immediate impulse. Now. i. & from that back once more to the attractions of universal Effervescences & fermentations of many different kinds. & the other. somewhere or other. & this indeed is the arc STV in Fig. derived from these forces . is It approximates also. For. & will recede in front of the latter when that is pushed in. & now approach towards & now recede from one another. explaining some things fully &. along with which it makes up the particle. : in this manner the whole of the Theory that I enunciated at the start will become quite clear. It only remains for us now to determine the constitution of the primary elements of matter. & approximate to one another indefinitely closely. This. of the nature that I gave at the commencement. : of these limit-points is perfectly proved by the case of for in these substances a large number of compressions are acquired with very different distances. if the front part is drawn out. This is an immediate & necessary deduction from the constitution of the forces. provided that universal gravitation extends to infinity. asymptotes. Hence the curve will have an arc lying on the opposite side of the axis. approximates to that hyperbola of the third degree. derived by a straightforward chain of reasoning from natural phenomena. certainly indicate many more of these limit-points & 79. the part behind will follow . & to apply it with great profit to the whole of Physics in general. it therefore follows that there is. then back again to repulsion. whilst any one part with regard to any other part u7 t h'at ?OTces. another & since in the former. when one part is retracted. place. We can proceed to remove certain apparent difficulties. one of which. many many with The simplicity of " ments^oT^att^r w^110"* Parts. For. they are altogether that the primary Solution of the obd tlo particles of matter are composite. made.. that one whole with regard to another whole may possibly have those forces single points cana P that are repulsive at very small distances. repulsion is clearly evidenced by the generally followed it greatness of the expansion. but that they cannot be disintegrated by any force in j n e ^ SSertion that Nature. would have a repulsive - at very small distances increase indefinitely. & so any sudden change or breach of continuity. the distances remaining approximately unchanged. on account of the repulsions existing at very small distances. which prevent contiguity. & sound principles. yet in all of these there must be limit-points. ^Syof'tiSep^ & I. which are repulsive . in which the gravitation. it is quite easy to see clearly that no part of matter can be contiguous to any other part . by which. Perhaps someone will here raise the objection that it & may be . or if the former is pushed inwards. i j- Hence we get the whole for of h t ^ e i i i -11 111 . a curve of this kind cuts the axis . this would be in opposition to the homogeneity of matter. in this way. & two more G of these limit-points. there cannot be any continuous arcs.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY & 83 either to infinity or at least to the limits of the system including all the planets comets.

quod analogic adversatur. quae infra sensuum res nimirum pendet tantummodo a magnitudine spatii. quas per sensum deprehendimus. sub sensus caderet. simplici. Sic etiam animam rationalem hominis utique prorsus ac sunt etiamnum. in quo magna haec corpora eodem tempore . Deinde si a agente supra vires Naturae sejungerentur illas partes a se invicem. animam rationalem tantummodo. : Responsioadexem. ad materiales existendi. cum ex alio entium genere petita non esse unico illud demonstrari posse censeo. dubitari potest. & partim liberis. quod omnia corpora occupant. Quod autem . Demum duo turn cohaesionum genera ponens aliquid deberent haberi in Natura admodum diversa. ejusmodi habeant virtualem extensionem.84 PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA omnium attractivam in iisdem distantiis. & inextenso corporis puncto ita praesentem. ut alia aliis ma jus etiam occupent spatium. an aliquam. vel etiam plura . quae ex natura sua sit. qui ita sentiant. & minus uniformis evaderet Theoria. quo quies durat sic etiam ilia virtualis extensio est conjunctio unius momenti temporis cum serie continua omnium punctorum spatii. principio. in his corporibus omnibus. praesentem toti etiamnum arbitrantur. j) e j } & ab omnipraesentia quae adduntur. agit. . turn ipsius Naturae vi in se invicem incurrerent haberetur in earum collisione saltus naturalis. ut eundem locum obtineat. nimirum per limites cohaesionis adeoque multo minus simplex. per quod simplex illud : ens virtualiter extenditur virtualis extensio ut idcirco sicut ilia quies haberi creditur in Natura. Videtur autem sententia eadem inniti cuidam etiam analogiae loci. . esse potest & deductio. quidquid distinctum occupat locum. iis cogitat. Ut enim quies est conjunctio ejusdem puncti loci cum serie continua omnium moment- sed utique parti divisibili cuipiam. ulla ille existit. sed tamen extensa per spatium divisibile ita. & Deum orum ejus temporis. haberetur virtualis extensio. sint n praeterquam quod nee positive evincunt. extensionem habeant ejus generis. dicimus. stet ipsum animae commercium cum corpore. alterum per attractionem in minimis distantiis. quae magnitudo si esset satis ampla. sunt sane satis valida argumenta. vult. Dei autem praesentia quem sane extensum per spatium divisibile nequaquam cujusmodi sit. Cum sensum cadentibus. eo remote. ut aeque cadere possit in magnitudines. . q u ibus. ex quo alia tarn multa hucusque. ego censeam. 83. ac eo loco. alii minori quidem indivisibilem censuerunt alii per totum corpus diffusam corporis parti. quam virtualem extensionem appellant Scholastici. qui admiserint elementa simplicia. exerendo inde vires quasdam in reliqua corporis puncta rite disposita. licet ipse simplicissimus sit.[39] plum anima & Dei. Exciuditur virtu- At ego quidem arbitror. An um elementa sint [38] extensa argumensint ta pro virtual! eor: extensione. rite appiicato. Porro haec proprietas ejus generis est. atque ex ipsa natura sua prorsus indivisibilia. itidem pertinet ad analogiam cum quiete. ut supra innui. quibus 84. modis omnem excedentibus humanum captum. ac in magnitudines. possint. ignoramus omnino 85. stare simul duo. in Natura quietem nullam existere. distinctum esse itidem ita. an ea etiam inextensa. & tamen non penitus inextensa. : extensae. ut etiam satis magnis viribus adhibitis separari possint. hanc itidem sententiam everti penitus eodem inductionis Videmus enim usi sumus. nee ab analogia. Simplicitate & incompositione elementorum defmita. j^ Exempla. autem ipsum praesentem ubique credimus per totum utique divisibile spatium. & eadem partem aliquam habeant. in quibus viribus partim necessariis. utut simplicia. quibus ad humanos. immo in igitur nunquam id comperiamus in magnitudinibus sub debet casibus innumeris deprehendamus oppositum utique res transferri ex inductionis ut ne illae quidem principio supra exposito ad minimas etiam quasque materiae particulas. quae diversas occupant spatii partes. Ipsam nee posse 86. esse simplicia. agendique modos. ita & haec debeat admitti. ac temporis. Fuerunt enim potissimum inter Peripateticos. ad analogiam cum quiete. per quod nostrorum limites sunt ullum casum deprehendimus. alterum vero longe alio pacto in elementarium particularum massis. petita ab anima rational}. quo unum stet. nee ullam prorsus compositionem admittat. quae observare possumus. qua admissa poterunt utique ilia primse materiae elementa . deduximus. & carentia partibus. utut praesupvi factum agente supra Naturam. nee diversas spatii partes occupet. aliarum Deo .

is to us. by which HE exists. a body smaller part of the body. Taking it for granted. But I have come to the conclusion that this idea is quite overthrown by that same virtual extension is by the principle of induction. added. the matter depends only upon the size of the space. Indeed. just as rest is a conjunction with a continuous series of all the instants in the interval of time during which the rest endures . Secondly. prove nothing positively . Lastly. as just & if this is admitted. & we should have. that the elements are simple & non-composite. & yet is the same part. & the other coming about constitution . the matter certainly ought to be transferred by the principle of induction. I do not think that it can even be proved that the rational soul does not exist in merely a single. especially among the Peripatetics. surpassing all human intelligence. . & non-extended point of the body . Scholastics. in all those bodies that we can bring under observation. in innumerable cases we perceive the contrary . although conveying a presumption that something was done by the action of a supernatural force. & yet He is onefold in the highest degree & admits not of any composite nature whatever. due to the action of GOD of those are the forces Nature. certain arguments . simple. parts separated from one another. Thus a theory would result that is far less simple & less uniform than mine. . V simple. & this size. then. illustrations that are .' . . nature is of the sort for which it is equally probable that it happens in magnitudes that we can In fact. they have an extension of the kind that is termed virtual extension by the m favour of virtual For there were some. if. was diffused throughout the whole of the whilst others still consider that it is present throughout the whole of. that is to say. nor from 85. there would have to be two kinds of cohesion in Nature that were altogether different in one due to attraction at very small distances. Hence. detect by the senses & in magnitudes which are below the limits of our senses.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY force .excluded^ 6 employed. can any analogy or deduction be made which will apply to human or material modes of existence & action. . with this idea. as explained above. so also are we bound to admit virtual extension . derived from a consideration of the rational Reply to 6 soul & the omnipresence of GOD. Again with regard 86. & thence it puts forth some sort of force into the & the intercommunication between remaining points of the body duly disposed about it the soul & the body consists of these forces. that were simple. lacking in all parts. I proved that such a thing could not be. by a direct argument IT i i m . nay rather. so that it maintains the same position. 1-1 i . For. if that one were & even now there removed. Further. that as absolute rest. the same idea seems to depend on an analogy between space & time. although ments are extended. we are absolutely ignorant of the nature of the presence of GOD . . for all that. which certainly is altogether indivisible. but yet a part that is at any rate divisible & extended. Further we believe that GOD Himself is present everywhere throughout the whole of the undoubtedly divisible space that all bodies occupy . who admitted elements extension. so also this virtual extension is a conjunction of one instant of time with a continuous series of all the points of space throughout which this one-fold entity extends virtually. wills & acts. for they are derived from s^uf&'cot) another class of entities. so extended through divisible space that some occupied more room than others . 83. .. this property by its very space at one & the same time. The the ' those modes. by which we have hitherto deduced so many results which we have r . Moreover. due to the limit-points of cohesion. throughout which the virtual extension in a far different . two or even more others might be placed at the same time So also some thought that the rational soul in are some who are of the same opinion. indeed. we have arguments that are sufficiently ' to the T j i i_ t ^v vr analogy with no such Nature there is rest thing strong to lead us to believe. & yet not absolutely non-extended. For we see. Again. at the very same in opposition to analogy. if it were sufficiently ample. 85 attractive force with regard to all others. to any of the smallest particles of matter as well so that not even they are admitted to have such virtual extension. nor can we detect a case in which these larger bodies have any part that occupies different parts of Further. way in the case of masses of elementary particles. 84. would become sensible Since then we never find this virtual extension in magnitudes that fall within the range of our senses. except that. whether the elethere can be no doubt as to whether they are also non-extended or whether. that auction correctly whatever occupies a distinct position is itself also a distinct thing . man. & in no wise do we say that He is really extended throughout divisible space . rest is believed to exist in Nature. as regards the analogy with rest. as I remarked above. - supposed to exist . & such that in the position once occupied by one of them. a sudden change appertaining to Nature. some of which are involuntary whilst others are voluntary. from Nature would rush towards forces of the they by but . it would have an this is distances & their collision. . so that those that occupy aPPlied different parts of space can be separated by using a sufficiently large force . & from their very nature perfectly indivisible but. then it will be possible for the primary elements of matter to be simple. thinks. . then urged surpassing one another .

cometarumque corpora fixis omnibus circa suorum systematum gravitatis ac idem accidit & Sol ut moventur. punctis loci . Per ipsum non transit ab ullo ipsi immediate ad nee immoratur mobile continue motu delatum. in longum. numquam vero earn i. quam comprobet. Atque eo pacto aucta mole. modo. ut idcirco duo puncta materiae nunquam 87. & in motu continue per punctum simplex fit transitus a vacuo continue ad & tantum- continuum. . demonstravi in Stayanis Supplementis. nisi ad certum limitem possit. per quam eadem ilia massa diffusa sit.86 existere. quas inde positionem ab ilia mutant. ubi ad contactum deventum fuerit. i n q uo increment! lex necessario abrumpi debeat. mutant & gravitatem. latum. 66 occurrent infra Supplementorum existere in Natura. potius virtualem ejusmodi simplicium ejusdem momenti temporis cum serie elementorum extensionem positam in conjunctione continua punctorum loci. particulae ad contactum autem determinata quaedam erit utique ratio spatii vacui ad plenum. transitum momentaneum a densitate nuiia ad um esse & f mt pli c ia. . uti augeri eorum distantia poterit in infinitum. & tempore 2 . indivisibilis limes inter spatium praecedens. punctum utique imaginarium.. ac proinde moventur motu aliquo exiguo. & quae juxta num. vel etiam tantummodo extensae virtualiter. ubi ea Is vero saltus non habetur. nullum materiae punctum unquam redire ad punctum spatii quodcunque. quod eadem idcirco per spatium particula continua dividi possit in particulas minores quotcunque. cum analogiam inter tempus. In ipsa Telluris quiescentis sententia. & inextensa . quae utcunque magnum diffundi potest ita. augeri autem non posse. quod punctum itidem ad hoc. quiescit quidem Tellus ad sensum. sed a vacuo continue ad vacuum continuum transitur per ipsum spatii punctum a materiae puncto occupatum. i i_ j ji_ Turn enim omne continuum est vacuum inextensa. asquilibrio dempto. ipsa analogia. ad densitatem summam. sed evertit ejusmodi. . ut nulla earum sit. ita utique poterit etiam minui pariter in ratione quacunque . . quin immo ex actione unius systematis in aliud utcunque distans. proximo spatii puncto. quae aliquam aliam non habeat utcunque libuerit parum a se distantem. . ubi de spatio. cum go. quae habetur. haec primigenia materiae elementa. cum punctum puncto proximum. in quo deficiat analogia loci. quae habetur in vacuo. ipse centra . quibus Si enim prima elementa materiae sint quaedam partes solidse. spatii est Punctum illud materiae occupat unicum consequens. At si elementa sint puncta penitus indivisibilia. rivuli decursum. nee tota at ad quamcunque crispationem maris. ipsum uti supra diximus. eaque aucta in ratione quacunque minuetur utique ubi enim omnes Patet & alterum densitas in ratione itidem utcunque magna. illud jam tuto inferri potest. nullum sit . ut p"test minui in infinitum. non Et quidem haec ipsa simplicitas. ex partibus compositae. perquam exigua ilia quidem. nonnisi in ea ratione augeri poterit densitas. spatium triplicem. dum a vacuo spatio motu continue pergitur per unam ejusmodi particulam. & tem- rem satis evinceret . & spatii vacuum punctum. : . ac indivisibilia. centra motus aliquis inducetur uti luminis particula qusecunque reliquae omnes utcunque remotae. nam in iis itidem paragraphis Supplementorum in aliis etiam violari demonstravi. ac comprobatur. in ipsa gravitatis & generalius. . adrumpetur. sed sane motu. atque profundum. . PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA argumento quodam positive ex numero combinationum possibilium infinite contra alium finitum. so i Quamobrem si . si elementa simplicia sint. particula spatium occupat totum. in qua in tantummodo centrum commune graviplanetario systemate ex mutuis actionibus quiescit circa quod omnia planetarum. fit saltus quidam momentaneus a densitate nulla. patet sane in ipsa Newtoniana sententia de gravitate generali. non devenerint densitas ultra augeri Quoniam poterit. ut veram quietem omnino impediat. quod in sententia solidorum. dum quamconjungant idem [40] punctum spatii ne cum materiae binaria conjungunt idem punctum temporis cum duobus punctorum plurima ac praeterea tempus quidem unicam dimensionem utique coexistunt habet vero habet diuturnitatis. Sed nee ea l ocum videamus : binis quidem punctis temporis. ac a se invicem distantia. dum movetur quaecunque materiae particula. cujus augmentum. ut Accedit. Quamobrem analogia inde petita tatis. in quo semel fuerit aliud materiae punctum. inextensio elementorum summam. sed etiam inextensa. u i c itur. densitatem corporis minui posse in infinitum. ab uno in alium transfertur locum muscae volatum. eadem adnuc magis praestabit commoda sane plunma. si adesset. nam : inextensio ad utilis exciudendum 88. trepidatio oritur. Primum constat ex eo. extensorumque elementorum habetur illud.

no matter how The second great the ratio may be. so long as any particle of light. 88. for when the particles have come into contact. but yet a true motion. all other particles. the passage is made from continuous vacuum to continuous vacuum. & from the action of one system on another to the centres of gravity of their systems at any distance whatever from it. at which the law of increase must be discontinuous. . no matter how distant. nor from passing to it from any it Therefore can now be safely for. must also have their gravitation altered. 14 of the Supplements. then. gravity. . length. that no point of matter ever returned to any point of space. just as their distances can be increased indefinitely. there would be a sudden change from a density that is nothing when the space is empty. whilst we pass by a continuous motion from empty space through one particle of this kind. consequently must move with some very slight motion. Indeed this a n \nstanTaneous no very simplicity & non-extension of the elements will prove useful in a really large number passage from a Very of cases for still further strengthening & corroborating the results already obtained.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY of another . in connection with space & time these will be found later immediately after Art. The one point of matter occupies but one point of space . to a density that is very great when the particle occupies the whole of the space. & this is an altogether comets move. But if the elements are points that are perfectly indivisible & non-extended. density only be increased in that ratio . yet it is quite enough to prevent true rest altogether. The first be decreased. But even if the foregoing analogy held good. in the continuous motion by a simple point. That it never does exist in Nature is really clear in the Newtonian theory of universal gravitation . but also that they are non-extended. namely Also for that the density of a body can be diminished indefinitely. the downward course of rivers. . Hence an analogy deduced from rest contradicts rather than corroborates virtual extension of the simple elements of Nature. so long as any particle of matter. it would not prove the matter Where the analogy pace and tlme satisfactorily since we see that in other ways the analogy between space & time is impaired. I and II. For I proved. 87 founded upon the infiniteness of a number of possible combinations as against the finiteness number. Moreover. & the regular increase of density will be arrested when contact is attained. there point of space that is in immediate proximity to it is no But from continuous vacuum point that is the next point to a given point. let alone with more . & 2^ . about which all the bodies of the planets & Moreover the same thing happens in the case of all the fixed stars with regard the sun itself. &. is increased & when that is increased in any ratio whatever. which on account of this motion have their distance from the first particle altered. due to any tremulous motion of the sea. that arises in the theory of solid extended elements. useaccepted that these primary elements of matter Non-extension u are not only simple & indivisible. . J^-one. the idea 89. duration . themselves composed of parts or even virtually extended only. whilst space has three. to continuous vacuum the passage is made through that point of space which is occupied by the point of matter. For then the whole of space is merely a continuous vacuum. whereas a huge number of pairs of points connect the same instant of time with two points of space. comes from the fact that this same continuous particle can be divided into any number mdefinltel yof smaller particles these can be diffused through space of any size in such a way that there is not one of them that does not have some other one at some little (as little as you In this way the volume through which the same mass is diffused will) distance from itself. even to the fly's flight. but cannot be increased except j^^a'^ ^can up to a certain fixed limit. as also does imaginary point. There is nothing to prevent the moving point from being carried through it by a continuous motion. breadth Besides. equilibrium is destroyed & some agitation is produced. & depth. in which there had once been any other point of matter so that two points of matter never connected the same point of space with two instants of time. In the idea of a quiescent Earth. on the hypothesis of a conjunction of the same instant of time with a continuous series of points of space. although in truth it is very slight . 87. More generally. in the planetary system the common centre of gravity alone is at rest under the action of the mutual forces . the Earth is at rest approximately. For if the primary elements were certain solid parts. time has but one dimension. then indeed the density will be diminished in the same ratio. . But there is not this sudden change if we assume that the elements are simple. There is also the point. as I remarked above. : . some motion will be imparted to these very centres of . also in those paragraphs of the Supplements that I have mentioned. nor is it as a whole translated from place to place but. non-extended & non-adjacent. is in motion. the density cannot thing is also evident be increased any further. in the Supplements to Stay's Philosophy. since they certainly coexist. since there will undoubtedly be a certain determinate ratio for the amount of space that is empty compared with the amount of space that is the can full. then. according to this theory. & this point of space is the indivisible boundary between the space that precedes & the space that follows.

& . & inter se prorsus similia. in quibus possibilibus ipsis omnem possibilium seriem idcirco ego appellare soleo constantem terminis finitis in infinitum. & alibi. ncc idcirco Natura. differant plurimum etiam in Et hoc hisce extremis. luculcnter demonstravi in disser- & t$ Usu infinitorum. jam debet. ubi extiterint. quod & tam multi Philosophi censuerunt. atque id sine ullo limite. Deinde curvam ipsam virium eandem esse omnino in omnibus illud indicat. : Si reliquus curvae arcus .Leibnitiani oppugnare solent. Homogeneitatem 1 a n( genefta te primi! uitimi asymptotici & P rm cipium. ac supererit quaerendum illud tantummodo.Sed illud continuum extcn. tam multis aliis inextensio simplicitas. & aliis pluribus. nee principium rationis sufficients. atque aliorum punctorum. quavis & materiae ab nimirum eodem materiae eandem cum elemento. & alii majores. locum reliquent. suspicabar diversitatem legis virium respondentis diversis directionibus sed hoc argumento adi & uniformitatem sum. primum. finita itidem erunt. indivisibilia. utrum haec elementa homogenca censeri debeant. atque indiscernibilium. ubi quaeratur. atque intuitionem quandam. ab eodem etiam illud curvam in directione virium quidem argumento colligitur. finitis tamen itidem. an numerus in existentibus. quae existant. Philosophi. & inextensione conveniant. vel indiciis fulciatur. & ratiT TV/" j-j onis sufficients. aeque gravia pro quantitate 92. deinde adductus Diversitas autem legum majorem simplicitatem. quod ita omne continuum coexistens eliminabitur 9. adeoque uli nullus est Et ad excludendum accidet. ac dissimilia. quo ipsam ex principio indis. ut ea initio assumpsimus. a se : invicem aliquo intervallo disjuncta . quod primum crus repulsivum impenetrabilitatem secum trahens. sed nullus sit existentium finitus numerus ita ingens. uti satis Pro homogeneitate primorum materiae elementorum illud est quoddani veluti in simplicitate. haberi non possint. ' . & divisibile utique in Continuitatis. finita esse debeant. infinitesimas enim quantitates in se in quavis massa determinatas nullas esse. probabilius esset. ita etiam nullus erit auctae densitatis. satis ego quidem. ** sum. & plumse cadentis in Boyliano recipiente infinities intermedius esset difformis in diversis materiae punctis infinities extendi & cum difformitatem etiam ad crus ultimum. ut arbitror. ac infinite parvorum. omnino communia in omnibus sint materiae omnia & vero etiam corpora aeque impenetrabilia sunt. ego quidem omnino. Innmtam Divini v_onditons mentem. innumerae sane difficultates auferentur. . primorum materiae elementorum deducatur. quod supenus innui numero 3. qua de suae. quod S P "' omnibus' [42] evincit aequalis velocitas auri. fere incassum. habetur utique ex diverso numero. cum in reliquis differant partibus. ac etiam vires quasdam habeant omnia. tatione De Natura. arbitror. qui nequeat praeteriri. & in infinitum j r i j divisio ulla realis entis in innmtum produci potent.88 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA : in [41] ratione quacunque lineola quaecunque secari sane possit limes raritatis auctae. Hoc autcm pacto. infinitum per interpositionem aliorum. nee naerebitur. Rationis autem sufficientis . cermbUium. & commodum & i nee alia ejusmodi partium actu distinctarum. & nam postremum attractivum gravitatem definiens. an vero heterogenea.Nee vero huic homogeneitati opponitur inductionis principium. virium pro diversis particulis. igitur Cum & . quam individuationem appellant. omnino similium individuorum cognoscat. quod quaecunque. quae in continui compositione usque adeo negotium facessunt Philosophis. quam quae in hisce extremis tantum modo tam arete consentiant. Cum primum in dissertatione De Firibus Vivis hanc Theoriam protuli. jam habebuntur. & pro diversis respectu ejusdem particulae directionibus. quae tamen singula. primo primum puncto impenetrabilitatis. & positione punctorum earn componentium. & postremum gravitatis crus pro omnibus directionibus sit ad sensum idem. jam erit finitus punctorum numerus nam distantiae omnes finitae erunt . ejusmodi perspicacitatem habere. utique ve ^ e tiani evincit. & separabilium. quae. plures sint curvae. re inferius aliquid. ut alii. esse. sublato ex existentibus omni actuali infinite. & in dissertatione DC Lege Intervallum quodcunque finitum erit. atque ilia inter se omnino discernat. inextensionem qua'rend^m^e homogeneitate. sit finitus. sed itidem finiti. ut infinitum sit tantummodo in possibilibus. ut ipsam etiam. an infinitus sane innumera. non autem in existentibus. a lege virium positive demonstrata desumpto. vel emolumentis inde derivatis confirmetur ipsa itidem admitti 91. ubi fuerint posita. i contra deduci 93. Si enim prima materiae elementa sint puncta penitus inextensa. & positive argumento. .e in quo explicando usque adeo dcsudarunt.

interpolated. that ibles & sufficient J . they So that for still more . when they differ in the remaining parts. that there are no infinitesimal Any interval whatever will be finite. is certainly to be obtained from the diverse number & position of the points composing it . / 7 6 *" ea a C011 " 1 1 1 1 1 1 Ml 11 1 to explain which philosophers have up till now laboured tinuum in existing idea of a coexistent continuum thm Rs that in vain. . . & of indiscernibles. but not of existing points to these possible points. is r r i i t . Since therefore. & in other places. remains the as to There whether now to be as true. so also there is none to increase of density. & a great many other reason. For if the primary elements of matter are perfectly non-extended & indivisible points separated from one another by some definite interval. & still others in be also finite & leave room when have been will number. when they existed. or corroborated it by referring to the advantages to be derived from it . that which is & absolutely . . it would be infinitely more probable for there that the non-uniformity would extend also to the first & last branches also are infinitely more curves which. I to believe that was inclined in dissertation De Firibus this Fivis.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY & 89 For it is certainly possible so also can they just as well be diminished in any ratio whatever. however. which agree so closely only in these extremes. I proved clearly enough. -r i i -TO . also differ to the greatest extent in the extremes. . . which cannot be surpassed. given mass must be finite Usu infinitorum ac infinite parvorum. curve were non-uniform for different points of matter. ! & generally very we shall not be brought to a standstill when we seek to can be carried on indefinitely find out whether the number of parts that are actually distinct & separable is finite or nor with it will there come in any of those other truly innumerable difficulties infinite the idea of continuous composition. I usually term the whole series of possibles a series that ends at finite limits at infinity. for all directions. dissertation De Lege Continuitatis. with that. are exactly the same in all respects. cannot be obtained . 93. . thus. extension. i to be derived Notl?i n s t? b to this idea of homogeneity there anything o o opposed J rr /_ brought against from the principle of induction. just as there is no limit to increase of rarity. For all bodies are equally c & Homogeneity for St a V oca!ted f rom a that this consideration of ^l S impenetrable . that a short line can be divided into parts in any ratio whatever . . . investigation only ought accepted these elements ought to be considered to be homogeneous & perfectly similar to one another. . hard so Assuming non-extension. This for the reason that any of them that exist must be finite but there is no finite number of things that exist so great that other numbers. Now. & also we have strengthened the theory by evidence pointing towards this theory it. published Theory my but I there was a diversity in the law of forces corresponding to diversity of direction was led by the argument given above to the greater simplicity & the greater uniformity derived therefrom. or whether they are really heterogeneous & dissimilar. that the Infinite Will of the Divine Founder has a Nor indeed i . each such set divisible indefinitely by the interpolation of other points. in this way. Non-extension 5 a e have now to homoinvestigate gen w" also that they are all endowed with forces of some sort. i_ 1 mentioned above in Art. & these too. & with regard there is only an infinity of possible points. in the dissertation De Natura. & also all are equally heavy in proportion to the amount of matter contained in them. in any direction whatever from the same exactly element of matter for both the first branch of impenetrability & the last branch primary When I first of gravitation are the same. & in the I think. & the last attractive branch a s y"m p t o t i c forces* determining gravitation. 1 perspicacity & an intuition of such a nature that it takes cognizance of called individuation amongst individuals that are perfectly similar. 92. but yet all finite. have given so much trouble to philosophers. diversity of the laws of forces for diverse particles. truly countless difficulties are got rid of. by means of which the followers of Leibniz usually raise this from the docfc es f ind scern an objection : to it nor from the r principle of sufficient reason. Further. by doing away with all idea of limit. 6 86 curve of forces is exactly the same for all of them is indicated or even proved by the fact Of the fir?t last that the first repulsive branch necessitating impenetrability. will also be finite in number. as is sufficiently proved by the equal velocity of the piece of gold & If the remaining intermediate arc of the the feather when falling in Boyle's experiment. lso or excludm s of non-extension is also convenient for eliminating from Nature all -/ The theory qo. to say later. in number greater & greater still. & at least quantities determinate in themselves. . Also from this argument we can deduce that the curve of forces is indeed the same from the same point of matter. an actual infinity in existing things. & for different directions with the same particle. by a direct argument derived from a law of forces that has been directly proved. 3. j. than there are curves. In favour of the homogeneity of the primary elements of matter we have so to speak some foundation derived from the fact that all of them agree in simplicity & non. so far as we can perceive. no division of a real entity ^ - & . & that too without any Further. about which I shall have something . we have both deduced the simplicity & non-extension of the primary elements of matter. as we assumed at the start. I am indeed quite convinced. 91. philosophers too have thought. then the number of points in any because all the distances are finite.

ac ejusmodi. Omissa ipsa earum forma in semine. cum nimirum illud discrimen sit p rO pri e tas relativa ad rationem aggregati. necessario existunt. quam earum massarum. quse postea abusum ejus principii sphsericam investigationis progressu errasse plurimum. . quae & inde jam in aggregate [44] sunt in Mundo. & inter se conferre (qui quidem ob distantias. & agitatio inde orta. a qua debet is progredi. Cum enim mutuae vires ad distantias quascunque pertineant status uniuscujusque puncti pendebit saltern aliquantisper a statu omnium aliorum punctorum. Solis 24 litterulis excrescere. quaccunque existunt. quas tamen figuram marium. qua sensus afficitur in aggregatis. ex qua redundat. diversitas in massas inde efformatas . & distantia. combinationum diversarum possibilium in massis sensibilibus. quod perfectam similitudinem omnino impediat. solares radii. quanto major est numerus puuctorum materiae in quavis massa sensibili ? Quod ibi diversus est litterarum diversarum ordo. quod alicujus dissimilitudinis in aggregatis physicam rationem cernimus in iis etiam casibus. turn in Stayanis Supplementis. in amplissima silva reperire folia ex diversis sit combinatiombus. ea sane me nihil movet . & directiones in infinitum variabiles praescindendo ab aequilibrio virium. ac mensura virium. ipsum liberum arbitrium. ostendi. necessario respectu diversarum frondium diversa non nihil esse debeant. nisi multa sint simul. uti possunt. uti sunt duo folia in eadem silva. Sed illud earn inducit magis. ut ad locum suum deveniat. quam suo ad creandum hoc voluntas determinari ex toto solo arbitrio iis ad ex illud ex omnibus omnino similibus. si ille ipse numerus sit aliquanto major. tollat ipsa libera determinatio assumatur. ne possibilia quidem erunt. ubi agitur de voluntatis determinatione. in quibus maxime inter se similia esse deberent. humoris ad nutritionem necessarii quantitas. quod quae maxime conferunt ad ejusmodi dispositionem. similia. quod nisi fiat in voluntate divina. omnes nosse ad amrmando. hue voces diversimodo combinatis formantur omnes. quae sunt in Mundo. observamus in rebus omnibus. pendentium a distantia. & Non ferre vaierehicprin- 95. . ut omnem verse libertatis ideam omnino nisi pro ratione. mirum possibilitate. licet extensione. Posse etiam puncta 11S> dlfierrTin aiiis essent prorsus similia in simplicitate. ut eo principio uti possemus. quod adhiberi solet. & multo magis in eodem ramo . Accedit & illud. Porro scimus utique combinationes ejusdem numeri terminorum in Quanto major est numerus utique forma. quos singula materiae elementa non afficiunt vi sufficiente ad excitandam in animo ideam. & quibus omnia ilia. & vis. cum nimirum nusquam ex. duo prorsus similia . uti facile admodum Quamobrem potest divina sane. gr. quam omnium aliquantisper saltern inter se dissimilium. & nostros sensus. sive rationum. 94. quas possumus observare.90 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA principium falsum omnino esse censeo. sus) . quod ilia puncta materiae. a^ma^sis^eas^de! quam Quod autem attinet ad inductionem. quo ponendum quodlibet haec Sed de rationis sufficientis principio ipsa fusius pertractavi ponit. quae ipsa etiam apud ipsos Leibnitianos discriminarent. quibus variatis. ac Telluris. nobis ignotas. quibus usque usa sunt Alphabet! omnia idiomata. individuum potius. quae possunt existere. Physica ratio 1 disr 1 1 US massU ut in fo iiu Et quidem accedit illud etiam. possent alias habere proprietates metaphysicas diversas inter se. detectae sunt. deducendo per hoc. & in molem majorem excrescant. . quam pro [43] ibidem ipso. Porro utcunque puncta quaedam sint parum a se invicem remota. id prin& in praedicari solet quibus adhibetur. & potius eo loco. id in punctis etiam prorsus homogeneis sunt positiones. quod nobis non innotescant rationes omnes. sed diversitatem aliquam habent. quam loco alterius. aura ipsa. : tantopere. variatur immensum cum ipso aequilibrio est immen- tanto major est improbabilitas duarum massarum omnino similium. & qusecunque non existunt. atque oporteret utique id idcirco. non sunt omnino 96. distantia. illud ubi etiam turn in aliis locis pluribus. vera aliqua demonstratur quod tamen si semel admittatur. quae extiterunt. quam prona demum ad fatalem necessitatem patebit via. ex ignoratione causarum. ipsum in suae ostendi. adhuc tamen non eandem prorsus relationem distantiae. cum non eundem prorsus locum obtineant discrimen aliquod oriri debet. cipium nullum habere usum posse in iis ipsis casibus. & virium habent ad reliqua omnia materiae puncta. nullam sane in exemplo illo illo alio esse rationem sufncientem pro hoc potius. quam Leibnitiani desumunt a dissimilitudine. Archimedis hoc principio aequilibrium determinantis. I 1100! 116 . est infinitus. Quid si numerus earum existeret tanto major.

I showed also that Archimedes himself had made a very big mistake in following out his investigation because of his lack of knowledge of causes or reasons that were discovered in later days. Nevertheless. still for all that they do not have quite the same relation as regards distance & forces as all the rest of the points of matter that are in the universe. the largest wood two leaves exactly alike). Moreover. in the Supplements to Stay's Philosophy . ror since mutual forces pertain to all possible distances. is also this point in addition . 94. & one that is calculated to take away all idea of true freewill. once this idea is accepted. are formed the 24 letters of the alphabet alone. that of Archimedes' determination of equilibrium by means of it. How greater is the number of different combinations that are possible in sensible masses than the number of those masses that we can observe & compare with one another (& this number. these are not exactly similar. points may be. & they develop into a mass of considerable size. as . with any real possibility. then. on account of the infinitely variable distances & directions of the forces. depen. at least in . besides several the place of another. although they might be perfectly it is possible for similar as regards simplicity in having the measure of their forces extension. a property that is . where I have shown that the principle cannot be employed in those instances in which it is used & generally so strongly The reason being that all possible reasons are not known to us . the quantity of moisture necessary for nutrition. differ . all at least slightly different from one another. are altered as well. might still have other metaphysical different from one but to disagree in & & another. & is whatever things do not very easily proved. namely. we discern a physical reason as well for some Physical reason for in for those cases too. or can possibly come into existence. it is truly wonderful how it way finally to fatalistic Hence the Divine Will is able. Unless free choice or free determination is assumed as the basis of argument. I consider that the principle of sufficient altogether false. the state of in leaves. There some slight degree. Hence in a group some distinction is bound to arise which will entirely prevent Moreover this tendency is all the stronger. we have in perfectly homogeneous points also different positions & distances . the air itself & the continual motion derived from this. & & these senses single elements of matter cannot influence with sufficient force to excite an idea in the mind. unless this is the case with the Divine Will. that these points of matter.^"^ese^ro erties dent on their distances. is For that distinction also with our senses . exist because they must do so. the form & much when equilibrium is precluded. There is also this. is infinite. in that very example of the principle generally given. when he deduced a spherical figure for the seas & the Earth by an abuse of this principle. except when there are many of them together at a time. Leibniz. impress concerned with reasoning for an aggregate. increased to equal the number of points of matter in any sensible mass ? Corresponding to the different order of the several letters in the one. From all together in different ways. i. the rays of the regard to different leaves. & these distinctions also properties are made by the followers of others - 95. (for instance such as that there never can be found in n * t hold g d here induction from T_ i j i vi \ i i . & if these are altered at least number were the force. as of two leaves in the same wood. should certainly be known. i . whatever reason is things exist. in discussing the determination of will.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY distinguishes 91 them one from the other.n account they of tionsof their parta. of its own pleasure alone. because those things which perfect similarity. which affect our senses in the groups. Further it is well known that combinations of the same number of terms increase enormously. to the creation of one individual rather than another out of a whole set of exactly similar things. the distance from which it has to proceed to arrive at the place it occupies. their being 96. tends to point the exist will not even be possible. especially conduce to this sort of disposition must necessarily be somewhat different with For the form itself being absent in the seed. & unknown to us . there proceeds a diversity in the masses thus formed.e. if slightest degree. In truth. in which they ought to be especially similar to the difference in dissimilarity groups r i ' several masses. their argument does not me in the masses. sun. to enable us to employ the principle by stating that there is no sufficient reason in favour of this rather than that other. but have some diversity & from this diversity will one point any depend upon. & to the setting of any one of these in the place in which it puts it rather than in But I have discussed these very matters more at length. grouped the words that have hitherto been used in all What then if their expressions that have existed. the state of all other points that are in the universe. that number itself increase a little. to be determined necessity. since including equilibrium it is very great) just so much greater is the improbability of two masses being exactly similar than of .1 -n i f 11 -11 T one another. much more so on the same branch. & yet they asserted. because they do not occupy quite the same place. As regards the induction which the followers of Leibniz make from the lack of The principle does similitude that we see in all things. as other places.. however short the distance between certain Further. .

quod ad hanc rem pertinet. ipsam Naturam. ns> pul lit- ^xem* ip sum etiam ducere 98. penitus conficit ilia tanta similitudo. adeoque ejusmodi inductionem extend! ad elementa non posse. pauciora. libris occurrerent saepe. solam quae ut illi circuli nigri litteras. tantum possibilium combinationum numerum. uti in resolutionibus Chemicis. Cum elementa multo minus dissimilia esse debeant. ac sit incredibilis multitude librorum conscriptorum linguis variis. ita ipsa diversas diversorum corporum particulas per consideratione Naturae ex ipsa usque adeo analogia dispositionem diversam efformarent : diversis conscripta linguis. nullum aliud inveniret magis adhuc simile elementorum genus. litterarum composidiversa positio. * Q u i n immo ilia tanta similitude. quae cum exigua dissimilitudine commixta invenitur in tarn multis corporibus. & ita parum a se invicem remotis. adeo inter se in omnibus similia sint. adeoque si elementa heterogenea sint. nimirum voces. Patet igitur. quo analysis simplicitatem ad eo promovetur magis. ex quibus idcirco nullae massas. potissimum in tarn multis. & vocum exemplum patet multo melius animo sistet. quos omnes a se invicem discrepantes intueretur. & quidem ipsae litterarum formae pro typis pos-[45]-sent ex ejusmodi rotundis sibi proximis cuspidibus constantes. litteras minus adhuc inter se difformes inveniret. quae ad formationem numero punctorum & geneitatem. quae crura cum ob hasce proprietates corporibus omnibus adeo generales. veluti vocum. Tarn ad diversa pertinent regna. massae elementorum etiam penitus homogeneorum debent a se invicem differre plurimum. quae quidem numero admodum pauca essent. quam ipsa prima elementa. discrimen aliquod inter se habentibus in ductu linearum. similes provenire deberent. & eorum. At adverteret. Si quis scripturae ejusmodi. quam in corporibus observamus. & ultima juxta Theoriam meam deveniret ad homogenea punctula. illud unum iterum hie monendum. quod initio hujus Operis innui. ut earum combinatio libros efformaret usque adeo magis a se invicem discrepantes.j fift corpora sunt. & inde lexica quibusdam totidem numero. Haec mihi a<^ mu quaedam imago videtur ijb r j \t{ } tam var . Rem autem sumus. & facile quodcunque sine microscopic examen institueret. Hae tamen ipsae inter se habent Horum . terrarum. haberetur in vocibus ipsa lexica constituentibus. in quibus omnibus forma characterum sit eadem. quorum sola distributio litteras exhiberet. non ductu atramenti continue. tarn variorum librorum redacto ad illud usque adeo minus discrimen. quae cernimus in Natura. quam ad homogeneitatem eorundem tarn exiguum illud discrimen.92 simiiitudine quaii^ PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA 97. & linguarum ignarus circa ejusmodi libros. indicat Nam ob potius similitudinem ingentem in elementis. observationem institueret cum diligenti primo quidem inveniret vocum farraginem quandam. circumstantiarum. & inter se minus discrepantia principia deveniatur. quam aggregata elementorum. ut tam multas oleorum. omnes illas tarn varias voces constare ex 24 inquisitione promota. salium species eruit Chemica analysis e diversis corporibus. cujus omnes libri constent in ea litteris impressis. Quam quidem rem ipsum litterarum. sunt tanquam quae esse discrimen aliquod. qua superius usi Homogeneitatem insinuarr' plum a libris. in quibus singulis omnes posset quaedam componere idiomatis voces ejusdem reperirentur. in immensum majorem debent habere dissimilitudinem. ac Appiicatio exempli Naturae analy- 99. Fieri utique possent nigricantes litteras. quam massze sunt neccssariae. ne tantillum quidem. sed punctulis rotundis nigricantibus. cum nimirum. quibus formantur. Superest. tionem e punctis illis rotundis prorsus homogeneis. quam sint libri. multo magis ad elementorum homogeneitatem valere debet ilia quaecunque similitudo. & in postremo exhibente gravitatem generalem. Concipiatur non nisi ingens quaedam bibliotheca. omnium Chemica analysis principia quaedam invenit minus inter se difrormia. tantummodo diversis litteris. varietatem illam a numero pendere combinationum possibilium in necessario ad sensationem. quae voces in cum eaedem in aliis nusquam apparent. etiam reliqui arcus curvae exprimentis vires omnimodam similitudinem indicant pro corporibus itidem omnibus. Ulterior analysis harum. quarum combinatio diversa pareret omnes illas voces tarn varias. in primo crure exhibente impenetrabilitatem. Et ille quod contineretur lexicis illis. discrimine illo ingenti tot. quae ad eandem pertinent speciem. at microscopic arrepto. ipsum analyseos ordinem nos & homogeneitatem elementorum. quot idiomata sunt. contemplatione . ut interad valla fieri & ope microscopii discerni possent. ex quibus diversa ratione combinatis orirentur quidem si aliud intueretur utique illam ipsam ipsae litterse . quod in aliis tarn ' multis observatur.

some sort from one another in the manner in which the lines forming them were drawn that the different combinations of these would produce the whole of that great variety of words. from a combination of which in different ways the letters themselves could be produced. homogeneous points as the little black circles formed the letters. but by means of little black dots which are at such small distances from one another that the intervals cannot be perceived except with the aid of a microscope & indeed such forms of letters may be made as types from round ' Now imagine that we have a huge library. So far then the analogy derived from such a than the books of difference ..-99. they indicate complete similarity is made perfectly complete . of the possible combinations. But if he took a microscope.. like that species of oils. since in truth the farther the analysis is pushed. than is contained in the lexicons & the words forming these lexicons. that Nature itself & the method of analysis lead us towards simplicity & example homogeneity of the elements . by the different position & distribution of which the letters were depicted. would form the diverse particles of diverse bodies through diverse arrangement alone. in each of these all words of the same language many would be found. The whole discussion that exists in the by that great similarity. as in number as there are languages . i. elements themselves not even in the very slightest degree. he would not find any other kind of elements that were more similar these differed in . who was ignorant of such compositions or languages. & m ort ot of the circumstances that arenecessary for the formation of the mass . These. all bodies as well. It is clear then that this variety depends on the number of possible combinations Homogeneity * d< to be found for the number of points that are necessary to make the mass sensible. all the books in it consisting of printed letters. on account of properties that are so general to all bodies. which I have already remarked at the beginning of this anftysis of Nature" taken work. then first of all he would find a medley of words. points of this sort set close to one another. points more strongly of the great to the greatest possible similarity of the elements. to be a sort of picture of what we perceive in Nature. . which we made use of above.. far more strongly than heterogeneity of the elements is indicated by the slight differences that are observed in so many others. to once Naught that concerns this subject remains but for me more mention in Homogeneity is this connection that one thing. the great from" possible that the induction should be ^ ^ similarity that is found accompanied by some very heterogeneity slight dissimilarity in so many bodies dissimilarity. Since the elements are bound to be much less dissimilar than aggregates formed from these elements. If anyone. i Application of the illustration to the analysis of Nature. chemical analysis finds out certain fundamental constituents that are less unlike one another m .so This 7 -7 seems to books. of & these words in this is still a multiplicity. many to the different kingdoms are written as it were in different tongues. & in the last branch representing universal gravitation for since these branches. in all which the form of the characters is the same. to the little would be obtained. these are the words. all of which he would perceive differed from one another . Suppose we have made black letters. earths & salts from different bodies. Hence he could compose lexicons. just according my Theory. For on account number & thus if the elements are homogeneous must be greatly different from one another heterogeneous. of the words. . especially in so many of those that belong to the same species. branch representing impenetrability. even masses of elements that are perfectly be indicated by that certain similarity that we observe in bodies. homogeneity of the elements must . Nay rather. This will be presented to the mind far more clearly an illustration derived from & words. that would indeed be very few in number for the immense multiplicity numerous collection of books of so many kinds is now reduced to what . Now if he made yet another examination without the aid of a microscope. & those which belong me . & that combinations of these words would form books differing from one another still more widely.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 93 is to 97. & . first of the remaining arc of the curve expressing the forces for 98.. the masses must have an immensely greater dissimilarity than the primary & therefore no masses formed from these ought to come out similar. as is to be seen in chemical experiments. Of all of these. amongst themselves. but smaller. T n i 1-111 number & so different in character are bodies. Now if he continued his investigation. & so it is not similitude in some extended to the elements. started on a careful study of books of this kind. some of which occurred frequently in certain books whilst they never appeared at all in others. he would easily perceive that the whole of these words of so many different kinds were formed from 24 letters only . are so similar to one another in all cases.. would disclose the letters that are still less unlike one another & finally. the fewer ancj dots the fundamental substances we arrive at & the less they differ from one another . letters by not by drawing a continuous line with ink. Yet these constituent substances have some sort thus chemical analysis produces a large number of Further analysis of these. then indeed would he see the mode of formation of the letters from the perfectly homogeneous round points. namely. to one another than these letters. & let there be an incredible multitude of books printed in various languages. Those r .

& Geometriam determinavit. ac priorum duarum. cujus existentiam novimus. reflexionem. & Naturae phaenomenis. -11 alia ejusmodi. Theoriam. quam sit productio motus vulgo concepta per immediatum impulsum. sit. impuisione omissa. ubi gravia descendunt. abjectis vorticibus. prorsus incognita. hi motus. id abunde ibidem praevenimus. ac energiam determinetur ab altero puncto. & captu difficilem productionem. Illud unum ad accessum. & facilioris reflexionis. Determinationis plices continue oculis observantur. His satisfit notione virium exhibita numero occuitam quaiita- & praeterea hie addo. praecipuas quasdam e difficultatibus. inquam. atque numerus. consectariorum seriem devenimus ad omnem illam. quid sit constat. explicatis per earn unam praecipuis corporum proprietatibus. omnia simul prae oculis. licet alia multa nobis incognita proprietates plures. vel recessum idea efformatur admodum facile. . & ad constitutionem primorum materiae elementorum ex ilia ipsa virium lege derivatorum. quid recedere adeoque & determinationis ad accessum. Illud sane mihi est evidens. quam sperare liceret. qui sit particularum ipsum componentium textus. colorum.. quae ad earn pertinent. olim forte detegendas.. ut punctum quodvis in se ipsum agat. ubi partem solidi arreptam pars alia sequitur. & ubi ilia etiam. id in causa esse debet. aurum incognitam. qua in distans. quotidie incurrant in oculos. sunt. ve ^ etiam actionem in distans inducere. Contra vires mutuas illud sclent objicere. ut non admittatur illud. forma arcuum intermediorum. quae ad diversas vices facilioris transmissus. quae ipsius ejusmodi determinationis existentiam probant. occultamque substantiam nemo idcirco. sine impuisione Mst'hucus^'u^N turam. qui Mundum condidit Nee sane IO2. . sed patentem reddunt ejusmodi Quid adhuc lateat admittendam omnino quo pacto : : evitetur hie actio in distans. ut superius prolata ubi corpus quoddam incurrit in aliud corpus. 9. atque omni impuisione submota. & ad Natura ratione Quod autem pertinet ad actionem ejus compositionem adhibeat. ubi vaporum. quid. quam per impulsionem. in quibus per vires in aliqua distantia agentes. quid determinatum accedere. ubi ad motum determinat impenetrabilitas. quid sit esse indifferens. ac determinando felicitatem nusquam alibi video in universa Physica. vel recessum habetur idea admodum sane distincta. motus per hasce vires pendentes a certis distantiis. etiam motus varii. quae contra Theoriam ipsam vel objectae jam sunt. uti est distantia intersectionum curvae cum axe. cum inde pateat fieri posse. nec esse ioi. & quas me solus habuit sed id omnino nil officit.94 derivata Transitus PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA non ad difformitatem. quae itidem vel a corporum natura. impost- Et quidem hoc potius pacto. sed ad conformitatem elementorum nos ducit. quod ubi hue usque. quia non patet oculis. [46] Videndum jam superest. & & & & potissimum leges omnes per calculum. quarum idea admodum facile efformatur. vires adhibitae sunt a distantiis pendentes. & leges inquirendum esse. uti'aliae tarn multae subinde detectae & sunt. at q ue determinata. Atque hoc demum pacto ex principiis certis & vulgo receptis. uti promisi. Legem virium non a in distans. illud etiam satis indicat. . vel a libera conditoris lege repeti debet. & ad calculum redacta cum phaenomenis congruunt ultra. virium legem. dissolvam. illas esse occultas quasdam qualitates. accuratissime. vel elastrorum particulae se invicem repellunt. . admodum manifestas eas esse. in motuum causas. Patet itidem saltern in genere forma curvae Demum ejusmodi vires exprimentis. quam uberes inde fructus per universam late Physicam colligantur. nisi tantummodo in Astronomia mechanica. nihilo magis occuitam esse. Sed antequam id aggredior. quarum existentia positive argumento evincitur. quam initio proposui. quas Physici passim relinquunt . quod admodum probabile appellant. . 8. nimirum ad legem virium mutuarum. ibi sane tantummodo accurate definita sunt omnia. quae quidem longe superant humanum captum. Haec omnia non occuitam. per gravitatem generalem absolvit omnia. vel explicatu. Ego quidem ejusmodi in explicando. a pro- ad ioo. Argumenta itidem positiva. Constat omnibus. ac in Theoria luminis. & -11 i i i i . Sunt quidem adhuc quaedam. diffractionem Newtonus exposuit. effectus deprehendimus . vel in oculos etiam sponte incurrunt. vel ut Deus juxta liberam sibi legem a se in Natura condenda stabilitam motum progignat in utroque pun-[47]-cto. quarum effectus multiSunt autem ejusmodi hae vires. ipsum & & cujus eodem plures & pertinentia supersint. qui ab ejusmodi viribus oriuntur. & ad actionis directionem. alias latere Sic multo minus ejusdem existentiam negabit ipsius proprietates. per legitimam. & menus exphcajidam. quae 103. refractionem.

that their existence is demonstrated by direct reasoning. deny its existence. I say. Now. Who founded the universe. as so many others have been already discovered from time to time. forces of this kind. or that God should produce in either point a motion according to some arbitrary law fixed by Him when founding the universe. & that the manifold results that arise from them are a matter of continual ocular observation. we fully recognize. and what recession is everybody knows what it means to be indifferent. quite quTuty. Indeed I do not see anywhere such felicity in explaining to it Direct arguments. nobody would call gold an unknown & still less would mysterious substance. are of everyday occurrence before our It is evident also. that are unknown to us. sufficiently by through where hitherto we have omitted impulse & employed forces depending on the distances. . . such as the number & distances of the intersections of the curve J^ idmittedm with the axis. . re XT against it. . mi action at a distance. refraction & diffraction . especially in the two first mentioned. & many of the properties & results of which are readily understood. . There are indeed certain things that relate to the law of forces of which we are What is so far un altogether ignorant. to be discovered perhaps in the future. Thus . & the latter has to be derived just the same either from the nature of solid bodies.100. The objection J * . repel one another. had the whole ^ action at a to* before His eyes. we amply guard against this by the same means for. & other things of that sort these indeed ail detail the way 1 h far surpass human understanding. . what elements of a for from bountiful harvest is to be gathered throughout the wide field of general physics this one theory we obtain explanations of all the chief properties of bodies. & in the theory of light & colours. when the particles of gases. . according to the promise I made. simply because it is quite probable that many of its properties are unknown to us. that. the shape of the intervening arcs. explained without only in this way has everything been accurately defined & determined. & . In all of these there is nothing mysterious . As far as we have 103. I will give solutions of a few of the principal difficulties that have been raised against the Theory itself. 95 to uniformity of Nature length. does not necessij. in vortices. then it would be possible for any point to act upon itself. Moreover these forces are of the following nature.. & He alone. & what having & a propensity means thus the idea of a propensity to approach. . when one part of a solid is seized & another part follows it. . .- i i i . at least in a general way. these motions. & For instance. on the contrary they all tend to make the law of forces of this kind perfectly plain. as regards action at a distance. have been given above. of at ." an idea that it is evident that these forces that of them one remark. & 9. i i . & of the phenomena of Nature. could possibly have expected. 102. rejecting the idea of determining the matters of general physics. as well as some that naturally meet the eye.. or why & in what way Nature adopts that particular composition. which physicists everywhere leave almost . f^' m0 re ciearJy by my method. is perfectly . & of springs. should not be accepted although certainly there do remain many other things pertaining distinctly obtained. that the form of the curve represents eyes. if this is admitted. But before I go on to that. . o{ forces is frequently brought forward against mutual forces that they The law 10 1. or from an arbitrary law of the founder of the universe. . Newton gave a solution of everything by means of universal gravitation . & when reduced g^ what to calculation everything agrees with the phenomena with far more accuracy than we will be so too. when heavy bodies descend. Here also those things depending on alternate fits of easier transmission & easier reflection. whose existence tance is eliminated. or to recede. &. For everybody knows what approach means. The idea of a propensity to approach or of a propensity to recede is easily formed. that prove the existence of this kind of propensity. sort of or that necessitate This are some tate action at a mysterious qualities they nor is it is answered by the idea of forces outlined in Art. Lastly also. 1 which indeed. In addition. Again. i i . by a Pa^g fro from known r principles r proof of the Theory i i % i n-<i T the of the I that I have arrived at whole enunciated to the consideraheory legitimate series of deductions. exist.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY consideration elements. . I will make just distance. To my mind indeed it is clear that motions produced by these forces depending on the distances are not a whit more mysterious. why a thing. . or because it is not visually apparent what is the texture of the particles composing it. . except only in celestial mechanics . Now it remains to be seen matter derived from that law of forces. . he determined all the laws by calculus & Geometry. can be easily formed. the various motions that arise from forces of this kind. involved or difficult of understanding than the production of motion by immediate impulse as it is usually accepted in which impenetrability determines the motion. . at a law of mutual forces & the constitution of the r at the start primary ' . where by means of forces acting at some distance he explained reflection. & doing away with that of impulse entirely. & to be determined as to its direction of action & energy apart from another point. such as when one body collides with another body. we tion f objections that is to say. ^ . namely.. ' . 8.' leads us not to non-uniformity but the the that are commonly accepted. that the investigation of the causes & laws of motion are better made UI the fact than the is indicated idea of impulse. But truly there is no reason on that account.

si ab impulsione immediata penitus vagas sibi constans recedatur. per positivam meae Theoriae probationem immediate evinci repulsionem ita. turn omnes oppositas majores usque ad posteriorem dh. Quamobrem qui primum. Assumatur quaecunque vis repulsiva utcunque parva turn quaecunque vis attractiva. Unde jam & & ut patebit inferius. . mhil omitteretur mtermeaium. fig. & saltum inducit. ubique adhibeatur in Natura agendi ratio a distantiis pendens.96 PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA fere intactas. Id quidem non accidit in casu exposito. uti supra etiam monuimus. . quae nimirum coalescat numero arcuum jam attractivorum. aut primus. ac minores ad infinitum sine ulla ultima. satis patet. is omnem apparentem difficultatem videbit plane sibi penitus evanescere. legem evertit. & pro diversis speciebus diversae formae substantiales Sunt autem. quam supra hie innui. . quae tamen sola intermedn omissio 1 . in eo consistit. ut a minore attractione repeti omnino non possit nam duae materiae particulae si etiam solae in Mundo essent. ubi Theoriam ipsam applicavero ad Naturam. nam ab altero eorum transiretur ad alterum per intermedium illud zero... & omnino nullus erit ex hisce omnibus intermediis statibus. in celeritatis continuitatis gradu. 104. cum in ceteris Physicae partibus plerumque explicationes habeantur subsidariis quibusdam principiis innixae & & & illud conjectare licet. . repuisivam positive demonstrari prater I0 7. ad aliam eatur sine transitu per intermedias.. & quam ego curvae. Inter eas intercedunt omnes vires repulsivae minores usque ad zero. Solent illud objicere. cum apud Peripateticos pro singulis proprietatibus potest cuipiam saltern illud. & irregularem. quando etiam essent aliqui n gradus postrerm.. & per ipsum zero in E sine ullo saltu habitura sit omnes magnitudines minores priore br usque ad zero in E . & curvam. Non fieri saltum in tracfiva ad repui- sivam. aut ultimum sibi confingit in lineola. nequaquam Saltus. is naturam continuitatis ignorat. cui evitando Theoria inducitur. satius esse. i. quod illi essent . in tempusculo. nimium complicatam. Nuiium A: esse remum attractions. nulla lineola omnium minima. sicut nulla ibi est ordinata postrema... ms gradum. At isti continuitatis naturam. & ex eo ipso.. esse virium genera inter se diversa . quae a repulsione abeunt ad attractionem. idcirco initio meae dissertationis De Lege Continuitatis abunde exposui. vel motus uniformis in directum turn omnes vires attractivae a z^-[48]-ro usque ad earn determinatam vim. & primo attractionis nihil r . in a(^ & quern evitandum ea inprimis admittitur . & repulsionem corporum singulae qualitates distinctae. quod ego praestiti in dissertatione De Lumine. aliae ilia breviores habentur minores. ac alia multa admodum feliciter determinantur. ac primus. attractionem transitur. ejusmodi legem virium. quam in explicare tantummodo per attractionem minorem.repulsionis sane probaret. continuitatis natura. & duobus virium genenbus. Sed nee habetur ullus gradus postremus. & ad se invicem cum aliqua velocitatum inaequalitate accederent. postremus. fieri enim transitum ab attractionibus ad ubi nimirum a minima ultima repulsione ad minimam primam repulsiones per saltum. qui inter se nullo pacto rem eo redire. sire post- primum repuisiosi adhuc tran- per omnes intermedios. . : . praestabo hie in tertia parte .. quern aliquando non sint habitura puncta. uo d autem additur de r JO -P postremo gradu. compositam. Q . aut prima. jam repulsivorum. quod ab una magnitudine intelligunt. in quo habetur determinatio ad conservandum praecedentum statum quietis. in qua a vi repulsiva br ad attractionem dh itur utique continue motu puncti b ad d transeundo cum ordinata in eo motu per omnes intermedias. esse ex } n g en ti cohaereant . alteram tantummodo adhibere. .. deberent utique ante contactum ad sequalitatem devenire vi. repulsionem. explicanturque. Data quacunque lineola utcunque exigua. in quo ipso stat. & attractionem confingebaritur ad arbitrium. . . admodum. hac potissimo Theoria virium committi saltum ilium. multo sane facilius. quse a nulla attractione pendere posset. qm essent. quod quidem mihi omnino successit. qui & illud addant.. Id ipsum facile erit contemplari in fig. quam supra exposuimus. & primi .*. in vi. . certius explicatum iri cetera .. Qui in ea veluti imagine mentis oculos defigat.. I protuli. ubi erat olim.Inprimis quod ad hoc postremum pertinet.

It & irregular. Anyone. as we remarked Hence anyone who brings forward the also above. & in this. no matter how short. be readily understood from a study of Fig. this I have mentioned before in this also for this very reason I explained it very fully at the beginning of work. & OS. since it passes zero. namely. if they were also the only particles in the universe. may seem to some that at least a law of forces of this nature. the first stage of attraction. expressing 107. & through zero at E. & different substantial forms for different species. i . & then any attractive force. may a reason for the action of Nature that is everywhere the same & we impulses. composite indeed made up of an immense number of arcs that are alternately attractive & repulsive. without any sudden change. Take any Between these two there repulsive force. to zero. as regards what is said in addition about the last stage of repulsion & T^ 1 6 & no ! ast . there lies the nature of continuity. in this Theory more especially. when I come to apply the Theory to Nature. in which there lie all the forces that are less than the former down right repulsive the of uniform motion in a straight is the for state of rest or original propensity preserving & also all the attractive forces from zero up to the prescribed attractive force. from one of them to the other the passage would be made through puisjon 6 . which will not be possessed This can at some time or other by the points as they pass from repulsion to attraction. 97 other matters were most felicitously determined & explained by I enunciated in the dissertation De Lumine. a sudden change made in the forces. however small. depends & indeed it is altogether successful in my hands. & after that all magnitudes of opposite sign such For it is said that the transition tractive to a repui- . being based on several subsidiary independent of. it would really not matter. & my b he appar st ? g ent composite cha- 1 06. Given any short line. being it. dissertation De Lege Continuitatis. now conclude that if. intermediate alone would upset the law of continuity. line & there will be absolutely no one of all these intermediate states. . if there were. is very complicated. For in this motion there will be obtained as ordinates all magnitudes. as it has been explained above. or a force. But those who raise these objections in no wise extremely understand the nature of continuity. a short line that is the least of them all. one another with some difference of velocity. First of in all. & that it reduces to the same thing as obtained amongst the ancients. or an it. stage. 11 11 stage of attraction. must be ignorant of continuity . The sudden change.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY untouched. & that it would be quite enough to use only the latter. TI 1111 . for. since with the Peripatetics separate distinct qualities were invented for the several properties of bodies. & introduce a sudden change. consists in the fact that a passage is made from one magnitude to another without going through the intermediate stages. Moreover there are some who add that repulsion & attraction are kinds of forces that differ from one another . I. the passage is made through every intermediate stage.. & disconnected from. less & less in infinite interval of time. & because they " r . who will fix his intellectual vision greater than zero as far as the last ordinate dh. & will repeat in . pade through ail succession without any limit whatever . & approached attraction. as will be evident later. It is very frequently objected that. For in other parts of physics most of the explanations are the third part of this work. even if there were these so called an d no first for reand even last & first stages . is There is no sudden 104. & the curve ^ te c t 10 r d ^ Of f [h t forces. there cannot possibly be a last stage or a first . there will be others shorter than last. that is to say. the i . whilst the theory is to be accepted for the very purpose of avoiding sitfwPfrom aiTata thing. H . to avoid which the Theory has been brought forward. relinquishing all idea of immediate Hence we principles. just as there cannot be a last ordinate or a first in the curve. Nevertheless the omission of this therefore no intermediate stage is omitted. f^ce apart from two particles of matter. him & & many also that which . extremely minute repulsive force to the pass first minute attractive force. & that these are joined together according to no definite plan . I. which I gave in Fig. it is clear enough from what p^ssibie^o prove demonstrated has been that the existence of directly the existrigorously directly proved my Theory repulsion f PU For in such a way that it cannot possibly be derived from the idea of a smaller attraction. or a degree of velocity. & to explain repulsion merely as a smaller attraction. c are the nrst passage would be the one intermediate namely zero . Further. employ on the remainder will be explained with far greater ease & certainty the distances. less than the first one br. where indeed the passage is made from the repulsive force br to the attractive force dh by the continuous motion of a point from b to d . idea of a first or a last in the case of a line. would be bound to attain to an equality of of velocity on account of a force which could not possibly be derived from an attraction as any kind. one another. from attractions to repulsions is made from the last when we suddenly. on this as on a sort of pictorial illustration cannot fail to perceive for himself that all the apparent difficulty vanishes completely. as a matter of fact. But. down to zero at E.' . has been regards the last objection. Now this kind of thing does not take place in the case under consideration.

id sane patet vel ex eo minus non differunt specie. Geometria applicatio ad omnes bra. ipsa ilia quantitatis debebit itidem ejusmodi mutationem a formulae.. B secent autem se in E . 20. 12. Quin immo hie itus e positivis in negativa . ii.. sed esse ejusdem uti sunt posisi . m-[49j-hil sane obesset. formulae. an tantummodo attractivarum. & negativa. uti vidimus. altera accessus. . Ad eandem lineam continuam OEP aeque ea ordinatarum series. semper per ordinatas ad lineam statibus ducatur perpendicularis aliquam exprimi potest . cum positive argumento evmcatur quidem est omnino falsum. accessus sunt positivum. 10. An habeatur trans- quantitatis speciem tota. 100 120 Continua imminutione. satis : Sit formula 10 & quantitates biles. 109. quae per suas ordinatas ad axem axem secuerit. & hie altera negativa. . parallelas inter se. negativa a positivis patet inde. & geometricis lineis 6. vel vento too hexapedas. in uti recessus. pertinent. quo nimirum Theoria virium attractivarum. CD. & singulis minutis perficiat remis. ut retroagatur per 50. & negativa . Ut autem & mutatio pendet . . turn 100 100=0.100 90. alter locus geometricus OE. at id ipsum Utraque f ^ Io g . &c. hujus a re- & gressu. varia- exhibebit 4. quae in altera est prorsus opposita direction! alterius . sive subtractione itum est a positivis in negativa.100 80. 2. &c. . continue motu ipsius ordinatae a positive abitur in negativum. duae species. &c. nee duae ita lineae speciei diversae sunt. specie non differant. 70. tionem uti liceret. 120. Fingamus illud. vel tantummodo repulsivarum. quae positiva exhibent. modo & sunt pariter & determinationes ad ipsos. ac EP. o. 100 100 60. quo usus sum in dissertatione & repulsivarum pro Continuitatis. i . u. non duae diversae. aliquem superiori alveo proximum. regredietur per 10. 100.^. principio nimirum diminutionem. I. sit. quarum altera exhibeat positiva. id tiva. Nam a positive per continuam subtracmagis. pro x ponantur valores n. & . & ad eandem pertinens eadem sed exhibeat altera unica. 8. diversi suit generis. ubi erat superius in progressu. & positivum ad eandem pertineant speciem. 2. . . 80. OP referantur invicem per ordinatas AB. Eadem ilia formula per continuam simulper regressu. Idem autem & x. & altera enim habetur determinatio ad accessum. vis ad re pulsio. 3. quod eodem redit. & I. post evanescentiam in E. . . & attractio. vel penitus. ac demum tionem. . Probatio ex Alge- i to. quodnam virium genus in an utrumque simul hac sane ratiocinatione ad earn perquisirepulsivarum tantummodo. 9. = 10. ilia vel formula valoris etiam quantitas semper positiva manebit. 40. diversis distantiis. & lex plerumque per formulam aliquam analyticam. ad alteram abeat axis partem. & algebraicis formulis. in fluvio. repulsiones mutatio eadem a natura quantitatis illius pendebit positione respectu axis & ut nee duas . Id facile patet exemplis solitis. ubi sunt negaFIG. ita W Probatio progressu. nam erat prius = 20. Quod negativum autem negativum. MAC FHN ordinatae sunt positivae. &c. vel non exprimentem distantias.r-ii-i licet se ita haberet. Si ea linea nusquam negativum habeat habere. in. vires ipsas determinabit. 30. manifeste ostenditur. & Deinde vef o quod r pertinet ad duas diversas species attractionis. . ut altera progressus.PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA Hinc nihu pbstare. in altera ad recessum. nos ignorare Natura existat. investi- De Lege gatio ex sola curvarum natura. qui aeque ad eandem formulam Eodem pacto in Geometria in fig. Erit utique aliqua linea continua. 90. Sed si mutet latus linea. altera altera recessus . tivae. habentur prius minora positiva. vel lineae exprimentis natura.. in quibus idcirco eadem species mansit. locum habet argumentum quoddam. turn zero.siduae lineae MN. CD. cum altera respectu alterms negativa Alteram negativam esse respectu alterius. valor formulae . Eat aliquis contra fluvii directionem versus locum Crescat autem continue impetus fluvii ita. . erit. & prout ipsa ^ : . mutata directione AB.100 no. continuando subtractionem eandem. ita nee in ea quantitate duae erunt naturae. a porro. i eandem pertinet speciem. formulam 10 x. 7. dum a cursu fluvii retroagitur per hexapedas 40 is habet progressum hexapedarum 60 . quod tantumdifferant in directione. . quam Theoria virium tantummodo attractivarum. altera regressus . . et ita 10070. ubi positivis. ac : . multo magis rationi consentanea evincitur. qui exprimerentur mutationem valoris x migrat e valore positive in negativum. singulis minutis. quae erunt negativa priorum . no. si [50] enim singulis ejus omnium vertices ejusmodi perpendicularium erunt utique ad lineam quandam respondens . attractiones. si ea formula nullum valorem continuam. quae hie habentur pro in FG. signum . turn per turn Is progredietur per 50. 50. progressu ad regressum. HI. nee est omnis pertinet altera linea. negativa. . 10. nihil 60. Jam vero variabilis quantitatis cujusvis natura. & repulsionis . 20.

then the value of the formula will in succession 4. is with to the other. . . & also cut one another in E itself it passes from positive to negative. 120. positive equally belong manner in geometry. 70. either by rowing or sailing. then the quantity itself must also have a change of the same kind. whether they are only attractive or only repulsive. For quite from a positive by continual subtraction. the same subtraction being continued throughout. 10 fathoms for these equally so.. in. In the same negative. His forward motion will be successively 50. being changed to that of FG. & a negative does not differ in species from positives. can be expressed by an algebraical formula. in the dissertation De Lege Continmtatis by it indeed it is proved that a theory of attractive {rom positive to mves& repulsive forces for different distances is far more reasonable than one of attractive negative 8 forces only. give & this comes to the same thing as we had above in the case of the i. 109. CD. &c. Further. place transition a . just as approach & recession are positive & Further. & can always be expressed by some line . as the one a progressive & the other a retrograde motion. 80. (which 20). Without doubt there will be some continuous line which. or curve only. 9. 20. or two lines of different species to represent the positives & the negatives. the direction of AB. 100 100 100 (which 60. n. fathoms latter these motions are the negatives of the former. spec es of quantity. no. wholly belonging : plainly enough by algebraical formulae. Further. both it would be allowable to use the following reasoning to help us to investigate the matter. Suppose a man Demonstration by to go against the current of a river to some place on the bank up-stream. where the ordinates are negative. . whilst he motion on a river.. Let us imagine that we are quite ignorant of the of thenature of the kind of forces that exist in Nature.be . . negative. or of repulsive forces only. pucatfon^ O a n by geometry. then also the quantity will always remain positive. after evanescence at E. o. then 60. for if a perpendicular be drawn to correspond to each separate state of the quantity. &c. minute had 100 a & = = = no. this is the proper r for me to bring forward an argument that I used whether there can -T. together. 70. Consider the formula 10 variable &c. . . 100 fathoms a minute. Now suppose that the strength of the current continually increases in such a way that he is carried back first 50. x. 3. 100 90. then zero. the same thing lines in . from a progressive to a retrograde motion . 2. 8. OP are referred to one another by ordinates then by a continuous motion of the ordinate AB. Next. 100 50. as the change depends on the nature of the formula & the line so also the same change will depend expressing it. &c. . 10). 6. 1 1. and there were not two different species. For first of all we . as regards attraction repulsion being of different species. per minute. the vertices of all perpendiculars so drawn will undoubtedly form some continuous line. of which the one yields positives & the other negatives. or the formula the sign of its value. . which are here taken to be positive. Lastly. that such a negative & a positive belong to the same species. all progressive & retrograde motion. as we have seen . The matter is easily made clear by the usual illustrations. in Fig. 80. 12. fathoms per minute. so also there will not be in the quantity two natures. 7. & therefore in these there was a continuance of the same species. ipo. . or two species. a positive and a negative regard That the one is negative with regard to the other is evident from the fact that they only negatlve are so differ in direction. - . evident from the principle the greater the less are not different in kind. so also are the propensities & . but & & is Both kinds of force belong to the same species for one same^kmdnusVas really the supposition is untrue. in the other a other propensity to recede . is shown y x. which may be expressed by the formula 10 This same formula a continuous in the of from a value x. passes. or diminution. . 2. . if two lines MN. it would not matter in the slightest degree. 90. by change value to a which to the same formula. is carried back then he will get forward by the current of the river through 40 fathoms a distance of 60 fathoms a minute. will determine the forces & according i .. & its position with respect to the axis on the nature of the quantity & just as there are not two formulas. If the line never passes over to the other side of the axis. give But it will be one & the same nature & the same to repulsions. then nothing. we first obtain less positives. 20. I. or geometrical locus from EP. 30. where the ordinates are positive. 10. & finally negatives. & then he will be carried backward through 10. value. is not a different line. i T\ T /-. & Proof from algebra . & for x substitute the values. by means of ordinates drawn from it to an axis representing distances. no (which then 100 100 120 and so on. then 100 o). since by rigorous S different kmds! but as a matter of argument the existence of both attraction repulsion is proved. & very frequently also the law. if the formula has no negative But if the line changes side. & suppose "veTndretrogS that he succeeds in doing. To the same continuous line OEP belongs equally the whole of this series of ordinates & OE.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY & were 99 Hence it does not 108. the direction of one being exactly the opposite of the direction of the for in the one there is a propensity to approach. 40. By a continual diminution or subtraction we have passed from positives to negatives. CD. .. Now the nature of any variable quantity.!. HI. even if it h at a fact that they were so. the one approach & the other in the matter & under the consideration one will attractions & the other recession. quantities.

an sit ration! consentaneum magis. vel solam repulsionem. qui sectionem admittunt. est parabola ilia. hyperbola. alibi repulsivae vel ubique attractive tantum. Videndum igitur. J instituere. aut tantum. quam ut alteras tantummodo referat . adnumerato ellipsibus etiam circulo. quam paucos. parabola. . ut curva noni. quam ex iis. sed utramque nobis objicit simul. jam repulsiGeometre in quasdam classes dividunt . . ejusmodi lineam ex prio-[52]-rum genere unam. gr. & que idcirco dicuntur transcendentes. Deductio inde piu- rimarum tionum. ubi diximus a 24 litterulis omnes exhiberi voces linguarum omnium. eo in piuribus vorum multiplicitate desumitur. Numerus immensum simpiicem: in 11 quo vires positive * quadam. vel unico igitur ubi agitur de linea exprimente : est . Ulterior perqui- sitio: u* ged eodem argumento licet o & ultenus quoque progredi. nisi in paucis. quam infinitae quas quam numero rectae secare non possint & licet aliquae curvae ejus naturae sint. . vel centum.. secari a recta in unico puncto . ones secundi gradus curvas primi generis equationes tertii gradus curvas secundi generis. Quare infinite numero curve sunt. posse porro. que omnes gradus transcendunt finite Algebre. que sectionem necessario habeant. & positionis censere. & infinite numero curve. & vice versa. U2. Curvarum nulla est. que quidem veteribus quoque Geometris innotuerunt. adeoque & ejusmodi esse virium legem. lineas. quam ex genere posteriorum. & infinite numero rectae. & que fuerunt. ei.. que - Sed omissa ista conjecturali argumentatione a curva debet esse e piuribus arcubus temere compaginata.. usque adeo rei natura considerata non solam attractionem. in esse numero. tribus. J curvarum . . genera quo aiti. & repulsiones exhibeat simul pro diversis distantiis. que equationem habent gradus secundi. hujusmodi . atque ita porro . erunt alibi attractive.. ita porro unde nonagesimi noni generis secari possit a recta in punctis decem. & rei [51] natura abstracte considerata. ores. formam curve exprimentis deducto nos supra determinavimus cum Nature argumento phenomenis transitus ejusmodi quamplurimos exhibeant. & nulla est curva. quam qui ea careant adeoque seclusis rationibus omnibus. nihil aliunde sciat. adeoque ipsam virium naturam plurimos requirere transitus ab attractionibus ad repulsiones.. Curvas lineas P e anaiyseos. Inter rectas secat j .. arcuum jam attractivorum. pro quavis recta. numerus curvarum omnem superet humane Idem nimirum ibi accidit. que sectionem cum axe habere non Ergo inter casus possibles multo possit.caput amovere. & ita secari posse a recta in punctis duobus. & compacta : diximus enim. equationes. que non habeat. ..ioo secuerit vires PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA . quas Analyste appellant. qui secare possint in punctis quamplunmis. tertii. & mirum sane. recte secent. & sunt circiter octoginta . quod in combinationibus terminorum. quantus sit is ipse illarum numerus. curvarum generis tertii nemo adhuc numerum exhibuit accura- tum. ut nulla prorsus sit recta linea. aut sunt. . eo plures in eo genere sunt curve. sunt ejus nature. esse unam ex iis. I n de J iam pronum & linearum. de imaginationis vim. cujus ordinate sunt in ratione triplicata abscissarum. idcirco etiam -j & primum etiam difficultatis i : punctis uni secabiles a recta. axem rectilineum unica parallela ducta per quod vis datum punctum non omnes alie numero infinitae secant alicubi. ut eas aliquae rectae non secent tamen & eas ipsas aliae infinite numero recte secant. multo magis rationi consentaneum est. censere lineam illam. & sunt curve. a qua possint non secari. que axem secant. que earum naturam expnmit per mas. & que esse possunt. jjr .. est in immensum major earum possint. & que ad varies gradus ascendunt. ut . progressione ita in immensum crescente.. Curvas secundi generis enumeravit Newtonus omnium primus. Aequationes primi gradus exprimunt rectas equati. quod a sectionum. Transitum 0> deduci P curvse. ut axem alicubi secet. que non secant.. Sed quo altius assurgit curve genus.. attractiones. quod Geometrie sublimioris peritis est notissimum.. & sola casuum probabilitate. que exprimuntur per equationem primi gradus. Hujusmodi ex. Porro illud demonstrant Geometre in Analysi ad Geometriam applicata. Nee ejusmodi plurimis intersectionibus. ut ubi aliquanto altius ascenderit genus ipsum. quibus supra mentionem fecimus.. an ut non secet. plures sunt aliis ii. que vires exprimat. itidem sum plures in eo- J am vero curvae primi generis sunt tantummodo tres conice sectiones. ellipis. que axem exprimentis probabilius erit. vel nullum. quae non legem virium. vel : & fit. lineam ejus repulsive naturae. curvae mtersecaxis. argumentationem . sint qi cent.

^JILhi nit. Amongst straight lines there intersection is f to . is such that it yields both attractions & repulsions (for different distances). equations of the third degree curves of the second class. there are far more curves that admit intersection than those that are free from it . corresponding to any there is no curve that cannot have intersection with an straight line that has not . its i i i i i 111 O f the axis and the urve representing ? . points. when the class has risen but a little higher. or are. not attraction alone. Indeed the same thing happens in this case as in combinations of terms we mentioned the latter above. & degrees of finite algebra. geometricians prove. there are only three curves of the first class. but both of axis. we have already it may be that the 8 determined. 113. Equations of the first degree represent straight lines. Hence it comes about that a curve of the ninth. Newton was the class becomes immensel y greater. Further. & there are an infinite number of curves.. as is well-known to those versed in higher geometry. & is only one. of that & these three curves were known to the ancient geometricians also. the more curves there are in that class. all the rest (infinite in through any given point number) will cut it somewhere. & more points respectively.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY & 101 as it will cut the axis. the circle is included under the name of ellipse. or can be in the future. it is far more reasonable to suppose that the line representing the forces is one of Thus the law of forces those. when we said that by means of 24 little letters there can be expressed all the words of all languages that ever have been. these equations rise to various degrees. . Now 115. Moreover. infinite number of straight lines which necessarily have intersection. Accordingly it is to be seen if it is more reasonable to suppose that a line of this nature position cuts the axis anywhere. line can cut them. a curve of this ' . drawn parallel to the rectilinear axis. iijgiicr curves i i p i i i of the intersections. 114. ^ i knows nothing about nature. The number of lines that can cut the axis in very many points is immensely greater than ' ' r ' .. namely the conic sections. An by they example of this kind of curve is Hence triplicate ratio of the abscissae. their the order. omitting this somewhat conjectural line of reasoning. which expresses wWcV^a ^teaight their nature by what the analysts call equations . From what has been said above we are led to set up the following line of argument. - . ellipse & the hyperbola. or in a hundred. rather than a small number or none at all. yet there are an infinite number of other straight lines that do cut these curves . & there are about eighty of them. & higher straight line in one point only degrees can be cut by a straight line in two. these together. & Further investigaof all remove the chief point of the difficulty. that does not cut the axis. many forces. or everywhere only attractive or only repulsive. the form of the curve representing forces by a j|? I^SSlJ simple tnecuaracrxr ngorous argument derived trom the phenomena of Nature. . & that there are very many teristic of simplicity mcurves intersections which represent just as many of these transitions. it will appear to one. third. intersections . of such a nature that there is absolutely not a single straight line which cannot be 112. the As the class gets " gh the parabola. that lines that are expressed by equations of the first degree can be cut by a those that have equations of the second. . But. Thus far the nature of the matter has been considered. Geometricians divide curves into certain classes by the help of analysis. Further. & considering only the probability of the cases & the nature of the matter on its own merits. 116. according to a progression that increases in such immensity that. . nor repulsion alone. three. by what has been said above. first ri* */i & & . . consequently also of the arcs alternately attractive repulsive. There is no curve that an infinite number of straight lines cannot cut & although there are some curves of such a nature that some straight lines do not cut them. so on.. when the line representing the law of forces is in question. . than one of those that do not cut it. /iii . the forces will be either partly attractive partly repulsive. & therefore that the nature of the forces must be such as requires a very large number of transitions from attractions to repulsions & back again. cut. Nobody & it is really wonderful how great is the number of these curves. equations of the second degree represent curves of the first class. the higher the class of the curve becomes. & on that account these are called transcendental curves. or in a single point. the factThat t here are more lines that thL^es^hat^o not. Hence. that it is immensely more probable that the curve is of the first kind than that it is of the second kind . or does not. with the result that it presents to us. f> the number of those that can cut it in a few points only. rather than such that it deals with either alone. putting all other reasons on one side. or will not. first of all persons to enumerate the curves of the second class. that is derived from the multiplicity S^L. But we can also proceed still further adopting the same line of argument. hitherto has stated an exact number for the curves of the third class . hence. the number of curves will altogether surpass the fullest power of the human imagination. There are also curves which transcend all . Hence we deduce that there are . in which the ordinates are in the there are an infinite number of curves & an & Therefore amongst the cases that are possible. or the ninety-ninth class can be cut by a straight line in ten. which cut the axis. that parabola. in analysis applied to geometry. who otherwise r .

cujusmodi ea est. exhibebitur solutio ordo. cujus Problema ubi habetur illius dissertationis. (d) bine. simplicem esse posse. ubi Supphmentorum. cum quanquam abire in distantiam abscissa non distantiis ita in infinitum excrescentem. problematis. quod nostri Geometrae quaerunt. discrepant. magis simplicitate. y inde. 75. ut rectam . Tertio : y (c) Qui velit ipsam rei determinationem videre. e quarum multiplicatione eadem componatur cujuscunque demum Nobis quidem altiorum ea curva sit generis. ac ex attractivis ita crescentes. junctionem. illas maxime simplices esse crederet curvas lineas. ex ilia earum proprietate longe alterius Geometrise sibi elementa conficeret. si ita loqui fas est. requiritur. sed. ac nos intuemur congruentiam rectarum. uti pluribus quh generum simplices ostendi in dissertatione De Maris Aestu. quae magis. curvarum.102 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA esse notum in plurimis secare punctis. quae ex ipsa natura sua debeant axem sed praeter hanc generalem adeoque & circa ipsum sinuari in dissertatione De Lege Firium in a curvarum natura. quoniam posuimus Proposito problemate illud addo cuicunque velocitati utcunque magnce. an possit per aliquam exprimi per particulas ut hie ego presto. a num. quod cujuspiam ex ipsis proprietatem aliquam aeque evidenter intueretur. quod est citra asymptotum AB. ejus AG His propositis numero illo 75. mutatis distantiis utcunque exprimentibus distantias. ut sint pares extinguendce in repulsivas. poterit hie in 77. tantum in punctis quibusdam datis ad AE'. atque intuerentur. Conditiones problematis. parabolae prointime prietatem perspicerent. debeat. & ad illam ceteras referret lineas. Secundo : ut secet non composita ex aggregate arcuum diversarum ac simplex. repulsivis in attractivas. per ejus posse utique functionem aliquam ad ejus expressionem adhibentibus videatur admodum est dictum. At vero lineae continuae. nimirum nostrae humanae videntur minus curvae menti. AE . conditiones. infinita esse curvarum genera. ad no. quam in fig. quse quaeritur. pro compositis. constabit. & contorsiones. quod soliciti simus . & ex qua una omnem nos homines nostram derivamus Geometriam & illas habemus recedunt lineae a recta idcirco. non illud quaarerent. quotcunque habeat flexus. . (e) Nam singulis distantiis singulte vires respondent. recta linea videtur omnium simplicissima. Geometris. e transeuntes in datis quotcunque limitibus mutatas. . fine. ut parabolam rectificarent. possit y W negativam. & recedentibus. ut quarta conditio. ut nos ad rectam referimus quas quidem mentes si aliquam ex. sequenti numero propono sequentes sex conditiones. . non ex arcubus diversarum curvarum compositam. numerorum & figurarum ante has aliquot annos Parisiis . parabolarent. quantum libuerit. y ita porro cequales ( ) ordinatcf. gr. est in se simplex etiam. . & in Stayanis Supplementis. nobis ab ea confinximus. in minimis autem distantiis repulsivas. i exhibui. quod ipsam magis uniformem reddit . nihil est. Problema continens naturam curvaeanalytice expnmendam. : . Sed W 3. ubi nobis potentias W eeque composita. quae requirantur. qua possit exprimi curva ems formae. Addetur prieterea eidem postremum scholium pertinens ad qu<sstionem agitatam distantiee solam debeat omnino mutua materite an vis inter potenttam. aequationis. responsionem desumptam generali Natura existentium ego quidem directe demonstravi. & e . ut cum reliquis hujusce operis cohtereat. quam & uniformis naturae omnes in se ipsis sunt aeque simplices & aliud mentium genus. quas ipsa curva habere debet. qute uti superiore numero de curvts . quae meam exhibet /! 11 1 1 7. . mutatis distantiis utcunque mutatas. quae tota est uniformis naturae. Quarto : ut singulis abscissis respondeant singulcs inde ab A. binas distantias axem C'AC figures i. & quibus Continetur autem id ipsum num. abscissis y ordinal exprimant W : distantiis. cujus congruentiam in superpositione intuemur mentis oculis ac evidentissime. Id. 1 18. Quamobrem hie tantummodo exponam j- ji -i : vires. satis facere (c) [53] aequatio ibi inventa Invenire naturam curvce. AG'. complectitur propositio etiam rationem quee ad rationem in quibusdam satis magnis reciprocam duplicatam distantiarum accedat. respondeant ordinal* ut sumptis abscissis cequalibus hinc. ut curva utrinque ob vim repulsivam imminutis de illo crure. exprimens unquam evadere zero. Primo : ut sit regularis. Simplicem autem ejusmodi curvam affirmavi esse posse earn enim simplicem appello. quae in Analysi exponi possit per aequationem non resolubilem in plures. & sufficiant ad habendam curvam. (d) sit sui similis. hujusmodi Et quidem analyseos ipsius profundiorem cognitionem requirit ipsa investigatio virium legem. qua in memorata dissertatione continetur mutabitur. curvam illius ipsius formae.

it is the solution of the problem. of the form that I have given in Fig. derived from the general nature of curves. these are the necessary and sufficient conditions for determining the curve that is required. Further. is well known to Geometricians that there are an infinite number of classes For. not compounded of a number of arcs of different curves. if they noticed & formed an extremely clear perception of some property of. at all. Moreover. [see p. The investigation of the equation. & from this we human beings form the whole of our geometry. I set forth in the article that The follows it the following six conditions . 80]. (f) shall correspond equal ordinates. this for I call a curve simple. force increasing indefinitely repulsive very to be altogether y AB then become negative. say. when the whole of it is of one uniform nature. it will be (c) Anyone who desires found in 3 of the Supplements . from their very nature. W evident that at any rate that function. equations. there y one only. or how many flexures or windings it may have. if one may use the words. On this account. however great it may be. requires a deeper knowledge 01 analysis itselt. if we adhere to an expression by means of powers. AG. of curves that. In addition to what is proposed in this Art. 77 to no. (ii) & & AE'. in addition to this general answer to the objector. might believe these curves to be the simplest of all & from that property of these curves build up the elements of a far different geometry. & therefore also wind themselves about it. abscissa that represents the distance should ever become zero and For to each one distance one. Namely. The curve is regular (i) simple. in my dissertation De Lege Firium in Natura existentium. whereas. to parabolify a straight line. where the following problem is proposed. whose distances. at number to to attractive. these minds. It is true that the curves of higher classes seem to us to be less simple as I have shown in several places in the dissertation De Marts Aestu. Wnereiore nature of the curve. the more we consider them to be composite & to depart from that simplicity that we have But really all lines that are continuous & of uniform nature set up as our standard.AE. force. I indeed proved in a straightforward manner that a curve. further. whenever the distances are * of sufficiently great. must cut the axis in a very large number of points. might be simple & not built up of arcs of several different curves. of limit-points . 75. . taken one on each side of A. only corresponds. by which a curve of the form that will represent !J the "* analytical i j' i j f ir 1T71. with a question that was discussed some years ago in Paris. the curve will y seem complex. which might form an equally are just as simple as one another. are equal (<t) in pairs on each side of A (iv) To each abscissa there shall correspond one ordinate To equal abscisses. such that the former is formed from the latter by multiplication no matter of what class the curve may be. the more that lines depart from straightness & the more they differ. a straight line seems to our human mind to be the simplest of all for we get a real clear mental perception of the congruence on superposition in the lines case of a straight line. as we do the congruence of straight lines. or by some function of the distance. Indeed. to see the solution of the -problem will be able to do seat the end of this work. Required whose ordinates represent to find the nature of the curve. the fourth condition too. as has been stated in the it may be expressible by a function as I here assert . & the supplements to Stay's Philosophy. pT bl n 1 17. they would endeavour. : As we have used the words are changed as the distances I now add the & y following proposed are changed in any manner. r expression of the my law of forces can be expressed. on account of the although we are not concerned with the branch on the other side of the asymptote it is a as in such manner at distances small impossible that the postulated. 75 of the dissertation De Lege Firium. any given from repulsive forces repulsive. whether the mutual force between particles of matIt will be ter is bound to be expressible by some one power of the distance only. would not seek. . the parabola. For. I will here do no more than set out the necessary requirements that the curve must fulfil & those that the equation thereby discovered must satisfy. there will be found a final note dealing agree with the rest of the work. it . as our geometricians do. i. (d) This. to rectify the parabola . this is so because. is perfectly simple in itself also . clear mental perception of some property of any one of these curves. whose abscissa represent distances as I said. (e) & y . only in certain given points. article above. In addition. referring all other curves to that one. I. so as to But here both the numbering of the articles of the diagrams have been changed. AG'. just as we compare them with a straight line. thus giving it greater uniformity . i i & pass from attractive forces that are changed as the distances are changed in any manner. as it was given in the dissertation mentioned above. I asserted that a simple curve of this kind was perfectly feasible In analysis. the forces are repulsive at extremely small distances and increase in such a manner that they To the problem as there are capable of destroying any velocity. and (iii) so on. the proposition includes as you please 1 1 8. is required to make the curve symmetrical. (c) It is the subject of Art. also the ratio that approaches as nearly to the reciprocal ratio of the squares of the distances. Another kind of mind. . ' ~ . from Art.A THEORY kind is -OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 103 not bound to be built up by connecting together a number of independent arcs. can be expressed by an equation that is not capable of being resolved into several other & that too. at the end of this section. axis C'AC It shall cut the of Fig.

quas diversis jam Physici nominibus appellant. potissimum apud Astronomiae mechanicae cultores.Verum quod ad multiplicitatem virium pertinet. & quae ex omnibus ejusmodi legibus componetur. quae sit in ratione reciproca duplicata qui tantam exercent vim ad se expandendos. eos secanda. Et idcirco Newtonus aliam admisit vim pro cohaesione. in qua sunt globorum diametri. turn singulis ordinatis ag. hanc curvam in se unicam per resolutionem virium cogitatione Si ex. Quoniam autem & distantiarum. quis velit considerare in materia nostra. quo minor est diameter particulae diametro totius Terrae. (f) Id in requiritur. respondentibus virium accidere diximus. in minimis parte. concipiendo quamcunque vim. illud hie etiam notari potest. pV coincidet ad sensum cum axe oC. ipsa attractio. hyperbola poterit puncta accurate in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum. vel tangendo. cum ex ipsis Newtoni compertis attractio gravitati respondens [55] in globes homogeneos diversarum diametrorum sit in eadem ratione. inserviet ad faciliorem deterut in resolutione quod aliquando. infinita. adeoque vis ejusmodi in exiguam particulam est eo minor gravitate corporum in Terram. quam in se mutuo exercent omnino plurimum distantiarum. Non r i a a gravitatis cujusiex1n minimis . & simul habere vim aliam expressam ab ilia nova curva nam idem erit. comperto. q^ampro non accurate. adjungere ordinatas hujus novae hyperbolae ad partes incipiendo a punctis curvae g. 1 20. ingentem ad sensum distantiarum a re ciproca duplicata quiescant aliquanto magis aberret. minimis & gravitate consequitur . I . quam quae ex generali in cohaesione se quae prodit. in ellipsibus planetariis. EX pianetarum ime. habetur pro quod apud Physicos. area asymptotica ut arcus binis quibuscunque intersectionibus terminati possint variari. Inprimis in minoribus distantiis vis integra. concipere simul hasce binas leges virium. vis remaneat quam proxime sit vero distantiis usque adeo ne apud quam proxime in ratione reciproca triplicata . cujus abscissa fxprimant distantias. exprimere incrementum. 13 ordinatx quare ut illte vires sint pares extinguendte veloci- . cumque I2 2. exposui. quse quidem erit quaedam velut continuatio cruris VTS. nam reipsa unica lex virium habebitur. curves. repulsionem habent utique in distantiis a se invicem. Nam & illis vapores. sed id omne erit nostrae mentis partus quidam . ac illam praecedentem unicam. aream vel decrementum quadrati velocitatis : vires. quae decrescat in ratione majore. & ea erit itidem vera virium resolutio quaedam . aliam pacto haec nova curva potest dividi in alias duas. quantum libuerit. ut ut accurate servantem quasdam determinatas leges. cum in hac mea Theoria lex virium discedat plurimum ab ipsa ratione reciproca duplicata 121. m obesse theo- distantiis '""" m locum non habet. & iidem effectus orientur. hie mentio injecta est gravitatis decrescentis accurate in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum . ut ad quascunque distantias recedere ab axe C'AC. I. vel plures. ff quomodocunque libuerit. quebitur omnia materiae habere gravitatem decrescentem ilia. versus partes duplicata distantiarum. quia Mecbanica demonstrator. PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA Quinto Sexto fcf? ut babeant rectam existente ( ) pro asymptoto. si quis singulas seorsim considerare velit. lineam apsidum nominant. licere illud etiam. atque fictione quadam. dividere in plures.umptae. IS4] IT 9. vel osculando ubicunque. : Newtonianos quidem servatur omnino accurate ratio duplicata distantiarum. cavendum. quam Astronomi si ratio virium habituram motum. minationem effectuum. accurate distantiarum gravitatem generalem reciprocam quadratis poterit sane is describere ex parte attractiva hyperbolam illam. in reliquis locis ab eo distabit. vim & multi ex Newtonianis admiserunt reciproca duplicata distantiarum v cujus prior pars respectu posterioris sit in respondentem huic formulae 3 quam sit . mutando curvam jam genitam. non attractionem . b. ubi x sit in immensum major unitate assumpta sit vero major. est ilia quidem in immensum major. dh curvae virium expressae in fig. & est axis ellipseos. ac accedcre ad quoscunque quarum: : AB BAED U soiutio IrT attrac gravitatis tionem cunque curvarum arcus. gr. ubi x sit in immensum minor. tati cuivis utcunque magna. ne cui difficultatem aliquam pariat illud. particulae. quam in fig. Turn dici. quae habeat accurate ordinatas in ratione reciproca . & contordistiterint ab axe magis. si vertices F. Demonstravit quidem Newtonus. discrepat a gravitate. gravitatem decrescere in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum accurate. sed simul Eodem translatis ejus punctis per intervalla aequalia ordinatis Hoc pacto habebuntur plures etiam vires diversae. K.104 czquales. adeoque penitus insensibilis. ut idcirco in satis magnis distantiis evanescente ad sensum prima in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum x. + immensum minor. debet ilia area esse omni finita major. earn. libuerit. quae AB O : Hujus posterioris vis resolutio in alias plures. novae legi ass. & eo pacto orietur nova quaedam curva. quam distet ibidem etiam circa ipsum.

Hence in order that the forces should be capable of destroying any velocity however great. in the case of gases. (f) (vi) The arcs lying between any two intersections may vary to any extent. this way there will be obtained a fresh curve. for. the ordinates of this new hyperbola.heor. . For it comes to the same together with another force represented by this new curve. the attraction that arises in cohesion is immensely Now. at very small distances. if the vertices F. when x means. & at the same time altering the curve just obtained by translating the points of it forces. or touching them. in reality. the axis of the ellipse. in the case of planetary elliptic orbits. represents the increase or decrease of the square of the velocity. thing to think of these two laws of forces acting together as of the single law already given . of closeness. if that is supposed to be inversely proportional to the For. or several The resolution others. ordinates accurately in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY (v) 105 The straight line AB shall be an asymptote. from the greater than it ought to be according to the law of universal gravitation. Thus. not7 from if the ratio of the forces varied to any great extent from the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances . not even amongst the followers of Newton has the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances been altogether rigidly adhered to. of matter have gravitation accurately decreasing in the inverse square of the distance. it is considered as an established fact that gravitation decreases accurately distances. + . & for the remainder will recede from it & wind itself about it. it is to be remarked that no one should make in opposition this d es not hol any difficulty over the fact that.. i. In the same manner this new curve can be divided into two others. will differ very much in every case from the force of gravity. in some way or other accurately obeying certain ^o several other fixed laws. inverse ratio ot the squares ot the distances. & it will be the compounded resultant of all such forces as the above. there is certainly repulsion at those very small distances from one another. may recede to any distances whatever from the axis AC. 122.. as regards the multiplicity of forces which at the present time physicists call Resolution of the U of by different names. & this will be sometimes useful. the apheiia of (f) This is required because in Mechanics it is shown that the area of a curve. in the direction of AB. such as it were a continuation of the branch VTS. 111 1111 . the attraction corresponding to gravitation in homogeneous & therefore this spheres of different diameters varies as the diameters of the spheres kind of force for the case of a tiny particle is as small in proportion to the gravitation of bodies to the Earth as the diameter of the particle is small in proportion to the diameter of the whole Earth . since I here make mention of gravitation decreasing accurately in the is not . a'x 3 b'x2 . & since as far as could be observed the lines of apses were stationary is immensely . i. as we mentioned that it would be in resolution of forces. through intervals equal to the ordinates corresponding to the new law that has been taken.K. dh. decreasing in a greater ratio than the inverse square of the distances also many of the followers of Newton have admitted a force corresponding to the formula. for determining their effects more & will be a sort of true resolution of forces. it is very nearly in the inverse ratio of the cubes of the distances. By this law follows . r11 . the curve though 1 1 d fictitious resolution of the forces. y . this area must be greater than any finite area. & is thus insensible altogether.h . in the case of extremely small distances.y 121. * The t. which approximately coincide with the axis 0C. starting in each case of the distances as g. l! . which the particles exert upon one another. Now. & this will be Then he can add on to every ordinate. by considering some other force.. which exercise such a mighty squares of these distances. would have a very great motion. results obtained by Newton.O are more distant from the Then it can be stated that all points axis than the corresponding point on the hyperbola. Especially. the whole force. force of self-expansion. gravitation . and the asymptotic area BAED shall be infinite. at sufficiently great distances the first part practically vanishes & the force remains very approximately in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances x whilst. as ag. Now Newton proved. and approximate to any arcs of any curves to any degree and in any manner. again. if f^fother force* parts by a sort of mental anyone wishes to consider universal gravitation of matter exactly reciprocal to the squares & its he can indeed describe on the attractive side the hyperbola which has . cutting them. Hence Newton admitted another force in the case of cohesion. whilst in my Theory the law of forces is very different from this ratio. when x is immensely greater than some distance assumed as unit distance & immensely greater. at any points C 119. Thus indeed. in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances. In this manner several different forces will be obtained . in this the first term is immensely less than the second. there is a single law of forces. it can also here be observed that. less. & the results that arise will be the same also.e. & that is the one which I gave in Fig. Moreover. if anyone wants to consider one of these j^f N^wtonUn it is of itself of quite one-fold can yet be divided into several attraction separately. for instance. . or osculating them. of 1 20. from points on the curve. for the part & in pV will . amongst physicists & more especially those who deal with J^ 'H t v n celestial mechanics. But all this will be as it were only readily a conception of our mind . that that which The Astronomers call the apsidal line. & not attraction . whose abscissa r'present distances ordinates forces.

& discrimen ita ut accedere. quam singulae particulae. ac Terra. sibi potuit [57] proponere. duo admodum minora & inter se proxima. usui esse posse abitror. Theoria mea ad arcum illius hyperbolae. multo adhuc magis evidenter patebit. quam multi sint. vel remota admodum a majore. dum Mundum conderet. Nam inprimis nee omnino efficax argumentum contra meam Theoriam deduci potest.io6 in PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA orbitis At linese. sive. & quibuscunque adeoque in iis majoribus distantiis sensum omnem effugiat. Saturni. I2 3. Demonstravit enim Newtonus. sed motu exiguo earum apsidum id moventur etiam respectu fixarum. : T i i 1*1* * * III ^J$L*5* grH. in ipso Jove. nee scitur. Nee vero quidquam ipsi meae virium Theorias obsunt meditationes Maupertuisii. Auctor Naturae quos * f . & remotissimum. . sed solum servari accurate illam inde ullum legem. retulit ab & apsidum in schediasmate ante aliquot annos impresso. adeoque motu non is motus sed vero. sibi accidisse Clairautius ipse agnovit. quo a perfectione. adhuc admodum ipsae imperfectae solutiones. & inter se. quas premium Saturno haberi recessum Parisiensi an.Clairautius a quidem autem hanc legem ipsis motibus Kneje m uantum iftmerit[ distantiae.contemplationemque. quorum singuli & quorum particulae minimae se attrahant in paribus a centre distantiis homogenei sint. At & si id haberetur cum arcus ille meae curvae postremus VT possit accedere. ut duplicata distantiarum. possit effectus nullum habeat sensibile discrimen ab effectu. quae exhibet legem gravitatis reciprocam quadratorum distantiae. nee placebit sane unquam in Prima responsio 125. : De Aberrationibus Jovis. sed externas tantummodo propnetates quasdam agnoscimus. !^Jf *x ^rwt quast o onmcs. quibus si accedat actio perturbativa cometarum. censuit. motus trium corporum mutuo utcunque projectorum. selectam fuisse. si ea accurate servaret proportionem cum quadratis distantiarum reciproce sumptis. cujus ille perfecut illam. quod in hac una integri globi habeant eandem virium quasdam persequitur. aut etiam instituere potuit calculum pro actione perturbativa omnium planetarum. 1748. ac edidit . aphelia planetarum. sensibilem ab ilia ratione . ac proposuit. reciproca duplicata distantiarum . tantummodo . satis conformes Natune legibus circa ingeniosae illae quidem. ut discrimen nihil tamen pati posset inde sensum omnem prorsus effugiat. trium corporum. quae prolatae hue usque sunt. Tribuitur perturbationi virium ortae ex mutua apparente. legem virium decrescentium tiones in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum. reliqua est Luna. ac illae agentium in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum. At mihi quidem inprimis nee unquam placuit. globos. nee perfectiones omnes innotescere nobis possunt. quemadmodum Sol. quam in Natura reciprocam duplicatam distantiarum ab Auctore Naturae esse vellet. planetarum utique ilium motum accurate respondere actionibus reliquorum planetarum agentium in ratione quidem. intulit. tantummodo causarum Naturae fmalium investieatione usus. in se & approximationibus quod appellant. vel osculando in punctis quotcunque. f jjcricui~ XT "VT JNam iones. qui intimas rerum naturas nequaquam a C lines omnes. ut est Jupiter. legem. sed meo judicio nequaquam 124. Vero duplicata distantiarum in distantia Lunae. at non insensibili prorsus. ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum. qui. earn rationem observari omnino in gravitate. quiescunt illae apsidum lineae. ubi leges JNaturse aliunde innotuennt. Difficuitas a Mau- tionemaxfma^Nlwtonianae legis. sed id quidem ex calculi defectu non satis product! Eulerus in dissertatione W & . nee quam longe abeant nullum inde confici posse argumentum [56] pro ipsa penitus accurata ratione reciproca . se itidem attrahere in eadem ratione distantiarum Ob hasce perfectiones hujus Theoriae virium ipse censuit hanc legem reciproca duplicata. crediderat. ipsam tangendo. & Saturnus. & multo magis nee ullum habetur argumentum positivum pro ratione ita penitus accurata. ex Lunae colligi sensibilem recessum a ratione reciproca duplicata Academia admodum & Eulero aliquid simile fortasse accidit nee ullum habetur positivum argumentum pro ingenti recessu gravitatis generalis a ratione in distantia planetarum. 8 n 8 s ad meditationem quandam. & admodum remotis solutum est problema. ac seiigi et. neque enim adhuc exactitudine quasratur sine contemptibus pluribus. & inspicimus.ilclIU pcrlcC~ tionum. proxime. . ut ubi unum corpus sit maximum. qui responderet ipsi legi gravitatis . inserviunt & tantummodo particularibus quibusdam casibus. neque nequaquam evincit. quod idem est. Hinc nemo hucusque accuratum instituit. hue actione in se invicem at illud usque nondum demonstratum est. . quantum libuerit.

The same thing i i T J? ^duced the res t of astro- ^ is from /. 123. . Those meditations of his. has not been solved except by much omission of small quantities & by adopting approximations that are very far from truth and accuracy in this problem is investigated the motion of three bodies acting mutually upon one another in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances. my would not suffer in the least because of it.. each of which have equal densities at equal distances from the centre. with the use of final causes in the investigation of Nature these I think can only be employed for a kind of study & contemplation. Clairaut indeed. or at a large distance from the Hence nobody has hitherto greater & from one another as well. y . I mean. For the last arc of my curve can Theory be made to approximate as nearly as is desired to the arc of the hyperbola that represents the law of gravitation according to the inverse squares of the distances. For we cannot possibly be acquainted with all perfections . perfections^ 'not known and even . T *'. Also Euler. or osculating it in any number of points in any positions whatever & thus the approximation can be made so close that at these relatively great distances the difference will be altogether unnoticeable. & still more in the case of the distances of the planets. If to this is added the disturbing influence of the comets. For Newton proved that spheres. & the effect will not be sensibly different from the effect that would correspond to the law of gravitation. or what comes to the same thing. where this is in accordance with the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances. But even if this were the case. nor how far off they are it will be still more evident that from this no argument can be built up in favour of a perfectly exact observance of valid . & proclaimed the fact. . f the Newtoman . in such cases as those in which the laws of Nature have already been ascertained from other methods. the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances. there is nothing really to be objected to my Theory on account of the meditations of Maupertuis these are certainly most ingenious. up published. Neither is there any rigorous argument in favour of the ratio being so accurately observed that the difference altogether eludes all observation. . Objection arising . 107 was was any argument against my Theory be brought forward. & of which the smallest particles attract one another in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances. which carried off the r Jovis. . . Now. with respect to the fixed This motion is attributed to stars. in the first place I was never satisfied. this that law of the inverse squares of the distances Maupertuis thought had been selected by the Author of Nature as the one He willed should exist in Nature. Nor is it at all possible for us to see & know all the intentions which the Author of Nature could and did set before Himself when He founded . Further. moreover Iaw of mi e 1 can approximate nomy thls . in the first place these lines of apses. with regard to the law of forces decreasing in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances for which law he strives to adduce certain perfections as this. the aphelia of the planets are not quite stationary but they have some motion. asserted his belief that he had obtained from the motions of the line of apses for the Moon a sensible discrepancy . themselves also attract one another in the same ratio of the inverse squares of the distances. . hold good only such as the case in which one of the bodies is very large & at in certain particular cases a very great distance. slight indeed but not quite insensible. j^ w First reply to this . for in no wise do we observe the inmost nature of things. but all we know are certain external properties.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY in the orbits of each. as they call it. Moreover. as Jupiter & Saturn. in a pamphlet printed several years ago. For as yet the problem of three bodies. considered that Saturni. But Clairaut found out. happened positive argument in favour of a large from the inverse ratio of the of the distances for universal gravitation discrepancy squares in the case of the distance of the Moon. not that it was accurately so . the Sun for instance. . p r ct ion fccord* ing to Maupertuis. anybody make. nor indeed could an accurate calculation of the disturbing influence made. that his result was indeed due to a defect in his calculation which had not been carried far enough & perhaps something similar in Euler's case. & . On account of such perfections as these in this Theory of forces.. of all the other planets combined. even these still such as till have now been only imperfect solutions. <-. & therefore move not only apparently but really. in the case of Jupiter & Saturn there was quite a sensible discrepancy from that ratio. r i AIT--I i r>^r from the inverse square of the distance. whilst the other two are quite small in comparison & very near one another. touching the latter. prize given by ' . to the other as nearl y as is desired. VT . the perturbation of forces which arises from the mutual action of the planets upon one But the fact remains that it has never up till now been proved that this motion another. nor really shall I ever be satisfied. . he deduced that the ratio of the inverse square of the distances But he only really proved that that law exactly followed in the case of gravitation. . 125. exactly corresponds with the actions of the rest of the planets. nor from this can very approximately followed. but in my opinion in no in way sufficiently agreement with the laws of Nature. ^sdlcted^fo^'fhe sake of greater perfl . . & projected in any manner. of which we neither know the number. that in this one law alone have the same law of forces as the separate particles of which they are complete spheres formed. . 124. as are the Earth and the Moon. even if that exactly conformed to the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances.. there is no Moreover. For. in his dissertation De Aberratiombus the Paris Academy.

habeamus in genere praejudicia. & multo minus a me admitti possunt. Cum ea ratio explicandi phsenomena. quod ullam vim habeant utcunque tenuem. exactam globositatem impedit. atque satis vim illam ultimam. Quin immo cum juxta ipsos Leibnitianos inprimis. qui globi in Natura non existunt.rnonui sane superius. adeoque eundem tremorem ad & excitari debere in anima cerebrum propagari. eandem perceptionem. quod de Litteraria Expeditione per Pontificiam ditionem inscripsi. ipsa rotatione circa proprium in omnibus compressionem aliquam. quod electum fuit. quam aliae plunmse leges. & mechanismum. \<:$\ ~ * \2j. sed materiam in immenso vacuo innatantem. scabritiem superficiei. (g) Accedit autem illud. turn aliis. nonnullis difficultatem . Quod pertinet ad explicationem phaenomenorum per impulsionem immediatam. & eas. & nunc contemplamur. petito testimonium sensuum pertinet. . vel idcirco rejiciunt. inprimis demonstravi in dissertatione De Lege Firium in Natura existentium a num. commendatur abunde Felicius sione*.. ad absurda deducunt ' plurima. quae ut ut exigua. Ostendant (g) Qute hue pertinent. qui non vacuum tantummodo disseminatum in materia. quam particulae minimae. 128.& Opticam iis immediata impulsione explicentur. accurate utique distantiis crcscentcm in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum. quae eo cum nimirum ipsis sensibus tribuamus id. prater eandem sequantur legem . nam praeter non exiguam inaequalitatem interioris textus. quod ratio boni ad malum in hoc. ad nostra saltern accedat. quae adhibet vires agentes in aliqua distantia. quod ilia. quas requirunt attractionem immmutis non imperfecta. multa quidem in ipso Mundo sint mala. ubi corpus organa repulsivam. quam ego quidem in Tellure nostra demonstravi in Opere. & patebit inferius. quam hie. videtur ipsi esse perfectio maxima. qui apparentes globi fiant. . quern ipsum r n XT nostras vires immechamcas appellant. illud. quin immo meo quidem judicio est omnino nee r v 1 i tarn ipsa. id. qui excitantur in & communi sententia ab impenetrabilitate. illam axem induci habere proprietatem non possunt rationis reciprocal duplicatae distantiarum. & unde illationis vitio est tribuendum. parit f i. Newtonus explicarit Astronomiam. explicari "eam^nus. in cujus gratiam tolerantur alia mala. o ex praepro impulsione. nullum utique argumentum desumi potest contra ipsam. quem Newtoniana Addunt autem etiam per jocum ex serio argumento labefactare coeperat. (J continentur novem numeris ejus Dissertations incipiendo a 59. omnium est maxima utique poterit. 4- . & immedicredant evidenti sensuum testimonio evinci hinc huiusmodi a tum contactum. quod Newtoniana determinatio rationis reciprocal duplicatae distantiarum locum habet tantummodo in globis materia continua constantibus sine ullis vacuolis. corporibus. debuerit esse non illud bonum.io8 videre. quae in hac ipsa Theoria Virium haberentur. Quod ad baculo utendum a sensibus. absolutamque applicationem. ea prorsus omissa. & cometis suspicari possumus ex ipsa saltern analogia. & punctula a se invicem remota. penitus evertant. i : . qui electus est. omnes defensores acerrimos principii rationis sufficients. 59. quod censeant. ut & Newtomanorum generalem gravitatem. vel saltern ad inextricabiles difficultates. summam in i hac Theoria . earn pro Natura fuisse electam. contactu. adeoque nee illius perfectionis creditas maxime perfectam. quod in aliorum bonorum gratiam toleratur. quod mechanicae non sint. in reliquis autem planetis. I2 6. non inde utique sequeretur. Quamobrem si ratio reciproca duplicata distantiarum esset omnium perfectissima pro viribus mutuis particularum. & irregularitatem. exponam uberius infra. satis patet. & ex testijuuiv-. turn pcrfcctam esse. & constitutam. .. sed Mundus ipse idcirco sit fieri optimus. i . aliosque qui inde consequitur.. ubi de extensione agam. Natura si res accurate . quae in ob rem ab iis communi sententia excitaretur quam sensationibus. sed illud malum. Eandem legem nee in & . . ut in ea ipsius Mundi parte. & Mundi perfectissimi. qua. adeoque illam assumptam perfectionem maximam corrumpit. quaj utique est aliqua. . At nee revera perfectissima est. quod nimirum globi integri. ' Demum & illud . quod ego quidem turn alibi etiam. phaenomena omnia per impulsionem explicari debere. . ut Philosophi jam sane passim. ex quibus. habentur in fine Supplem. quanto felicius phaenomena quaeque praecipua sine ulla quam positive pro. exemplis. PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA & nosse omnino non possumus. esse ad persuadendum neganti contactum. quanto felicius. Virium. nulli fere usui est in ad exactitudinem absolutam exigatur cum nulli in Natura sint accurate perfecti globi paribus a centre distantiis homogenei. fibris excitare motus illos debere in organorum ipsorum ipsos.w monio sensuum : responsio ad hanc posteriorem. Satis erit hie monere quod nostrae ratiocinationis. Accedit autem & illud.

the fact that complete spheres obey the same law as the smallest particles composing them. such cases. & consists of little points separated from one another. how much more ha ^ e without the idea of lse s ver thin g is ^^ |^^ ^ rigorously to exist - nowhere proved by employing (g) is to forces acting at a distance. Now as far as the evidence of the senses is concerned. 59. Moreover. it is altogether imperfect. not insignificant inequality & irregularity of internal composition. since in the doctrine of the followers of Leibniz more especially. some persons raise the greatest objections to this Theory of mine. Both by these instances. and by many others. even if the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances were the most perfect of all for the mutual forces between particles. and the origin of these prejudices. in this that has been chosen. when I discuss extension. and it happily every one of the important phenomena is explained without any idea of immediate contact. work which I wrote under the also in the title of De Litteraria Ex-peditione remaining planets & the comets (at per Pontificiam ditionem. As regards the explanation of phenomena by means of immediate contact I. which here & now we are considering. & several other laws. no argument can be adduced against the theory. and a most perfect Universe which is a direct consequence of that idea.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY and of 109 the Universe. the prejudices that we may form in. for the close to mention when a that. I will set forth below. Hence. for the alleged reason that they are not mechanical. indeed. - happily Newton had explained Astronomy and will be evident. are excited by impenetrability and contact . So they call forces testimony of the rep y t0 like those I as also and they reject the universal th?s latter. or at least. cannot have the property inverse ratio of the squares of the distances . which to him seems to be the greatest perfection. we may attribute to the senses what really ought It will be enough to be attributed to the imperfection of our reasoning and inference. Nay indeed. least by analogy). Thus. 128. Finally. Both it. it certainly would not follow from that fact that it was chosen and established for Nature. is of no use at all in Nature . that a stick would be useful for persuading anyone who denies contact. nay rather. . "mpui^and'on the this they believe to be proved by the clear testimony of the senses. in a This law ec is neither t i0 ^ ^Tor ies Dod not that are exactl y spherical. all the rest of the keenest defenders of the principle of sufficient reason. in what follows. refers to this point. & such spheres do not exist in Nature. and overthrow altogether the idea of mechanism which the Newtonian theory had already begun to These apparent spheres. which will have even the slightest validity. This compression. although it is indeed but slight. mentioned above how much more Optics by omitting it altogether . that which was chosen would necessarily be not that goodness in virtue of which other things that are evil are tolerated. they also add. Hence. by way of a joke in the midst of a serious argument derived from the senses. & thus also they cannot bear the true & absolute application of that perfection that is credited so highly. the further point that the Newtonian determination of the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances holds good only in spheres made up of continuous matter that is free from empty such spheres of the points. It might certainly happen that in this part of the Universe. there may be many evils in the Universe. which are also obtained in my Theory of Forces. of which I proved the existence in the Earth. for there are in Nature no exactly Besides the perfect spheres having equal densities at equal distances from the centre. for instance. just present body approaches in the nerves of those force rate it is that is to excite bound (at any repulsive finally). just gravitation of Newton. 126. & therefore nullifies that idea of the greatest perfection. and these are bound to excite the same perception in the mind as would be excited in accordance with the usual idea. being composed of these ' undermine. bf found at the end of this work as Supplement IV. is the greatest possible. reject them. that require attraction at very small distances increasing in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances lead to very many absurdities . that there is some compression induced in all of them by the rotation about their axes. but that evil which is tolerated because of the other things that are good. to insuperable difficulties. from these sensations. as philosophers of all lands do at the present time. (g) In addition there is the point that the thing. according to the usual idea. as I showed in the dissertation De Lege Virium in Natura existentium in particular. prevents we can assume Much less can I admit spaces . in addition to roughness of surface (of which it is sufficiently evident that at any rate there is some). as well as in other places. is strongly recommended. Let objectors bring That which & which is contained in nine articles of the dissertation commencing with Art. this method of explaining phenomena. because Objection founded they consider that all the phenomena must be explained by impulse and immediate contact . in my opinion. 127. throughout matter. But this law as a matter of fact is not the most perfect of all. and yet the Universe may be the best possible. but I consider that matter as it were swims in an immense vacuum. & that thus the same vibrations are sent to the brain. I do disseminated for not so much as admit a vacuum . just because the ratio of good to evil. my organs the motions which. propose non-mechanical. enough to our organs. namely. small There is too true sphericity.

adhibere non possint cum e contrario ego positive argumento superius excluserim immediatum contactum omnem. hausimus. de quo nostri sensus sententiam ferre non possunt. ne a vocibus quidem ipsis huic Theoriae . creare poterunt Transitus ii. admodum patentem. Mechanicam non notandum sed ut & cur solicitudinem haberem ullam . cum oculorum testipraestabunt nunquam ad crus minimas. sed ad liberos inprimis adhibitam contemQuae Archimedes de plandos motus. quae motum materiae gignant. habentis binas superficies oppositas distinctis. ne res in infinitum excrescat. ad objections conse menti deductam transibimus. persequar. sunt 132. vel laeve. mutetur motus. hinc. sint satis. sinuetur. contactum mathei i maticum. nee ita exiguum. puncti . de Galilaeus li-[59]-bero gravium descensu. quae virium invidiam ipsarum institutioni respondeat . quibus ipsa non placet. quae Newtonus generaliter de motibus in trajectoriis quibuscunque. jure demonstrased uti supra potest fieri per Mechanismum. iis. motum Id sane ii monium ad excludendas distantias illas . quae ipsas impellerent & debebant a se invicem distare per aliquod extremae inde. qui fiant impulsione vel exclusa penitus. ut nullam unquam per sensus acquirere intervallum. . : T & & impedit. ipsum. quern ii ubique volunt. Atque idcirco quotiescunque punctum nobis animo sistimus. ad exprimendum physicum ilium contactum tantummodo. Sic planum. & quidquid per illas fit. sunt. saltern Porro sensus nostri nunquam .. mud duco. . per sunt ad significandas res corporeas. quae ad materiam pertinent. & propagandum motum ad cerebrum Haec omnia aggregata constabant partibus. & oscillationis centre Hugenius..*. & motus inde I2 g j) e no minibus . ... quod sensu percipi possit. i maxime notatu digna . in quo distantia sensus effugit omnes. Vires hujus Theorise pertineread ve- rum. . vel objecta quae contra ipsam virium legem a me propositam Nunc ad ilia Theoriam virium sunt hactenus. Inprimis quod pertinet ad hanc constitutionem in animum sibi possint inducere.no isti PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA vel unicum exemplum. Ideas omnes. nihil id. o 1 vis repulsiva satis magna contactum Physicum. sed tamen globuli rotundi. qua caremus : : re- unde idea sponsio extensionis sit orta. communicari in Natura. & corporum proprietates. ni ja. habemus ideam globuli cujusdam perquam exigui. hominum genus eas. j. ac motus ipse determinetur admodum Quampropria significatione acceptam. ad pertinere arbitrantur. affirmari qu33 idcirco appellari jure possunt vires Mechanic*?. . utique ad Mechanicam pertinent. aggregatis. ac de projectis. elementorum materise. a - mdi-[6o]-visibiha. qui impulsionem unicam .. & physi. simul & extensionem. quanquam ego ad aequivocationes evicum hunc did tandas soleo distinguere inter contactum Mathematicum.. nisi reflexione utamur. mechanismum. sic laeve proprie dicitur iis. praejudiciis quod quibusdam T : - tribuit multo plus aequo. per immediatam impulsionem . . Mechanismum vimus.*. Ubicunque vires agant. qui nullo pacto r i n 11 j A J nullam se dicant habere posse eorum ideam.. quse de centralibus in circulo viribus. per sensus vires exerunt nimis tenues ad movendas nimirum elementa. promineat quanquam in communi etiam sententia nihil sit in Natura mathematice planum. in quo distantia sit prorsus nulla. quae Objectio ab idea inextensi. collata vi. quas primum repulsivum pertinet. At id & mextensa. Atque haec de tra puncta. ut admittant puncta prorsus multi. & Wolfiana & Euleriana. nee vero incognitum. . & aliorum Scriptorum Mechanica passim utique ejusmodi vires. & contorsiones curvae circa axem. licet intervallum semper remaneat aliquod . ortos contemplatur. nee occuitum in nsdem aliquid prasjudicio cmdam. sive elementorum fibras. quae oculos necessario fugiunt. id omne secundum quas velocitas oriatur.tactus . prout nostris sensibus subsunt. vel saltern mente seclusa. quae divisibilitatem non involverit.. & occuitum. & partes. qui independenter ab omni impulsione habeantur.. ' . oiferunt. ad quern haec virium genera pertinent multo magis. inprimis ad Mechanicam pertinet in obrem ii maxime ea ipsa propria vocum significatione abutuntur. . in quo nihil. ex communi usu quod loquendi provenit. vel immutent. vel objici possent. quae aequilibrio tradidit. quae continentur infra ipsos.. Eodem pacto & nomen contactus ab hominibus institutum est. quae contra constitutionem elementorum materiae inde ab ob- j^j. sine ulla cura contactus mathematics. Voces ab hominibus institutae nostras vires inducendum ulteriorem accessum . a manifestum. ac potuerimus ideam pertinentem ad materiam. Discrimen inter in omnino propria significatione usurpare licebit vocem conj -m E o dem etiam pacto J * . in quo positive probare possint.. Atque hoc quidem pacto si adhibeantur voces in propria significatione ilia. esset.. singula quae potuerunt percipere massis indiguerunt. sumptae quarum partium Hinc factum est. & leges expandantur. nihil omnino curatis. proprie contactum. & positive probaverim. utique ad solam impulsionem immediatam fuisse restrictam unquam ab iis. non quidem ~t . qui de ipsa tractarunt. in quibus itidem. haberi nusquam..

an altogether special Distinction be130. which indeed give forth forces that are too slight to affect the nerves & thus of the elements. But that type We derive all our ideas. & these matters have been accomplished with the idea of impulse excluded altogether. > may justly be called Mechanical . our senses never could perceive single matter. I should trouble myself about nomenclature but. -physical contact. sense. that of Galileo of work any impulse. . them as a result of their made up must be separated from one another by a certain interval. nothing general opinion. which they wish to exist everywhere. their correct used in if words are In this can form no idea. exceedingly small indeed. namely. or the motion itself is determined the whole of this belongs in a truly proper signification of the term. that which corresponds to their original formation. Whenever forces act. that either up till now have Passing on from 131. & I have positively proved the first & given that the thing. for these repulsive branch of my curve refers on the other hand. as far as they come within the scope of the senses . Now all these aggregates are two extremes on the one side and on the^ other and opposite faces. remain sense . restricted to immediate impulse alone by those who have dealt with it . we should get the idea of a sort of ball. . Also in the same way we may employ the term contact in m e n definite. . as a matter of fact exists nowhere. invented was the term contact same In the by men to express way also. they greatly especially to Mechanics abuse the proper signification of terms. & that not an insignificant one. senses. but. I think it should be observed that Mechanics was certainly never occult mechanism. & whatever comes about through their . & there is an investigation of the laws in accordance with which velocity is produced. and the repulsive force is great enough to prevent closer approach being induced by the forces we are considering. or might be raised. Of a truth they will never produce one for they cannot use the testimony of the eyes to exclude those very small distances to which . these forces action can be justly asserted to have come about through a mechanism . Hence. First of all. although. but that in the of free motions. those who do not care for my Theory of forces cannot from those words derive any objection against it. who think that impulse alone belongs to the science Therefore of Mechanics . to which these kinds of forces belong to a far greater extent. The senses would need masses. . the windings about the axis . as who . motion on all sorts of trajectories The Mechanics of Wolf. any way bring many persons for they say that which we postuindivisible and non-extended the existence of points that are perfectly * tiic tc reply < T* i r 1_ of men pays more heed than origin of the idea they cannot form any idea of such points. motion is changed. to matter. Nature that is mathematically in there is in the senses . I usually distinguish between mathematical contact.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY forward but is in a single instance in which they can positively prove that motion in Nature communicated by immediate impulse. Hence it comes about that we could never obtain through the senses any idea relating So. & one too that is not unknown or mysterious. against the law of forces that I have proposed ^y^Theorf""of Now we will pass on to objections against forces to objections the matter would grow beyond all bounds. plane or smooth. what Newton proved in general for all these certainly belong to the science of Mechanics. that of Huygens on central forces in a circular orbit & on the centre of oscillation. Whilst ocular evade I. I have now said sufficient about those objections otherwise been raised. we properly call a that can be perceived by the in it or has no bend which projection thing plane or smooth. elements. unless we used our reflective powers. any thought physical contact only. way. perfectly plain & evident. independently on the free descent of heavy bodies & on projectiles. the interval may always Although. Words are formed by men to signify corporeal things & the properties of such. such as exist quite first place it was employed for the consideration The of Archimedes on equilibrium. or aggregates 132. is right to certain prejudices. or at least put out of mind. at any rate those that relate to of extension. have excluded all idea of immediate contact . ' 13. there are indeed regards the constitution of the elements Potion to^the that frame of mind to admit tended into themselves in cannot points. . but still a round ball. by the rigorous argument observation. Thus. gives rise to ^j^/^ot to an a kind of prejudice. necessarily above. in order to avoid ticai and ph^ skai something contact the latter ambiguity. which would affect . There is no reason why in that too there is something that. from the evidences of our senses. as The forces in this 129. from the customary manner of speaking. which did not involve at the same time extension. Further. . . having two distinct as of parts & of these parts the combined force. often as we thought of a point. as we proved above. of matter. propagate motion to the brain. Euler & other writers in different lands certainly treats of such forces as these & the motions that arise from them. a amst P mts the constitution of the elements of matter derived from it. of which our senses of mathematical without contact. indeed. in which the distance is per y small to affect distance is too our in which the & C anedorftact absolutely nothing. . which present themselves to the g mind & in these also I will investigate those that more especially seem worthy of remark. parts & divisibility. & those that fall beneath this scope are absolutely not heeded at all. - .

duos .. ". cujus nulla pars est. n jgjtur per reffexionem acquisitam ideam r j-punctorum realium. . jam inextensi. ne admittatur in colhsione corporum impossibilitas binarum velocitatum diversarum habendarum . & conceperimus . quas tamen ipsa ad indivisibilium. Id erit quidem punctum. non pure imaginaria. vel a se invicem recedere. v j -i inextensi. j^c. vel nova sectio congruet penitus cum praecedente. . pedes atque id ipsum planum concipiamus secari transversum secundum longitudinem Sectio ilia ita. & si . materialium. . ' . & ope illius ipsius ideas extensi continui. & inextensorum ideam nos ducet admodum claram. /" Quo autem . longam quidem. ac fontem ipsum fallacies ejusmodi aperiemus. & indivisibilis.. & inextensa oportebit Ilia sectio est . sed ejusmodi naturae puncti ipsius. En quomodo ideam acquiremus etiam ejus naturas indivisibilis illius. Et hoc pacto sibi & Geometrae ideam sui puncti indivisibilis. jam ille novus sectionis locus distabit a praecedente per aliquod intervallum. ad concursum sectionum transferamus. Utcunque exiguus fuerit motus. melius ipsius indivisibilis natura concipi possit quasrat a nobis . Verum & positivam quandam indivisibilis. non posse promoveri planum ipsum ita. quam per sensus hausimus. iis in infinitum imminutis distantiis. .. Post hujusmodi ideam acquisitam illud unum intererit inter geometricum punctum. quorum habemus ideam uti foraminis ideam habemus utique negando existentiam illius materias. ex qua planum continuum constare concipimus. Respondebimus sane. .. & punctum physicum materiae. ut aliud indivisibile. si ilia sectio crassitudinem haberet non esset : & priori contigua. intersectio utriusque in superficie plani concepti nullam partem quamcumque. quo pacto sensibilia erunt. at latitudinis omnino expers nam ab altera parte immediate motu continue transitur ad alteram. negativa acqmraam in p r imi s u bi & extensionem. cum sectio sectioni contigua punctis eeopuncti metricf transiata : Eademin idea ad physicum. & virium illarum activarum. erit utique limes inter partem dexteram sinistram. m . & inextensi. & motu suo lineam describet. translate piano. ^. & partium compositionem si N ideam quandam nobis comparabimus per negationem illam ipsam eorum. . ut n ihil prorsus inter utramque intersit. non debemus consulere ideas > q uas immediate per sensus hausimus sed earn nobis debemus efformare refl^xionemT'quomodo ejus idea per reflexionem. J. positiva saltus. unde net. cui in si aliquam.. quas priori quispiam.. . longus quidem pedes duos. possint in iis excitare motus. & veteram intercedet aliquid ejus materias. . longum ex. quanta erat plani longitude. Ipsam quam nobis exhibent Idea ejusmodi q uaer i us. J ^ : Punctorum exist- g ea tantum concipi. . & quam inferius ostendemus.. . . . entiam aliunde . omnino momento."2 idea PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA 133. Reflexione adhibita non ita difficulter efformabimus nobis ideam ejusmodi. quam inter ideas ab infantia acquisitas per sensus mcassum ideam acquisitam non evincit eorum existentiam. & inextensum ipsi proximum sine medio intervallo non admittat. oportet admittere in materia vires. Natura inextensi.. quod movebitur... : per spatium latitudinis sibi asqualis. ut prima Euclidis definitio jam inde incipiat punctum est. . . : ibi eliciant in anima. negemus . habebimus utique non solum ideam . . . . adeoque materialia. quod non potest esse inextenso con- tiguum in Uneis. esse non possit. & ipsum. & inextensum. & inextensi. ejus planae proxima. & contiguum habere non possit. quo quas repulsivae sint in minimis saltus fieret. utique. m puncti Quamobrem ad concipiendum punctum indivisibile. omnino habeat extensionem punctum peni-[6i]-tus indivisibile. quern ipso & inductio. gr. quod hoc secundum habebit proprietates reales vis inertias. ut tamen iterum post sectionem conjungantur partes. . sed vel cum eo congruat. augeantur in infinitum . utranque indivisibilis . qui propagati ad cerebrum. occurrat altera sectio transversa eodem pacto indivisibilis. & inextensi puncti ideam poterimus com P arare n bis ope Geometrias. Atque hinc patebit etiam illud. inextensorum... & se contingant. r ut aliam faciamus massas ita sit sectionem. vel aliquo a se invicem intervallo distent. quas deest in loco foraminis.". quam quidem etiam efformant sibi ita. quas cogent duo puncta ad se invicem accedere.. . Concipiamus planum quoddam prorsus continuum. Quomodo ejus idea posfit^per itmlte" inter- & limitum 134. sed vel congruant. limes secundum crassitudinem inextensus. ut ilia sectio promoveatur tantummodo . ut mensam. & quod mmirum. argumenta superms facta. ut aliud punctum sibi puncti indivisibilis. . excludunt.. Hasc . ut ubi satis accesserint ad organa nostrorum sensuum. vel aliquod intervallum relinquat inter se.. . & realia. sed latitudinis expertem. quse. facile efformare possunt. . & inextensum .( . fallacem esse. id fieri non posse vel enim inter novam sectionem. r demonstrari per indivisibilium.. & . perceptiones 136..*-.

which shall lie so near to the former section that there is absolutely no distance between them. . and in this way become sensible. The nature of an indivisible itself can be better conceived in the following way. and by the help of that idea of an extended continuum that we derive ^of^bourf from the senses . We should indeed reply that it could not be done. not prove that these things exist. : . that the section will be moved only through a space equal to its own breadth. which is such that it does not allow another indivisible and non-extended thing to lie next to it without some intervening interval . by HOW a positive idea the aid of geometry. when we have conceived the idea of extension and composition by parts. length . but the two either coincide or else they are separated from one another by some interval. & not imaginary. it I . . had to be admitted that in matter there were forces which are repulsive ^at very small distances. which nevertheless will lead us to a perfectly clear idea of ^^ perfectly plane and like a two feet in & that this continuous. we cannot consider the ideas that we derive directly from the senses must form our own idea of it by reflection. . However slight the motion is supposed to be. It will be a point that is altogether indivisible and non-extended . which would not be contiguous to the first part if the section The section is a boundary which. & that these increased indefinitely as the distances were diminished. & For we can pass straightaway by a continuous motion altogether devoid of breadth. indivisible. but also an idea of the nature of a point of this sort which is such that it cannot have another point contiguous to it.The idea but we extended. & non. in order that in the collision of solids a sudden ing of the & both induction should not be admitted impossibility change (which change there being two different velocities at the same instant in which the change should take material and real. for a section cannot be contiguous to another section. If now we transfer these arguments to the intersection of sections. & indivisible if The nature of I a ext hin~g w hich cannot he next to ^S concerned. it will be two feet in length (that being the length of the plane before section). Th e same . but either coincides with it or leaves some definite interval between itself & the other. we have of a point obtai rxed ^"refleTti >n h a negative ideaof rt may ^ ac( uired i - the idea of a hole by denying the existence of matter. 134. in the first place. For either between the new section & the old there would intervene some part of the matter of which the continuous plane was or the new section would completely coincide with the first. is non-extended another transverse section which in the same way is also indivisible & non-extended fell across the first. 135. we shall truly have not only the idea of an indivisible & non-extended point. place). so that they touch one another. & thus had any thickness. 136. In this way also geometricians can easily form an idea of their own kind of indivisible & non-extended points & indeed they do so form their idea of them. parts joined together. For instance. we shall form an idea of this sort for ourselves without much difficulty. then it must come about that the intersection of the two in the surface of the assumed plane has no extension at all in any direction. for the first definition of Euclid begins A -point is that which has no parts. That is just what the rigorous arguments given above through ^cquiran idea of them. that which is absent from the position in which the hole lies. Suppose someone should ask us to make another section of the plane mass. then we shall get a sort of idea of non-extension & indivisibility by that very negation of the existence of those things of which we already have formed an idea. point out to us . because. After an idea of this sort has been acquired.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 133. Imagine some thing that ^g part . material. 113 is Hence for the purpose of forming an idea of a point that indivisible . namely. . will also move and by its motion will describe a line. table-top. can be whilst we seek for it in vain amongst those ideas that we have o^herwise^demonpoints acquired But an idea of this sort about things does strated they can since acquired infancy by means of the senses. from one part to the other part. when propagated to the brain. and interns of boun " source of this kind of fallacy. this we will show below to be a fallacy. . But we can also get an idea of a point that is indivisible & non-extended. thing for transferred riafpoLt^ ^geometrical point to a . suppose plane is cut across let the its after section & be once more along length . if the plane be moved. induce sensations in the mind. that is to say. if we deny the existence of both. they can excite motions in them which. which has length indeed but is devoid of breadth. as regards breadth. the new position of the section would be at a distance from the former position by some definite interval . non-extended The existence of 137. there is but one difference between a geometrical point & a physical point of matter this lies in the fact that the latter possesses the real properties of a force of inertia and of the active forces that urge the two points to approach towards. If we reflect upon it. one another whereby it comes about that when they have approached sufficiently near to the organs of our senses. Hence also it will be clear that it is not possible so to move the plane. See then how by reflection the idea of real. & also we will open up the very daries. The section will be the boundary between the left part and the right indivisible is & non-extended points. or recede from. . Now see how composed we acquire an idea also of the nature of that indivisible and non-extended thing. & this point. For.

. adniberi mductionis a contmuitatis positis. quod ejusmodi impossibilitatem Ex omnimodfs inextensionis. & compositionem partium negativa sit. sibi elementis tribuunt. quod a Metaphysicis. Nee ad indivisibilitatem. quo legem. ex qua. : nimirum sub sensus nostros ne composita quidem. Ex natura. 139. omnino sint negaturi. ad ejusmodi proprietates argumentum desumptum ab inductione nequaquam pertingit. compenetrabuntur simul. .. . excludi omnino debet absolute . impossibilem. extensionem. dissertationis impenetrabiiitate. . divisibihtatem. & Leibnitiani monades suas & quoque si m ces & inextensas P^ utique volunt. si rem altius perpenderint . continuum debent non sunt. quin in quo. ipsa compenetratio excluditur. ex ipsa earum natura. hue libet transferre. inextensorum altero contactum ad dexteram. a sensibihbus inductionem com- . maximum evito scopulum. monades non compenetrari. & Geometris nonnullis animadversum est jam diu.. & aggregati. globuli cujusdam rotundi. quae eo pertinent. & ope illius supellectilis tantummodo. . quod cum simplicitate. possit cadere sub sensus ipsos. & quod sine reflexione. & inextensorum notionem non ego primus in Physicam veteres post Zenonem. sed indivisibilia sunt prorsus. partes . Eorum ideam habuerunt . . nisi Neque enim concipiendo unum elementum in medio duorum ab ea extrema se contingant.. quae nonnulli ex Leibnititensis ab anorum familia de petita proferunt.. se ibi illam ipsam globuli inter duos globules inter jacentis ideam admiscere. . ut distincte concipiamus id. adeoque prima materiae elementa non constant contiguis partibus. . j) g Mater its Divisibilitate. quibus egi in una adnotatiuncula adjecta num. altero ad laevam. quia natura sua ii difficultatem nequaquam amovenf . . ego cum ipsorum punctorum contiguitatem auferam. ejusmodi indivisibilibus. liceret. atque simplicia. qua [63] supponitur. adeoque & absurdum. quibus videri poterit. & inextensionem elementorum conjungendas cum con t inua extensione massarum ab iis formats ^b^inexcompositarum prosunt ea. inextensa. qui binas habeat superficies a se quam iis distinctas.ii4 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA fit. K . compenetrari debere argumento impugnatur con: y & W W contra Zenonistas institute per tot stecula. & inextensa T ^ r r . quae occupant spatii divisibilis partes diversas. in quern ex dum utrique incurrunt. aiiis ad- induco. concipere omnino non Ceterum simplicium. in iis habetur contradictio. aliter possent ejusmodi simplicibus inextensis implere spatium.. & inextensa puncta deduxerunt. Nam eo ipso. & alias propnetates haud vaiere contra derivavimus nos ad haec indivisibilia. continuitas elementorum legitima ratiocinatione excludatur. componere. ad absurdum entium evincit.. . utcumque interrogati. adeoque contigua esse . & vero etiam ob inductionem separabilitatis. etiam penitus inextensa. videbunt sane. contra haec ipsa 140'. *. . contiguitatis notione evincitur. Sed etiam si circa. ac distinctionis eorum. . quod ejusmodi rationes vi ilia repulsiva resilient a se invicem. 13. & extensis posse prmcipmm. habeatur alicubi is casus. eorum quaelibet puncta. . ubi Ita ii de inductionis Pendet ea proprietas a ratione sensibilis. . atque idcirco Per ipsam etiam 110 ^ tensT^Hn^uctioms q habitam ipsum ex- extenderetur. & sensuum nostrorum constitutione non . "rastare "hanc & distantias velim duo inter materiae theoriam. : ut duse particulae materiae sibi [62] invicem contiguae esse non nam illico possint iis constans statim disrumpetur. & extensionis proprietas ejusmodi est ut ejus defectus. . compenetrabuntur. an id ipsum faciant. quae se uspiam nostns objiciat sensibus. commiscent ideam illam imperfectam. . & enim in matena omni. Sic autem habet Qui dicunt. Videmus supra. extensionem. praeter contiguitatem indivisibilium. t* puncta simplicia. & inextensione.. puncta indivisibilia. Ilia idea acquisita per reflexionem illud praestat tantummodo. ac particula unde ostendunt existere in Natura.. quam compararunt per sensus. ? Principiis Corporum. Sunt alii.1 . cum egimus principio. si possint. . quam per sensus nobis comparavimus ab ipsa infantia. quod continuitate admissa. deducit. ut nee ad sensibilitatem extenditur. ubi quidem illud accidit. quamobrem hanc ipsam proprietatem debemus transferre ad elementa etiam per inductionis principium. quorum moles nimis exigua sit. & inextensis continuum extensum ibi componunt. cadere Hinc divisibilitatis. licere aliquando demonstrare propositionem ex 141.. esset adhuc nostrae Theoriae causa multo melior in eo. Atque quidem in eo videntur mini peccare utrique. at hanc difficultatem jam superius praeoccupavimus. nam si e? natura sua impenetrable s impenetrabiles sunt. ab & quam tamen coguntur admittere. uti supra demonstravimus. if cui nunquam satis responsum est. quae .

the with simplicity & non-extension that they attribute to the elements that imperfect up idea of a sort of round globule having two surfaces distinct from one another. . nature that From the answered. the primary elements of matter cannot be and also on composed of contiguous parts. acquired by reflection only yields the one result. which have led us to pound. been has never satisfactorily argument Thus there is a contradiction 13 an absurdity. without reflection. I say. Hence we must pose of opposing that falls under our notice in any way. an idea they have acquired through the senses although. of the Leibnitian circle put forward are of no use The deduction from o r i i -i. as I proved above. Hence the property of divisibility & extension is such that the absence of this property (if this case ever comes about). but must be perfectly indivisible & simple & the distinction between those that account of the induction from separability occupy The idea different divisible parts of space. the scope of our senses. avau for the pur these indivisible & non-extended points. These are the words Those. but suppose that any two points of matter are separated from one another. Thus. If such is their idea. if continuity be admitted. . they and non-extended indivisible with things of this sort. Those arguments that some r T -i ! ^j ^ appended & I may here quote from that dissertation those things that concern Principiis Corporum us now. ^m 7 is "the best. impenetrability of for the purpose of connecting indivisibility & non-extension of the elements with continuous a conciliation of 1 I discussed the arguments in question in extension extension of the masses formed from them. Simple and but are^admitt others as well . namely. then at one . divisibility & parts. the principle of induction. who say that monads cannot be corn-penetrated. & the followers into physics. from the very exclusion fact that. this compenetration is excluded. I . that a proposition may sometimes be of . for the purpose induction derived are who will There others. by no means remove the difficulty. The property in question depends on a reasoning concerned with a sensible one that is an for. conception. that centuries the Zenonists ago against many is ascribed to them. since I do not admit the contiguity of the points themselves. they will surely see that they have introduced into their reasoning that very idea of the two little spheres lying between 138. if they are both by impenetrable.. a short note ~ I3Q. in fact. they by also at the same time have to make up a continuum. of Leibniz indeed suppose that their monads are simple & non-extended. there would only be all Theory from the fact that it denies extension and composition by parts. composite body can come within aggregate body. was not the first to introduce the notion of simple non-extended points The ancients from the time of Zeno had an idea of them. For in no other way can they fill up that would deny they supposition. from the very nature of divisibility & extension. I. to Art. because nature are For. that through it we may form a clear conception of that which reasoning of this kind proves to be existent in Nature of which. have to be nature impenetrable. we could not have formed any . For. is & of induction. contiguous. 13 of the dissertation De Materies Divisibilitate and extendeTthings. namely. But even if this point is reached. but which they are forced to admit if they consider the matter more carefully) in addition to this." two . : For. Besides.e. Therefore an argument derived from induction reach not apply to properties of this kind in any way. the principle dealt with when we this have discussed But we difficulty. think that it is possible to employ. not even a. in addition to contiguity of indivisible & non-extended things (which is impossible.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY From this it . the point necessary for sensibility. & a particle composed of them would at once be broken up. argument. it follows that continuity ought to be absolutely excluded in all cases. because they have mixed things of this sort. the more reason for our Extension 141. For that case we get an instance of the argument that has been observed by metaphysicists and some geometers for a very long time. i others. whilst they build up an extended continuum from indivisible & non-extended Both seem to me to have erred in doing so. 3 of opposing the idea of these indivisible & non-extended points. avoid a mighty rock. of contiguity. continuity of the elements is excluded by legitimate exte s io ^e in d u Ctio n. if its mass is over-small. cannot will fall within the scope of those senses. from the instituted an argument by proved -this there is bound to be compenetration . upon which both these others come to grief. f ed r For we perceive (so they say) in all matter. using only the equipment that we have got together for ourselves by means of the senses from our infancy. 140. unless by imagining that one space element between two others is touched by one of them on the right & by the other on the left. the same time they are compenetrated they are not compenetrated . inasmuch as the extension does not & . already argument. Such is their transfer this property to the elements also by the principle of induction. they must be perfectly non-extended as well. this leads to y & & & idea of an absurdity \3 proves the impossibility non-extension of any sort. i. extension. if they were asked if they had made this had done so. it & of entities of this sort. & from the constitution of our senses. ^T'senslSf <m*exand by which we derived the Law of Continuity & other properties. 115 comes about that two particles of matter cannot be contiguous for thereupon they would recoil from one another owing to that repulsive force.

possint. existentiam ut relationem coexistentiae ita. alterum temporarium. quod idem ad omnia materiae puncta. ac perpendentibus (h) sese nobis objicit res in quibus haberi omnino non pptest non aliquanto intimius inspectantibus. vel remoti. in quibus & analogiam persequor spatii. Servat in uti etiam supra distantiis. censeo ita. qui num appellari debeant res. 66. necessario mutari debeant. W habentur hie Supplementorum pertinent. & posterioris in tempore. ejusmodi litem. poris temporarios plura in illis dissertatiunculis. improbabilem esse tantummodo. quas nimirum ab una magnitudine ad aliam censeo abire non posse. non Dum & & idem spatii punctum appello possibilitatem omnium modorum localium. citerioris in loco. : cujusdam deter minatae. vel ex eo [65] 143. quae si existerent. quin simul habeant. ubi de continuitate seipsam excludente mentio injecta est. motibus. vel - . est. distantiae temporarise. sed [64] imaginarium supra & de tempore. quos simul per cognitionem praecisivam concipimus. quam maximae in spatio. eos natura sua immobiles demonstro esse. satis luculenter de uti tantummodo. Ubi i habeat e1 lit Na conUra t u bi aff e ctet Continuitatem igitur agnosco in motu tantummodo. ut & positionis cujusdam a se invicem existentia habent semper aliquam distantiam. existere non omnes infinites modos inducat in . affectat in aliis casibus multis. continuitatis legem a me admitti. quod superius innui. nisi ubi aliunde non demonstretur. quando Sol oritur supra horizontem. continuitas. Sed de utroque modos omnes. ac temporis multiplicem. & tempus. inde excerptte 86. quae magnitudinem mutent. adhuc tamen haberi. quibus continuity. vel affectare saltern. finitus est coexistentium modorum numerus. & in spatio determinatae positionis vel eorum alter. Solis 2. quam Illos modos debere admitti. si distantia. ^ & definivimus. inter possibiles habetur. ulterioris. & in extensione. sed argumento superius facto Quin etiam ego quidem continuum nullum agnosco coexistens. licet simul omnes ubi cum nulli sint modi ita sibi proximi. n tandum & illud. gr. & in aliis quibusdam. & probari pro quantitatibus. Cujusmodi con- TheoiSadrnittatur quid sit spatium. sive. 13 quarum mentio . habere binos reales existendi modos. Atque hie quidem. abstrahimus animum omnium. quod utique : habet. n j g transean t per intermedias. quse magnitudinem nee mutant. habere uterque non possit. ut alii viciniores. Censeo nimirum quodvis in Supplementis exposui materiae punctum. qui relationem inducunt coexistentiae. possibilitas omnium Spatium vero imaginarium confuse cognita. quae primo aspectu ex. ad librum i. quern inde colligere possumus. quod est successivum solo in corporeis saltern entibus legem ^ u ^' non coexistens. defectum hunc haberi vel inde eruitur inductionis est non demonstrativum. reliquis determinatae. nee vim quidquam principium physicae. Stayanae Philosophise (*). cum enim ambae simul verae esse non Sic nimirum. uti aliquando sunt & falsa veris probabiliora. sive minima possint. & numero finita sunt . qui cum eo possibiles pertinentes ad quodvis aliud. tempore si existunt in & coexistant simul. continuitatem non inducit. nee ullam habent variabilem. discum Binte dissertatiunculis.n6 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA assumpta veritate contradictoriae propositionis . in quo infinitatis distantiae limitem. nihil omnino euro. Naturam ubique continuitatis legem vel accurate observare. casum ilium. nam nee monui spatium reale mihi est ullum continuum. localis Quoniam autem puncta materiae localis. alterum localem. ac distantiae possint. penes positio. realium localium punctorum pertinentium ut eodem pacto idem nomino momentum temcompenetrationis relationem inducerent. hanc posteriorem veram esse necesse est. uti & penitus summovet. quae in hac mea Theoria sentiam. si concipiamus I. ideam nobis efformamus continuitatis. quod elementorum materiae. Pro mutetur sola quovis autem modo pertinente ad quodvis punctum. qui modi. nequaquam : convenit. a continuitate defectus continuitatis generaliter assumpta quoniam consequitur in materiae nee oberit elementis. vel etiam in spatio etiam. vel relationem omnibus inducentibus compenetrationis. ut idcirco ejusmodi quidem positive existendi modi per se inducant relationes prioris. 142. continuitatis admitto. quo. tarn secludimus mente serie finitis in infinitum constante terminis minimae. sive maxima. qua hue facta est etiam superius num. vel remotiores haberi mihi est unus. nee ullum reale continuum semper etiam localium modorum localium est mihi efformat. Atque hinc patebit clarius illud etiam. inducant relationem spatio vero. si ab altera inferatur altera. & in eo itidem solo. nulla distantia in possibilium ab actuali existentia. an tantummodo modi rei. ibi ego arbitror esse tantum de nomine.

we come to the conclusion that there is this Nor will any principle of physical induction be prejudicial to the argument. there is in my opinion one which. with the first mode. space is not any existing continuum. if from one of them the other can be inferred. amongst those that are possible. if the distance. for any one space is altered. we mentally exclude the limit both of least & greatest distance. is in no wise in agreement also in certain other cases. continuity assumption where it cannot be proved in other ways that the conclusion to from the argument is highly improbable but yet is to be held as true for indeed sometimes things that are false are more plausible than the true facts. or at least tries to do so. of conthat is proved for those quantities that change their magnitude. Now since existent points of matter always have some distance also of a given local position. . . far & near as regards space. as we have defined it above. in a series of possibles consisting of an indefinite number of finite terms. must of necessity be changed. but only an imaginary one as well. . necessary that these modes be admitted. I define the same point of space to be the possibility of all local modes. cannot be others nearer. neither will it have any validity. unless we consider the subjects somewhat more deeply & study them closely.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 117 of matter. mode belonging to any point. as I remarked above. of themselves. except in the case proved by assuming the truth of the contradictory proposition. . . between them. 142. continuity TJ Hence I acknowledge ' . although they cannot all exist simulIn this space. & also in it alone. to been already referred which refer to this matter. which. & have been quoted in this work as supplements IS. would lead to a relation of compenetration . if they exist simultaneously. from the in that there is an absence of continuity in the elements of general. as far as this Theory is concerned. taken in conjunction merely modes pertaining to a thing. if they existed. lies my reason for admitting the Law of Continuity. or . there cannot therefore be a distance that is either the greatest or the least of all. of matter. where the induction is not one that can be proved in every case . in this connection.e. with which continuity. it should be observed that the Law of Continuity is admitted by me. So long as we keep the mind free from the idea of actual existence &. Thus. as of compenetration. I recognize no coquite the opposite. Nature observes it in motions & in distance. the conjunction leads to a relation All the others lead to a relation of temporal or of local distance. tmuity in Nature . . & also in the case of extension. in corporeal entities at any Where Nature does From this it will be all the no more than atrate. i . because it follows. we form for ourselves a conception of continuity & infinity in space. I consider that any I do point of matter has two modes of existence. or even if only the position in Moreover. which neither on the contrary it proves change their magnitude nor have anything variable about them Moreover. . absence. such modes of existence lead to the relations of before displaced & after as regards time. For since both propositions cannot be true at the same time.II : these have .. as far as space is concerned. but that this does not lead to continuity in the case of the elements of matter. . in motion only. as the argument given above shows. (h) The two notes. & tinuum that we can come . i. I prove rigorously in the supplements mentioned above. Nature accurately observes the Law of Continuity. jteml But there I & . just as I define the same instant of time as all temporal modes. the one local and the other temporal not take the trouble to argue the point as to whether these ought to be called things. leads as far as time is concerned to a relation of coexistence so that both cannot have existence unless they have it simultaneously. f and not co-existent . in Arts. I consider also that they are by their very nature incapable of being so that. 66 86 above. then the latter of necessity must be the true one. or one of them. which is something successive where there is con143. & also of a given distance & These modes. or because or it alone. For instance. But. . since there are not modes so near to one another that there taneously. which are precisely conceived as existing simultaneously. In this. but which indeed I consider Th^r^fthe^ature cannot pass from one magnitude to another without going through intermediate stages of sPace and time. investigate further the manifold analogy between space & time. or what comes to the same thing. in them is a fuller treatment of both these subjects in the notes referred to . as I consider that this is merely a question of terminology. more clear that. as I have already mentioned & what I think about this. they coexist. This continuity does not present itself to us at first sight. has been expounded clearly enough in the supplements to the first book of Stay's Philosophy. whilst incidental mention has been made of the exclusion xhe sort of continuity. it is That . for. in which continuity cannot be completely obtained. a given position in space. Now. & are finite in number. of real local points pertaining to all points . (A) For instance. and about time real continuum. taken in conjunction with all the infinite number of possible modes pertaining to any other point. . which lead to a relation of coexistence. . or so far separated that there cannot be others more so. in my opinion. the number of local modes of existence is also & from this finite number we cannot form any sort of real continuum. V . always finite But I have an ill-defined idea of an imaginary space as a possibility of all local modes. for instance. & tries to in many other cases. when the sun rises above the horizon.

. quod ipsum innuisse sit satis. omnem accurate circularem. pendentem a continua ilia virium lege.. sed ubique flexus quidam. sed est aggregatum punctorum a se invicem distantium. uti earn inter. sed reflectitur in totum . quo continuitatis violatio quaedam haben videatur. est ahud . ... . quae non permittant ejusmodi linearum nobis ita simplicium accuratas orbitas in motibus. pars renectitur aut mutatis. integer excipiatur prismate pars prodeat etiam e secunda superficie. ac in ipsa distributione. ali refracta. At Sol quidem in mea Theoria non est aliquid continuum. ac aliorum tantum unde ea . ita & hie in reflexionibus. & horizontem ut planum quoddam . sine ullo intermedio flexu cujuspiam. Et quidem ut in iis omnibus. qui eo continuitas in -pertinent. .*. ingentes repentini saltus non riant. . ortum ducat. in ipsis salium. Natura tamen etiam hie continuitatem quandam affectat. Exempla continu144. Sed a motuum.. & paullatim in accessu ad superficiem re flectentem. turn ulterius Id autem est ipsa luminis diffusio. ubique esse perturbationem quandam. ita omnem accurate rectilineum motum. in renexione. . quam quidem lineae continuitatem nee liberae turbant animarum vires. & aliis ejusmodi Natura semper in mea Theoria accuratissimam continuitatem observat. progressus. quas itidem non nisi unde fit. it at is apparent gj c j n fl uv i orum alveis.speculo lux excipitur. alia parte reflexa.'. & retractione. transmittatur.. ac refractionibus luminis. inveniet affectari tantummodo. : f n n m & . quid respondendum ad casus quosdam. vel refringentem recessuum lex. At . qui hiatu quodam intermedio invicem divellantur velut per saltum. sed quodvis materiae punctum a Mundi initio unicam quandam continuam descripsit orbitam. per impulsionem nimirum. ut a primo ad postremum punctum & segmenta Solaris disci. in distantiis punctorum singulorum componentium earn massam ab illo imaginario piano. incursum immediatum. ascensus Solis fit per omnes magnitudines ita. . servari itidem accurate a Natura. jam non egreditur. non servari. quae datam habet refrangibilitatem. fieret violatio quaedam continui motus mutata linea recta in aliam sed jam hoc Newtonus advertit. ut quemadmodum omnem juxta continuitatis legem exerceri a nobis arbitror accuratam quietem. & habetur tantummodo posito semper. & chordae segmentorum crescant transeundo per omnes intermedias magnitudines. intervallo aliquo temporis interHinc accurata ilia continuitas huic casui non convenit. atque densitas.. Quando piano aliquo r line is continuis . qui rem altius perpendat. . omnia juxta continuitatis legem mutantur. ubi itidem videtur fieri transitus a prioribus angulis cum superficie semper minoribus. directionum flexus. pars relrmgitur. .. quam exprimit figura I quae ad distantias quascunque protenditur .. Quin in mea Theoria non in aliqua vicinia tantum incipit flexus ille. explicando ea phenomena per vires in aliqua distantia agentes. si quaevis tria puncta per rectas lineas conjuncta intelligantur triangulum habebitur utique cum angulis cuspidatis. *. apparent nudo oculo & si microscopio adhibito inspiciantur nusquam cuspis abrupta omnino cuspidatus apparet angulus. nusquam curvaturam habeat aliquam. & mutationum causas. .. reflectatur. quae acutissimae in quibusdam ammalibus : . Alius itidem videtur admitti ibidem saltus quidam si enim radius ut una & alia ita. . in . credet primo quidem. lux. . . ut apparens quaedam ibi etiam continuitas habeatur. cum nimirum ilia punctula ita sibi sint invicem proxima. & virium continuitate accurata etiam ejusmodi proximam continuitatem massarum oriri censeo. qui prorsus. & ejusmodi saltum abstulit. & crystallorum. Innumera ejus rei exempla liceret proferre. o li creditum est fieri. 146. In omnibus tamen iis casibus vera continuitas in mea Theoria habetur nusquam cum omnia ejusmodi corpora constent indivisibilibus. ellipticum. turn ipsum prisma sensim convertatur ubi ad certum devenitur in conversione angulum. '. . ea in re. in quibus eodem pacto res pergit. quibus fit. quse continuam superficiem non efformant. ac disposita. & a casuum possibilium multitudine inter se collata. ac refracti luminis. in quibus. . corporum angulis. & ita ubique dispersa. & etiamnum a nonnullis creditur. ad angulum reflexionis aequalem angulo a se : . parabolicum esse excludam . Motuum omnium 145. Videtur prima fronte discindi radius in duos. quam. . sed jacentibus ultra ipsam. debet cum admodum facile sit Apparens saltus diffusione in reflexi. in ipsis cuspidibus unguium. r nusquam ruptis. & a se distantibus punctis.. & ad continuitatem videatur accedere. velocitas. in frondium flexibus.Atque hinc fiet manifestum. . & in quibus violari quis crederet F661 continuitatis legem.n8 PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA ut continuum. quorum alia supra illud imaginarium planum ascendunt post alia.. . quod tamen aliis quoque sententiis omnibus commune demonstrare. ut quaevis particula luminis motum incurvet unde accessuum. a qua densitas pendet. . .

At first sight the ray seems to be divided into two parts. Nature always Apparent J '. the one part being reflected & the other part refracted without any intermediate bending of the path. & its density. part is refracted & part is reflected. the little points are so very near to one another. for it is quite easy to show that there is everywhere some perturbation.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY if . for all bodies of this kind are composed of points that are indivisible & separated from one another & these cannot & with them. Yet Nature. Just as in all the cases I have mentioned. having Here also it a given refrangibility. & part of it is reflected & the rest is transmitted & issues from the second surface. Hence. & has removed any sudden change of this sort. & so possessing a definite curvature & apparently approximating to continuity. if the great number of possible cases are compared with one another. which leave a gap between them & diverge from one another as it were suddenly. will think at first that Nature has observed accurate continuity. in no case would the point appear to be quite abrupt. one after the other. path mental is undisturbed forces. for instance. or parabolic motions. on which the density depends. if a appear to the naked eye to be very sharp in the case of certain animals microscope were used to examine them. breach of continuous motion through one straight line being suddenly changed for But already Newton has discussed this point. from the first to the last point. rup e refraction. there do not occur any very great sudden changes. just as I exclude in accordance with the Law of Continuity. and even in this distribution. the law of approach and recession. but any point of matter from the time that the world began has described a single continuous orbit. all change in accordance with the Law of Continuity. Nevertheless in all these cases there is nowhere true continuity according to my Theory . even in this case. & reasons for alteration. but in every case somewhat rounded. I also consider that this continuity of a law that extends to all distances whatever. prism is gradually rotated . if any three points are supposed to be joined form a continuous surface then a But by straight lines. seems that there is a sudden transition from the first case in which the angles made^with the surface by the issuing rays are always less than the angle of incidence. it is sufficient for me to have just pointed it out.-. there would be . & anyone who considers the matter further fairly deeply. the angles in salts. in Examples of con3 which the matter comes about in the same manner. The continuity of 145.. or the . the ^"reiy apparent' bends in foliage. Hence it becomes evident how we are to refute certain cases. Innumerable examples of this apparent continuity could be brought forward. 144. but is an aggregate of points separate from one another. & lie on the far side of the surface. . this alteration of direction does not only begin in the immediate neighbourhood. even here. & has not actually observed it . It also seems that another sudden change must be admitted for suppose that a beam of light falls upon a prism. is no longer transmitted. we have a certain apparent continuity. crystals and other bodies. all idea of absolute rest. in the diffusion of light. When matter. and that then the a another. namely. i i i i i tinuity in diffusion in my Theory observes the most accurate continuity. to the latter case in which the angles of reflection are equal to . in the channels of rivers. which rise. & the horizon as a certain plane then the rising of the Sun is made through all magnitudes in such a way that. when a certain angle of rotation is reached. so I exclude all accurately rectilinear. so also is this done here in the case O f ren ected and reBut there is another thing in this connection. fracted light. according to the idea held in olden times. in the tips of the claws that its origin. the Sun is not passing through all intermediate magnitudes. . & so evenly spread & placed that. angle altogether sharp. discon146. in which there seems to be a breach of continuity . the velocity. & it is only observed in the case cases.. . that is to say. & in others like them. i. of the distances from the imaginary plane of the single points that compose the mass of the Sun. Nay indeed. & even now credited by some people. depending on the continuous law of forces. both the segments of the solar disk & the chords of the segments increase by But. . tries to maintain a sort of continuity .. 119 we think of the Sun's disk as being continuous. relating to this in which it be that the considered Law of was violated. the alteration of direction. elliptic. Thus. by explaining the phenomena by means of forces acting at a distance . in my Theory. with some interval of time between them in all Hence accurate continuity does not fit this case. uous lines ""is might Continuity In reflection & nowhere interlight falls upon a plane mirror. circular. represented in Fig. above that imaginary plane. something continuous. &. This too ought to be the general opinion of all others . with these it comes about that any particle of light will have its path bent little by little as it approaches a reflecting or refracting surface. that it took place by means of impulse & immediate collision. but is totally reflected. in my Theory. light. triangle will result that in every case has three sharp angles. which also cannot be exerted by us except by any voluntary Hence it comes about that. which do not allow us to have accurate paths along such simple lines for our motions. of the reflection and refraction of light. but on consideration will find that Nature has only endeavoured to do so. I consider that from the accurate continuity of motions & forces a very close approximation of this kind arises also in the case of masses .

Illae lineam per quandam : continuam. patebit in ilia intermedia serie non haberi accuratam continuitatem. & quodammodo per gradus continue aliquo tempore. superficie Huic cuidam velut laesioni continuitatis videtur responderi posse per illam lucem 14. quod momento quodam determinato fiat. in quo saltus habeatur. vel in aliis incrustationibus. m mutationem continuam omnem amovere dicendo. atque idcirco illaesa perseverare continuitas. sed artis potest difficultas transferri facile ad Naturae opera. quorum quodlibet suam percurrit viam disjunctam a proximi via per aliquod intervallum. licet jam in respectiva positione sensibilem mutationem non subeant parent nimirum adhuc viribus omnibus. & magnitudinibus non habent sed sunt vel in iis continuam. in quibus incrementum fit per externam applicationem partium. magnitudinem aggregata rerum disjunctarum a nobis ita censentur totum ut rebus. quae : respondent omnibus materiae punctis utcunque distantibus. partes. via a singulis punctis descripta sine saltu. quae accedunt. turn censeri ut cum desinit respectiva incipiant pertinentes ad illam domum. altitude cujusdam domus. videt. non accurate dSitio pe^contiiilumen in mea Theoria non est corpus quoddam continuum. quae sensibilitatis cessatio fit ipsa etiam illae : accedant & omnes. radii refracti. ut angulus reflexionis aequetur angulo incidentiae. quod utique non fieret. sed tamen in aliqua. nisi e solaribus illis directis radiis etiam ad oculum ipsius radii devenirent. & refractum. non vero per saltum. sed est aggregatum a se invicem Nam quam punctorum disjunctorum. vel massam. sed ab aestimatione quadam pendet nostrorum sensuum satis crassa ut licet perpetuo . vel massam mutatio esse sensibilis. nisi in si . est continuatio actionis. QUO pacto servetur quibus videtur tedi. cui cum series nova adjungitur lapidum determinatae cujusdam altitudinis. est ex. angulum reflexionis Et quidem hisce radiis : res posse fieri citissimo transitu per ipsos. pergunt adhuc moveri. Hoc autem. nee respectivam respectu aliarum partium. & nunquam habent quietem nee absolutam. partem quandam speculi incurrat. non in diffusione substantiae non continuae. mutata inclinatione incidentiae. vel refrin-[67]-gitur irregulariter in quibusvis angulis. proximarum partium. Natura affectat. est aliquid non in se determinatum. satis luculenter exposui in secunda parte meae dissertationis De Lumine a num. Solis radius in aequalem incidentiae. gr. ubi accessiones finitae videntur Hujusmodi : . In iis casibus acquiri simul totae sine [68] transitu per intermedias magnitudines. videtur per hosce intermedios angulos directione faciente pars. sed apparentem quandam.7. quicunque est in conclavi. Continuitas servatur accuratissime in singulorum punctorum viis. & mutetur. sine transitu per altitudines intermedias & si dicatur id non esse Naturae opus. habetur intermedia omnis ejusmodi radiorum series in omnibus iis intermediis angulis prodeuntium. & sic etiam ubi transitur a refractione ad reflexionem in totum. per illam additionem repente videtur crescere altitude domus. Sed haec ad applicationem jam pertinent Theoriae ad Physicam. ubi lucis radius reflectitur. qui sit ille locus. Haud multum bu^dam^casibusTui observant. ac in iis omnibus casibus. absimiles sunt alii quidam casus. egressi in omnibus iis directionibus. quae constituere. 98. Hinc inter vividum ilium reflexum radium. sine ulla reflexione in angulis intermediis minoribus ab ipsa ad ejusmodi finitum angulum. ua3 reflectitur. 149. q Jam olim enim observatum est illud. & continua velocitatis mutatione accedunt ad locum sibi deditum quin immo etiam posteaquam eo advenerunt. non reflecti totum ita. quod pertineant ad illam domum. & actio quae novam adhaesionem parit. in quibus singula continuitatem non aggregatum utique non continuum. atque distantium. Verum si adhuc altius perpendatur res . Cur ea 1 apparens 148. & quo pacto ea in omnibus iis motibus servetur. Generate responsio 3 similes " de emta. in quern incurrit radius. quae aedificatur de novo. .servat illaesam. non servari earum rerum. sed partibus disjunctis constans. in qua resilit maxima luminis redeuntibus in angulis hisce inaequalibus egregie utitur Newtonus in fine Opticae ad explicandos colores laminarum crassarum & eadem irregularis dispersio in omnes plagas ad sensum habetur in tenui parte. aliquod magnitudinem aggregati non ISO- Hinc distinctius ibi licebit difHcultatem in . vis puncti diffundatur continue per illud omne spatium. continuitas servatur in motu singularum partium. quae ad omnes oculi positiones tendunt licet ibi quidem satis intensum lumen non appareat. quam multo minorem exercebant. pergant perpetuo mutare positionem respectu ipsius massae . Apparens concili- PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA Unuitafe pel radios irregulariter disper- & jacentem citra. quae continuae non sunt.120 incidentiae. quod ujtatem yiae cujus. sed partem dispergi quaquaversus quam ob causam . ut ubi diversa inducuntur glaciei strata. cum essent procul.

but it depends on a somewhat rough assessment by our senses. . For long ago of by it recontiii6 Continuity effect fa was observed that. & therefore continuity remains unimpaired. For. not in the diffusion of a substance that is & the manner in which continuity is preserved in all these motions. jrt. & part of a mirror. forming KO. also this cessation of sensibility itself also takes place to some extent through all stages. I have set forth fairly clearly in the second part of my dissertation De Lumine. Art. but does not accurately observe it unimpaired. but yet in some part. in this case the light does not appear to be of much intensity. is . Nevertheless. unless a ray of light is reflected. Continuity is observed perfectly accurately for the paths of the several points. when the angle of incidence is altered. when manner is dispersed who is in the room sees where the ray strikes the mirror . although they do not now suffer a sensible of all the forces change in their relative positions. and in all cases in which an increment is caused by the external seem to be acquired all at once without any application of parts. these rays that issue at irregular angles at the end of his Optics to explain the colours The same irregular dispersion in all directions takes place as far as can of solid laminae. after they have reached it.'U* simuar cd. way the intense reflected & refracted rays. when the transition is effected from refraction issuing at all intermediate angles. along Newton indeed employed in a brilliant light rebounds. take the height of a new house which is being separate parts. 98. although place . in which each which ' / i _j i_ V continuity j r the whole. but only an apparent continuity atimT* the^true & this Nature tries to maintain. but it is an aggregate of points unconnected with & separated any point of light. anybody this certainly would not be the case. which is continuously diffused through t!nurty of ^ath^or all the space it occupies . Thus. as when different strata of ice are formed. & never have absolute rest no. light . in the fact that they belong to that house or mass. it seems that it can be done through these intermediate angles by an extremely rapid transition through them. to total reflection. as a fresh layer of stones of a given height is added to it. they both begin to be thought of as belonging to that house or mass. Further. & continually go on changing their position with respect to the mass. a new adhesion. it is not reflected entirely in such a that the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. But if we inquire into the matter yet more carefully. it will be evident that in Why that intermediate series there is no accurate continuity. Moreover. & this path is separated from the path of the next point to it by a definite interval. Hence. without any reflection for with the surface less than a certain definite angle. which is not continuous but composed ot is m aintained m part preserves continuity. be transferred to works of Nature. manner remove all difficulty here in a clearer this consideration we may * . . in between not some continuous body. unless some of the solar rays reached his eye directly directions that reach to all positions that the eye might issuing from the mirror in all those be in. of the refracted ray. not continuous & the path described by the several points is altered without sudden change. in those things that are thus considered as aggregates of separate things. Theory to physics. not greatly unlike those already given. if a ray of light from the Sun falls upon some in all directions. but that a part of it For this reason. there is something that is not determinate at a determinate instant in which the sudden change takes in itself. ^ built . But in this work these matters belong to the application of the in h my Theory. reconciliation is . * ed y means of the eye is which the greatest part of the in the position facing the angle of reflection equal to the angle of incidence.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 121 the angles of incidence & lie on the near side of the surface. & not by a sudden jump. is not maintained in the magnitudes ot those tmngs. any one pursues its own path. In these cases the continuity is preserved in through passage the motions of the separate parts that are added. this is only an 148. a in such a way that the magnitude of the aggregate is not determined certain whole. that a continuous by saying change which are not themselves continuous. the height of the house on account of that addition seems to increase suddenly without passing through intermediate If it is said that that is not a work of Nature. from one another & of these points.b derived from this. these parts are continually being added. be observed in a small part. There are The manner in certain cases. . but not so in cases certain For an instance of this kind. but are That is to say. they still submit to the action and the action of the that correspond to all points of matter at any distances whatever along some continuous line & . rays at intermediate angles that an seems It explanation of this apparent breach of continuity can be given Apparent 147. From -' . because it happens So that. then the same difficulty heights. These reach the place allotted to them with a continuous change of velocity. or can easily in other incrustations. is the continuation of the action parts nearest to them. we have a whole series of intermediate rays of this sort Thus. they still continue to move. which produces that they exert to a far smaller extent when they are some distance away. & the relative change ceases to be sensible . means of light that is reflected or refracted irregularly at all sorts of angles. & do not possess continuous magnitude. 140. but of art . nor even relative rest with respect to the other parts. where finite additions intermediate magnitudes. and in some continuous interval of time.

in quibus accipiuntur & unum aliquid continuum non pendent. quod materia_ est _ cogit- afficit. . . & voluntatis. ut & in Arithmetica series ex. spiritum. nisi illam virium legem cum possunt. quae censeantur incipere ad aggregatum pertinere. ob illud primum crus asymptoticum carere credimus. Difficultates petitae 3ito a discrimine debito ubi supra num. sed ordinatis omnibus in specie seriem quandam. In omnibus iis casibus habentur discretas quasdam quantitates. & vires determinatas a distantiis. nos a reliquis divellimus per Id accidit. jam alia. spiritus. ubi in objectis saltum. sed per quandam dispersionem quodammodo affectata. ac voluntatis. nullum esse horum punctorum est in Di scrimen potissimum materiae a a e fm^netrabUttlte^ nSitatem. nusquam accurata occurret continuitatis lex. & omnem aliquem DifferrehKcpuncta 154. ut incipiendo ab ibi suscipiunt altitudinis ipsius plantas . . vel animantia crescunt. & vera continuitas habebitur tantummodo in motibus. atque ibi nos in usu vocabuli saltum facimus . succo se insinuante er tubulos fibrarum. quam intuemur etiam in progressu substantiarum. & inextensorum punctorum 153. & autem. series habebitur tantummodo . nisi tantummodo in motibus. a OO g gre g O ata Hoc pacto excurrendo rerum a se per plurimos justmodi cLttCCtcl" invicem certis intervallis distantium. naturalium numerorum non est continua. nexum . nee ^manibus palpari Deinde in meis hisce punctis ego nihil admitto aliud. Ipsa impenetrabilitatem habent. inertias vi adeoque ilia volo prorsus incapacia cogitationis. Conciusio pertinens ad ea. ars. Sensibilitas ac ve lle. cum nimirum ipse procursus fiat accurata contmmAt quoniam & ibi mutantur termini illi. & motus ad cerebrum pro-[7o]-pagetur. & obvia est etiam. & materiae haberi non ppssit praedita extensione continua Multa hie continuae. Otest) p fibrae tendantur a corporibus. quse veram. 39 inductionem pro lege continuitatis motu potissimum. quae sit prascipua materias corporeae substantiae notionem ita pertinens ad naturam ipsius . ubi & magnitude computata per distantias punctorum hab'etur P 'uibus non soium proxima. tolli Ajunt enim. ubi plantas. ac ab iis pendent. si concipiantur omnes intermedias species possibiles. & procurrente. simul. ac existentium individuorum in quavis numerus est finitus. spiritus sed ab impenecontinua ab extensione non autem oritur. exempla accepimus connectuntur. inter binas quasque intermedias species hiatus debet esse aliquis necessario. quae ipsis trabilitate. duobus. qui distantias ef omnes intermedias distantias. extensionis quae in ea includatur idea quidem congeruntur inter se habent. ut nostrorum organorum Nam si extensa quidem essent corpora. contin- constituentium. (X CcL. si spiritus sublata extensione continua. ac demum animalia perfectiora magis. illam vim exhibens repulsivam primam afficiunt. & ab iis. turn per quasdam ad simios semianimalia torpentia. ejusmodi vires habeant. 151. ut vel nihil aliud materia sit. praestituros nimirum corpus. & perfectiora usque homini tarn similes. tam habent uitatem. non sisterent. qui continuitatem abrumpat. nostros sensus & & indivisibilia hasc puncta. In his autem. nee oculis inspectantur. maxime distantium transit per omnes intermedias . quas ut ut in se juxta legem continuitatis mutatas. . & Alii casus in Natura saltum utique habet nullum. eadem phaenomena. & velocitatibus. . & nostros sensus non & conjunctam. quae non ea nullis negotium ingens . nee motum ullum fibras contrectata manu sed impenetrabilitate carerent sed liberum intra se aditum luci non radios reflecterent. & velocitates a a motibus iill** casus. ac distantiis singularum partium quanquam ibi minus recedatur a continuitate accurata. Sed jam ad aliam difficultatem gradum faciam. non continues . contingit etiam. . casibus accessiones partium novae fiunt. quas uti sunt distantiae. in iis progignerent.122 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA determinent distantias inter eadem extrema. sed a nobis extrema ipsa assumantur jam alia. gr. ejusmodi viribus itidem carent. quod nimirum nullum habitura sint discrimen a spiritibus. impenetrabilitate quos spiritus sensus nostros idcirco nequaquam afficiunt. contra hanc indivisibilium. cogitare incapax cogitationis. vera continuitas haberi non potest. & in iis. CJ1. ut dicamus pertinere eas partes ad id aggregatum. : & nomen quidem observatur. quibus Non idem Ur ' p determinant. quae hie seorsum evolvam singula. ac eadem inter mea manere Porro hoc discrimen utrumque potest integrum. sistuntur. capadtatem - spiritu situm hisce discrimen a spiritibus. & manet prasberent. & ut ibi series ad continuam reducitur tantummodo. vera & accurata continuitas ne fere inanima-[69]-tis corporibus progressu facto per vegetabilia. viribus ortae quam ipsam ob causam a assumpsimus. & affectata tantummodo a Natura. & in illis habetur ubique ilia alia continuitas quasdam apparens.13E 152. qua fit. Inprimis falsum sensibilis. si generaliter omnes sed discreta sic & in superiore exemplo quasdam velut continua intermedias fractiones concipiantur . ubi ad quasdam distantias devenerint. quae cum ipsis motibus inter materiam & ' Theoriam facessit. Quoniam & harum specierum. omnino est. quam in superioribus. nisi substantia proprietas nisi vel saltern idea corporis.

I2 3 by the distances between the same extremes all the time. we took our examples mostly from motion.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY . & their inca- pacity for thought. spirits were endowed with they say same phenomena as bodies. if & only if all intermediate possible species are so included. which determine the distances. For if indeed bodies were extended. . but from impenetrability. Cases in which there is a breach of others continuity in which the con. . 154. so that either matter is nothing else but substance endowed with continuous extension. and which has also been raised in opposition to this Theory of indivisible & tion that has to be non-extended points namely. than there was in the examples given above. & the number of existent individuals of any species. spirits. except only in the . it is impossible to have true continuity . In the same way. which some people have made a great Objections derived from the distincto-do about. that there will be no difference between my points & made between matter & spirit. their senbeing sible. so pertaining to Nature itself . tinuity nearly. calculated by means of the distance between the points furthest from one another. is finite. then through certain sluggish semianimals. we separate them from the rest in a discontinuous manner. 152. 153. because of that first asymptotic branch representing also forces lack lack to first we force but which impenetrability. and those that have a met with. if we examine a large number of cases of the same kind. served. . . since the number of these species. the is not continuous. which have no connection with one another . or the idea of a body and of matter cannot be obtained without the inclusion of the idea of continuous extension. nor be examined by the eyes. continues through vegetables. now altogether false that there is no difference between my points & The most spirits. in the example given above a sort of continuous series is obtained. suppose repulsive spirits. since here also the extremes accurately. these I will . by saying that these parts belong to the aggregate. which starting from inanimate bodies. but allow it an uninterrupted passage through themselves. nor be felt by the hands. it is possible that each of these distinctions should hold good independently . arithmetical series of the natural & numbers . Then. & in those things that depend on motions. that possess true & not composing a single continuous whole. 39 above. but the extremes we take are & these are considered to begin to belong to the aggregate different. whilst spirit does not affect the senses. takes place indeed not even in this case velocities is really accurate continuity observed. for instance. . cases we have certain discrete. . just as the series is reduced to continuity only by mentally introducing in general all the intermediate fractions so also. through which it comes about that the fibres of our organs are subjected to stress by bodies that are set against them & motions are thereby propagated to the brain. such as distances ity. First of all it is separate & discuss individually. For. but if they are all ordered in a series. which Nature does no more than try to maintain such as we also see in the series of substantial things. as well as Nature. But. It is not the same thing however in the case of the growth of plants or animals. separated from one another by certain definite intervals. through animals more & more perfect. Further. I admit nothing else but the & hence I intend them to be incapable law of forces conjoined with the force of inertia . sensibility does not arise from continuous extension. between any two intermediate In all these species there must necessarily be a gap . & lastly. important difference between matter & spirit lies in the two facts. & forces determined by distances. . In both there is indeed that kind of apparent continuity. nor produce in them any motion nor would they reflect light. of this kind. but only a sort of counterfeit depending on dispersion. Moreover. not continuous. . whenever in the cases under consideration fresh additions of parts take place & then we make a art. they would not resist the fibres of the hand when touched. & this will break the continuity. . & velocities derived from such forces. when we adopted induction for the proof of the Law of Continuity in Art. has no discontinuity. & that bodies & all idea of corporeal substance would be done away with by denying continuous extension for this is one of the chief properties of matter. but lacked impenetrability. Also. Here indeed there are many matters all jumbled together. passes through all intermediate distances for the flow of the life-principle . discontinuity in the use of a term 151. they would show the if that. . and therefore can in no wise affect our senses. It was for this very reason that. but discrete. one after another when they attain to certain distances from it &. Now I will pass on to another objection. True continuity will counterfeit continuonly be obtained in motions. which is due to a life-principle insinuating itself into. up to apes that are so like to man. motions & and distances of the separate parts however there is here less departure from accurate continuity. although in themselves changed in accordance with the Law of Continuity. in these points of mine. such forces. & from those things which are connected with motions & depend upon them. but can think or will. My points have that impenetrability & affect our senses. an accurate continuity law will never be continuity. in which Conclusion as regards those things aggregates of things are taken. & denominate the altitude of the plant are changed. quantities just as. & they do so between these indivisible points of mine & spirits. This comes about. Also. & passing along the fine tubes of the fibres here the magnitude. . These points differ from spirits on account o f their impenet rability. that matter is sensible & incapable of thought. is only very but not ob- through all intermediate distances.

sensibilitatem. quae ipsa proprietas ab extensione continua. Sunt qui adhibent hoc argumentum ad excludendam capacitatem cogitandi a materia. quid argument! peti possit ab extensione. & eorum massae constituant spiritibus volendi. Sensibilitas. una cum incapacitate cogitationis. & determinatio habetur per materiam divisibilem. & compositione non pendet. cum retineat pro materia inertiam. quae certa respondere. Id argumentum in mea Theoria amittitur at id ipsum. qua quaeratur. sed ab impenetrabilitate. ac compositorum volendi. quibus sublatis. quam habet altera. Sed. ea quaestio hue non pertinet. ac in communi ad vim observationibus cogitandi. & pro spiritibus retineat incapacitatem afHciendi sensus nostros [72] Ego quidem in ipsius per impenetrabilitatem. & volendi. omne id . Nam posset aliquis indivisibilem existere in tota massa materiae. spiritum. uti haec nostra cum immaterialitate spirituum conjungitur optime. ac e solidissimis principiis directa iam^poStive ^probari. & a revelatis principiis aut directe. & sensibilitatem. & in ea manere ratiocinatione deductani. hujusmodi conjunctas. qui a com. id erit. VT i ad lundamentum materialismum sterm viam. quam habemus partim ex respectu corporurh. & spiritum agnoscunt omnes. quod me intemter1ain & a ^ probandam aliquam veritatem aliunde notam. . meo quidem judicio. & materiae proprietas. Illud ajo. & aliunde quae impenetrabilitatem resolvi debet ut aliunde utique debet resolvi quaestio. in omni corpore. & impenetrabilis [71] hasce proprietates conjungere possit cum facultate cogitandi. vim nullam habet. nee vero id ab extensione. Theoriam ejusmodi veritate conjungi possit. impenetrabilitatem. & determinatio cogitantis haberetur. qua semel laesa per vulnus. positione partium prorsus corruere. quae quidem quaestio sententia de impenetrabilitate extensorum. non ab extensione continua. quod corpora a spiritibus longissime discrepantia. deduci ab extensione. ipsa non potest ultra ibi esse atque ut viventis corporei. quae ab iis 155. ab aliquibus adhibeatur. incapacitatem cogitandi. si ilia Theoria cum uti ostendi. deducunt incapaci- Nihil & & . quidquam potest unum. a corpore discrepans per capacitatem & voluntatis. conjungi possint eodem relata redit. & compositione partium pendet. volendique. quod inter corpus. sub- capax cogitationis . earn nee f At si substantiae capaces cogitationis & voluntatis haberent ejusmodi virium legem.I2 4 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA Quamobrem discrimen essentiae illud utrumque. & vires hasce nostras. sive animalis rationalis natura. an non eosdem praestarent effectus respectu nostrorum sensuum. continere pro materia impenetrabilitatem. una cum anima indivisibili . nihil omnino amitti. materiam spiritum. partim. . discrepans autem a spiritu per inertiam. Sed quidquid de eo argumento censeri debeat. amisso argumento cogitare non posse. Nee vero illud reponi potest. nec v i r ibus pendent. quae ipsam adeo a spiritibus discriminat. & cohaerere Si possibilis cum ipsis. vel connexis cum principiis revelatis. uti vidimus. & potentiam cogitandi. incapacitatem afHcicndi per impenetrabilitatem nostros sensus. id & ego agnosco. vires habeat inertia activas simul cogitare possit. quod jure dolendum sit. cum & nee spiritus. una cum reflexione. & inextensione aeque conjungi possunt. & volendi. Etiam si quidpiam 157. & partium compositione pro incapacitate cogitandi. ejusmodi praesentiam praestandam certa indiget dispositione partium ipsius corporis. an substantia extensa. nee ad infirmandam positivis. . materiam amitti. ut mea ipsa puncta materialia sint. quam. me hie non quaerere. & pro spiritu quam intimae conscientiae respectu & Si possibile sit illud substantiae genus. posteriores hasce in unde fit. vel alterum argumentum amissum. & tarn sensuum cum facultate cogitandi. ac quorum priores illas ego etiam in meis punctis admitto. & validis argumentis comprobatam. notionem. & sensibilitas. desumptum a compositione partium si materia cogitaret singulae ejus partes deberent singulas cogitationis partes habere. Satis est. argumento amisso. Unde aperte constat eo . & vero etiam circa spiritus potissimum. aut indirecte confirmatam. sed ab iis. ita ibi per indivisibilem cogitationem inhaerentem divisibili materise natura. utrum impenetrabilitas. quando etiam vim habeat aliquam. quidem nee corpus 156. . superius allatum argumentum omnino non habet. & facultatem cogitandi. spiritus. nihil refert. JNam ego sane non video. quos ejusmodi puncta ? Respondebo sane. & certo modo constructam. ac volendi. ut ut divisibili existit. ex principiis immediate revelatis. inducunt. r partium compositione. argumentum potissimum ad evincendum. ut ajebam. adeoque nulla pars objectum perciperet cum nulla haberet earn perceptionis partem. quae cum simplicitate. . eorum. uti Philosophos.r to . sed tertium quid. ac velle . cogitationis. & compositione continua desumitur. praecipua corporum. & ad indivisibilis. . vel saltern in parte corporis aliqua : . cogitationem totam anima tarn multos rationalis per partium dispositione sit praedita.

that question So by other does not concern me now. & from a body in its capacity for thought & will. Even a something C iheVheorrcln be in a d P^J^. regret. partly. cannot be ignored that an argument of great importance in proving that Nothing is lost n " incapable of thought is deduced from extension & composition by parts . Thus. but on impenetrability . means also must the answer be found to the question. . Wherefore I also acknowledge each of those essential differences between matter and spirit. which are acknowledged by everyone . but. & for spirits & the faculty of thinking or willing. which is so much different from spirits. can indeed this question comes to the be conjoined with the faculty of thinking & willing same thing as the general idea of the relations of impenetrability of extended & composite I will say but this. . It is sufficient if that theory can be conjoined be conjoined in an excellent manner with such a truth just as this Theory of mine can with the immateriality of spirits. combined revealed principles with incapacity for thought. together with reflections upon them. determination arises from just as from the nature of a living body. of the body . partly in the case of spirits. it retains the incapacity for affecting incapacity for thinking. *. masses of them compose bodies that are far different from spirits. & the answer must be found by other means. as we have seen. is it possible that they would produce the same effects with respect to our senses. & this latter property does not depend on continuous extension & composition. has some the or when even validity. from directly revealed principles. in conjunction with an indivisible mind so also in this case means of indivisible thought inherent in the nature of divisible . as argument directly indirectly that adduced above has not in any way. & our senses by impenetrability. from things that can be conjoined with simplicity & non-extension. there is argument 157. & also from spirit by possessing inertia and these forces of mine. & indeed more especially in the case of spirits. by matter. i : . be will there dismissed. I will answer that I do not seek to know in this connection. matter that is divisible & constructed on a definite plan. then each of its parts from matter the capacity for thought would have a separate part of the thought. & for spirit an incapacity for affecting our senses by means I admit the former of impenetrability. sensibility. derived from composition by parts. For it retains for matter inertia. But as I was saying. sensibility. & ^ if these are denied. . to support incapacity for thinking and willing. rem ain j^^fj*^ & spir it . in^the same way as the rational soul in the opinion of so many philosophers exists. who use the following argument.. impenetrability. together with the capacity for thinking and willing. which if at any time impaired by a wound would no longer exist there. things to the power of thinking & willing. lutJU t&%~* 5 *^ irom comn v i i *ii* *i "v i_ f composition by parts. or matters closely connected with & these ideas involve for matter impenetrability. but some third thing. as points of this sort ? Truly.. not depend property of bodies & of matter. the cruel position by parts. it makes no difference. & can combine with them. . at least so I think. the whole foundation breaks down. differing . which depend on these forces. that we form our ideas. bensibmty. & the latter for spirits . Indeed I assume the . if we leave out one or other of the arguments. if it were possible substanc<Pthatwas both endowed with capsTbieofthoughT it would be neither matter nor s P' nt - are material points. & of the inner consciousness from the senses in observations. which lead to compenetration. & deduced from the soundest principles by a straightforward chain of reasoning. nor can it weaken a Theory that has been corroborated by direct & valid arguments. & the way is laid open to materialism. but by me it is not deduced from extension and continuous composition. 155. which has both active forces of this kind together with a force of inertia & also at the same time is able to think and will then indeed it will neither be body nor spirit. or at any rate in a certain divisible part to maintain a presence of this kind there is need for a definite arrangement of the parts of & the body. in the whole of the body. For one can reply that the complete thought exists as an indivisible thing in the whole mass of matter. or of a rational animal. it Now matter is ^ ^g^^ i 1 1 . From this it is very plain that. whether impenetrability & sensibility. object of thought but the argument itself. to exclude If matter were to think. of the case of bodies. Now if it were possible that there should be some kind of substance. so that these points of mine of these in the case of my points. in which we seek to know whether a substance that is extended & impenetrable can conjoin these two properties with the faculty of thinking and willing. Now if there were substances capable of thought & will that also had a law of forces of this kind. just as correctly. which have been used by some for the purpose of revealed principles either testing some truth that is otherwise known & confirmed by I have shown. & t ^f^fi matter ^t in . although it is 156.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY of 125 thought or will. does on continuous extension & composition by parts. is This argument is neglected in my Theory unsound. which is endowed with a certain arrangement of parts. There are some. those who deduce r y But really I do not see what in the way of argument can be derived from extension & i? j. nothing neglected that we have any reason to is a But whatever opinion we are to form about this argument. if this propensity for thought. indivisible. which. & thus no part would have perception of the for no part can have that part of the perception that another part has. .

in gravitate specifica. Hinc Philosophus. quo littoris stantis. mum Fons orum prajudici- ilia insinuentur substantiae plures. vel ubi curru delati succutimur. . quas : ratiociniorum usus. quae & . ac moveantur astra. motum adjudicat. primo permanentia possunt duplici tur & permanentia. Et accurata judicare omnino non possunt.. nisi aliunde admoneamur de eodem motu per causas. quibusvis particulis nusquam haberi. qui jam diu assuevit idese quae nobis sint cognitae. & non . & Terra. nobis objiciunt sensus nostri. se nsationibus ex illis deducere consectaria sine diligent! perquisitione. i. si alterum & idcirco alteri tantum assueverat. : vires. & volendi. quam plerisque corporibus deprehendimus quidem In metallis. quam per sensus. . si moveamur simul motu communi. dicam. quod per testimonium. & nunc vulgo creditur. ac in ea haurimus. sed semper e contrario sibi relict! descenderint. non illis. quam in oculo. suum apparentia fieri posse . sensibus eorum ita & in minimis corporibus ubique deest. nisi ubi nos ipsi motum : : . hisce ideis acquirere. leges. & Terra. quod nullum cogitationis indicium cogitent. praestent Id autem deducam inde. in marmoribus. & contactum partium involvere. in illam omnino certo continuitatem. in . ut per priora oleum diffundatur. Suspican igitur licet. turn ubi solae rationes physicae adhibeantur. ut ubi provehimur portu. certissima meos afficiunt esse materiam. ac volendi. in quo constat nos ipso genere suspecta nulhs 11v -i_ ut in majonbus sine urns exactam continuitatem sunt nuiia in nostris decipi. Tarn mutatio. quas e ubi deprehendatur.126 materiae. in posterioribus hisce potissiliberrime posteriora ingentem pororum numerum.. habeamus pro etiam a absolute. testimonio evinci. nequaquam haberi.& cum incapacitate cogitandi. in quibus debent eaedem prorsus impressiones fieri. quia alterum antea non viderat. corpora. spatiolis. Idcirco habemus turn quidem motum ipsum pro nullo. in vitris. nullos poros. eo. sive stemus & nos. qui nostris sensibus delitescunt. inducimus. sensuum esse illusionem quandam tantummodo. easdem illas sensuum infantia modo cum s en quae ab deduxit. vel abutentis. quod quidem indicat. casu vector. quam objecti imago habet consistant. ilia. reflexione vel non utentis. quae videtur exteneo videntur mihi quidem Cartesian! ^nultat^in^xtensunt contra sionis. vel vela. quam nobis visi. quod quidem est maximorum praejudiciorum nihilo fons. quod & sensus afficiant per illas utique sensus. & sibi. solemne illud hominibus. ut quidquid in nostris sensibus est nihil. non debet primis & pro habuerat. turn ex Sensus omnino fain si . Quod autem pertmet ad ipsam corporum. Motum nostrum non sentimus.. terrceque urbesque recedunt. quae aeque physice certa. [73] quietem cum apud Philosophos jam constet. si id ipsum stet secundo. ne fallatur. Sic utique per tot saecula a multis est creditum. dico corpus massam compositam e punctis habentibus vim inertiae conjunctam cum viribus activis expressis in fig. quod nunquam earn prodiderint ascendendo sponte. qui tantopere Ideam corporum habemus per sensus sensus autem de continuitate alios indulsisse. 159: Quamobrem jam ejusmodi nostrorum sensuum haberi pro in se. & nem continuam. ac astra Motum cognoscimus per mutationem positionis. sensuum motum ac fixarum diurnum & Solis. 158. PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA & corporeae substantias definitione ipsa assumo incapacitatem cogitandi. evidens est. per lux transeat. & crystallis continuitas nostris sensibus apparet ejusmodi. si nobis immotis objectum moveamodo fieri mutatio. unice. debet diligenter inquirere. licet sensus nostri illam videantur denotare. ejusmodi qusestionem longe aliunde resolvendam esse. materiam cogitare non posse quae erit metaphysica quaedam conclusio. . sed Est enim & mentis. corrigit apparentiam illius. atque usitatum. tl a n al Si inveniat. . Telluris. cum minima intervalla sub sensus non cadant. quae dicat lapides non habere levitatem. & navis promotae per remos. qua definitione admissa. ac est conclusio. peccabit utique contra Logicae etiam naturalis modo aeque perceptiones duplici modum prze altero pergat eligere. sive quoddam figmentum moveamur communi motu & nos. ut ubi caput circumagimus. praejudiciis ipsis ante omnes prasjudicia pugnare inprimis. vel potius noster esse hoc eor um debent. diversa quae a diversa multitudine vacuitatum oritur utique. circa existentiam illius materiae ita definitae. turn ex spatiola. & origo praecipua. haec ea definitione admissa. materiae ideam. & quietem per ejusdem positionis permanentiam. erit conclusio tantum physica. si objecto stante moveamur nos haec. Id vero accidit in casu nostro : & nullo Eorum correctio 160. ut nulla percipiamus in iis vacua in quo tamen hallucinari sensus nostros manifesto patet.

acceptation of the definition. which will follow with absolute certainty the from Again. For instance. that the continuity. must not seek to obtain from ^ctionjrf these primary ideas that we derive from the senses. which the image of an object has in the eye . although our senses SSe srases ar^conspaces : light will pass this indeed indicates. . or pores different their This is clear. where physical arguments are alone employed. who have altogether m the greatness of r i i_ these to themselves so much have the continuity of vigour. 160. deduced from never such a an act of that the fact thing by they display spontaneous ascent. but on the if left to themselves. quite freely latter. but in this of such sort that we do not perceive in them any little empty spaces. there moved. & still is believed by the unenlightened. & I 127 thinking & willing in the very definition of matter itself & corporeal say that a body is a mass composed of points endowed with a force of inertia together with such active forces If this as is thinking this will & willing. or deduce from them. or when we are seem to remark its . head. which are such as is certainly absent from bodies of considerable size. or rather our employment of such arguments. will diffuse itself & an immense number of pores . both from respect the senses have manifestly been deceived. & this indeed is the source & principal origin of the greatest prejudices. change of position if the object is Firstly. through the former. & thus had become accustomed to the other. . oil through the latter . solely for the reason that previously he had not seen Now the one & took no account of it. jolted causes nothing. the philosopher. in which it is known that we have been j^fjdered as^oWe may then suspect that accurate continuity without the presence of any little empty thing. or we & the Earth are moved with a common motion & the stars are at rest. its but that it is merely an illusion of the senses. Thus. f^^'^beiieve small for and the senses cannot in any way judge on a matter of accurate continuity very Indeed we quite take it for granted intervals do not fall within the scope of the senses. examples . because they affect the senses affect our such bodies that I say I also deduce the same under of the forces means consideration. one of which is as probable as the other then he will certainly commit an offence against the laws of natural logic. object is at rest. marble. without careful investigation. which our senses meet with in a large number of bodies. as the land buildings recede" he attributes the motion to himself and not to them. In metals. when we leave the harbour" a passenger who has for some time been accustomed to the idea of a shore remaining still. reflection. if we remain at rest. unless we ourselves induce the motion. & a sort of figment of the brain through not using. as when we turn the Hence we consider that the as we are borne in a vehicle. infancy. descend contrary always 158. it is clear that matter cannot think . . which seems to involve continuous The senses are at fault extension. & be a sort of metaphysical conclusion. come about in two ways. by that afford no evidence of This will be a conclusion the fact from conclusion they thought. deceived. Now both the change & the permanence can come about is a in two ways. if he should proceed to choose one method in preference to the other. definition are represented in Fig. does not really exist. there is a change if the We to both.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY incapacity for substance . & of a ship being propelled by " oars or sails. & permanence if it too is at rest . & their substance. or through misusing. the existence of matter so defined & it will be just with to is that regard solely physical that do the conclusion that stones not true as as physically says possess levity. consequential known that the be theorems. especially in the case of the these are concealed from our senses. With regard to the idea of bodies & matter. and rest by the permanence of that position. & do not think. We recognize motion by the change of position. unless we are made to notice in other ways that there is motion by " that are known to us. hat is e JV the some other way . & an incapacity for taken. that the Earth is at rest. i. For it is a customary thing for men (& a thing that is frequently done) to consider as absolutely nothing something that is nothing as far as the senses are concerned . & permanence if we & it move with a motion common do not feel ourselves moving. if we move. . glass & crystals there appears to our senses to be continuity. which certainly arises from the differences also from the fact that several substances will insinuate themselves through spaces . given up appeared to impugn pre judgments with 5 prejudgments more than anyone else. it seems to me indeed that in this matter the Cartesians in particular. Hence such evidence of our senses. Exactly the same impressions are bound to be obtained. as senses are matter. secondly. & he must carefully study those things that matter^ ^annot^ can he has deduced from with If he find that these very perceptions by the senses agreement motion is & ^ . & The origin of pre159. to avoid being led astray. & that the daily motions of the Sun & the fixed stars is proved by the evidence of the senses whilst among philosophers in a far different it is now universally accepted that such a question has to be answered manner from that by means of the senses. whether we & the Earth stand still & the stars are moved. Thus for many centuries it was credited by many. Hence. We obtain the idea of bodies through the senses . in the numbers of the empty specific gravities. must now lie open to suspicion in that class. corrects the apparent motion of the shore . '' . &. & 1 cemed presence is also nowhere existent in any of their smallest particles .

inepta quo ea sita sit. quam organorum imbecillitate. & quidem multo sane melius. multo minor sub initium frequentia fuit. fuerunt omnino eae. odorum. arbitror. nos hausisse ex sensibus. : " & non easdem omnium frequentissimas hausimus. Multa profecto in ipso materno utero se tactui perpetuo offerebant. & necessario^ nexu Hinc illud effectum est. non a e materiae quibus ipsa corpora componebantur. Praster organorum debilitatem. sive materia constet punctis prorsus inextensis. aut colorum ideam habere possemus per alios sensus. materialis substantive ideam in ea ipsa continua extensione debere consistere. sive continua sit. habita sunt pro iisdem. tatis & concepimus. illud procul dubio arbitror omnino certum. quae id ageret. alicubi resistentia. cum punctis hisce indivisibilibus conveniant. sed erat multa considerate diligentius oportuisset & alia sane determinante. & multo magis. impressa sunt. & ab extrinseco & necessariae qua corpora componuntur. quae cum nullam interruptionem per aliquod sensibile intervallum sensui objiceret. pro simul conjunctae excitabantur. sententia de continua extensione materiae. & quendam ut accidentaiium. ut ideam extensionis continuae. eaque ipsa ideistoties repetitis altius 1 . an in minimis distantiis sub essent praeditae sensus non cadentibus vis aliqua impedimento esset. & distantibus inter se per intervalla minima. & Principiis Corporum. ex an casu tantum aliquo haberentur. aliquas esse innatas sensus ideas. quas circa corpora acquisivimus per sensus. quae^ minus j ta jndagine. aliquo id quidem tempus maxime caliginosum. Considerandum singulis particulis. & obscurum. vel a maternis membris ortam. orta extensionis continuae ut essen- . exiguo sitam esse inde [75] 163. ubi eas primum habere ccepimus. campum nacta prorsus vacuum." etiam. ad certas classes revocandis. Patebit autem in tertia hujusce operis parte. acquisitas . per quod diligenter erat. antequam ullam fortasse saporum. quarum ipsarum.. & secundum aliam directionem exerceretur terminos ejusdem quanti& figurse ideam hausimus. magis infantiam. & paucitas. quod ego omnino non censeo. phaenomenorum nullus. impenetrabilitatis. aut odorum. ac reflexionibus minus obviis minime etiam contactum sentiretur : : : " Porro oriebantur haec phsenomena a corporibus e materia jam efformatis. quae sub sensum nequaquam cadebant. & per immediatum contactum agat. continuam extensionem ut proprietatem necessariam corporum omnino credat. quam in communi Quamobrem errabit contra rectae ratiocinationis ex ab usum. minus intentis reflexionibus indigebant. afferam hie De Materia Divisibilita-\j4\-te. &c. quae sensum fugiant. quas esse per tactum. ortae sunt ex phsenomenis hujusmodi. vel temere impingendo resistentiam vel a nostris. veluti tiaiis. piendo a 14. Quae fuerint consideranda fantia turn : inre: ad eas flexiones. & extensionis continuae cumque deinde cessaret in eadem directione. obtulit nobis ideam tactus excitavit.128 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA sensationes habebuntur eaedem.- : . & tenacius adhaeserunt. Haec. veluti & acjhuc immunem." : . quoddam ipsa novitas. diffunderentur num ea particulse ipsae iisdem proprietatibus efformantes particulae corpus num resistentia exerceretur in ipso contactu. & causas liceret inquirere & systema in hac efformare. : : aptum. & resistentia ante ipsum 162. immo etiam ipsorum prsecipua discrimina. ex quibus in eorum leges. in reflexionum usu. occupabat animum rerum & Nam hoc phaenomenorum inopia. dissertationis Verum quo magis evidenter constet horum prsejudiciorum origo. rei materialis. quo pacto proprietates omnes sensibiles corporum generales. quas in nobis omnium. qui censeat. & alterius hujusce sensationum nostrarum causae ignoratione inducto. Internullis habita ea. extensio num ejusmodi esset ipsius corporis. in num ejusmodi proprietates essent intrinsecae ipsi materiae. corporis. aut sonorum. quo de rebus extra nos positis possemus ferre judicium. Ordo idearum. Experiebamur palpando. in hac efformandi in systematis difficultate. 161. non spatii cujusdam. suo quodammodo jure quandam possessionem inierunt. qui praejudicio hujusce conciliationis. Idese autem. ac vires ad ilia intervalla pertinentes organorum nostrorum fibras sine ulla sensibili interruptione afficiant. numeros tres inciubi sic utcunque demus. aut certe satis tenuis usus in phaenomenis ipsis inter se comparandis. "In hac tanta rerum caligine ea prima sese obtulerunt animo. ideam per Porro ideas prims rei corporeae. vel arctissimo. materiae. . quorum ideae^ semper valla. quas per tactum habuimus. ideam inter se conjunctis.

not from the single particles of matter of which the bodies themselves were composed. our organs without any sensible or interruption whether it is continuous and acts by immediate contact. founded. I consider that infancy consists. or colour." " In Th ence Pr u this dense of things. commencing with Art. in this slight use of -i 11 J' & & J^^J ^ S & scope the ideas of which were always excited simultaneously & conjointly. it gave us the idea of impenetrability & continuous extension it ceased in the direction at & was exerted in some other direction. by a sort of right of discovery. these phenomena will have arisen from bodies already formed from matter. It would have to be considered carefully whether such extension was a property of the & not of some itself. clearly in the third part of this work. & these also are the ideas that we have derived on more occasions than any other ideas. which in no wise came within the of the senses. from which it would be permissible to investigate their laws & causes & thus form some sort of system. Moreover the ideas which we have obtained through the sense of touch have arisen from phenomena of the We experienced a resistance on feeling. nay even the principal distinctions between them as well. since that continuity of 1 became fixed the ideas were the more often renewed. body space through which the particles forming the body were r i j-rc i i i diffused . those things. at very small distances such as did not fall within the scope of the senses. when first we commenced to have them. -11 . Moreover it will be shown. Now. & that too. prejudgment derived from this agreement & from ignorance of this alternative cause for our sensations. & necessary to its existence . in this difficulty in the matter of forming rareness of the . from a who. some force would act as a hindrance & produce the same effect. were considered to be nothing . of a corporeal thing. in this very paucity of phenomena. & forces that is 129 will just be distant pertaining to . In addition to the weakness of the organs. a land that they continuity of odours &c . as identical. Intervals. and much more so. The same sensations experienced. will fit in with these indivisible points . or whether. or on accidental contact with. or only possessed in certain cases. whether the particles themselves were endowed with the same properties whether the resistance was exerted only on actual contact. since this resistance offered no opposition through any interval that was perceptible to the & then when senses. Furthermore." " 162. Such things de- S^time ^tae .* accidental. found quite empty hitherto immune. use made of comparisons phenomena with one another.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY what happens in the case under consideration. <^mcnis> di c uci i vcu. an following kind. one who thinks that the very idea of material substance must depend upon this very same continuous those intervals affect the nerves of extension. or from those of our mothers. there is no doubt in my mind o^ifch that it is . a system. JIT . i 1*1 i i n i were those which required a less deep study & less intent investigation .f wnat the y ma Y be . first ideas three articles. & ^ : & acquired through quite certain that we derive the idea of a body. there were to start with far fewer occasions for experiencing them. these. being due to some external influence. the idea of . I Now will here quote. of all those which we have acquired about bodies the senses. to a greater extent even than in the of the development organs. These. were considered bond. made the greater impression the more firmly in the mind. of these lack of the powers of reflection. Now. & this resistance arose from our own limbs. in order that the source of these prejudices may be the more clearly known. Further. Wherefore he will commit an offence against the use of true reasoning. through the other senses . Order of the ideas from the dissertation De Materice Divisibilitate b^ies^tte " Even if we Princi-pii Corporum. of matter. the first that impressed themselves on the mind haze 163. before ever perchance we could have any idea of taste. & derived the idea of figure. in a much better way than is the case with the common idea of continuous extension of matter. through would be in every circumstance those which have excited our sense of touch. object . & very many other things. where we have allow (a thing quite come the SenSe are not opposed to way of thinking) that some ideas are innate 161. original any place we conceived the boundaries of this quantity. through the senses. sound. smell. & very little fitted for aught but the most easy thought. and resistance would be felt even before actual contact whether properties of this kind would be intrinsic in the matter of which the bodies are composed. phenomena & there was no. & of these latter. so to speak. but the period was indeed veiled in mist & obscurity to a great degree. or a material thing. should have been investigated most carefully . through which we could bring the judgment to bear on matters situated outside our own selves. the very first ideas. & as it were took possession of. persists in believing that continuous extension is an absolutely necessary property of bodies . the mind was occupied with the novelty of things & the my the senses. whether matter consists of points that are perfectly non-extended & from one another by very small intervals that escape the senses. or certainly very little. tf tude of inf'ancy^for su h reflection on . to reduce them to definite classes. how all the general sensible properties of bodies. Many things continually present themselves to the sense of touch actually in the very womb of our mothers. 14. or bound up with one another by an extremely close & necessary Hence the result is that we have formed the idea of continuous extension.

ut etiam insensibiliter compressa istis Haec quidem pertinent ad illud extensionis .130 PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA impenetrabilitatis prohibentis ulteriorem motum in ipso tantum contactu corporibus affinxerimus. ac distracta resistant ulteriori distractioni . me ipsis difficultatibus faciam satis. & ad omnia. in quibus curva virium ita secat axem. spatio sive nihilo Quo pacto Geometria locum habere poterit. ubi Theoriam virium deinde refero. ac eadem prorsus phsenomena exhibentem. uti monui. & nunc etiam habeamus. ac ad materiam. quae post aliquem saporem. & ad naturam. compositionem ex partibus. in parte tertia nunc autem ad secundam faciendus est gradus. nimirum etiam materiae corpora compo. cohaesionem desumere a limitibus illis. tenaces: transitus ubi nihil habetur reale continue extensum? non punctorum ejusmodi in vacuo Partem secun " unico flatu dissolubilis prorsus sine ulla innatantium nebula oris ut dam congeries erit. qua hanc compositionem e punctis indivisibilibus evincant extensioni propositiones 164. indivisibilibus. ejusque partium proprietatibus maxime intrinsecis. & cum ea copulata primis corporibus. & figuram.& consistent! figura. tanquam accidentales quasdam. quod hie praestabo in parte Theoriamcontinen? P tertia. in qua Theoriam applicabo ad Physicam. cum frequcntissimis. nisi nos praejudiciis ejusmodi liberemus. quod e punctis inextensis. quae ad corpus pertinent. quas ex ilia : : W y y ipsi continues pr&ferri oportere. extensionis genus erit istud. ejusmodi distantiam ea puncta tuebuntur vi maxima ita. tis. nentis. & omnium corporearum rerum. & adventitias proprietates consideravimus. inextensis. punctis prorsus per aliquod pr&judiciis suadet extensionem ipsam continuam potius. deprehendimus. potius prorsus argumento seclusis ulla ratio indivisibilibus a nee se intervallum distantibus . Sunt argumenta. non solum naturae corporum. Nullo sunt autem hujusmodi quibus probatis & evincitur Theoria mea. & vires. quae immutatis distantiis oriuntur. ejusdem partibus." & singulis : serius. & turn habuerimus. ac ad deduco. satis valida ilia quidem. tuebuntur utique positionem suam. ut a repulsione Si enim duo puncta in minoribus distantiis transitus fiat ad attractionem in majoribus. : resistant ulteriori compressioni. & vindicatur non constare e evincitur habere extensionem materiam continuam. quam compositionem e punctis prorsus nullum continuum extensum constituentibus. impenetrabilitatem ex contactu. solidate. Extensionem nimirum continuam. 2. Ita ego ibi. puro [76] constat ? coaiescan^lnmassas imaginario. ubi quo pacto si multa etiam puncta cohaereant inter se. sed etiam corporeae materiae. ita firmiter ideae corporum immixta sunt. & longissime abeunte ab ipso . . quaedam pacto con- Quo 165. . curva secante axem ad angulum fere rectum. immo : tenaciter sibi invicem ita perpetuis phaenomenis. sonum. quam r3 ecipuas corporum proprietates applico. sint in distantia alicujus limitis ejus generis. At quodnam & An Interea hie illud tantummodo innuo in antecessum. i. Ibi autem ea adduxeram ad probandam primam e sequentibus propositionibus. & massam constituent formae tenacissimam. Sed de hac re uberius. & experimentis confirmarentur ut ea ipsa pro adhseserunt. tribuimus tanquam proprietates essentiales odorem reflectendi usum colorem. quae exhiberent solidae massulae in communi sententia. resistentia ? cohaesionis genus. temere transtulerimus quse ipsa cum primum insedissent animo. csetera. sint satis magnae. ex qua ipsum constat. & supra hie exposui. atque essentiam earundem pertinentibus. de quo agam in tertia parte.

If these theorems are established. and pair of proposi0f tation containing A the whole of *" y from one another by reason in any favour of continuous extension apart from prejudice in preference to composition from points that are perfectly indivisible. so closely are they intermingled with the idea of solid bodies & coupled with it.e. 165. points pure nothing ? How can Geometry be upheld points coalesce into if no thing is considered to be actually continuously extended ? Will not groups of points. and to the matter from which it is formed. we must pass on to the second part. non-extended. composition by parts." 164. regards the as same as little solid mass will exhibit exactly masses. phenomena & experiences. So firmly are they mutually bound up with one another.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY impenetrability 131 preventing further motion only on the absolute contact of bodies all . which I will discuss in the third part. or solidity. dissolving at a single breath. There is no that can be to that matter has continuous argument absolutely brought forward extension. i. forming no extended continuum of any sort. for now exhibit. nay further. commonly understood. they are as follows i. For if two points are at the distance that to that of of the corresponds any limit-points of this kind. Such are the words I used . In the dissertation I had brought forward the arguments quoted in order to demonstrate the truth of the first of the following theorems. in the third part . deducing . properties part of the present work. There are arguments. which we comprehend more deeply & as a consequence of some considerable use of thought. but also to corporeal matter & every separate part of it . & things that pertain to a solid body. case number of cohere in maintain their if a will also. phenomena But I will discuss this more fully. which is formed out of non-extended The manner in which groups of t i 5 TT /-i out of imaginary space. as if they were essential properties. Now what kind of extension can that be o & 1111 i : i . tenacious masses & then we pass on n t i 11-1 i i T i i n in an of this sort be like a cloud. whilst others. indeed we shall still thus consider them. & the forces that arise when the distances are changed are great enough (the curve cutting the axis almost at right angles & passing to a considerable distance from it). taste. Further. not only to the nature of bodies. we have attributed continuous extension. then the points will maintain this distance so that when they are insensibly compressed they will resist apart with a very great force In this way further compression. where I apply my Theory to physics & deal fully with these very difficulties. in which the curve of forces cuts the axis. floating empty space These matters pertain absolutely without a consistent figure. in such a way that a transition is made from repulsion at smaller distances to attraction at greater distances. To sum up. that we at the time considered these two things as being just the same as primary bodies. smell & sound. these ideas. which it is y that not rather . not to say continual. & as peculiarly intrinsic properties of all corporeal things. they its & as form & this thus form a mass that is most tenacious several positions. & when pulled apart they resist further separation. from the time when they first entered the mind. impenetrability due to actual contact. fairly strong ones too. Meanwhile I will here merely remark in anticipation that I derive cohesion from those limit-points. unless we free ourselves from prejudgments of this nature. & of its parts . or resistance ? to that kind of extension & cohesion. would be confirmed by very frequent.. . 2. . we have considered as accidental or adventitious properties. as I have remarked. made up there of perfectly indivisible points separated a definite interval nor is W & will prove that this composition from indivisible points is preferable to continuous extension. of the very matter from which bodies are composed. & shape. prove I : in the previous articles of this work. such as colour. then my Theory is proved & verified. every large points together. & then I stated the Theory of forces which I have then we have heedlessly transferred these ideas to expounded applied the theory to the principal of them from & it this I will set forth in the third bodies. & to the second part.

ac terminant ordinatas exhibentes asymptotic! "tiam vires repulsivas. R PR y ad curvam continuum constantem totidem ramis MNO. & ad plurima ex iis. quo libuerit data numero. tangendo ipsum. quae ad Mechanicam utique pertinent. quam non accurate servat. prout nimirum acent ac * cruris J partes asymptotici ED. in quibus curva secat axem. debet itidem esse asymptoticus protenditur ex parte attractiva. 170. gr. &c. exhibui necessitatem generalem secundi illius cruris asymptotici redeuntis ex infinite. ut sit ex. in CDEFGH AB. ut si ordinata mn in Sunt nimirum curvae continuae. G. cruribus ipsis jacentibus. & se contorqueat circa ipsum. (3e. yr. ex unico principio. adeoque ordinata PR crescat ultra limites quoscunque. In ea curva consideranda sunt potissimum tria. asymptotica crura. ac transiliat : cumque possit eadem curva altiorum generum secari in punctis plurimis a recta. productaturque in datam quampiam tertia post PQ. decrescat ultra quoscunque Unites. E. quorum ramorum singuli habebunt bina crura asymptotica. (') Arcus intermedii.. possunt etiam alicubi. &c. alii dici possunt repulsivi. & alii attractivi. EFG. Considerabo in hac secunda parte potissimum generates quasdam leges aequilibrii motus tam punctorum. mutando accessum in recessum.(*) Turn vero inter (i) S* supra rectam basi AB.. quot erunt arcus Cycloidales CDE. debet necessario habere y De y y 132 . &c. Erunt autem totidem numero. quam generet punctum peripheries circuli continue revoluti fig. ut hie. Sed prius praemittam nonnulla quae pertinent ad ipsam virium curvam. sed quamproxime. a qua utique motuum. quot libuerit. ubi curva genetrix ab eo regreditur retro post appulsum. & possent itidem ante ipsum contactum inflecti. & cometarium systema. ubi ad ipsum devenerint. videre est in arcu P^R. i. & Quid in ea siderandum. retinet ad sensum non mutatam solum per totum planetarium. quam massarum. Reliquos figura I exprimit omnes finitos. Arcus intermedii. ubi curva genetrix ipsum secet. vel ad contrarias. fieri utique poterit. GS &c. Diversa arcnum ED : H & habere possunt etiam numero infinitas. quam persecutus sum in dissertatione De Lege Continuitatis. Si gravitas gencralis Arcus prostremus 36 legem vis proportionalis inverse quadrate distantiae. habens pro asymptoto ipsam rectam AC. bina crura asymptotica generant.. quae in elementis Mechanics passim traduntur. ac puncta ilia. cyclois continua qute natura sua protenditur utrinque in infinitum. [78] 169. area comprehensa axemj arcum. I. ilia C. G. demonstranda viam sternunt pronissimam. & itidem natura sua in infinitum productus. ut in fig. poterunt utique haberi rami asymptotici in curva eadem continua. arcus curvae. occurrit Si ubicunque ducatur qutevis ordinata PQ. cum ordinata PQ in accessu ad omnia puncta. numero infiniti. quam exposuimus. TV. con- i nter 167. sed iterum secet axem. Quotiescunque enim curva aliqua saltern algebraica habet asymptoticum alterum ipsi respondens. vel. ad eandem axis partem.. quot puncta. E. vel etiam ad partes oppositas. si gravitas cum lege virium productus distantiarum in reciproca duplicata infinitum. C. adeoque in infinitis punctis C. nimirum Eodem autem pacto curvarum quarumlibet singuli occursus cum axe in curvis per eas hac eadem lege genitis infinite. i3c. habens pro asymptoto eandem rectam : sed id habere crus aliquod. & 1 68. Verum curva Geometrica etiam ejus naturae. & redire retro. & adhibito constant! ubique agendi modo. qui se contorquent circa axem. & uniformis naturae. phaenomena pendent omnia. parallels inter se. uti diximus in priore parte. vel attractivas. posset habere alia itidem abeat in infinitum. E. retro redire. ita. Primus arcus debet omnino esse asymptoticus ex & in infinitum ultimus parte repulsiva. quod in aliis curvis non est necessarium. Transformatione Locorum Geometricorum adjecta Sectionibus Conicis. quam general ordinata continue fluxu. rectam punctum R frit & y G y in dissertatione (k)Nam ex ipsa Geometrica continuitate. . cum etiam divergentes utcunque possint esse. Erunt hie quidem omnes asymptoti CK. 12. quae asymptotes habent plurimas.[77] PARS II Theories *Applicato Ante appHcatipnem consideratio'curvs! ad Mechanicam 166. atque id ex utralibet parte. Quod ad arcus pcrtinet. EL. perpendiculares basi AB. VXY. vel contingi . ut curva virium non habeat illud postremum crus asymptoticum TV.

A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 133 o o m O O \ .

'34 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA .

. certainly be the case that the curve of forces will not have the last arm PV asymptotic with the straight line AC as the asymptote. But. may also have other asymptotic branches. (*) Then 66. can also. so that will trace out a continuous curve consisting of as many branches. i with regard to the arc P^/yR. as I remarked in the first part. as there are cycloidal arcs.E. number of points. Again. & terminate ordinates that represent repulsive or attractive forces. G. CDEFGH of points &c. return backwards & touch it . & continued indefinitely. one of the points C. . and this is produced to R. For as often as an algebraical has the same straight line curve has at least one asymptotic arm. upon which indeed all the phenomena of motions depend. But a geometrical curve. but [ t y poss not exactly). there are three points that are especially to be considered 1 the arcs axis & the of the area between the curve included curve. & this is not necessarily in curves derived from them according to the same law . The different kinds 1 68. and they can do this on either side of it . continuous cycloid. or indeed on opposite sides of the crosses it. since it is possible for the same curve of higher orders to be W cut in a large curve equal to (k) For. 12. it will asymptotic. then the point is a third proportional to PQ. before I do that. it must also have another that corresponds to it any given number you y 135 . GS. sensibly unchanged only throughout the planetary & cometary system.G. be a. ED must certainly be asymptotic on the repulsive side of the axis. The intermediate arcs. at any point where they reach it. // at every point there is drawn an ordinate such as some given straight line . in Fig. which have very many asymptotes. &c. r The last arc TV. &c. as in this case. &c. either on the same side of the axis. the namely. The ultimate arc 170.. (') intermediate arcs. for instance. according lie the branch ED or the indeed as they on same side of the axis as the asymptotic on opposite totkfarc's may even The first arc be infinite in numside. CDE. With regard to the curve. I as finite. &c. generated by a point on the circumference thus this by its nature extends on either side to infinity. axis. the several intersections of any curves you please with the axis give rise to a pair of asymptotic arms this curve then there will be . certainly belong points w^t'h proceeding Mechanics. Further they will be as many in number as there are points such as C. the approach being altered into a recession. to go away to infinity.PART ^Application 1 II of the Theory to Mechanics of consider in this second part more especially certain general laws of Consideration motions both of & masses these to the science of equilibrium. & in every case by the constant employment of a single method of dealing with them. for example. that are everywhere expounded in the elements of Mechanics. as is to be seen in Fig. . & such curves may even have an infinite number of asymptotes. represented in Fig. & they smooth the path that is most favourable for proving very many of those tne application to theorems. which I discussed in my dissertation De Lege Continuitatis and in the dissertation De Transformatione Locorum Geometricorum appended to my Sectionum Conicarum Elementa. since they may be also inclined to one another in any manner. I will call attention to a few points that pertain to the curve of forces itself. & others attractive. W meets the base AB in an infinite number such as C. I. ' H (i) Let. or to be touched.. if gravity extends to indefinite distances according to a law of forces in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances. The points we have 167. and these arms lie. I will & .. as many in number as one can wish . (3 thus the ordinate PR R PQ MNO. There are indeed curves. arms in this same continuous from the principle of geometrical continuity itself. W PQ PR In AB CK. in a similar way. from a single principle. some may be called repulsive. on approaching any EFG. will decrease beyond all limits. each of these branches will have a pair of asymptotic arms. there will possibly be also asymptotic please. it only obeys as nearly as possible. of a circle rolling continuously along the straight line AB . of the kind that we have expounded. 169. where the original curve leaves the axis once more after approaching it. all asymptotes parallel to one another perpendicular to the base the case in other curves. must also be asymptotic on the attractive All the remaining arcs are side of the axis. E. that is to say. &c. If universal gravity obeys the law of a force inversely proportional to the square of P eS the distance (which. As regards the arcs. which wind about the axis. & by its nature also continued indefinitely. but will again cut the axis & wind about it. infinite. by the ordinate by its continuous motion. swept out regard'tolt. that are suppose the ordinate mn at continuous & uniform. / showed the necessity for the second asymptotic arm returning from infinity. where the original curve cuts Also. they may also be reflected and recede before actual contact. &c. VXY. since the ordinate will increase beyond all limits. & those points in which the curve cuts the axis. E. EL. G.

prout arcus ex iis numerus. & MQ . ex opposita. & & sed dato quovis utcunque magno tempore totus Mundus inferior vires sentiret a quovis puncto materiae extra ipsum posito accedentes. exhibebit datae. I habuimus. . Mundorum posset egredi ex spatio incluso omnes Mundi minorum binis arcubus. vel in crus ipsum jacere potest vel ad easdem plagas partis utriuslibet cum priore . quarum. ita 172. & quanta sit hujusce campi fcecunditas. quam ferax casuum. sit MNRQ areae datae. facile patet. shnufum curTserte Mundoru'm mag. potest vel crure. % immensum H A'A" numero quocunque. ut ita arcum asymptoticum attractivum. ut. abeat Si in fig. ut haberi possint pro mero nihilo. 15. unum dum . vel ut MN. quorum singulis vero intervallum EN. tanquam Mundis nihil ad sensum perturbaretur a motibus. Inde autem fit. adeoque assumpta QS dupla QR. P utcunque magnam. sit perquam exiguum respectu intervalli circa S. & rite ordinato.136 alios casus PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA innumeros. existente asymptoto ACA'. ac secundi. in crus ED esset &c. casus primus. I *n axe C'C sint segmenta AA'. DEUS. ut quivis nullum haberet commercium cum quovis alio cum nimirum nullum punctum . tertius haberi non possunt. sive abscissis. 13 crus oppositas. quod crus facet ad eandem plagam. quorum usus erit infra.parvum. velut infinitum. quam area MNRQ . ut pateret. uti transit XZ. ex eadem plaga. Natura nobis pervia intuemur. vel parva. nisi numero part. vel dissimillimi. Aream curvae propositae cuicunque. occurreret alicubi ordinata cruris in S. axis osse ess e aream respondentem cuicunque.posteriora sint in propor " unica etiam hujusmodi curva esse possit. respectu ipsius. quorum singuli essent inter se simillimi. vel ut OP. duabus dissertationibus profero exempla omnium ejusmodi regressuum . In posteriore ex quod. quam multa notatu dignissima considerari ibi possent. y A iis crura asymptotica rectilineam babentia asymptotum esse non possint. . & possibiles formae sunt sane infinities infinitae. & quae exhibetur hie in DEFI &c. atque id ita. qui constaret ex ejusmodi massulis respectu sui tanquam punctualibus. stratio. in quo combinationes possibiles. ut & radices imaginarite in eequationibus algebraicis. ducta NR MQ parallela MQ. ut KL. vel secet. & respectu distantiarum. qui Mundum condidit. ut quivis ex ejusmodi viribus Mundi illius majoris. quibus primum asymptoticum repulsivum.. dimensionum simul sumpti vices agerent unius puncti respectu iis & & proxime majoris. [80] utcunque magnam posse esse utcunque parvam. ad aequales. simpliciora tantummodo qusedam plerumque consectabimur. turn vero vel immediate abiret in in vel iterum contorqueretur utcunque usque ad attractivum arcum. censeo speciminis gratia hie non omittenquorum singuli sunt notatu dignissimi. quae quidem hie innui do. adeoque cruris redeuntis ex infinite poshiones quatuor esse possunt. ulterius progressa respectu ipsius. facet ad oppositam . ut singulis distantiis. segmento respondentem utcunque magno. Sit in fig. adeoque relinquentur soli quartus. MN & Nam . perpendiculares axi possent inter binas quasque asymptotes esse curvae ejus formae. vel inter binaria quotlibet. quae in quae nos ducant ad phaeno& interea progrediemur ad areas arcubus respondentes. dimensione nimirum omni singulorum. quas tamen omnes unico intuitu prsesentes vidit. in qua arcus semper debet progredi. si curva generans contingat axem. Nos in iis. Ea applicata ad secundjT" de^non. A'B'. postremum SV attractivum. Verum hie in curva virium. quae ab humana mente perspici utcunque possunt. potest regredi ex parte ex eadem parte. utcunque exiguo. A"B" asympto-[79]-ti AB. ($ quarti casus exempla exhibet etiam superior genesis. vel ut HI. EF&cN. sive ordinatts respondeant. posset exurgere quivis. habente utroque asymptotico arcu aream ejusmodi asymptoticum infinitam . Omissis subiimioripr0greSSUS ad areas Sed ea jam pertinent ad applicationem ad Physicam. & RQ DE secundus. incredibile enim est. quae consequentur. quantum libuerit. quo arcus curvae contorquetur. in eo casu collocate quocunque punctorum numero inter binas quascunque asymptotes. & parallelas quae idcirco nihil turbarent respectivum ipsius statum internum. 7 I> Si in donaikfm majora respectu praecedentium. E'F'&cN' essent inter se similes. dicam. vel dissimiles. posse curvam transire infra rectam aequalis aequalis areae NR. mena iis conformia. qui haberi possent. S' cruribus etiam HI. unde illud consequi posset. tantumm sunt paucae respectu totius. quandam altitudinem MN ita. ubi arcus diutissime perstet proximus hyperbolae habenti ordinatas in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum. vel magnum e Cuicunque axis "respondere 1 aream 173. ut inde attractive . vel ex opposita W ad ED ex parte A'. hinc repulsive. area trianguli MSQ erit itidem Jam vero pro secundo casu satis patet. & per singula transeant. cujus area idcirco esset minor.. nam esset ejus pars. D'E'F'F. ad quas in illo devenire possint. segmentum axis utcunque ac detur area utcunque magna. quam in fig. singula vires. fere nulla .

.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 137 o CD en.

PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA LJ O \ (0 o .

will for the most part investigate only certain of the more simple matters which will lead us to phenomena in conformity with those things that we contemplate in Nature as far as our intelligence will carry us meanwhile we will proceed to the areas corresponding to . We. DP. either as on the same side. shown that the area corresponding to any segment of the axis. MNRQ MQ a certain altitude MN will be given. such that. Hence only the fourth second cases are of generation given above will yield the axis. . the whole inferior universe would experience forces.. W MN & RQ these we will make use of later. . & how great is the fertility of this field of investigation. however great. it may KL MN. & ED return from the direction of A.. such as AB. 172. compared with that universe & with respect to the distances to which each can attain within it. the area of the triangle will also be equal to the given area. In each the interval EN. . A'A". For the ordinate of the arm would meet somewhere. & this too in such a way that no one of them has any communication with any other. or SSi proof^the 173. second part of this a MSQ XZ MNRQ as its asymptote . or great.. or dissimilar . which would consist of little point-masses. single prolific in there are number of of which each that A series of similar If. so to speak. in what follows. each of them being similar to the other. corrt'spo^a'rfy small. just like imaginary roots in algebraical equations. - . where the arc of the curve is winding. . wheie the arm lies on the same side of the asymptote or as which lies 'on the opposite side of it . & in these the first arm E would be asymptotic & repulsive. . which think for the sake of an example should not be omitted here for it is incredible how in each of is well worth a curve which of this kind can be. 9 a n i r in that section. is one. . every dimension of each of them. . cases. if a number of points corresponding to either asymptotic arc being infinite. things ' we pass on to areas. & let an area be given. . or on the opposite side. is exceedingly small compared with the interval near S. method Further.. 171. point there passes an asymptote. if the generating curve touches thus comes about that asymptotic arms having a rectilinear W y DE left . can be anything. then will be equal to the given area . & then.. & thus. in which the arc must always proceed in such a manner that to each distance or abscissa there corresponds a single force or ordinate. of the arm that returns from infinity. out of an innumerable number of other cases that may possibly happen. no matter how small. or once more winds about the axis until it becomes an asymptotic attractive arc of this kind. . D'E'F'I' &c. are assembled between any pair of asymptotes. according as the arcs EF N. . the branches HI. A'B'. it asymptote cannot exist except in pairs. since indeed no point can possibly move out of the space included between these two arcs. no matter how small. that approach as near as possible to equal & parallel forces . N' are similar to one another. also the arm Thus there may be four positions itself can lie either on the same side of either of the two parts. there can. A"B". . MQ small. if QS is taken equal to twice QR. one repulsive & the other attractive & such that all the universes of smaller dimensions taken together would act merely as a single point compared with the next greater universe. & Leaving out more indeed I only mentioned them here to show how many there may be well worth abstruse matters. is If this area is applied to drawn parallel to MQ. i m the arcs. . & examples of the second fourth cases.. this can take place with either the same part of the line or with the other part . 14. or between any number of pairs you please. mentioning. in Fig.. the area under which is less than the area straight line NR. If. i.. that is to say. the first tf third cases cannot occur. AA'. the opposite side. either like HI. Yet all of them were seen in clear view at one gaze by GOD. considering . so to speak. from any point of matter placed without itself. however To any segment of & the area corresponding to any segment. or as. either goes off straightway into an asymptotic & attractive arm. can be anything. however axis. But here in the curve of forces.. j. These are represented in Fig. . the Founder of the World. & the last SV attractive. or cuts it passes over beyond it. or dissimilar. any segments follows is immensely great with regard to the one that precedes it & if through each c" rve s wlth a s^ ies then tionai in magnitude. E'F' . In Fig. that they can be considered as a mere nothing. From this it would also follow that any one of these universes would not be appreciably influenced in any way by the motions & forces of that greater universe . NR if . Now. -i i . these therefore would have no influence on its relative internal state.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY there I 139 which possible combinations & possible forms are truly infinitely infinite of these. or from the direction of A'. S'. of the same kind compared with itself. no matter how great however great. in the way . as well. in S. would be practically nothing. perpendicular to the axis between any two of these asymptotes there may be curves of the form given in Fig. 14 by DEFI &c. the arm goes off to infinity. for the second case it is sufficiently evident that a curve can be drawn below the is shown. the area In such a case. 13. correctly arranged. 1 5 let be a segment of the area. It is easily . those that can be in any way comprehended by the human intelligence are so few compared with the whole. the asymptote being ACA. on the In the second of these two dissertations. no matter how great. Now these matters really belong to the application of the Theory to physics . where the arc for a very long time continues closely approximating to the form of the hyperbola having its ordinates in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances . but in any given time. Fig. I have given examples of all regressions of this sort . arise from them any number of universes.

infinitesimo tempusculo . ut area respondens alteri e areae H M H FIG. ubi vires 176. adeoque n major. adeoque multo magis crescent fit m fore infiniiam. QV. & Is valor fit infinitus. potest quacunque qua de re paullo Posdata . diferentiam quadrati velocitatis finalis a quadrate velocitatis initialis erit tola velocitas finalis in casu. est areola respondens spatiolo vi contraria. demonstravi tam in dissertatione De Firibus Vivis. origine abscissarum . addita constanti A. quts idcirco vi cum directione motus. quorum quantum set altitudines libuerit. infinitus m =n. extra fieri primo autem casu vel curva secet axem ut in T. & ipsa curva. evaaatQ. in bypotbesi. t tempus. vis. jacens ultra S. cum spatiolum confectwm respondeat velocitati. eruitur dt W . S MV M . ut in transeat per poterit. quo casu patet. Id demonstrari potest. quam area data. tam magnitudinis cujuscunque. vel in altero extremo. ag=y . quadratum velocitatis finalis. s spatium erit u at = dc. & Supplements . QaV. quotiescunque ordinatte in ratione reciproca simplici. major. autem ea area esse minor etiamsi inferius.140 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA Quin immo licet ordinata sit ita utcunque magna . & Hinc = W pariter dt = =. stantibus basibus cum minui possint. quod itidem ope Geometrise demon- stratur facile. exprimuntur per ordinatas. quam n. Porro 2c dc est incrementum quadrati vekcitatis cc. ipsum modum figura exhibet. Demonst ratio primse. decrementa quadpunctum. ut in fig. QV esset asymptotus. quod innuimus & supra in adnot. aream curvae respondentem intervallo fore majorem. ati velocitatis. quod rectangulum. quam per unitatem. minuatur infra . Nam. habebitur fuerit numerus positivus. Quoniam incipit area in A. adeoqueu c W c c dc =u ds. area erit finita. quoscunque determinatos limites. area.. utique area ultra quoscunque limites imminui. admodum elementari & in Geometriae sublimioris elementis habentur theoremata. 175. ejus. ejus. & ordinatam quamvis. m/ y dx elementum areee=x~ *dx. ac sit #"y = > I > . I infinitam. quemadita. ut in ad n m. vel eliduntur prout ejus motus conspiret directione vis. vel finita . ut in inter M. quod nobis erit inferius usui. area alia assumpta. admodum facile deducitur 0. 118. vel exiguae. MH. facile patet.. respondet arete respondent spatiolo percurso quovis quadrati velocitatis conspirante vi. mobile autem adveniat cum velocitate quavis ad ejus initium . in quo mobile initio illius spatii haberet velocitatem fore semper eandem. vel 174. . quam babuit initio. quidem etiam geometrice integrali magnitudinis cujusvis ingentis. exprimit incrementum. ad partem axis referentem spatium percursum. sit proportionale vi. segmentis simul. extra triangulum MSQ. ut libuerit. QH esset major. Unde constat. Potest enim jacere totus arcus intra duo triangula QV QV MaV QaM. vel sit ipsi contrarius. cum celeritatis incrementum tempusculo. () (1) Sit Aa in Fig. quam in Stayanis sed multo facilius res conficitur ope calculi integralis. Quare. ac erit c dt = ds. necessarium fuit ad applicationem ad Mechanicam. tzquabitur nullam. majore . . si facto potest esse magnitudinis cujusvis. quod de areis dictum est. Areas exprimere vel ut nimirum habeatur scala quaedam velocitatum. vel BA#g. vel decrementum quadrati velocitatis. aream si sit valor area. Igitur incrementum spatium s sit abscissa. potest esse vel infinita. si initio ingressum fuisset & & W sine ulla velocitate. erit enim ejus trianguli Quod si curva pars pertinentis ad curvam. si area vero erit ad rectangulum AaXag. quod ordinata sit w. : (m) Sit u tempusculo . est finita si ordinata crescit in ratione reciproca abscissarum simplici. erit y = *-" >/ ". ac valor A =o. c celeritas. secus fore finitam. & spatia per abscissas. respondet arece pertinenti Hinc autem illud sponte consequitur : si per aliquod spatium vires in singulis punctis eeedem permaneant. adeoque aliquod punctum V ut curvatura MQ area quam sit area data . cujus integrate n~m *fn + " " A. . qua area assumpta esset minor area respondens segmento. ut ejus arcus TV. adeoque decrementum vel decrementum quadrati velocitatis proinde tempore etiam quovis finito incrementum. etiam secaret alicubi axem. 15.quam acquisivisset in fine. Pro MQ. quam sit area trianguli MSQ. nm y ?xy n-m divisor + A. vel etiam per ilium ferat. parva. Generaliter nimi-[8l]-rum area ejusmodi si . & Q. i3 u ds ds confecto. cum ag possit esse magna. vel recessu generantur. I =x. posse arcum accedere ad rectas MQ. : & Hoc. MQ. (/) ad num. alteri adeoque excessus prioris supra posteriorem remaneret major. sed multo facilius demonstratur calculo ex quibus id est infinita . quam texit ordinata. & quam area data Aream ticam asymptoposse esse fini- Area asymptotica clausa inter asymptotum. in quam m . turn vero fieri posset. sive ob x~* =y. aut majore crescit in ratione multiplicata minus. ut area inclusa iis rectis. quae in accessu puncti cujusvis ad aliud incrementa. conspirante binis quadratis binarum velocitatum.

if n-m happened to be a positive number. may be The value is infinite. thus n greater than m. is represented by the area corresponding to ds. s. . when in the direction of the force. The areas represent 176. u to ds. ds. the area that the ordinate sweeps out represents the increment or decrement of the square of the velocity. (1) In Fig. if it increases in this ratio multiplied by something less than unity. are produced or destroyed. since x~ m/*=y. 118. although the ordinate may be of any size.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY for it is is 141 Again. . Moreover it is possible for this area to be less than any given area. otherwise it will be finite. part. the value of will be o. or in a greater ratio and it is finite. even should be an asymptote we will consider this a little further on. y y y . if by making of any magnitude whatever. on the hypothesis that the y = = W the small interval of time. dc. ^c dc velocity ordinate represents u. opposite in direction to the force. y similarly dt & c dc u the increment of the square of the y Further. the increment or decrement of the square of the velocity will be represented by the area corresponding to that part of the axis which represents the distance traversed. which. then it would be possible for it to come about that the area corresponding to one of the two segments MH. i. therefore the area can indeed be diminished beyond all limits whatever. would be greater than the given area together with some other assumed area . between & Q. () part of it. s the distance. is the Hence the increment of the square of the velocity. since ag can be either great or small. or finite of any magnitude either very great or very small. This can also be easily proved by the help of geometry & I gave the proof both in the dissertation De Firibus Fivis & in the Supplements to Stay's Philosophy . although Proof of the first 174. . force. in any finite interval of time. Hence. whenever the ordinates increase in a simple inverse ratio. QaV . Hence it that the area will if Now. Hence also. as at T. as at H. or in the opposite direction. easily by an application of the integral calculus that is quite elementary & in the elements of higher geometry theorems are obtained from which it is derived quite easily. where a constant A is added . in note to Art. t the time.ag as n is to n-m . but the matter is much more easily made out by the aid of the integral calculus. then the area will be finite. thus the value of the area becomes all the more infinite. An a s y m p totic 175. as at M. the small distance traversed in any infinitely short time. we shall have-^ A n-m +A initially A. since the distance traversed corresponds with the velocity therefore dc/u ds/c. or MV. is in the same direction as the direction of the For. or even through S itself. can be either infinite. & that the area and thus the corresponding to the other segment should be less than this assumed area excess of the former over the latter would remain greater than the given area. Also the area will be to the rectangle Aa. as shown in the diagram. then the difference between the square of the final the square of the initial this therefore will be the total final velocity velocity will always be the same . or at either end. at the origin of the abscissa. remain the same. in the case where the moving body had no velocity at the beginning of the distance. arc that the area included between these lines & the curve shall be diminished beyond any limits whatever.ag = y. velocity. like BAag in area may be either Fig. in such a way that its curvature will carry it. & therefore greater than the given area. bounded by an asymptote & any ordinate. outside the triangle in . will pass through some point V lying beyond S. however great. iletAa = x. namely the simple inverse ratio of the abscissse. TV MQ MSQ M QH . according as its motion city. Then will y x~ the element of area y dx = x~ m/ X' v * x <-"/"+ A. if it had at the beginning started without any velocity . since the area is y y = y m m & follows be infinite. whilst the bases MQ. this rectangle. y is dx : the integral of this n-m let x m y" = I. QV it easily shown that an MoV QV QV QV . But if the curve should even cut the axis anywhere. but the moving body arrives at the beginning of it with any velocity. or. on the approach of any point to square of the veloanother point. of time. or on recession from it. What has been said with regard to areas was a necessary preliminary to the the increments or of the to Mechanics that is to in that a order we obtain application decrements of the Theory might say. will be equal to the sum of the squares of the velocity which it had at the beginning of the velocity it would have acquired at the end. is greater than n. a theorem that we shall make use of later. if through any distance the force on each of the points remains as before. Hence follows that dt = dc/u. In is true. when the motion is in the same direction as the force. the square of the final velocity. can approach so closely to the straight lines MQ. as you please. infinite or equal to This can indeed be also proved geometrically. when the forces are represented by (/) ordinates & the distances by abscissae. & since the altitudes of these can be diminished as much as you please. is c'. . An asymptotic area. as we also remarked above. for the area of this triangle is part of the area belonging to the curve. y the abscissa the distance the small area corresponding y it y ds/c. Again. but it can be demonstrated much more any finite area whatever. an area of this kind is infinite it when the ordinate increases in general. ds. Then it is possible for it to happen that an arc of it. y when Hence also it follows immediately that. either the curve will cut the axis beyond MQ. diagrammatic representation of the velocities. c the velocity. Then will u dt (m) Let u be the force. or in a greater ratio . for the first case. . the decrement small distance traversed. this case it is clear that the area of the curve corresponding to the interval will be greater than the area of the triangle MSQ. For it is possible for the curve to lie within the two triangles QaM. equal to n the divisor becomes equal to zero . since the increment to the small interval Also c dt of the velocity is proportional to the force.

ut duo puncta collocata in distantia unius si distantia minuatur . Duo puncta collocata in ejusmodi distantia respective quiescunt . ad quam recuperandam sibi relicta tendent per accessum . decrescunt ultra quoscunque limites. pergant turn vero in itidem respective quiescere. quse habetur statim in distantia majore . & quantum inde enim. ^ e arcubus. utcunque parum dimota. . ubi areae respondentes dato cuipiam spatio sint partim attractive. ac demum quae Si consed in iis non transitur ab una virium directione ad aliam. . ac a priore distantia statim recedent adhuc magis. Sunt autem hi limites duplicis generis in aliis.I. & n n h' 111 8 cujuscunque nullam habeant mutuam vim. in quibus fit transitus a repulsionibus ad attractiones. ut in iis curva axem UmltUm secet cu in I sunt vel > E. : . sunt.R & quoniam.P in transiit ad una sectione curva attractivam in proxime sequent! sectione repulsiva partem debet necessario ex parte attractiva transire ad repulsivam. eorum nimirum dimidio quod quidem satis est ad hoc. ut illae areae adhuc sint proportionales incrementis. segmenta axis a rum percursorum singulis punctis. : & Duo genera tactuum. sint dimidia spatio- Duo tamen hie tantummodo notanda sunt primo quidem illud si duo ad se invicem accedant. sunt quidem terminus quidam virium. . sponte magis fugient. uteriori accessui. Primi generis puncta sunt ea. Pariter si distantia augeatur. Nam . qui exprimit distantias. vel vice versa. quod nimirum sint inter eas oppositarum directionum vires.L. adeoque si respective quiescebant. & areis nunc aliquanto diligentius considerabimus ad curva Ea tangentis: quae appellit.N. habebunt in limite prioris generis vim repulsivam. habebitur resistentia ad ulteriorem recessum. erui poterit quod quaeritur. sectio- ilia axis puncta. puncta quae ipsa conjungit. in quibus curva axem tangit. & hsec ego appello limites. puncta vel sunt ejusmodi. quern sibi relicta acquirent. non expriment spatium confectum moveri debebit punctum utrumque adhuc tamen ilia segmenta erunt proportionalia ipsi spatio confecto. a limitibus posterioris ingens habent inter se disilli quidem hoc commune. nam segmenta illius [82] axis. quae oritur subtrahendo summam omnium repulsivarum a summa attractivarum. omnes repulsivas simul superent. in limite vero secundi generis. vel decrementum quadrati velocitatis . . adeoque ab ilia priore distantia. Ilia puncta.G. an deficiant. Secundo loco notandum illud. posteaquam ex parte posterioris G. . prout directio motus respectivi conspiret cum vi. & hujus posterioris generis. ibidem evanescunt sed post contactum remanent itidem tactus fiat ab arcu repulsive evanescunt. attractionibus evanescentibus attractiones iterum repulsiones immediate succedunt. exhibituram incrementum illud.. ejusmodi. transitur a repulsione ad attractionem in aliis contra ab attractione ad repulsionem. at in limitibus secundi generis orietur repulsio. quae obstabit urgebit puncta ad mutuum recessum. adhuc magis sponte fugient. Quamobrem si interea. 178. Prioris generis sunt E. . vel oppositam habeat directionem. ac vice versa patet. & a velocitate. aucta distantia. jusmodi fig. adeoque a minore ilia priore distantia sponte magis recedent. & conabuntur priorem distantiam recuperare. limites. ego quidem appellavi generis qui positionis & secundi generis limites appellavi limites non cobasionis. quae erat major. quae habebatur initio. adeoque ipsa . . limites fore alternatim prioris illius.I 42 177. limites tenaces mutuse coh&sionis. &c. ut in iis ipsa curva axem contingat ducT enera tantummodo. : . ^ Habent rro linrites prioris generis. vel a se invicem recedant in ea recta.I. earum differentiam. vel decrementis quadrati velocitatum. an celeritas creverit. an areas innotescat. dum ad ea acceditur. 181. in primo limitum genere a vi attractiva. qua sponte se magis adhuc Hinc illos prioris fugient. At si ab ilia respectiva quiete dimoveantur limite primi generis ulteriori dimotioni resistent. ac sibi relicta ad illam ibunt . partim repulsivae. ut erit investigandum. Si arese sint partim attractivae. an decreverit & quantum omnes attractivae simul. : licet Atque id ips u m. assumendam esse differen- tiam earundem. vel vice versa. qua adhuc magis ad se accedent. partim repulsivae. habuerint vires directionis utriusque . ex utraque parte. dum per aliquod majus intervallum a se invicem recesserunt puncta. [83] at in limite secundi generis habebunt tendent ad illam priorem distantiam adeoque attractionem. exprimant. & conatus ad minuendam distantiam. : : . t P differant': cohaesionls' limites crimen. repulsiones ac si ab arcu attractive. PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA . .

and G. since indeed they are boundaries between the forces acting in opposite directions. since at one intersection. however small the separation. it will be possible to deduce what is required. be proportional to the distance traversed. R are of the first kind. they will continue to be relatively at rest. for instance. P are of the second kind. So much for the arcs & the areas. Moreover these limit-points are twofold in kind . G. then by ascertain whether the velocity had been increased or decreased. if they are relatively points from the origin.. they separation original distance. their difference. & by how much. '43 However. there is a transition from repulsion to attraction . still if the areas are interval are attractive & - according as the opposite one another in order to the direction of relative motion is in the same direction as the force. a repulsive force. & from the velocity which initially existed. points in which the curve touches the axis are indeed end-terms of series & Two tactt kinds of con- & If it takes place with an repulsion vanishes. These points are either such that the curve cuts the axis in them. during the time that the points have receded from some considerable interval. a repulsion is which to to & thus produced.cohesic i. subtracting repulsive must be taken or vice versa. & will attain to it if left to themselves . 178. now we must consider in a rather more careful manner those points of the axis to which the curve approaches. & an endeavour to diminish the distance . or the decrement. N. r line joining them. is this. which are tenacious : . attractive arc. there is a distinction between limit-points of the first & those of the second kind. one sides. & this indeed is sufficient for the areas to be still proportional to the increments or decrements of the squares of the velocities. I. &c. the points E. as approach to these points takes place. namely. but after contact remains still a repulsion.. where the areas corresponding to any . there are here two things that want noting only. all limits. on account of which they will approach one another still more . of mutual position. they will have. namely that. in others. then. attraction follows on immediately after a vanishing attraction. they had forces in each direction . Points of the first kind are those in which there is a transition from repulsions to attractions. in a limit-point of the second kind. kind limit-points of forces. & thus to represent them. if two points are situated at a distance from one another equal to the distance of any one of these limit& thus. 11 -11 i i i T i i i if f i .A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 177. the half of it . will tt & given partly partly repulsive. will represent the increment. they will of themselves seek to get away from one another & will immediately depart from the original distance still more. of the square of the velocity. which will impede further approach & impel the points to mutual recession. On this account indeed I have called those limit-points of the first kind. if the distance is increased. Similarly. owing get away from one another still further they try of themselves they will depart still more from the original distance. which expresses distances. two u^ns^/'ihnitpoints. but with such points there is no transition from direction of the forces to the other. in Fig. if. obtained by p^ti* 2SS2 the those sum of all that are the from sum their of those that are difference attractive. Now. The points E. there is a transition from attraction to repulsion. & thus they will seek to depart still further from the original distance. in what they agree * w iffj . 181. & vice versa. For. in limit-points of the second class. that . it will have to be considered whether all the attractive areas taken together are For from this. they will have no mutual force at rest with regard to one another. But. Hence. I. in the first kind.. In the second place it is to be noted that. or vice-versa . greater or less than all the repulsive areas taken together. in a limit-point of the first kind. when the distance is increased. & by how much. do not of the axis are the represent the distances traversed for both points will have to move. & they will seek to recover the original distance if left to themselves by approaching one another. If contact takes place with a repulsive arc.. they apart position limit-point will resist further & will strive to recover the kind. The former kind have this property in common . but. L. on the contrary. But in a limit-point of the second kind they will have an attraction. when the segments . at the next following intersection it is bound to pass from the attractive to the repulsive part. Two points situated such a distance remain in a state of relative rest . the segments of the axis. 179. . there will be a resistance to further recession. & these I call limit-points or boundaries. in some. & this they will acquire if left to themselves . the Those which decrease on both I have termed limit-points of cohesion. which was less. due to the attractive force which is of limit-points immediately obtained at this greater distance. which was a greater one. The first of them The same result good even if two points approach one another or recede from one another in the straight holds . I or such that the curve only touches the axis at the points. Nevertheless the segments ialves of the d is- . if the distance is diminished. . but in the first case they will . ^ u *?y t points of cohesion & of non . if are moved from this of relative for a the of first rest. i ' . the curve passes from the repulsive part to the attractive part.. Approach of the ^en it cSa^or touches it.. i . beyond at length vanish there . 1 80. Also. It is clear then that the limit-points will be alternately of the first & second kinds. i tances traversed by single points.. Further. or in direction. limit-points of the second of non-cohesion. thus they will endeavour to maintain the original distance apart.

vel distrahenti. Nw. vel sine ordine ullo . adeoque. . sed per vires auctas in infinitum. viribus evanescentibus transitus ab una directione virium ad aliam non per evanescentiam. vel celeritatem ab aliorum punctorum actionibus impressam. & initio saltern est validissimus rarissimi. recessu arcus secantis respectu axis. . soli. vel potius nullos. ut in Theoria curvarum demonstrari potest. ut [84] alicubi intervallum inter duos proximos limites sit etiam in quacunque ratione majus. possunt haberi vires ab ^2 ' . adeoque secari in uspiam sunt puncto eodem ab ordinata producta. possunt & vires zc. & areae Nzt. & areae Nzf Ntf. uy. vel languidiores. Quse positio rectae 3 infinite rarissima! quae frequentissima. quod utique fit. progredi. quantum libuerit. Id evidenter fluit quod & distantiam limitis ab origine abscissarum. constat ex eo. vel remotes abscissa- originis' ordme hi Hmites esse quocunque. non pendere. futurum nimirum usui sive cohaesionem. deinde itidem in majoribus multo validiores. vel remoti. quod possint sectiones curvae cum axe & ubicunque. quantum libuerit. ut a se invicem distent minus. vel habebit curvaturam ad sensum aequalem. debebit habere flexum contrarium. quam sit distantia alibi in intervallo vel exiguo. & secat. ro. turn in majoribus languidiores. & inde aequales . Si curva ibi quasi ad pcrpendiculum secat axem. & languidissimi. cum nimirum nullus sit nexus necessarius inter ad ostendendum. : : progredientem utrinque. & inde a limite. adeoque vires in aequali distantia exigua a limite erunt ad sensum hinc. utcunque magno numero cum curvam in & axem secare. quae vi comprimenti. l non illi. vel maxime accedet ad rectam. quae velocitates quantumlibet magnas respectivas elidant. Nwy esse utcumque magnas. quibuscunque punctis poss unt idcirco etiam esse utcunque inter se proximi. si & nam cum ibi debeat & axem secare curva. & ab eo longissime recedit sunt validissimi si autem ip Sum secet in angulo perquam exiguo. ut aliam rectam aliquam inclinatam. Limites cohsesionis possunt esse validissimi. quod arcus curvae ubicunque possint habere positiones quascunque. quod probe notandum est. possunt vires zt. secundum cNx. ex eo ipso. & cito etiam ab ea recedere. & ad sensum jg^. adeoque ilia cadere in intersectiones nam in singulis est infinities improbabilius. Possunt tamen saepe cadere prope limites Porro quamcunque contorsionibus curvae saltern singuli flexus contrarii esse debent. In .144 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA soli sed in prime casu resistunt compressioni. : ordinatis expressae utcunque magnae.. plurimi inter se ita proximi. sive mutare directionem flexus. mutatis utcunque parum distantiis. posse quotcunque. quam pro quovis assumpto. haberi quotcunque. resistentia. vel ingenti sint quampraecedentis ab origine abscissarum A P ssunt autem . esse quantum libuerit exiguae. directionem habuerit tangens.ux. ut habeat ordinatam. si accipiatur exiguus arcus hinc. cum ad datas curvas accedere possint. assumptis etiam majoribus segmentis Nz. nimirum per asymptoticos . & ejus validitatem pendentem ab inclinatione. in secundo resistunt huic pro forma curvae prope sectionem. atque id quocunque ordine. I arcus tNy. similes. In hoc secundo genere limitum cohaesionis. demonstratum sit. sed distantiis auctis poterunt & diu aequalitatem retinere. NM utcunque exiguis. utroque limitum genere fieri potest. sequitur. quod flexus contrarii puncta in quovis finito arcu datae curvae cujusvis numero finite esse debent. & alia puncta sunt infinita numero. ut curva in ipso occursu cum axe pro tangente habeat axem ipsum. . quantum libuerit. erunt languidissimi. ut nimirum etiam sint in minoribus distantiis alicubi limites validissimi. a densitate limites ipsi cohaesionis possint alii aliis esse utcunque validiores. aut dato intervallo. utcunque proximos. & initio saltern languidissimus est limes debent sed hi casus esse maxime recedit. & ita porro . in secundo J n primo casu maxime ad axem accedit. valide resistant. adeoque sensibilis mutatio positionis mutuae impediri potest contra utcunque magnam vel vim prementem. Rarissimos tamen debere esse ibi hos flexus. In illo assumptis in axe Nz. aequali lege Transitus per tl infi- ribUS as m"toticis m 185. tenacitatem. ubi curva & rectam tangit simul. Primum genus limitum cohsesionis exhibet in fig. *P SO li m te Hi quidem sunt limites per intersectionem i At possunt [85] esse alii limites. vel areae utcunque magnae. non etiam distractioni. & parum ab ipso recedat . Sed ex eo. & idcirco exigua itidem. ac - curvae cum axe. quae mutationem vetet.

there may be an exceedingly large number of them so close to one another. or the ordinate. such as always takes place at a point where the curve both touches a straight line & cuts it at the same time. Again. may & thus. rrM F r i f i I herefore it is possible for them to be either close to or remote from one another. For. owing to their being capable of approximating as closely as it follows that to have these you please given curves. where it meets the axis. prove of In each of these kinds 184. may have the axis itself as its tangent. iVater- Ny . whatever the direction of the tangent. ux. Moreover. so that the interval between any two consecutive limit-points at any place shall even bear to the distance of the first of the two from A. & the areas Nzc. Further. be it as great as you please . that these flexures must occur very rarely at such points. however great. then at greater distances weaker ones. the origin of In other words. it is possible be of any size whatever & these will strongly that there will be forces represented by ordinates ever so great resist the compressing or separating force. since there is no necessary connection between the distance of a limit-point from the origin of abscissae and its strength. but not the former. at equal small distances on each side of the limitbut when the distances are increased. it departs from the axis very sharply. limit-points of cohesion can be some of them stronger than others. or any other straight line inclined to the axis. i represents the first kind of limitAt the point N. proximity to one^another^&^th^ order of their occur- ^toe <SgVof scissae. we may have at small distances anywhere very strong limit-points. no matter how great they may be. uy. this arc will either approximate very closely to the straight line. or indeed very soon * N ^Hint section. P ab- . and the arc cNx the second kind. limit-points it may happen that the curve. from the fact that arcs of the curve can anywhere. it is bound to have contrary-flexure in the direction of its curvature. if also segments Nz. Nux to be as small as you please . & & very then they will be very weak. The through L . . & then again at still greater distances much stronger ones. no matter how small. In the first case it approximates very closely to the axis. for instance. no matter how great . Nw are taken of considerable size even. that will destroy the relative velocities. are points of cohesion.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY resist 145 compression only. . where the forces vanish at the limit-point. small arcs fTm^tVo'in t* equal are & similar. depart from 185. goes off to a considerable distance from it. limit-points so far discussed are those obtained through the intersection Passage the curve with the axis. in the second case. then it is possible for both the forces zc. h at the point almost at right angles. . a change by the ordinate produced. But there may be other limit-points the transition from one direction of the forces to another . or against a velocity generated by the actions upon them of other points. that they are less distant from one another than they are from any chosen or given interval. to the form of the are But if it cuts the axis at a very small angle strong. Limit-points may be either very strong or very weak. a ratio that is greater than unity. The arc *Ny in Fig. if indeed they ever occur. That is to say. . & not separation . also that we shall have areas. point will be very nearly equal to one another they can either maintain this equality. there can be any number of these limit-points. is evident from the fact that in any finite arc of any given curve the number of points of contrary-flexure must be finite. & close to the point at any rate it is a very weak limit-point . without any restriction whatever. & so on. & thus be cut in the same point that is to say. of it. & close to the point at any rate it is a very strong limit-point. Yet. or without order. a sensible change of relative position will be hindered in opposition to any impressed force. or rather never occur at all. or will have its curvature the same very nearly. since at the point the curve is bound to cut the axis & go on. very small or very large. & will proceed very nearly according to the same law on each side . for it has been proved that the curve can cut the axis in any number of points. in any interval. This evidently follows from the fact that the intersections of the curve with the axis can happen any number of times & anywhere. . The are 6g their i m limit-points efimte S as i i i i i <J cl i Cl HUTU DCr. which depends on the inclination of the intersecting arc & the distance it recedes from the axis. the forces zt. if a very small arc of the curve is taken on each side of the limit-point. in any order. In the second kind of limit-points of cohesion. On the other hand they may often fall close to the limit-points . they o ^eak ?ccordf recedes from it but little. If the curve cuts the axis The limit-points of 182. But these two cases must be of very rare occurrence. 183. for in each winding of the curve about the axis there must be at least one point of contrary-flexure. So that. ever so large. & anywhere. taken along the axis. and in the second case the latter only. Thus. It is well that this should be made a note of . if the distances are changed ever so little. for indeed it will be used later to that tenacity or cohesion does not depend on density. & the areas Nzt. & therefore also the resistance that opposes the change will be as small as you please. for some considerable time. or weaker. in any manner & that too. What position of touchkig^he* curve at a limit-point is ^at magt^fr* quent . either abscissae. as can be proved in the theory of curves & other points are infinite in number hence that the former should happen at the points of intersection with the axis is infinitely improbable. if Nz. & thus the forces. any positions whatever.

asymptotus DCD'. abiret ad C per omnes gradus virium auctarum in infinitum. 1 6 succedit repulsio Quatuor eorum 186. adeoque CI. cruri repulsivo EKF succedit itidem repulsivum in 1 8 attractive attractivum. FIG. diximus. in fig.& tertius casus tibus.146 curvse arcus. cohaesionis. . crus recedens in infinitum EKF. quam aliquando in primo. quae ibi casibus a nostra curva censeo removendos esse omnes praeter solum hoc ipso removenda omnia crura. istis quartum vero eum utcunque. 19 attractioni repulsio repulsion! secundus continet limitem cobasionis. si eae crescant in ratione reciproca minus. 18. in quibus ordinata crescit in ratione Ratio excludendi est. progrediente curva. & idcirco praeterea. . . GMLCD [86] praeterea & attractiva esse deberet. quos exprimunt figurae 16.CL quam simplici versus C velocitate punctum impulsum majore. ex L & LM. 1 6. quartus habent utique limites . habent limites quosdam. in quibus omnibus est axis ACS. parte repulsio distantiarum area FKICD. & vis ipsum minus. (i). aHer non non mutabat Repulsioni ionU. & attractioni in fig. quam crus attractivum . 168. infinita vis natura sua velocitatem infinitam requirit a se generandam finito tempore. quod in & . Ex . origine abscissarum. vel erit finita. 19 repulsivum. & in C deberet habere vim infinitam in tertio vero idem accideret puncto collocate in At in quarto casu accessum ad C prohibet ex parte I attractio distantia. & infinitum. sed directionem non mutat. abire potest in infinitum tarn crus repulsivum. . vel etiam conditione. & nam . quam habet L. jam iterum fiunt casus quatuor possibiles. IK. limes videlicet omnium & attractiidcirco ne hie quidem casus admitti debet. Secundus. Nam secundo casu punctum collocatum in ea distantia ab alio puncto. regrediens ex infinite GMH. ut nimirum area infinita evadat. in attractivum attractive . PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA Diximus supra num. 17 fig. & accessum a puncto C prohibeat. sed directionem respondent al COh ita & hie abit quidem in infinitum. In GMH . & binis plagis pro singulis rectae partibus sed cum nostra curva debeat semper progredi. 17.repulsivo Hmiti. relinqui pro ea binas ex ejusmodi quatuor positionibus pro quovis crure abeunte in infinitum. quam habet ab I. quando crus asymptoticum abit in debere ex infinite regredi crus aliud habens pro asymptote eandem rectam. quam & per se se absurdam censeo. Sed quoniam. . in fig. IK succedit attractio LM . infinita possit. in quibus nimirum regressus fiat ex plaga opposita. ne haberi simplici reciproca distantiarum a limite. 17 atque idcirco Nuiium in Natura 187. cum posse regredi quatuor diversis positionibus pendentibus a binis partibus ipsius rectae. & repulsiva. & repulsivarum ut ordinata crescat in ratione reciproca simplici distantiarum a C. bini contactibus. Quare ii casus non IK in fig. & in fig. majore. 18 attractio. Ut enim in illis evanescebat vis . D D B A I C I B C D FIG. quam quae respondeat illi areae. LM . quartus limitem non cohcesionis. & 19. Quoniam vero. 16. adnot. debet transire per omnes virium magnitudines usque ad vim absolute infinitam in C. Primus f^nXntesTontac. nisi cum hac varum. 17.

sion. just correspond but does not infinite becomes indeed here also the force so its direction. to an attractive succeeds an attractive succeeds an to a in Fig. 17. However. Fig. 17. DCD' the the asymptote. & two points. to vanished. change its direction. would go off to C through all stages of In the forces increased indefinitely. represented in Figs. in point. certainly IK there succeeds the attraction LM. to a repulsive arm in Fig. to that which I GMLCD repulsive condition that the ordinate increases in the simple reciprocal ratio of the distances from C. whilst the curve goes forward. & the fourth a limit-point of non-cohesion. at any time an infinite force excluding these are to avoid the possibility of there being an infinite (which of itself I consider to be impossible). to the repulsion IK there succeeds the repulsion LM. However. in all of which is the axis. then the area FKICD or the area than that that is a towards C with corresponding to the area. but did not change the force as in contacts. from the side of I by the attraction IK. None of these ex187. 18. which depend on the two parts of the straight line sides of each part of the straight line. attraction the in to have & fourth cases the second Fig. but through the forces increasing indefinitely. . it of an infinite the creation necessitates nature velocity force. the limit so to speak of all Hence not even this case is admissible. 86. . 16. & from the side of L by the repulsion LM. the two in four different positions. & in Fig. those in which the return is made on the opposite side of the line. thus the point. there must be another asymptotic arm arm 1 68. and this force must besides be both attractive & repulsive. contact. 18 to an But attraction . repulsion limit-points . point equal For. 17. the approach to C is restrained. CL. & because. . since. an thus the second case contains a limit-point of cohesion. since. said above. My has from the origin of abscissae. if these forces increase in a ratio that is less than the simple reciprocal ratio of the distances CI. for any arm going off & & to infinity that is to say. . 19. here again we must have four possible cases. repulsive The first & third cases a repulsive. for. the area must turn out to be infinite and so restrain the or in a greater towards the point C. is a limit-point of cohesion & the other of non-cohe- 1 6. 18. & there succeeds an arm that is also repulsive. For.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY may that occur. greater velocity impelled must pass through all magnitudes of the forces up to a force that is absolutely infinite at C . approach . either a repulsive or an straight attractive arm can go off to infinity. in addition to that. not with evanescence of the forces. general. Now. 19 to an attraction a repulsion . too. the last must be barred from our curve . But. the same thing would happen to a point situated at a distance equal to that of L. third case. & in Fig. by its very by from another the distance at a situated the & second first cases. 1 6. unless with the attractive & forces. is to say through asymptotic arcs of the curve. I C B n FIG 1 cr 19. & GMH ACB EKF the arm returning from infinity. we said that for it there remained only two out of these four positions. & at C would be bound to have an infinite force. being will be finite . In Fig. in the fourth case. arm going off to infinity. Out of these cases I think that all except the last admisthe ordinates increase in a ratio cept for which be all arms must that & even with sible in Nature & rejected reasons for not even that in less than the simple reciprocal of the distances from the limit-point. & thus these two cases cannot have any limit-points. in Note () to Art. off to infinity. that is to say. succeeds an attractive in to and attractive . two to correlimit- sponding to contact. of which the one In Fig. in a finite time. 19. EKF Four kinds of them . since our curve must always go forward. when an goes asymptotic We it may return returning from infinity having the same straight line for an asymptote .

turn trium. nimirum i si velocitas limite in utroque casu recessus mutui. turn i : litatis sphaeram. quiescent. ? ^ . quern prsetergressa . ut tota ejus area sit aequalis. impediente transitum area repulsiva mnnita. ac ibi posita sine ulla velocitate. Ibi autem iterum retro cursum reflectent. pro eo sequent! momento. quern fuerant aliorum externorum punctorum praetergressa. motu semper accelerate. statim habentur iterum [87] vires ejusdem directionis. qui arcus nimirum proximum limitem cohaesionis. vel incrementa. si vero minuebatur per attractionem. motus minui vi contraria priori. maxime notatu digna sunt.. facile colligitur. in majoribus attractionem secum ferat. usque ad recuperando per fuerant turn amittendo. quae exprimit distantiam . quae habetur ab ordinata respondente distantiae habitse initio motus. quam habebat prior arcus ab initio motus usque ad sequente . limes erit ems generis. ac deinde plurium in massa etiam coalescentium. Quamobrem si ejusmodi limites asymptotici sunt uspiam. vel a se invicem recedere per intervalla aequalia. nimirum habuerant initio viribus tantiam. sed motus in eadem directione perget . si extincta omni praecedenti cursum & quam & iisdem per singula tempuscula exhibentibus quadratorum velocitatis increvel decrementa menta. & ordinatam respondentem puncto axis terminanti abscissam. quas in alia exercent puncta. incipiet. diametris minimarum quae a particularum conspicuarum per microscopia ad maxima protenditur fixarum intervalla nobis conspicuarum per telescopia lux enim liberrime permeat intervallum id omne. Motus post proxiatum.148 Transitus per PHILOSOPHIC NATURAL! S THEORIA 188. in quo J . arcus area. offendant ita minorem concludat aream. juxta legem expositam num. . quas acquisiverant usque ad dislimitem. S Quod si ubi primum transgressa sunt arcum ita minus validum praecedente. i. adeoque in utroque casu limes erit ejusmodi. succedet e contrario repulsio. quae acquisitae jam sunt usque ad quodvis momentum (nam velocitas initio ponitur nulla) respondeant areis clausis inter ordinatam respondentem puncto axis terminanti abscissam. l . 176. limitem ipsum.2. quas amiserant. &c. habentia plagam utramlibet in distantia areolis curvae ipsius illius limitis cohaesionis. duorum. utrumque punctum retro reflectet a se invicem recedere . adeoque perget acceleratio prioris motus. vel etiam minor. mum limitem super& osciiiatio. quae ad curva virium pertinebant. . quod facient hinc. vel ultra omnes telescopicas fixas. . incipient id eosdem accedere. quae fuerant antea decrementa. succedet attractio . ibi. Si ejusmodi aequalitas obtineatur alicubi sub arcu velocitate. nisi in velocitatem maximam viribus perturbentur. 189. i j ^ distantia per repulsionem augebatur. quae ipsa urgebat prius. vel citra microscopicas moleculas. tamen superata distantia per velocitatem jam acquisitam. u j TJ ab Inde vero ipso. & massas. ut patet. prout fuerint sub : arcu attractivo. Quoniam autem vis manebit semper usque ad proximum limitem directionis ejusdem pergent progredi in ea recta. vel accessus ex praecedentibus viribus. AG. prius accedebant. ubi & & in limitibus 1 motus quosdam. In eo ut in distantiis minoribus repulsionem. vel ad recessum eum non haben. quae habebatur prius. eum casum non haberi saltern in ea distantia. usque ad quam . quia nullam habebunt ibi vim mutuam posita vero extra ejusmodi limites. usque ad distantiam limitis proximi. aequali distantiae contactus ab eodem). ut in fig. cuius generis diximus limites cohaesioms. aggrediar simpliciora quaadam. ' icp. Duo puncta posita in distantia aequali distantiae limitis cujuscunque ab origine abscissarum. . Casus osdiiationis ' jo. distantiis constet. considerabimus. quamvis enim in eo vis sit nulla. Transitus ad puncta iae. licet interea occurrat contactus aliquis . Atque id quidem. si recedebant. incipient statim ad se invicem accedere. . donee sub sequent! arcu obtineatur area curvae aequalis illi. quam ilia praecedentis praecedens. (immo etiam si curva alicubi axem tangat. quae exprimebat distantiam initio motus. Expositas hisce. vel repulsive. ac pertinent ad combinationem punctorum primo quidem vires mutuas. ut nimirum quadrata velocitatum integrarum. & inde perpetuo. atque gradus velocitates. AI. iisdem occurrentibus in ingressu. incipient . debent esse extra nostrae sensibii hie quartus casus in nostra curva cum ea conditione . q 7I ximus p rO . vel innnita attractiva. & oscillabunt circa ilium cohaesionis limitem. eadem. AE. quacunque velocitate ad accessum impellatur versus alterum punctum. & vires. eum Quando habeatur bills: teqaibai quidem nullum punctum collocatum ex alters parte puncti C poterit ad alteram transilire.

they continue to move in the same straight line which contained them initially as far as the distance apart equal to the distance of the next limit-point from the origin. this is but if they are placed at any evident from the fact that they have then no mutual force other distance. or inferior to microscopic molecules. they will immediately commence to move towards one another or away from one another through equal intervals. & with them we will discuss their mutual forces. that this case cannot happen at any rate limit-points. the other distances at which between the diameters of the smallest particles visible under the the greatest distances of the stars visible to us through the telescope . and as they do this. But if. 192. first on this side & then on that. the separation smaller distances & an attraction at larger. the area of the preceding arc. then. . set forth these matters relating to the curve of forces. &c. although at a point where contact occurs the force is nothing. as the force always remains the same in direction as far as the next following limit-point. and thus the acceleration of the former motion will proceed. 191. light passes there are ever any such asymptotic limit-points. they will now begin to recede from one another. & placed in that position without any velocity. & first of all I will consider a combination of two points. Having thus discuss some of the simpler things that are more especially worth mentioning with regard to combination of points . coalescing into masses . until they reach the distance That is to say. will be relatively at rest . either superior to all telescopic stars. ever.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 1 149 88. then on the contrary repulsion will follow . the subsequent arc. even if a contact should occur in the meantime. Then again they will once more retrace their & will oscillate the about paths. with a motion that is continually accelerated according to the law given that is to say. then indeed no point situated Passage through a will be able to pass through it to the other side. then they will lose those which they had acquired. in either case. over & over again. then of three. unless they are disturbed & their greatest velocity in either direction by forces due to other points outside them will occur at a distance apart equal to that of the limit-point of cohesion from the origin. which they exercise on other points. the same forces occur on apart which they had at the commencement. The case of a larger ti-ii 11 T . I will now 1 89. yet. or even less than. this fourth case occurs in our curve. or approach. or recede from. but the motion will continue in the same direction until an area of the curve under the arc that follows the to area under the former arc from the commencement of becomes the limit-point equal If equality of this kind is obtained somewhere under the motion as far as the limit-point. they must be beyond the scope of our senses. 176 have been already acquired up to any instant (for the velocity at the commencement is supposed to be nothing) will correspond to the areas included between the ordinate corresponding to the point of the axis terminating the abscissa which the distance traversed since motion began and the ordinate corresponding to the point on the axis terminating the abscissa which expresses the distance for the next instant after it. if the distance is increased by repulsion. if greatest freedom through the whole of this interval. they happened to come to an arc representing forces so much weaker than those of the preceding f . one in which. The next limit-point will be one of the kind we have called limit-points of cohesion. I (or indeed also where the curve touches the axis anywhere. then attraction follows . & the same little areas of the curve for the several short intervals of time represent increments or decrements of the squares of the velocities which are the same as were formerly decrements or increments. & then of many. will be changed. or the infinite attractive area. for microscope the with Therefore. to ^^ & Rest at Hmit- r without them. namely. & w? n s w pass on of matter> . . This is still the case. When. and forces. . due to the forces that have preceded. according as they lie below an attractive or a repulsive arc. that it gives a repulsion at In this limit-point. in the distance lying for the infinite repulsive area. or if they originally receded from one another. they limit-point of cohesion which they had passed through . Two points situated at a distance apart equal to the distance of any limit-point from the origin of abscissae. & if at the start they approached one another. Moreover. . 190. & the velocity of motion will begin to be diminished by a force opposite to the original force. i ft arc that the whole area of it was equal to. equal to the distance of the point of contact from the origin). like AE. but if the distance is diminished by attraction. & thus. both the points will return along their paths . immediately afterwards there will be forces having the same direction as before . they will regain by the same they will now commence to approach the as velocities which far as the limit-point which they passed through stages they lost. AI. if on either side of the point C what the velocity with which point . in such a manner that the squares of the whole velocities which in Art. will prevent such $. & this they will do. AG. the limit-point will be of such a kind. when they first passed through the nearest limit-point of cohesion. in either case. in Fig. e re are^iio such Now. no matter L^dTslmpo'ssibiel it is impelled to approach towards. reckoning from the ordinate corresponding to the distance apart at the commencement passage. this distance being passed by the velocity already acquired. the whole of the preceding velocity being destroyed. & certain motions. For. the return path. Motion after the 5 passed^osc^Sion . . it can easily be derived from this.

turn sibi relicta statim retro cursum reflectlimitis secundi generis vi utcunque exigua . donee deveniatur ad arcum ita validum. & inde limites plurimi. qua dimoveantur a distantia limitum ilia duo validos inveniant arcus swt^ conspirantes cum velocitatis directione. qui non cohaesionis. saltern si quidam CJUS mag ei vi statim vis contraria va h"dus fuerit limes . fuerat residua in appulsu ad distantiam limitis praecedentis non cohaesionis. vel ad partes oppositas. extmgui possit a d eO q ue habebitur semper in ipsa velocitate aliquod maximum in appulsu ad distantiam limitis cohaesionis. non. erit At si parum dimota dimoveantur a distantia a loco suo. fieri potest. ac puncta ent. debere haberi reciprocationes aequalibus easdem auctis semper aeque velocitatibus utriusque. nam velocitas incipiet statim minui. & nulla vi gignente novas. area sequentis arcus non sit par extinguendae ante suum finem toti [88] velocitati. & oscillabunt perpetuo. quam omnis excessus sequentium arearum attractivarum supra repulsaltern . & ab areis. nee ullum externum punctum turbet illorum motum cum ad ejusmodi distantias deveniatur semper sisti in distantia limitis illius primi generis . & motum retro reflectat. quam praetergressa precedent. : Velocitatis muta- 193. ac vel ibi sistent. primi generis. quam sequentis pars praecedentis. antequam deveniatur ad arcum ita validum. velocitatis vel augent. ut in priore . turn vero oscillatio poterit esse ingens interjacentes directionis suae ut transcurrantur hinc. appellent ad distantiam ejus limitis motu quidem retardate. Porro in hujusmodi motu patet illud. sed motu retardato. dum itur versus distantiam limitis secundi generis. Quin immo si arcus proximus hinc. quo tota consistent. & minimum transitum per ipsam debere minui. Accessum debere saltern 195. cujus area sit major. utique advenient ad distantias illas minimas. vel non 94' P atet unde ita uigenti velocitate impressa. Quamobrem poterit quidem sisti motus in distantia limitis hujus secundi generis si sola existant sed non poterit ilia duo puncta. ut tota velocitas acquisita extinguatur quod si accidat alicubi. ut velocitatem omnem elidat. Utcunque magna cas^'^o^bms 1 exiguae differentiae velocitatis ingentis. X illud. S ma/**? & & " & invenietur. : res tota pendet a velocitate initiali. nimirum qui concludat ejusmodi aream. si ex quocunque loco impellantur velocitatibus vel alterum versus alterum. velocitatem semper debere augeri mum. & imminutis. prioribus elisis. dum itur versus distantiam limitis accelerate. quia necessario debebunt progredi ultra distantiam sequentis limitis primi generis. quae respondent arcui asymptotico. turn puncta acquisita si turn vero devenient ad distantiam alterius limitis proximi priori. vel progredientur itidem. oscillationem fore perquam exiguam.150 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA . ilia area ilia areae arcus fuerit minor. si a distantia limitis primi generis dimoveantur vi aliqua. & quae quae est in arcu sequent! usque ad limitem cohsesionis proximum . vel saltern sistere. ac majorem pluribus sequentibus contrariae directionis. & inde ab ejusmodi limite secundi generis concluserit aream ingentem. oppositas. & minimum in appulsu ad distantiam limitis non cohaesionis. vel majorem excessu eorundem supra areas nam fieri poterit. puncta . ut ante. At si cujus area est capax cxtinguendse cujuscunque velocitatis utcunque magnae. & quadratum sit velocitas. accelerabunt motum usque ad distantiam limitis proxime sequentis. quam & appellent ad distantiam limitis non cohaesionis sequentis. proportionali. Atque ibi quidem in casu sequalitatis illarum arearum velocitatibus At in casu. rece(j ant a se mv i ce m. si ad a^pmno p uncta> utcunque recess um posse se invicem accedunt. limitem ipsum idcirco erit limes distantiam idcirco praetergressa. turn post ^"^abeat^maxU a ^ distantiam limitis non cohaesionis. usque ad appulsum ad distantiam limitis non cohaesionis. cursum reflectent retro ipsa puncta. oscMatlo esse debeat. & non accidat in distantia alicujus limitis . eritque semper reciprocatio quaedam motus perpetuo accelerati. turn retardati . ac ingenti poterit. : . oscillatio multo major. ut deveniant ad arcum aliquem repulsivum validissimum. Ingens itidem oscillatio esse limitum a distantia si cum vi dimoveantur generis utriuslibet . motu Praeterea patet & illud. & nacta vires directionis mutatse jam conspirantes cum directione sui motus. dum itur a distantia limitis cohaesionis . debebunt alicubi motum retro reflectere. vel minuunt quantitate sibi quae post oc-[8Q]-currunt. sed cum aliqua velocitate residua. post quern motus primo retardari incipiet.

But for the preceding velocities have been destroyed in the case when the whole of the area under the second arc is less than the said part of the first area. no matter how great. will immediately But if they are moved from a distance afterwards retrace their paths if left to themselves. However great the velocity may be. Alternate of velocity changes . that is to say. very large oscillation will also be possible. they are bound to go on beyond the distance equal to that of the next following limit-point of the first kind & not until this has been done. 193. one under which the area is such. but S pa on Sdennitety a noteworthy case S arSerencTfar a very great velocity. side of such a limit-point of the second kind should include a very large area. it may happen that they come to some very strong repulsive arc. where . & either increase or decrease the square of the velocity by a quantity that is proportional to the areas themselves. will accelerate their motion as far as the next following limit-point . in the case of equality between the areas in . coming under the influence of forces changed in direction so . will the motion begin to be retarded. & will either & there will always be a repetition of the motion. then the oscillation will be exceedingly small. & having passed through this they will go on. the velocities being increased equally for each first . with which the two points are moved from a distance equal to that of any limit-point. Here they will stop. Further in this kind of motion it is clear that along the path from the distance of a limit-point of cohesion to a limit-point of non-cohesion the velocity is bound to be always increasing then after passing through the latter it must decrease up to its arrival at the distance of a limit-point of non-cohesion. if they recede from one another. no fresh ones will be generated. & diminished moving up to a distance of a limit-point of the second kind. kind for it Moreover it is also point whilst they are moving up to a distance of a limit-point of the first kind. of a limit-point of the an accelerated motion. & that which was acquired in the arc that followed it up to the next limit-point of cohesion. But it cannot cease at a distance will always arrive at distances of this kind with clear that. . motion may possibly cease at a limit-point of this second kind. if the two points exist by themselves. that the whole velocity acquired is destroyed . & does not happen at a distance equal to that of any limit-point. Thus. at all events. which are in the same direction as that of the velocity yet. Until at length it comes to an arc so strong. 195. & to the force another force will be obtained at once. which is sufficiently strong to destroy the whole of the velocity & reverse the direction of motion. continually stop there or proceed accelerated & retarded. & this distance will & the points. The whole thing depends on the initial velocity & the areas which occur subsequently. For it may be that very many limit-points on either side are traversed before an arc is arrived at. if the 194. act in the same sense as their own motion. if the points are moved from a distance apart equal to that of a limit-point of either kind by an exceedingly large force. but some velocity will be left. then the points will retrace their paths & oscillate continuously. which are opposite in direction. acting in opposition immediately. tude" mus^be & the thing A Approach S is bound t . the area of which is capable of destroying any velocity whatever. & when this happens anywhere. Hence indeed the & a minimum maybe estr yed. at least so long as the For the velocity will commence to be diminished limit-point is a fairly strong one. maximum on on arrival at a distance equal to that of a limit-point of cohesion. or greater than the excess of these over the intervening areas that are in the same direction. but with retarded motion as in the first case. then indeed the oscillation may be exceedingly large. being moved but little from their original position. to it . then the points will move to a distance apart equal to that of the next following limit-point from the origin.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY of the 151 motion up to the limit-point . *^g an y % . But. It is evident also that. there will always be in the velocity a therefore that they now . points are moved from a distance apart equal to that of a limit-point of the first kind by some force (especially when the velocity thus impressed is not extremely great). and one that is greater than several of those subsequent to them. they must finally attain to those very small distances that correspond to an asymptotic arm. if the area of the subsequent arc is not capable before it ends of destroying the whole of the velocity which remained on attaining the distance of the preceding limit-point of non-cohesion. of necessity. position equal same alternations must be had as before. as far as the very weak whilst they are . & no other point influences their motion from without. . \* t he repulsive arc. they will reach a distance apart equal to that of the limit-point with a motion that is & question certainly diminished be passed. Then. The limit-points oscfflation krger. to that of a of the second kind apart equal limit-point by any force. the velocities. if they are urged from any given either with towards one another or in opposite directions. no matter how strong are the arcs they come upon. then indeed they will arrive at a distance apart equal to that of the limit-point next following the first one. or at least to come to rest for. which will therefore be a limit-point of non-cohesion. arrival at a distance of a limit-point of non-cohesion. then the oscillation will be much greater for. & the points. the area of which is greater than the whole of the excess of the subsequent attractive arcs above those that are repulsive. no matter how small. if the next arc on each Nay. if they approach one another. . P um ' value! & ""a^mln? valu e where . they are bound somewhere to have their motion reversed.

& puncta ilia recedent a se invicem in immensum quin immo si ille arcus repulsivus cum sequentibus repulsivis ingentem habeat areae excessum supra arcus sequentes attractivos . poterit res multo aliter se habere. ab vel distractionem externa post compressionem. vel majorem priore ita. mutata : m limitis cohaesionis . extinguere in ipso appulsu ad ejusmodi distantiam. recessuum post novum ingens illud augmentum erunt parum admodum discrepantes a se invicem nam si ingentis radicis quadrate addatur quadratum radicis multo minoris. cum sunt cum aliorum externis. nunquam in hisce casibus Quid accidat binis punctis. quo casu etiam facile demonstratur. 20 196. . adhuc esse in distantia alterius limitis cohaesionis sine ullo conatu attractive. quos inducit varia 198. & vis insensibilis. vel impulsis [90] in recta. ubi adhuc habeatur vis aliqua vel attractiva. ubi qu33 habebitur. : jam retardatis. & conflagrationes exhibebit ille egressus ex ingenti arcu . quae massis respondent magno habentibus utique multo uberiores casus. turn quidem vi factam. fermentationes. PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA usque ad languidissimum ilium arcum postremi cruris gravitatem exhibentis. multo minor. turn centre A. uti duae cuspides elastri manu compressae detinentur in ea distantia. jam retro reflexis. & motibus jam acceleratis. Si sint arcus amplissimi. Id quidem ex Euclidea etiam Geometria manifestum fit. Ubi ex. Haec usui ingens agitatio cum oscillationibus variis. fiat semicirculus occurrens inde in Quadrate hinc. exiguus sane etiam respectu BC. una cum differentia omnium sequentium arcuum omnes attractivos autem BC repulsivorum supra sequentes velocitatem. exprimet AC velocitatem. in qua se validissime repellunt. arcuum curva saepissime secante axem . ri si puncta sint in distantia alicujus limitis cohassionis. quid possit accidere actionibus quod illorum distantiam bifariam secat. Haec accident binis punctis sibi relictis. ut est ipsa ad totam BE.152 sivas. potest externa compressio illam velocitatem minuere. quae semper est minor. jam distantia evasit major. fit quam ipsa . vel accedendo. debere quiescere . quam BC. vel repulsiva. & ob adeoque multo magis respectu AB eandem rationem perquam exigua area sequentis cruris attractivi ingentem illam jam acquisitam velocitatem nihil ad sensum mutabit. & multo magis hisce similia. quae permanebit ad sensum eadem post recessum in initio addendo quadratum BC habetur quadratum AC. vel curvae natura. quam bina tantummodo habeant puncta. circa quern proximi limites plurimum inde distent. a se recedunt. & multo magis etiam. quam in punctis quiescentibus gigneret arcus ille repulsivus per suam aream. ac ejus excessus supra priorem AB erit BD. cum ingenti velocitate pergent puncta in immensum recedere a se invicem & licet ad initium ejus tarn validi arcus repulsivi deveniant puncta cum velocitatibus non parum diversis tamen velocitates : . quia in applicatione ad Physicam erunt infra haec ipsa. 20. sola. Exprimat AB velocitatem. quamvis non exiguae . BD immensum. poterit motus extingui in adventu ad distantiam limitis cohaesionis. gr. Superiorum usus in omnia aliquanto fusius considerare libuit. vel distrahente redigi ad distantiam multis vicibus minorem. vel majore distantia. cui addatur ad perpendiculum BC. ad distantiam & : multum i distantia red retro secus. ita. poterunt sisti in multo minore. oppositis velocitatibus aequalibus. sint proximi. ut . radix extracta ex summa parum admodum differet a radice priore. turn poterunt sit tota distantia quam proximi citerioris limitis ab origine abscissarum externa vi comprimente. D. ut semper adhuc conentur se restituere ad priorem positionem recedendo. : Sit in fig. intervallo AC. Verum si alia externa puncta agant in ilia. & ad recuperandum priorem locum. E. AB AB AB & ejus arcus : . a qua sibi relictas statim recederent & simile quid accidere potest vi attractivae per vires externas distrahentes. quod nimirum semper adhuc sub arcu repulsive permaneat. Turn vero motus acquisitus ab illo arcu nunquam poterit a sequentibus sisti. qua junguntur. & velocitates recessus augeri deberent in accessu Si limites sint a se invicem r e o t i. Potest externa compressio cogere ilia puncta manere immota etiam in ea distantia. : Demonstratio ad- modum simplex. si BC fuerit exigua respectu AB. Ilia 199. linea longior. & est ad ipsam. At si ibi frequentissimi limites. cum exprimat advenitur ad distantiam qua respondentem . A FIG. Turn vero diligenter notandum discrimen inter casus varies. punctum. & multo minus poterunt ea bina puncta consistere extra distantiam limitis cujuspiam. sive AD & tamen haec excedit prsecedentem radicem AB per solam BD. 197.

For. describe a semicircle meeting AB on either On adding the square on BC to the square on AB. yet the velocities after this fresh & exceedingly great increase will be very little different from one another. after compression. Now. 199. after recession to a huge distance. the^areT^then? middle point of the distance between them is bound selves what may motion in the cases we have discussed can never be destroyed ^teif11 under ththe & external compression may diminish that velocity. than the original distance. in a case where they recede from one another. Nay further. also let represent the velocity with which the distance corresponding to the beginning of this arc is reached . without there being any endeavour to revert to their original position. which is always less than the same ratio to it as BC bears to the whole length BE. owing to the area under it. if the limit-points e far a part. 20. would in generate points initially at rest. the very small area under the subsequent attractive branch will not this will remain sensibly the same sensibly change the very great velocity acquired so far is which obtained when . if other external points act upon them. 197. near the limit-point in question. the square root of the number that is much less. For the same reason. The altogether on arrival at a distance equal to that of a limit-point of cohesion. These things along the straight line joining them a case it can be easily proved that the to remain at rest. An external compression may even force the points to remain motionless at a distance for which they repel one another very strongly just as the two ends of a spring compressed by the hands are kept at a distance from which if left to themselves they will immediately depart. & therefore much more so with regard to AB. & sometimes reversed. they may stop at a much less. in such may happen . For the velocities would therefore instance. on each side of which the arcs are very wide. an as it . namely those that correspond to masses. A similar thing may come about in the case of an attractive force when there are external tensile forces. under the action but this is not the' of an external force causing either compression or tension. or a much greater. with centre A. let The demonstration 196. i i 111 will always strive towards one another attractive arc. if to the square of a very . distance apart. with its various oscillations motions that are & ^ ve facts "* phy " & sometimes accelerated. & completely destroy it approaches the distance of that limit-point. This indeed is very evident from Euclidean geometry even. cohesion. Then. & still be at a distance equal to that of another limit-point of cohesion. or impelled What with velocities that are equal opposite . perpendicular to it. In Fig. Now the excess of this above the former & this is really very small compared with BC. which is so strong. a careful note must be made of the distinctions between the various cases. caused by an external force. we get the square on side in E & D. Suppose that BC. be bound to be increased as they approached a distance equal to that of a limit-point of & . . however to revert to their old position by receding from or approaching for indeed they will still always remain under a repulsive. & the points will recede from one another to an immense distance. both these considerations. occur at very frequent intervals then indeed. will the will take place in the case of two points left to themselves. & the force insensible. for which indeed there are far more cases than for a system of only two points. great number there is added the square of a not in itself number. All these considerations I have thought it at length . although sum differs very little from the first - repulsive arcs over all the subsequent attractive arcs .A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY arc of the last branch 153 which represents gravity. If our points are at a distance is fj a tenaency to of any limit-point of cohesion. in such a way that they together. & much less actions of other two points be able to stop at a distance apart that is not equal to that of some them 3 extemal to But limit-point. together with the difference for all the subsequent . which is much less fairly long line. or separation. will represent fermentations . BC. or an But if. & radius AC.. & also much more so than the nearest j^sfderabSH-han^e. with considerably different velocities. Then indeed the velocity acquired through be that arc can never stopped by the subsequent arcs. bearing the AB represents velocity which the repulsive arc. the limit-points on either side . if that repulsive arc taken together with the subsequent repulsive arcs has a very great excess of area over the subsequent attractive arcs. then BC AC will represent the velocity the distance has already become of considerable amount. limit-point to the left is distant from the origin of abscissae . either attractive or repulsive. & AD AC or yet this exceeds the former root AB by BD only. either less. then the points will continue to recede to an immense distance from one another with a very great velocity &. they may. as far as which there is some force acting. be reduced after many alternations l^tsare very'dose to a distance._. 198. than AB. a good thing to investigate somewhat The use of the for they will be of great service later in the application of the Theory to physics. so that the return if the disnearest limit-points are very far distant from it. The great agitation. velocity AB will be represented by BD if BC were very small compared with AB . others like them to an even greater degree . sometimes retarded. although points arrive at this repulsive arc. very small. we may have altogether different results. there which arise from the various natures of the arcs of the curve. or greater. ls P erfectl y sun P Ie to which is be a AB added. .

velocitatibus projiciantur ex datis locis cum datis directionibus. sed circa punctum spatii medium immotum gyrent perpetuo sibideinceps semper proxima. punctum. luminis emissionem. ac in dissertation e De Centra Gravitatis proposui. usui. vel in spiras contorqueantur. ut duo puncta delata sibi obviam e remotissimis regionibus. Hinc fieri potest. m statu U 1n 202. Casus. & -11 j recta jungente ipsa ilia duo puncta angulos aequales i aequalibus efficiant rr . 204. aequabitur recessui aiterius. sed non nihil expolitam. quae P ossunt . Si utcunque alio test facile ostendi illud : modo enSfter 'maSs P centri gravitatis quiescere. 19. manebit immotum . cum sit unicus possibilis contra infinites). Id sponte consequitur ex eo. in Stayanis Supplementis ad lib. nihil Accessum ad quodvis aiterius aiterius aequari recessui ex postremo loco adnotabo. prospicienti jam nine insignes eorum usus. quam ipsam demonstrationem hie etiam inferius exhibebo. quod est medium in recta jungente ipsa. flammse. intervallo etiam sub sensus non cadente qui quidem casus itidem cum ubi de notandi sint futuri sunt. Verum & turbatum. & circa ipsum vel quietum. turn vero punctum. 5? distantia mutua eorum punc- . Id theorema Newtonus proposuit. agendum Theorema de erit. magnitudinem. ut ad directionem quod eorum absoluti motus sint aequales. aequilibrio. ut magis haereant animo. & alterum ad motus directionem invenire vis. vel illarum curvarum descriptiones. 2OO. quarum commune vel uniformiter in directum a viribus mutuis vel centrum gravitatis progreditur quiescit.. cujus problematis generalem solutionem & ego exhibui syntheticam eodem cum Newtoniana recidentem. projiciantur bina puncta velocitatibus quibuscunque . ut erant ante. Transitus ad syste- & motibus duorum punctorum jam satis. haac generaliter pertractari deberet. quascunque. . a ipsis. trium "binagene alia probiemata. & contrarii Sed de aliam quamcunque redacti aequales itidem maneant. sed non accurate in ipsa recta. quas assumpto non possit cum quadam virium lege. vel progredi uniformiter in directum. & contrarii. corporum ideam suggeret quae quidem hie innuo in antecessum. j- Quod si ilia P er directiones. quae ilia jungit (qui quidem casus accurati occursus in ea recta est infinities improbabilior casu deflexionis cujuspiam. reduceretur ad I. cum datis quorum singula Primum facile solvi potest. ilia vis permanens post compressionem ingentem. & contrariis. in 1 quo duo < debe sc Hbere &pira ies circa medium im- curvarum genera. conjungens secatur bifariam. viribus. ac ferme eandem celeritatem quies ob frequentiam limitum. quae data lege virium per distantias ab ipso puncto illo immoto (uti daretur. ipsa autem duo puncta circa id punctum gyrabunt in curvis lineis aaqualibus. quod pertinet ad duorum futurum si duo puncta moveantur viribus mutuis tantummodo. vel uniformiter progrediens. composites datur curvam virium lex communis singularum per reliquis.154 repulsive PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA ubi jam ad ingentes cum velocitatibus ingentibus. . inveni. elasticitati explicandae in-[9i]-serviet . Hie illud notabo 5 tantummodo. & mollibus corporibus diligenter 201. sine conatu ad mollium priorem recuperandam figuram. figurae i determinari lex virium & duo problemata. cum exiguo discrimine inter diversos coloratos radios . quas in se redeant. & potest etiam ope curva. debere haberi vel illas oscillationes. & ultra ipsa assumatur planum quodcunque accessus aiterius ad illud planum secundum directionem quamcunque. quae describi quovis puncto pro centre virium describi definitur per Problema directum virium centralium. Motus binorum punctorum oblique projectorum. intervalla. pertinet ad vires. adeoque eorum dimidiae blematis a distantias a puncto Newtono jam olim soluti. cum inde fiat. quarum ilia lege virium figures -primes invenire motus eorum punctorum. quorum alterum Data positions. : uti etiam pro punctis quotcunque. quibus urgetur a 2. [92] 203. inter infinita cum nulla sit curva. vel diffractionem & ad sensum mutentur quidquam per immensa propagationem uniformem. sed non satis demonstravit. non recedant retro. quae cum duo puncta proiiciantur oblique motibus contrarns. data nostra curva virium figurae i. ac generalem simul. Demonstrationem accuratissimam. Interea hie illud punctorum motum ibi usui : . quas admodum a se invicem differant. esse innumeras. Solis. nee parum deventum est distantias. res > si Deveniendo ad systema trium punctorum. cohaesione. cujus nimirum abscissae exprimunt distantias punctorum a se invicem. in quo recta ilia illo medio immoto) invenitur solutione proquod vocant inversum problema virium centralium. Data figure primce. debere id generalius pertinet ad massas quotcunque.& non per casuum inductionem tantummodo. in quovis ejusdem speciei radio fixarum. qua urgetur quodvis ex torum.

i is given. This follows immediately from the fact that their absolute motions account of 'the mutual force are equal & opposite for. in connection with that subject. Being given the position and the mutual tt . i T> i 11 i c gravity in the case . idea of soft I will the bodies. distance of the points. one refers to forces and the other to motions. which. then we arrive at a solution of the problem already solved by Newton some time ago. referred to ' 202. compression. However. I - .A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY & conflagrations. amongst the infinite number of different curves that can be described. or wind in spirals be described with some law of forces. which will be of use later. the whole matter in general will reduce to these two problems. 2. velocities. must take place. it comes about that the resolved parts in any other direction also remain equal & opposite. mention these matters here suggest original configuration. in no wise disturbed by the mutual forces. from one another intervals . P . if the law of forces is given in terms of the distances opposite paths that motionless from point (as it will be given when our curve of forces in Fig. number or kind. J joining them must remain at steady 1 central . Book 3. . Extension to a system of three points two general . always remaining very near to one another. . for which the common centre of gravity is either at rest or moves uniformly in a straight line. it is required to find the motions of the points. between The force persisting after difference rays very slight serve to The lack of motion due to will or explain elasticity. and each of these latter being found by a general law which is given by the curve of Fig. will be equal to the other^rom it 'on recession of the other. 204. on that account. The first of these problems is easily solved . These cases must be specially noted for they will be of use when we come to consider cohesion & soft bodies. But if the two points are projected obliquely with velocities that are equal and opposite to one another. have said enough for the present about the equilibrium & motions of two points. and also. I will here mention in passing something that refers to the motion of The approach of two points. 201. But this. rest or move uniformly in a straight line and that about this point. I. . . measured in any direction. but he did not give a satisfactory proof of it. . is a property relating to masses. and a flame. of masses. as they were to start with. important already 200. there are an innumerable number which will either re-enter for there is no curve that. more generally. exactly in the straight line joining them and the case of accurate approach along the straight line joining them is infinitely more improbable than the case in which there is some deviation. of the cen tre of or is moving uniformly. & the approximately The motion obikmei of two pro ^ ected The case in which boumT^o^teswibe spirals about the nless mlddle j^^ two points are projected in any manner whatever with any velocities whatever. where the abscissae represent the distances of the points from one another. Art. . as also systems of any number of points. when each of them is projected with known velocities from given initial positions in given directions. point &. This theorem was enunciated by Newton. Supplements Stay's Philosophy. i. . If two points poLts towards^y move subject to their mutual forces only. i. Being given the law of forces represented by Fig. this force being the resultant of the forces due to the remaining points. When we come to consider systems of three points. Hence it may happen that two points approaching by problem another from a but not one long way off. of which the 11 T. & one that is at the same time general. in directions making equal angles with the straight line joining the two points then. . 19. . by the aid of . 203. but will gyrate about a motionless middle point of space for evermore. . . Lastly. . the that was same solution thing as that of Newton. . problems. in Moreover. . At present I will only remark that. & I gave it in the dissertation De Centra Gravitatis . this will represent the emission velocities in any ray of the same & uniform propagation of light. the point in which the straight line joining them is bisected the two points will gyrate about this middle point in equal curved will remain motionless directions. having taken any point whatever their paths. Theorem on the state of the be r can readily proved that the middle r point of the line . of any above. which is determined the centre of cannot for forces. . the direct of central forces. they may readily by a mind that has been said that there is an from what use sees for them. 155 The as . . that the more be in order assimilated in anticipation. not altogether devoid of practically in the to neatness. & any plane is taken beyond them both. to which any one of them is subject . I have discovered a most rigorous demonstration. from a very large repulsive arc with very great distances have been reached. & therefore the halves of these abscissae represent -the distances from the motionless middle point). the oscillations or descriptions of the curved r paths. since the former is only one possible case then the points will not reverse their motion and against an infinite number of others recede. . this demonstration I will also give here in the articles that follow. . . If it . whether it is at rest more generally. . . the distance between them not being appreciable by the senses. then plane is equal to 1 the approach of one of them to that plane. which Of this problem I also gave a general synthetic is called the inverse -problem of central forces. of without endeavour towards recovering the occurrence the frequent any limit-points. it is required to find the magnitude and direction of the force. separation. the sun. with a equal of different colours. are very little different soon very great nor are they sensibly changed in the slightest degree for very great starting forth as kind from the stars. .

Theorema de motu 205. vel directionem. Sed satis esset binas curvas construere. In fig. In primo casu sumendae essent CL. quas habet cum ipsis A. & atque ita. in quo motu tam directio D rectae natio ad Determmatio vis ejusdem composite e binis viribus. punctum E debere progredi in directum uniformi. Methodus construexpi? 207. pro secunda. AB. ex quovis ejus puncto DC : Oporteret autem ipsam ordinatam curvas per ejusmodi binas ordinatas. & & CK versus B. in tertio CL versus A. posset erigi recta ipsi perpendicularis.' a que id tarn geometrice determinando per puncta curvas. accedet C ad punctum medium D ipsum cum velocitate movebuntur E. & B. ex altera plaga ipsius CD. Hoc pacto datis locis A. ut C. diameter CF. exprimeret a reliquis binis punctis. semper respectu puncti E immoti ex adverse sint. ac haberetur curva exprimens vim absolutam puncti in eo siti. ut ipsas curvas describendas liceat definire in quovis casu vel constructione. & asqualis illi diametro. & prout OF jaceret ad alteram partem rectae DC. utcunque moveantur eadem puncta motibus compositis a projectionibus quibus. partes oppositas A. nee adhuc satis promoto ad accurationem calculo. quae exprimeret vim perpendicularem OF nam eo pacto haberentur etiam directiones vis absolutae ab Hinc si assumantur ad arbitrium duo loca qusecunque punctorum A. ita. vel contra recedent. alteram. & non nisi pro peculiaribus quibusdam casibus. nenimis excrescat) versus A. altera secundum illam agat . i assumendae essent abscissae in axe asquales rectis AC. ea facile sic mvemetur. Hinc si sibi re- linquantur. plerumque mutabitur. T. quae diversas admodum exhiberent virium leges ac si quasreretur locus geometricus continuus. ducta quavis recta DEC indefinita. Secundum omnino generaliter & ipsum celeberrimum problema quod appellant trium corporum. vel LCMI. BC figurae 21. & ejus incli- " _ . 122. ad referendum sit tertium C . est illud i > i - cunque. uti diximus num. quae ejusmodi legem exhibeant. quas id praestent. vel KCNG. & assumpto ejus binis triente DE. & rectae AB ibit ipsi obviam versus dimidia ejus. vel ambae ex parte repulsiva . quam directio rectae AB. superat (licet puncta sint tantummodo tria) vires methodorum adhuc cognitarum si pro tribus punctis substituantur tres massae punctorum. & solicitati a viribus. : quarto CN MCNH. formulas analyticas. sive magnitudines binarum virium. & ipsis aequales (figura 21 CN. usque adeo qusesitum per haec nostra tempora. complete parallelogrammo vel CI. . CD. D . alteram. . Pendet id a general! theoremate de centre gravitatis. per lineas tamen similes. ut CO . vel ad oppositam. quae exprimeret vim redactam ad directionem per perpendiculum FO. & cum ingentibus limitationibus. aut inde in latus. ITT-> tionem cum aiiis & distantia AB duorum divisa semper bifanam in D. quae vel ambae 2 o6. si tria puncta sint in fig. u3e <l mat vim ejusmodi. CM ad exhibet minores. vel ad plagam oppositam pro prima curva. solutum a paucissimis nostri asvi Geometris primi ordinis. sive indefinite exhiberet omnes vires pertinentes ad omnia . qui exprimeret simul omnes ejusmodi leges pertinentes ad omnes ejusmodi curvas. & B. 21 A. in quas ea concipiatur resoluta. qua urgetur C CG LCKF. vel caculo. & quarum & quam exhibendo acceptum. _ *^ Quod A CK vel repulsiva essent ex parte attractiva. vel CH. : tres altera sit perpendicularis data? illi rectse. J Pro hoc secundo casu illud est notissimum. & magnitudinem vis compositae. vel motu infra pro massis quibuscunque. C. B.. & secunda vel prima repulsiva secunda attractiva. & B. pertinet ad inveniendam vim pro quacunque positione puncti C respectu T> r -i T r punctorum A. ac ducta CD. puncti habentis ac. & de quo age-[93]-mus vel quiescere semper. & mutatis viribus . . & erigendae ordinatas ipsis respondentes. quam ipsum habebit. vel hinc.B ad partes oppositas A. Tam &B in secundo CM ad partes oppositas B in . vel ex altera opposita prout CO jaceret versus D. ac determinent sive magnitudinem vis absolutae. iis compositae utriuslibet assumere .156 generaliter pro PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA omnibus distantiis assumptis in quavis recta positionis datae. B pro singulis rectis egressis e puncto medio haberentur diversae curvae. ut CF in primo casu. vel prima attractiva. cujus & superius injecta est mentio. Expressio magis * 115 Per super " duas 208.

in the fourth case. 122. according as would be towards D. then. & even then with insufficient formulae. however these points move under the influence the action of two other P mts of the forces compounded from the forces of any projection whatever & the mutual forces. regard points Take. & D. the middle point of the straight line AB. or CH. . we ought to take these ordinates of either of the curves on the one side or the other of the straight line CD. & according as OF would away be away from the straight line CD. In this way. represent altogether different geometrical locus is required. that is easily effected in the following manner. take direction of B." The solution of this problem is still sought after in our own times & has only been solved in certain special cases. it is very well known that. A. The second. & under the action of the forces exerted upon it by the points A & B. completing the parallelogram LCKF. for instance CF in the first case. and. which will represent the absolute force on a point situated in the straight line DEC. A & B. in Fig. 21. Moreover. C or they will move. if they are left to themselves. & with which we shall deal in what follows for the case of any masses whatever. which may be either both on the attractive side of the axis. Moreover. if in Fig. take CL in the direction of A. in the second curve. 21 . which would simultaneously represent all the laws of this kind relating to every curve of this sort. in the second case. However. the point E must always remain at rest or proceed in a straight line with uniform motion. g'Vyjj r & DE is taken equal to one third of DC. accuracy of calculation As for this second 205. it would be more satisfactory if two curves were constructed . & From these equal to the diagonal of the parallelogram. equal to these ordinates (in Fig. we should obtain distinct curves laws of forces. Further. then from any point of it a straight line can be erected perpendicular to it. the one acting perpendicularly to the given straight line & the other in its direction . will represent the direction & the magnitude of the resultant force. i. or LCMI. if any two positions are taken at random as those of the points & to these the third point C is referred . Hence. & in the direction opposite to that of B in the direction opposite to that of A. is always bisected at D. this can be effected either sets of curves through by constructing geometrically points. or express in general all the forces pertaining to all points such as C. the law of forces can be determined in general for any assumed distances along any straight line given in position. the point C will approach the point E. This depends on a general theorem with regard to the centre of gravity. then we have the well-known problem that is called " the problem of three bodies. one in one direction & the other in the opposite direction nevertheless they will follow similar paths. wherever they might & these would B. on the contrary. & in the whilst. for each straight line drawn through A of m re g eneral ^ surface. CN CK MCNH. or the magnitudes of the pair of which it may be considered to be resolved. 208. if treated perfectly generally. or. about which CD ^ - passing mention has already been made.C. A of in DEC curve' length . in the first wWch^m express ' general a force of this sort DC CO .B. I. or KCNG. or CG. in the third case. perpendicular FO. & manner that the curves to be described can be assigned in any case whatever. . given the positions of the point D. similarly. CO curve. if instead of three points we have three masses of points. C D 206. CN CM CM . one of which would represent the force resolved along the direction by means of a & the other to represent the perpendicular force OF. in this way. As regards the determination of the force for any position of the point with Determination to the & B. joined. & the inclination of the latter to AB will usually be altered. & B.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 157 the curve given in Fig. & is points. or Then. the diagonal CF. perpendiculars a curve will be obtained. we should also obtain the directions of the absolute forces compounded from these resolved parts. in such a . either by construction or by calculation. If then a continuous A& . which represent a law of this give either the magnitude of the absolute force. case. or from it. The method 207. or else by writing down three analytical sort & forces into which will represent its value. take & in the opposite directions to those of A & B . in such a manner that & will always be on opposite sides of the stable point E . that of the straight line DE. 21 they are reduced so as to prevent the figure from being too large) . with great limitations by a very few of the geometricians of our age belonging to the highest rank. C o f A AC the ordinates corresponding to them. or CI. both C&D will recede : from E . draw two forces. & if any straight line is drawn of indefinite . CK. are three Theorem with rem & the distance between two of them. take CL. or both on the repulsive side or the first on the attractive & the second on the or the first on the repulsive & the second on the attractive side. which is exerted upon the point C by the remaining two points. & in this motion. 71 . such as For. From this it follows that. In the first repulsive case. the direction of the straight line AB. compound^ abscissa measured along the axis equal to the straight lines & BC of Fig. as was pointed out in Art. is (even when there are only three points in question) beyond the power of all methods known hitherto. will move in the opposite direction towards E with half the velocity of . on the one side or on the other. by means of the two ordinates of this kind. let them be taken in the direction of A & B .

cujus ope una cum superioribus eliminari poterit pristerea una alia indeterminata . sive per x. quarum altera exhiberet vires in directione CD attractivas ad D.p. quanta inde diversarum legum combinatio oriretur. Si pro duobus r tertium daretur numerus punctis tantummodo agentibus in nandi vim composi. CP. . posset utique inveniri tam sequatio ad utramlibet curvam respondentem singulis rectis DC. y. z. & inde. cujus Quod si queeratur' tequatio poterit. autem idem ex datis analytice valoribus z. . Manente etiam distantia AB.u.quicunque punctorum positorum in datis locis. exeat punctum C ex data Calculus quidem esset immensus. ac & data aequatione ad illam primam curvam figurse I. DC = y qute dabuntur y CK=. CB. ut in fig. leges pertinentes ad diversas inclinationes rectae DC ad AB. sed patet methodus. y constantes AR. turn vero locus ad superficiem. curvarum. . ' . () Methpdus determi. pro tequatione. & vertices ejusmodi normalium determinarent binas superficies quasdam continuas.p. .u. perpendicularis denominatis. ac sinus anguli .L7 J 20Q. Quare ob angulos rectos P. esset ex iis. non jaceant. mutatur tola lex. reliquis. legum quanta superficierum. omnibus = v y quoniam dantur AD. 21. . acquirianalytice OF. dabuntur etiam analytice CB.[gel T . qua sineula agunt in ipsum r . qua tequatio per x. . per x. Sed & ubi duo tantummodo puncta agant in tertium. AB binorum mutata tantummodo distantia virium varietas obvenerit.y. prout. ut prius. [96] Mirum autem. y dicatur q. Quare datur analytice etiam sinus Cr differentite OCF. ubicunque collocata oporteret erigere in omnibus punctis C rectas normales alteram piano ACB. superficies per asquationem trium. . [94] alteram OF. ac vis ex ejusmodi viribus composita denniretur tam directione. sed ad earn generaliter exprimendam legem Geometria omnis est incapax. Denominentur dantur analytice AC. tequatio per y constantes. sinus anguli ACB per x. pro quo constructus sit locus ad superficiem . adeoque & ejus cosinus. normalis ilia fuisset erecta supra. CB . ordinata OF. curvis determinantibus legem y virium CO. reducentur ad unicam per x. aequalem CO. RB. adeoque tequatio. eliminates u.? quotcunque. locus tractari si deberet.q. x. ad secundam curvam. DC. B. adeoque per & W y reducentur ad unicam datam per constantes.q. ~*. RC. B distantia : (n) Stantibus in fig. . DB . = CL CKF . DQ. & (") si omnia puncta jaceant in eodem piano.. posset utique spicientibus puncta constructione simili inveniri collocatum in quovis assumpto vis.y. vel repulsivas respectu ipsius. puncta C. prout ad curvam superficiem constructus fuerit pro altera ex iis. z. . y & constantes.I 58 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA . qui est idem. Geometrse tractant tribus indeterminatis per unicam aequationem inter se connexis . (o) Htec conditio punctorum jacentium in eodem piano necessaria fuit pro loco ad superficiem. qute. constans binis tantum indeterminatis. dabitur analytice ex applicatione Algebrte ad Trigonometriam Quoniam datur AB. cujus ordinata datur analytice sinus anguli CO. admodum diversse obveniunt inter se mutata vero punctorum A. & CL. donee ad punctum C deveniret planum ipsum : turn enim erecto perpendiculo usque ad locus ille superficiem illam curvam. loci puncto. Posset etiam analysis adhiberi ad exprimendas curvas per asquationes duarum indeterminatarum pro rectis quibuscunque. quam sequatio determinans utramlibet superficiem simul indefinite per tres indeterminatas. =z.X pTT CF =y. quts exhibebit locum- ad superficiem. per notam virium compositionem. vel CO. Si pr<eterea valor tequatio per valores CK. CF =y complements ad duos rectos.z. stantes. . RC = CR ad AB. tur nova tequatio. T>p trianguk FCK datur analytice sinus sin CKF. Datur quare habetur ibi una tequatio per x. y punctis B. qute exhibebit qutesitum locum ad superficiem. . Q. qua mutata. ponatur pro valore abscissae in tequatione curvte figurte Eodem I . . x. y datas CK = KF 22 punctis ADBCKFLO. Mirum autem. & curvarum inde erumpat. y constantes.u. cadente O citra. tam ex viribus re. * tertiam. ac agentium in idem punctum. punctorum agentium in tertium. quam . CK =. constantes. CL = z. adeoque eliminata FCK ===. tequatio trium indeterminatarum non sufficit. acquiritur altera invenietur curvte figure I tertia facto ope tequationis conQuare jam babebuntur tequationes tres per x. q. quod punctis tantummodo tribus accidere omnino non potest . est ac ea primam vel illam curvam definiet. . CL =z. AQ in CD. ut kabebuntur quatuor tequationes prius. u. altera pariter vires perpendiculares. . qute eliminatis valoribus u. OF.z.y. definiretur per ipsum vis agens secundum rectam CD. CA. A. quantitates. y y constantes. vel ipsi perpendicularis. Pro tequatione cum binis indeterminatis. vel ultra C. CF =y. sive DR.z. ducantur perpendicula BP. ac ex CF datur Sz igitur altera ex illis dicatur p. data inclinations Dicatur prtsterea dabuntur analytice x. ac pariter dabuntur y DP. CB AC. Primum patet ex eo. inveniri itidem Nam DCB = \sD W . ducatur DR CF factis constantes AC.. analysis indiget indeterminatarum quatuor. . y y tres indeterminatas CO. exhibebit habebitur utramlibet vel unica e reliquis constantes.p. CB.. quanta diversitas legum. vel infra planum . x. y y y y y y y tequatione quodam piano. adeoque per x. qua deveniri possit ad tequationem qutesitam. incredibile dictu est. qute in eodem piano legem virium exhibeat per tequationem indeterminatarum tantummodo trium : at si puncta sint plura.y. quod si manentibus punctis A. . dabuntur analytice per x. magnitudine. CQ. vel OF. quos Ejusmodi algebraice geometricus. liceret converters circa rectam AB planum illud cum superficie curva legem virium determinate.

KF = CL = z. represent the surface required.. it would be possible. from the triangle FCK. reduce to a single equation involving x.z. then indeed a surface locus. ACB is also known analytically in terms of x y CKF. i. The method of 209.B. the surface could be represented by an equation involving three unknowns.z. which will be that of one or other of the remaining curves determining the law or OF. it would in all cases be possible to find. or this equation will RC. RC = q . 22.F.y. & acting on the same point. a single equation will be obtained in terms of x. 1 marvellous what a huge number of different laws arise. to perpendicular Since angle AB is known. If the points y y A y curved surface. not only the equations to the two curves corresponding to each & every straight line DC. which will to AB. kind. the laws with respect to different inclinations of the straight line CD to the straight line AB. in addition. Also analysis could be employed to represent the curves by equations involving two unknowns for any straight lines . value the supplementary angle 3K = u.D.L. The first point is clear from analysis requires an equation in four unknowns. of forces for For an equation in three unknowns.p. the whole law is altered so too is the equation.p. whether C fell on the near side or on the far side of & . therefore also its cosine. from this If then one or the other of them is denoted by p. . CB y CA will also be given analytically. (o) This condition. AQ be drawn CD . therefore of laws of force. y y y this will be the equation defining which the ordinate is CO. indeed. whilst the B remain where they were. If then.u.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY be situated . suppose DC = x.e. D .y. constants. i is given.q. of CF. attractive or repulsive with respect to the point D. with which each acts on the point 7 situated in any chosen position . is such as geometricians deal with by means of three unknowns connected together by a single equation &. since AD. CL = z. i. but also the equations for both the surfaces corresponding to the general determination. the whole of geometry is powerless. which determines the law of forces.e. fore the sine of the difference analytically. & () provided that all the points were in the same But plane. The ends of these normals would determine two continuous surfaces & of these. If. involving only two unknowns. For then. constants. will not be sufficient. the point C moves out of the points given plane. involving only three unknowns. constants. surfaces. to find the force. until the plane passes through the point C. even when there are only two points acting on a third. on y y AC eliminating u. another by the help of this of the unknowns can be eliminated. by the well-known method for composition "]^s of forces. I.q. A geometrical locus of this similarly the other would represent the perpendicular forces. CB are given analytically. u. with regard to which the construction for the surface locus was made. let are given. constants. the CF = CB is of algebra to trigonometry. Moreover the same thing will be given in terms of the known analytical values of Hence there is obtained in this case an equation involving x.u. indeed. we eliminate y. the value of CF. by a force ""compounded from the forces due similar construction in each case. how great a number of different laws & curves are produced in this way. an equation in three unknowns. y. Now. according as the normal was erected above or below this plane. or DR. for if this alone is changed. Further.p. the ordinate is / the equation to the second curve is required. I. () we them equal to CO & . CF = y.u. this would define the force acting along the straight line CD. But.z. #. these. will reduce to a single equation in terms of constants the three unknowns x. four equations will be obtained in terms of x. RB are also given z. there can be found a third equation in terms of CL. is changed . come out quite different to one another. the two points which act upon the third. constants : CB are given in terms of x. the fact that if. 159 should have to erect at every point C normals to the plane ACB.y. it. if a perpendicular is drawn to meet the curved surface. y let BP. if merely the distance between B. by which the required equation might be obtained is But it is wonderful what a great number of curves perfectly clear. Suppose CK = w. Even if the distance AB remains the same. being equal to BP/CB . But when the distance of the points A & B from it is let the -points A. one of the other to OF.C. equation are numerous. the sine of the angle being equal to There is also given 'CKF. will the first curve. if it has to be treated algebraically. If instead of only two points acting upon a third we are given any number of situated in points given positions.z. by means of three unknowns. that the points should all lie in the same is they do not all lie in the same plane (which is quite impossible in the case of only three points). which will express the law of the forces by an plane. snce there will be' thus obtained three equations in terms of x. but the method. In a similar way by the help equation will be obtained in terms of the values of CK.K. both in position & magnitude. if the inclination of CD y the positions of A y B are known: y so also will DP W DQ be known. would be met with. in terms of x. & the force compounded from forces of this kind would points The great r & variet y be determined. draw Again. or of a third curve for which For the sine of the angle is find either of these as well. another by an application known y y constants. it is incredible. y.(FK/CF). in terms of constants. then CQ y CP will be given analytically. it will be possible to y DCB FCK y OOP y OF CO y y CF = y CO perpendicular as before. substituted for the value of the abscissa in the equation of the curve in Fig. Hence on account of the right angles at P y Q. These. y. The calculation would indeed be enormous . the value of or will be given analytically. then these will be known. analytically in terms of x constants : therefore if all the rest of the work is done as before. 21. y constants . Then. a new equation will be obtained: one of the equations given above. its that plane together with right straight . or perpendicular to it. (n) In Fig. it would be to rotate about the line AB y necessary for the determination of the surface. if the equation to the primary curve of Fig. to express the law generally. let represent the surface.O be in the same positions as in Fig. the sine of the this is the same thing as the sine of quantities . the one would represent the forces in the direction CD.q. on eliminating the values u. y AC. of the equation of the curve of Fig.z.y.z.y. analytically given. according as the locus to the curved surface had been constructed for the one or for the other of them. is given. y CK = CL = CF = y AC y CR DB AR y CO OF y y y y y DR=# y A y y y y y for the equation. CB.

. distantia cujuscumque accepto . datas utique pro singulis. B fuerit inclinatio CD inter se proximis. turn quod indeterminatarum : si enim assequitur Geometria. ed requirerentur tres. complicationcm casuum. & ejus vertex moventur in latus. ac expunctis aliam directionibus aquationem per ejusmodi ad loco adhibuimus non absimili methodo subsidiariis omnibus superficiem. Deinde vero illud haec omnia curvarum. I per easdem y y posset y = y y y ac nostra humantf mentis imbecillitatem nulli nobis inferius futura sunt usui. quam in curva figurae i requireret distantia DC. ac quteritur. ut in fig. AB. ut supra. legem definirent. Id : vis in utcunque ejusmodi distantia mutetur. At in majoribus distantiis. punitum quodvis ipsa ACB. per illas x. ac in sed interea quod ad generalem applicatione ad Physicam inprimis attingam tantummodo ert i net determinationem expositam. & punctum C a punctis A.y. si obtineri utcunque posset. mirum in modum vires imaginationis extenderet. vel illud pretium. quod in mea sententia cogitatione tantummodo effingi potest. 2IO> ^8 c s i pliciora quaedam. ut si conciperetur spatium totum ea esset in omnibus spatii punctis plenum materia continua. ubi nimirum mutata parum admodum distantia. exhibere posset Sed ibi iterum ad determmandam directtonem ipsi respondentium. atque incredibilem Theoriae foecunditatem ostenderet. respectu alterius repulsio. libuerit. alteram secundum rectam transcuntem per datum punctum . ob ingentem altiora sunt. vis urgens in latus. Sed hac innuisse sit satis. ac in quavis recta in eodem quarta piano posita. requireretur ad ducendas ex omnibus punctis spatii rectas y y aliqua plaga. trium punctorum combinatione occurrit jam hie nobis praeter vim determinantem ad distantiis 1 ^ m ac ejus usus pro . W densitatis diverse. assequeretur quarta alia dimensio mente concepta. assequeretur Analysis ope aquationis quatuor turn quovis recta in ac recta in eo ut . & e repulsivis etiam abeunt in attractivas. quod tertia perpendicular! ad totum planum z. ac hasce vires in latus haberi debere in exiguis illis distantiis. y D DR RC cufus vis quteritur. vel tendentes per rectas. & legum discrimina tam quae [97] pertinent ad diversas directiones rectarum DC. erit infra magno usui ad explicanda solidorum phaenomena. vel quidpiam ejusmodi. constantibus . vis ad singula agentia puncta pertinens. Hinc pro quovis puncto loci ubicunque assumpto sua responderet vis composita. in quibus. uti facile videre est. ea nimirum facia derivatam u. ad AB. . seu dimensio. & objiceret discrimina quamplurima scitu dignissima. quam superius pro valoribus. vel extra. inclinato fundo virgse solidae.z. a quibus pendent vires singulorum.160 a se PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA differunt inter se invicem. ejusmodi figurtz Hinc haberetur analytice omnium summa pro singulis rectas ejus etiam directio resoluta in tres parallelas illis x. ut certam ad basim positionem acquirant. quarta data tria vel transeant. si eorum positiones dentur. secundum tres datas directiones. & ad sensum dupla ejus. nimirum vel omnes alia certa lege definitas : adeoque tria loca ejusmodi ad spatium. quod si puncta agenda sint etiam omnia in eodem piano. directa ad sensum ad punctum D. vires singulorem punctorum mutantur plurimum. ut vis dirigatur extra angulum ACB. deveniretur ad ei. erit At secundum composita sit manifestum ex eo. quarum rectarum vertices locum continuum aliqucm exhiberent determinantem virium legem.u. non esset satis resolutio in duas vires. in quibus curva figurae I circa axem contorquetur. latum. ad sensum proportionalis reciproce quadrato distantiae DC ab ipso puncto D. vel diversi pretii legem virium vis composite ipsi turn ilia diversa densitas. & ubi respectu alterius puncti haberi possit attractio. quavis M conciperetur planum. & vel CG. tres rectas. B. in quavis recta posita extra ipsum planum. quaecunque semper ad sensum eadem. adeoque ope aquationis puncto positione punctis agentibus. Punctorum agentium utcunque collocatorum ubicunque vel intra id planum. quod utique requiritur. & usum habitura in sequentibus. ac vice versa.z. data etiam directione DC. quavis appellate x. y punctum.y. ques nimirum ipsi essent proportionales. quavis recta hujus segmento in quo collocatum esset punctum materiel. puncta quavis qua per tribus ejusmodi plusquam Geometricis legibus vis composite aliqua dimensione. duo adnotanda proponam. praeter vim CF. leges etiam pertinentes ad eandem inclinationem & infinitum esset singula persequi quanquam earum variationum cognitio. vis CI. accessum. & maximo futura usui.y. B. vel qualitate affectum requirerentur. qu<e ad directionem. vel CH. possent definiri positiones per Per eas. relationes omnes distantiarum directionum. & extra ipsi ad verticem oppositum. cufus vis a reliquis punctis. haberi analytice per aquationes quasdam. ac faciliora. turn quod pertinet ad ejus magnitudinem. profundum. longe alia essent. in quibus jam habetur illud postremum crus figurae I exprimens arcum attractivum ad sensum in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum. compositio ipsarum virium. perpendicularem . Primo quidem in ipsa nu'iiaVinUs s^mma P virium simpiicium. Ferum quod non . quam quae pertinent ad diversas distantias ipsorum punctorum A. qua nimirum directionibus vim omnem compositam definirent. Us viribus proportionales. recessum. tola virga.z. data distantia punctorum A. prater longum. ipsi perpendiculari y. ab ejus summa denominatione. ac tres ejusmodi aquationes pro tribus unam aquationem constitutam illis quatuor indeterminatis x. altcram . posset utique haberi a ex Us indefinite datis. per hasce tres indeterminatas involveretur positio puncti spatii cujuscumque. & Sed quod Geometria non assequitur. DC plurimum . 21.

in order to draw through each point of space straight lines proportional to these forces. we Three equations of let it suffice this sort.. altogether However. which should be noted. a fourth region. resolution into two forces. a comprehensive insight into their variations. in T-. positions the former straight lines denoted by x. Thus of the equation to the curve of Fig. which in my opinion can only be a mental this would be of different density. Three resolved straight line passing through the given -point. as can be easily seen. such as will be of use in what follows. y the disability of the human for indeed they are too abstruse. For. takes up a definite position with respect to rod. Hence. it point will be approximately double of that to which in Fig. constants. Firstly. in this equation with four unknowns. or different value. First of all. if the bottom of a solid rod is inclined. or dimension. ' my Theory. or CH. CF C explaining phenomena - for instance. would determine the resultant force completely. the whole .e. even passes from . IT. by means of another equation derived from the symbol used for the sum (for instance. by means of certain equations those above. rr distances. for which the force is required. will be approximately the point C. . however wherever they may be situated. by z. A CD .t]} e consideration Physics. & later when considering the application to tances. is moved to one side the base. any third straight line perpendicular to the whole plane z. y. of The lateral force at therefore. D DC . if all the points acting are all in the same plane. in addition to a force in the latter case the point to one side. y. these would define. a force CI or CG. Thus. the laws corresponding to the same inclination of different to one another it be an would interminable task to consider them . any straight line perpendicular to it y. even then all the relations between the distances from the remaining points as well as between their directions. I the distance would correspond. let this be called u] . for which we have already seen that there is a final branch of the curve of Fig. value. or what the inclination of be its direction is towards its & be will may approximately magnitude approximately in inverse proportion to the square of DC. the sum & recession. points of space. would. in the case of the combination absence^ this of three points. y. no matter how this distance may be altered. may be attraction for one point & repulsion for the direction of the force has to be without the angle ACB.. by a method not unlike that which was used y above for the surface locus. I. of all of them for each of these directions. u. applying to the general deter. another . if the change in distance is very slight. also from the same straight lines. for which the curve in I laws. on account of the enormous intelligence. 21. there would be contained in these three unknowns the position of any point in space. But here again.. for any point of space chosen at The second point random there would be a corresponding force .z.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY one another 161 is also are changed. one for each of the three directions. But. three regions of this kind in space possessed of some fourth dimension or y would be required .T-< . D . But what cannot be obtained with the help of geometry could be obtained by the aid of analysis by employing an in it any straight line AB. eliminating all the subsidiary values. . the law of the resultant force both as regards magnitude direction. in addition to a force inducing approach f ? rce at great . But 'what can not be attained by the use of geometry. z. not be sufficient. By means of these. we have here already met with. but also those corresponding to different distances of the points & B when the direction of is given . as ACB. Tits use \n But meanwhile. if the it. from any point assumed indefinitely. its distance from the that is to say. would be required. parts would be required. / straight line any point then. the in the forces corresponding to the several points is very great. the fact that. a fourth. the ends of which straight lines would give a continuous locus determining the law for the forces. would enlarge the powers of imagination to a marvellous extent . in order to find the direction of the resultant force. urging of the simple forces rig. & repulsion also there & this must be the case if or the angle vertically opposite to it. or defined by some other fixed law. i that represents attraction approximately in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. mination set forth above. & that we are bound to have these lateral forces for very small distances. & change to attraction & vice versa . lies in any straight line situated without that plane. could be attained. that are given in position. x. 5? the point for the resultant farce is required. its direction as well. .T 2Z^~. there could he obtained in of the points are given. could be defined by three straight lines of this sort . Hence there could be obtained analytically the sum resolving along three parallels to x. by three ultra-geometrical laws of this sort. y quality & y D y y W y y all cases the distance of by the help similar to each of the acting points. dimension (just as if the whole of space were imagined to be full of eontinuous matter. breadth. due to two points to AB same. either within the plane or without these would in all cases be known for each point. it would bring to the notice a very large number of characteristics that would be well worth knowing & most useful for further work & it would give a demonstration of the marvellous fertility . not only those corresponding to different directions of the straight lines DC when the A A DC Fig. there could be obtained analytically. I will here only deal slightly with certain of the more simple cases. . including its top. if it could be all. or something of that kind. there is the fact that we are bound to have all these differences of of solids & curves & distance between the points & B is given."ITT ^-. either all in three given directions. calling any segment of it x. X-. The positions of the acting points. . Secondly. will not be of any use to us later. This will be of great service to us in certain 210. But y merely to have mentioned these things Complexity of cares. case by case. at which is situated a point of matter. the one along the the other perpendicular to it. which is evident from the fact that. y. at all Then the different density. . depth. the force corresponding to each of the acting points .y. should arrive at a single equation in terms of the four unknowns. or along straight lines passing through three given points. the force on the & B very near to one another. DC & obtained. at distances that are fairly large. if we take any arbitrary plane. these indeed being proportional W & W to it. by imagining another. I will enunciate two theorems. might represent the law of forces corresponding to it. or fiction) . will be altogether different from those for any straight line situated in the same plane. i. twists about the axis for then indeed. in addition to length.

adeoque semper. displosiones. unde net. in alia attractiones.T^ n AL. u. adeoque in ordine ad gravitatem nullum sit discrimen. orta ab actionibus illius alterius remotae massulae. secretiones. cur omnia corporum genera gravitatem acceleratricem habeant proportionalem massae. prascipitationes. sive generaliter erit in ratione Unde necessaria gravitate. adeoque in superficie Terrae aurum. quascunque differentia habeatur inter corpora. ac tarn .D erit & recta CL) ad sensum bitanam sectus distantias AC. numero eorum. adeoque ad sensum ejus directio erit eadem. ob molem quibus singulorum punctorum jam perpendiculum. Chemici inquam.in quo curva figurae I circa axem contorquetur. in quibus nimirum fiunt reflexionis lucis. quae habet altera. ac aliae sensibiles ejusmodi qualitates pro tactu. Mutata alarum combmatione. quaecunque sit diversa dispositio punctorum in utralibet. proportionalem praeterea massae suae. & refractiones cum separatione colorum pro visu. asperitas. & mille alia ejusmodi. quicunque numerus. sit ad sensum proportionalis numero punctorum. anguius perquam exiguus. & distantiam res omnis deveniat at in iis proprietatibus. reciproce. At in magnis illis distantiis. ac directio rectae tendentis ad mediam massulam. omnes. adeoque & vires CL. & quadrate distantiae. quas habet ipsa. in vires attractive sunt omnes. Porro id quidem commune est etiam massulis constantibus quocunque punctorum _ _ . vim autem totam. in alia oriatur vis in latus ad eadem constitutione massulae pro diversis directionibus admodum diversae sint vires pro eadem etiam distantia a medio. & reciproca duplicata Multo autem distantiarum. & directiones. ac alii effectus a se invicem discernunt. 213. PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA . sed ad solam demum massam. quae gravitant. si non unicum ilia solicitetur. & ad sensum insensibilem. diametro CF ad sensum secante angulum bifariam. vis com-[98] -posita ex omnibus dirigetur necessario ad punctum aliquod intra massulam situm. '> Mirum nam . & in quae gravitant. quae diversa corpora tantum sit discrimen. sive CK. nimirum ejusmodi. tremor communicatus particulis aeris proximis. composita ex directa simplici massarum. Demonstratio postremi theorematis. & summae virium omnium punctorum constituentium ipsam massulam. in 212. & quadrate distantias a medio massulae ipsius reciproce aequabitur vis ipsa ad sensum erit attractiva . ut vis motrix ejus massulae solicitatae. differ- unTf^mitTsTn ^ usum s a- sane. . quod tamen in massula etiam respectu massulae admodum remotae evanescet. incursus odoriferarum particularum pro odoratu. & pluma cum aequali celeritate descendant seclusa resistentia. CK ambae . sed massula alia. i i r i A : attractive debebunt ad sensum aequales esse inter se. quantum in applicatione ad Physicam haec animadversio habitura inde constabit. & ad sensum proportionalis in diversis etiam massulis numero punctorum directe. a CB erunt ad se invicem ad sensum in ratione sequalitatis. & propagatus usque ad tympanum auriculare pro auditu. & vires tarn variae.1 62 2 . quod infra etiam in aliquo simpliciore ut in alia combinatione punctorum massulae pro eadem punctorum videbimus. ad sensum conspirant. cujus vis componatur e singulis viribus punctum a massula singulorum suorum punctorum. numero. ingens qu. majus erit discrimen in exiguis illis distantiis. & quadrato distantiae. Id quidem facile demonstratur. quam etiam pondus appellamus. conflagrationes. . KF. BA erunt & eadem. singulis ejus punctis vires habentibus ad sensum aequales. & ipsa CF congruente cum CO. CL. in quam tendunt. .-. fieri & medio repulsiones praevaleant. ^ /-. debet mutare plurimum tarn intensitatem masin -^ _ *** ^us^ & quse suanij q uam directionem. tot cohaesionum tarn diversa genera. nutritionesque.. ac (ob angulum aequalem duobus rectis) aequali ad sensum binis CK. quae rhombi proprietas est. quae pendent a minimis distantiis. & proinde ad sensum rhombus. dissolutiones. vellicationes fibrarum palati pro gustu. simul sumptis quae singulae cum sint quam proxime in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiarum CB. remo. vis composita a vinbus singulorum agens in oMp unc tum distans a massula ipsa per intervallum perquam exiguum. & agentes in eadem ad sensum directione . ac in massulae tarn exiguam respectu ingentis distantias. fermentationes. & earum summa ad sensum in ratione reciproca duplicata distantiae LCKF LCK FCK CKF . CD..is suia exercet summa tarum massae. in iis. Si enim AB respectu DC sit perquam exigua. dlS casu trium distantia a utique potest.

points of the little mass being so small compared with the greatness of the distance. & to the square of the distance from the mean centre of the mass That is. T-. for the same distance from the mean point. the force compounded from all of them will necessarily be directed towards some point within the & thus its direction will be approximately the same as the straight line drawn mass itself the mean centre of the mass . is approximately proportional to the number of points in itself. fermentation. CK. instance. the inrush regard sight. since each of the points composing it is under the influence of forces that are approximately equal & act in practically the same direction. precipitation. Now each of these are as nearly equal in the inverse ratio of the as nearly possible square of the distances CB. with to the titillation the nerves of of the with to taste. whatever the difference in the disposition of the points. it will be in the ratio compounded of the simple direct inversely. roughness other such qualities as may be felt in the case of touch. . But. which we call the weight. because the angle LCK. the large number of kinds of cohesion that are so different from one another. which is produced by the action of the other mass remote from it. i. & & all the rest of the the same sort. 11 . & for one & the same distance from these'var 6 dlrectf' the mean point. the forces and the motions become as different. the differences will be far greater. no matter what difference there may be between the bodies which gravitate. . in general. jjf it- . a piece of gold & a uniformity in the feather will descend with equal velocity. to the number of points in the other mass. is ere is a hu e also true in general for little masses consisting of points. taken together. 163 of thelattcr demonstrated. & to the square m ^e c* se ? f of the distance [inversely] & hence that. the differences become distinguish different bodies from one another as great. LCKF is approximately a rhombus. indeed wonderful what great use can be made of this consideration in the Heice we have my Theory to Physics . . Also for the same constitution of the squaref'of the dls mass. on the surface of the Earth. that in in the forces due even will may happen. It is application of . Further. It caf e of numerous will be clear also that the whole force. in another case attractions. for. is in addition proportional to the mass itself & thus. in the case of very small distances. I say. mass. distance alone. explosion. . it will always be an attractive force & in different masses. & thus line CD. there may be altogether different forces tances. For. effects met with conflagration. regard palate. must be altered very greatly if the combination is very near to it. Hence it comes about that the motive force of the mass acted upon. CF will be very angle to & or & KF. which for these. for those properties that depend on very small where we have reflection of light. if not a single point alone. but another mass. colours. in Chemistry. Further this theorem . possibie^nrformH* as be seen later in the more simple case of three points. & a thousand other things of . from it it will be clear why all classes of bodies bodies? uniformity have an accelerating gravity.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 211. ratio of the masses & the inverse duplicate ratio of the distances. Hence. & these will be the same. secretion. when the resistance of the air is eliminated. both as regards its intensity. & their sum therefore approximately inversely proportional to the square The latter theorem can be easily . whose distance from the mass is very 7 small. must be approximately equal to one another. & refraction with separation of distances. may be for either of the points It . small on a r point. for the nearest particles of the air propagated onwards till it reaches the drum of the ear for sound. as the differences in the phenomena. there is no difference as regards gravity. CA . where the forces due to the several are & their directions practically coincide owing to the dimensions now attractive. CL.. .*i f difference in the . & 6 case there will arise a perpendicular lateral force. 212. J. i. or their number. CB will be approximately equal to one another . of odoriferous particles where smell is concerned. for different directions. mass exerts on a such a distance as that for which. & to the square of the distance between them. . it will be approximately proportional to the number of points directly. . which are both attractive. nutrition. if AB is very small compared S[ oof with DC. proportional to the mass on which they act. &. the curve is twisted about the axis. & . the force is compounded from the several forces on each of the points that constitute it & yet these differences will also disappear in the case of a mass acted on by a mass considerably remote from it. CK CK of the distance DC. repulsions will preponderate. one combination of the points forming the little mass. is altered & this is so.. the forces CL. Hence. the angle ACB will be very small. for considerable distances. the quivering motion communicated to However. that being a property of a rhombus small & CKF FCK is exceedingly very nearly two right angles. & as regards its direction. & the force itself will be equal approximately to through the sum of all the forces due to the points composing the little mass.-11 .e.. mass that i T i i in Fig. & will be very nearly bisected by the straight The distances AC. & the diagonal CF very nearly bisects the CF will fall along CO. is under the action of the little mass under consideration for in this case. without exception. solution. or towards which they gravitate the whole matter reducing finally to a consideration of mass & 213. Ine force compounded from the several forces acting forces which a small whatever their number may be. & in another as the masses.

. jacente ipso tertio j : NCM . y vaa + xx ffo valore abscissa. consensu Theoriae hujus cum omni Natura sane admirabili. adeoque in ipso illo puncto a . AG..1 64 PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA varii motus... & proinde vel ambae attractivae. & omnes specificas tot corporum differentias inducunt. turn vim comsed positam ex iis more consueto juxta [100] generalem constructionem numeri 205 etiam sic facilius idem praestatur centro Y intervallo cujusvis abscissae Ad figurae I inveniatur in figura 24 sub littera A in recta CC' punctum d. in tertium. habetur separatim. quae ad posteriorem casum pertinet. & in ea sumatur dc aequalis de. sequales erunt. ex quibus binis figuris fit unica . illas leges. G'. . erit fcf : : I y. quibus C agitatur ab A. Sed hsec.CB = Vaa + xx CI = Jy. erunt AC. . ubi sub censeantur habetur littera A . AI figuras i inveniantur in recta CAC' hujus figurae positae sub littera B puncta E. Curva.. 2I 7. CH debere cum eadem vis ilia perpendicularis FO. & B. quo valore posito in tequatione curvie figura pro valore ordinata. Y. y. ea fore limites respectu novae curvas & eodem pacto reperiri posse limites E'. Y sunt duo materiae puncta. punctis evanescente de figuras ejusdem positae sub A. prout dupla da. ad ipsum D. perpendiculari videre facile est mud. vel . Quare vis composita CF. recta jungente ducta . Notandum da. . erit attractiva. . *. a. &c. CF = \/aa + xx. CD = *. Y. ex parte A in iis enim . -1 oppositas. Quare vires. CK. quae vires compositas ibi exhibet per ordinatas.. per D. ibi in figura posita sub B mutari plagam attractivam in . qua ejusmodi curvam deUrminabit. ac in iis per unicam aequationem res omnis absolvitur (f). XdY A proprietates.. & de Demonstratio facilis est : si enim ducatur dX. unde puncto in directum cum utroque e pnonbus ut vel differentias virium vis composita asquetur summae. ut CN. . quod fieri potest.. tamen. si puncta XYEAE' versus oppositam. cujus diameter db exprimet vim compositam a binis de. qui tarn varia phaenomena. vel CH. & dh. habebitur W constants. direcmprimis . T Si _ libeat . considerare 214. I attractionem. . . inveniendo vires singulas singulorum punctorum. quae in prsecedentibus binis figuris habebatur. Pro recta AB res constat per declinatione a tendit fariam. & asque distanti ab 24. & inde producta. Si enim in fig. . quas per-[99]-tinent peculiaria quaedam persequar leges : punctorum agentium vis in duo puncta puacti positi in . patet. . quas hue usque dicta sunt ad massas pertinent. . &c. ipsas scit CF. G. erigatur eidem CA itidem perpendicularis dh dupla da versus plagam electam ad arbitrium pro attractionibus. si centro Y. 2I 5' ^egem pro fig. secundum eandem rectam. constructa est ex fig. 23 recta DC fuerit perpendicularis ad AB sectam bifariam in D. sed quod ad ejus constructionem pertinet..CK = DB = W CB = Vaa + xx. quas los rectos directa sese nam vj res Qjgg q pertinent. 23. erit diameter rhombi. evadit nulla opposita & db.Porro ex ipsa constructione patet. fit. t . exhfbentis casus posterioris. vel repulsiva. * U33 a d bina ea puncta r . utroque exhibet habetur recta perpendiculari rectae jungenti duo puncta. prout ilia ordinata in fig. qua punctum ubicunque collocatum in recta C'C solicitatur a binis X. Quamobrem in hisce casibus evanecongruere.. quse vitandae confusionis causa exhibetur. quae bifariam secaretur a diametro altera ec. . erit punctum h ad curvam exprimentem legem virium. vel quos angulos cum bifariam secet etiam recta DC. vel habebunt directionem eandem. BC aequales inter se. num. vel ambae repulsivae. aequabitur db exprimenti vim. I. . . sumaturque de versus Y aequalis ordinatae dh figuras i ductoque ea perpendiculo in CA. patet fore ejus verticem b in recta dA secante angulum bifariam. . vel . _. I. (p) Ducta enim LK in Fig. vel m ipsa AB hmc. vel repulsiva. vel ab ipso. ipsam FC secabit alicubi in I bifariam. & ad angulos rectos. & sine ulla compositas utrobique secante _ _ hanc bi. . . . Dicatur CD = x. quae respectu ilia dh figurae I fuerit itidem attractiva. . admodum facile invenitur. intervallis AE. W ad angulos rectos ex rhombi natura. bifariam in A. immediate cfquatio nova per x. vei in " fore eandem cum ipsa recta sine ulla vi in latus. 24 littera B. adeoque secabit bifariam angulum LCK. . quae in eadem recta remaneat. . . vel repulsionem expresserit. singularum componentium. & ad angurecta. ac compleatur rhombus debc . ob asqualitatem triangulorum DCA. . & ad amplicationem ad Physicam interea ex innumeris diversas ad binorum iis. ad AB oriuntur in recta r quas Tr . ut CL. dc. Pro recta perpendiculari facile admodum demonstratur. DCB. quarum ea. ubi sub numero 24 In ea X. . & ipsam XY recta CC* secat utrobique eadem. recta tionem vis ipsa. . CM.

A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 165 O .

i66

PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA

o

^>

**A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY
**

&

all

167

the specific differences between the large number of bodies which they yield ; the But what agreement between the Theory & the whole of Nature is truly remarkable. has so far been said refers to masses, & to the application of the Theory to Physics. Before we come to this, however, I will discuss certain particular cases, out of an innumerable number of those which refer to the different laws concerning the action of two points on

a third.

214. If

through

of

D

to consider the laws that arise in the case of a straight line drawn The force exerted itself produced on either side, first by. two points on a perpendicular to AB, or in the case of

we wish

AB

seen that the direction of the resultant force in either case will coincide the?* straight* line with the line itself without any lateral force or any declination from the straight line which Joining them, or in In the case of AB itself the matter is self-evident is drawn towards or away from D. whicifblsects it'at for the forces which pertain to the two points either have the same direction as one another, "8 ht angles.

all it is easily

;

1

or are opposite in direction, since the third point lies in the same straight line as each of the two former points. Whence it comes about that the resultant force is equal to the sum, or the difference, of the two component forces ; & it will be in the same straight line as they. In the case of the line at right angles, the matter can be quite easily demonstrated. were perpendicular to AB, passing For, if in Fig. 23 the straight line its middle then will BC be to one another. Hence, the forces, AC, through point, equal is influenced A & will also be which C B, by by equal ; secondly, they will either be both as or will be both Hence the resultant CL, CK, attractive, they repulsive, as CN, CM. or will be the of & a thus it will bisect the angle LCK, CH, force, CF, rhombus, diagonal or NCM. Now since these angles are also bisected by the straight line DC, on account of the equality of the triangles DCA, DCB, it is evident that CF, must coincide with DC. Therefore, in these cases the perpendicular force FO, which was obtained in the two previous figures, will vanish. Also in these cases, the whole matter can be represented by a single equation (?) ; & the one, which refers to the latter case, can be found quite

DC

CH

easily.

in the case of the straight line perpendicular to the straight line joining Construction for * he curve e iv the two points, from each, is graphically equally given in Fig. 24 ; to avoid ^ 1r .' distant -rr . .the law in ^s the -i i r the curve itself is for is confusion it given in rig. 243, whilst the construction given separately second case.

215.

.

The law

&

.

.

.

i

in Fig. 24A.

supposed to be the same in both.

the points X,Y,E,A,E' are Then, in the figure, X,Y are two points of matter, & the straight line CC' bisects at A. The curve, which here gives the resultant forces & this can be by means of the ordinates drawn to it, is constructed from that of Fig. i done, by finding the forces for the points, each for each, then the force compounded from them in the usual manner according to the general construction given in Art. 205. But the same thing can be more easily obtained thus With centre Y, & radius equal to any abscissa Ad in Fig. i, construct a point d in the straight line CC', of Fig. 24A, & mark off draw ea perpendicular to CA, & erect de towards equal to the ordinate db in Fig. i this perpendicular should 2ae a perpendicular, dh, to the same line CA also, so that dh be drawn towards the side of CA which is chosen at will to represent attractions, or towards the opposite side, according as the ordinate in Fig. i represents an attraction or a repulsion ; then the point h will be a point on the curve expressing the law of forces, with which a & Y. point situated anywhere on the line CC' will be influenced by the two points 216. The demonstration is easy. For, if dX is drawn, & in it dc is taken equal to de, Proof of the fore& the rhombus debc is completed, then it is clear that the point b will fall on the straight gng construction, & the diagonal of this rhombus represents the resultant line dA. bisecting the angle X/Y of the two forces de, dc. Now, this diagonal is bisected at right angles by the other diagonal Also dh, being double of da, will be equal to db, which ec, & thus, at the point a in it. this will be attractive with respect to A, or repulsive, according expresses the resultant force as the ordinate dh in Fig. I is also attractive or repulsive. & radii Further properties 217. Further, from the construction, it is evident that, if with centre respectively equal to AE, AG, AI in Fig. i, there are found in the straight line CAC' of sort. & Fig. 248 the points E, G, I, &c, then these will be limit-points for the new curve that in the same way limit-points E', G', I', &c. may be found on the opposite side of A. For, since at these points, in Fig. 24A, de vanishes, it follows that da & db become nothing also. Yet it must be noted that, in this case, in Fig. 248, there is a change from the attractive

figures are

These two

but one

&

the same,

if

XY

:

:,

Y

;

=

;

X

.

;

;

Y

'

;

is drawn, it will cut FC somewhere, in I say ; (p) For, if in Fig. 23, on account of the nature of a rhombus. a ; then x, CF y, Sup-pose

LK

CD =

=

DB

=

&

CB

it

=

**will be at right angles to
**

z

it

\/(a

+ x2

^/

),

W

;

toe

have

CD

(or

is

x)

:

CB

(or

^(a* +

x*)

=

CI

(or

Jy)

:

CK,

/.

CK = y.yV +

the

x*)/2x

(a

z

y

if this

value

abscissa,

we

substituted in the equation of the curve in Fig. I instead of shall get straightaway a new equation in x, y, \ constants ;

&

ordinate,

W

+ xz

)

Ms

will determine a curve of

for the the kind

under consideration.

1

68

**PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA
**

;

vim in A fore nullam, ubi nimirum oppositae vires se destruent, adeoque debere curvam axem secare ; ac licet distantiae AX, AY fuerint perquam exiguse, ut idcirco repulsiones singulorum punctorum evadant maximse tamen prope A vires erunt ob inclinationes ad & si ipsae duarum virium perquam exiguae ingentes, & contrarias

facile patebit,

nam in toto tractu vis attractiva ad habet directionem repulsivam, & vice versa habet directionem oppositam C'C. Deinde CC', & in tractu AC' vis itidem attractiva ad

CA

A

A

ibi

;

XY

;

AY,

**AX fuerint non majores, quam sit AE figurae
**

si

**fuerint majores, in exigua distantia ab
**

secus

A

quam AE, &

debeant

haec

**postremus arcus non majores, quam AG, atque
**

I

;

**EDA erit repulsivus
**

ita

I

;

;

esse ejus directionis,

quam

in

fig.

**cum vires porro requirunt abscissas
**

;

Postrema crura T/>V,T"/>'V, patet, fore attractiva paullo majores, quam & si in figura I fuerint asymptotica, fore asymptotica etiam hie sed in A nullum erit asymptoticum crus.

sit

;

YA.

2l8>

casus prioris.

At curva

est

puncta X, Y, ejus puncto d Xd ejusdem, & sumere hie db aequalem [101] summae, vel differentiae binarum ordinatarum pertinentium ad eas abscissas, prout fuerint ejusdem directionis, vel contrariae, & earn ducere ex parte attractiva, vel repulsiva, prout ambae ordinatae figurae I, vel earum major, attractiva fuerit, vel repulsiva. Habebitur autem asymptotus bYc, & ultra ipsam crus

uae ex hibet in fig. 25 legem virium pro recta CC' transeunte per duo diversa a priore. Ea facile construitur : satis est pro quovis assumere in fig. I duas abscissae aequales, alteram Yd hujus figurae, alteram

C

l

admodum

asymptoticum DE, citra ipsam autem crus itidem asymptoticum dg attractivum respectu A, cui attractivum, sed directionis mutatas respectu CC', ut in fig. superiore diximus, ad partes oppositas A debet esse aliud g'd', habens asymptotum c'V transeuntem per X ac utrumque crus debet continuari usque ad A, ubi curva secabit axem. Hoc postremum illud autem prius ex eo, quod si a patet ex eo, quod vires oppositae in A debeant elidi sit prope Y, & ad ipsum in infinitum accedat, repulsio ab Y crescat in infinitum, vi, quae provenit ab X, manente finita adeoque tam summa, quam differentia debet esse vis repulsiva respectu Y, & proinde attractiva respectu A, quae imminutis in infinitum distantiis ab Y augebitur in infinitum. Quare ordinata ag in accessu ad bYc crescet in infinitum unde consequitur, arcum gd fore asymptoticum respectu Yc & eadem erit ratio pro a'g',

; ;

;

;

;

&

arcu g'd' respectu b'Xc'.

Ejus

curvae at

pro-

**mutata ^S> ^'g' secare alicubi
**

distantia

*

puncto-

curva casus*aiterius!

axem, ut exhibet figura 26 quin immo & in locis pluribus, si nimirum AY sit satis major, quam AE figurae i, ut ab Y habeatur alicubi citra A attractio, & ab X Ceterum sola inspectione repulsio, vel ab X repulsio major, quam repulsio ab Y.

;

219. Poterit

autem etiam arcus

curvae interceptus asymptotis bYc, b'Xc' sive cruribus

postremarum duarum figurarum patebit, quantum discrimen inducat in legem virium, vel curvam, sola distantia punctorum X, Y. Utraque enim figura derivata est a figura I, & in variatio fig. 25 assumpta est XY sequalis AE figurae I, in fig. 26 aequalis AI, ejusdem quae aliis distantiis & adeo mutavit ductum aliis, atque puncfigurse genitae usque assumptis torum X, Y, aliae, atque aliae curvae novae provenirent, quae inter se collatae, & cum illis, quae habentur in recta CAC' perpendiculari ad XAY, uti est in fig. 24 ac multo magis cum iis, quae pertinentes ad alias rectas mente concipi possunt, satis confirmant id, quod supra innui de tanta multitudine, & varietate legum provenientium a sola etiam duo;

;

ut & illud itidem patet ex rum punctorum agentium in tertium dispositione diversa etiam harum trium curvarum delineatione, quanta sit ubique conformitas in arcu illo attractive TpV, ubique conjuncta cum tanto discrimine in arcu se circa axem contorquente.

;

sola

genera hujus ' g Usima!

220.

Verum

ex tanto discriminum numero

unum

seligam

**maxime notatu dignum,
**

idem, ac in

fig. i,

& maximo nobis

que

arcus

usui

futurum

inferius.

Sit in fig.

Ponantur autem bina puncta B', B hinc, & prorsus inter se, ac similes. ad intervallum [102] aequale dimidiae amplitudini unius e quinque

consequenter

accept!

alicubi

2jC GHI, IKL,

'AC

axis

&

quin-

**LMN, NOP, PQR
**

iis

;

sint aequales in fig. 28 inde ab

A

arcubus, uti uni

in fig. 30 ad vel IL ; in fig. 29 ad intervallum aequale integrae ipsi amplitudini intervallum aequale duplae in omnibus hisce figuris eadem, & sint autem puncta L, in hisce tribus posiquaeratur, quae futura sit vis in quovis puncto g in intervallo tionibus punctorum B', B.

GI,

;

N

LN

A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY

169

1

7o

PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA

A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY A

171

A will be nothing for there indeed the forces, being equal & opposite, cancel one another, & so the curve cuts the axis there & although the distances AX, AY would be very small, & thus the repulsions due to each of the two points would be Immensely great, nevertheless,

;

side to the repulsive side, & vice versa. For along the whole portion CA, the force of attraction towards has the direction CC', whilst for the portion AC', the force of attraction also towards has the direction C'C. Secondly, it will be clear,/ seen that the force at

A

;

would be repulsive & attractive, if they were greater than i, but not than & AE, AG, so on for the forces at very small distances from A must greater have their directions the same as that required in Fig. I for abscissae that are slightly greater

than

in Fig.

close to A, the resultants would be very small, on account of the inclinations of the two forces to were not greater being extremely great oppositely inclined. Also if AY,

XY

&

AX

AE

the

last arc

;

;

The final branches TpV, T'p'V will plainly be attractive &, if in Fig. i they than YA. were asymptotic, they would also be asymptotic in this case but there will not be an branch at A. asymptotic 218. But the curve, in Fig. 25, which expresses the law of forces for the straight line Construction foCC', when it passes through the points X,Y, is quite different from the one just considered. j| the^aw^'tte It is easily constructed it is sufficient, for any point d upon it, to take, in Fig. i, two first case, one to & the other to Xd & then, for Fig. 25, to take dh equal abscissae, Yd, equal equal to the sum or the difference of the two ordinates corresponding to these abscissas, according as they are in the same direction or in &, according as each ordinate, opposite directions or the greater of the two, in Fig. i, is attractive or repulsive, to draw dh on the attractive or repulsive side of CC'. Moreover there will be obtained an atymptote bYc on the far side of this there will be an asymptotic branch DE, & on the near side of it there will also be an asymptotic branch dg, which will be attractive with & with respect respect to A to this part, there must be another branch g'd', which is attractive but, since the direction with regard to CC' is altered, as we mentioned in the case of the preceding figure, falling on the opposite side of CC' this has an asymptote c'b' passing through X. Also each branch must be continuous up to the point A, where it cuts thVaxis. This last fact is evident from the consideration that the equal & opposite forces at A must cancel one another & the former is clear from the fact that, if a is very near to Y, & approaches indefinitely near to it, the repulsion due to Y increases indefinitely, whilst the force due to X remains finite. Thus, both the sum & the difference must be repulsive with respect to Y, & therefore attractive with respect to A & this, as the distance from Y is diminished indefinitely, will

; ; ; ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

increase indefinitely. Hence the ordinate ag, when approaching bYc, increases indefinitely : & it thus follows that the arc gd will be asymptotic with respect to Yc ; the reasoning

&

the arc g'd', with respect to b'Xc', 219. Again, it is even possible that the arc intercepted between the asymptotes bYc, The properties of b'Xc', i.e., between the branches dg, d'g', to cut the axis somewhere, as is shown in Fig. 26 encescor^espo'n'dSg to disis changed nay rather, it may cut it in more places than one, for instance, if sufficiently greater 6 than AE in Fig. i so that, at some place on the near side of A, there is obtained an attraction p^s ^"clrnpari son from the point Y & a repulsion from the point X, or a repulsion from with the curve greater than the in the Besides, by a mere inspection of the last two figures, it will be evident other case. repulsion fiom Y. how great a difference in the law of forces, & the curve, may be derived from the mere distance apart of the points & Y. For both figures are derived from Fig. I, &, in Fig. 25, is taken equal to AE in Fig. i whilst, in Fig. 26, it is taken equal to AI of Fig. i ; & this variation alone has changed the derived figure to such a degree as is shown. If other & Y, fresh curves, one after the distances, one after another, are taken for the points If these are other, will be produced. compared with one another, & with those that are obtained for a straight line CAC' perpendicular to XAY, like the one in Fig 24, nay, far more, if they are compared with those, referring to other straight lines, that can be imagined, will sufficiently confirm what has been said above with regard to the immense number & variety of the laws arising from a mere difference of disposition of the two points that act on the third. Also, from the drawing of merely these three curves, it is plainly seen what great uniformity there is in all cases for the attractive arc TpV, combined always with a great dissimilarity for the arc that is twisted about the axis.

for a'g',

;

will be the

same

&

AY

;

X

X

XY

,

X

220.

_

But

I will select,

**notice in a high degree,
**

let

CAC' be the same axis as in Fig. i, & let the five arcs, GHI, IKL, NOP, PQR taken consecutively anywhere along it, be exactly equal & like one another. Moreover, in Fig. 28, let the two points B & B', one on each side of A, be taken at a distance equal to half the width of one of these five in Fig. 29, at arcs, i.e., half of the one GL, or LI distance equal to the whole of this width &, in Fig. 30, at a distance equal to double the width also let the points L,N be the same in all these It is required to find figures. the force at any point g in the interval LN, for these three positions of the points B & B'.

from this great number of different cases, one which is worth T Tee ^ which also will be of the greatest service to us later. In Fig. 27, we u

classes

of

LMN,

;

3.

;

;

I

72

**PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA
**

221. Si in Fig. 27 capiantur hinc,

Determinatip compositaa in

vis

iis-

dem.

& inde ab ipso g intervalla sequalia intervallis AB', ut ita, ge, gi respondeant figurae 28 gc, gm figures 29 intervallum ei fore aequale amplitudini LN, adeoque Le, Ni ga, go figurae 30 patet, aequales fore dempto communi Lz, sed puncta e, i debere cadere sub arcus proximos directionum contrariarum ob arcuum vero aequalitatem fore aequalem vim ef vi contrariae in 28 vim ab il, adeoque fig. utraque compositam, respondentem puncto g, fore nullam. At quoniam gc, gm integrae amplitudini aequantur ; cadent puncta c, m sub arcus IKL, NOP, conformes etiam directione inter se, sed directionis contraries respectu arcus LMN,

AB

**reliquarum trium figurarum
**

;

;

;

;

&

**eruntque asquales wzN,
**

inter se

;

cl ipsi gL, adeoque attractiones mn, cd, & repulsioni gh aequales, ac idcirco in figura 29 habebitur vis attractiva gh composita ex iis binis dupla

repulsivae figurae 27.

a,

o

sub arcus

**Demum cum ga, go sint sequales GHI, PQR conformis directionis inter
**

30

erit repulsio

**duplae amplitudini, cadent puncta
**

se,

& cum

arcu

LMN,

vis

pariter binae repulsiones ab, op aequales repulsioni gh,

&

eruntque

iis

inter se.

Quare

ex

com-

positae pro

figurae 29.

fig.

gh dupla repulsionis gh figurae 27,

&

aequalis attraction!

0116

vhn'in tractu*'

tinuo

222<

^^

.

igi tur

j

am

.

nuiiam, in puncta B', aha attractionem, e tribus eorum positionibus propositis ipsum axem LN, in secunda arcum attractivum in aha repulsionem, T , ,,., , , r in tertia repulsivum, utroque reccdente ab axe ubique duplo plus, quam in fig. manente distantia Ph ysica in primo e tribus casibus fore prorsus 27 ; ac pro quovis situ puncti g in toto intervallo

.

;

B agunt

in tertium,

patet, loci geometric! exprimentis vim compositam, qua bina partem, quae respondet intervallo eidem LN, fore in prima

i i

LMN,

LN

nullam, in secundo fore attractionem, in tertio repulsionem aequalem ei, quam bina puncta B', B exercerent in tertium punctum situm in g, si collocarentur simul in A, licet in omnibus

hisce casibus distantia puncti ejusdem g a medio systematis eorundem duorum punctorum, Possunt autem sive a centre particulae constantis iis duobus punctis sit omnino eadem.

omnibus hisce casibus puncta B', B esse simul in arctissimis limitibus cohaesionis inter adeoque particulam quandam constantis positionis constituere. Aequalitas ejusmodi accurata inter arcus, & amplitudines, ac limitum distantias in figura I non dabitur uspiam cum nullus arcus curvae derivatae utique continuae, deductae nimirum certa lege a curva at poterunt ea omnia ad sequalitatem continua, possit congruere accurate cum recta haec accedere, quantum [103] libuerit poterunt ipsa discrimina haberi ad sensum per tractus continues aliis modis multo adhuc pluribus, immo etiam pluribus in immensum, ubi non duo tantummodo puncta, sed immensus eorum numerus constituat massulas, quae in se agant, & ut in hoc simplicissimo exemplo deprompto e solo trium punctorum systemate, multo magis in systematis magis compositas, & plures idcirco variationes admittentibus, in eadem centrorum distantia, pro sola varia positione punctorum componentium massulas ipsas vel a se mutuo repelli, vel se mutuo attrahere, vel nihil ad sensum agere in

in

se,;

;

;

& per alias valvulas transmittantur, aliis libere progredientibus. Sed adhuc multa supersunt notatu dignissima, quae pertinent ad ipsum etiam adeo simplex trium punctorum systema.

solidis adhaereant,

habet, nihil jam mirum accidet, quod quaedam substantial ingentem acquirant intestinarum partium motum per effervescentiam, & fermentationem, quas deinde cesset, particulis post novam commixtionem respective quod ex eodem cibo alia per secretionem repellantur, alia in succum quiescentibus nutrititium convertantur, ex quo ad eandem prseterfluente distantiam alia aliis partibus

se

invicem.

Quod

si

ita res

inter se commixtse

;

lius

ea poterunt respective 223. Jaceant in figura 31 tria puncta A,D,B, in directum trium punctosi si tres distantiae omnibus mutuis viribus rum positorum in quiescere, AD, DB, careant, quod fieret, directum e x dis- omnes essent distantiae limitum sed potest haberi etiam quies respectiva per elisionem ; limitum tantiis vel enim Porro virium mutuarum casus diversi tres esse poterunt tres alii in quorum contrariarum virium. binis vis nulla ex medium ab B vel extremorum ab A, attrahitur, utroque utroque repellitur, elisione contrari- punctum vel ab altero attrahitur, ab altero repellitur. In hoc postremo casu, patet, non haberi arum.

:

Alius casus vis nul-

AB

:

:

D

cum debeat punctum medium moveri versus extremum attrahens quietem respectivam recedendo simul ab altero extremo repellente. In reliquis binis casibus poterit utique

;

A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY

173

c'

C

B'A B

FIG. 28.

C'

B'

A

B

FIG. 29.

cV

'74

PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA

H

R

C

FIG. 27.

C'

L

B'A B

FIG. 28.

n.

,"

5

B'

A

B

FIG

.29.

B

7

FIG. 30.

B

L

N

the force compounded from the two.further. f. . NOP. nothing this motion ceasing inmost & fermentation of their as in effervescence motion huge parts. & but in the opposite direction to the arc LMN. gi correspond to Fig. & in the third a repulsive arc So. but a very large number. there is the wonderful in fact that certain when mixed together. some through others. the widths. Hence. . or it is repelled by each of them.. 27. for no arc of the derived curve. 222. so simple system of three points & these are well worth our attention. though flowing past at that the same some distances. intervals that are equal to Determination so that ge. . so. These will be at rest Another instance 223. can possibly coincide accurately with a straight line but there could be an approximation to equality The same distinctions could be obtained. 27. In Fig. go to Fig. -i i i i . corre. & the distances of the limit-points .*- ft. 30. in Fig. of the point g under consideration remains absolutely the same. & recede from the other outside point which is repelling it at the same time. . . But in the other two cases. in the second position it will be an attractive attraction" * each of these will recede from the axis at all third a repulsion arc LMN. in for continuous regions very many more different ways. in Fig. & to one another. 31. for all of them. there may be either mutual repulsion. in Fig. much more in systems that are more complex & on that account admitting of more variations. of no force in the i 11 i n i with regard to one another if they lack all mutual forces & this would be the case. since ga. the force compounded from the two of them will be a repulsion gh which is double of the repulsion gh in Fig. we have L & Ni equal to one Now. since gc.B be three points in a straight line. mutual attraction. & thus. will be the axis of the three stated positions of the points . if they were both And yet. or from the mean centre of a particle formed from them. 28. sit V?. others. gm are each equal to the whole width of an arc. which is double of the repulsive force in Fig. op one another. corresponding to the point g. . Again. ab. we shall have an attractive force. will be nothing. 29. we take. another. of the point g in the whole interval LN. PQR. whilst others are converted into nutritious juices & that from these juices. the force will be nothing at all in the first of the this result is of the '* ^a LN 5 . i i Now we . This latter will be equal to that which the two points B'. 28 the intervals AB'. 30. . width of an arc. & so constitute a particle fixed never can have such accurate equality as this between the arcs. D . B would exert on the third point. & a repulsion in the third. . on either side of this point g. 29. as in this very simple only. mN. it is at least possible that there may be . . which lie in the same direction as one another.. the two repulsions. for any position maining^constant points along it to twice the corresponding distance shown in Fig. the points a lying in the same direction & as well. to any degree desired. with which two points B'. Therefore. In the last case. the points c & m fall under arcs IKL. If. 29 to the width LN. an attraction in the second. B act region itself in the first no force at ail. Moreover. AB of the other three figures & ga. Therefore.. . as LMN & equal to the attraction in Fig. 29. AB were all distances corresponding to limit-points. let A. corresponding to a single variation of the points composing the masses. three cases. it is evident ^^res^tenl'farce that relative rest could not obtain for the middle point must then be moved towards the arises from an eiioutside point that is attracting it. . whilst some However. it the case of three points In addition. DB. acquire a substances. or no mutual action to any appreciable extent. in position. in all these three cases. either the middle spending Ihree points. As before. go are equal to double the o will fall beneath arcs GHI. Lastly.. & the particles attaining relative rest after rearrangement. on account of the equality of the arcs. 27. But. the force ef will be equal to the opposite force il . straight line at the i 111 in f relative rest could be obtained owing to elimination of equal & opposite iorces. r > T> 11 ii r V. there yet remain many things with regard to this ever pass along uninterruptedly. exactly things adhere to some solid parts & some to others some are transmitted through certain little passages. nay the number approximately in which the number of points constituting the little masses of ways is immeasurable is not two &.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 175 of 221. in all three cases.B may be in the positions defining the strongest limits of cohesion with regard to one another. corresponding to the same interval LN. gm to Fig. cd will be equal to the repulsion gb. . There is nothing wonderful in the fact that from the same food some things are repelled by secretion. . it is now evident that the part of the in one arrange" geometrical locus representing the resultant force. & to one another. in Fig. l -physics. For. & as that of the arc will be equal to the repulsion gb. compounded of these two. . in Fig. measured from the centre of the system of the same two points. but the points e & i must fall under successive arcs of opposite directions. is attracted point by each of the outside points A & B. thus. in two of or it is attracted by one of them & repelled by the other. Hence.t d i " a three distances AD. the points B'. 30 then it is plain that the interval ei will be equal gc. in upon a third. c\ will be equal to gL thus the attractions mn. in Fig. distances to Hmitthere will be three different cases with regard to the mutual forces. 27.D. from the preceding article. . whilst the distance between the masses themselves remains the same. taking away the common part Lz. which is everywhere continuous because it is obtained by a given law from a continuous curve. that being the case. the distance situated at the same time at the point A.. acting upon one another case derived from a consideration of a single system of three points.

quibus puncta A. & in si nisus eorum altero ad recuper- D incipiant inde primo removeri. ubi inde : : R A B S : Contra vim impressam in directione ejusdem rectae satis est. quantum libuerit. sed & cuivis position! indicata t riu m massarum applicari potest. validissimus exurgat conatus ad redeundum ad priorem locum. 31. fieri poterit & solidam. . poterunt hosce binos casus. quae agat in eadem contractio. .] figure for Art. in secundo casu adhuc magis sponte recedet jam non nihil a ab ea recedendum. differentia virium vi si extrinsecae resistet. B ibunt obviam puncto C redeunti ad rectam transituram per illud T"V /"* FIG. habebitur inflexio rectae habebitur directione in casu vis. et cum BV. ut oscillatio ipsa sensum omnem jam aucta. ut & inflexio. 205. delatam in C. 226. Nam vires ejusmodi esse possunt. sed vires resistentes ipsis poterunt esse ita validae. quae ilia dimovere tentet. turn punctis ejusmodi. quo AP cum repulsione AR. repulsione BS component vires AQ. vel repulsive. & attractio cum. libuerit. & puncta A. adeoque in quavis obliqua etiam. vel utcunque magna velocitas impressa fuerit ad ea e suo respectivo statu deturbanda. si pro discesserint puncta. iterum vel si vi aliqua externa urgeatur. & de quo supra mentionem fecimus num. poterit differentia virium & esse tanta. utcunque magna fuerit vis. quae flexionem. medio in possunt casu. quas proprietates nulla virga in Natura tribus punctis . sint prorsus insensibiles [105] ac si actione externa velocitas imprimatur vel contractionem. ac applicabitur infra. . 224 & 227. quam vocamus rigidam. punctum E. vel ad extinguendam velocitatem impressam. ilia a directione in altero ad magis distet recta AB. Quod si vis urgeat perpendiculariter. jam in alteram oppositam. jam imminuta. punctum medium D moveatur rectam DC perpendicularem ad AB turn vires CK. DB . trium punctorum jacentium in directum sed hie interea ac fcecundissimum theorema eruetur pro comparatione virium inter se vis maxima ad Inconservandam dis. Si nimirum puncta 224. CL possunt utique esse ita validae. ut ejusmodi tria puncta positionem ad sensum primis retineant cum prioribus distantiis. ut tarn in eadem directione ipsius rectas. ut ex. quod secundum utique crescere. Haec Theoria generaliter etiam non rectilineae tantum. & ejusmodi respectivam velocitatem tempusculo. CK. & punctum D versus C. plurimum puncto & decrescat eadem imminuta . positionem priorem. conabitur recuperare accedet . sive distrahere puncta. taking AD. in alteram ipsa puncta permittantur sibi libera . effugiat. ac pro utrovis puncto extreme satis est. exiguum. & dilatationis incapacem. aucta distantia a est. medio attractio plurimum crescat.evolvemus nonnulla. quas constanter ac urgeat. aut distractionem inducat. Theoria generalior 225. seu distractio vel distractio. plurimum medio. Adhuc autem ingens est discrimen inter rectae lineae quidquam removeantur. aucta distantia. angulo jam iis constantis ac veluti longitudine ejus virgae plagam obverso. aucta distantia ab utrolibet extreme. si quas habet medium punctum. tantiam. [The reader should draw a more general unequal and CD not at right angles to AB. invicem e contrario aeque repellant in casu primo. quod quidem exhibebit nobis ideam virgae. in secundo casu in ipso CN adhuc primo M tractiones) CH contrariam directioni tendenti ad rectam AB. ubi etiam generale simplicissimum. ut nimirum medium punctum andam positionem. In casu vis. exiguum satis magna ad ejusmodi vim elidendam.gr. aucta distantia ab extreme. autem extrema puncta debebunt itidem quae se attrahi a primo in In secundo . quam in directione ad earn perpendicular!. Quid ubi vis exter- & virgae flexiiis. ut extinguat parvo. aliquod ex iis velocitatem in ea directione acquisiverit utcunque magnam. AC. ut dictum repulsio decrescat plurimum crescat. habebitur oscillatio quasdam. quae in eas duas resolvi cogitatione potest. debeat attractio medii in ipsum si Si haec ita se habuerint. contractionis nimirum.PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA res haberi : nam vires attractive. & ipsi urgenti vi resi- Nam habebuntur recessu a tiis BD. At in primo casu habebuntur tam per attractiones CL. rectilineam fieri utique potest. . D (licet ese mutatis jam satis distanAD inBC. quae pertinent ad simpliciorem hunc casum trium punctorum. fiet. stet. attrahant mutuse vires elidi omnes. per vis ut composita CF sit post recessum. evadere possint at& vim com-[i opponent direc- binae repulsiones CM. quod est in triente rectae DC. jungentis puncta. B ad partes oppositas. esse aequales . sive ea tenet contrahere. & contractio. ac vice versa . inde. quae component vim casu attractio attractio CF directam versus AB. turn repelli in secundo . quantum libuerit. quantum post percursum spatiolum. BT.

in which the angle will jut out first on one side & then on the other side & the length of. the rod consisting of the three points will be at one time increased & at another decreased & it may possibly be the case that the oscillation will be totally unappreciable . if it is acted on by some external force. say. will approach t^warts^iurther & Or. of which mention was made above in Art. . in any interval of time. there will be produced an oscillation. as the distance is increased. contraction or distraction. from the outside point. it will endeavour recession For two repulsions. towards AB. will give resultant forces. large enough to eliminate any force of this kind. in these cases. But if the force acts perpendicularly. . there will be some bending . of smallness. so to speak.B will move in the opposite direction to that of the point C. & attracted by one another in the second case. D . CK. for instance. These will give a resultant force sufficiently altered into the distances BC. there is also a very great difference between these two cases. from it. if the points are moved a small distance out of the direct straight line. no matter how great. AQ. & perpendicular to it. But in the first acting along once more in the second case. or repulsive. after a recession of any desired degree case we shall have two In this attractions CK . & B in the opposite direction. & if this induces bending. But the forces resisting them may be so strong that the bending. the point to then the forces be so can in case AB. no matter how great the force tending to drive them from it may be. moved o to recover its position & will resist the force acting on it. it if left may be equal. & this indeed will give us the idea of a rod. & BV combined with the repulsion BY. and point attraction on it of the middle point will necessarily increase when the distance is increased. & if they are equally oppositely repelled by one another to itself. from the middle & this second requirement will be met in every case. . no matter how short the time assigned may be . at the first instant of motion from the position position. and the attraction should greatly increase. as the distance is increased. . But for the present we will consider certain points that have to do with this more simple case of three points. For there may be forces of such a kind that both in the direction of the straight line. or to destroy the points In the case of a force continually urging the point towards C. CL. a recovery of posiwill recede still further from it in the first case. 177 & or repelled by in the first case. then it will be possible for all the mutual forces to cancel one another. & this. of a most simple & fertile nature will be deduced for comparison of forces with one another. ^a straight possibility of tendSg^conser^ vation of distance. there will be some contraction D any impressed & A & distraction. 205. in a direction away from the straight line AB. there may be produced an extremely strong endeavour towards a return to the initial position as soon as the points had departed from it. being transferred to C. moves 226. for the attractive. then. forces which are acting on the middle point But then. AC. under the action of which the points A. AD CH & these will give a force directed CL. it is now slightly off the straight line AB. CN. in the case of a force acting in the same direction as the straight line joining the two points. since. after passing over any very small assigned space. are although indeed these may become attractions when the distances BD. the middle point . then the difference of the forces will resist the external force. To counterbalance the force impressed in the direction of the same straight line itself. such as we call rigid & solid. as it returns to the straight line passing through that point E. so that endeavour towards the middle point D. where also a general theorem. incapable of being contracted or dilated these properties are possessed by no rod in Nature perfectly N . & hence in any oblique direction which may be mentally resolved into the former. If matters should turn out to be as stated. Enunciation of a more general theory ly^g line . 225. whether it tries to bring the points together or to drive them & if any one of them should have acquired a velocity in the direction of the straight apart line. it may come about that three points of this kind may maintain a position practically in a straight line. For in one of these 224. First of all. D what the happens if DC ^es n^tTct ah^g straight line . the If by external action a contraction. there will be a possibility that the difference of the forces may be so great that it will destroy any relative velocity of this kind. or no matter how great a velocity may be impressed upon them for the purpose of disturbing them from their relative positions. the attraction case. no matter how small. or vice versa. This application will be made in what follows. velocity is impressed on points of this kind. & should be decreased by a large amount if this distance is decreased. it is sufficient if the attraction for the middle point should increase by a large amount when the distance from either of the outside points is increased. as has been said. velocity. the outside points must be respectively attracted. which is a third of the way along the straight line DC. the attraction AP combined with the repulsion AR. along the line any perpendicular strong that the resultant force CF may become. or & if the points are then left to themselves. This Theory can also be applied more generally. will at first be obtained in the second case. CM. . For either of the outside points it is sufficient if the repulsion should greatly decrease. or the distraction will be altogether inappreciable. so that. BT. to include not only a position of the three points in a straight line but also any position whatever. Further.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY relative rest . 6 instance.

Quod si fuerit in . cujus axis transversus sit sit in fig. ac CF. si 227. Ducta enim " & ' summae. sive TBS. tertia quoque vls ^ncti^medii utcunque parallels contraria extremis. sive unica vis . & parallelae istud etiam sed systema adeoque systema progrediens quidem. ut BD ad DC ac AQ ad AR. nisi sint in distantiis limi- tum : cum ad iis qui nisus matis. : inferius. erunt ejusmodi. Inprimis si punctum eadem i NM. & ad aequilibrii leges. qui in F. repelletur B ab utique A. quae in & vectem. aequale AQP.E. uy erunt aequales Quare se mutuo elident . & Equilibrium trium 229. positione. aequalis BS. AB. parallela AP.I 78 PHILOSOPHLE NATURALIS THEORIA habet accurata tales. centra oscillationis ac percussionis nos deducent. 228. & oscillatio. & ex ipsis constituatur triangulum. AE. vires illius zt. ut tres distantise AB. ut nulla ex iis sit major reliquis binis simul sumptis. postremae duae aiiis Focis A. & fig. ac tremor erunt majores. BE sint ratto eiupsTs binis distantiae limitum cohaesionis. : & transiens per E. I sint aequales distantiae ac eadem est ratio pro AN limitis H. quod in Natura observatur quotidie oculis. Quoniam vero est SB ad BT. aeque distantes aequales ita. sed tantummodo ad sensum. diameter ipsius. ordinatae ut uy. . vel in recta. aeque pertinent ad actiones mutuas trium punctorum habentium positionem mutuam quamcunque. Si tria puncta non jaceant in directum. turn vero & inflexio ex vi externa mediocri. se viribus & in agentes etiam divergentibus. : : : Eiegans theoria 230. NO ibi LN. cum AE. sive BE. hie Attrahetur . ipsa puncta respondet distantiae AB. Sint in fig. Sed consideremus jam casus quosdam peculiares. ut AQ. quae sunt flexiles. aequalis CD parallela iis. D : AN sint aequalis semiaxi transverse hujus DO. ubi etiam tria puncta non jaceant in directum. ac traducentur . adeoque CI squalls IK vel si sive IF erit QP. ab N. ut DC ad DA erit ex aequalitate perturbata AQ ad BT. I hisce AM BO. pro collocatione a focis nihil discedent sit ad sensum satis validus . nimirum vires in A. AO erunt Nz. haberi debebit in illo tertio puncto motus. quam in fig. in conentur ipsam recuperare. & elegantes. quas hoc postremo numero demonstravimus. ac eadem ratio est directionis inter se. multo generalius traduci possunt. triangulum CIK aequale simili BTV. . foco vis nulla in verticibus axium. Ea. ac in singulis angulorum cuspidibus singula materiae puncta collocentur habebitur systema trium punctorum habebitur quiescens. sint inter se aequales. & B in ratione reciproca distantiarum AD. exprimet vim puncti C utique parallelam viribus AQ. nonnulla persequi pertinentia itidem ad puncta tria. inter virgas rigidas. quae sint. B concipiatur ellipsis occupantibus sint aequales. cujus punctis singulis si imprimantur velocitates aequales. 32 tria puncta A. I vel AE. parallelogrammum. cujus latera binas illas exprimant vires. & materiae sit hie in E . sed horum quoque limitum duo genera erunt ii. vel in diagonali parallelogrammi. DB a recta CD ducta per C secundum directionem virium. Quod si vires sint aliquanto debiliores. sed directionis contrariae. adeoque & inter se. centrum FO. respective quiescens habebit ibi suum quemdam limitem. turn vero sine externis viribus non poterunt punctorum non in esse in aequilibrio . etiam si a rectilinea recedat quantumlibet nam demonstratio generalis est sed ad massas utcunque inaequales. aequales illius aequales DB. I conjugatus EH. quae jungit ipsum cum puncto agente. figurae . Ibidem binse vires. Systemate r inflexo inter se. sumpta aequali AQ ducatur KF ac FIK FK & sive & CLFK LC. vel etiam earum illis. sed directionis contrariae. itidem erit in aequilibrio. sive oppositas ambae . summae. ac eas. & asqualem earum summae. turn ad illam KI parallela BA. ejusmodi. Quamobrem si assumantur in figura I tres distantiae limitum ejusmodi. qui hue pertinent. DA & cum & O . quae latera trianguli constituunt. Quare BT. sint disdirectum jacentium enim vires illae mutuae non habeant [106] directiones impossible sine vi tantiae limitum figurae i. nullum habebit vim. pariter oppositae sed si limes. erit ob CK y B sequales. qui ii vero. Cum externa. Postremum theorema generate. AR. BT. Az.B ita collocata. ut mutata positione ab ipsa etiam sponte magis discedat systema punctorum eorundem. & jam hinc ex simplicissimo trium punctorum systemate habebitur species quaedam satis idonea ad sistendum animo discrimen. & ex elasticitate trementes. zt. . nisi omnes tres distantiae. ut BD ad DA. retinensyste- dam formam ab altero e reliquis binis punctis agat in tertium punctum. . & utiles. ac sit DB amplitude proximorum arcuum in arcus ipsi similes. NP. Si enim assumantur in fig. erunt ut mutata ab omnibus tribus orientur limitibus cohaesionis. BT fuerint perpendiculares ad erit parallela & > . . alia Sed interea pergemus directum non jaceant. cum debeant conari recuperare distantias quibus etiam una e tribus distantiis fuerit distantia limitis non cohaesionis. triangulum proinde aequalis. hie minor. BE N collocate in puncto O. hujus.

Hence also the forces in that figure. Then.B be so placed that the three distances AB. for which this is the appropriate place. or parallel to one another in any manner. AQ : : : : AD CD The last theorem in fhe tiTree^point^do not He in a straight line- . the position to any extent you may please. Thus also that system will have a certain limit of its own moreover. . Here in every case A is attracted & B is repelled from O but if the limit-point. of the former figure will be equal to DB. Namely. but in the opposition direction. zt. since the mutual forces do not have opposite directions. N & Fig. At the same time. But meanwhile we will go straight on with our consideration of some matters relating in the same manner to three points. . i. In Fig. thus also to one another. 32. . the point of matter are equal to the distance AN & BO NM will cancel & since they are likewise opposite in direction. then Nz. BE DB be less the arcs NM. AE. ^L. which do not lie in a straight line. of the latter . F^^^^^ ^^ presence 01 an force. let the three points A. 32. but which is relatively at rest. that is to say.j f f n by parallel to AB. in every case parallel to the forces AQ. if the two forces. KI parallel to to meet in I. & BT BD DC. & from this extremely simple system of three points we now obtain several kinds of cases that are adapted to giving us a mental conception of the differences. or two such forces. cequali & DB. & the centres of oscillation & percussion. or along diagonal of the parallelogram whose represent those two forces. even if it departs from a rectilinear For the demonstration is general . to them. If to each point of the system there is given a velocity. For. & that act upon one another even with diverging forces . or to the triangle TBS & therefore CI will be equal to BT. However. those that arise from all three limit-points being those of cohesion which will be such that. i. i . NO of Fig. O. we shall have a system which moves indeed. that meet our eyes every day in Nature. in Fig. because SB equal to their sum. since & BA CD equal to the similar triangle BTV. to 11 'conserve of the sygte^" another. the bending. Equilibrium ^o^no* of . 228. If the three points do not lie in a straight line. which corresponds to the distance AB is strong enough. those in which one of the three distances corresponds to a limit-point of non-cohesion. then. & let the two last be equal to one another. the argument is the same for a point situated at H. passes through E let the transverse axis of be equal to behVpiaced irTa this be FO. IK to BS or AR or QP. will be equal to & equal one another . Secondly. & the conjugate axis EH. that are both elegant & useful. if in Fig. BT. they & the argument is the same for a point situated at F. they will strive to recover it . Hence if IF is taken & KF is drawn. it will in like manner be in equilibrium. are those corresponding to the limit-points in Fig. zt DA in Fig. i we take three limit-distances of such a kind. Hence there must be for that line j third point some motion. each of Suppose that an ellipse. the lever. whose foci are A & B. BE correspond to limit-points of cohesion. then we shall have a system of three points at rest. are equal to one another. i^the'periineter of an ellipse.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY & 179 But if the forces are somewhat more feeble. if the relative position is altered. will represent the force for the point C. so that the ordinates from N. the oscillation a moderate action of the the under indeed. let than the width of the successive arcs LN. 32. then accurately. if the relative position is altered. then the triangle FIK will be equal to AQP. which form the sides of the triangle. that no one of them is greater than the other two taken together. either a single force from one of the i i TT i remaining two points acts on the third. i i iri external "? B are less 3l at . vibration will all be greater . for they are bound to try to restore the distances. An elegant theory 230. there will be no force upon it . . BD BT AR ex we have DA. & But. the hence. further. that is equal to BE or AE . & if from them a triangle is formed & at each vertical angle a material point is situated. if it is at Az. if in Fig. Therefore. the points will not depart to any appreciable extent uy. of Fig. equal to their sum.parallelogram. the triangle . For. if in is situated at E. the system will of its own accord depart still more from it. What has been proved in the last article applies equally to the mutual actions of three points having any relative positions whatever. straight line isim- ^ in^a 1 . BT. also. for AE. & the centre D. In * s stem dis 227. either in the direction of the straight joining o o o it to the acting the sides point. let us now consider certain special cases. 32. AN DO . & thus FK equal to will be a. CIK will be if CD drawn parallel CK & VB are equal to is the middle point is direction t thaTof the outside forces. results can be deduced much more generally for masses that are in every manner unequal. external force. 229. uy. I. i we take Au equal to AO. and these are all equal & parallel to one one another. then indeed without the presence of an external force they cannot be in equilibrium unless all three distances. of such limits there are also two kinds. then the third force would also be parallel forces the force on i u i i to the forces. represented by AQ. one another . first of all. NP be similar & equal. & its diagonal CF will be equal parallel to AP or LC. For. &. but opposite in direction. sumT* AQ CLFK : : : : AQ : : : DC DA : . In Fig. ' th H is distances l^ corresponding 8 ' to his in case. which will be such that. drawn from the straight forces on A & B are in the inverse ratio of the distances line in the direction of the forces. let en which are equidistant of the limit-point Further. were perpendicular torted y A T> n i_ ^i. but only approximately. let no force at also in the latter figure focus the transverse semiaxis of Fig. between rigid rods & those that are flexible & elastically tremulous.E. i . & they will be thus deduced later & these will lead us to the laws of equilibrium.

prorsus ut ibi accidit in limitibus in ellipsi relatae ad focos cum H O non Quando contrario positi tionis : cohaesionis. atque id. DO. externam vim ibidem immota. ea utrinque producatur in P. erit AC tanto longior. in PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA quibus fuerant collocata. deinde limitis a pluribus sibi . distantia major AC repulsionem CN. illi e contrario limites non cohaesionis. rhombus distantiae AC. aequalitas maneat hinc. vel tertii si debeant discedere ob limitem minus validum. qui habentur in axe vae virium. non versus vertices axis Contrarium si DO : CG CNGK conjugati. in quo inclinatio 1C secabit bifariam angulum LCM .enim distantia BC minor haberet alterna- limites gantissimi p1uriu m limitum in perimetro ellipseos. . AP abscissae Ubi enim fiet AC illius. sive duplo semiaxi jugati ejus transversi . sicut ibi accidit in limitibus cohaesionis . hujus figurae aequalis habebitur AL in loco illius. zt itidem aequales inter se. & ante ejusmodi locum pariter aequalis ejusmodi in asqualis distantiae limitis cohaesionis AN illius. at in erit ejusmodi. parvum inde punctum F. 231. i semiaxem transversum hujus ellipseos ac praetererea habebuntur limites in verticibus amborum ellipseos axium eritque incipiendo ab utrovis vertice axis conjugati in gyrum per ipsam perimetrum is limes primus cohaesionis. . Quamobrem hie jam licebit contemplari in hac curva perimetro vicissitudinem axium binorum cum limitibus cur. sive ejus eccentricitas est major. qui terminet in fig. ut contemplari liceat solam considerari poterunt per relationem In reliquis puncti perimetri vis direc- puncti ad ilia duo. aequarentur abscissis Quod AR. quibus punctis C intermediis sit aliqua. si ipsa hujus DB superet plures quam fig. AI si alicubi ante in loco adhuc iterum esset in proximis hinc. turn aequaretur distantiae limitis non cohaesionis attractionem CK. in H. ta per ipsam peri- metrum tices gati. ubicunque fuerit punctum tangentem. quantum libuerit. LCI. Generaliter autem ubi semiaxis transversus aequatur distantiae cujuspiam limitis cohaesionis. quot hinc translata in axem figurae I. & vis composita per diagonalem haberet itidem directionem tangentis rhombi limes quidam. amplitude & inde per totum ejusmodi ac arcuum ejusmodi amplitudines. & dimotum fuerit. in rectilineo curvae primigeniae figures I. NL. & sibi relictum ibit per ipsam perimetrum versus eum verticem. ipsa fig. & non cohaesionis. Quamobrem dirigetur vis puncti C in latus secundum . CB simul aequales in ellipsi axi transverse. & erunt si ex ut utravis dimoveatur. E. NP . & distantia punctorum a centre ellipseos. quanto BC brevior I sint AM. etiam BC hujus fiet spatium. & LIMC erit rhombus. aequalis angulo qui ac proinde si Q ACP. BC . attractio pro majore. Manet versus ver- axis conju- & si ponatur in quovis puncto C [107] perimetri ejus ellipseos. in perimetro harum ellipsium habebitur cum axe curvae primigeniae fuerit i DO multo vero magis. ejusmodi. BC habe- buntur ibi utique uy. Quare limes. versus ac A distantia [108] longior erit AC habebit repulsionem. in perimetro ipsa. Sed hi referrent limites cohaesionis.limitum prorsus analogorum limitibus cohaesionis. BCQ. figurae propriore limes sed ante eum locum rediret iterum repulsio pro minore distantia. & DB in hac major. 233. Sed in in nimirum vis erit cum omnibus nulla. O KGNC. & . Erunt limites quidam in E. nisi quatenus ob vim centrifugam motum non nihil adhuc magis incurvabit. figurae I & si adhuc major analogia .i8o ellipseos. & vis dirigetur versus O. turn illi proximus esset non cohaesionis. in F. accideret. sed punctum haberetur & in axis verticibus ellipseos . & BC brevior i attractionem. Quse notissima proprietas tangentis erit ipsa PQ tangens. sive secundum directionem arcus elliptici. punctum igitur immotum. modo casus ele. ac sine vi. versus verticem propiorem axis conjugati. Az aequales quam jam . & inde. . & iterum rhombi diameter jaceret versus verticem axis conjugati E. in O. collocatum tarn in verticibus axis conellipseos. a limite illo nominato. quidem utriusque in perimetro collocatum tenderet versus vertices axis transversi. habebuntur limites transibit eccentricitas singulis quadrantibus perimetri ellipeos tot limites. ut in utramvis partem. quam in verticibus axis N DO . quam intervallum dicti ibi . turn ob AC. Quare hie attractio CL sequabitur repulsioni CM. ac maneat aequalitas arcuum. per ipsam perimetrum. parte punctum debeat redire versus ipsos ejusmodi limites. sponte debeat inde magis usque recedere. adeoque hisce si in AC. qui est ad verticem oppositus angulo sit ICM. Analogia verticum 232. angulus est ac erit idem.

& LIMC CM. which were obtained in the rectilinear axis of the primary curve of Fig. AI of Fig. since If it is placed at any point action of no force. i . I. owing to centrifugal force. in Fig. the angle ACP. then again there would be a limit-point but before that position there would return once more a repulsion for the smaller distance & an attraction for the greater. I. then. in the case of the perimeter of these ellipses with the axis of the primary curve of Fig. the first limit-point will be one of cohesion. Analogy between 63 two c ^xes * the limit-points of the H .is tices of DO towards the verthe conju- 8 ate axis . if the point is moved towards either side along the perimeter. & the distance of the points from the centre of the ellipse. width of NL. in which they were originally situated . I. then. & in the present figure were taken greater than the taken together are AC. i would be obtained. its eccentricity. which is the same as the angle LCI will be equal to the angle BCQ.T> i m i IT i i Till . 32. BC in the present figure will likewise become equal to AL in the former. i for the limit-points of non-cohesion. if were taken equal to the distance corresponding to the limit-point of cohesion in that figure. & this is true...e. then the next to it one of non-cohesion. in Fig. at some position. I that the eccentricity will cover when transferred to it from the present figure. . & going round the perimeter. if the point is moved therefrom to either side by any amount. in which the inclination 1C will bisect the angle LCM. the distances AC. . whenever the transverse semiaxis is equal to the distance corresponding to any limit-point of cohesion. NP in much more so.. For then the smaller distance BC would have an ATTT A ^i /^XT i r . Beginning at either vertex -of the conjugate axis. they may be considered to be kept immovable in the same place by means of an external force. in general. & once more the diagonal of the rhombus would lie in the direction of E. But at F & O. then for each quadrant of the perimeter of the ellipse there will be as many limit-points as the number of limit-points in the axis of Fig. H. axis DO. or. in the direction of the arc of the ellipse . A & C the ellipse equal to the transverse axis. & not towards the vertices of the conjugate axis . & the greater distance a repulsion CJN the resultant force along the of the rhombus would in the same way have its direction along the diagonal . AC will be as much longer than Hence. the attraction CL will be equal to the repulsion will be a rhombus. r 111 the to & at the vertices of either axis there would be certain limit-points tangent ellipse.. & the equality of the arcs holds good. Now this is a well-known property with respect to the tangent referred to the foci in the & therefore PQ is the tangent. the equality between the areas on one side & the other held good throughout the whole of the space taken. the limit-point would be such that. CB A ^i /~. the vertex of the conjugate axis. limit-points in 6 *" the of the g^ DO AN several of these widths. & the latter are of the nature of However. if DB DB were greater than & KGNC . no matter where the point is situated on the perimeter.. BC. but a point situated in the perimeter would tend towards the vertices of the transverse axis. .. & the force is towards the nearest vertex of the conjugate axis if left to itself. i. if they are forced to depart therefrom owing to the insufficient strength of the limit-point. CG CNGK . in which there is no force.. perimeter r i_ i o j -L under the the force directed the ellipse or at one of the vertices of the transverse axis remains motionless alon the s perimeter in the perimeter of the ellipse. the point will travel along the perimeter towards that vertex. & before a position of this kind. But if will be a rhombus. i. were equal to the distance corresponding 233. then Fig. I the transverse semiaxis of the ellipse of the in addition there will be limit-points at the vertices of both axes of the present figure ellipse.9 P omi are disposed in f the opposite way most elegant instances of aiternation of several . which is vertically opposite to the angle ICM. towards O. For where AC in the present figure becomes equal to the abscissa AP of the former.. a still greater analogy limit-points of cohesion & the former of non-cohesion. no matter how small. on the side of O. & the force will be directed towards O. DO when the limit i AC i i -i . 232. so that we may consider the relation of the third point to those two alone. & still nearer to O. Moreover. Therefore. . is greater than the interval between the said limit-point & several successive limit-points on either side of it. J . . it must of its own accord depart still further from it exactly as it fell out in Fig. zt also equal to one another. -i i . which is situated at one of the vertices of the conjugate axis of At remaining points point. But at E & they will be such that. except in so far as its motion is disturbed somewhat in addition. There will be certain limit-points at E. ' of tne . if to a limit-point of non-cohesion. O. the longer distance AC will have a repulsion & the shorter distance BC an attraction. Just the contrary would happen. BC were equal to the abscissae AR. whilst in all intermediate points such as C there will be some force. Hence if it is produced on either side to P & Q. Az are equal to these lines AC. it must return towards such limit-points. just as it has to do in the case of limit-points of cohesion in Fig. measured from that limit-point mentioned as terminating in Fig. . . i AM. Hence the force on the point C is directed case of an ellipse the laterally along tangent. or double the semias BC is shorter. if in Fig.. 2i>i. attraction CK. we shall have in every case. Hence at a position of this kind there will be a limit-point . I.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY from the 181 foci of the ellipse. uy. . Hence we can consider in this curved perimeter the alternation of limit-points as being perfectly analogous to those of cohesion & non-cohesion. F.e.

Contrarium autem accideret ob rationem omnino C' sit intra BC'. Conversio t o t i u s illaesi systematis impulsu per peri: 237.PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA donee redeatur ad primum. das : : . F'E'O'H'. Erunt tamen semper aliquae eccentricitatibus majoribus ad ellipses multum accedet. ubi immensus quidam punctorum numerus coalescat in massulas constituentes omnem hanc usque adeo inter se diversorum corporum multitudinem sane immensam. crescet attractio uy . & B sint in distantia limitis cohaesionis satis validi. glaciationis. 235... Punctum collocatum in quavis perimetro habebit determinationem ad motum secundum directionem perimetri ejusdem . Si nimirum duo puncta A. ut tendat versus perimetrum definitam per limitem cohaesionis ac proinde punctum figurae I.. iocis. . Ipsae ejusmodi perimetri totae erunt quidam veluti limites relate ad accessum. curva.. F"E"O"H" semiaxes DO. AC' minoribus. similem in vicinia primae vel tertias perimetri : atque inde patet. ac & con- contemplationibus capere possumus. cum quaedam analogia . quod fuerat propositum. & primo quidem collocetur si BC majores. . & ita porro. & ita porro alternatim. D"O" distantiae AN aequales primus limitis cohaesionis di-[iO9]-stantiae AL limitis . communis autem ilia eccentricitas sit adhuc etiam minor quavis amplitudine arcuum interceptorum limitibus illis figurse I. & idcirco accedet LCMI CL AM. deinde iterum non cohaesionis. at collocatum inter binas perimetros diriget semper viam suam ita. turn eundo in gyrum ipsi proximus sit cohsesionis limes. . alia . Alias curvas 13 . & combinationum diversarum ubertatem tantam in solo etiam trium punctorum systemate simplicissimo unde conjectare liceat. quod primus limes. esse admodum ingens pro utcunque exigua dimotione ab eo loco. & Contra vero si essent prius. in altera limitis non cohaesionis cujuspiam ipsi proximi. qui habetur in vertice semiaxis conjugati sit limes non cohaesionis. C mediam F'E'O'H' I : erunt AC. perimetri habeant quaternos tantummodo limites in quatuor verticibus axium. & Analysi exercendae aptissimorum ego quidem ejusmodi perquisitionem omittam. decrescet repulsio zt. ac recedet. & inde a quovis limite non sunt prorsus aequales quanquam.. 184. & curvse etiam. quern ex ejusmodi applicatione Theoriae ad . & inde ampfa^problematum s e g e s. erit attractio major. media crescet repulsio C'M'. quam ad posteriorem C'L'. & recedat a perimetro definita per limitem non cohaesionis a perimetro primi generis dimotum conabitur ad illam redire & dimotum a perimetro secundi generis. Demonstrate. quam aliquanto ultra perimetrum essent in perimetro. ellipsium tertius FEOH.. & Perimetn elhpsium piunum aequivalentes limitibus.. in altera e limitibus cohaesionis figuras I. exigui arcus ordinatas ad sensum aequales hinc. oscil latio: idea liquationis. est adhuc . licet in exigua eccensed minus utilis immensa combina. abunde sunt ad ostendendam sane alternationis in directione virium agentium in latus. & decrescet attractio C'L'. iis limitibus si considerentur semiaxes ordine suo plures ellipses quarum aequentur distantns. nsdem . quam repulsio CM. quid futurum sit. vi in transitu per ita porro. adeoque directio C'l' accedet magis ad priorem C'M'. Quod si semiaxis hujus ellipseos aequetur distantiae limitis non cohsesionis figurae i . sponte illam adhuc magis fugiet. per cujus tangentem perpetuo dirigatur vis. tamen nee in iis erit ellipsis accurate. ex quemvis ejusmodi limitibus mutante directionem in oppositam. Az majoribus. cujus nimirum ad Theoriae applicationem usus mihi idoneus occurrit nullus & quae hue usque vidimus. ex quo incceptus fuerit gyrus. & ad ingerendam animo primigeniis simplicibus. non distantiae AP cohaesionis figurae i . poterit sane [no] vis. res ecdem ordine pergit cum hoc solo discrimine. ut su P ra observavimus num. CI magis ad CL. & recessum a centro. & vis dirigetur extrorsum versus eandem mediam perimetrum. semper magis casuum. quam ac proinde hie in parallelogram mo factis directio diagonalis inflectetur introrsum factis versus perimetrum mediam. secundus limitis iterum non cohaesionis. quae determinent continuam directionem virium. 33. quam habet limes itidem cohaesionis satis validus .. metrum ellip sees Physicam. quam ad CM.. quam . Verum .tricitate debeat esse ad sensum ellipsis. 236. . alter cohaesionis. & punctum tertium collocatum in vertice axis conjugati in E distantiam a reliquis habeat. habere debeant . illis '. At praeterea est & alius insignis. cum virium elegantem analogiam ac harum limitum cum illarum limitibus. usui futurus etiam in magis determinatus fructus. ut nimirum singulae ellipsium . 2 JT . Sint enim in fig. adeoque in fig. Quoniam arcus hinc. habita quoque ratione vis centifugae atque hie quidem uberrima sed omnem seges succrescit problematum Geometrise. . . nee in tionum varietas. quae trajectoriam describendam definiant. curvae. eiiip- . qua ipsum retinetur in eo vertice. D'O'. in perimetro si essent perimetrum mediam.

A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 183 FIG. . 33.

33. .i8 4 PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA FIG.

one of nonIn the first place. In Fig. "g a v^|et oi yet will neither be an ellipse accurately in this case.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 185 another of cohesion. of which the semiaxes . & one that will be of service in the application mtact oscillation t 1 -r>i T. it the two points A & is are at a distance corresponding along the perimeter of the ellipse due to to a limit-point of cohesion that is sufficiently strong. Hence. ..tig. . I. the a bountiful of for most up crop problems well-adapted employment of geometry & I am to omit all discussion of that kind for I can find no fit use for But analysis. let the first be equal to the distance corresponding to AL. also suppose that the that of non-cohesion next to it for the second. point situated in will have a the for motion one of that If it propensity perimeters along any perimeter. DO'. from which the circuit & the force changes direction as we pass through each of the limit-points was commenced . 33. i IT 11 i . there will always be certain curves the continuous direction of the force. or recession from the centre. r . & so on. C'L' & the force will be directed outwards towards the middle perimeter.. & will recede from it. if a point is disturbed out of a position on a perimeter of the first kind. & so the greater parallelogram LCMI. . i. & the reasoning would be similar. then again one of non-cohesion. Therefore. than to the latter. the whole matter difference only. of the semiaxes DO. Hence. 235. b " ot h US is continually directed. . 184. & the attraction uy would increase.. namely. until we arrive at the first of them. zt would decrease. & so on alternately is still smaller than any width of the arcs between the limit-points of Fig. as has been mentioned above in Art. . of limit-points as regards approach to. an ample i to nave approximately equal ordmates the curve. r or instance. . a limit-point of non-cohesion in Fig. . to it is But if the semiaxis of this ellipse is equal of this kind to the exactly opposite direction. the theorem enunciated is evidently true. i. Fig. it will of its own accord try to get away from it still further. to prevent it from being moved any further. to 236.. then AC. Nevertheless. ! -i ) . eccentricity so that each of the elliptic perimeters has only four limit-points. . DO" of the ellipses FEOH. along the tangent to which the force crop of theorems. equivalent to limitdistances corresponding to limit-points in . & the attraction C'L' will decrease.-. between the limit-points of the former & those of the latter also for impressing on the mind more & more the wealth of cases & different combinations to be met with even in the single very simple great of this it three From system may be conjectured what will happen when an points. in the the attraction CL will be than the repulsion CM. & also curves determining the path determining Here indeed there will spring described when account is taken of the centrifugal force. very small arcs on either side are bound ellipses . unless through the action of a huge external . 1-1 vertex r. & the third point situated at the an ' the impulse T-. ' . oi the conjugate axis is at a distance from the other two which corresponds to idea of liquefaction & congelation. let the point C be situated somewhere outside the middle cohesion. 237. the third to AP. Hence. Now there is yet another analogy with these limit-points. direction of the diagonal CI will approach more nearly to CL than to CM. although for small eccentricity it must be practically an ellipse. for any slight disturbance from that position. as we go round. BC'. AC' are made smaller than if they were drawn to the middle perimeter the repulsion C'M' will increase. that the first limit-point at the vertex goes on as before. . going them in the application of my Theory. Demonstration. & will be turned inwards towards the middle perimeter. namely to one of cohesion for one. On the other hand. & thus the direction of will approach more nearly to the former. with this semiaxis becomes one of non-cohesion . to points.. one at each of the four The whole set of such perimeters will be somewhat of the nature vertices of the axes. it will direct its force in such a is situated between two that it will perimeters. other curves b substltuted for & yet. one of cohesion. F'E'O'H'. from which are formed all that truly immense multitude of bodies so far differing from one another. then. it will endeavour to return to it but if disturbed from a position on a perimeter of the second kind. F"E"O"H".. one of cohesion.I i-i A n T> T T oi the 1 neory to rnysics. Let us consider a The perimeters of 234. & will A recede from a perimeter corresponding to a limit-point of non-cohesion. if C' is within the middle perimeter. Also those which we have already seen are quite suitable enough to exhibit the truly elegant analogy between the alternation in direction of forces acting in a lateral direction & the simple primary forces. I.f. . I. 33. . immeasurable number of points coalesce into small masses. CT . of an ellipse for larger eccentricity. I. in Fig. . . In addition to the above. & so on. the second to AN. a limit-point of cohesion that is also sufficiently strong. the repulsion in AM. Now. there is another noteworthy & more determinate result Rotation of the ** e sy s t m to be derived from considerations of this kind. BC will be greater than if they were drawn to the perimeter. then the force retaining the point at that vertex might be great enough. the next of the conjugate . are in order equal to the sev< ral ellipses number of ellipses having the same foci. the would Exactly opposite happen in the neighbourhood of the first or third perimeter. .. C'M'. . always way tend towards a perimeter corresponding to a limit-point of cohesion in Fig.. . nor approach very much to the form combinations. since the arcs on either side of any chosen limit-point are not exactly equal. to the distance corresponding to a limit-point of non-cohesion in Fig. F'E'O'H' perimeter since Az would be made greater than they were formerly.

aut aliquod ex exire e piano ducto per reliqua tria. D.. cum datis trium punctorum mutuis detur triangulum. & multo magis plurium. qua juxta praecedentem Theoriam urgentur in ipsum flexiiis quo quidem pacto rectangulum quoddam terminabunt. hmitum . & tuentur ? Sed haec de trium punctorum Systema punctorum systemate hucusque dicta sint satis. tuet. C O Sed extra idem planum possunt quatuor puncta collocata ita. quern conjugati perimetrum verticem transversi retardabit. At . ut ejus FlG 35 puncta respectivum situm nihil ad sensum mutent. distantiae a reliquis sequentur distantns in eodem piano positionem respectivam distantiis f. quae ubi fuerit aliquanto . a^a quatuor ^^eodem idea piano cum repulsiva sibi ^ uo Quin immo nmc & m<^ e ' > in ipsa ellipsi considerari possunt puncta quatuor. ut punctum a vertice axis conjugati recedens deveniat . rum pyramidaiium. in eodem .1 86 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA ut sine ingenti externa vi inde magis dimoveri non possit. nee sistetur periodicus conversionis motus. & post ipsos ejusmodi motus periodicos per totum ambitum reducant meras oscillationes. ingenti agitatione accepta ab igneis particulis liquescunt. punctorum systemata multo r 238. . . sive laterum inducta a limitum validitate. nisi mutet distantiam ab aliquo e reliquis. mutari utique debet. . Quatuor. sed retineat ab iis duobus distantiam priorem. languidior.vanationes objicerent tiis hmitum. . & ita porro. in qua una haberi potest quies respectiva. . quorum partes certam positionem servant ad se invicem. Quo major fuerit vis externa dimovens. B. ac habebitur idea quaedam soliditatis cujus & supra injecta est mentio. turn iterum refrigescentes. H. vis aliqua exerceatur in E ad ipsum a sua positione deturbandum donee ea fuerit medioturn. sed si non fuerit quae eorum motum impediant. piano cum distan. m . & inde ab illo vertice per perimetrum curvae cujusdam proximse arcui elliptico. . duo in focis. & pristinam debitam positionem restituant. C.. ut vi mutua & invicem elidant vim. ut exhibet fig. quae in puncta. motu a vertice axis ad continue. . Atque inde si supra angulos quadratae basis assurgant series ejusmodi series continuas rectangulorum. ut facili negotio demonstrari potest.a si rite ad examen vocarentur sed de us id unum innuam. suao q u id e si singulorum tueri tenacissime in r eodem mutuam piano possunt positionem forma. habebitur exhibentium nes^rifmrticufa. si stantibus in fig. 34.. in qua si basis ima inclinetur statim omnia superiora puncta movebuntur in latus. & circa ipsum circumducat punctum A.. transversi semper retro cursus reflectetur. & detur distantia ab eorum tertio. quam necessario requirit conversatio distantiarum.. Alia ratio system- 239. vel pyra/\ mides ejusmodi aliquanto remotiores ita poterit agere. 35. quas contrahant. Potest enim fieri pyramis regularis. .& celeritas conversionis erit major. Ex quatuor secundi ejusmodi particulis in aliam majorem pyramidem dispositis fieri poterit particula ordinis aliquanto minus tenax ob majorem distantiam particularum primi earn componen- quandam 3 . .. . .. vel minor. tanta. ut in fig.. eo major oscillatio net . satis validorum .. ilia cessante. . prout major fuerit. Turn quidem si quis impediat motum puncti B..'. 32 punctis A. -p. quatuor. quae inflexio in omni virgarum genere apparet adhuc multo magis manifesta. turn ab hoc ad verticem conjugati accelerabit. ac tenacissime iterum servant. quod constituere debent. si celeritas conversionis fuerit ingens. & evolant. B per quaspiam vires externas. & externa coegerit verticem axis turn verogyrabit punctum circumquaque per totam FIG. ipsum se resticris. tigurae I iis : neque emm mutare possunt. & in qua sola poterit respective quiescere systema. transilire ultra & de- quam semiellipsis. positionem priorem recuperant. 34 abeat in A' abibit utique & E versus E'. ut positionem suam validissime tueantur. . ubi solida corpora. a vertice axis conjugati in ea distantia a se invicem. .punctorum quaedam adhuc magis verticem . dimovebit illud non nihil . quam fundum. . ad verticem axis transversi scribetur minus. Verum si vis percurrere totum quadrantem. vel minor vis ilia in latus. An non ejusmodi aliquid accidit. tenax. nisi exteriorum punctorum impedimentis occurrentibus. & oscillabit hinc. . etiam ope unicae distantiae limitis unici satis validi.. quibus igneae particulae emittuntur. quae. cujus latera singula triangularia habeant ejusmodi distantiam. turn datis distantiis quarti a duobus detur itidem ejus positio respectu eorum in eodem piano. in "Systema eorundem forms punctis A. quae sensim celeritatem imminuant. ut servetur forma trianguli AEB. . & inflectetur virga.. praecisa idea virgae solidae. multo serius progredietur vertex. ut rectangulorum illorum positionem retineant.. agitatione sensim cessante per vires. Turn ea pyramis constituet particulam suae figurae tenacissimam. plures nobis J .. si id punctum exeat e [in] priore piano.

according to the preceding theorem. A a { further considerio " f 6 ou ^i^f rods. motion round B. . i corresponding to limit-points of sufficient strength. that are more remote. through given. recover their initial position & again keep & preserve it most tenaciously. . . in Fig. approximates to an elliptic arc. . triangles length equal to this distance. arrangeparticular different ments i i pyramids. as is shown in rig. of which But if. if the distances of each from the rest are equal to the distances in Fig. & so on there will not be any periodic reversal of motion. will recover its position. . 35. . . when we make use of but a single distance corresponding to a limit-point of sufficient strength. we shall obtain from this supposition a more r precise idea than hitherto has been possible of a solid rod. For they can form a regular of which each sides of the of the is of a pyramid. & pass through the vertex of the transverse axis. the distance from the third point must be changed in any case. arranged to form a larger purposes. following on such periodic motions round the whole circuit. may conserve their relative positions very tenaciously. somewhat less tenacious of form on account of the greater distance between the particles of the first order that compose it 238. then the point would move off to E' as well. are kept stationary by means of an external force preventing their motion. points then we are given the triangle which they must form & then being given the distances of the fourth point from two of these. the fo rm pyramid. points would yield us many more variawere examined tions.B. we can obtain a pyramid. then indeed the point will make a complete circuit of the whole perimeter with a continuous motion this will be retarded from the vertex of the conjugate axis to that of the transverse axis. Then this pyramid will constitute a particle that is most tenacious as regards its form & this will be able to act upon points. if the motion of the point B were prevented. & the arc described will be less than a But if the external force should compel the point to traverse a whole quadrant semi-ellipse. but so that they retain the positions in their rectangles & the speed of rotation will be greater or less according as the force sideways was greater or less even where this force is somewhat & the feeble. 239. Again. two being at the foci. & much more so for more. it will move the point a little .A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY force. of the curve that closely & will then oscillate on each when the force ceases. & the original position restored. in one plane. when solid bodies whose parts maintain a definite position with regard to one another. & the point A were set in so that in Fig. 34 it moved to A'. in such a manner that its points do not alter their relative position in the slightest degree for all practical From four particles of this kind. & afterwards. the top will move considerably later than the base & the rod will be bent amount of bending in every kind of rod will be still more apparent if the speed of rotation is very great. unless there are impediments met with from external points that appreciably diminish the speed . in which. connection with the idea of rigid & flexible a. greater the oscillation will be .B. E & form only thus we get an idea of a certain solidity. then. Again. But let us be content with what has been said above with regard to a system of three points for the present. that the mutual repulsive force between them will cancel the force with which they are urged towards that vertex. but if it is not so great as to make producing the point recede from the vertex of the conjugate axis until it reaches the vertex of the transverse axis. & these will be shortened. there will be a return to mere oscillations . they carefully one after the other but I will only mention one thing about such systems. as the agitation practically ceases on account of forces due liquefy to the action of which the fiery particles are driven out & fly off. as can be easily proved. we are also given the position of this fourth point from them. If the point should the from & its former distances from the two points depart yet preserve plane mentioned. It is possible that such systems. casual mention has" already been made above. then accelerated from there onwards to the vertex of the conjugate axis. particle of the second order. if . 187 In that case. . if subjected to the enormous agitation produced by fiery particles. . & once more freezing. all the points above are immediately moved sideways. . as is required by the conservation the system can of the sides or distances which is induced by the strength of the limits . . & the other two on either side of a vertex of the conjugate axis at such a distance from one another. For neither can they their relative in the nor can one them of leave the plane drawn change position plane. The greater the external force the the motion. so as to conserve the form of the triangle AEB. 2. the only one in which there can possibly be relative rest. as long as the force is only be relatively at rest in this . i . . if the lowest r v n T 1-1 set or points is inclined. Probably something of this sort takes place. its path will always be retraced. in which case. Thus. & therefore also the distance from the third of them. Hence. moderate. if we have a series of points of this kind to stand above the four angles of the quadratic ^ r 11 r base. we may consider the case of four points in the ellipse. they are f T->A T. whilst the points A. so as to represent continuous series of rectangles.U. Systems of four. the point side of the vertex along a perimeter A system of four jj^^ces^orre* spending to Hmit0011 ^ves^tslform. any the other three if the distances of three from one another is since. four points not in the same plane can be so situated that they preserve their relative position very tenaciously & that too. i i i i of system P mts a m f of four . . V-i T-V at the vertices of a rectangle. or pyramids of the same kind.D. some force is exerted on the point at E to disturb it from its position. where they occupy the points A.

quale definivimus gravitatis centrum. habeatur aequilibrium. ac reactionis aequalitas in massis quibusque. & utcunque dispositorum. summa distantiarum ab illo experimur. quorum singula moveantur sola inertiae vi motibus quibuscunque. quanoriginem duxerit turn demonstrabo accuratissime. a quo etiam ejus consideratio ortum duxit sed id quidem a gravi-[ii2]-tate non pendet. [113] suspense utcunque ex ejusmodi puncto. sive mihi punctorum quotcunque. ac ad massas potius generaliter considerandas faciemus gradum. . sed ad massam potius pertinet. & innuam. ea lege determinatum longe ulterius extenditur. sequatur summa distantiarum ex altera. proportionalia sunt massis. ut diculari a piano verticali ducto per axem ipsum Porro ea vocant. quam at . : . atque variabiles. . & principia collisiones corporum definientia. suae. & elementaribus. ejusdem parte. : . donee ad eas deventum sit multo majores. massas : Transitus ad : quid cen- 240. quam ob rem idem est. Quod si igitur respectu aggregati punctorum jacentium ex parte altera aequetur summse distantiarum jacentium ex altera concipiantur autem singula ea puncta animata viribus aequalibus. qua fit. idque unicum. ex quibus pendent chemica. quse quidem gravitatis sponte theoremata hk de aut saltern eius ope evidentissime demonstrantur. & inde . momenta virium hinc. & altera pars alteri Verum haec quidem. Si enim vel ut in illud fore in aequilibrio ipsum requiri. qui in singulis punctis uniformes sint. ea pondera in distantias dncere. .^quam fuerint in punctis constituentibus particulas ordinis primi ac eodem pacto ex his secundi ordinis particulis fieri possunt particulse ordinis tertii adhuc minus tenaces . Centrum igitur commune gravitatis punctorum quotcunque.. & inde. quibus gravitatem concipimus. ac assumere summam omnium distantiarum omnium punctorum ab eodem piano.. cujusmodi sunt vires. vel conceptis virgis inflexibilus. gravitatis a gravium aequihbno nomen accepit suum. ut illud planum evadat verticale. & distantiae perpenunde fit. propnetates gravitatis. pondera possint. Sed de particularibus hisce systematis determinati punctorum numeri jam satis. & utcunque gravitatis non jn f -j j j i si ducatur id summa ab idea planum quodcunque pendens dispositorum. Quamobrem ejus definitionem proferam quam & nomen retinebo. in diversis utcunque diversi. ut vires in easdem ab externis punctis impressae multo magis inaequales inter se sint. omnino ac distantias & servent. Sed aggrediamur ad rem ipsam. . vel moveri uniformiter in directum turn vero mutuas actiones quascunque inter puncta quaelibet. singula gravium. sit. & inde asqualia fuerint. de quibus agemus infra ut moveri non ita connexa inflexiles. appellabo punctum. Nomen traxit ab aequilibrio ex iis habetur illud. . uti supra monui. Porro centrum propemodum fluunt. ab ipsa gravitate nihil omnino pendentem. vel. sed adhuc multo magis mobiles. *. vel quiescere. & quotcunque massas simul sunt quaedam punctorum diversorum congeries. . ut summae illae distantiarum non sint aequales hinc. centrum gravitatis commune massarum. ut. L eo demonstrando. & parallelis. . In massis ' m & **t* primum utilissimae . id carentibus. & quomodocunque dispositorum sit aliquod punctum spatii ejusmodi. . operationes. . exerere ad conversionem vim proportionalem sibi. cujuscunque punctorum materiae quotcunque. figurae atque ita porro. unde nobis & actionis. illud utique consequitur. alias diversorum ordinum particulas efformantibus. demonstrando celeberrimum theorema a Newtono propositum. converse systemate omni ita. & ex quibus haec ipsa crassiora corpora componuntur. ac foccundj T->I e centn nostra 1 heona trum issimae. omni eo systemate. nobis se offerunt considerandas elegantissimse sane. & perperam deinde ad ejus proprietatem praecipuam exponendam gradum faciam. per quod gravitatis ejus distantiarum perpendicularium ab eo piano punctorum omnium jacentium ex altera C * 8 idea communi. . & agentem directionibus inter se parallelis. jam non ipsum punctum . . adeoque punctorum eas constituentium numero . vel omnia simul. quod Newtonus in postrema Optics de suis questione proposuit particulis primigeneis. nisi motu circa aliquem per virgas horizontalem axem. proportionalem in singulis quantitati materiae. etiam ad sensum ac in nostris in ipsa pondera gravibus. imponendi essent aequales inter se summae momentorum hinc. & omnes cunque. quod quidem passim omittere solent. unde . . ubi id ipsum accideret.1 88 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA tium. & alia plurima sponte provenient. Id quidem extenditur ad quasnam eorum singulae punctis utique constant. ut ubi ejusmodi vires. . quas in nostris gravibus concipimus . cujus & gravitate systematis puncta viribus quibuscunque. fuit occasio quaedam nominis prseponderaret. respectivum statum. & natura vectis. nihil omnino turbare centri communis gravitatis statum quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. : Definitio centri 241. atque systema aequilibrio unicum planum ductum per id punctum sit ejusmodi. positionem mutuam. ducto per ipsum quovis piano. in quavis massa haberi aliquod gravitatis centrum.

of any number of points in any positions. The definition applies also to masses. However let us set to work on the matter itself. situated in any positions whatever. . the centre of gravity derived its name from the equilibrium of heavy (gravis) bodies.Passing on to 240. the weights in our heavy bodies. Further. if any one plane point is to be found. although I will prove with the this account. & thewhole system is turned so that this plane becomes vertical. can be drawn through the point. for an aggregate of points of matter. comes about that the forces impressed upon these from external points to one another. then the sums of the moments will not be equal to one another on each This indeed. Then 241. from these particles of the second order particles we might obtain particles of the third order. there is a point of space of such a nature that. points is supposed to be endowed with a force. with which we shall deal later. & these forces are all equal & parallel to one another. still less tenacious of form. demonstrated most clearly by means of it. that form other particles of different orders. if the whole of this system is suspended in any way from a point of the sort we have defined the centre of gravity to be. & of such a kind as we conceive the forces in our weights to be . Such a For. will in no way disturb the state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line of the centre of gravity. such that the sum of the distances on the one side are not equal to those on the other side. then the system will . the first matters that present themselves for our considera. then it follows directly that. will mention whence it derived its On & depends on origin. We have now. connected together by rigid rods in such a manner that the only motion possible to them is one round a horizontal axis. said enough concerning these systems of a definite number this fact it from are much more unequal . of any sort & number whatever. on account of certain preserving their mutual position. & acting in directions parallel to one another. . their relative be in equilibrium. & very many other things will arise of themprinciples governing selves. latter made up of points. & the first results in connection with the former were developed by means of the latter but in reality it does not depend on gravity. was the idea side. but one part will outweigh the other part. I give a definition of it. the product of the weights into the distances comes to the same thing as the sum of all the distances of all the points from the plane. situated in any way. will be either at rest or will move uniformly in a straight line. or all of them taken together. for any plane drawn through it. & thus to the number of points that go to form them. quite unjustifiably). In the same manner. then there is equilibrium. & the the collision of solids. Hence we obtain the principle that each of the weights. of any sort or number whatever for each of the . tion are certain really very elegant. as well as most fertile & useful properties of the centre of "ntr? of "gravity^ These indeed come forth almost spontaneously from my Theory. the moments of the Further. . In dealing with masses. I will show that any mutual action whatever between the points. are concerned in chemical operations with regard to which we get the very thing set forth by Newton. but rather is of points. or at least are Theorems to be gravity. . than they would be for the points constituting of the first order.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY for 189 & we will proceed to consider masses rather more generally. in which we conceive the existence of gravity (& indeed find by experience that there is such a thing) proportional in each to the quantity of matter. ^ dtfaiSorT the usual idea. Accordingly. this force being uniform for the separate points but maybe non-uniform to any extent for different points. If then. in my view. in order that the system may be in equilibrium. it comes about that. & one which is Then I will only (a thing usually omitted by everybody. & their distances absolutely unchanged. but the point determined by this rule has that gave rise to the term centre of gravity assumed forces or state rigid weightless rods. if through it Definition is drawn. each of which is moved in any manner by the force of inertia alone. to its chief property. forces) are equal to one another on this side & on that. however. & variable particles. Therefore. Finally. with respect to his primary elemental particles. or. & so on until at last we reach those which are much greater. from the principle points. all of them taken together are certain groups of different The name is taken from the equilibrium of weights (gravis). which in no way I will retain the name. From which the equality of action & reaction in all bodies. any plane in^tndent^fTn the points lying on idea of gravitation of the 7 . are proportional to the masses. as they are called. the sum of the distances from it of all points lying on one side of it is equal to the sum of the distances of all the points lying on the other side of it if moreover each of the to its . in his last question in Optics. I will call the common centre of gravity of any number of points. by proving the well-known theorem enunciated proceed expound by Newton that the centre of gravity of masses. the sum of the perpendicular distances from the plane of all one side of it is equal to the sum of the distances of all the points on the other side of it. of the lever. still more mobile. utmost rigour that in every body there is a centre of gravity. as I said above. will exert a turning force proportional to itself is & & & From which perpendicular distance from a vertical plane drawn through this axis. the points of the system. gravity. which & to those from which are formed the denser bodies. that point which is such that. related to masses. when the forces of this sort (or.

FIG. si concipiatur. mam omnium 36. sum. per centrum gravi. Quare excessus prioris summae supra secundam nimirum classis tertiae. ubi distantias nominavero. Quod si assumatur planum aliud quodcunque parallelum piano habenti aequales hinc. & si aliqua distantia evanescit interea jam eadem deinde incipit tantundem excessum omnium citeriorum [114] distantiarum ex parte contraria crescere. secundum quam sumuntur distantiae.acceptae secundum directionem eandem ductae in nwmerum punctorum tiouibus. ut G. I. Com pie me n turn demonstrationis ut e x t e n d[a t u r ad omnes casus. & communem pro omnibus. nimiadeoque summa omnium distantiarum punctorum jacentium citra planum CD. quae quidem nihil rem turbant : nam prioris classis . oportebit AB summas g. punctorum F secundae classis F. In eo motu distantiae singulse ex altera parte crescunt. . & sequilibrii natura non pendet. respectu secundi plani e f CD fuerit aequalis huic sit e /aequetur nihilo. 36 recta quam AB planum distantiarum aequalium. Dicatur jam summa omnium punctorum E primae classis E. quae a gravitatis. secum trahet aequalitatem alterius. posteriora CD. licet ne in ipsis quidem accurate sint tales. utrumque planum. CD occurrens in O. HI. accuratissima evadat. xO+F . Quamobrem assumpta superiore definitione. ac secundae classis. quot puncta habentur. tatis xquales utrinad summas erunt in eadem ratione. & parallelis. progrediar ad deducenda inde corollaria quaaedam. occurrant rectae AB in M. & distantiarum earundem g distantia vero OP dicatur O. versus illud moveri distantiarum alterum aequalium planum planum motu parallelo secundum earn directionem. erit e + E G X O. ipsam OP fore aequalem ipsis MN. ad Primo quidem si aliquod fuerit ejusmodi planum. . concepta zero singulorum facile possent. summas : directione data. distantia a piano. ut punctum E in secunda omnia puncta jacentia inter utrumque. in classes tres. KL. quacunque. & adeoque =f -\- summas ductae in distantiam O. & in regressu destruitur e contrario. adeoque si prius fuerit e = f + g erit E x O + F X O + G X O. exprimat in fig. Rectae autem per ipsa ductae in directione data . & summa omnium jacentium ultra. Patet. erit g erit e + E X O -f F xO / g+ G xO. quorum priora sint in priore in posteriore piano AB. 'H. P. primae X O /. CD ac omnia puncti distribui poterunt ipsi parallelum. intelligam generaliter distantias acceptas in quavis Corollarium ge it- erate pertinens ad distanti- 242. nisi exprimam perpendiculares. delete e f g. in tertia omnia puncta adhuc jacentia ultra utrumque. ac is excessus alterius summas supra summam alterius in altero per Bi. . E X O summam omnium HI fore F X O summam omnium KL fore G X O erit autem quaevis EN EM +MN = HI FH quaevis GL = KG KL. . Quare in sequentibus. & planum aequetur eorum distantiae ductae in numerum punctorum planum alterum habebit Id distantiarum summas facile aequales. L tionis ejusdem ipsis AB. concipiendo alias binas punctorum classes . cujusmodi concipiuntur a nobis in nostris gravibus. ac asqualitas summarum alterius binarii utriuslibet harum que. in quorum prima sint omnia jacentia citra . ut binae summae distantiarum perpendicularium punctorum omnium hinc & inde acceptorum aequenter inter se arum omnium aequabuntur & summae distantiarum acceptarum secundum quancunque aliam directionem punctorum massse Erit enim quaevis distantia perpendicularis ad quanvis a piano transeunte datam. duo plana parallela sint. . & distantiarum omnium EM summa e . Si aliqua puncta sint in altero ex iis planis. quidem oppositarum concipitur . sed & ii casus involvi possunt. & ac sit quaedam reacta direcrectae CD in N. in quo jacent . totus excessus summa omnium punctorum ducta in distantiam planorum & vice versa si is excessus MN . ut F. fore . . quae nos ad ejus proprietates demonstrandas deducant.in dato angulo inclinatam semper in eadem ratione. atque idcirco Verum ut demonstratio ad aequalitatem reditur. . nimirum respectu primi plani inde aequales esse. Quare summa omnium EN erit quaevis FI & summa omnium GL = g G X O summa omnium FI = F x O e + E xO /. Patet. distantiarum hinc. . ut Quare & sunimae illarum patet. 243. quidquid in ejusmodi progressu est factum. excessu aequali distantiae planorum aequalium cum & vice versa si eorum demonstra.190 PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA solas massas animatas viribus asqualibus. & distantiarum / punctorum G tertiae classis summa G. ex altera decrescunt continue tantum. quantum promovetur planum. K. summa distantiarum omnium punctorum jacentium planum piano distantiarum ex parte altera superabit summam jacentium ex altera. sive (E + F + G) X O. & inde distantiarum summas .n a theoremata parallel urn tinentia ad : supra omnes ulteriores aequari progressui plani toties sumpto. Quare patet ex iis . rum. ea superioribus formulis contineri 244.

every point lying on the far side of both planes. L through the points meet AB in M. Consequently. . when the plane is moved back again. & thus e f -\. that is to say. then the sum of the distances of all the points lying p ara iief o the ane o f equal on the one side of it will exceed the sum for those lying on the other side by an amount P| I . taking the definition given above. if the plane of equal distances is assumed to be moved towards the other plane by a parallel motion in the direction in which the distances the measured. then as the plane is moved each of the distances on the one side increase. AB. if we suppose that the distance for each of them ^^e a u posib"e cases. let us denote the sum of all the points of the first class. H. is zero distance from the plane in which they lie. & let let the first of these be that in which we all the points can be grouped into three classes let the second be that have every point that lies on the near side of both the planes. OP will be equal to MN. straight line. f le tio " e C 244. those belonging to the first & second classes. by the letter E. by the number of all the points. unless . Let straight lines. for. I. equal to the distance between the two planes measured in the like direction multiplied demonstrations. if there are two parallel planes. Two theorems 243. First of all. I will proceed corollaries. if there should be any plane such that the two sums of the of all the points on either side of it taken together are equal to O f ^h^d^ances'of distances perpendicular one another. any perpendicular ^slng hrVu'g'h distance will evidently be in the same ratio to the corresponding distance inclined at a the centre of gravgiven angle. Hence. CD CD O . & those on the other side decrease by just the amount through which the plane is moved . Then it is evident that the sum of all the MN's will be E X also the sum of all the KL's will be the sum of all the Hi's will be F X X Hence the sum in every case. But to give a more rigorous demonstration. CD . in what follows. the excess of the former over is. namely. which will enable us to demonstrate the properties of the centre of gravity. & the sum of GL's will be g X O. Hence the sums of the former distances will bear the same ratio to the sums e^he/sicfeoTit! & therefore the equality of the sums in either of the two cases of the latter distances will involve the equality of the sums for the other also. Then represent the plane of equal distances. & consequently equality will be restored.g. I intend in general distances in any given direction. Conversely. taken as many times as there are points. will also be equal to one another. G = + ExO+FxO + GxO. whenever I speak of distances. which is independent of to deduce from it certain gravity & the nature of equilibrium of weights. these may also s as t be included in the foregoing formulae. FI HI & KL. if at / excess equal to first we had e the total on e we have / f g. & the sum of all the distances like & g & & those of the second class by the letters F & / . CD ^+ExO+FxO g+GxO. in other words the sum of the distances with respect to the first plane AB must be equal on one side & the other. Conversely. 36. namely exactly the amount that was produced as the plane moved forward. g. the sum of all the distances of the points lying on the near side of the plane CD. Then these cases may also be included the in first those that there two fresh classes of are lying by considering points . FH. G + O + Fx O . in Fig. like E. & secondly those lying in the second plane CD . represent a plane parallel to it. by the letter e . General corollary 242. then the second plane will have the sums of the opposite distances equal to one This is easily seen to be true another. & these classes will in . . .or(E+F-fG)xO. If now we take any other plane parallel to the plane for which the sums of the e P distances on either side are equal. GL = KG G O . will & the sum of all those lying on the far side.e. then. Thus. the of the EN's will be e E X O. class. it must be that e g f plane is to equal nothing. On the other hand. also let any in N. Now. that be equal to<?+ExO / of the third will be to X O. as G. drawn direction. MN. then. Hence. let the straight line AB. as E in which every point lies between the two planes. Hence. EM G . expressly say that they are perpendicular distances. drawn in any given direction whatever. or KL. & the straight line meet Then it is clear that in the same in & P. the sum of all the points multiplied by the distance between the planes. EN = EM + = O . For. If any of the points should be in one or other of the two planes. if the excess with respect to the second were equal to this sum multiplied by the distance O. the sum of the FI's will be F X /.. those of the third class by the distance OP by O. & should any distance vanish in the meantime. & if the excess of the sum of the distances from one of them over the sum of the distances from the other is equal to the distance between the planes multiplied by the number of the points. & the third. = ^ ' ^ first plane AB. there will be an increase on the other side of just the same amount.A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 191 a far wider application than to the single cases of mass endowed with equal & parallel forces & indeed such do not exist accurately such as we have assumed to exist in our heavy bodies even in the latter. HI. as F . K. ail the points of a that is the same for all of them. O . g equal the latter will be equal to Therefore. this excess is destroyed. omitting i. then the sums of the distances taken together in any other given direction. it is evident that the excess of all the distances on the near side above the sum of all the distances on the far side will be equal to the distance through which the plane has been moved.

192

**PHILOSOPHIC NATURALIS THEORIA
**

&

distantiae a priore piano erunt omnes simul zero, a posteriore sequabuntur distantiae ductae in eorum numerum, quae summa accedit priori summae punctorum jacentium citra

O

;

summaa ipsorum ductae itidem in O, & deinde fiunt nihil adeoque [115] summse distantiarum punctorum jacentium ultra, demitur horum posteriorum punctorum summa itidem ducta in O, & proinde excessui summse citeriorum supra summam ulteriorum accedit summa omnium punctorum harum duarum classium ducta in eandem O. Theoremata pro 245. Quod si planum parallelum piano distantiarum aequalium jaceat ultra omnia piano posito ultra omnia pun eta: puncta jam habebitur hoc theorema Summa omnium distantiarum punctorum omnium ab eorum extensio ad eo si fuerint duo piano cequabitur distantly planorum ducta in omnium punctorum summam, qua; vis plana. ut alterum ultra omnium distantiomnia summa fcsf ejusmodi, jaceat plana parallela puncta, arum ab ipso cequetur distantice planorum ductce in omnium punctorum numerum ; alterum illud planum erit planum distantiarum cequalium. Id sane patet ex eo, quod jam secunda sumposterioris

classis

autem

distantiaa a

**priore erant prius simul aequales
**

;

;

:

&

ma

**pertinens ad puncta ulteriora, quae nulla sunt, evanescat,
**

si

&

excessus totus

sit sola

**summa. Quin immo idem theorema habebit locum pro quovis piano habente etiam
**

puncta,

citeriorum distantiae habeantur pro positivis,

prior ulteriora

**nimirum summa constans
**

quo quidem pacto

summa omnium

Cuivis

veniri

negativis positivis, licebit considerare planum distantiarum aequalium, ut planum, in quo distantiarum sit nulla, negativis nimirum distantiis elidentibus positivas.

&

sit

& ulteriorum pro negativis ; cum excessus ipse positivorum supra negativa ;

piano

in-

posse paral-

lelum planum distantiarum aequalium.

facile jam patet, data cuivis piano haberi aliquod planum parallelum, distantiarum quod planum cequalium ; quin immo data positione punctorum, piano illo est rectas in data id alterum Satis ducere a datis definitur. singulis punctis ipso, facile directione ad planum datum, quae dabuntur turn a summa omnium, quae jacent ex parte altera, demere summam omnium, si quae sunt, jacentium ex opposita, ac residuum dividere per numerum punctorum. Ad earn distantiam ducto piano priori parallelo, id erit planum quaesitum distantiarum aequalium. Patet autem admodum facile & illud ex eadem

246.

sit

Hinc autem

&

;

Thoorema

prseci-

puum

si tria plana distantiarum aequalium habeant uni-

commune

modi.

cum punctum

;

rcliqua ornnia por id transeuntia erunt ejus-

ex solutione superioris problematis, dato cuivis piano non nisi unicum distantiarum aequalium, quod quidem per se satis patet. planum Hisce accuratissime demonstratis, atque explicatis, progrediar ad demonstrandum 247. haberi aliquod gravitatis centrum in quavis punctorum congerie, utcunque dispersorum, & in quotcunque massas ubicunque sitas coalescentium. Id net ope sequentis theorematis si per quoddam punctum transeant tria plana distantiarum cequalium se non in eadem communi aliqua recta secandemonstratione,

esse posse

;

&

tia ; omnia alia plana transeuntia per illud idem punctum erunt itidem distantiarum

esqualium plana. Sit enimin fig. 37, ejusmodi punctum C, per quod transeant tria

plana

GABH, XABY, ECDF,

qua;

om-

nia sint plana distantiarum aequalium, ac sit quodvis aliud planum KICL tran-

itidem per C, ac secans prirecta CI quacunque oportet ostendere, hoc quoque fore planum distantiarum aequalium, si ilia priora

[i i6]-siens

mum

ex

iis

;

ejusmodi

tria

sint.

;

punctum P

&

Concipiaturquodcunque per ipsum P concipiatur

plana parallela planis

DCEF, ABYX,

tertio

GABH, quorum

in recta

sibi priora

occurrant in recta

recta

in

**duo mutuo PM, postrema duo
**

in

PO

**PV, primum cum
**

:

ac

GABH

MS,

primum

occurrat

piano

in

& MN, PO, DC

Demonstratio dem.

ejus-

piano DCEF in QR, ac piano CIKL in SV, ducaturque ST parallela rectis QR, MP, quas, utpote parallelorum planorum intersectiones, patet fore itidem parallelas inter se, uti

inter se, ac

MN,

secundum vero eidem

MS, PTV, BA inter se. 248. Jam vero summa omnium dis antiarum a piano KICL secundum datam directionem BA erit summa omnium PV, quae resolvitur in tres summas, omnium PR, omnium RT, omnium TV, sive eae, ut figura exhibet in unam colligendss sint, sive, quod in aliis

plani novi inclinationibus posset accidere,

una ex

iis

demenda

a reliquis binis,

ut habeatur

secundum eandem omnium PV summa. Porro quaevis PR est distantia a piano datas directiones ob earn directionem quaevis RT est aequalis QS sibi respondenti, quae a laterum trianguli SCQ est ad CQ, aequalem MN, sive PO, distantiae piano XABY secundum

;

DCEF

**A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY
**

no way cause any

all

193

For the distances of the points of the first class from the first be & their distances from the second plane will, all together, zero, plane, be equal to the distance O multiplied by the number of them ; & this sum is to be added to the former sum for the points lying on the near side. Again, the distances of the points of the second class from the first plane were, all together, at first equal to the distance O multiplied by their number, & then are nothing for the second plane. Hence from the sum of the distances of the points lying on the far side, we have to take away the sum of these last points also multiplied by the distance O & thus, to the excess of the sum of the on the side over the the on the far side we have to add the sum near sum of points points of all the points in these two classes multiplied by the same distance O. 245. Now, if the plane parallel to the plane of equal distances should lie on the far Theorems for a side of all the points then the following theorem is obtained. The sum of all the distances P 3;"6 v in s beyond a 1 t h e points M i -77 777 i , , of all the -points from this plane will be equal to the distance between the planes multiplied by extension of these theorems to the sum of all the points ; if there were two parallel planes, such that one of them lies beyond ^any all the points, ff if the sum of all the distances from this plane is equal to the distance between the planes multiplied by the number of points, then the other plane will be the plane of equal distances. This is perfectly clear from the fact that in this case the second sum relating to the points that lie beyond the planes vanishes, for there are no such points, & the whole excess corresponds to the first sum alone. Further, the same theorem holds good for any even if there are if the distances of points on the near side of it it, plane points beyond are reckoned as positive & those on the far side as negative ; for the sum formed from the positives & the negatives is nothing else but the excess of the positives over the negatives. In precisely the same manner, we may consider the plane of equal distances to be a plane for which the sum of all the distances is nothing, that is to say, the positive distances cancel

difficulty.

together, will

;

1

l

,

/

i

7

i

7

7

.

.

,

,

1

;

y

the negative distances. Given any plane, 246. From the foregoing theorem it is now clear that for any given plane there exists another plane parallel to it, which is a plane of equal distances ; further, if we are given the a ^fane" of equal also the plane is given, then the parallel plane is easily determined, distances, parallel position of the points, It is sufficient to draw from each of the points straight lines in a given direction to the & these then are all then from the sum of all of them that lie on the given plane, given ; one side to take away the sum of all those that lie on the other side, if any such there are ; & lastly to divide the remainder by the number of the points. If a plane is drawn parallel to the first plane, & at a distance from it equal to the result thus found, then this plane will be a plane of equal distances, as was required. Moreover it can be seen quite clearly, & that too from the very demonstration just given, that to any given plane there can cor-

y

respond but one single plane of equal distances ; indeed this is sufficiently self-evident without proof. The 247. Now that the foregoing theorems have received rigorous demonstrations &

explanation, I will

important

any three^i'anes' o'f no matter how number of masses may be into which they equal distances The proof follows from the theorem coalesce, or where these masses may be situated. p^ft( ^heiT^ny there three distances that do not all cut one another in other plane through // through any point pass planes of equal some common line then all other planes passing through this same point will also be planes of equal \^ ^^e nature! distances. In Fig. 37, let C be a point of this sort, & through it suppose that three planes,

:

proceed to prove that there they are dispersed or what the

is

a centre of gravity for

set of points,

GABH, XABY, ECDF, pass also suppose that all the planes are planes of equal distances. Let KICL be any other plane passing through C also, & cutting the first of the three planes

;

CI ; we have to prove that this latter plane is a plane of equal disthree are such planes. Take any point P ; & through P suppose three tances, to be drawn to the let the first two of planes ; parallel planes DCEF, ABYX, these meet one another in the straight line PM, the last two in the straight line PV, & the first & third in the in the Also let the first meet the plane straight line PO. line the second meet in this same in & the MN, QR, straight MS, plane plane the plane CIKL in SV, & let ST be drawn to the lines & MP, which,

in

any straight

if

line

the

first

GABH

GABH

DCEF

straight parallel since they are intersections with parallel planes, are parallel to one another ; similarly are parallel to one another, as also are MS, PO, parallel to one another. Proof of the theothe sum of all the distances the from 248. Now, plane KICL, in the given direction r will be to the sum of three all the PV's into the this can be resolved BA, sums, ; equal

QR

DC

MN,

PTV & BA

&

the PR's, that of all the RT's, & that of all the TV's whether these, as are shown in the figure, have to be all collected into one whole, or, as may happen for other inclinations of a fresh plane, whether one of the sums has to be taken away from the other to the sum of all the PV's. Now PR is the distance of a point P from the each two, give measured in the direction to the & eachRT is QS that corresponds plane DCEF, given equal to it, which, on account of the directions sides of the of the given triangle SCQ bears a ratio to the latter to or the distance of P from the plane given , PO, being equal

that of

all

; ;

CQ

MN

194

**PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA
**

in ratione data

;

datam directionem DC,

aequalem etiam nulla ex

in

&

PM,

distantiae a piano

ipsis

GABH

quaevis

VT

est

itidem in ratione data ad

TS

secundum datam directionem

EC

;

ac

idcirco

PR, RT,

TV

poterit evanescere, vel directione

mutata abire

e positiva

negativam, aut vice versa, mutato situ puncti P, nisi sua sibi respondens ipsius puncti P distantia ex iis PR, PO, evanescat simul, aut directionem mutet. Quamobrem & summa omnium positivarum vel PR, vel RT, vel ad summam omnium positivarum vel PR, vel PO, vel PM, & summa omnium negativarum prioris directionis ad summam omnium negativarum posterioris sibi respondentis, erit itidem in ratione data ac proinde si omnes a suis negativis destruuntur in illis tribus positivae directionum PR, PO, a suis negativis destrudistantiarum etiam omnes aequalium planis, positivae PR, RT,

PM

TV

;

PM

TV

entur, adeoque

& omnes PV

positivae a suis negativis.

Quamobrem planum LCIK

erit

Q.E.D. [Haberi 2A.Q. Demonstrato hoc theoremate iam sponte illud consequitur, in quavis punclorum semper aliquod pravitatis J 7centrum, atque id fongene, adeoque massarum utcunque dispersarum summa, haben semper aiiquod gravitatis esse unicum.] centrum, atque id esse unicum, quod quidem data omnium -punctorum positione facile determin-

planum distantiarum aequalium.

77-

?:;_.

arbitrium ubicunque, ut puncto P, poterunt duci ut OPM, RPM, RPO. Turn singulis poterunt per per ipsum plana quaecunque, num. 246 inveniri plana parallela, [117] quae sint plana distantiarum sequalium, quorum priora duo si sint DCEF, XABY, se secabunt in aliqua recta CE parallela illorum intersection! tertium autem ipsam CE debebit alicubi secare in C ; cum planum RPO secet in P nam ex hac sectione constat, hanc rectam non esse parallelam huic Transibunt igitur per piano, adeoque nee ilia illi erit, sed in ipsum alicubi incurret. C tria distantiarum num. 247 & aliud quodvis punctum plana aequalium, adeoque per transiens idem C erit distantiarum planum per punctum planum aequalium pro quavis ac ipsum punctum C juxta directione, & idcirco etiam pro distantiis perpendicularibus definitionem num. 241, erit commune gravitatis centrum omnium massarum, sive omnis congeriei punctorum, quod quidem esse unicum, facile deducitur ex definitione, & hac nam si duo essent, possent utique per ipsa duci duo plana parallela ipsa demonstratione directionis cujusvis, & eorum utrumque esset planum distantiarum aequalium, quod est contra id, quod num. 246 demonstravimus. 2 5 Oemonstr <indum necessario fuit, haberi aliquod gravitatis centrum, atque id ^nm^nlaberiseml centrum esse unicum & perperam id quidem a Mechanicis passim omittitur si enim id non per graviubique adesset, & non esset unicum, in paralogismum incurrerent quamplurimae Mechanicorum ipsorum demonstrationes, qui ubi in piano duas invenerunt rectas, & in solidis tria plana determinantia aequilibrium, in ipsa intersectione constituunt gravitatis centrum, &

abitur.

tria

Nam assumpto puncto quovis ad

MP PM

;

GABH

:

;

;

D

;

;

alias rectas, vel omnia alia plana, quae per id punctum ducantur, eandem proprietatem habere, quod utique fuerat non supponendum, sed demonstrandum. Et quidem facile est similis paralogismi exemplum praebere in alio quodam, quod magnitudinis centrum appellare liceret, per quod nimirum figura sectione quavis secaretur in duas partes asquales inter se, sicut per centrum gravitatis secta, secatur in binas partes piano aequilibratas in hypothesi gravitatis constantis, & certam directionem habentis

supponunt omnes

aequilibrii

secanti parallelam. 2 S I- Erraret sane, qui ita defmiret centrum magnitudinis, turn determinaret id mapiltudinis^noii in datis figuris eadem ilia methodo, quae pro centri semper haberi.

Is ex. gr. pro triangulo gravitatis adhibetur. in fig. 38 sic ratiocinationem institueret. Secetur

ipsum

ABG

Deinde, secta AB itidem bifariam in E, ducatur GE, quam itidem constat, debere secare triangulum in In earum igitur concursu C partes aequales duas. habebitur centrum magnitudinis. Hoc invento si progrederetur ulterius, & haberet pro aequalibus

partes, quae

alia

AG bifariam in D, ducaturque BD, quse utique ipsum triangulum secabit in duas partes aequales.

\C* " '/ C"^^ '"^AVx

\

sectione

quacunque

facta

obtinentur

;

erraret pessime.

constat, fore ipsam

ED parallelam

Nam ducta ED,

BG, &

per

C

jam

ejus dimi-

diam

adeoque similia fore triangula [118] ECD, BCG, & CD dimidiam CB. Quare si per C ducatur FH parallela erit ad ABG, ut quadratum BC ad quadratum BD, seu ut 4 ad

;

AG

9,

FBH

ad residuum

FAGH

**triangulum FBH, adeoque segmentum
**

;

est

Ubi haec primo demonstrata

252.

**Nimirum quaecunque punctorum, & massarum
**

;

ut 4 ad

5,

&

non

in ratione sequalitatis.

congeries,

p

adeoque

&

qua concipiatur punctorum numerus auctus in innnitum, donee ngura ipsa evadat continua, habet suum gravitatis centrum centrum magnitudinis infinites earum non habent & illud primum, quod hie accuratissime demonstravi, demonstraveram jam

quaevis, in

;

e

figura

**A THEORY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY
**

XABY,

measured

in the given direction

195

is also in a lastly, given ratio to TS, the the distance of the point P from the plane GABH, measured in the given direction EC. Hence, none of the distances PR, RT, can vanish or, having changed their directions, pass from positive to negative, or vice versa, by a change in the position of the point P, unless that one of the distances PR, PO, PM, of the point P, which corresponds to it vanishes or changes its direction at the same time. Therefore also the sum of all the positives, whether PR, or RT, or to the sum of all the positives, PR, or PO, or PM, & the sum of all the negatives for the first direction to the sum of all the negatives for the second direction which corresponds to it, will also be in a given ratio. are cancelled by the Thus, finally, if all the positives out of the direction PR, PO, corresponding negatives in the case of the three planes of equal distances ; then also all the positive PR's, RT's, TV's are cancelled by their corresponding negatives, & therefore also all the positive PV's are cancelled by their corresponding negatives. Consequently, the plane LCIK will be a plane of equal distances. Q.E.D. 249. Now that we have demonstrated the above theorem, it follows immediately There

;

DC

VT

latter being equal to

PM,

TV

TV

PM

is

always

1

point anywhere, point P there could be drawn through it any three planes, OPM, RPM, RPO. Then corresponding to each of these there could be found, by Art. 245, a parallel plane, such that these planes were planes of equal distances. If the first two of these are DCEF & XABY, they will cut one another in some straight line CE parallel to their intersection also the third plane must cut this straight line CE somewhere in C for the plane RPO will cut in P, & from this fact it follows that the latter line is not parallel to the latter plane, & therefore the former line is not parallel to the former plane, but will cut it somewhere. Hence three planes of equal distances will pass through the point C, & therefore, by Art. 247, any other plane passing through this point C will also be a plane of equal distances for any direction, & thus also for perpendicular distances. Hence, according to the definition of Art. 241, the point C will be the common centre of gravity of all the That there is only one can be easily derived from masses, or of the whole group of points. the definition & the demonstration given for, if there were two, there could in every case be drawn through them two parallel planes in any direction, & each of these would be a plane of equal distances which is contrary to what we have proved in Art. 246. 250. It was absolutely necessary to prove that there always exists a centre of gravity, The need for 6 & that there is only one in every case & this proof is everywhere omitted by Mechanicians, ^centre^f gray For, if there were not one in every case, or if it were not unique, ity in every case, quite unjustifiably. very many of the proofs given by these Mechanicians would result in fallacious argument.

that, for any group of -points, tj therefore also for a set of masses scattered in any manner, there exists a centre of gravity, there is but one ; this can be easily determined when the For if a is taken at random like the position of each of the points is given.

it

from

W

W

ty^^^ty

^

MP

;

GABH

PM

;

;

;

;

Where, for instance, they find two straight lines, in the case of a plane, & in the case of solids three planes, determining equilibrium, & suppose that all other lines, & all other planes, which are drawn through the point to have the same property of equilibrium ; this in Indeed it is easy to give every case ought not to be a matter of supposition, but of proof.

example of fallacious argument in the case of something else, which we may call the centre of magnitude for instance, where a figure is cut, by any section, into two parts equal to one another just as when the section passes through the centre of gravity it is cut into two parts that balance one another, on the hypothesis of uniform gravitation acting in a fixed direction parallel to the cutting plane. 251. He would indeed be much at fault, who would so define the centre of magnitude For

a similar

; ;

there

is

not

then proceed to determine it in given figures by the same method as that used for the m^aitude centre of gravity. For example, the reasoning he would use for the triangle ABG, in Fig. 38, would be as follows. Let AB be bisected in D, & through draw this will certainly ; divide the triangle into two equal Then, having bisected AB also in E, draw ; parts. it is true that this also divides the Hence their point of triangle into two equal parts. intersection C will be the centre of magnitude. If then, having found this, he proceeded further, & said that those parts were equal, which were obtained by any other section made

&

061

D

BD

GE

through

C

;

he would be very

much

CB.

in error.

**we now have
**

would be

parallel to half of similar,

ED

& CD

BG & equal

For, to half of it ;

if

if

ED

is

drawn,

& therefore

is

the triangle FBH will be to the triangle ABG, as the square on or as 4 is to 9 & thus the segment FBH is to the remainder

;

Hence,

FH

BCD, BCG drawn through C parallel to AG,

it is well the triangles

known

that

BC

is

FAGH

to the square on BD, as 4 is to 5, & not

in a ratio of equality.

252. Thus, any group of points or masses, & therefore any figure in which the number Where the first c * of points is supposed to be indefinitely increased until the figure becomes continuous, possesses a centre of gravity ; but there are an infinite number of them which have not

got a centre of magnitude.

The

first

of

these, of

which

I

have here given a rigorous

196

**PHILOSOPHISE NATURALIS THEORIA
**

;

olim methodo aliquanto contractiore in dissertatione De Centra Gravitatis hujus vero secundi exem