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W. Wallace - Life of Arthur Schopenhauer

W. Wallace - Life of Arthur Schopenhauer

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1793. 22nd February. early years . their home life . i/SS . an inverted education to experience preceding books . Arthur Schopenhauer born at Dantzic. members of the outside public . dislikes the prospects of . ence among the people because he helped to free the the function of history merely Schopenhauer gained an audi mind II from historical paraphernalia CHAPTER II. returns Hamburg. Schopenhauer more akin to the English than to the German philosopher . national characteristics inherited even on alien ground . causes and effects. influence of the Dantzic republican spirit . his father s view of a commercial education . Dutch extraction . in England. . advantages and disadvantages of each of these circumstances . CHAPTER The masters of philosophy in I. school there . 1799 . Dantzic merged in the Prussian kingdom . PAGE Germany have generally been the University professors . inherits the Dutch mercantile pride . mother . father . goes to Havre. funda mental differences between his early training and that of his German predecessors . 1797 . his definition of the true philosophy of history accessary and illustrative .CONTENTS. the Schopenhauers move to Hamburg. birth . ancestors . his contempt for the historical method in theology and philosophy . history of Dantzic .

1813 . . 1814. death of his father. April. PAGE declines the alternative offered by his starts with his parents on a tour through Europe. Weimar who was further .. the charges of university professor against him .. (published. enters a merchant s office at Dantzic. iSu . moves &quot. returns to and final disagreements with his mother . enters of meets Wieland . his pessimism . and at Hamburg.. CONTENTS. he comes under the influence of Romanticism. he moves to Rudolstadt. the latter moves to Dresden.G a commercial father I . takes his Doctor s degree at . his mother goes to Weimar. three months at a Wimbledon boarding- early traits of character. October. Goethe s theory of Light he seeks Schopen hauer s support . his contempt for the plagiarism made and Fichte . his personal property . on the rise of Prussia against Napoleon. publishes as his Doctor s essay Philosophical Treatise on the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient &quot. 1807 his enthusiasm for the classics . . life . &quot. 55 CHAPTER Schopenhauer for s life IV. his contempt I the lower. 1803 to 1805 school . his man &quot... at Dresden . University Gottingen. . Romanti cism defined . physical nature of materialism and spiritualism . .. 1809 . his strained relations with his mother. and impressions of his journey. the contrast between him Jena .. dissatisfaction with life . III. his mother agrees to his retiring father . . attends Gall s lectures on mental physiology . his views of Plato and Kant . 1805 . early years of this century Greek in the Schopenhauer goes to school at especially of Gotha and Weimar. his objections to necessary creed .&quot. 1804. to University of Berlin. life at Gottingen . 1816) essay Reason. 1805 . the position of philosophy at the time . 1813. &quot. A its qualities and method. his On Vision and Colours&quot.. and becomes a social and literary success . . due to their opposite characters . to blame ? his views on the heredity of the Will and Intellect . from mercantile life .. his gratitude to his 22 CHAPTER Development of classical studies .

it is the function . of the the chief place in philosophy belongs. his life there. his twofold character as man and as thinker &quot. but the gospel of a true life . not to the intellect. . his definition of the true philosophy and the true philosopher . the work . Schopenhauer visits Italy. not of The World as Will and Idea &quot. its fundamental principle being the identity in man between the perceived (material) body and the felt (immaterial) will . selfish quest of morality to purge the individual will of its egoism . jealous suspicions of his rivals. : it is a system. CHAPTER &quot. of published. in the artistic genius this unity of feeling finds fullest expression . The World as Will and with his publisher. dead to the lust of life. philosophy only by the gradual growth of his his contention that we can attain the true &quot. V. has ascended from the natural to the Spiritual Will . becomes college lecturer at Berlin. the exposition. this principle discussed . but of a single idea . the function of art is to reveal this unity possession of intellect of existence man s ignorance of this unity results in his of happiness and consequent wrong-doing. . by his man has lost his original fellowfeeling with all things. Schopenhauer wages war against the materialistic philosophy scientists . his chief reading in philosophy . its reception .realities&quot. metaphysic art. the highest life is that of the man who. but to the will the system of feelings and desires. difficulties Idea. science can never give a final explanation of reality . but fails. its style . its application to the uni verse at large . 1820. not an academic discourse. 1818. but by it he can regain that unity of feeling . not by science . his own opinion . his characteristic conduct in the matter . his ill- . which law can do no more than curb . i believe in a philosophy . the Will as a metaphysical power . Contemporary enthusiasm for Italy . his view of genius how far correct . the true philosophy connects ideas with reality. 1818 . the &quot.&quot.CONTENTS. CHAPTER VI. of science being mere appear ances (ideas). financial trouble.

. discussion of his two essays. Idea. &quot. efforts to gain popu larity . 1833 his estimate of the relative advantages of youth and age the defects of youth philosophy his chief . Parerga and Parali- plause . litigation with a sempstress . . 1836 . . with the semp . 1851). 2ist living at Frankfort during his later years ber. proposes to translate Kant into English . pabthe Will in Nature. . sister . general public. his coarse. 1860 Septem 165 INDEX 213 . his life at Frankfort . scientific his work materialism.The World as Will and 1844 consequence at length appreciated. as well as his style and method. consolation literature. or even of silence concerning his works . with all of which he had no sympathy. other translations .&quot. finally settles as a confirmed bachelor at Frankfort. visit to settles his dispute . . the chief of his early disciples pomena&quot. and on the advantages of a classical education his love of animals. PAGE temper leads him into Switzerland and Italy stress . lishes still &quot. appealed . 1831 158 VII. to (published. pub lished in 1841 as &quot. partly in of the growth of historical criticism. 1838 . its method . 1848. gains prize for an essay on the freedom but another essay on the basis of his consequent rage morality rejected all . On his objections to newspapers. he is . further grounds for dissatisfaction with the Universities . CHAPTER Re-opens correspondence with his mother and moves to Mannheim. and mode of his death. unappreciated is of the Will. portraits of him . discussion of his &quot.. and democracy. second edition of .8 CONTENTS. his craving for public ap the main body of his adherents drawn from the whom the many points dealt with in his philosophy. passionate nature his love affairs his views on sexuality . 1832 . insurrection in Frankfort.&quot. and general im rivalry or opposition. his ideas on history and . his solitary life . moves to Frankfort on the appearance of women and cholera in Berlin.The Fundamental Problems of patience of Two Ethics&quot.

instead of studying the thoughts of a philosopher. make themselves acquainted with his life &quot. instead of occupying themselves with a picture.&quot. But. has &quot. and the nature of its gilding. reflecting on the taste of its carving. are like people who. after all. and has freely used the Works. the in somewhat uneventful It has thus sought to escape from the judgment of Schopenhauer. the following sketch has drawn from supplementary papers by his ANY Life of Schopenhauer must be founded on the borrowed some descriptive notes from his mother. and history. are rather occupied with its frame. especially the friends. Besides these main sources. Parerga cidents of and a Paralipomena. to interpret life.&quot. . there is nothing to keep the English reader from using the ample resources recent translations have given him for getting at these thoughts more directlv.PREFATORY NOTE. biographical materials supplied by Gwinner and Frauenstadt. that those who.


art. In Germany. CHAPTER in I. the would be going out of the way to inquire into the ulterior causes of this circumstance. down at least to the present day. With a few striking said that in England. or left to the energy.SCHOPENHAUER. or religion. it among may be ourselves. Germany take a different place in the literary commonwealth PHILOSOPHERS from what they hold exceptions. Nor is it which accrue possible here to discuss at length the profit and loss according as the ideal interests of a community in science. or to point out it how hangs together with more general contrasts in the social and political system of the two countries. and . are administered under a more or less direct delegation from the supreme power in the state. and the professional cle ment has been entirely secondary. the fountain head of the philosophical stream has not been in the Universities. the treasures of learned wisdom have been entrusted to the keeping of a chosen teachers in the Universities. on the contrary. It official order. enterprise.

On some the other hand. not because it is his official duty to say something on them. In his anxiety to win the applause of his brother-experts. on the whole. the guiding control of an academic system. which secures a tolerably high level of thinking even for mediocre minds. and his approbation no doubt give its even . the selftaught and independent thinker is freed from the dangers of conventionalism. a more exact style of thought. liable to prejudice and conventional appreciations. in compensation. technical with more knowledge. and he deals with the great problems of and thought. may the common suffrages more reasonably. and to superior minds gives a discipline which guards against many an extravagance. But these gains are counterbalanced. is apt to specialist. and seek for solutions life of his difficulties. But. Hence. it is sometimes said. but because his own reflections have made him realize difficulties. the writer has been accused of losing touch with the general public and A narrower range of sense of the nation. a subtler power of logical analysis. Philosophy in Germany has. German philosophy has had for centuries a continuous tradition. there is apt to be waste and misdirection of effort. come to be something solely written who hope to by professors for professors. a tendency to eccentricity. there is a risk of good-will of private agencies. or for those be professors one day. yet the the philosophical specialist. but also more clients.12 LIFE OF Yet it is clear that much Without depends on which arrangement is adopted. a more or less uniform vocabulary and usage. incoherence and inequality in the line of development. lose the true sense of proportions.

name and still more &quot.SCHOPENHA UER. as indispensable it to for the the health of philosophy. and philosophy has dared to deal with higher questions. it has helped to heighten the general faculty for practical administration by imbuing it with ideal elements.&quot. it has been largely bound up with the interests of theology and sobered by its blished and connection with the general machinery of the the inevitable give state. infidelity. just because the utterances of philosophy Germany have been chiefly made through an esta endowed order. fit flying wildly it. In and take. recalcitrant is to that orthodox philosophy. while. in the impatience of mere authority. philosophic. theology has gained an ampler and opener spirit.&quot. heaven ward or elsewhere. and put on magisterial vestments which hope for in embarrass its movements. has been associated with a tendency to free-thinking. on the other hand. and religion. philosophy must surely gain traits preparation of conservatism. than either could England. Turned into an engine for the of youth. The term &quot. philosophy has occasionally all things established. as the might take At times.philo sopher. it is true. and radical antagonism to Perhaps. behaved like an untamed Pegasus. But with some exceptions and still more in philosophy has been in its main currents the mouthpiece of an opposition to the established order of in England France beliefs of a class. which entrenched (though not under the of philosophy) in the great eccle siastical institutions of the country. And in again. as . as is harmonious movement of the political system. cannot make up pathy and for the 13 absence of that popular sym is interest which art. or of isolated individuals.

it has seemed it But. in Kant. it is true. . passages which have the power that true and adequate words always have to reach even the popular intellect : but. on the other hand. It is otherwise in Germany. . and its vigorous debating power in Bentham. organized substratum of popular opinion. or even Hobbes. out of which it and to give a clear and distinct must always be its main concern. after a lingering struggle that all Schopenhauer reminds of It was indeed only he reluctantly abandoned hopes of a University post. many of these points England more than of Germany. to have held it enough if they knew what they were saying. it still commands attention by its honest simplicity in Locke.14 in LIFE OF Hobbes and Bentham. without taking the further trouble So inexplicable has of saying it intelligibly to others. it has been bumptious and obstinate for as in Locke. English philosophy has been written in the re-organization to which If it does not always ordinary language of literature. that the vulgar have explained it as wilful mystification. While German philosophy has used a technical dialect of its own. They are believed. commonplace has had a dangerous affinity and as in Hume. scarcely conscious of the gravity of the issues. in large part. reach the dignified eloquence it wields in Bacon and Mill. not always without ground. these writers are to their countrymen a book with seven seals. as there are in his great successors. There are. been In their obscurity. and took his place among . English philosophy has rarely for gotten its higher speculation intimate kindred with the great mother of all with that crude and imperfectly perpetually springs.

and ethics in which he had never he was by his very dilettantism. to the uncircumcised heathen. most had. or humble officials. He was to become an Apostle to the Gentiles. had been he would have been glad to enter the regular army of philosophic teachers.SCHOPENHAUER. perhaps even to fascinate. as children of peasants. precise. teachers of Germany. to guide. to toil through the dull and steep or approaches other drudgery till they received the pittance awarded to the state-paid teachers tutorial of . work of a requisite systematic teacher he preparation of methodical in the regular. and work according to its regula tions. or artisans. qualified to stimulate. by inward troubles. drawn philosophic passion. those who like himself were led by temperament. and more wanting faculty and almost prosaic palpable bulks for not primarily by which metes out wisdom consumption by audiences. from Christian Wolff in the end of the seventeeth to Hegel in the end of the eighteenth century. If it 15 possible. now that the chosen people of For the culture and learning had refused to hear him. to ask the world. But if he was unsuited to be a teacher of that systematic logic been a thorough learner. the free-lances of speculation. but by the pressure of academic ordinances. in was without the still training. by situation. by his interest in problems as they mind. But there was other work for him to do. by his literary faculty. strike the natural why and the wherefore of all this unintelligible He came to his work with other training and prepos sessions than the majority of his philosophical rivals or In the long list of the more notable predecessors.

whose intrinsic truth he still assumes. . It was not altogether his liberty was as the independence of a gain indeed voice crying in the wilderness the unlicensed teacher : : social world. under which their youth had been Hence he had to go through hardly any of that led.16 . had he imbibed much of the historical beliefs. and heavy yoke they had to wear. after he had picked up easy lessons in the open book of the natural and the opening manhood. in the years of was unregarded and the official philosophers. disburthening and remodelling by which the great thinkers of his earlier time had sought to transmute As especially in religion. conspire to ignore him. significance. LIFE OF Instead of the tight of philosophy. Fichte begins his career s by a first criticism of revelation is in general. into their theological creeds they Hegel the theological permanent value. or ideal had inherited. as he wildly supposed. was. the From Kant to inward reflections. yet acted strict on the feeling that it was scarcely within their duty to examine into the pretensions of this un little accredited missionary. Schopenhauer. left free to form and expound his convictions on the purpose of life and the worth of the universe. prepossession dominates their Almost the last work of Kant is his all-unhinging to square accounts between criticism and the religious dogmas of his Evangelical teachers. if they did not. a college essay and the his latest studies are embodied in his lectures on philosophy of mythology and the philosophy of . with income enough to steer an independent way. literary performance Schelling on the philosophical value of the old religious legends.

It was not that he rejected miracle as religion of such. and to groan out the words Foetor Judaicus ! With a great deal in the asceticism and pessimism of early Christianity he was thoroughly in sympathy. may naturally do who have not grown up under historic in or who have not learned how dependent the hypocritical as they individual intellect. liation Hence to him these : efforts at reconci seemed to those fluences.SCHOPENHAUER. he thought. for the existence of God. national tions re-actionary influence of the optimism and of the Hebrews. But its deep sense of the through the evil the need of self-renunciation. 17 Hegel. What he rejected was the limitation of miracles . on the great Hence it was easy and natural for Schopenhauer to pass by Christian theology and modern Christianity with a sniff of contempt. He had not gone and came to through the inward contests of faith philosophy with only the minimum of an inherited and this reconciliatory : Of adopted creed. is historic tradition of faith and knowledge. His upbringing had made religion a formal thing. revelation. in hours of leisure during his Swiss works out for himself the inner and everlasting purport of the Gospel story . with its more purely human scheme of salvation. even the greatest. the It old for was legendary supersti these reasons that he turned admiringly to the less historically-coloured Buddha. and only two summers before his death he was lecturing on what are called tutorship. which had lie very much outside him never appropriated his whole soul. Proofs all &quot. work Schopenhauer spared himself the trouble. the &quot. and of had been obscured. in the world.

while they had accentuated the inner harmony between philosophy and religion. To such mind the contrast between science and all philosophy teaches. only to one who has watched step by step the successive concretion of its members Thus they adopted. and unfolds its inner structure and stratification. For him. . The condensed and opaque reality of the present (they held) becomes transparent. therefore. but along the course of history. His contemporaries. On taught the eternal presence of the miraculous in the presence in all things of a supreme nature. he had no eyes except for the outward discordance between the attitude of faith and the attitude of reflection. and the limitations of space and time. not least Hegel. under the form of time. which the meaning of present reality by means of a historical method they sought to show that the slow process of history is. an extra-mundane design. truths were for all time. life.18 to a few LIFE OP years of the world s hisloiy. were engaged in an attempt to get at history. instead of seeing that told its of the universe. he life position. was exaggerated to thorough depreciation of the latter. by limiting to one place and person the process of redemption. and reality. which never ceased from evincing itself superior to the law of causality. to a special inter the contrary. Only. Christianity erred by laying stress on the historical accuracy of a record of event. The a- antithesis purely historical turn of was part of a settled contempt for the which marks Schopenhauer. a gradual revelation of the organic principles which form the basis of actual . and Not otherwise had the philo sophers taught from whom he so bitterly disagreed.

and of manners and customs.&quot. in his laying judgment. from a philosophical point of view. to have studied enough history. all. a few good. &quot. and &quot. of could at a single glance see farther and deeper than the duller eye of the mere scholar could hope to range. This self-same element. which to-day pursues the same ends identical as it did yesterday and as all it ever will. in conjunction with physical . The and historical philosopher has accordingly to recognize the character in events. of the East and the West. The at value it penetrative imagination of any genius. 19 subordinated. of costume. as they flow makes subsequent life and destiny of the human from the aforesaid qualities conditions. only a delusion. has to see everywhere the same humanity.. due to unmerited emphasis on certain accidents of scenery. the race. i. the philosopher as he conceives him. he says (with latent reference to contemporary attempts lies in to construct the scheme of historical advance). consists in the fundamental qualities many bad.SCHOPENHA UER. in all the endless changes and motley complexity of event.The true outward figure. of the ancient the of modern all world. drapery. the historical method. as an organon for Schopenhauer will hardly allow philosophical inquiry.e. and in spite the variety of special circumstances. The motto : of philosophy in general must run Eadem sed aliter. perceiving that. To have read Herodotus is. even with all The so-called the optical helps of erudition and archaeology. progress disclosed by history is. philosophy of history. For in him you already find history everything that the acts and pursuits. it is only the self-same unchange able being which is before us. which persists through of heart all and head change.&quot.

in the strict sense. . like those of experi ence in general. The lessons of history. handmaid accessary to History.&quot. and glamour of incident for the : light of reason. as a sort of guarantee that the truth has not been stolen or lost. But it would be worse than un historical grateful to fail to resist the and to take the pathos mere impulse of curiosity. worship the mere historical.20 It LIFE OF would be ungrateful to disparage the value of research. and betray a doctrinaire hardness to resist its charms. but can only conduct that obser vation by help of the premature and fallible theory it assumes. It is / antiquarianism the extravagance of intellectual / relic-worship is which Schopenhauer censures. it corrects bare theory by the observation of the actual operation of ideas in the world. is but a science and philosophy her function illustrative. There for many good people . is owned by those who It can identify themselves and their faith with the past. and The so-called historical method but serves to correct the mistakes into which the mere analysis of conceptions may fall when con ducted apart from the real presence of fact . are only apprehended and estimated at their due value by those who already have a general grasp of the to truth which these lessons are supposed For these reasons one may excuse the exaggeration in which Schopenhauer helps to free the mind from its perpelual antiquarianism its tendency to enforce. old vestments a picturesque pathos in these but the truth is not in the museums and : sepulchres where they lie it The charm of the historical &quot. and to count the ancient swaddling-clothes of a truth worth preserving.is risen.

spiritual or natural. their duties who bound by links of love. because he cast away all those paraphernalia of philological and historical erudition which the cultured scholarly mind is liable felt to rank People was one who spoke directly to their needs. name heard. &quot. at least. who are inherit their position. that such a division between the scholar of the populace should exist. their aims.SCHOPENHAUER. but. and which stood on the borrowed One authority of its historical lineage. because really That historical partitionmeaningless. still less . that here been hired to defend. who have to stand for themselves for that vast multitude in the modern world which is con tinually drifting or being driven from its ancient moorings never be the one thing needful. to the generations that have gone before. to their hearers. Hence his success in quarters its where its philosophy rarely makes influence felt. and who was no mere scribe expounding a do^ma which he had &quot. the fact that this interposition may be sorry and the mass But it is unfortunately of historical form and material is what cuts off a great majority of the world from any direct access to truth. he is less encompassed and hampered by it than most of his rivals. It is what renders nine out of every ten sermons so inefficacious. to the new workers and thinkers. is 21 natural to the classes . Schopenhauer gained an audience amongst those thus the historical can disinherited (by their own or others act) of their ancestral goods. to the heterodox and the isolated. wall Schopenhauer does not entirely break through . and obedience. as the very heart of the matter. and custom. But to the rebel and the revolutionary.

for an odd coincidence. 1677). had thought so much on these dates as to note it down. out a quaint pathological interest hauer. who had held some to ecclesiastical post at Gorcum was still (or young Schopenhauer with his parents out of their way to visit the spot where their forefather had preached. on February II. and that memory take And it is not with we hear that Schopen kindred who prided himself on his intellectual to the great Jew. fresh Gorinchem) enough in Holland. at Dantzic Through both parents he could claim Dutch extraction. fall into fantastic analogies in the attempt to trace the . Three generations back ward from 1788 would take us near the time when Spinoza died (February 21.CHAPTER A 2~\. that he was ushered into the world exactly 1 1 1 years and one day after Spinoza left it. Perhaps the influence of his Dutch lineage has more importance than these fancies of a strange transmigration It is no doubt easy to of souls through cycles of time. these ancestors the traditions of his family had especially preserved the memory of a great-grandfather Among of his mother. 1788. RTHUR SCHOPENHAUER was born 22.

hardly possible to help seeing in the caution. and by his glowing strain of poetry. amid new environments. But it is only a cheap scepticism which those chooses to ignore an lurks in obscurity influence altogether. . The organic memories of race and family linger. behind. what effects the we can gather some idea of Dutch mercantile lineage might leave spirit. is And from the latter philosopher. still The biographers of effective. but in the hypothesis of his mother belonging to that land of France. in Kant. because it and refuses to be accurately estimated. and had many opportunities of observing national types in the mixed society of his native town. And. coming to later times.LIFE OF SCHOPENHA UER. 23 evidence for a persistence of national characteristics in who have been long since parted from their ancestral soil. Others have found a significance in the fact that the father of the light-hearted Boccaccio had taken a wife from the And similar instances of the way daughters of Paris. the dry humour. who was an eager student of geography and anthropology. struck by his passionate sympathy all creatures of field and wood. St. not in mere associations with Provence. The commercial remarks Kant. have sometimes gone so far as to seek the explanation. the blending of coolness and fervour. has a general similnrity to the temper of aristocracy everywhere. from which he got his name. the symptoms of his Scotch ancestry. hereditary characters prevail on alien ground are seen in the history of philosophers. Stoicism and the later sects of Greek wisdom owe some of their tone and shading to the Oriental blood which ran in the veins of many it of their adherents. with Francis of Assisi.

But. Andreas Schopenhauer. pursued the same family career. he retired to spend his declining days. is proscribed. thoroughly as one feudal castle from another by its drawbridge. One house as the merchant parted from another by its business as engagements. He possesses a million. was lessee of one of the large farms belonging to the municipality. the business of the merchant His with the calmer interests of the rural cultivator. While the Englishman says The man is worth a &quot. whatever weight may be due of moral types. calls his office is free from ceremony. these ancestors from the Netherlands had for two or three generations lain open to all the social and political influences settled in the course of commerce.&quot. com bining. million. and the Frenchman. And Dutch pride in general is marked off from other forms by its insolent contempt for others. after his death in 1794. He had blending mercantile with landed pursuits. It is essentially unsocial. as many have done.&quot. and there in his house. a southern suburb of Dantzic . acquired a piece of property at Ohra. by a puffed-up conceit which that is regardless of other far feelings and ready Kant. It will be seen s to lapse into rudeness. another Andreas. But the Dutch capitalist has his peculiar phase of mercantile pride. his widow continued . the great grandfather of the subject of this narrative.&quot.&quot. son. where they had At the beginning of the eighteenth century. the merchant of Holland looks up to one who com &quot.24 LIFE OF &quot. mands a million. same spot. amid an ample On the garden. &quot. of Dantzic. So Schopenhauer too often to the transmission justifies this prognosis. and all friendly intercourse.

and brother. The youngest of the family Floris. John Frederick. and discreditable and father of in 1747. The dominant feature of his nature was a resolute tenacity of purpose. ture of France In his judgments on the deeper he was a disciple of the school of lighter which then litera was also often the more frivolous and non-moral and England. to manage her own From her the children of this Andreas seem to have inherited degrees some congenital weakness or perturbation of spirit. or problems of human life He was well-read in the Voltaire. He was conspicuous in the city for his knowledge of affairs.advanced&quot.SCHOPENHAUER. may be styled &quot. to reside for a few years longer 25 since she affairs. a passion for inde pendence and distinction. who died young. the philosopher was Heinrich born Henry Schopenhauer seems to have received all the intelligence and perseverance which had been denied In conjunction with another to some of his brothers. bodily endowments. This superficial culture was unequally matched with his A square and muscular frame. views. His tastes were such as beseem the ambitions of the cavalier and the aristocrat such as fired the merchant princes in Italian republics. The eldest son. which sought more than mercantile gain. upwards imbecile. who died in 1795. left behind him a character for foolish prodigality. was deemed hardly in various fit but under guardianship. he created for and success which was second to none among the merchant houses of the old Hanse town. a cosmopolitan habit of mind.enlightened&quot. . their firm a character for enterprise a reputation for what &quot. also called Andreas (who died in 1816) was from his youth The second son.

and would A what seemed obstinacy and severity. and a deft artistic hand . him no less in fury fell . Her City Council. whereas Heinrich Schopenhauer had more faith in the capacity of the old patrician system to ride safely through the storms of the time. managed of the the policy of Dantxic. and liable to self-complacency. his children would cower before the storm but his wife let the empty turbulence roll past It was after her that Johanna took her undisturbed. a quick observant eye. of her Her advantages. and a robust power sympathy. Like his future son-in-law too he was a man who had travelled literary and was still and had acquired a relish for those adornments of life in which Dantzic somewhat lacking. In her maiden days the mother of Arthur Schopen hauer was known by the name of Johanna Henriette Trosiener. Unfortunately he resembled widely.26 LIFE OF broad face with wide mouth and prominent underjaw. graceful life) with clear blue eyes and light and charming rather than pretty always a little conscious . artistic vehemency of temper. little tempered by delicacy. grace. was one of the party which wanted to adapt the constitution to supposed a member modern requirements. When these fits of upon him. education had been laid out on broader lines than own usually prescribed the training assigned to young maidens . She too was bom and nurtured in one of the families which father. but they sufficiently indicated a surplus of vitality and selfassertion. a neat figure (at least in early brown hair . : an easy life-enjoying disposition. or helped to intensify easily lead into physical hardness of hearing the spirit of isolation. did not give him precisely the look of an Adonis .

The pro spective bridegroom certainly was far from handsome but an ugly face was counterbalanced by a prominent position in the city. she consented to become were his wife. of . and the prestige of a well-appointed establishment. The unwelcome suitor was soon disposed but we do not wonder that at the age of eighteen of. Jameson.&quot. than could be expected from the cut-and-dried themes of the school Under his and more friendly lead her reading was ampler Unfortunately this sympathetic mentor was withdrawn from her about the time of her marriage the Scottish clergyman was obliged. if aware. she was startled by his open avowal of his love. to But Johanna had quit Dantzic for his native land. they 16. a special tutor of her Sampson. stimulating in quality. Dominie love. for a Anyhow she did not keep her wooer long waiting favourable reply. a reputation for ability and courage. not to mention an evidently strong and genuine devotion of . also &quot. who looked after the spiritual needs of the British colony there. an Edinburgh minister. who was then thirty eight. May 1785 heedless. and without professing for him an attachment which she scarcely felt. Dr.SCHOPENHA UER. own a kind of youthful whose susceptible breast was so smitten by her charms that one day. born in 1766) this winsome young lady was years (she attracted the attention and admiration of Heinrich Schopenhauer. when she was just thirteen. married. perhaps in con room. After a very short engagement. in 27 Dantzic or elsewhere at that date. in range. : sequence of the commercial depression of the time. fair the Johanna attracted the notice In her early years of her father s neighbour in town.

towards Oliva. Even then too he generally brought with him a friend or two from town. there stood a belonging to the Dantzic merchants. Within were prints and casts of classic and noted works of art. husband in the But except on a rare occasion like this. and that was when even though it was a specially busy time. a little About four miles few to the north-west of south of the main road which runs from villas Striess to Oliva. only from a Saturday to a Monday that the master of the house came out to spend with his wife the his few leisure hours he allowed himself from desk. One of these country-seats. Johanna had the solitary enjoyment of what treasures and pleasures the villa might offer. was the summer home of Schopenhauer. The young wife took up her abode in her husband s country house. he rode out from town to announce the fall of the Bastille. a prettily-wooded range of low sand-hills. a pond with a boat light enough for one : person to manage were spaniels. who then. looking forth on the Baltic. however. and forming the outlying bulwark of that undulating range of forest which covers the inland regions of Pomerellen. eight pet-lambs (the .28 the penalties LIFE OF which vulgar faith has in many regions assigned to wedlock initiated in the month of May. and on Sunday a number of other guests sat round their table. especially strong in without was a terraced garden with ancient elms novels and beeches. as now. sought release in summer from Behind these villas rises the heat and noise of their busy town. Dantzic. and a well-stored library of French and English literature. Only once could his wife remember a visit from her one day course of the week. It was.

for whom the ease of this dolce far niente was pierced by occasional longings for an ampler life and a more definite sphere of action. 29 and a which rung an octave as they gambolled pair of horses in the stables while two : or three miles away. failure But. in perpetual variety from day to day and hour to hour. Frankfort. And yet was what may be called an accident that her son Arthur first saw light in No. lay or tossed the East Sea between the mole of Dantzic haven at Neufahrwasser on the east. Johanna passed the two first years of wedded life a prisoner of love. they had reached London. and by occasional visits to her parental home. after crossed the path by Pyrmont.SCHOPENHA UER. The was that soil. was the first misfortune which. it failed. several bells of together). became a habitual feature of their intention of Schopenhauer. and spent some weeks there. his and appropriate what its expected child should be born on English profits accrue to those so indigenous. regarded England as a promised land of liberty and intelligence. first So too it con it tinued even after her child was born. as one may of the philosopher. varied by a removal to town when the winter set in. and the long promontory of sandy woodland which curves round from the west to terminate in the light house at Hela. and Paris. year the married couple started on the first of those tours which ere long life. like so many a continental in the eighteenth century. For. and say. In such scenes. 117 of the Heiligengeist Strasse at In the midsummer of the preceding Dantzic in 1788. so far as such purpose existed. who. a sudden fit of home sickness on the part of the young wife led to a travelling .

by the name of into Arthur wish to a choice. in one of the gabled houses of the old Hanse town. as other children do. with a view of getting a change of scene and air for his children. and visitors to it long re membered the sweet notes of the tinkling cow-bells as the herd pastured in those fresh sunny days when spring at last bursts out in these landscapes with wreaths of verdure and flowers. and providing an easy occupation for his own advancing years. had fallen vacant. was baptized in the Marienkirche on the 3rd of March. Relics of old times and ways still hung about the manor. the world as a native of Germany. and before by Andreas Schopenhauer Johanna s father took the opportunity of renting the estate. Young Arthur grew up for the next five years. it is told. There could be seen an interesting memorial of feudal customs the days when the dependent peasantry were obliged to per- . prompted by the father s future chief of the firm with a truly cosmopolitan Christian name. while her husband was too burdened with business cares to find time for his weekly visit to Oliva. the to a village limit of the Dantzic territory. in The child thus perversely ushered the depth of winter. across Northern Germany. his endow the mother s idol and Stuthof In the very year of his birth. The farm adjacent of the same name lay at the very eastern the arms of the Vistula.30 LIFE OF precipitate return to Dantzic. To the Stuthof every May Johanna would rush off with her child to spend the month. the the meadow farm held more than half a century delight. enclosed between the Baltic Sea and The most delightful feature of spot was a fragrant pine-wood covering the sandy downs (diinen) by the sea.

rriaking request to a shoe which he had tossed in to stfeading full juimp out again. incident. the following sententious remarks The child has no conception of : tpe \jvith inexorableness of natural law. The &quot. He was caught one dfiy standing in front of a large vessel full of milk. human no characters too are and shows us that entreaty. perhaps because he feels himself one with nature. experience which teaches that inflexible. . unacquainted with the real essence of the world. still An old servant of the place remembered the time of Andreas that worthy occasion of Schopenhauer. depart from but how. It is a still later . led him to make in his early MS. . their host had promptly solved the problem of heating it. For when the great Czar and his spouse Catherine had honoured him by electing to spend the night in one of his chambers. or representa- or example. child meanwhile found the life of the farm- of pleasant surprises. which was stoveless. jtion. He that even inanimate things will give way to him tpelieves fk little.SCHOPENHA UER. perhaps because. form their covenanted dole of work 31 for the lord of the manor in presence of the bailiff with his whip. and was fond of telling the visitor how had covered himself with glory on the the Czar Peter s sojourn there in 1718. which stuck to his nuemory. and of the rigidity which everything sticks to its own nature. he believes it his friend. by setting fire to some gallons of brandy which had been emptied and thus diffusing through the room a vapour of spirituous warmth most acceptable to the ori the stone floor. | inijperial The couple. or kindness can jtheir course . each must enact make them . on the contrary.

they had zic become subject to the great Teutonic Order. after earfy struggles with the Polish tribes around them. gi proud of the Venice of the North w being encircled by the rising power of Pruss and writhed in impotent rage against the inevital doom realize of absorption. It is difficult at the present day the vivid force of the principle of republic. Tl community the sense of sion. with nature. the inevitableness of a law of Meanwhile the rushing to its last act close of a long political struggle was around the unconscious heads to mother and the fast child. &quot. of their dislike to towns. title Dantzic &quot. and her allegiance lay outside Germany The history of Danl Practically it was a state by itself. then.&quot. They couU go back to the fourteenth century when.free autonomy which animated the depth which confronted them. had its charms for her patriotic citizens. and capacity. which sough . character. and tl the For autocratic principalitl the upper orders in such was a proud posse which they would not have exchanged for any pc of dignified servility at the court of prince or king. We cannot wonder that the issue of the struggle touched thel Theoretically Dantzic was a part of th Polish kingdom. citizenship successive steps in the growth of the Prussian monarch were so many grades in the process which curtailed the. which its admirers &quot. And men tradition of his added like Henry Schopenhauer wit Dutch freedom felt acutely th contrast absorption between the old virtual independence an into what then seemed a mere militar despotism of a low and mechanical type.82 his special LIFE OF mode of conduct.&quot. feelings deeply.privileges.

to fortify the faith 33 half-savage and convert the heathen on these then But the glory and the strength ot plains. fas the most prosperous age in Dantzic s history. subject to the undefined and The kings of Poland. and. University of Padua that senatorial legal knowledge which. after the revolt of the Netherlands had losed against the Dutch the Catholic ports in the South.gt. &quot. and especially.gt. ixteenth century.f o the example of the Italian renaissance . succeeded in winning &amp. exhibitions. and trasts it increased the violence of the con between rapacious wealth and a discontented popu- 3 . a succession of intestine feuds. the seventeeth century brought the calamities of the Thirty Years War . Polish crews far as Spain and a counter current of exchange in the shape ideas and arts flowed in from the southern ports.SCHOPENHA UER. through the rocess of a twelve years warfare. one of . The louses and churches of Dantzic bear a traceable witness . virtual irely exerted suzerainty of the independence. even by to seek at the des or &quot.. of border raids waged by ambitious and turbulent it adventurers. however. Its trade -consisting chiefly in grain targes which descended the extended as river in manned by .&quot. was held the most needful and also the most honourable study in the commercial republic.rder. To Dantzic.ates . its imitates Sammichele city s work at Verona and the bursa- ible youth of the &quot. and as her citizens grew potent and wealthy they juld ill brook the domination of the now decaying I In 1454 they had thrown off the yoke and eslroyed the castle of the Knights. as to the rest of Germany.nd Italy &amp. were encouraged. like the jus civile in Rome. brought also. Dantzic came from her partnership in the Hanseatic eague.

which assigned the Prussia the rest of Vistula. But Frederick the Great was dissatisfied with these conditions. ex cluded from the spoils of office. it might be. and involved the payment of a heavy pecuniary indemnity to the victors. make the place too hot for its inhabi A customs barrier so completely invested the sides of visit town on all they would pay a approach that the patricians. In that fall there were several stages. The and other powers had imposed upon possession of Dantzic was essential to the com mercial unity of his kingdom. The In 1772 came off the first of those national crimes known as the partitions to of Poland. just outside the gates. The government was passing more and more into the hands of a clique . the French candidate for the crown of Poland. freely accused the ruling class of dishonesty and nepotism. which ended in its capitulation. He proceeded accordingly from his stations in the vicinity he was master of the fort at Weichselmiinde by the harbour. as well as of the to inland regions tants. and the mass of the people. had to sub mit to what they considered the insolence. In 1734 the city. all By that arrangement. in consequence of having given a refuge within its walls to Stanislaus Leczinski. when to their suburban seats at Oliva. was subjected to a fierce five months siege by the Russian forces. Polish districts left to to the west of the Lower a nominal autonomy. of the custom-house officials curiously inquiring into the wine and provisions they brought out .34 LIFE OF lace. the exactions. catastrophe of Poland was also the downfall of independence for Dantzic. and. or even at Langefuhr. which the Dantzic was jealousy of Russia him.

the more . Even the mere formalities managed by French employes.SOHOPENHA UER. when practised in such minutiae. could be exasperating The City enough. Thus for several years this vexatious surveillance con to harass the life and to destroy the trade of Dantzic. flict in tariffs was going on.&quot. replied the latter. While this con Heinrich Schopenhauer. the commander of show the investing troops. offer was brought to fail. and though his arguments were ineffectual on a man whose liberte. had an interview with the long Prussian king at Potsdam. Tell the commander. and when they my horses will be On the death of Frederick the Great in 1786. offered to sense of his entertainer kindness by permitting forage to pass through the lines for the fine stud of horses for which his host s son Hein rich was famous. his at Ohra. made attempts at compromise with Prussia . &quot. as late tinued as 1784. turned to the question of the practically blockaded The king urged the merchant to settle in Prussia.that my stores are killed. who 1773 was on his way home after a in absence foreign parts. &quot. motto was Point de bonheur sans he sent the republican a formal license permitting him to take up an unhampered settlement on any part of Prussian territory. but their efforts were foiled by the ignorant cries of treason that proceeded from the lower ranks of the populace. Council. at least of those parts of it which were still out side Prussian rule. . vvith 35 of the douane. who had s his quarters in the house of old Andreas Schopenhauer. aware of the dangers of the situation. his notice.&quot. them. Conversation naturally in the spring of city. On one of these occasions. when the full.

The Schopenhauers did not wait for the &quot. Heinrich deter with wife and child he started in the night for his country house. Thus at the age of five. Its good . involving not merely the natural loss from a hasty forced realization of capital. mined enemy appeared. but the further penalty of a payable to the fiscal authorities duty of 10 per cent. end. visit to and only allowed his wife a Yet the influence her relatives every few years. Though they settled at Hamburg. and next day proceeded in haste through Pomerania on the road to Hamburg. city to consummate the annexation . Something was broken in the proud spirit. As soon to depart as the . he never became a naturalized citizen. of the commercial republic was a paramount element in Like determining the character both of father and son. a Prussian corps. If the German arms gained no great glory in their campaigns against revolutionary France. Dantzic ceased to exist as a free city. by the candidate for expropriation. He refused to set foot in Dantzic again. Schopenhauer followed his parents into exile. all such influences it has its good and its evil. But wiser heads judged otherwise.36 LIFE OF all peril thoughtless of the Dantzic citizens rejoiced as if were over. they were at least strong enough to give the final quietus to the republican In accordance with the pro of the second gramme partition of Poland. This transference of domicile was a costly affair.&quot. on the 8th of March. and though the father carried on his business there for the next twelve years. accorded by the general in order assuage the rage of the betrayed people. and after a few weeks to delay. 1793. arrived in front of the irregularities of Dantzic.

Many of the traits of the physical and mental fibre of such a city re-appear in Schopenhauer. an overbearing. and egotistic The whole city. without any mischievous kept to intent. is 87 a fearlessness and audacity of view. A certain coarseness and hardness accompanies mercantile place. an independence of judgment. The heads of great firms easily fall into frame of mind. but there will also be unquestionable vigour. it life. and even . may the purely indication of the temper of the be noted that a savage breed of dogs was As an guard the great granaries on the Granary Island. there will inevitably be a certain uncouthness in the new phase. though many tales were on record of unfortunate boat men from the corn barges who. On the other side. dictatorial. whose chief intellectual pursuit is law. a plain straightforwardness and simplicity of purpose. he is the first scion who emerges into the In such a transference higher ranges of intellectual life. republicanism on such a scale is apt to be proud and ill-disciplined. working amid the artificial legal system.SCHOPENHAUER. with its oligarchical the want of the civilizing effect of feels regular authority put in the a mere despot. trammels of an hands of one too high to be Lawlessness of spirit. to breed an anarchic temper unfitted to work in regular harness or do its part in conjoint labour. honesty. formation of untamed characters who are encourages the more anxious to secure their rights than careful to consider their duties. had taken refuge in these sheds and been torn to pieces by their canine guardians. Out of a family and a city of bankers and traders. constitution. and whose culture goes little beyond a superficial polish of art and letters. of force from one sphere to another.

either at school or at home. a thoroughly peculiar type.38 a LIFE OF grand originality. instruction Books and verbal generally are the staple instruments employed. as confusing and probably wicked. the presented to them. Their minds are made they are carefully kept apart. a scheme of moral and religious precepts is to believe. avoided. They education of are the years of his first education. The new . but by a number of tasks methodically arranged is familiarized principles to a matter selected with the application of certain general and prepared beforehand. force is fresh. spon taneous. on the whole. and are thus prepared in a large and liberal way for the world from which. more heart-whole. which is not less pregnant of consequences than the environment of his infancy. Direct contact with the world The pupils of experience is. learner is and that an For most the period between rarely left to himself. familiar with rules and principles. The world they deal with is a world . less aims and secondary considera is The years which young Schopenhauer spent at Ham burg (1793-1807) form a second factor in the develop ment of his mind and nature. and unhackneyed dissipated by collateral tions. as they are encouraged complex details of actual life are solidly established. on which. which they are encouraged to embody and apply in a body of selected instances. young people of his position in life their fifth and twentieth year is passed in regular The discipline under uniform and artificial conditions. Amongst other things. move real in an abstract and almost fictitious world. with formulae and commandments.

is apt to foster its peculiar If it gives a vivid and picturesque reality to fallacies. before Yet the difference need not be exaggerated. In the veloped on comparatively abstract subjects. clothing abstract ideas in their real instances. of general categories. the faculties of perception. and mistakes an in illustration for an argument. but. were the first to be exercised. case of Schopenhauer. it often causes laxity in the hold of principles. grand tour of Europe. thoughts. the exceptional career of one who is left freely to his own devices. Schopenhauer. that it would be a mistake to go too far in prudently The elder . For such an aim he believed and probably steps. instead of. the and not to understand their uses and limits is a serious deficiency in preparation for the battle of life. of judgment. that through a career like this life Schopenhauer it s con temporaries approached medium of books. as others do. His and he only training was fragmentary and spasmodic. went to school and college after he had accomplished his it. words are the very body and reality of thought. of observation. no doubt.SCIIOPENHA UER. There is danger after all. and of his torical they saw through the Their reasoning powers had been de forms. study of mere words. 89 ogreed to reduced to what the wisdom of ages has It was recognize as its essential reality. simplified. and its either course has peculiar perils. who was proud of his was bent on seeing his son follow in his business. and \vho only borrows a more little from many casual masters. If the ordinary pupil is liable to overestimate forms and words and reasoning. in dealing with the raw material of life.

Commerce needs not supreme conceptions. combination of characters requires that the pupil should mean where surface fundity. . aged nine. but keep that graceful culture never goes too far beneath the or retires into too reserved and serious pro So in 1797. a year after the birth of his only Adele. &quot. Schopenhauer senior might have agreed with Leibnitz there had been but one language in the world. and national interests level of mere survivals from an obsolete The is because it study of languages has only an interest a necessity of the commercial situation : an early mastery of the linguistic means of intercourse is indispensable to whoever will win his way in the world. The pure realist. spirit its commerce cosmopolitan history and To practical estimate and historical studies are beside the main questions of are counted as civilization. but principles of medium range. and likely to become useless or misleading if refined and rendered too uni versal. life. With views like these young Schopenhauer was to be trained for the merchant career.&quot. young Arthur Schopenhauer. but so that he should still keep in view the Such a position of a gentleman. and that. Its knowledge all is is that of the media axiomata detailed experience the well-guaranteed maxims of a which eschews of scientific idealism. rules of practical wisdom. derived from the knowledge of the world.if the human race would have saved a third part of its lifetime which has now to be spent in learnin- languages. Otherwise the time thus spent is wasted. sister not degenerate into a mere scholar.40 LIFE OF ideas devotion to general and fundamental principles.

young Anthime Gregoire. He saw : parents attracted by the society of literary people his mother in particular setting an especial value on Her meeting them and having them in her house. and Havre in the household of a commercial There for two years he correspondent. went so far as to talk of purchasing ideal of a literary He . getting lessons along with the son of the The two boys soon house. The fascinate him. But the boy felt &quot. and three years. was taken by left 41 his father on an excursion to Paris. elder Schopenhauer belonged in We his views to the age before Goethe. but of the author. At Hamburg Arthur was sent frequented by continued at the somewhat the it to a private school. The must re heart was delighted. In the two years absence he had so thoroughly forgotten his native to these tongue that his father s member the time. intellectual tastes found a chord responsive in her son. aversion his to the career he was destined for.SCHOPENHA UER. believed in the superior cosmopolitan value of French and English. and to the Germans of the age of Frederick any traces of the rise of who had hardly begun to see German literature and who. Arthur went back by sea alone to Hamburg. persistent entreaties. admirers of Voltaire and his compeers. became fast friends. and in later years often looked back happy days of boyhood. In 1799. not of the His father. and did not control his growing promptings which would not &quot. let him rest content with modern and commercial course which he followed there. then at remained. . Gregoire. sons for of the wealthier classes. and scholarly life began to longed to wield the pen. yielding to his clerk. M.

his parents started for England and Scotland as far as Loch Tay and Inverary. whose experiences Madame Schopen hauer afterwards published an account) went by Amster dam and Calais towards England. . Schopenhauer set out with his parents in the spring of 1803. future LIFE OF to secure his learned ease in the but when inquiries on the subject showed that . On condition of his promising that in the future he would devote himself to a mercantile career. he abandoned the idea. with &quot. If. Schopenhauer. on the other hand.42 a canonry for him. and of Latin. and drawing as extras. Then he proceeded to suggest another plan. not to return to Hamburg till New Year.&quot.music. in sight-seeing in weeks a tour in of Lord Nelson (who about this date was living at Merton Place) were among the pupils. including Havre. At this person s boarding-house (he was a clergyman of Merton a few miles off) about sixty boys between the ages of six and sixteen received an ordinary English education. he was to remain fixed at Hamburg. found the Two nephews new manner of life very irksome. leaving Arthur for the three months they were away in charge of a Rev. The mechanical . The prosecuting the study of literature boy of fifteen could hardly do other than pronounce in favour of the immediate pleasure. he was to take part in a long excursion to France and a visit to his youthful friend at England.&quot. Lancaster at Wimbledon. After spending six The travellers (of London. by which his son was offered the following alternative. who also was a &quot. Mr. fencing. he stuck to his pre dilections for the career of learning. the price of such a benefice would not be small. 1805.parlour-boarder.

A little love or a little severity would have been a welcome supplement to attitude. whom affection has not blinded to her son s faults. She gave a half-serious. warned and many crises in his life show how needful that he should put a prompt check on the warning was his tendency to bombast and empty pathos. and of a good deal of the English character of which it is symptomatic- a Like most foreigners. especially history. and that a little hard work on literature. tunately these how the boy was emphatically the father of the man. with advantage put on a more affable and accommodat ing behaviour. this purely critical Schopenhauer carried away an unfavourable impres sion of the boarding-school system. without stern discipline and unfaltering But his mother s remarks. style of instruction. he was struck by prevalent tone of cant and hypocrisy. and on her attitude to her son.SCHOPENHA UER. Unfor regulation faults of temper and expression were too radically founded in his nature to be removed. were the burden of complaining letters to his mother on his dreary position. half-playful rebuke to his im He was reminded that he might patient grumbling. . he was indulgence in romance and fiction. young and old. and the march on the Common. would be better than too ample Above all. and who does not feel any keen obligation to train firmly and watchfully his errant steps. throw light also on the character of the mother. while they show guidance. and by the predominance of ecclesiastical interests in ordinary life. the 43 long Sunday services. or suppressed. They are the words of a somewhat dispassionate observer.

it strikes. and they meet clad only in the native ornaments of their spirit. et tout brutis noir. genius. the passion. the emotional note precious. the ideas they awaken and define. to over the misery of human beings. in the glory their own might has won. du soldi ct at the tanicres ou Us vivent de pain d eau de ratines. as La Bruyere described them . where the distinctions of time and place and rank that parted them on earth have dropped away.44 LIFE OF was beginning to record his impressions of what he But he rarely describes the objective facts . which was In November. 1803. are Thus at London. Bordeaux. noirs. by way of Tours. and thence back by Lyon and Geneva to Vienna.&quot. On his brood travels through France. a what he counts permanently visit to Westminster Abbey great minds turns his musings to that grand assemblage of in the world beyond the tomb. Not the accumula tion of knowledge. and Nimes to Hyeres. that has been recorded of that proclivity his mother accused him of. these scenes all Of Arthur s is impressions of in illustration &quot. he notes down are the sentiments they originate in him. but the feeling. the Schopenhauers vt A reached about midsummer. Thus early does he worship and regard power inborn power and not out ward tokens of honour as the sole thing which can defy the destroying hand of time and death. 1804. all the charms of the landscape are one day suddenly dispersed by the sight of some wretched huts and the wretched humanity within them some of those animaux farouckes. livides. after thoroughly inspecting which they proceeded in January. what He saw. left England Rotterdam for Paris.

His was no doubt an abnormal constitution. probably further unstrung by this roving style of life. already pierced for him by sudden glimpses of insight into the mystery of the unseen. his parents From Vienna he and proceeded to Berlin. the curse of crime clings to them and. and over its is dreary wastes. The : lad has evidently the uncanny Hamlet-like gift of penetrating beneath the calm and smiling surface of life he cannot help seeing the skeleton which is grinning horribly in the cupboard. its Such it will uncomfortable clairvoyance. . in the coldly-averted looks of those destinies of around them.Veil metaphor he afterwards took from the of Maya. anticipation the East) the &quot. At Lyon he sinks into visions of the gruesome horrors of the Revolution times.&quot. second sight He His is a kind of does not indeed foresee death and doom is to come. some ten years before.e. more than a century the before. which envelops the living so that they pass. the illusion. but in the midst of the banquet of life haunted by the pallid faces and sightless eyes. lightly over the crevasses of life. i.SCHOPENHAUER. unseeing. even should they be restored to freedom. not qualify to possessor play a part in the social comedy or to by this bear calmly the little worries of existence. which facilitated these fits of moody absorption in the inevitable misery of the world. as he sees the inhabitants pro menading merrily over the square where. 45 is At Toulon he the struck by hopeless galley-convicts . a spirit may become a prophet and a seer: certainly. drives them back to its weary round.. which Or (if we borrow by usurp the place of the living. their fathers had been massacred by grape-shot.

These injunctions to prepare for the mercantile career are combined in his father s letters with no less insistence on the duty of acquiring a graceful upright carriage. where the For about four months. to came Hamburg expound his then novel views on mental physiology. never was there merchant s office. Every moment he could he stole from duty to bestow on his favourite authors a book being ready to be opened as soon as he felt the superintending eye withdrawn. the inter connection between mind and body. and left his wife and son to continue their route to Dantzic.40 LIFE OP where the father diverged to Hamburg. In such a to a perverse frame of mind he was abruptly brought . had taken his place in the office of a senator of Hamburg. It happened too to that in that year Gall. Arthur tried to pick up the practice of the counting-house. Schopenhauer did not hesi tate to adopt the usual subterfuges by which those put under authority seek to cheat their superiors.&quot. at his latter was &quot. the phrenologist. which had so gravely shocked Vienna opinion. or rather the direct revelation of spirit in brain. then to . But never. even though he has to get screwed up the proper posture by accepting a rap across the shoulders for every deviation from the perpendicular. and did his best. as he himself in self-dis paragement admits a worse clerk in a (in the autobiographical sketch he afterwards wrote for the Berlin faculty). Dantzic merchant. By the first days of 1 805 young Schopenhauer. To attend Gall s lectures on that fascinating topic. to gain a in good business hand drawing out bills. named Jenisch. in the confirmed. office of a father s repeated request. close on the completion of his seventeenth year.

and in 1799 many houses became bankrupt. For two years he stuck. fortunes were made and lost with fatal facility . ness and irritability. and there had been increasing signs of queerdeafer. and taken up dead. and prices rose enormously. in April. And if . 1805. but the balance of suspicion inclines to pre sume an act of self-destruction. Speculation naturally flourished . up. proceeded to post. halt by his father mercantile life at s 47 death. and the clearing for all bills of exchange was the Hamburg Bank. he was found one day precipitated from the upper storey of a granary into the canal. Stocks of goods still went on accumulating. at an earlier date. but they agreed its many of their estimates of young Schopen hauer felt in his heart that he had not been quite loyal to his compact.SCHOPENHA UER. Whether accident or frenzy caused the calamity remains uncertain . though with fearful groans. Upon Arthur the event fell with The father and son had disagreed on which life crushing weight. We know little of the latter s But we do know that after the breaking out of war between Germany and the French Republic. But other For some years he had been growing things helped. the trade of Hamburg had gone rapidly Hamburg. the profession to in should be devoted. The city became the chief entrepot where the colonial com house produce of Great Britain was exchanged for the and timber of the Continent . seem to have Latterly these losses touched Schopenhauer s father. to his unwelcome His mother. value. At last. Old friends would be unrecognized and treated as impertinent strangers. the feeling would only intensify the bitterness with which his soul was filled.

and learned to use the author s pen. sketches of travel. 1806). sphere (he had from humble himself a distinguished scholar and was already stricken by the fatal disease which made carried warm ledge Between him and the widow a friendship sprang up . and with considerable popu lar acceptance. his critical faculty and know him off in 1808.. L. which formed the staple She herself found scope for long-neglected artistic gifts. she began the stimulating guidance of of and the the comrades in his Round Goethe. within a year or so. subsequently she attempted. freer life. at make use ness was as The some busi loss. Her house became one of the social centres of Weimar. and works of fiction. her slumbering talents found their new and Under way literary. In this development her first adviser and director was K. ter Johanna. both social and She and her daughter took their part in the theatrical performances interest at round of of life and Weimar. where Goethe and lesser magnates were often seen. Fernow. of history helped her over the literary this difficulties of to beginning authorship. was to be expected. edit the life and memorials of Her first work was departed friend . and the moneys realized were invested in various securities. There. . which she reached only a fortnight before the battle of Jena a (Oct. example Table of arts and letters. with her daugh Adele (who was ten years old).48 LIFE OF wound up of her new-gained independence. who is a strik ing instance how enthusiasm and patience can win for literary ability its appropriate beginnings art-critic). art-biographies. to appropriate fields of action. Fernow. at the age of forty. set off for Weimar.

Romantic School &quot. classical ideal of beauty a beauty simple. much more to the literary predilections of With the later years of the eighteenth century the literary German world saw the movement. of art strangeness. to blend the claims of beauty with the charm of passionate interest. in some ways a development of the work begun at Weimar. begin to modify its character and The so-called pass into the hands of other leaders. novelty. and life. Few natures can find entire satisfaction in worship at this formal and ideal shrine. &quot. at These broodings from his in own feelings which he indulged take their material and circumstances. The mere form must receive the colours of emotion. Truth and light . and the dulled sense for pure beauty be stimulated by the attractions of variety. 4 . which had culminated in the union of Goethe and Schiller. Goethe and Schiller had seemed too formal and statuesque. but somewhat flimsy Court- Bohemia of letters which gathered round Goethe. 49 Whilst his mother was thus entering with zest into the light-hearted. a and demanding from its worshipper an unselfish calm enjoyment. in their purity had been the high. The boundaries of art and science. generous. had to be broken down. but they owe form which they borrow from the the age. of poetry and religion. his life. For most there is a craving to mix up art with life. Schopenhauer Hamburg grew more and more dis satisfied with himself. love. but in many more a reaction and a protest. a severe restraint. had begun . and his surroundings.SCHOPENHAUER. removed by their ideal altitudes and Olympian serenity from the sympathy of the common people. and from the contact of the national life.

and dwelt by choice in a world where fact is ever leaping up to wed with . It has visions of a human and personal emotion beating at the very centre of all nature and all the process of history. should seek to get nearer the humble common heart in the ages when man lived.60 LIFE OF so as to reinforce each by another. of utilitarianism. of orthodox classical regularity. of reversion from the common place present to the more august past. sympathetic heart. and calls after it the rare and spiritualized souls who seek a richer and a freer life. regularity it grew wild and fantastic. and realistic common-sense. in the so-called Impatient of superstition of the fireside and the vulgar. in the mysterious East. With such a faith it is inevitable that Romanticism. or could be thought And so to live. and no moral governor. but a breathing. : To define Romanticism at this period of rationalism. and produce a potent elixir of enthusiasm. no general providence. it up raises the banner of fancy and imagination. is difficult its very votaries period take it as a watchword. in the medieval world. of religious and chivalric idealism. descending from the altitudes of philosophic idealism and the platform of culture. but an individual heart ready to meet and help in all their fickleness and weakness the human wills that crave for its kindly presence. nearer to the nature. to which every detail of human wish and aim is precious. but that not a mere high and philosophic wisdom of love. varying.spirit than now. Romanticism turned its civilization to seek the back upon science and modern homes of the natural life. of which they In antagonism to a gradually decipher the significance.

will throw itself for shelter and salvation into the bosom of a Catholicism which no less may it it imagines as much as finds. though a bitter one. It had infinite longings finite or what it and impossible aspirations which nothing temporal can ever satisfy. strong in religious fervour. formances.SCHOPENHAUER. its fruitions spoilt by the sense of deception . It is that blaze of artificial which civilization of light weary and science and reasoning have spread. intrinsic contradiction a jest even. in the darkness. pose and prudence are in the very instant of accomplish ment set at nought by a deeper justice of fate. Romanticism. itself to be recalling a life in grander state and with freer utterance which it it ingly to the heaven lived long ago. 51 however quaint. and which alike for good or ill is the antipodes of this mechanical world in which emotion and sentiment are but powerless interlopers. fancy. when the heart seems to spread into illimitable space. The contrast between its audacious hopes. &quot. At Hamburg Schopenhauer is fully under the sway of such a sentiment. where Protestantism seems the very acme of rationalism. and would fain again enjoy the mystery of night. and its paltry per . and can. which It fancies unconsciously rules the movement of things. find a hint and a symptom of presences which make the world less lonely and limited. But seek the everlasting hills in the religions of the far-off East. his Life seems to him an imaginations are perturbed. and as his mood is gloomy. It delighted in noting calls the the way in which pur irony of life &quot. and reverts long has fallen from. or in pantheistic absorptions. its yearnings after absolute and entire satisfaction. In some cases.

intelligible to every capacity and exalted even above virtue and vice. to the poor and empty life which can satisfy not one wish out of our infinite longings . to forget the lowly dust on which we have been cast down . In to as he added.62 LIFE OF the eternal heavenward aspirations. the restless urgencies. perplexed by the lad s despondency and fierce dislike to daybook and ledger. In dithyrambic and verse he longs to &quot. the age of eighteen was no insuperable barrier making that acquaintance with the classical languages which forms the preliminary to all higher advances. consulted her friend Fernow if it were not too late for her son to begin the Fernow.&quot. himself passed through a like experience of changed vocation. replied that. &quot. who had preparations for a learned career. His mother. when emancipated to see into the life supernal.&quot. some consolations.soar to the throne of the eternal. which. &quot. the warfare between real. sink down to grasp a fulfilment even in dirt ideal and ashes.&quot. for knowledge is earnest him for acquiring and steadfast. . the age of the scholar. after fluttering feebly round the gates of paradise.which refuse to be in quieted any sublunary region these are the recurring tones which dominate his thoughts.&quot. he writes. and . and if his zeal fact. to love only the spirits. will only more quickly and rationally the qualify lessons .in the bodies Music alone offered him then.conquer &quot. with perseverance and talent in the pupil. if his intellectual powers have been otherwise developed. and &quot. &quot. have not ceased to beat through the centuries of barbarism and in it a direct echo of the eternal has been left us.. as up to his latest years. The pulses of divine music.

the merchant. and the son might seem to have been in his resignation to his principal. Noble. thou didst also make provision that in a world like such a son should be able to subsist and to develop him And without this thy care I should have been brought to hundred times. and of told spoke to his young friends them of the grand house grand brilliant style of travelling. however. exception to the But general mean and hypocritical ways of other ranks.SCHOPENHA UER. and so to subjugate it that.Dedication of the second edition to the manes of my father. himself might then be inclined to accuse his father as a harsh disciplinarian. but even in manhood and up to the present day. at once sent and prepared to quit Thus the father s plan for his boy s career Hamburg. 53 of a classical training. the best evidence of his feelings is to be found in the adding that the merchant a following passage from his papers . For. not merely through &quot. In my mind the tendency to its only proper vocation was too decidedly implanted to let me do violence to my nature. beneficent spirit to whom I owe everything that I am. he saw more had done for his welfare. recking nought of existence in ruin a . a defaulter to his And that son faith pledged years ago. ! helpless childhood and unregarding youth. was at an end. As years passed and more how much his father He their is him with gratefulness. Schopenhauer burst into tears of joy. and talents. who had obstinately refused to per ceive his peculiar temper by. evidently a first draft of a declaration which was meant at one time to stand at the head of the second edition of his chief work : &quot. Thy presiding care hath sheltered and borne me. I am. Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer. as thou didst bring into the world a son such as this self. his father had kept. When he received this communi cation enclosed in a letter which conveyed his mother s assent.

&quot. and apply them to their destined purpose. I That could expand the forces nature gave me. consolation. &quot. let it carry thy name as widely as .vivre: il ne vaut fas la peine de hs passer a ramfer dcvant des coquins meprisablcs. Cccsar nnlltis nob is haec olia fecit. and to have foreseen that he would not be plough the earth. And every one who from my work derives aught of joy. or by other mechanical industry apply his forces to secure a subsistence and thou seemest to have foreseen fitted to . basely to beg for the hardearned piece of bread. Therefore shall I praise thee. thy thrift and provision for the future. thing for me thy prudence. general. and know that if Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer had not been man he was. or instruction. could not possess the talent to compete. Nam &quot. shall iearn thy name. and humbly join himself to the eulogistic retinue of bungling char latans . . Maecenases and their advisers. while no one does any for that I thank thee. that thy son. which I owe to thee solely and to no other. mediocre et rampant. the who mine hast finished. Arthur Schopenhauer would have been a hundred And so let my gratitude do the only thing for thee times ruined. and active only for my personal existence. that I could follow my natural instinct and think and work : for beings without number. as thy son. or to flatter self-conceited commonplaccness. my father. Therefore to thee I dedicate my work and hail thee in thy grave with a cry of gratitude. my noble father. proud republican. it should find its sole task in procuring daily bread.54 LIFE OF SCHOPENHA UER. which I can is capable of bearing it. thank thy activity. Voltaire: Notis n avoiis que would rather think with thy revered deux jours a. thou that he. in cringing before ministers and coun cillors. Even for this case thou seemest also to have provided.

on the pursuits of adult In extreme forms Philan thropinism probably sank into a vulgar devotion to palpable results. against liberal and scholarly instruction led Classical studies to a corresponding freer flight. which set forth as its chief aim the capacity of writing an elegant Latinity. more weight to the bearing of school-lessons life. to A make and to give the methods of teaching more easy and natural. vigorously started. under the name of Philanthropinism. epoch at which Schopenhauer began to seek an entrance through scholarship into the close demesnes of the higher education was a turning-point in THE philological progress. The old Latin training of the seventeenth century. reaction.Roman world. but in many ways it was a reasonable protest a barren service to niceties of grammar. had been con siderably discredited by the utilitarian and practical movement had been tendencies of the eighteenth. began a new and Their champions took the ground that the direct insight into the ideas of the Grajco. which could . and against a course of classes fitted only to produce school But this divergence from the traditions of a masters. and an undue scorn of more ideal study .CHAPTER III.

In the darkness and emptiness men turned. had broken the last hopes of finding salvation in the older state system of Germany. calm philosopher like Herbart propounded a view that and classical the education should begin with Greek.education into humanity&quot. was the on which the boy of from eight to twelve his might pasture adventurous spirit. life in the world of wave of Greek enthusiasm set in almost it The modern world had disap Few of those who had. the prolegomenist to Homer. religious. greeted the revolt of France against her old monarchy. Of the new faith the chief hierophant. to Greece. began a new era for Prussia. . and that Odyssey. after the collapse of the old kingdom of 1806. and afterwards A. great : A seemed intoxication. pointed even the most hopeful. And Frederick. their generous faith in the Revolution. the statesman who helped mould educational scheme. with other reforms. to find Even a the inspiration of a freer. was F. moral. more human life. the sun of liberty had at length arisen. at Berlin. first at Halle. the vital air of Greek ideals. under Napoleon. was an inestimable instrument in working out that &quot. the tones and colours of which exactly suit the right literature range and temper of the boyish mind. as still if retained. Wolf. And this Hellenic cultus was naturally hostile to the Hebraic elements in religion. in 1789. under which. William to von that Humboldt. lived and breathed through out his life and intellectual. which was the great desideratum for the higher to-day.56 LIFE OF only be fully enjoyed by those who were fully masters of the original tongues. as Goethe Schiller had been leading them.

for forming a sound his lectures on the readers of and life. they turned from the only this time it was not to Plato. derived her lesson of culture directly from Greece. read an address to Bible to the Greeks Homer and his heart of national &quot. He. the Grammar School at Nurnberg. rejoiced in the opening of the literary treasures of Greece but to at the early Renaissance. and likely to create troubles. Schopenhauer. W. the poets. settled at Gotha. Greece presents us the cheerful spectacle of the freshness of youth in the life intellectual. boarded with one of the masters. . Expressions were sometimes heard of regret that Germany had not . 1807. boys on the value of the classics &quot. of remember the History jubilant words Philosophy with which he leads off the chapter on the Greek world With the Greeks we feel ourselves at once at home. he was too wide-awake. The passion for Greece Hegel. who in 1809 was rector of spread everywhere. was in June. : &quot. A position not very wholesome. While hopes ran thus high. various accor He was ding to the temper and capacity of the pupil. and too little inured to regular work.&quot. . and got private lessons Doering. But while making prompt advances in his classical studies. like his 57 when pupil Boeckh. instead of from the more prosaic discipline of Rome. to from F. a well-known Latinist. looked forward to a time which in his estimate was only a Christianity blending of Greek ethics with Jewish ideas would be regenerated by being re-absorbed into the purely human Like the scholars who first ideal of noble life.SCHOPENHA UER. aged nine teen. taking his place in the gymnasium or grammar school there beside boys some years junior to him. .

Soon he became the cynosure of a knot of boys who were captivated by his literary talent and satirical turn.queen of instruction. It may perhaps be held that Schopenhauer was in too rudimentary But first a stage to catch the infection of such idealism.&quot. nothing loath.&quot. whom and who egged him A lampoon on one he barely knew. and there continued his classics under the care of Franz Passow. got talked into notice. Passow (whose name figured on the title-page of the came to early editions of Liddell and Scott s called to Weimar as Greek master all in 1807. and intuition of Greek ideas.The a letter written in 1805. to catch somewhat of that fervour which looked to re-creating the outworn world by a baptismal bath in the ever-living waters of . &quot.58 LIFE OF hide his social lights under a bushel. to display them. obliged by professional etiquette to resent the would have no more to do with his pupil. of the masters. on. as the authorship of the verses was no secret. impressions and first loves leave an indelible trace. At his mother s suggestion Schopenhauer next Weimar. would re-awaken in a select few scriptures of the New their horrible Greek. precociously by dreamed. and about whom he only. and. of those enthusiasts for in In him we find one things Greek. in whose house he lodged. and scholar enough. insult to his colleague. that the study of Greek literature. Lexicon) had been and was only It two years older than his pupil. Doering. like many of his contemporaries. said. versified a current scandal. Testament do much deter me He that passion for fatherland and freedom which the bulk of the nation had lost . he claimed for Greek that it should be made the &quot. He was old enough. was he who.

You sharp rebukes. and high thinking spite if drove out the classical originals. . His misadventure &quot. and only after passing an examcn rigorosum in the two ancient So he thought later. the diversity of ideas and feelings palpable. At because a later date he used to regret the disuse of Latin as the language of the republic of letters . neighbourhood. was a &quot.&quot. and Wolf at Berlin. Without turning into a mere scholar. making holiday excursions in the contrived scholar. and air balloons. he drifted farther and farther away from his mother . became a principle moulding his view of life and religion. But as Schopenhauer advanced in the quest forlearning. are became more and more Gotha drew on him unbearable and burdensome.&quot. In his copy of Homer there was written (probably later. at . he to make himself a good Greek and Latin And it of that scholarship he was proud perhaps . 59 Greek life and thought and the spirit which animated Passow at Weimar. his views had prevailed. none would have entered a German University under the age of twenty. and cultivating his musical tastes. flush of admiration he worshipped the Greeks. But even in the first languages. how ever) a parody of the Lord s Prayer. had been won in open and self-imposed effort and he claimed no less proudly to write for scholars. electric wires. spoke with indignant contempt of editions of the Latin authors with German notes : and of an age when German translations (like chicory in place of coffee) noble in would declare that it tastes. And of railways. but taking his part in the lighter occupa tions of society. addressed to the bard.SCHOPENHA UER.farewell to humanity. to a return to barbarism.

people will not put up with your fault-finding. expresses her fears of violent scenes if they are much together. It is arranged ac cordingly that he is to stay by himself. she declares. as ! off before younger and less privileged friends. his her. his gloomy looks. All along .and all your good very hard to live with overshadowed by your conceit. and when he removes to Weimar. the theory that marriage and motherhood the true vocation of every woman. And so long as he retains his old character. and made : useless to the world. and queer dogmatizing opinions depress are those he causes : Her only unpleasant moments is and only when he gone does she breathe freely.at home. Such a letter throws its lights on the home life of the Madame Schopenhauer is an instance Schopenhauers. qualities are &quot. she will submit to any sacrifices rather than agree to live in the same house with him. but not necessary that she should be a witness to it.60 LIFE OF tells she him. at any rate. against is it proves that there are natures which do not find full in their actual wedlock the complementary being through rise whom their faculties into activity. necessary to her happiness. So long you yourself are so open to criticism. If they are to agree. or. they must consent to live apart. he is the victim of a bourgeois desire to show suspects &quot.&quot. His presence. murmurings over evils irremediable. but to come daily to her dinner-table from one o clock to three. least of all in that offensive oracular style She twits him with his vacillations. house the two evenings weekly on which To know that he is happy is. and to spend is at her she &quot. simply because you cannot restrain your propensity to pick holes in other people.

bent on self-development than she was. with some latent tenderness suggesting itself. moods and judgments under control. and even the reproof of a Goethe would hardly convince them that this silent and unapproachable youth could be worth restlessly serious attention. 61 she gives evidence of instincts hankering after a larger sphere. learned to keep his loose from the special ties of found were his way to his life. If we may about this time. and oppressed and taking in the perspective of the situation out of sorts occasionally with the drudgery inevitable at ness. . and looked out jealously on those who seemed contented with their His whole training hitherto had kept him quarters. The damsels in the drawingroom would giggle at his grim gaucheries. the future a portrait made philosopher was a delicatetrust wistful. looking in and uneasily at those who had seized their corner and resolved to keep it. to which the restrictions of domesticity are a And now at length she had foolish embarrassment.SCHOPENHAUER. only such a stage.eyed. and reserved young man. conceited. was uncouth and angular in behaviour. she had learned to limit her Her son. of a sort of spiritual Gypsydom and Bohe- mianism. As yet he felt himself engaged with preliminaries acquiring the use and mastery of his tools. had not yet found a field in seemed to find satisfaction. not less wants to what the world has to give. he wandered as it angrily round the gates of society. and not yet having due vocation. which her cravings for independence In her superiority of ex perience and cultivation. but with indications of an exigency that might become hard featured.

gaily entering into full possession of herself. diminished. drinking in gladly the admiration of young and old who find themselves of natural drawn by the fresh sympathy and wealth womanliness in this new accession to the In such a sight reels at the ranks of the emancipees. in we take out of life its few moments of love. one and then His feeling own intense and exacting mood. and his mother on terms of intimate friendship with first another of the literary knights-errant of Weimar. His mother was by no means a Clytaemnestra. what is left but a long series of trivial &quot. If Thus we find him at Weimar. heart as affection it were temper. makes his blood boil within him to see his mother. when the of the fickleness of and the abyss of life. religion. kingdom of God . Schopenhauer fell back on solitary meditations on the radical selfishness and pettiness of &quot.&quot.62 LIFE OF But there were special circumstances which strained bond of kindred till it broke. But there is something analogous in the position of the son who. of art. writing. ourselves this ill in its first can be most the effectively. and then With these mournful soliloquizings there not unnaturally went signs of physical . with the of kindred to the departed. thoughts pain ? And : at a later date he moralizes : The we another ills is only augmented is pass on from ourselves to thereby hence the mass of in the world caused by egotistically pushing onwards only by voluntarily taking on positive shape that it It the primary evil. finds his father already forgotten. 1808. or like Hamlet s guilty the mother. and of pure &quot. perhaps will utterly. come. coming home after a temporary exile. still conscious of no lack spiritual of charms. disloyalty.

000 of this lay on loan at Dantzic. received his share of the paternal fortune. in detachment and absolute repose. his pessimism had a not essence of &quot.assurance that outside man there something which knows and feels him as he feels him A time came when that consolation had to take self. we can. amounting to about 19. separate from all the appearances ot the outer world. were valued in 1799 . our bodily part may be tossed in their storm. for his philosophy &quot. 63 Fierce fits of panic and despair would : fears sweep over him. Yet perhaps the change of creed was not so deep in reality as it : and it leaves the gods at rest : sounds in formula. In the beginning of 1809 Schopenhauer. Besides this. Some 6. distant consolation in his philosophy. bearing at first 8 and the rest was invested in real latterly 6 per cent. out to tenants. than theism. survey them from an exalted seat.&quot. as he then wrote (1844) With the world alone has philosophy to expecting however in return that it will be left at rest by them. however much It is. in is other words.&quot. seem a more proper For. where. another phase : when atheism will name do. he had his part-interest in the sum : properties at Ohra and elsewhere let in the vicinity of Dantzic : which. as they occasionally did in later life : and his nerves would be shaken beyond all self-control by tragic scenes.&quot. for The that him the assurance there is a spirit world. especially in the night season and unaccountable suspicions would torment him. on attaining his majority. disturbance. interest securities. the &quot. But if he was abnormally sensible to the misery prowling behind the surface of philosophy was life.SCHOPENHA UER.000 dialers.

The influence of Kant s ideas through Germany had begun to be felt first of all at Jena. . Thus. In The second winter. from 1794 onwards. however. was a very fair stock of world s goods (very different from the scanty equipments of Kant or Fichte). e. all. Schopenhauer enrolled his name as a student of medicine a choice : indicating at the least a predilection for the science of the physical lectures his microcosm . At Jena.(M LIFE OF 40. he entered himself in October. with ciples rapid steps and dazzling variety by Fichte. at the University of Gottingen. year 1810. being now considered for the time and country.000 thalers (about ^150).g. and provided with what. indeed. ripe for college. for a while poetry and philosophy walked hand in hand. The pursuit of a study for its own native attractions. Schiller.000 gulden. Schopenhauer about this date had a yearly income at In of 1. and the sum was after wards increased by legacies. in which he thus found his calling. marked a low-water level in the philosophic tide. he heard were chiefly and for the first year the on physical science. as well as by others now less known to fame. on the death of his uncle Andreas in 1816. 1809. he turned to philosophy. which was the home of the Weimar was of the new poetry. was not encouraged and even barely permitted. and a student was expected to label himself at starting with the faculty he ultimately meant to practise.. What Reinhold had initiated in 1786 new philosophy as a reconstitution of Kantism by a regress to deeper prin had been carried on. and Schelling. University study was still considered as a means of preparation for one of the learned professions. but for some years yielded little rent.

1806 a of catastrophe while the years after Prussia led to the temporary closing of the University of Halle. half-formal. and probably there was a curiosity to Aenesidemus hear the author of (published 1792). The teacher through whom Schopenhauer was into the formal mysteries of initiated what he afterwards held to He was a new be his vocation. new University was founded at Berlin (where numerous courses of lectures had been given for the twenty years preceding). It was an attempt to prove that the &quot. had been among the places which still clung to the informal old half-sceptical. fall of The lull had set in.SCHOPENHA UER. like Halle. E. Critical philosophy itself the professed to enemy of dogmatism was highly dogmatic. 5 show that . was G. &quot. the since But of the most productive period Schelling. the work on which rests the now somewhat shadowy &quot. professor. called to Gottingen in 1810 from the (now extinct) university of Helmstadt (between Brunswick and Magdeburg). Schulze. common-sense philosophy which Meiners and Feder had taught. and which they tried to defend against this new invasion of what they deemed Berkeleyan idealism. and Fichte re-entered the aca demic lecture-room. To the 65 s years from 1794 to 1799 Fichte principal 1799 are systematic works belong . Gottingen meanwhile.e in the history of philosophy. reputation of Schul/. and the most distinguished teachers began to look for posts in Bavaria 1 and elsewhere. That work was an event in the war of pamphlets which raged between the followers of Kant and the upholders of other modes of thought. &quot. But with the year In that year the 8 10 hopes of better things began.

&quot. already forming in his mind. the natural world. of the two writers . of which his own philosophy is to reveal the essential identity. the machinery and terminology through which his system is woven into definite outline. Followed the advice certainly was. to leave Aristotle. Of the historical position. approached the study of them. in short. and the rest alone. And in Plato ascetic philosopher who banished he sees exclusively the mystical true reality to a transcendent world. and of the psychological development. till he had mastered them. the had yet allowed the unknowable to exert a very real it thing-in-itself. But he with an idea. Plato.66 LIFE OF to confine all while professing to be a philosophy of experience. and sound knowledge to the task of exploring it &quot.&quot. we might upon &quot.Plato the divine and the as marvellous he has styled them. If we merely consult say it turns entirely Kant. He uses the forms of Kantian thought to give a historical position and aspect to his ideas of the contrast between appearance and and reality. Though a professed follower of Kant. he constantly marks his divergence.gt. parti a single idea. but rather the advice of Schulze to his pupil at first to confine himself to reading Plato and Kant. supernatural. the very antithesis of the changeable Kant and scenes of temporal and corporeal existence. pris&amp. the words of his philosophy. serve simply to clear up his own mind . they afford the pegs on which he hangs his thought. Spinoza. But was not this book which led to Schopenhauer s conversion to philosop hy. influence on consciousness. and shows a more dominating interest in the supernatural. and. And hence he came to find them only presenting the complementary aspects of truth.

instead of extending in wide periphery. He cultivated his musical in which he had found so much charm and consolation.SCHOPENHA UER. themselves. theory of life and being he sits still. waiting like the spider on his web. subsequently the friend of princes and scholars. ready to snap up every bit of scientific experience and every scrap of literature for the further elaboration and illustra tion of his theme. As on a former occasion. talents. that the professional study should never make him lose sight his father s mercantile drill of the ideals of a gentleman. the second in the wellin known line of millionaires. Even after his main idea his was formulated and published. This at least was one lesson which had impressed on him. nor was he the only acquaintance with whom Schopenhauer communicated some of his more received from him substantial evidence than average means. His is a philosophy which. of friendship . now he made With several of imperfect acquaintance with the guitar. and a wager sealed to his cost his belief in his own . the vigorous prosecution of study was never carried by Schopenhauer to an extent inconsistent. and a German-American. he has no care. He had mastered the flute . drags everything down to its centre. and to have his many views endorsed by general acceptance. or the culture of social amenities. either with the care of health. especially Bunsen. Bunsen. In society he was notorious for his determination always to keep to the front. his 67 And this procedure stamps work throughout. Every piece of knowledge is at once evaluated as a possible confirmation. who was then poor circumstances. Astor. his fellow-students he was on friendly terms.

&quot.Life is an awkward business infallibility. which lead up to physiology. macrocosm and microcosm at the same time. In the holidays he would go on short tours.and &quot. anatomy. Harz mountains.&quot. as before. botany. A drastic expression. his chief attention was bestowed upon the natural sciences. The poet spoke to him of the choice of a voca tion. reflecting on it. for there is nothing study man for himself alone. and on Greek Literature and Anti- .68 e. Here. he would term it.&quot. &c. the summit to all &quot. At the end of the summer of 1811. &quot. further attended lectures on the History of Philosophy by Schleiermacher. indeed. The young man replied. chemistry. and He analyses human understanding as it would a plant. he would add.&quot. Schopenhauer changed his quarters to the University of Berlin. and dissuaded him from the life of a philosopher. have determined to spend it in Perhaps the meeting was not altogether I fortuitous. he paid a call on Wieland. &quot. of the whole of natural its science.. Wieland at the close of their interview could but wish him well in his chosen career. On the occasion of a visit to Weimar. then seventy-eight years old. &quot. to the (missliche Sache) . obscurest .g. you cannot Psychology.&quot. or even of literary and academic success. region. but entirely valid against the merely introspective method. but only in connection with the world. But if his friends supposed the veteran man of letters might divert him from the adventurous path of free thought. such as physics. they were doomed to disappointment. those inquiries. then in its second year of existence.. is no psyche or soul . which fancies it can gain truth by an abstractly inward observation.

at another a &quot. Science. &quot. and Theory of &quot. and that the contempt he so abundantly lavished on the university-professor in later years was &quot. A Schleiermacher. that But these young gentleman already considered himself a better philosopher than any of his teachers. and &quot. same documents evidence the In these a prejudice of old standing in his constitution. he said things which made me wish I could put a pistol to his breast. that without being tion that &quot. Die thou must without . The professor had gone beyond his hearer s utterances were laboured &quot. shone as a disputant. Apparently he also took copies from the notes of lectures which he did not personally attend. unlike hour.&quot. depth (for young critic s self-conceit with efforts to be facetious. his dismissed as nonsense. in the conversational or dialogue lectures which the professor gave. notes Schulze is at one place styled a cattle-beast.&quot. and. he walks without leading-strings. according to his own belief. doctrines are summarily remark of twaddle. &quot. besides what is here written down. or &quot. saying. . sophist .&quot. &quot.&quot. quities 60 lecture by Wolf. That he did not waste his college days is proved by the ponderous note-books which he left behind with the fruits of his attendance in the class-room. is religious takes to philosophy he does not need is Nobody who really philosophizes religious free. put aside with the emenda . No man who it. Schopenhauer. No man is can be a philosopher religious. : In this notes the listener.SCHOPENHA UER. In the year 1811-12 he heard Fichte on &quot.&quot. his old rush of words) &quot.&quot. and liberally. dangerous but But the are poured most on Fichte. &quot.&quot. vials of the in those days his and involved.Facts of Consciousness&quot.

they rest on common foundations. he finds and polishes old pearls of thought. Petulancies like these would be beneath recording life-long attitude of were they not so characteristic of the the of thought. as the lecturer expounded how each existence is constituted by its rela In these days tion to another. and are deeply modified by the theories they controvert. : in the visibility) dark (when the tallow-candles did not enter into he said quite beautiful things of an Other. And if one is to track back all modern notions to the audacious mortals who said them before. an epoch are yet complementary to each other. to Schopenhauer a good deal that sounds like the assonance of what Fichte and Schleiermacher had taught. And. the parts have got a common tone. Moreover. it is incontrovertible that his work has occasionally the aspects of an ill-adjusted mosaic. the characteristic ideas of a philosopher and anticipations or adumbrations of them in earlier thinkers is always a somewhat invidious and fantastic task. us. and did they not derive some importance from the charges of plagiar ism from Fichte and Schleiermacher that have been to antagonistic man modes To trace resemblances between brought against him.&quot. remedy. but uttering such poor soul s sake tell whether. at another time. he creates not new but new formulae. or didst And. find in It is not strange. if and sets them as new even the most opposing systems of systems. Up to a certain point every philosopher ideas.&quot.70 LIFE OF for thy stuff. little originality would be left. but they are not inwardly harmonized to the requisite systematic unity . in general. the note is appended merely befool &quot. their prin- . in thou hadst any distinct idea. is an eclectic . therefore.

living with his nation. rather than These similarities between his and those of preceding writers are sometimes not than in the case of Fichte. Thus. and personal. and continually urging it upwards to higher levels of self-realization Schopenhauer. when a resemblance in fundamental metaphysical ideas. that intense personality which made his colleagues at Berlin accuse him of a con viction that he. was the chosen vehicle of the spirit of reason. as has been is recently pointed out. would naturally not commend him to an obstinate and ambitious mind like Schopenhauer. was published in 1799. Bouterwek. supported by in a triumphant flight of his moral order of the world which works for righteousness. Unconscious similarities are far from rare. In the case of Fichte. and he alone.&quot. mere &quot. especially one not less domineeringly dogmatic than himself. was interpreted and distorted by the immense difference of practical moral tone Fichte. but also a Will. and could not brook a rival authority. Especially. are far from inexplicable. in the bright faith idealism. recurring to the ideals .SCHOPENHAUER. not imperceptible to careful eyes. too. whose idea. his doctrine that the world no had been partly anticipated in the work of a Gottingen Professor. turning his back on the darker ethics of self-torture and mortification. just as they Idea of an Apodictic it is &quot. idealizing the soldier. proclaiming the duties of patriotism. And yet highly improbable that he had studied this work. &quot. ciple of synthesis is 71 subjective objective ideas less and intrinsic. and rushing into the political and social fray. The latter already felt he had a system within him. calling to and exercising an active philanthropy.

to die at his post. the disaster of Napoleon in Russia. like the in the pathology of it is &quot. to study cases of mental and bodily disease . preaching the blessedness of the quiescence of all will. The were broken up before the close of the to drill session. Realist &quot. Naturalist &quot. to help in the care of the wounded. La Charite. During these years a its extent by the peace of Tilsit. and perhaps did not forget that the robbed in 1813 had been the robbers of Poland in 1793.&quot. and. the dark places where secret. he was. held by a French garrison. The 1813. human less careful to gloom had settled keep its on Prussia. and &quot. he contributed towards equipping volunteers . Per haps. physiological fact. the man was too great to &quot. he felt inclined to tell the Germans shake away at their chains . the summons classes to the nation to rise against the invader. even the so-called highest. pursuits of practical life. for them. and holding that each has its enough to do in raising his own self from dull engrossment in lower things to an absorption in that pure passionless being which lies far beyond all. disparaging efforts to save the nation or elevate the mass. interested. following it. next the Landsturm. Yet not altogether unmoved by the excite ment around. and finally. Schopenhauer was an alien January. like its chief At length came fortresses.72 LIFE OF of asceticism. in the land . and its capital. and students and professors began in Fichte with his wife stayed on to work. reduced to half nature. difference between the two men came out in Schopenhauer up to that time had been busiest apparently in gaining a fuller experience of physical and He had gone often to the hospital. like Goethe.

he took up his quarters in an upper chamber of the inn Zum Ritter at Rudolstadt. published In after-days first part of -his system. and some when May 2nd). of set its inhabitants fled to Silesia for safety. his mother s domestic arrangements were by no means to his mind. he judged it wise to hurry on to Weimar. After the battle of Liitzen (fought Berlin seemed endangered. the second edition. for the army. Even there he did not stay. interpreter between a French officer and the people of a Saxon town. book. for meant as an exercise to qualify Philosophy sity the degree of Doctor of at Berlin. Schopenhauer out to seek a shelter at Dresden. and before the end of the year the work appeared from the press at Rudolstadt as Philosophical Treatise on the Fourfold Root of the &quot.SCHOPENHA UER. employing Originally his leisure composition of an essay. was a thin octavo of 148 pages. in which the chances of war had obliged him to play the part of there. and from June to November. it was now offered to the Univer of Jena with the same intent. in accordance with this view. The diploma was granted on the 2nd of October. which appeared in . 1813. and preserved by by unity. a principality to the south of in the Weimar. And. The his own it cost.&quot. after When he got a journey of twelve days. with the national prejudice. A mere geographical What was Germany to him? historical created accidents. 73 Physical cowardice and want of sympathy movement kept him back from active service. was promoted by its author to the rank of and described as a preliminary treatise which his readers must have mastered if they wish really to understand him. Principle of Sufficient at Reason.

an essay written the purpose of displaying his ability as a philosophical analyst. which distinguishes at that self-con work . she could reply that at that time the whole edition of his would still be procurable. he has not yet arrived It is tained sense of his own independence or originality for which he afterwards assumes. and with a view to the judgment of an academic board. too. that herbalist s . Its author has not yet acquired that facility of style. even under these to emerge. so as to correspond more exactly with the teaching of his later treatises. Schopenhauer s essay discusses a topic which is as old as philosophy itself. seems to have excited no general notice. and one which. Yet. it subject for a joke. which is now rare.74 LIFE OF 1847. his characteristic views quaint title a smack of paradox always The do not fail of the book and his refers have to the four phases . has But in its original important metaphysical bearings. was subjected to extensive alterations in the way both of omission and addition. under the full influence of his apprehension of Kant s idealism with parade of the distinction and correlation of subject and object. It is a ballon d essai and an ceuvre d occasion: 1 not the outpouring of his whole mind and soul. his later especially of illustration. gave his mother savoured somewhat of the Its title and when he retorted that his book shop would be read when a copy of her works would scarcely be found even in a lumber-room. It is written. under the disguise of a problem in abstract logical analysis. The original edition. structure and finish it bears witness to the circumstances of its origin. titles conditions.

SCHOPENHAUER. and naturally. to take the last point first as it was the part of the the book which first found. e. Now. the science advance must be a seer. In a way perhaps partly it most of the work had been done before in his earlier essays but never perhaps had by Kant been done so simply and decisively. is and ethics. as of exaggerating these distinctions. which the process of assigning a reason plaining. or ex belongs to one physical or other of the four branches of knowledge. Undoubtedly there is danger of confusing. even mathematical reasoning must conform. logic. man who And this really is makes especially . The common rubric distinct cause or reason roots.cause&quot. and the &quot. science. and applies a mathematical method of Many a writer on the question argument of Free-will has reduced motivation to a mere case or to philosophy.because&quot. a thing severally assumes. as it 75 for. The mere reasoner deals with truth only at second hand . Thus.g. mathematics. thinker like Spinoza treats the &quot. instance of general physical causation .. by zation. a response in mind of Goethe Schopenhauer directs his weapons the habit against unduly to magnify the power of which he means abstraction and generali reasoning. fertile by perception Science has its firm and basis in intelligent observation . reasoning only supervenes to formulate in general terms the discoveries of individual genius. originally truth is given by the intuition of experience. and it has been again and again assumed that reasoning from major and minor premiss to conclusion is the type to which. the contrasts traced back to four very between which are ex pounded briefly but suggestively. A as identical.

this tendency leads to the confusion between logical consecution and real sequence . perception of the relation of elements in a geometrical The formal proof is only an outward scaffolding. the real movement. see. who had absorbed the a priori from Kant till it instance. Imperfectly worked out doctrine inside. while helps so far. in the first edition. causality to throw light or rather darkness . which according to Schopen a gradually intensified figure. carries almost ad absurdum that antithesis between sense-limited intel lect and supra-sensible reason which Kant had made current in speculation. Causality they in general treat as an accidental idea. But. and not in reasoning. deposited at length as a sediment from accumulated experiences.76 true of mathematics. it which. finally must be supposed removed. and the connection of causality between things. is that motivation it yet leads up to the causation seen from the Usually. Hardly less characteristic is his view of the relations between physical and moral causation. between the order of subordination or inference in thought. Yet so insidious would in the habit of logical demonstration that its devotees like to prove everything even the axioms or common notions on which mathematics reposes. for employed on the question of motivation. hauer. a further degree. so that the eye may really take in the full meaning of the building. LIFE OF The form is in which Euclid has thrown his propositions disguises. insisting that the real nerve of science is in intelligent judgment. and has no value of is It its only helps the mind to own. Schopen hauer. by our own is empiricist writers. Schopen hauer.

applied in the physical world. But in motivation &quot.SCHOPENHA UER. . has not yet attained to con sciousness and cognition of itself. which we only see the outside. to me. supposed to be directly aware of the inner bond of union between cause and effect. and learn the secret how &quot. meanwhile. will is &quot. not yet become an But the further discussion of this view belongs to Ego. but do not pene of the fact.subject (subject and object being thus different and apart). the great and perpetual miracle of mental excellence&quot. we are. object of knowledge This identity between the who know and the &quot. the cause in inner most nature induces the effect .. For. in so far as I will to act. and effect are both &quot.we stand as it were behind the its curtain. causation. I who life . that every phenomenon really the prolongation or continuation of another preceding it. know. its proper domain. in physical &quot. the I which distinguishes us phenomenon par rom the world of in this fact lies the . in other words. The war. however. is causality merely mean. which. the inner meaning of this sequence we are mere external observers trate. briefly starts from the position that causality is the very essence and function But as of all intellect alike in animals and in man. And key to the explanation of natural causation if nature too be a will. the account of Schopenhauer s chief book. &quot. in the case of the will or subject of motivation I am so I &quot.objects&quot. whereas. the the cause &quot. and to know the law of causality is to possess the Into formula for calculating the later from the earlier. had been raging. and troops. dominate his 77 whole philosophy. both subject and object far as I knowledge in &quot.

He had mother was reckless introduced a poor student friend of his house. and the mother. when his first book had been launched on the world. Forgetful of past dis agreements. light-hearted and sociable. returned in November. The son. were marching and countermarching from town to town in Germany. and young Schopenhauer behaved with such a outrageous rudeness that Von Miiller. Von Miiller. resented the interferences of her exacting son. to Weimar. 1813. This intrusion his mother did not relish. If he could not get on under wardship. harmony was now that he had lived by himself for four still years. now aged twenty-five. he for a few months boarded with his mother.78 LIFE OF French. relation without anni the natural bond of parentage. and maintained own into the him there for a couple of months. thought of the future . was already a trusted public servant of the Grand Duke he is the Chancellor von Miiller. who had come to the town only a few years before. There was for accommodation was already domiciled with her a man nearly nine years older than scanty in Weimar her son. took a violent To this courtier aversion. Russian. Austrian. Sarah Austin. suspicious by nature. his where an hilating. and Prussian. and in his inn the philosopher enjoyed tolerable tran quillity. But Rudolstadt lay out of the line of retreat and pursuit. Friedrich von Miiller. whose reminiscences and charac teristics of Goethe have been translated into English by . At length. the author. It need hardly be said that the experiment turned out a disastrous with her while he was less likely failure. in moment of . Tendencies to artificial friction were sure to be multiplied supplanted.

for the sake of a son with whom it was clear that she could never hope to get on. At first she suggested that her son should take other quarters for himself. It is perhaps equally cheap moralizing to say that his want of filial piety is shocking. she thought. He was. on the ostensible ground that she was losing money by the But he was not the man to take boarding arrangement. 79 All this broke out fiercely on him. find in his Parerga und Paralipomena a easy to say. in May. He had asked to have the price raised to a suitable amount. he never saw again. Accordingly. too needlessly peremptory in manner. She could not. a hint and go. 1814. and there is . he quitted his mother and Weimar. merely because that friend was unaccept able to her son.SCHOPENHAUER. statement. turned verbal as she To for this proposal his mother re some time done. be house with his mother. One of them evidently had to go. as often happens. after finding communications disagreeable a written reply. passion. and who made her pleasanter. too expected. His mother. that there were faults a cheap truth in the on both sides. She pointed out that in her opinion it was inconvenient and undesirable for a grown-up son to occupy the same matic. too dog contemptuous of those unlike him. though correspondence was resumed between them about six years before It is her death. and she had already stated her views unmistakably on her son s incompatibility. Perhaps we may. and too much inclined to preach at her. was supremely disturbing to the lady. to dismiss a friend who was life faithful and helpful to her. who lived for twenty-four years longer. she found.

whether she marries him or not. generalized women. can actually become the appointed guardian and ad ministratrix of the paternal inheritance of her children. hold to be a piece of unpardonable and pernicious In the majority of instances. and will spend it with her paramour. fore. or of the the case in is Hindostan . there the it. even though not children. &quot. i. with exception of are. but always stand under actual male super vision. such a woman will take what the children s father acquired through the I folly. &quot. And labour of he goes on to quote Odyssey xv. of husband. with rare exceptions.e.&quot. to wit. of son. and that conse quently they should never be given full power to dispose of any property they have not themselves The contrary practice. They constantly require a guardian (tutor). and acquired through the stimulus of his care for them. where the owl-eyed Athene warns Telemachus of the risks his patrimony runs from Penelope &quot. own special case. Women On Women in the same work paragraphs should never have free disposition over heritable pro : perty.&quot. his whole life. Any existing property. and accordingly should In no possible case be made the guardians of their The vanity of women. And to the same effect in the &quot. has the misfortune to be . inclined to extravagance. funds.30 LIFE OF statement of his &quot. greater than that of men. s suitors. 20. houses. state be as it of father. All he there declares. should never be quite allowed to manage their own concerns. rare cases where they have themselves acquired their should be secured against I am therefore of opinion that women folly.. and landed estates. that a woman acquired.

especially considering their slight reasoning powers. beauty. . Whatever truth there may be in these disclosures of feminine weaknesses. directed wholly on material things. Schopenhauer. much and intelligently without Self-complacent.&quot.&quot. that ing. and God preserve us from constantly smiling to herself. and adds he &quot. thanking his correspondent for the extract.SCHOPENHAUER. Prattles Madame of Schopenhauer. and secondly on society gaudy on their show and Hence Ms properly their element: and this makes them.&quot. keep from laugh- We must pass from the painful subject and say no 6 . women whose mind has shot up into mere intellect. his gravamen of his censure on and now the main mother is her pecuniary youthful admirers. in which he speaks It of his acquaintances &quot. the tone and circumstances of their utterance for his betray a sordid nature. viz.could not. eager after approbation. criminalist opinion 1815. first 81 personal splendour. heart Makes profession well. and soul. endangering his chances of independence. a rich Authoress. sent Schopenhauer a copy of a passage from Anselm von Feuerbach s Memoirs (published in 1852). The chief merit been the which he hymns his father s praises had prudent accumulation of wealth to facilitate future life son s of study. erudition.. one of his to whom circles he had expressed the repugnance he at Weimar in which his mother to the lived. God forgive him. Long years after. felt negligence. at Karlsbad s in gives the outspoken family. finds the description true to nature. of the Schopenhauer widow. inclined to extravagant expenditure.

A than this mechanical union is moreover at work in the mental organization. The generalization is an instance of his habit of using his own case as a rule of explanation. own and he probably held the personal belief that case showed a vigorous development of both. maintained that the will was inherited from the father. as a thing selfBut if anything may be evident. what is Intellect. And not merely have notable thinkers refused to accept the absolute disjunc tion language in its oldest and most natural forms . and of his failure to get beyond popular distinctions to their real foundation. on the other hand. he nowhere adequately explains he simply repeats. the contrast of terms. said to be certain in psychology. and . we need not exaggerate the dimensions of a family squabble. What is Will. It is often said that great men owe to their mothers much of their character and talent. equally ignores this thorough-going disjunction of heart subtler chemistry from head. But. it is the impossibility inflexible line. less and a no vigorous antithesis between them. with an attempt at greater precision. of severing will from intellect by any The scientific analysis of tinction has yet to what underlies the popular dis be made. But Schopenhauer. feeling from thought. Something may be allowed here to the idiosyncrasy of the son which makes him his own accuser that fierce petulance of words in which he loses himself and wounds blindly. or accept every word of bombast.82 LIFE OF bitterness in more of one of those domestic feuds where explicable interposes between near kinsfolk. and to speak of the laws of intellec- . the intellect from the mother his .

is The known there as heredity palpable : its con ditions most indefinable. to find fact not. his conviction that the a mistake. &quot. which he brought out in 1810 as a (Farbenlehre). has to give the complete history of Colours are the acts of light its activities and passivities. primal phenomenon.&quot. Since 1791-2. light.colour- theory&quot.&quot. really fixed The optical philosopher. struck by had been waging against the abstract conceptions of the scientific physicists. when he pub lished his Optical contributions. information about In that sense we can expect from them But they must be studied in light. his . tions.SCHOPENHA UER. Goethe had held to &quot. &quot. had been received by the scientific public he was the with a contemptuous silence for which According to Goethe. tual 83 and moral heredity general fact at is as yet decidedly premature. : for it is nature as itself to the sense of the And the observer is not a mere onlooker. But the result of his reflections Newtonian theory of Light was and observa &quot.&quot. therefore. But for Weimar had been compensating interests him business in higher sphere of family conflicts. fancied he had found an ally in the battle he regions than the ignoble The great Goethe. instead of forming hypotheses about the in its nature of its effects. the true unprepared. connection with nature as a whole a whole which thus reveals eye. is achievement of science see actual to get at the real fact all to concrete problem stripped of at all ex crescences and accidents believes. as the ordinary scientist an explanation hazards for a which he has never really ascertained. the appreciation of intuition and realism in his disserta tion.

In hope of securing for his intuitions and theories these portions respectively appear as blue a friend who would be better able to take the poetico- speculative standpoint than the ordinary man of science.&quot. Such an experiment presents an Ur-phdnomen of colour. the .&quot. Bohemian drinking to the eye..84 LIFE OF . &quot. light and darkness. has seen the fact in the whole complex of comes to the conclusion that the colours are results due to the comparative translucency or opaqueness of the medium through which the original agents of nature. present themselves Goethe takes. covering its inside margin. Annalen. one half with black. with word with irony. We dealt with many things in mutual agree ment. Schopenhauer. wisher. shows that and yellow. as when two friends who have hitherto gone together say good-bye the one. do so consciously. however. stepped to my side as a friend and wellstriking experiments. with in short. the other half with white. because. theorize. glance must be attentive &quot. to employ a bold skill in observation is necessary fear is self-knowledge. its in Goethe judgment.To he must. yet at last a certain division became inevitable. Goethe sent Schopenhauer some of his optical ap pliances. &quot. But such a from what s is differs so it called by scientists. &quot. such if the abstractness we to look for theory be harmless. showed him a few of the more unusual and and waited for the support he felt Dr. writes Goethe in his sure of. and the experiential result we is to be truly fresh and useful. a. wanting to go north. another of glass totality and in reference to nature. such as he sent in 1821 to Hegel. He thus his partisans in this fray and.&quot. freedom.g. e.

philosopher. edited by Justus Radius.On Vision and Colours&quot. and a slight correspondence of between the two ensued in published Sehen und die at &quot. which takes up what its author calls a physiological or subjective attitude.e. supplying the primary stimulus to which colours are the So far he starts from the natural response of the eye. was inserted in a collection of Scriptores Ophthalmologies Minores.SCHOPENHA UER. and only in the eye. treated as an external agent. and where for the ensuing four years he was a permanent resident. with his ingrained aversion to the introspective method and his on the sure apprehension of external and the reality. .). so that they very quickly lose sight of each other. By the autumn of next year he sent to Goethe a manuscript containing his conclusions on the matter. in themselves colourless. The problem itself. 85 other south. Schopenhauer accepted the view as an adequate description of the physical colours. The essay. and only permitting light to more or less pass through them. written by Schopenhauer himself..the winter.&quot. while light is. soon showed itself. under the title Ueber das Farben (&quot. those. somewhat inconsistently. produced by material means. 1814. In 1830 a somewhat abbreviated and modified Latin version of the essay. assumes that colours are in the eye. always harking back from the visible to the invisible. i. Schopenhauer carried with him to Dresden. The essay was Easter. and inclined to raise each question to its most abstract or generalized phase. 1816. whither he retired towards the end disposition to build May. But the old antagonism between the poet. as well as others which lay nearer his own heart.

unlike as they are in quality. which are of unlike quality. qualitative division &quot. This intelligence is the characteristic endowment of the animal world.modification of the senses. in response to certain stimuli of light.86 realism LIFE OF of Goethe. All he can say is that the eye is so constituted that. this sensation is an act which instantaneously and unconsciously in terprets these sensations on the retina into the effects produced by an object.&quot. He in treats colours as an empirical justification and due to a qualitative &quot. monograph deals with the theory of The modern physiological optics find the Colours. and is essentially an act of causal reference awakes. When intelligence abruptly and at one swoop translated into the perception of a coloured object. phenomena of colour-perception to depend on certain varieties of structure in the terminals of the nerves of The rest of the a certain triplicity in the anatomy of the retina. division light. comparable to the crude splash of paints on an artist s palette. his view of the distinction between sensation s In the first weeks of the child is life we have no reason to suppose that there more than a peculiar feeling in the retina. of which the other is correction. he cannot tell us. &quot.&quot. or &quot. What the activity of the retina in response to that otherwise is. vision . Schopenhauer s theory has been styled an aperc. until one can obtain an authorized ex planation of phrases like &quot.u. Yet.affection of the eye. The theory may be left with out criticism. these . &quot. than as it expresses itself in colour. however. The first chapter of the essay expounds and perception. it breaks up that response into two parts parts.

they intuitive rest. As a hypothesis. The assigns proportions which Schopenhauer &quot. is and J yellow and violet. and f is thirdly. primary and fundamental colours. and each part is exactly half of the total we get the complementary colours. on an certainty. stand out among distinguished by the simple fractions (with denominators 2. is an optical mutually complementary. and are detected merely by feeling . equally that other shades than those uncompounded the only difference named represent a less simply-perceived ratio between complementary parts. a picturesque and sham-precise way of stating that an &quot. 87 two parts are so related to each other that they are Colour. this tendency illimitable .SCHOPENHAUER. light. the harmonious centres of the scale of colour . &quot. But. as he naively admits. 3. then come orange and blue. respectively therefore.e. relation (such as that formulated by the golden section may be surmised to underlie the harmonies and contrasts of colour. so far as aesthetic &quot. . Some but in pairs the colours will of them. red and green. in short. however. 2 to i . When the balance is even. In form. or 4) which represent the ratio of These are the more the two polarly-opposed parts. they are. there may be an . in short.) . which are to each other as activity. of the total. numerical it is ingenious and fantastic. a tendency to split up into dissimilar parts which dissimilar parts yet bear a ratio to each other polarity in constituting the whole is i. which form Each colour. endless variety of pairs of shades and colours always go. Such a new theory of colour need not detain us long. the rest. cannot be verified by any experimental evidence ..

as Schopenhauer was wont to boast of he imagined. in the absence of a mathematical grounding. in which. Like the general. fantastic in and vague. he had set an example of honest preparation which his ambi tious contemporaries would have done well to imitate. they are not less fatally deficient than the numerical proportions which Plato has assigned to the combination of the elements. hypotheses &quot. Natur-philosophie falls as a specimen. it may be doubted whether. under which his essay force lies. he had got more acquaint ance with the materials of science than was capable of helping him to body out. which still remain &quot. more general categories or potencies. Experimental authority and consequent accuracy go. which would account for the phenomena of coloured vision. after all. or formulate. physical his not in the ascertainment of elements or conditions in the structure and functions organ of sense.88 LIFE Of SCHOPENHA UER. his scientific studies. with more detail and show of scientific imagination. the essence of the fact under of the . but in the attempt to describe. . Yet.

He had the second-rate literary and artistic notabilities of the place. there is little the way of event house in its to record. earnestness and self-absorption he was apt to grow critic. to press on regardless of personal feelings. His dwelling was a not far from the of course ac Zwinger and quaintances picture-gallery.CHAPTER IV. and thus got an ill-repute for a loud and dictatorial style. OF in the four years (1814-1818) during which Scho penhauer made his home at Dresden. visitor to the art-collections of the place but not as a student of their history and archaeology. among perhaps deserves special mention. quiet the Ostra-Allee. an occasional Doubtless he was . and the nickname of Jupiter tonans. : emphatic. What interest his biography has an inward interest. and even that . To the theatre and the concert-room he probably went about as regularly as he afterwards did. G. an artJ. And there were other But of this there is is no history. von Quandt. attractions. rather to learn the revelation they might have to give of the meaning of life and the worth of things. but friends His manner did not attract in his probably were rare.

. . gladiator cannot be it may not end without bloodshed. HCKC est vivendi conditio&quot. &quot. for as long as he lives. is. he is the of many contrasts. and yet for everything else he has a potentiality. Such being the case. possibility it lives.90 is LIFE OF slight . These words strike the note of genuine pessimism that which refuses to be comforted because all effort recognizes in success its own illusions. . for it turns again and again on the same ideas and the same struggles. and in any case man must mourn . where can inward harmony be found? In no saint and in no sinner or. now another principle gains the upper hand. a perfect saint and a perfect For each must be a human sinner are alike impossible. must be an unhappy creature. He can be only one thing actually and thoroughly . and an inextirpable possibility of becoming it. rather. Already at Weimar and probably earlier he had been pondering over the antagonism in human nature the dissatisfaction which springs eternal in the human breast as infinite we in contrast each relative fulfilment with the &quot. a fighter. for he is at once the van being : that : quished and the victor. possibility. Inward discord.. while he is the field on which the combat is fought. As a human being.&quot.is he writes at Dresden his note-books of 1814. Even though the one be continu ally victorious. because the ideal of aims high a noble life refuses to be beaten down in the storms of . still the other is continually fighting . the very law of human nature. and is pierced in Yet it is just because its triumph by the smart of failure. so long as a man lives. flit before his mind s eye. Now one. a Painless the battle of life on the arena of life.

&quot. &quot. long. &quot. and philosophy the principal subject of their observation and speculation. The men who set them a happy. whether as joy or triumph. 91 sensual impulse. the lower life of wilful passion. most profound secret of the world. needful is to make haste and come forth and here. again him groaning over the body of sin and death which drags him down If egoism has taken thee captive and is not what or how much their And &quot.&quot. this To ignore and go round this &quot. the lust of life. the manner of escape matters But there is one phase of the contest between the lower and the higher self which especially exercises a . as their aim &quot. has been either passed over in silence through prudery. has its . or any kind of envy. is a charge that cannot be fairly brought against the author of the chapter on the Metaphysics of Sexual Love. but how next year we hear they perform part. fact of the the most extraordinary and sug universe.(he writes at Weimar.&quot. Renan has which is recently expressed his surprise that love. and successful parts . then art thou in the devil s claws. that he realizes so bitterly the disappoint ment when old memories or new hopes spoil the perfect- ness of the before actual achievement. &quot. or fear or mistrust.knot of things.SCHOPENHA UER. : possessed thee wholly. The one thing and the manner thereof matters not. or vexation or anger. they are not aware that the great thing they play. fascination over his ponderings. too. M. not.&quot. or lust or raging pain. mysterious thing gestive of all others. the &quot. According to him. long. instead of being made by &quot. life and brilliant rather than a virtuous &quot.&quot. 1813) are like foolish players who would always have brilliant. or disposed of by a few silly science platitudes.

92 LIFE of focus and culminating point in the love of man and woman. yond But more the unrest of time. because it is And a the strongest affirmation of the lust of life. as a den swarming with craving and despairing &quot. tion of the sexual impulse &quot. he may be constrained to let his passions seek their . illustration. the Greek dramatists. had made Schopenhauer But his defeat. as declares. served to he &quot. Its fatal powers. only stimulate sense of the incompatibility between such pleasures and ideal aims. the antithesis between the physical and the moral grows The spirit intense. &quot.&quot. his a probably well-founded scandal yield to the charms of for so youth or beauty. There the lower nature has its fortalice Like against which the intellect has ever to contend. pervading burden of his thought is the Pauline sense of the evil present with him in the realm of night. he finds that Eros reigns supreme : the truly universal deity of the natural and unregenerate human being. desires. abrupt. as his reflection turns the subject over. of the world-contemner. In the attractions and repulsions of sex are found the springs of movement that Aphrodite is which guide and misguide empires and commonwealths. free from the sensual Like the man in Plato s altogether. and the anticipation of a realm of light. The satisfac (he could write in 1815) is utterly and intrinsically reprehensible. towards the vision of another world. and uncompromising. when the higher faculties have given us that better consciousness which is be &quot. and the sexual who would fain see the hangman s corpses. begins to govern He yearns at least in half his mind his thoughts. of the ascetic. felt it.

world of But. good and evil is the result of this alternation between On one hand.&quot. higher world beyond a the mere or from the abstraction sciousness. which makes and . metaphysical problems blend with He is moral. and give them their characteristic form. equally averse to the solution of existence proposed by the materialist and the spiritualist. a better con other. The theist sets at the head of all things an intelligent Personality. reduced to its beggarly elements or naked naturalia. and so branded with the aimless. lies human the two poles of reflection. fruitless. No Christian hermit or Indian yogi could be inspired by keener disgust at life and its so-called pleasures. as thus appears. He refuses. Against the spiritual ist by whom he means partly the theist and partly the absolute idealist he urges the merely secondary place of intelligence in the universe.SCHOPENHAUER. full of sound and fury . in these moods of disenchantment and penetration. life and the lower world. The ment and a degradation. mark of pessimism as essentially meaningless repetition of the same &quot. satisfaction. and. 93 but it is with a curse muttered over their for deliverance loathly prey. negation tale told by an common reality an emancipation into what can only be pourtrayed as emptiness the freedom of the dim and dark abyss in which no life is. to compromise with the A Manichean disruption between the realms of world. emptied of all its idealism. and look more earnestly away in expectation of release. weary on the idiot. and a prayer from their very violence of his appetites whets his apprehension of the putridity inherent in a world where their every gratification is at the same time a disappoint tyranny.

yet not by precon existence and ceived ends. to transform itself into an outwardly by reflection as well as in wardly in the deep unutterable intercourse of nature with idea. to apprehend itself. turning as it pleases. maintains that it is not a supervening thought which governs the universe.lt. but a nisus or effort towards being. making the structures of the real world appear only so many knots in the skein which intel lect winds out of its own resources. and. what he terms absolute physics physical science which professes to contain in itself the whole mystery of exis- . materialism a &quot. material nor spiritual is the silent incommunicable in One and All &quot. in human nature.. Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer naturally to protest no less ener of against the &quot. came /. on the contrary. comes animal. the whole movement of material things. so seeing itself herself. So that. but an indwelling and non-rational nature. in man. which. That principle neither &quot. and is only definable as Will. to a higher degree. &amp. especially in later years getically &quot.94 LIFE OF guides the cosmos.?. holding this doctrine of a of which phenomena are only imperfect revelations in space and time. but by something which is not mere force still less intellect. which only uses and all intellect as it an instrument towards the attainment of ends tries distinctly to is receives formulate. real principle But. the petrified or hypnotized heart or will of the universe finally emerges into the light of self-consciousness. The idealist sublimates everything into the play of thought. which in universal movement sways to and fro. and so as merely to realize its plans. driving. The centre and root of not an idea. of the universe. a blind unconscious striving.

95 made &quot.&quot. tence ism. not the kernel of nature seems unaware that the light of revelation can come he wrote in the : only from fully styles within. man and not the druggist s apprentice is objectionable to him because of its atheism (the One and All&quot. plain. The modern fashionable material &quot. &quot.&quot. is not God). even the more secondary.the philosophy of the barber &quot. but because it leaves no room for another order of being than that )Wfc declared by natural science as the absolute order of existence.The I believe in &quot. slowly and gradually aggregating its parts like the child in the womb. chapter being. a philosophy which will be an ethics and a metaphysics in one two branches which hitherto have been separated as falsely as man has : been divided into soul and body. only a temporary conjunction of two alien principles. In 1814. I became aware of one member. Hence his words: is &quot. one .&quot.&quot. &quot. Materialistic naturalism s he scorn it &quot.Under my hands and still more in my mind grows a work. best explain only the shell. the just and good So he writes in his the metaphysical need of the human all Under growing up the pressure of these feelings a work had been in his mind since 1812. Will and Intellect). The belief in such an other order is what metaphysic the ascent as it has been called from the sensible to the supersensible seeks in its every form to inspire or justify.all the dogmas of his system.&quot. if we may believe his own witness. The work grows. And as early as 1813 he wrote at Berlin: &quot.on necessary creed of a metaphysic.SCHOPENHA UER. at its for it can days of Vogt and Biichner. not because it denies the existence of the Soul (for the Soul is &quot. were fixed.

and that alone will live. these studies of mine. who can : frame the members together and of antiquity. will never lead to Science the end which every philosophy has in view. refer us to one inscrutable inscrutable. thy dues. its definite form under the influences of Dresden. I set vessel. why connections. without anxiety as to how it will fit into the whole . claim made by Hegel on behalf of his system that in it.96 LIFE OF In other words. . for I know it has all sprung from a single foundation. sink before the time in this iron age. thou ruler of this sense-world Let years. one part after another. it can only. then exact me But. taking interest for the postponement. trine of It is. ! . then grant that these miniature beginnings. Chance. and deals exclusively with It their relations. for I love it is me live and my work as the find peace for yet a few mother her child. When from matured and has come to the birth. each sentence down. The is the on the contrary. has for its province the world of phenomena. in other words. . philosophy emerged as science of sciences. It is thus that an organic whole originates. of reasoning and science. tell quences. as the ground and explanation of another So long . and se us what a thing really and it has become so . one of the chief homes of to art place appropriate It was the proudest philosophic progeny born within it. be if I .&quot. restore the fragment This philosophy assumes north of the Alps. given to the world as they are and for what they are some day perchance will arise a kindred spirit. as the science at length. the reiterated doc Schopenhauer that the pathway of reflection and abstraction. can never but only intrinsically is.

and we are deaf to its revelations. &quot. throws a silvery light over the workers in every walk of the intellectual vineyard. that art. He to whom men and all things have not at times appeared as mere phantoms or illusions has no capacity for philosophy. and these are for us reality. as we look back upon was one of the phases of the end of the last century and the beginning of the present. that idealistic faith. And that idea is. leads through the portals of Art . The ideas of Tieck and his young friend Wackenroder. Art.&quot. reveals the eternal truth with a directness hope its to attain. which.&quot. and especially musical and poetic art. I a seductive forbidden fruit. fugitive. This was the primary postulate of his earliest reflections. 1 &quot. all particular things seem henceforth to be unreal. and power such as science cannot they say. the basis of his philosophy.&quot. philosophy is an empty word. shows us the inner and reality eternal truth to dissipation has. which has concentrated itself from for among by accidents and relativity and him who art s inspiration. The road to philosophy.is ^ tasted innermost sweetest juice is irrecoverably lost for the active living world.Art. note in the theory of the Especially is it the dominant Romantic school. then.&quot. its it would seem. even though Schopenhauer adds that none who have not 7 . as our purview is restricted within these limits. a like persuasion was in It the very air of his youth. of Novalis and Hoffmann. even as a lad of eighteen his pessimism. and. &quot. as we saw. once seen the ideal truth of things. he who has once 797)) &quot. visionary.SCHOPENHA UER. and the root of But. are also in large measure the ideas on which Schopenhauer builds. says Wacken- / roder (in the Heart-effusions of an Art-loving Friar.

the unmusical? of Raphael? What do the operas of Mozart avail What do most people see in a Madonna And how many praise Goethe s Faust merely on authority ? For art has not. though of course others may yield allegiance to . to do merely with the reasoning powers.e. may make a great scholar and savant . would set the court of the &quot. a painter. but it as little makes a philosopher as it makes a poet. a large extent is a private and personal possession.anybody science&quot. like science. now made thousand years. where each must count only for what he really is. antece dents and consequents. but with the inmost nature of man.&quot. philo sophy is to &quot. or a musician. . true existing and difference in the The philosophy. But I should imagine that from the failure of the attempt. when it appears. &quot.98 learned LIFE OF Kant may Muses enter. then. another with less trouble. according to the principles of deductive reasoning. Now this will be the case with my philosophy . to combine. . degree of intelligence is much too great for that. There no one philosophy The acceptable for all human beings. Like art. like Plato. But from art each receives only so much as he brings yet latent within him. and these. capacity to discover the in other words. .. art will seem very much out of place. heads of the first order . The mere sequence of ideas. he. for three i. for what it proposes is to be philosophy as To the majority no doubt this philosophy as art.A in front of dialectic. we might historically infer that this was not the way to find philosophy. will command the attention only of a few. (he wrote in 1814) can learn one perhaps with more. to treat philosophy as science.

But the true philosopher is a heaven-born invested king. make themselves lofty position and gain the crown which science bestows upon her votaries. the garb. and that one chosen by nature. can see deeper than others . by the toilsome accumulations of research and erudition. the fatherland For. of of In India. in unconditional authority. third. by slow deduction and calculation from premises of outward fact. To be an artist of the . whereof those for the lower classes present themselves mostly as religions. in the transcendent sense of that term he is a magician.&quot. sense in which there is one mathematics and one physics for all. He is. genius the great man whose life is of true benefit to humanity is one who. unperturbed by passions and secret vital principle of things. that is to say. painfully achieves some general conclusion. undistracted by petty detail. To be a is to be one among myriads. Scholars and savants may. there cannot be one philosophy for all. 99 it on authority. His is not the method which. endowed by circumstances beyond his own control. by birth and nature with a the royal prerogative. the very same thing happens. in the metaphysics. To the select few thus endowed Schopenhauer proudly felt himself to belong. controls their outward movements. fourth class. as from a sense of their incapacity they are constantly inclined to do. to mere talents and eru philoso dition are not enough and make a genuine pher Genius philosopher is required. one who penetrates into the and from within.SCHOPENHA UER. Beside it there will always be other philosophies for the second. as Novalis says of the artist. by his The potent wand. gifted by inscrutable decree. first order. by acquired knowledge.

translate it in crystallized And yet a genius outline into the language of intellect. His very existence is a rebellion against the great law . from an inward vantage- ground of calm. if we may so express it is not always a genius . surveying the world passions. in free objectivity. even those not directly presented. chapter in the supplement to his chief A work (vol. Even while he is in the full swing and surge of sensuous emotion. and. ii. But to in do this it must be emancipated from the subjection which the average lies to his desires man and the commonplace human being genius will therefore live a life of detachment from fugitive emotions. The sober-minded and self-controlled with the gracious ease and calm of the Greek ideal of temper ate will. 31) has been set apart by Schopenhauer for the The genius has exposition of his view of Genius. in the act. received from nature a massive preponderance of in tellect above what is necessary for the demands of the individual life . genius rises to a vision of the is universal in the individual. its perfect Whereas talent individual confined to detecting the relations of phenomena. be able to observe himself. the hero cannot always be such to his valet-de-chambre. which enables it to see every aspect and face of its object. more penetrating of original and almost creative perception. as it were. he will yet. catching nature. chap. universal ends. That a surplus he can therefore devote to intellect is a higher than ordinary power of seeing things intuition a gift a finer. For development it needs to be supplemented by imagination.100 LIFE OF veil behind the of circumstance and catch glimpses into the permanent reality. subtler.

always and necessarily Without the balanced prudence which keeps in view the various relations of things. is 101 will. he is apt alone. or rather the very excellence of intellect only serves to set out in clearer relief the inherent and evil contrariety of the will against itself. although by to the eye that looks from within it may prove itself foolish and careless as a child. of Jife. deemed a maze of folly and eccentricity. and with his eye centred on what is the chief thing needful. and to the is no variableness or shadow of turn crowd around him. a devotee of impractical ends. bent on gratifying their temporal and sensual wants. . Such a being is perforce a stranger in the work-a-day world. Hence he is out of touch with his immediate and visible sur roundings. And a revolt of intellect against the supremacy of the will ever and anon resumes its reign.SCHOPENHA UER. so far as temporal and visible links of association are concerned. in the thickest of enthusiasms. So-called utilitarian ends and temporal objects are not directly influenced by his doings. wholly rapt in higher unconscious of its interests and heedless it. the genius. and lives. The whirl and tumults of life move on another plane though apparently . an isolated and para get the undue and to significance to what the name doxical element in society. from an outside judgment. of a visionary and an enthusiast. occasionally to attach world has called trifles. His path. is of its designs. is. a land where there ing . equable and uniform. His life and conversation are in another country. he seems now to be now to be weighed down an absurd and groundless anxiety. a quixotic dreamer and phantast.

has a charm and a glory. a broad. heart somatically exhibited in great energy of the moderate stature and a and the circulation. There however much men of talent may writhe at the distinction. high brow. required an unusual development of brain. It is. women only sequior can at the best possess talent. The prime condition of genius is an abnormal preponderance of the sensibility. In the main Schopenhauer has right on his side. with fresh and powerful glance. as .102 LIFE OF Schopenhauer even undertakes to point out -some of the physiological conditions on which the emergence of It need hardly be genius in an individual depends. in the first place. and is crowned by a gracious sacred nimbus which seldom falls to the lot of the . but a general vigour of system and Hence is an excellent digestion are no less indispensable if the superior faculties in the machine are to do good work. accumulated knowledge. and carries up the All true art interpretation of nature into higher levels. well as a delicately-organized nervous tissue his father while from and passionate tempe rament. above the irritability and the powers of reproduction. compiler and statistician. who can be a the sexus a man genius . an immeasurable distance between the mere is. From his mother the genius must he must derive a lively inherit this brain. added is that the picture is drawn from the life. and the thinker who. the genius a generalized Schopenhauer. A short neck are especially favourable circumstances. and systematizes in proper formulae the who marshals in ordered lines immense detail of new lesson in the universe. reads a sees deeper into the secret of things. or powers of observation and perception.

worker in science.




truth in

the dictum of

which Schopenhauer

cites with approval, that

poetry is more philosophical than history, that the vision of the artist soars to higher altitudes of veritable fact But than Dry-as-dust by his lucubrations can attain.

when one looks more


We may

deeply, the antithesis is less clear not go so far as Plato when

he asserts that a quarrel of old standing separates philo sophy from poetry, and that the passion-bleared eye of
the poet

hardly the right
lasting truths.


to reflect the purest

and most

In their grandest efforts the and the poet philosopher stand close together, and the

chief captains of science owe half their eminence to a touch of the poetic faculty which consummates their other endowments. Yet it seems certain that the magic

and prophetic road

to truth

the secret path whereby

the higher revelation and the creative intuition lead their possessors to the tablelands of transcendent knowledge


one which is often visited by the mists and fogs of and self-deception, and which has often con

ducted those who trusted in

to the dark

mountains of

where they stumbled and were everlastingly

true possessor of this visionary faculty is only a pioneer, and his duty is to make the way of airy speed, along which his thought shot up to the light, the king s






and conditions of men.


prerogative of genius is not to find out a private way ot his own, a special method for_^_^pjrits ; but to lead

and long

the multitude, at the_cost perhaps of his own martyrdom solitarz-ffaiting in hope, to see that the way of true genius must ultimately be the way of all. And though



we cannot
sure that

the sources from which genius springs,

nor the conditions under which


we may be

not independent of erudition and the of It is not indeed any hodman of teaching history. science who can see things transfigured into perfect


by that

light that

never was on sea and land



not every claimant to the gifts of art who by a mere dictum can disclose the meaning of life. The


gifted genius


in the strength of his environ

ment, and with the silent yet effective sympathy of his kindred according to the flesh.


few words

may be


introduced as



chief intellectual food

on which Schopenhauer was then



read carefully the works of Cabanis

and Helvetius. Helvetius is the author of two works, in which, as was said, he let out bluntly the secret which That secret was, that all the world had agreed to keep.






tasteful selfishness.

ordinary phases, was at best a The virtuous man,"




not the person


sacrifices his pleasures,






interest, since

such a




to the public but the person

whose strongest passion is so conformable to general interest that he is almost always necessitated to virtue."


this cynical author Schopenhauer used to say he was the favourite reading of the Almighty. He meant, presumably, that such virtue formed the favourite sub

ject for the sarcasms of Mepliistopheles in the

Court of

Relations Cabanis, again, in his work on the between the Physical and the Moral in Man," had drawn







and ever-misleading



the of mind on body and body on mind links our which bond indissolubly together strange "We conclude with certainty," highest and our lowest.
says Cabanis, "that the brain digests impressions, and that organically it forms the secretion of thought." Perhaps even more stimulating, as giving its bias to

the moral and religious tone of Schopenhauer, was his introduction to the Latin translation of the Upanishads,

made by Anquetil Duperron from
the Sanscrit original.

a Persian version of


had been published at Strasstwo volumes, quarto, 1801-2, under the title

OupneKhat, idest, Secretum Tegendum, &c." The Upani shads are a group of treatises which expound, with minor
differences, the general

system of mystical pantheism which arose as a development of the more theosophic In their entirety they form the elements in.the Vedas.
scriptures of the Vedanta, the primitive metaphysics of

Hindostan, the inner


or higher gnosis, which was

overlaid by the fantastic polytheism of the popular creed, but which gave strength and direction to the movement





the reader of the present day,


helps which modern for has provided understanding the ancient scholarship wisdom of the East, it seems almost incredible that



Schopenhauer should have struggled so successfully with this crude version by an early Orientalist, where the
text (as in

scholastic translations of the Arabian Aris

totelians) is


terms, deformed

medley of languages, in which original and imperfectly rendered, are mixed up

with the Latin.

But Schopenhauer detected a kindred










still by being twice-translated. he says (Parerga II., 185), "does the Oupnek hat breathe the holy spirit of the Vedas. And how does every one, who by diligent perusal has


familiarized himself with the Persian-Latin of this


comparable book,


himself stirred to his innermost

by that spirit. washed clean of



And, oh






all its

early ingrafted Jewish superstition,

and all philosophy servile to that superstition It is the most profitable and the most elevating reading, which
(the original text excepted)

has been the consolation of
solation of


It possible in the world. life, and will be the con



been said that one undisputed fruit of the Romantic movement was its translations. Feeling
for deeper foundations, and for tried material by which to embody its plans of a new life according to nature, it went far a-field turning into German the



poetry, the philosophy, the annals of distant nations and Already, in 1808, Frederick Schlegel had brought ages.

India nearer by his book on the Language and Wisdom of the Hindoos." And Schopenhauer, while he stayed at

Weimar, had made the acquaintance of another Orien talist, Fr. Majer (whose work, Brahma, or the Religion of the Hindoos," appeared in 1819), who gave him an

interest in these

new regions of historical research. In the early months of 1818, the prospective work was

approaching completion, and Schopenhauer began to A mutual friend introduced look about for a publisher.
him, by
letter, to

Brockhaus, of Leipsic.

To him


cordingly Schopenhauer, in March, wrote, explaining that



he had completed A new philosophical system," which he wished to get published before next Michaelmas. In

The forthcoming work was no mere rechauffe of old opinions, but a supremely coherent series of ideas, which hitherto had never
confidence he lauded his wares.
entered into any man s head a book which would hereafter be the source and occasion of a hundred of


clearly intelligible, vigorous, and not For the manuscript, which was, in his own opinion, of inestimable value, and which, even from the publisher s point of view, should be worth a good deal, he asked no more than a single ducat per printed sheet, and an edition of not exceeding 800

other books, . without beauty."


These terms were accepted by Brockhaus, and copies. a contract drawn up, April 8, 1818. But the printers, who worked at Altenburg, did their business much more
slowly than

Schopenhauer expected




imagined treachery at work ; and at length he wrote to Brockhaus a letter full of bitter complaints, containing a demand that he
should pledge his word of honour that, one day after receipt of the remaining manuscript, he would send the
for at least forty sheets, and let him at the same time know, "with all the sincerity he could," when the printing would be finished. At this unceremonious assault on his honour and honesty Brockhaus flared up. To be told that common report charged him with

exaggerated the risks of delay, and


assertion which he

payments to authors was, he said, an must ask Schopenhauer to sub stantiate by, at least, naming one instance of such behaviour. As for the slackness of the press, that was
dilatoriness in his






The honorarium would be

paid, in

conformity with the terms of agreement, immediately upon the delivery of the last instalment of manuscript. When, notwithstanding this challenge, Schopenhauer did
not think

incumbent on him to

offer either

defence or

publisher charges dishonesty, followed up his first letter by another, in which he told no man the author that henceforth he would hold him

excuse for his






he must decline


further corres








coarseness and rusticity, savoured more of the cabman He concluded (vetttirino) than of the philosopher."
with the stinging expression of a hope that his fears, that the work he was printing would be good for nothing


but waste paper, might not be realized. Schopenhauer calmly amid the storm he had raised, apparently

unconscious of imprudence or rudeness, and firmly con
vinced that he had adopted the right method of dealing with a publisher. At any rate such vehemency produced

none are anxious to venture twice within Brockhaus urged the printer to s hug. The book appeared in the accelerate his rate of work. last months of 1818 (with the date 1819 on the titleDie Welt page), as a volume of 725 pp., Svo., entitled



reach of the bear



World as Will and Wille und Vorstellung ("The in four books ; with an appendix containing a criticism on the philosophy of Kant






as Will

and Idea



of Schopenhauer.

Even more than the

the principal work first of Hume s

philosophical progeny, it fell still-born from the press. Like the two shorter essays that preceded it, it had few

contains the In the appendix. The answer informed him that the greater number only a few copies were left on hand of those which remained unsold having been previously In 1844. like a man compare with who has had his leg amputated and replaced by awooden one. as the main regards work. first edition. and seen reason to believe that it alone expressed the genuine and unmutilated thought of Kant in his and freest days whereas the second best&quot. edition of Schopenhauer. . he says. which criticism of the Kantian system. &quot. on the contrary. fresh instances. it consists of additional or episodic chapters. readers reviews. only had assumed in the second and At a later date he had come subsequent editions. Heagreed to dispense with any remuneration for his labours. edition. with the exception of a few sentences very interpolated here and there. Sixteen years afterwards (in 1834) the author wrote to Brockhaus to ascertain the state of its the sales of his work.to &quot. dealing with special points. substantially a reprint of the volumes. But even the glory he looked for was slow in coming. across the first edition. 109 and it if it attracted the notice of one or two was only as the novelty of the season. the In 1818 he had been &quot. and the waves of silence soon seemed as if they had closed over head for ever. is. As for the second volume in this new.&quot. . author had reached his 56th year. giving and touching collateral questions. changes are very considerable. he succeeded in getting Brockhaus to undertake a second edition in two The first volume.&quot.SCHOPENHAUER. acquainted with the in the form which it Criticism of the Pure Reason &quot. . when the disposed of at waste-paper price.is it.

UO The new edition LIFE OP went off so tardily (750 of the second. some years All this must have been a terrible disappointment to the author.&quot. fame one my highest day I had solved the riddle which Kant had given the so-called up. world. Letterbag (as he &quot. Strange judgments have been passed on books in days past and present. and decried as upheavals from the bottomless pit. Long years after he confided to one of his disciples that. And : in another class of papers. either of individuals. my &quot. but it never for one instant made him doubt the merits of his work. upon completing the work in its first draft. 500 of the first volume were printed). in the fourth book is inspired by the spirit of truth there are even some paragraphs which may be considered : to be dictated by the Holy Ghost.Senilia. And no doubt there have been books which so expanded the mental horizon. entitled one of numerous collections of papers). &quot. if it were to be said of me. that atter them the . and so suffused with new colour the mental atmosphere. his down the And in his &quot. &quot. They have been greeted as heavenly messages. that after the publishers reduced the price.Subject philosophy is the real solution of the enigma of the It In this sense it may be called a revelation.&quot. written during the last eight years of his life. or of whole periods. he felt so convinced of having solved the enigma of the world that he thought of having his signet ring carved with the image of the Sphinx throwing herself abyss.&quot. or the quality of his own intelli gence. the same disciple That would be found a scrap written with the words. he writes to the limitation of human knowledge.

SCHOPENHA UER. &quot.Parerga that place belongs to the fragmentary the world. Even the meanest of God s creatures. and Paralipomena&quot. but an is a reality? of truth. paradoxical his outward biography an irritable. s Schopenhauer august vision beloved was no mortal maiden or was it . the intellectual and moral endowment has reached the acme of its development : nothing afterwards can do more than slightly vary and expand a piece already fixed in its main outlines. but it is the book which thoroughly expresses what he had It is necessary. &quot. to say a little to say to which omit its preacher felt to on the message be so new and precious.The fail of expressing the probably near the truth in his own. : There / the Schopenhauer of petulant.&quot. For. creature. has any bringer of new ideas been so deeply sure of the power and truth of his visions as was Schopenhauer. says it. &quot. &quot. and those whose lot was to dwell in that later world could not even in imagination reproduce its earlier aspect. To &quot.the The fruit of his whole book. there are two Schopenhauers in the field. was existence. Ill world seemed new-made. except in the annals of religion. therefore.&quot. World as Will and Idea was not indeed the book it is &quot. as he complacently generalized. the poet. so he told Brockhaus. show a woman when he loves her.Boasts One to two soul-sides. And however such an estimate may fate of all lives. one to face the world with. would be like the play of Hamlet with Hamlet left out. plagued by a most un- . At thirty. But rarely. one may say. which first made him popular &quot.



conquerable vanity; whose acts accuse him of being with a history full selfish, harsh-mannered, and sordid


vulgar quarrels ; self- engrossed; dead to the sweet ties of domesticity, and deaf to the call of
trivial incidents,

public and national interests ; sinking as the years passed by into a solitary cave, whence, like the giant in Bunyan s allegory, he raged impotently at the heterodox wayfarer.

Unfortunately, in



self is

of his books, especially the later, But these same books, rampant.

at their best,

give the picture of another soul which,

from the bonds of temporal quarrels and the world s litigiousness, draws close to the great heart of


tries to

hopes and destiny

see clearly what man really are ; which





peaceful creations of art as the most adequate repre sentation the sense-world can give of the true inward being of all things ; and which holds the best life to be

one who has pierced, through the illusions one conscious individuality from another, into dividing that heart of eternal rest where we are each members


one of another,
in which,

essentially united in the great

ocean of

and by which, we alone




pages, then, to complete the picture of the man, must be allowed to a brief statement of the purport of his




well described in the preface to the

edition, as containing

a single


not a

As time went on, the author was some times apt to forget this. But to forget it, is to miss much of the characteristic excellence of the work, and to As the exposition of a neglect its essential limitations.
system of ideas.
single idea,

stands contrasted with the contemporary

In them each branch efforts of the great systematisers. of philosophy emancipates itself so as to be pursued, in


theory, merely for





sesthetics, claim each a sphere of its own, and ethics, in the midst of one study we almost lose sight of another


and of the common end. Schopenhauer proceeds other wise. The four books into which he divides, his work
might, as he himself suggests, be severally said to con tain the logic, metaphysics, sesthetics, and ethics of his But it is truer to say that they are four ways in system. which one truth reveals itself, in knowledge, in being, in

and in conduct. Each aspect offers something the other was obliged to leave unsaid but each is inwardly with the and other, correspondent expands only so far as

that other permits.

Each book


the complement of







into a

new language
in another

which brings out meanings scarcely surmised

not a system, nor even the sketch of a system, of aesthetics, but rather the re flection in an aesthetic medium of moral and metaphysical
third book,
e.g., is



thus expresses the vigorous, but restricted of the writer. Its unity, like that of certain individuality in the sovereign personality which, by its resides empires,
intense heat of conviction, fuses heterogeneous elements into one. To this fulness of life, present throughout, the

The book

book owes
along in


undeniable charm.


exposition sweeps

and massive stream, generally with a show of pellucid depth, now impetuously bearing away some obstacle, and again deviously wandering around islands, as one who lingers on his way, ever and anon touching upon the homes and interests of men, and finally losing of the barren sea. itself on the illimitable horizons their sources supplies into its bed, and Many discharge mar the and transparency of its waters occasionally sometimes it seems as if an abrupt change of direction But the underlying carried it counter to its first intent. unity of purpose, and the palpable earnestness of tone, overcome these semblances of divergence. The style is, It is often turgid, and indeed, by no means faultless.

loaded with colour.





it all

Metaphor frequently replaces argument.
all, it

But take


appropriate to the subject.


writer has

the conviction of his message.

Unlike his earlier books, this is no purely academic discourse on a question of the schools. It is a gospel of



a true life, instinct with the fervour of faith, and proudly conscious that to the vulgar it will seem the very foolish ness of paradox. The young author rides forth like a
knight- errant defying current idols, upturning the


prejudices of his generation and the dominant ideas of modern civilization. The world, as his vision is a torrent which insidiously figures it, drifting along

of woe.

not to Elysian fields, but to an unending Cocytus The naive dream of continuous progress to

happiness increasing more and more, of enlightened peoples peacefully federated throughout the earth, are in his judgment maniac delusions and if thinkers still arise

hope the amelioration of man s estate from the wise organization of a perfect commonwealth, where equality tempers liberty and the spirit of fraternity
to bid us

ennobles both, these are mistaken
failed to


who have

sound the depths

of the



the desperate wickedness has strayed from truth when

he seeks

his satisfaction in things without, in externals

in a far-off God in worlds beyond, nor on the barren breast of a republic in this world, can he find safety. The things on which he has set his heart

and accidents. Neither

are those possessions which perish,

and the knowledge,

whereby he fancied he would one day learn the secret
of beatitude,

only destined to increase his sorrow.

Schopenhauer announces





he under




a contradiction,


Nearly three centuries ago, Francis Bacon delineated advance the career and tendency of modern civiliza tion. The glory of man was to make the earth his


and vehicle of

servant, to turn nature into the minister
his gratifications.


perfect that mastery of





was indeed indispensable that man, as observer,

should, by all his subtlety, strive to wrest the secret of But the physical natural processes and natural laws. sciences, which arose by carrying out this espionage,

and which have gradually become an irresistible force controlling the whole conception of human life, have not unreasonably inherited the stigma of the utilitarianism

To science, as to practical life, they exist to minister to. the so-called natural world has become a mere dead
matter, an extended somewhat, a


a mere thing

in the



by being consumed.


began by

treating nature as only material for his satisfaction



Nemesis of science he has himself been reduced Science to the level of one of the things he deals with. The world has become mechanical and materialistic. it describes is a world in which there is nothing
but matter and motion
mysterious atoms time and space.

nothing but simple and nonsubmitted to changing relations in

As science

as a single factor in the great system of life mechanical and materialistic character has a relative

But science is not content with place and justification. this subordinate position ; or rather, its votaries, sunk in the dark depths of their mine, grow so short-sighted that
they deny that the sun shines. They set up a material a philosophy in which physics is made istic philosophy




Against such a philosophy Schopenhauer wages in his contest he starts from the general con-

elusions of Kant.

-Kant had, with




My life. physically or objectively considered.&quot. is the cardinal faith which descends from Kant to his disciples. theoretical. say with Schopenhauer. a knowledge not inferred by argu nor ments. at our option. generated by reasonings which.cerebral or. from a position within the ranks of science itself. by Kant. also to mark the The things of which science experience predicate reality.SCHOPENHAUER. philosophy. and which (it may be added) descended to Kant from wUl^ Rousseau. reduced to mere ideas in our mind &quot. are. as we may even upon it. real. a picture which to the functions of the brain. pupil. . . divided from independent and self-subsisting being by a gulf which science. Only this face-to-face has reality it. These words of Fichte serve point of Schopenhauer. set life in knowledge movement. about which there is no dispute.. of due an organ which. and his answer was couched in the technical phrase that the supremacy or primacy belongs not to the to the practical reason. leaves knowledge merely the post of This system of feelings is in the mind a fact J)bserver. and it alone. to a phantasmagoria. when we reflect world.e. the masses of materiality and passivity which science regards as alone existent are. but to the That life is more than knowledge. empirically purely and merely ideal. as and Kant had shown.&quot.&quot. 117 raised the question as to the relation of science to life .grpnt the system of feelings and desires. is. can life. knowledge. a fact of which we have L makes supreme . The so-called realities i. ~ and says_Jnnt s first. intuitive we receive or neglect. as such. and sole reality. mere appearances. is powerless to cross. stand- because itself springs from. The It is is. but not to the intellect.

in which we watch the transformations or successions of If we a reality which is as mysterious at last as at first. and.118 LIFE OF through a peculiar machinery at its disposal. which we know as matter in motion.phantom of the brain. and that to a third. ever-recurring feature of science to refer to causes. and the answer sends us to a second. into a fabric of ideas changing in place and time. we come to see dimly that. turns out to be a mere phenomenon-^^a. Such knowledge always -and for ever relative. inwardly speak matter : it only refers us to the much. We want to know one thing. that we have remained outside the reality we profess to We have only a scheme of times and places. The same conclusion had been enforced (in the earliest The great and essays) by another mode of arguing. and by this method of knowledge (and it is the method of science). range of that knowledge which claims to be so Force. It never gets to the real heart of any something more familiar or more frequently occurring. sensible how narrow of we are is forces. on this course. is to explain is by reasons. At each stage we must confess. we can never get the satisfaction we expect. in this unending throwing-back of the difficulty. explore. if we are honest with ourselves. An invincible . Only through the intellectual function of a brain does this whole system of sense-perceived things exist. recedes on more searching analysis into the depths of unperceived reality. as understood by science. translates a reality which is always beyond our knowledge. that last and loudest And prophet of modern civilization. yet reality cannot be abandoned merely because reality.

sertation of 1813 119 How it to behind appearance there is true be discovered? The early dis ^/ ledge logic. as a system of desires. internally. and hardly desrfTBable same common name. ethics. we know ourselves by means of feeling. : connects not idea with idea. we are. feeling assures us that is being. and. a thing referred to and dependent on other things. as volitional beings tion or. but ideas the &quot. in brief. This knowledge. excellence will and my are the proposition that my body Here the real and the ideal v coincide. &quot. physical had distinguished four species of knowscience. as we into this inner consciousness. a cause of effects and an effect of causes. them we never get beyond relations between But beside and above them all there is another grade of knowledge.emotional. existing through successive times. and mathematics. even to ourselves.&quot. and emotions.philosophical &quot. asWillj. with reality truth its fundamental dogma is one. we find ourselves but altogether free from space. the limitations of time and the That mysticism. v In all of ideas. Ourselves we become aware of in two ways. Outwardly.SCHOPENHA UER. sentient. passionate. extended in space. In the daylight of science and worldly our existence is apprehended only as a thing of . &quot. volitional and appetitive. neither divided into parts nor suffering the lapse of time. a surge of atten and retire intention. if knowledge may be par called. which ever and anon wells up through practicalities of Western life. by the sense of muscular action. We feel ourselves alive and active. sensations. speaks strongly in life Schopenhauer. unlike them by the it all. an object of percep tion. by the tone of pain or pleasure.

time and space fade away is : the distinction of cause and effect lost . into the twilight of feeling. and we have come habitually to look upon ourselves in the same In materialistic way in which we regard other things. and put us outside the grand intellectual life is current of existence. of ordinary life. were. a cqngejies of parts. we retire into ourselves. For the true appre hension of things we must. the fragments into which the intellect has us.120 LIFE OF shreds and patches. we feel ourselves as emotion and appetite. The fruit of the tree of knowledge has served to cut us off from paradisaic immanence in Culture and science have led us away from the reality. as Will . as it outside when we the ourselves. and seek the secret of the universe in those depths of our own heart and will. we are everywhere : and no where . of separation The a principle and individualism. real heart of the matter. . into ourselves. This sense of inward calls reality has been deadened by the the practice of civilization. as the. we swoon away into the infinite. is reduced intellect itself Science gives but a partial view for the an outsider. An exclusively intellectual attitude breaks up But when the totality into an endless series of details. in every time and no time and. where the distractions of sense-perception reach not. after the fashion of contem plative mystics from the days of the authors of the retire Upanishads downwards. We are. at 1 j the quiet hour when eye and ear are lulled to rest. and has lost hold of the : inner unity of life. light of intellectual consciousness grows dim. adopt standpoint of secular science what we see is only the dead shell of our : real being. in a word.

lost which has been overlaid and amid the diversions and distractions of material And in this effort civilization and materialistic science. however the fundamental truth of this is not a direct It is rather a perception. as it were. and then that.comes then reinstate in its proper influence the latent sense of solidarity through all things. For everything. the shadow thrown upon these separately-presented units from the unrecognized funda mental unity governing them. This truth. bears stamped on it a reference to something else and that : reference from grounds to conclusions. the silent darkness of inner feeling a direct 121 communi cation seems to pass at every pore from ourselves to all other things. though professing independence. but as : first willing this. science. we are never quite relieved from the sense of body as extended. to Philosophy. is. We are. In the normal conditions of this life. and is implicitly denied by the power we allow to relations of cause relativity and effect. keeping up a continuity of sympathetic influences. on the other hand. from cause to effect. by the essential which knowledge in its every part proclaims. object amongst other objects we can never be aware of ourselves purely as will. But in the broad light of intellect and things assume an existence. between the perceived (material) body it and . starts from the principle of the identity. .SCHOPENHAUER.the felt (immaterial) will. in our own individual case. is It is true that this and independent severance and individuality isolated imperfect. as an and. never completely released from the separations of time and . philosophy necessary inference by analogy from certain experiences. in short.

urgency.&quot. upon. absolute. In body. spirit. A motion and a rolls impels All thinking things. feeling. Schopenhauer names So naming he implies that this truer aspect of ourselves is not a mere cognitive or intellectual power. designate the Will life. we may also . and not an abstract idea and spring of life. and degrees in the completeness with which we can sink into a mere sense of our identity with the moving and acting &quot. are. cannot be wholly excluded. undivided. suffering. must be a higher and comprehensive genus of conscioussense of instinct . in the disruptive force of the reflective intellect. screw down the lamp of outward knowledge till the differentiating lines drawn by reflection grow faint. self. which we and which is all things. but an acting. pace Schopenhaueri. effort. and &quot. And This inner through all things. and not a mere conception or But the absolute antithesis. There degree knowledge. which he insists proposition. between will and intellect can hardly be main From the will consciousness. Will. and realization. and moving being an impulse.&quot.&quot. which sweeps through us. We can. All. and become a living soul . One and it. a force of spontaneity. &quot. feeling ourselves at one with spirit that all &quot. at least in imagi nation.122 But there are degrees place which reflection institutes. objects of all thought. and in some tained. if by that name. We are laid asleep &quot. that restless appetite towards being.

for Schopenhauer s much that is attached to it in our anthro for it is of all associations. which is the inner reality of must indeed be shorn. he poses as a bulwark against materialism : and if . may be noticed the protest which Schopen defies time hauer his &quot. who treat Some of his phrases. voluntary choice. it may be styled an Unconscious. it is also more than mere force it is. But if Schopenhauer does any reduced to nonentity thing. and does not need the of the law of causality. but to a consciousness toto genere different from the rational modes of it exhibited in the animal and human world. less than consciously-motived volition. literally treated. in termed contradistinction from the absolutely-ideal reason. our body. purpose.&quot. pomorphic applications of it with and motive But if example. I existence manicre aveugle dans les abimes de I & chaque point de Tespace. may support the logic of this identification but it runs counter to the whole tenor of : his philosophy. 123 Contrasted with the consciousness of ordinary and scientific knowledge. just as the appetites. In connection loitering help with this. J fcre. as so opposed. Schopenhauer s Will is a mere word covering a materi alist explanation of the universe by the vibrations of ponderable molecules. may be irrational. the will possesses : a higher and not a lower grade of consciousness an immediate and all-penetrating power of apprehension which and space. anticipation against the critics Will as only another name for force. ness in which the will participates. of The will. to quote the vague words of a kindred speculator. But. un nisus profond.SCHOPENHA UER. s exerfant d une : &quot. poussant tout a Apart from some analogue to consciousness.&quot. made by &quot. &quot.

though in different degree. in the processes of organic but in cohesion. he is even of matter and force. For. The mystery of matter finds its explanation in terms of human consciousness: the activity. Schopenhauer bids us inj|/ terpret causation in terms of quasi conscious motivation. under a modified form. Thus &quot. so all their ultimate meaning they. will. But. to the mere idolaters is like all philosophy. He bids us recognize. the next step is to extend by analogy our conclusion to the rest of the universe. so as to have glimpse of the ultimate reality which we are. souls. the narrow water-shed whence opposing tendencies diverge. when converge in a line at least a distant outward powers are made to with the inward sense of will. are quasi-conscious energies. .124 LIFE OF to identify himself with the he refuses pure spiritualists of idealism. not merely life. As our body inwardly seen other objects conceal beneath their shape In of extension an inner being as modes of volition. energy. is will. is reinstated. unquestionably. granting (which is much) that we can thus by a slender bridge by which mystic prc cess of introspection discover what we really are. and which all other things are. marvellously com plicated. his main postulate is that human consciousness. laws of causation. which we apprehend as our true being is also the real being of all things. Science.&quot. played on by forces. more opposed His. like ourselves. because merely external and necessary. the handmaid of had reduced the physical universe to a mere aggregate of extended things. gravitation. is the its we approach. the old belief that full all things are of human necessities. or rather bound one to another by unintelligible.

intellect. compared with which the human being with his intelligence shrinks into a petty The thing. only As the brain is to the is the picture of intellect represents reality as a wide-spread and gradually un folded multitude of spatial objects. to be. in our own case. of Will.SCHOPENHA UER. however. &quot. dispersed inimitably from place to place. and undergoing endless mutations by causal connections. the pursues its the weakest of a one-sided other types of natural energy. language of never existed. He points out that all those processes presupposed by the geologist and cosmogonist as taking place in infinitely distant ages. the physical universe an aggrega tion of matters.&quot. aims by the light of knowledge. But the critical philosopher reverses the balance. and shows us this whole so-called material universe as a mere system of ideas in an intelligence. then. there. stolidly. of phenomena which. and over infinite expanses. are a description. which. 125 and own essence.our principle which. must there is as elsewhere Outwardly. but. to the truer revelation so whole corporeal system. in way a principle. in the pictorial such. in all same its and invariable forms. which given by the un-named and mystic organ of the un- . (the cerebral function). electricity. because it is everywhere one and the same (just as the first break of dawn shares the name of sunlight with the bear the full name rays of noonday). in its inner reality. in time. : as The whole picture only exists in and through the peculiar functions of the brain of a partial organ of that body which the philosophy of Schopenhauer declares Will. bound together ordinary materialist sees in this a vast aggregate of realities. strives only blindly.

Such a Will is a metaphysical which means for I divided By that organ intense intuition. had dismissed the doctrine of design and final causes from science to the pseudo-sciences. because ft transcends the contrary. &quot. as ordinarily taught. but an and conviction of a world which is one and all. we get. naturally. On other. as they were esteemed. makes individuals for offspring yet to sacrifice their selfish interests for the well-being of their kind. not an idea. tance in space and time. whereby each part. and wields a s wand. with its early utterances in Bacon and Spinoza. Nor is this all : for the chief interest of the . does Schopenhauer deal more kindly with a conception which. immediately responds to every In the diverse elements of the world it is the all one identical Will which disposes beings in such it sympathy that. Nor. finities into an absolute omnipresence and unity. no a thousand years are as one here and there where a which eternities and in world concentrates day&quot.126 LIFE OF will. wizard Schopenhauer a supernatural power. unconsciously to the parties concerned. where there is no earlier and no later. of theology and metaphysics. feeling. to which time and space are nothing. and an impossibility. he regards it as an inadequate expression for the real unity of nature. The bird which builds a nest its come bears witness in act to the omnipotence and continuity of a Will for which the interval between pairing-time and rearing-time does not exist. But he is far from sharing the prejudice that teleology is a mere illusion. without deduction by dis the scope of scientific causation. The scientific instinct. introduces into the machinery of the world an extramundane God.

therefore. Man. by the gift of intellect. or in the influence of the distant magnetizer? It is the way the insect travels. which dies here. which it happens that in a given population an extraor dinary increase of the death-rate is followed by an in crease of births. One and All &quot. the . so far as they testify to the reality behind the veil. restricted within limits fixed when we catch a passing glimpse of the secret super natural intimacy that pervades all materiality when the nexus metaphysicus defies the limitations of the physical : nexus. &quot. has fallen from his original tranquillity in the bosom of universal nature. and even probable. &quot. it is a practical metaphysics.&quot. he admits. In ordinary experience.&quot. become he says &quot. and there may be special conditions of the phenomena. If then as it not illegitimate to suppose a communication were behind the curtain or a clandestine game under it is &quot.the way of the magical effect in the sympathetic cure. thought-reading. ./ we can believe (as he has tried to prove) that nature are only phenomenal and superficial divisions of an underlying undivided essence of will. and again proceeds in full vitality from It is the way in every egg that has stood the winter. Schopenhauer has a kindly eye for clairvoyance and magic powers. Telepathy. be moments. later. man and .&quot.SCHOPENHA UER.Animal magnetism he remarks. most is.&quot. he thinks. possible.Does one ask. is way through the thing-in-itself. the table. and faith-healing. &quot. spiritualism. man s power and by his bodily But there may.a momentous discovery knowledge are organization. &quot.&quot. It is the way which does not go on the It leading-strings of causality through space and time. of nature lies in its human bearings.

of which his individual existence had a deprived him. Yet. in explanation. By degrees. as in many others. it finds will its perceptions. at first under the stimulus of need. knowledge is only sought accomplishing. Originally indeed this intellect came as mere instrument of the will. cosmogony. in this asserts creature creator. enable the will to perform what. alike in animal and man. not for their own sake. endlessly. to a service less direct. It . the himself and ends by dethroning his As mere scientific idea. and to endless finitude. but as means for the wants of the individual. and so. the primary function of knowledge will. knowledge is for ever condemned to imperfection. to refer them.128 LIFE OF has largely lost his primal fellow-feeling with all and has gained instead a new organ. are only of things in their bearings on animal and human needs. of the uneasiness of individual. Thus. to unity of feeling. to compensate the earlier It is charged with mere will-service. especially in man. even at its highest. one to another. Such science: where so many means are inter posed between want and its satisfaction that the ultimate dependence on the will is lost sight of. as embodied in an itself less capable than formerly of In other words. the scientific attitude toward things is to study them. the intellect rises above : this immediate service service is to need. is to be the servant of the individual But. dealing with them only in their outward relations. the intellect He things. So far intellect the will has lost merely acts as a surrogate to supply that telepathy which when it took individual shape. by which he can indirectly regain that sense of contact with other things. as has been previously indicated.

with keen outward observation. it but product of empirical reasoning. yet has not lost his sense of universality. and is capable of a freer con templation. the Artist. of the universal concentrates in a single form all the meaning that science has vainly sought to fathom by generalizing the content of a thousand single and which the which art thus reproduces. Genius. calls and Fichte had is Such a gifted being aesthetic idea. and has risen superior to the needs of sensuality. at its last step only gave us the dead abstractions it had generalized from reality. deals with individuals first. we have what Schopenhauer called Talent.&quot.SCHOPENHA UER. eye sees in natural forms. one outside othe rs:~init lives habitually inspired by the sense of rmmir. &quot. Where there this higher power of knowledge &quot. probably in all. ministers to the sensualism characterizing the vulgar Will. &quot. He sees things. Art presents an individual which is perfectly representative&quot. and his knowledge is the He is one who. It is the glory of the he artistic genius to unify what had thus been parted in twain. hnrmnny. artistic The : 9 . their permanent vakie. intelligence assumes a higher phase than this vulgar servitude. But.aTit were ifommside : he identifies himself with the otiftjcT^feoetrtempiation-: I5nger a needy bein#. tator~Tookl_at thTngs &quot. is fully liberated.&quot. For it the individual and the general had fallen irremediably asunder. aesthetic idea.ScienceT according to Schopenhauer. not^jri their_ejctmal-accidents. abstract generalizations from individuals and secondly with those which are the At its best. is some thing beyond the range of any mere formula to express shapes. but in their Such a specinner significance.

destined to exhibit in their plain truth the play of mechanical force. to lull cares and anxieties to sleep. in its special mode of delineation. To arts reveal these eternal significances : in the life of nature and man is the function of art and the several owe their characteristic differences to the grades of the existence which visible they in depict. it carries us beyond the individual objects to their uni versal and everlasting meaning . into great groups. The fall and sensible forms. the arts stands architecture. collection of general terms adequately render Such is the splendid dower of beauty. and original in genius. the most elementary type of the utterance of Will into bodily Hence. weak and derivative in com moner natures. at least for a time. The lowest of them. in will comprehensive outlines which the gives itself objective one ever-living and moving existence. it avails.130 LIFE OF analysis can exhaust its no wealth of meaning. of column against superin- . is the inanimate block. a brief taste of the Sabbath repose of the blessed.&quot. Either in nature. each of which is cha racterized grades in of will into by a typical common nature. it shows us. if he could only Wherever such faculty of vision is. even in the waste of this world. the struggle of propulsion against gravity. rich dividual will. These grander which the everlasting process of objectification visibility and tangibility goes on the succes sive scenes in that play itself by which the cosmic Will displays on the world-stage are what Schopenhauer has &quot.. to silence the cravings of in see deeply enough. and to give us. Platonic ideas. or in art. at the bottom of shape. styled t . and no it. that infinite and absolute being which each individual really rests upon.

It shows that true life implies unselfish ness and devotion to the truth of things for their own sake. Lastly. again. achievements are where it shows the individual will under broken and contrite. ^ the guise of an individual figure and a single Its highest event. because even a victory in the inevitable struggle cannot free the conqueror from participation in the sorrow of the conquered. Art is thus the interpreter of the permanent and intrinsic meaning of the drama of existence. Tragedy a revelation to the spectator that the natural will is foredoomed by its nature to misery. with will. In poetry. ^ and lifts us out of the turmoil of sensuality. in a state desire. 131 But the arts which deal more closely life. the life of egoism is cursed. the highest lesson. and that. already tranquillized on this of quiescence of all side of the grave. as one life -- is essentially wrapped up with another in universal will.tragedy. pjuriting. the ethical lesson. man convey and the deeper insight into the purport of the real issues of human Thus. betrays the secrets of life and death. music has the prerogative of representing the very TjKimate universe . cumbent mass. \y/ Such are the pictures of the saints who have trampled the world under their feet.SCHOPENHAUER. who have its lessons hardly avail save for those otherwise learned the secret it symbolizes. is is given by . In the main its chief service is to console against the ills But . essence of the life of will throughout the ^ sorrow its burden is the quintessence of all joy and not for this or that special cause or circumstance but as the very love of love and hate of hate. It carries us beyond our natural selfishness and our accidental relations with other things.

as the law of his being. grievances that selfishness attempts to remedy the . and exulting in the natural When his consciousness awakes. he proceeds to their his fellow-men and as if all that they consider property. lust of life. only that he is born to receive He affirms that happiness. to get his impulses gratified. to the contemplation of the essences of things. which he finds himself practically enacting. at all. his intellect entirely in bondage If he thinks to his passions. he pride of existence. emerges on the scene as a being charged with individual appetites and desires. and this selfish be happy. as has been seen. these were only something that might contribute to swell his con venience.132 of LIFE OF life. carries out its principles by reducing the whole world into a mere material and vehicle for his pleasures. blind to everything but securing means of gratification. identified with its lusts and appetites. and that by their raising the eye. Thus the selfish creed of the natural quest for happiness issues in the career of wrong in a world of wrong-doing. the State and its ministries of so-called justice. wholly controlled by the lust of life. The discomforts thus arising call forth the machinery of public law. concerned with nothing but his own interests. from immersion in particulars and relations to human needs. Man. Civil justice. it is and without a thought beyond. ness. the selfish principle on which without renouncing or denying life has been based. Another step. finds himself lodged in the fabric of the body. In the naive it which makes his only duty to faith that he is the centre around which the universe treat revolves.

. only to put a smiling face on things. we learn it right to renounce even what law declares our due. it serves to nip in the bud those tendencies which law sought to prune after With the increase of delicacy in they had fully grown. were they not re as inforced by other and more purely moral stimuli. we feel. of which forms the central province. long neglected and mis understood. are only illusions of this voice of As conscience is more observantly hearkened to. between individuals here and our superficial existence.1.SCHOPENHAUER. tries transgressing egoist. to curb the lusts of egoism by imposing penalties where But such egoistic conduct has led to others injury. But political and penal agencies would not exert even the slight remedial influence they do. and find our selves living under a new law the law of charity and love. causes. secular and temporal justice has no ethical tendency. In the stings of remorse. it Like the whole organization. conscience.33 by clapping the muzzle of punishment upon the Positive law. our perceptions of its lessons. that the intervals between past and present. so here the life natural selfishness in which the cares of entrench us from our earliest years never entirely annihilates the obscure apprehension of our essential identity with all living beings. in other words. in the prick of as it were. or political it power seeks to reform the character. . there. and to prevent by its machinery of penalties the greater losses which predominant wrong would breed. life. the touch of the great mother of all Through them emerges into our waking consciousness the sense. Just vulgar science had indirectly to own the bond of solidarity which makes the universe one.

: With for it that formula on its lips. supreme sacred and pitying love has thus displaced pro fane and worldly passion. a negative and quietistic ethics. When and to shelter the homeless. it might seem that the But there is a climax of ethics had been reached. I : but &quot. becomes a never-failing fountain of virtue. Tat twam asi &quot. it now whispers. &quot.131 LIFE OF is Such the supreme principle of positive ethics the sense of universal brotherhood.&quot. &quot.&quot. is only a delusion. and the wretched. not elevate a mere The service of humanity zero into a palpable amount. happiness is a nobler and truer end than the happiness of the justified and individual . in the Indian formula. when individualism has been so far absorbed as to give all its goods to feed the poor. but if happiness then the happiness of millions as will such is impossible. This art thou. it finds the gate opened in its which leads into the heaven of optimism transfiguration. nor of humanity only it and when devotion to means readiness is to suffer for the sake of helping the weak. Relatively the by pessimism. I am old The word of the unregenerate soul was. of all sentient a or even of beings. &quot. This is when the self the very euthanasia of selfish the great self the supreme self of is humanity. further step. the unfortunate. &quot. founded in asceticism. unless the fruits of life really give a . to life Thus the will purged of its bitterness when egoism becomes universalized and passes into altruism while yet it remains true to its original creed that happiness is life s : end and due. community. or. ness. I am thou. interest in the interest of all life. sinking selfidentity of essence. or rather of underlying Universal benevolence.

&quot. he seeks to save himself from the body of sin and death. perceived that satisfaction or happi in this has been rent asunder. who has died to the misery of her inward struggle mare life-in-death body and its natural appetites. is the saint. life is essentially sorrow. His positive path so. cold who has seen the night the service of humanity can have only a secondary charm.e. in general. as a palliative of an incurable misery. But now. It is only when we confine our glance to the details of life that it presents the life of the individual. properly speaking. it. who lavishes on others the blessings they crave for. or through some higher than usual power of penetrating But for him who has thus seen the appearances of life. through some shock of personal experience. though in his own heart he sets little value on them.all some eloquent pages. a tragedy. When ness this truth is is always. the aspects of a comedy alternates &quot. indeed. girded in the panoply of self-mortification.&quot. as the philan thropist. Hitherto we have seen him only on his negative side. Such an one who has denied life. the secret well-spring from which that secular . from the torment of an endless and manifold willbondage. surplus 135 But.SCHOPENHA UER. Schopenhauer seeks to show in &quot. is and noting only the salient features.. : looked at as a whole. Every human existence between pain and ennui. i. to put the religious. beneath the surface of the world into the gray. either world impossible then the final veil It is a lesson which may come. the life which runs on a higher plane than ordinary secular virtue. as over the costs of its maintenance. path of asceticism monastic or anchoretic life a is the paradoxically. and contains.

it : was asseverated. of knowledge only is left : will has The aim all intelligence. but not its essential character. and so diminish the needless friction that curtails our satisfactions. Keeping his body under.&quot. : : any one the will and its then the saint lives works (of the flesh) are all in all. What we are.&quot.186 virtue derives LIFE OF His entrance on that saintly its strength. But at first it seemed as if the Even in position of knowledge were purely auxiliary. said the writer. to systematic. will. Knowledge. Nirvana. &quot. the form of reasoned knowledge it could accomplish no more than make and harmonize the passions. he sets himself free life. they find him He has slain the will to life and if to insensible. &quot. career passes through the gate of self-renunciation through vows of complete chastity and voluntary poverty. deter : mines inevitably what we do operari sequitur esse and inasmuch as circumstances can only modify the accidents follows of life. and do the best within the limits assigned to us. could never alter character and the dictate to regulate life : of wisdom. advised us to gain a clear understanding of our nature and faculty. it knowledge can only suggest a choice of means to a pre-ordained end. By his own act he cuts himself : from the prison-house of away from all sensual and sensuous ties temptations reach him not.&quot. in a world of utter non-being. bidding us be content with being true to our own selves. Thus partial reformation that . to react upon the is says Schopenhauer. troubles do not affect him and though the rain and the wind bluster round him as round other men. With him. vanished. &quot. by a systematic course of selfrepression.

cannot amend the aTmmTlate light of But we can end There been seen. And man.SCHOPENHAUER. . But as has total reformation will.We is. and in such a vision strength comes to that may be done is a mystery. by the pure knowledge. would need a greater Will to deny this lower lust of life. Knowledge at first was spoken of as powerful negate the It will. though Schopenhauer to the Spiritual Will. which is no mere school of words and abstractions. but freedom from the limitations of desire. is declared to be possible. miser able effort. of knowledge as betray another origin : and show elsewhere. except so far as that name may be given and more consistent methods of conduct. gradually comes to himself in the higher regions of that intellectual world. All volition is. will not say it from the natural . blind instinct undisciplined impulse reign of Will was only the pristine stage of a will which is destined to be also intelligent. knowledge must ultimately The spring from knowledge more august than itself. and from the immersion in He has ascended trivial interests of the moment. latest acts that. a substitute for But these the inner sympathy latent through all nature. it. is 137 to a choice of simpler impossible. hopeless. How it would seem as if : a mere messenger and servant of will. But this higher Will is the will of of knowledge knowledge which is penetrating and intuition. shown to be aimless. as he raises himself by the process of ethical life. a higher kind of knowledge which can it altogether.

Schopenhauer was in Italy. even before he had received the final proofs. Italy has been sought the home of sometimes as the museum or the bury ingof the Italic races.CHAPTER VI. bent on shaking off the mouldy dust left by a four years ERE and on plunging into the ampler and freer with which the Northern imagination has for many centuries endowed the shores of the Mediterranean. sometimes as the firstground from in which the dream awakening sleeper long vernacular life had sunk since the days of the Roman Empire. life ineradicable longing like such longings destined to show itself as in part only a useful illusion the Germanic peoples turn again and again has made to the land where the lemon-trees bloom. his book appeared. and where the beauty and the grandeur of the older world still haunt the ruins of classic and early Christian as civilization. sometimes as the holy place of the Christian In these very days a young band of scholars were laying the foundations of those archaeological and world. as to the long-lost paradise where the secret of nature is still kept. philological researches which have since given a new . Sometimes Catholic art. An incubation.

encouraged by the example and patronage of the enthusiastic Crown Prince of Bavaria. this alone is right and ancient We true. was reviving a sacred art. we need only read after his words : mind. nor with Overbeck and Veit. his is remark on would be Bapfiapoi. in short. nor Bunsen and Riickert. beautiful. that Scho penhauer could sympathize. In them we no longer . the decorations. give horror passed through the group of free vent to him. with all its paraphernalia and apparatus. But with it was neither with Niebuhr and Humboldt. And if we want to know how he felt towards the admirers of mediaeval architecture. feel at once that this If we could bring an famous Gothic : Greek in front of it our most cathedrals. glories to How our and executed in antique style.&quot. &quot. alien to art. of the The renaissance of theatre. and German. artists and art-lovers when one his day. which should be pure. the Hellenically and Orientally A shock of his contempt. he thundered out along with your twelve vulgarians of Jerusalem. life 139 to classical history. not with the real life. in reply to a student who dictum (that Greek art derived unique advantages from the clearly-defined conceptions had urged against of the twelve Olympian gods) the fact that Christianity &quot.Get too had its twelve apostles.LIFE OF SCHOPENHA UER. contemplating the kindly a of comes the of Gothic. &quot. It certain that our delight in works of Gothic art reposes historical reminiscences on associations of ideas and on feelings. Historical inquiry. he regarded as merely dealing with the accessories. Christian art made inspired. sight regular building. and a contemporary brother* hood. Nazarene &quot. nor with Cornelius and Thorwaldsen.

life as a country which. so actively seems to me Christianity.. In architecture. clement among the comrades&quot. sceptical age. tions of the patriot. was good enough to serve as the Vauxhall and Cremorne of those who had grown tired of the cold of its respectabilities of love and song. and the Christian..disturbing sesthetic crucifix. intrinsically not good and on what derives and value merely from an association of ideas. inscrutable. of the and we need not be surprised to hear freshly fervid with the aspira that his own countrymen. in Italy at this all most smoothly and often Many treated of those it who sojourned date. secret. they wanted to embalm deceased Clearly a pagan like this could only be as if a &quot. i. and even itself lays the calculation bare to the intelligent a reasonableness which characterizes the spectator In Gothic we have what is antique architectural style. then. we merely arbitrary. actually. it is the minor key. a land Northern Europe. or . hence its mysterious and hyperphysical character. in virtue of which every item admits of strict calculation. the scholar.. have to suppose aims unknown. bereft of national own. In the interests of good taste? I should be glad to see large sums of is money expended right. where . beautiful. It was the land of where the aspects of life and manners were more picturesque than elsewhere.140 LIFE OF discover that pure and complete reasonableness. the Gothic style is.the negative pole. were not the people with whom Schopenhauer companied in Italy. Hence its mysterious appearance . its on what objectively.&quot.e. left When I see this churches it building the Gothic incomplete by the mediaeval Ages of Faith.

he says in his letters. if not of fairer.SCHOPENHA UER. Schopenhauer was in Venice. woman to 141 lightly responsive was. on the 22nd of the preceding month. then forty-eight years old. At this very date the tones passion. implora eterna words. they implore it and eterna quiete.&quot. they want nothing but rest . quiete. he said. P. &quot. And Byron.&quot. monuments pace : M.&quot. will see these two words and no more put over me. Lord Byron was in Venice. within the fortress by the Adriatic. all that can be said on the subject. they have had enough of life. like Schopen hauer. . remains of Byzantine Christendom at Ravenna did not elicit had made so from him a single word. . even more so. 1818. the materials for the cynical pictures of &quot. These two and &quot. into the foreigners On the ist of November. probably unheeding and unaware that. implora L.Don Juan. I hope whoever may survive me. cared little for the historic past The gorgeous of Italy or for the archaeology of art. and the modesty of the request. hope. and soon to find himself enslaved to the charms of the Countess Guiccioli. gathering. drinking the wine of life to the lees.comprise and pathetic than the implora. Few things. at least more and where conventionalism seemed to vanish with the Northern surroundings amid which it had used to be supreme. in a city which had lost all larger interests. L. had begun his lectures at Berlin. The stranger threw himself with zest into the customary relaxations of the . fast an imprint on his mind as two in the Certosa at Ferrara. and humility nothing can be more three . and shall see me put burying-ground at the Lido. They compress contain doubt. Hegel. .

like trying to dress without a looking-glass. it is . instead of earning it and statues serve him to confirm the by honest work.Travel-book&quot. in especially Petrarch. are shameless. whole between Venice and the Lido (where Byron used to take his morning ride). though not the study of a con noisseur. There he spent the Italian. Pictures judgments on man s . Schopenhauer gathers that which made Goethe notes in a &quot. Indeed. he would remark. except perhaps to catch a passing glimpse of him one day as their gondolas crossed on the way soul. his eccentricity. all his life a frequent is not to go to the play. to heaven. and the place that. paying diligent attendance on the art-collections. but.142 place LIFE OF . he was off by route of Bologna and Florence to Rome. so recall these even in later years. apparently. cast over him the full spell of its enchantments. His main social intercourse was with Englishmen . and freely expand in the environment and throw himself on observa stimulating tion of the humours around him. prepossessed against him by unfavourable gossip from Berlin and Weimar. engaged and. he did not meet. alike in their audacity and their baseness. his own compatriots. Catholicism seems to him a mode of begging one s way of observations. instead of being a record a diary of morali sings and of sub Of the Italians he only notes that they jective moods. winter. were not likely to be conciliated by and his paradoxical airs. After a few weeks in Venice. he could not soft days of fading autumn without a burst of his emotion through Byron. At the theatre and opera he was visitor . hardly a keener contrast can be found than between the mood in which Schopenhauer visited Italy his shyness.

passages as 320-21 of the (Book iii. a disposition to parade athe ism and cynicism. Goethe had glanced into the book (averse as he was by nature to introspection). . Dantzic house. chaffingly and seriously at once. At Bologna he notes that the sense of one s own want of worth is not only the greatest. a letter from his sister reached him of very unwelcome tenor. and anticipates the monument which at posterity will raise to him. . 440-41 (Book iv. attracted by a good rate of . preferred to every earthly blessing. It was Naples that a letter from his sister first gave him some news of the publication of his book. where he points out that the true wisdom of life is This and other letters of to be true to our own selves. 45). At Milan. where Schopenhauer holds that the canon of beauty is at once in the mind and in the object as it were an & priori anticipation by genius idea which nature goes out half-way to meet of the edition &quot. and skits at Germany and and express a romantic sisterly interest in love passages of which her brother talks in his usual hardened infidelity. whither he had proceeded in March. to his liking: first. especially first and had picked the out two pp. but the only real pain of mind lively &quot. 1819. such an almighty consolation s is the knowledge of one own value. him with the second. &quot. his sister remonstrate. and therefore to be At Naples. he was at Venice on his return.SCHOPENHA UER. he congratulates himself on his work achieved.&quot. 55). 1819. pp. life 143 his which he had just set down in book. It announced the bankruptcy of the for scoffs German ways. in which. In May. with him for misanthropy.

144 interest.000 thalers the same once replied that the he had he was ready to share with them. to s composition of 30 per which the other creditors had also signified their assent. with an Et tu. at sister had invested almost little their whole means. Brute. though he would not any active opposition to a composition with the other creditors. won earnings. seemed him the usual womanish betraying as it incapacity for the management of business. and an inflexible enemy. he could not forgive them . But his tone changed when he heard that his mother and sister had agreed to accept the bankrupt cent. who had only 8. if they do not even suggest a strain of the old Dutch tenacity which had kept out the sea and the Spaniards. and carried out his purpose with a well-conceived procedure which proved had inherited no small portion of the mercantile and legal ability of the Dantzic merchants. money. and the bills were not due. as he was not immediately in want of . he would let them lie till it met the convenience of both parties to have His father s honest and hardthe debt discharged. An old that he spirit family friend advised compliance with the adversary while yet he offered terms. that an eleven years silence fell between him and the two other members of his family. his LIFE OF mother and peril. He deter mined to stand out for all or nothing. declared that.. in left Schopenhauer. he could not accept the mere bagatelle front to the offer but. which were his par Dieu et son droit. he offered . and when his sister urged him to join in the general dis charge. to For this precipitation. But Schopenhauer. suspicions so poisoned his mind and envenomed his words. to the faithless counsellor.

. what moreover my whole happiness. that about 9. another. per I cent. nor gaming-tables. my freedom. . Schopen & hauer. he concludes. there say. perhaps. he sent in the of his three bills. and in that case probably there would be neither bankruptcies. to the amount of about It must be added. my learned leisure depend upon . accompanied by a letter which showed the firm he had them in his hands. imagine. a full 145 would never condescend to accept as a grace from The utmost he would descend to was to give discharge if 70 &quot. creditors were of come badly off. however.400 thalers. that if all your of thinking. M. nor wars. the agreement of the rest of the creditors with the Dantzic firm. Co.&quot. &quot. L. . That is a mere illusion. after. people like that it me enjoy so rarely not to every would be almost as unconscientious as cowardly defend it to the uttermost and maintain it by exertion. which dis can appears as soon as you reflect that all I want is merely not to have taken from me what is most rightly and incontestably mine. making no overt opposition. August 27.&quot. in consequence of what turned out an imprudent investment in Mexican bonds. was signed. a bless ing which in this world. of the sum due -were paid instantly. In the course of the summer of 1821. that from your point of view my behaviour may seem hard and unfair. according to But immediately first compact. half of the sum thus recovered was a few years after wards again lost. I too should way But if all men thought as I do.SCHOPENHA UER. His method within ten months all his three bills was successful were paid up. A. with interest. this You would be much more thinking done. 1821.

that it is no matter of his at all. while I. angry suspicions darted against his nation. as he puts his tongue in his cheek. and superior force. and he never committed his chin to the His valuables were even so successfully barber s razor. must be counted a friend of mankind. in expla has to be noted that this promptness to suspect evil is a fundamental Evil fancies rose easily in his trait of his temperament. The concealed that.Your children will the defaulter in these crusty words still drive past me here in dashing equipages. it and therefore in extenuation. of this The between the ours. one s respect for the wisdom of the serpent is modified by a few deductions for the strain It is perhaps even more painful to see the of hardness. very heads and tips of his pipes were kept under lock and key . an old outworn college teacher. stands aside and lets the other creditors close their losing bargain. in spite of the Latin directions contained . every assertor of rights chicanery. and there will be some to sympathize with his parting shot to &quot. with the remark. and so long as you are not in my debt. head. No one can refuse a tribute of admiration to the indomitable resolve and combative acumen of the defendant s claim . pant and wheeze upon the : street : bless them.146 LIFE OF narrative two years struggle for right and the commercial firm scholar solitary In a world like will be read with mingled feelings. besides the capture for once of the crafty fox. who stands to his guns against delinquency. I say God But there are other sides to the picture. with a claim amounting to about one-fiftieth of the total liabilities of the firm. When Scho penhauer. Yet. &quot. sister. and painted disaster impending at every corner.

and hunger. The same alarms suggested other projects during these two years. magnified every incident seemed to threaten his future by depriving him of the dividends which were to be his mainstay. the vision of all fleshly ills. Cold. on his way from that Italy. him latterly keep his account-books in English. whither he went next to set his belongings in order. in his will. the plan of becoming a university lecturer (privat-docent) suggested itself to him. and. The same made desire for baffling impertinent curiosity. or worse. after still on a year s absence. And of a pauper old age &quot. in March. pain. and And mighty poets in their misery dead . and in Dresden. he the and suggestion sought for information pondered the comparative chances of success at Gottingen. and especially since the murder of Kotzebue by a theological student called Sand. in the force of that preponderant craving for inde pendence and competence. &quot. where. 1819 on the charge of having betrayed the holy . he spent the month of July. But those were days in which the seats of learning laboured under the suspicion of being the homes of a radical and revolutionary spirit. At Heidelberg.&quot. Berlin.SCHOPENHA UER. it 147 was difficult to find some of them. students had trium when a gathering of German phantly consigned to the flames various symbols of coercion and reaction. being of Hamlet s mind. all this was not merely because. he thinks that one can smile and smile and be a villain. It was rather that he was haunted by a vision &quot. at Eisenach in October. 1819. Ever since the great bonfire 1817. and Heidelberg.

The so-styled Karlsbad decrees. direct influence in and on incapable their contemporaries. led to a vigorous Demagogenhetze.&quot. and who. 1819. Schopen &quot. throughout Germany. ought to cherish these sentiments. hauer. to disown I all sympathy with is political hetero doxy. 1 baiting of demagogues. What and what. long been engaged the only business can be engaged in. therefore. am and have for considering my nature. is careful teristic way &quot. and I should look upon it as a degradation if I had to direct the I which application of my mental powers to a sphere me seems so small and narrow as the present I am even circumstances of any one time or country. clearly own themselves of penning a single line . by the very act of seeking a sphere of perfect knowledge. just as the statesman should leave to him the higher and more I have a most extremely low opinion of those soi-disant philosophers who have turned publi cists. serious to of opinion that every scholar. and leave to statesmen the reform of the machine of State. in the higher sense of that word. ratified by the diet. are things which concern humanity equally at all times and in all countries. and In these circumstances it was clearly incumbent on every candidate for an official post to purge himself from all taint of demagogy. writing to Professor Lichtenstein as to in a charac prospects cf an opening at Berlin. September or &quot. 20. and to confess himself a quiet and loyal subject. ments had and Prussian govern system of espionage and repression the Austrian against supposed anarchic or insurrectionary tendencies.&quot. especially in the Universities.148 LIFE OF German freedom set cause of called to the interests of the so- Holy Alliance on foot a &quot. in.

in the viva et in voce. posterity 149 would care to read. and he chose as his lecture-hour the precise time had had the at which Hegel s principal course was given. and oral exposition of their own. and. were never again . after the blast in the preface to his &quot. The fact stands that his course was a failure likings . six hours a week.SCHOPENHA UEK. on philosophy in general (doctrina de essentia mundi summer session of 1820. or best of thinkers and teachers. and a lecture facultatis. at the beginning of each session re it appeared on the boards first : drew only a &quot. paper.&quot. satisfaction of mente hu/nana) Already. but the lectures. ablest. s inquiries was to make him decide on dean of after going through the needful preliminaries (consisting in an application to the faculty. presentation of specimen copies of his delivered in published works.&quot. the he an encounter with Hegel. with a sort of viva voce consemi examination following) he began his career as privat-docent by offering a course of lectures. Evidently the Romantic Liberals would have even less ground to bless Schopen hauer than they had in the next year to count upon Hegel Law. and the pleasure of fancying he had tripped the great pro fessor. His noticecollapsed before the close of the term. But students are undoubtedly a race with ways and to have been considerable. He flattered himself apparently that he would carry everything before him. which even at audience. and success as a lecturer is not always to the wisest.scratch&quot. Philosophy of The result of Schopenhauer Berlin. His talent for monologue in conversation seems fancy that this no doubt led him to would be his strong point. it is true.

attributed his failure to the machinations of the arch-enemy Hegel. an audience expects one lecturer require who addresses them to take a less oracular and lofty attitude than A was in Schopenhauer s manner. we can partly explain how he missed the reputation of a popular lecturer. two very different Possibly. perhaps. he was simply giving free play to his proclivity to Not unnaturally a number of groundless insinuation. It may be conceded. and to the allprevailing poisons which he dropped into the ears of Altenstein. But when Schopenhauer. rather younger than .150 actually given. too. will see plots and stratagems weaving all around them. and with its somewhat interest a rhetorical quality seems more calculated fairly to general audience of educated people than a class of professional students. But. that in any case the doctrines of his book would hardly have supplied the proper for material the educational functions of a professor. colleague and contemporary. contending in the capable dark against each other for place and pay. his style wants the directness and simplicity which befits the academic chair. But Hegel was not the only victim of his suspicions. the minister who dispensed academic patron age. successful like some others of his un contemporaries. apart from that. To write a good book and make a good sorts of ability. But. The competition of men like Hegel and Schleiermacher was no doubt difficult to contend against. self-conscious but teachers. in an atmo sphere quivering with political feverishness. when we read the specimens of these lectures which his disciples (not altogether honouring their master s expressed opinions) have published.

under the words. 1821. anxious to undermine his credit and ruin heading &quot. At the very time. he was almost an utter stranger. upon the : : Censure of Falsified Quotations. society too curiously pry into his amusements. he was on bad Even his studies. had put in inverted commas passages which were not in the text totidem verfa s.SCHOPENHAUER. 1821. or of promotion. s 4. far His lodging was at No. writer of 151 F. and we need not That he was ill and his temper unwholesome. To terms. from the Crown Prince palace). but more or less judiciously compounded actual called constructions by the reviewer out of the First he Schopenhauer was furious. &quot. at which he began to see land in his long dispute for capital and interest with the Dantzic firm. a new worry of litigation laid hold of him. in the course of his notice. a Benecke was roundly accused of a paper slanderous The angry author felt sure there was more in the article than met the eye that it was the work of a rival. at his own cost. some Benecke (subsequently a philosophical repute). editor to insert an acknowledgment of the inaccuracy of the quotations next. : his prospects of alike with colleagues an audience. and. do not seem to have flourished. he inserted in the journal for February.Necessary in which lie.&quot. Thus. in the Niederlagstrasse (not house of a . devoted at this period to such doubtful branches of science as electro-magnetism and cerebral physiology.&quot. old and young. August. at ease. the following trivial trouble will show. had reviewed his book in the Litteraturzeitung of Jena. himself. charged virtual accomplice of the forger next. receiving no the editor with he making himself a reply. E.

finding the sempstress still on the same spot. who found three stair. throwing her things after her when she cried for them . aged forty-seven. he again women on the spot. returned to fetch something she had still this im left. had. a sempstress. lowing day. but epithet. and left on her person the marks of his violence. so that she fell and made On the fol outcry enough to alarm the whole house. in door of which was a small entree. pushed her time violently and using an offensive forth. hauled her out. The complainant thereupon appealed. once complained found three stranger women engaged in a conversation. where he occupied two rooms. walking-stick in hand. landlady. again asked her to be gone. Upon her refusal. whom he. the sempstress. named Becker. as he returned home. The offensive epithet alone in addition to the he admitted to have been in fault : for the rest he held he had only defended his rights as a lodger. or hall. common In this to him and a neighbouring lodger. and. But on the i2th of August. he again. he as he to his hall. he took her by the waist. occupied a small adjoining room at the head of the declined to comply. Caroline Luise Marguet. alleging.152 LIFE OF front of the widow. On . and the landlady assured him it should not occur again. at once requested to withdraw. in the absence Two of of his landlady. almost mediately. that he had torn her cap. them made no objection . the third. and. when she. A few minutes later Schopen hauer re-emerged from his room. After a lapse of six months the case was decided in his favour. kicked and beaten her. above facts (which seem to have been admitted practically by Schopenhauer). laid her complaint before the court.

From these is we learn that the traveller much in harmony with . and preferred English articles for domestic purposes. it was to English people rather than his own folk that he turned. he was join in mainly on the casual his own when he did society which the traveller finds. Schopenhauer. apparently in loneliness. tour. Throughout the resources. He. was off to the Alps. and in June had May.SCHOPENHA UER.Travel-book indeed. the manuscripts of and &quot. who conducted skill. and. and for the latter part of the 1823. Readers of his later writings will notice the frequency with which he quotes incidents from The Times. The winter of 1822-23 he passed at Florence. as to the same he had already shown with the lawyer-like on the in other conflicts. he was back time in ill-health. In in from this time forward he generally used English in his account-books and his solitary monologues. meanwhile. read English newspapers. to Milan and Venice.Letter-pocket. returned to Munich. fact.&quot. where he s.pent about a year. There &quot. in August. hearing his 153 of this step. Of what he did or saw during this period there is practically his no record. and after a few weeks among the mountains descended. at In Trient. Naturally the court could and in his absence he was only ignore such a request sentenced to a fine of twenty thalers for slight injuries : inflicted. as he expected to start about that time for a trip to Switzerland and Italy. own case whole. All correspondence be tween him and close of his sister had ceased since the 1819. indeed. sent in court an application to have the affair settled before May. and in spring passed farther south. mother or are.

tranquil. amongst others. in which we have a lively and intimate conviction of the worthlessness of all things. bear witness to the metaphysical appetite of man. Plans of new apparently in better health and spirits.&quot. to which he upon the physical. : their inner principle is the familiar Will to &quot. follows hard Gastein. &quot. strong and inextirpable. s he consoles himself with the is the best the world has to offer existence.&quot. animal has exactly the same purpose as in the be fed and to beget children . in all countries and from all ages. we should remember the language of another Temples and passage from the Italian note-book in : man to &quot.a At Schaff hausen the tourist rediscovers that sublime melancholy of mood. baths for his health reflection that less.&quot.&quot. is new life. with which.surest tolerable and that the means not happy. is a far happier mood than any state of longing. work pre-occupy him during his nine months stay there . pagodas and mosques. : churches. and of all human beings. only the shape and colour of the animals in distant lands &quot. And at removed in May. to take the sake.&quot. to be very unhappy is not to desire to be very In August of this year he is back at Dresden. . At the Trient will is re-affirmed in the note-book that &quot. as an introduction leading up to his own system.154 LIFE OF the adage that there is no new thing under the sun . of all enjoyments. which puts a high value on fleeting shows and makes an it effort to catch them. an idea of translating Hume s works into German. a pain &quot. 1824. and life therefore crave for nothing and desire nothing. &quot. which must be borne to the not very distant end. which. but feel as a bare burden. be it ever so cheery. in splendour and grandeur. perhaps.

episode. On the certificate of her decease he then inscribed the epigrammatic words Obit anus. where it lay. he did his best to final get the verdict reversed in but the decree was made March. The emptiness of all human one s . At Berlin. and ordered as aliment. and 155 as a counterblast to the systems then current in Germany. had assumed a new phase. She had subsequently alleged more serious injuries than she had at first complained of. Accord ingly. he was condemned to pay five-sixths of the costs of the that his property suit. place. 1824. to which. he returned in May. twenty years afterwards. In October. at Mendelssohn and Franckel s bank. he had to charge his accounts with a debit of sixty thalers per annum. and made a demand for aliment on the ground that the final effect of the fall had been permanently to incapacitate her for work. abit onus. to pay the woman fifteen thalers a quarter Upon his return to Berlin . his first business was to clear off arrears in the case with the sewing-woman. 1826. he had received notice had been arrested. 1825. material for the twelve years between 1819 and 1831.SCHOPENHA UER. notwithstanding his dislike of the . from which time up to her death. charged with a mulct of forty-one thalers for outlays. during his absence. which. : The reader may think it was many words over this wretched in the paucity of biographical hardly worth wasting so little And yet. He even wrote a preface to the projected work but the project itself went no farther. while Schopenhauer was enjoying his holiday in the city of Giotto and Dante. one is obliged to keep eyes even on the fluttering of the little straws which show how the wind blows.

a region of the shadow of death. too. Schopen hauer had had his times of visiting by that sweet spirit of passionate love. there sets in awhile a duller season. garment of if reality. leads them to speculate on life at a isolation. And another is that few any. makes twice glad the voyager of life.&quot. One under lying moral. the noonday height of if his youthful enthusiasms had been swallowed up in the sands of disappointment. felt as Schopenhauer. As in summer. in after the bright effulgence of June is ended. makes the career wintry storm. and cannot in imagination anticipate the rich though sobered flowers of autumn. shallows and miseries. so in man s life a presage of death and a sense of vanity sometimes come as a revulsion after the first burst of adult life. forms the natural natures. not very far off anywhere in Schopenhauer s life. fruitlessly expend itself on . a stagnant colourless time. is that if life is to be tolerable at all. passed. wrongly ministered to. whence &quot. which the eye pensively regrets the blossom and the verdure. quarrel in the police-court a stirring the incident throws its light on the coarse and passionate nature of the man. with no restricting duties and no en couraging hopes. distance planets. At life this date. as the through optic glass the eye sees only as a desolate enigma.156 interest LIFE OF makes even a After all. rightly served. are not much the worse from a course of which. which gives a taint of meanness to what was probably after all a justifi able assertion of right against impudence. age-defying and ever fresh. whether on sunny sea or in &quot. which &quot. which. it appears cold and heartless. incident. we must not rend asunder too rudely the delicate web of ideal senti ment which.



His earliest love-poem had been in 1809 evoked by the charms of an actress, ten years older than himself
Caroline Jagemann, a favourite of the Grand Duke of Weimar ; he had even (if we may trust a daring legend) told his mother that he would gladly take her to his

home, even though she were but a stone-breaker on the

When he came out as privat-docent in 1822, highway. a wife had sometimes risen in his fancies as the obli
complement to the expected professorship. Later dreamed of marrying and settling in a country town, where the household economy would not be endan gered by the temptations of running up a long bill with
on, he

the bookseller.

But, in the meanwhile, he grew more and more into the confirmed old bachelor, to whom his dog is dearer than In a letter of his sister s, in 1819, she expresses a wife. a
regret that

in his



there were two love-

without any love." To one who thus played at love without love, it is hardly wonderful that the only

lesson gained from years of intermittent amorous experi ence was cynical indifference to the sex. By that fatal


detachment of which he was so



cool-headedness, which suddenly and instantaneously could drench with the coldest abstract reflection, and so preserve in crystal
special kniff (trick)




form the


perception or the deepest feeling

he was only the which a lucky hour had brought better enabled in this case to penetrate to the cruder
bodily elements of life, and see either the animal or the corpse instead of the living woman nobly planned.




judgment, having been

by nature


which was

destined solely for the duty of child-bearing, occupied in

Western Christendom a
largely to

totally false position,


for the restless struggles of civilization.

Her life, culminating in a few years sudden burst of charms, solely in the interest of the species, leaves her other wise a perpetual child, needing guidance and tutelage,
incapable of being ruled except by fear, and hence a constant mine of danger. Morality, strictly speaking, she has none ; save an unreasoned weakness for com
Essentially unjust, all women, some openly, passion. others in secret, hold that what they call love emancipates




moral obligation, all claims which established may have asserted to the contrary. The

beauty with which they are credited is even unreal as a matter of fact they are, when coolly observed, an ugly
sex; and all their charms are really an illusion due to the potent spell of a physiological attraction which intel In the ligence and reasoning are powerless to dissipate.

whole matter of


man, the lord of creation,



the victim of natural law and metaphysical agency


he deems that he pursues his own pleasure, he is but an instrument oh which Nature plays the melodies accor That such a being as dant with her general scheme.

woman, devoid of


originality in art, science,



of Europe, be raised to a position of equality with man, if not of superiority, is to Schopenhauer s mind a serious mistake,
rature, should, in the

monogamous systems

pregnant with


those fatal consequences which the

annals of wedlock persistently exemplify. With views like these it would have been a wonder


Schooenhauer had taken a


To descend





meaner pleasures, to waste precious hours on frivolity, and to be sure that faithlessness and rivalry are the
natural drift of her temperament,

not lightly to be incurred.
ever, is in

is a prospect of disaster Deliberate antagonism, how

one way preferable to indifference and woman was certainly a pre-occupying interest in Schopenhauer s


strongly sensual nature like his, bereft of the

proper counterbalancing checks

constraining work

and many

would naturally brood over the problems of sexuality. There were amongst his papers notes, (written in English,) on love and matrimony, from the periods 1819-22, and from 1825-31, couched in a forcible plainness of speech which rendered them unfit for publication. For on these, as on other matters, he

prided himself on absolute truthfulness to himself on A record of this self-confession this self-confession.

outpouring of the heart s scum which the Catholic peni tent is sometimes accused of offering to God through the

Schopenhauer drew up with


accuracy for him

a manuscript, entitled Ei? tavrbv (after the well-known soliloquies of Marcus Aurelius), there were
references found in an annotated copy of the "Parerga," in vol. ii. 58 (about horse-chestnuts and Spanish chest

To such

On 322, apropos of hypochondria. nuts), and vol. ii. applying to the executor (Schopenhauer s biographer, Dr. Gwinner), the legatee (Dr. Frauenstadt) to whom these
books had

was informed that the manuscript


question had been burned, in accordance with its author s last oral directions, and with the approval of another friend and disciple. The notes, declared to be unsuit
able for publication, were stated to contain prudential



maxims, favourite passages, matters referring to private relations to certain persons, and in general only per
to have used them sparingly biography ; otherwise they have to our loss, so far as know g one probably not much man is concerned, and much to general gain, the of ledge so far as they might have suggested the motives for

Gwinner appears

in the preparation of his

over unsavoury details. philological dissertation And so Schopenhauer, his anxieties painting in dark
colours the difficulties which a married




have to fortune and no gift regular work might remain to and to contend with, continued philosophize his chief inn an at was welcome warmest His single. those he met at the table of the Hotel de






the Royal

Library, was a

and concert-room, and solaced himself Yet various projects for finding an open with his flute. door into the realms of popularity occupied him. At one moment he fancied that, though he had lost the day at Berlin, Heidelberg might yield a more promising
habitue of theatre


He made himself philosophic teaching. enabled to draw thus was acquainted with Spanish, and the took He opportunity of getting largely on Calderon.

a Latin version of his


Theory of Colours


inserted in

that, thus clothed in the an optical corpus, a wider of common language scholars, it would engage circle of readers. But he was doomed to be disappointed.

and hoped


be sent to three English men of copies he directed to science received no acknowledgment. But Schopenhauer

was not


be daunted in his confidence by repeated Assured of the truth of his message, each

repulse only



made him seek a new point of attack; moment of darkness prolonged only prompted
the horizon


to scan

more narrowly

for a


of the light that must and would come.

Thus, in December, 1829, after reading an article in The Foreign Review and Continental Miscellany, in which a wish had been expressed that England might ere long have a translation of Kant, he addressed a letter (under
cover to the
offering to undertake that task

publishers of the review) to the writer, for the Criticism of





and the
2 35.


Judgment," at

the rate of about

a sheet.


a specimen of his workmanship he enclosed a couple of



from Kant





That work he looked forward

within three months

completing Criticism of Pure Reason


would occupy a whole year, if the translation was, as he wished and intended, to be really well done. With these explanations of his plans, he asked the writer of the

In to help him towards finding a publisher. addition to the mere translation he proposed to give
a few annotations, Sterne English),



he added (the




made Tristram Shandy Of

a prophetical pun, saying, in all the cants which are canted

in this canting world, the cant of Criticism

the most



introduced himself



teacher of logic and metaphysics," and spondent as a as the author of a system of philosophy which "has not
attracted the general attention in the degree I expected and still I think it will one day do." In less than three

weeks he had an answer from Mr. Francis Haywood, the


H. (1831) he wrote to Thomas Campbell. To them he suggested that. who. and that of Jean Paul s works in your Review. &quot. in reply. and dividing with him the net profits arising from the publication. was that he had lately urged the formation of a club by which authors . Even so. interests of literature the and education.&quot.. the poet. come was no other than Thomas Carlyle. if they felt themselves unable to form a judgment on the proposal. if only I was sure that not he too. He went on to urge. But they do not appear to have made any use of the suggestion to take counsel with the very sensible and clever gentleman&quot. LIFE OF That gentleman explained that he be directly and nominally responsible for the translation himself. H . Scho Next year penhauer had not yet shot his last bolt. of course. will have more in view his private interest than the good of literature.&quot. that century may pass ere there shall again meet in the same head so much Kantian philo sophy with so much English as happen to dwell together in mine. This. suiting Schopenhauer s views. with like truth. in somewhat the same terms as he had employed to to The occasion of such an application had many schemes for promoting who Campbell.162 writer of said article. very sensible and clever gentleman who wrote the analysis of Novalis. as everybody knows now. assured him that he great &quot. The publishers. and hoped that something of the proposed union of translators might yet forces. was far from and his next communication was sent direct to the publishers of the Foreign Review. Haywood.a had misunderstood Mr. they might do well &quot. to consult the Mr. receiving corrections from Scho would prefer to penhauer.

. &quot. i2sgr. is one calling for the it and ability. been smitten with a passion for translation a craft which. we failure a proposal which . of St. translating the prophet may have been. flight at the approach of the plague. a work somewhat in the style of the after French aphoristic moralists.Oraculo Manuel y Arte de Prudencia. In the summer of 1831 the cholera. But it seems 1838. instead of being. like the Italian was constitutionally a man of pessi terrors. failed know not. whether the friend. contained an &quot. letter 163 But this might manage and protect their own concerns. visited Berlin with a severe attack. beginning of the winter mist. 1830.SCHOPENHA UER. as he con ceived and sometimes exhibited it. has no further history . which had appeared in Russia the preceding year.&quot. and in early autumn sought refuge in Frankfort-on-thc-Main.for entry of a fee of 22th.&quot. who. Amongst the who was session. who it was to hand to the poet and to certify Schopenhauer s knowledge of English. as if Schopenhauer had. lished The translation was pub by Frauenstadt in 1862. tact. But fate and supernatural aid counted for something in took &quot. is take. as too often supposed. during these years. a piece of unskilled labour which any hireling or novice may make bold to under nicest scholarship. had to wait till very Francis results and Kant s Kritik when a translation appeared by the Haywood we have heard of. carried off at its victims was Hegel. Not long he projected (but did not immediately execute) a translation of Balthazar Gracian s &quot. Thus ended in might have had unexpected perform his task. His account-book for March. Leopardi. Schopenhauer. Paul whatever that s.

signifies I dreamed the following dream. it of hypothetical truth. which From my sixth to my death in the present year tenth year I had a bosom friend my and playmate of exactly equal Gottfried Jenisch. and among them a grown-up. if upon the entry of the cholera. a warning. already deceased. who bade welcome. not familiar to me . was made man.&quot. open a wide door for the entrance to and from the other wraiths mystic influences. in short. &quot. night. This dream had much to do with making slender to me leave Berlin may have been that. between 1830 and 1831. &quot. as that same Gottfried Jenisch. and who died age. as we have seen. But on the said night I thought of him but very rarely. a group of men stood on the field.164 this LIFE OF SCHOPENHA UER. all can find their way through the inner avenue from the ever-real to the variably. who was called whilst I in my tenth In the last thirty years I can have year was in France. my my mother who was my father. carried a light in his hand. I had remained. leaves move. I should have died of the cholera. of and still signifying that I should survive alive . dreamt I came into a field. His philosophy. as I believe. I tall. of manuscript he entitled On New Year s Cogitata. world This is how he describes the event in the roll apparent. after Immediately parents. . my arrival in Frankfort I was the sub ject of a perfectly distinct apparition. magical summonses.&quot. who. known me me know not how. 1831 . and warnings.

and a novel called &quot. on grounds of health and economy. it was in the hrst him but its evils were at least dulled by familiarity. and to evince .Anna. the glory had departed new order of things which followed the treaty of . it is true. it could not hold the place it had in freer days Both mother and daughter. WHEN . had long been hateful to pestilence. only been waiting for such an oppor once responded. They are said to show taste and grace. tinued to develop the literary style that had grown up under the influences of Weimar society. at at who had in the Bonn. without going back on bygones. tunity. con maintained. and settled Adele. indeed. instance only to seek a temporary asylum from the Berlin. From Weimar.&quot. rather than power. In his gloom old memories came back. became an author : her works being a col in lection of stories founded on popular legends. in 1845. and the fancy struck him to reopen correspondence with his sister. like her mother. Schopenhauer left Berlin. 1844. and. acutely The change of scene only made him more and brought on a fit of depression. however. Adele. told him how she and her mother had quitted Weimar. Vienna.CHAPTER VII. realize his isolation.

drawn up. on the cover of an account-book of the period. with a little friendly badinage. Adele. notwith standing the superior social advantages of Mannheim. its more intellectual and &quot. tunate for the efficacy of such counsel that it came almost simultaneously with the news that the agent who died. She was still the same. cities to books also were transported. these advances did not lead to closer approxi mation. Schopenhauer moved on in his solitary way. in advice not to succumb too readily to the misanthropic It was. his The claims of the two of residence places were carefully weighed against each other is character of which operation the business-like shown by a table of :heir respective an merits and demerits that was found amongst his papers. perhaps. as which. in the beginning of winter. silence that followed the family estrangement was now broken. in English. From this table it appears that. found herself a stranger in life felt herself cut off from any real intimacy with those around her and sometimes thought death would not be an unwelcome release from a world that was for her so much an empty show.166 LIFE OF skill in narrative. The correspondence later thus resumed was a few months extended to include their mother. arlibtic circles^ a nicer table in . In the course of the summer of 1832 he made the experiment of changing his domicile from Frankfort to Mannheim. unfor proclivities of hypochondria. considerable to Brother and sister seem have had many points in common. like him. managed their common property at Ohra had Yet though the leaving his accounts laigtly in arrears. and her first words in reference to her son s low spirits consisted.

better foreign bookseller. quasi-republican like his birthplace. &quot. At that epoch in life the stormier passions have probably been brought under control. the gaiety of the place and less all &quot. concerts. as it might almost seem by accident. his manner of life runs henceforth on even rails. and the age of reason. at liberty to cut and shun whom you dislike. 167 a &quot. free cities &quot. of the north. and these not very extensive.&quot. never again to leave it. where his youth had been chiefly spent. of its Frankfort carried the day. he returned to Frankfort. If he be a bachelor. operas. when a man s guiding spirit has learned to make its best possible inner kingdom out of the materials of temper.&quot.more consideration. it. . Dantzic and Ham burg. on the ground better plays. excursions. and Englishmen. after a varied experience of later years to the great itself Thuringia and Berlin.SCHOPENHA UER. &quot. an able dentist and &quot. From the merchant &quot. cumstances of which it faculty. has come. later years.&quot. &quot. bad physicians.&quot. decided by this experimental test. You are more at large. not by choice. he passed.&quot. stereotyped regularity those of It was certainly a lonely existence.&quot. he drifted into what was to be the haven of his rest. the events of one day probably repeat with another. 1833.&quot. &quot. twenty-seven years later. advantages of climate and situation. except for a few. He was now forty-five years of age. and more In June. accordingly. For better or worse. especially. but not devoid of The first compensations and happiness of its own. and &quot. and cir has the disposal.&quot. Thus. about more and not so beset with company given by chance. if ever. in his market city of Western Germany. up to his death.

perceiving. the faculty to let mortifying and insulting expressions pass unheeded. The young man is over-stimulated by the variety and complexity of &quot. supply the commentary. like many other mistakes. while age is cheerful. says Ben Ezra in the poet.&quot. com paring past with present. when what he writes. In the blossoming-time of the brain had most vigorous spring. There is no safer test of greatness. and for its root a vehemence of will. But. has in general a certain melan choly and sadness. greater experience and philosophy had enforced the conviction condition that the Will is the element of vulgarity in man. as &quot.an side.&quot. &quot.&quot. mind.&quot. my worth writing down as written on the other that &quot. he notes. place.&quot. With advancing years. notes certain defects in the early days. Youth. he remarks. the next thirty he says add the in one &quot.&quot. text. and there rose up a series of ideas which were &quot. ever object my eye might touch upon uttered revelations to me. of to record. . that commentary afforded not a few grounds gratulation. it were.&quot. than &quot. passions are the stigma of our affinity with lower natures.&quot. &quot. And course. that the &quot.&quot. Life s struggle having so far reached term. and to ascribe them. without feeling I Therefore summon age its To grant youth s heritage. merely.168 forty years of our LIFE OF life. And Schopenhauer. scored the memorandum its augmented intelligence has for immediate a heightened sensibility. to the weakness and ignorance of the speaker them. against youth is down they were. for self-con Some its losses there were.

which.A chief lesson of youth should be to learn to enjoy a source of peace and happiness. In my years of youth. not what he at in others opinions. what makes the weal or woe of what he ranks is each should have experienced the truth life is. confesses. but against its attendant . intellectual life protects not only against listlessness. can ever perform makes and thus he it is promise more than for ever burdened with longings and yearnings. and not a mere manufactured article in the common shop he will especially if certain touch of misanthropy. not but what he that time intrinsically in intellect and character. it comes. but in later years. it would come . impulse towards solitude becomes a really natural and even instinctive one.&quot. possesses. or not to be dependent on chance company to cure his need to roam the globe to escape the reproach of his own meditations. should learn betimes how to be alone. depriving him of that tran These quillity without which happiness is impossible. therefore. I now was delighted when my door-bell rang. I thought. lie &quot.&quot. &quot.SCHOPENHAUER. and at ease. the world it . He should An learn to be at home. for my feeling on the same occasion had rather something akin I thought. solitude Before the age of that forty. with himself. That career he expects to meet in the shape of an interesting romance. scarcely be free of a And in the sixties the ennui. pervert his whole future career.&quot. The young man. By he be one wrought by the special handicraft of the great artist of nature. 169 his imagination . with tissues of false presumptions and vague unreal theories of life. predispositions are aggravated by the influence of works of fiction. there to terror &quot.

disasters. free of it. like is alpenrose. the earth. losses. least of all. me anything &quot. celebrate its saturnalia. and bad lies only one place is certainly alone. charlatans. obscurants. free as it were. it &quot. very few. My philo &quot.&quot. of which his admiring disciples have left a minute programme. Not. the understanding itself. where truth. and open to intelligence (Einsichf) During these later years the daily life of the sage of Frankfort passed according to a regular scheme. rule absolutely alone. who falsify and stunt knowledge. accessible to but a else can. and of design . and and everything in it is full of design (Afrsicht]. winter as well as summer. he left his bed. as he emphatically adds. common.&quot. indeed. The whole world let no other hold sway beside it. of that who (he roars aloud) has corrupted the very But (and organ of knowledge. has never brought very much. and sponged himself in the rnatutinal tub. which permit speech even to the slave. Between seven and eight o clock. which. and expenses into which one falls in seeking fortune in the real world. he sums up. the hatred object everywhere can at once find release from all constraint and oppression.&quot.170 evils. arch-sophist &quot. taking special care to bathe his eyes. the philosophy of sophists. can even have the pre- rogativa and the first word. and. a philosophy which here his voice takes a milder tone) It is the little spot on is no church and no religion. and the many dangers. mostly low. . only but deteriorates under philosophy culture. then. flourishes artificial in mountain a plant the fliicnblume. but has spared the free me His chief consolation.&quot. of and persecution. or air. sophy. in. LIFE OF It is a bulwark against bad society.

and women. he hardly knew where to look. and then dresses. Of the company at the table he does not think highly. It was noticed that for d hote some time he had each day put down on the table a gold coin. more rarely four hours. or freshest. if a suitable hearer presented would launch out in grand style on some of those subjects which he had thought over and made his own. keeper reminding him of the lapse of minutes. refreshed himself . he returned rooms. diverts his mind by half an hour s relaxation on his flute. Dinner over. &c. a signal from his house interrupting visits. he settled down to work during the forenoon those three. published in 1816. in amazement in a that topics of intellectual interest should be discussed to his saUea manger. 171 His housekeeper had orders to keep to the kitchen all morning . to accommodate a friend or admirer. At one o clock he dines in the Etiglischer Hof. he slops work. dogs. which he afterwards replaced in his pocket. that it was in consequence of a wager he made to him self to pay the sum over to the poor-box the first day the officers dining there talked of anything besides horses. who that all really thinks as Except after eleven o clock. when he found his brain and which he held long enough for any student he reads or writes. but it was not It turned out easy to guess the import of the action. these hours exclude At noon. himself. tells the same story of an Englishman at Innsbruck in : not original a book of sketches of But occasionally. Schopenhauer s idea was probably travel (Bilder aus the Helvetica.) by poet Matthisson. and when these monologues occurred the guests 1799.SCHOPENHAUER. so after he had prepared his own cup of coffee. and more frequently as years roll on.

just because he has to is them nearest and o ftenest in view. even where it has to describe aberrations. with coffee. and which. and that of literature and art. The record of intellect is everywhere gladsome and cheery. there are two histories : The first is the political. This chief branch is the history of philosophy. or even with that more decorous and dignified phase of personal talk called history. fact its Its is in fundamental bass. and Dante too scholastic and gro are the truest friends In German there is much worth reading . mould the opinions which after in their turn rule the which . nor in the productions of the day. admirer of Shakespeare and spirit which is blind to thinking. The the history of the will . Petrarch he ranks before all the other Italian poets. style the truly national character An Calderon.&quot. His much-loved he has special favourites. but tesque. deception. Yet. after an hour to lighter literature.172 LIFE OF s siesta. record of will is from end to end distressing. istic is its Of German clumsiness. as he reminds us. among Books. which rings even through the other history. the second of the intellect. indeed. it is neither in the early epics. serves to world. gave a little while For he was not one who cared much banquet of life to season the with personal talk. from that fundamental position. that fail no man who himself stands high can of the faults of his be most distinctly aware compatriots. he has not the petty national weakness . en masse. Of the literary style of his contemporaries he fully critical^ especially scorn of the mutilations to which they . want. all. even terrible : agony. and. &quot. and horrible murder. Ariosto is frivolous.

rather. To is imitate the style of the says Schopenhauer. rank to the fact that. Meister. with the least possible expenditure of outward life. brings the most vigorous movement in the life within. There are four he names as the foremost of their species. exactly as if one had drunk from a fresh spring in the rock. example. from the low commercial motive of economizing in syllables. 173 subject the German language. no more in mind than the study of the To take one of them in one s hand. is to feel refreshed. There were it only for half an hour.Tristram Shandy. even though he be a great virtuoso on the electrical machine. having in view a sempiternal public. But the speaks.&quot. Nouvelle Helo and &quot. and have in his still the radical of is fluoric acid. ancients. With malicious pleasure he draws out long lists of the in which the so-called scholarly world mangles the graces of its mother tongue. a man must be content to be counted amongst the vulgar. Partly he attributes this to a false idea that one should try to write exactly as one ways The true author. great indispensable one who would become a for writer. relieved. and strengthened.&quot. is this all. will not let himself down to the fashion of the hour. he believes. largely. And Wilhelm owe their they &quot.SCHOPENHA UER.&quot. ise. By writing Latin.&quot.Don Quixote. one learns to treat writing as a work of material of which is the &quot.Without Latin. Nor spiring diversion for the ancient classics. indeed. which.&quot. art. if it is genuine. purified. art being a sort of multitm in paruo. language. Not that Schopenhauer is above a romance. &quot. elevated. they . but adopt a statelier style. the &quot. great cause of the degradation of style comes from the for neglect of classical training.

ample and furrowed brow. came to The children of the neighbourhood soon know the poodle. by the name Atma (the world-soul of the Brahmins). among their other experiences. sitting at his window.&quot. By the help of description we can &quot.174 LIFE OF on a slender background of incident. with beardless chin (in later he had come to think beards indecent). and with the suspicious look of the partially deaf. in order to put the seat by the window in a convenient position for his little friend to tive to its wants. looks Of this dog he was very fond. About four o clock Schopenhauer. rich portraiture of the acts of the soul. from 1850 to his death. unroll a still all. and went. one of a suc cession (varying in their colour) which had shared his room and board since student-days at Gottingen. (of for in dress-coat an unchanging fashion) and white neckcloth. sized old gentleman. over-full mouth. . broad-shouldered. But his fondness for his dog was only an instance of To his general tenderness for the animal world. picture the stout. started a constitutional. deep-set and widely parted by a broad nose tending to aquiline. In these companion was a poodle. as special favourite. that gaze out. noting its and movements with philosophic eye. and rather under life. a called Butz. brown poodle. and when they came home from their play on the Main-Quai they would. bright blue eyes. for example. a regimental band he would the house. About strolls his regular the year 1840 and later it was a white one. and so atten if. passed get up in the midst of an earnest conversation.young Schopenhauer&quot. recount to their parents how they had seen this &quot.

treatment of animals. the last energies of the it so long cries aloud fancy Schopenhauer had horse.&quot. What they want. so as to decide problems the answers to which already stand is too lazy or too ignorant to poke his nose But Schopenhauer. restricted the use of painful experiments on animals to cases where great issues of science were at But nowadays. The ruthlessness with which a kills. but justice they who. populace (he remarks) creatures aimlessly. he adds. and the bird in the cage. patience with those who contended for mercy to the animals. unlike many who strain at the camel once in a century and swallow the gnat every in books he into. &quot. are the same as man. mind the Christian tortures spirit 175 its of Christendom is condemned by mutilates. he replied. the deep . is not mercy. minute. he had no &quot. with flashing eye. which it strains. in his old age. But while he denounced men as the devils of the earth. who blamed cristiano : his of the ignorant Italian peasant to one maltreatment of a creature Non e &quot. even in their case. he said. One would almost retort heard the &quot. in all essentials. knows. miserable medical student in his torture-chamber claims a right to inflict on animals the most horrible torture. had. and one is tempted to suppose that the pro hibition against the use of dogs for drawing vehicles at Frankfort (revoked since the Prussian annexation) had some unknown connection with the philosopher s ideas. felt even for the pangs of the dog on the chain. when lecturing at Gottingen. and pitied the animals as its tortured souls.SCHOPENHA UER. and with and with a laugh. &quot. : as he recalled. The lover of animals &quot. Blumenbach. the beast that has served to heaven.that. every stake.

caused friend. even when alone. that a by the rapid couple . diverge to the left. as they whereupon. Ask one who has accidentally dealt mortal injury to an animal he loved. something unique. a short stout stinted chanty. he would tear along at a pace which his companion found it hard to emulate. and who has had his heart torn by the pain he felt at its parting look. even an individual animal. in a voice loud enough for the offender to hear. streets. and again hurry on. meanwhile. which a cane.&quot. Sometimes. which he authority of Aristotle. till his master the dog gambolling ahead or loitering summoned him with his whistle. Schopen hauer would remark Why don t the blockheads turn &quot. Away they rushed along the behind. at other times. A traveller from the opposite direction passed. even in the summer heats. Sometimes. the misery of a beggar might call forth his un His stick. and remark that stolidity and silliness imprint their stamp on every limb and gesture. there is something ineffable. with some half-articulate exclamation. he might even treat his companion to a mimicry of the clown s lumbering move ments. LIFE OF by the death of a being who has been our springs from the feeling that in each individual. and of which the loss is irretrievable. and : An Englishman always turns to the right. he would suddenly halt under the arrest of an idea. though rarely. thumped the ground vigorously at every step. might. fortified Schopenhauer had a theory. . to the right? If the sarcastic fit was on him. a young friend would be admitted to share in these walks. of hours movement daily was essential to health and so.&quot. look about him.176 pain. perhaps. with a scowl. Yet.

he would : say. he of the streets length got beyond region (Frankfort then numbered less for a quiet path. he was far its faults. They drag and its it is down literature to the level of vulgar passions. 12 way . But if he made good use of the from blind to is daily and periodical press. glancing regularly at the English Times and any magazines or reviews he had access to.000 souls). Not only is it of less noble metal than the two others it seldom goes right. which play the part of chorus to the drama of contemporary event. he paid a visit to the reading- room. After a two hours walk. like a bitter east wind. 177 As at passer-by might fancy to be an injurious epithet. the seconds-hand of history. In the so-called leading articles.SCHOPENHAUER. through them that the spirit of the age. blows through everything. and then his lips were kept religiously closed. When with company. now and then to admire the landscape through his eyeglass. The anonymity which they nearly all encourage breeds a lying and disingenuous spirit. he would talk continuously. even while walking rapidly . The newspaper. perhaps. exaggeration is as essential as to it is upon the stage. The point of them is make as much as possible out of every occurrence. which affects the form no less than the matter of their utterances. finds even within the precincts of art and literature. The extravagance and caricature which thus arise make newspapers and other journals a permanent source of contagion to style in literature and Schopenhauer would not be sorry if the State could see its way towards : establishing a censorship over their language. and than 60. he would strike stop. which. but he generally walked alone.

for a and writer needed. like his philosophy. bed and allowed himself a long night s rest . as he did so. he took a cold supper.178 LIFE OF the reading-room he often betook From himself to If it was a piece of good the play or to the concert. Especially music sense of the understanding. it certainly . but he might often be seen listening with closed eyes to a sym phony of Beethoven. the ear is the sense of the reason. He retired to smoking. generally by himself. are only fully to be enjoyed when heard in the mass or the symphony in the opera the music is harassed by the burden of a meaningless piece and : His growing deafness latterly deprived doggerel verses. sipping a half-bottle of light wine. he regarded Kant s vital energy. Whether such a life was the happiest he could have had is a question unprofitable to discuss. On returning home. him of the full appreciation of these pleasures . ward raptures. minstrelsy. in his opinion. Music is a language which all alike comprehend. rising as a wanton waste of avenged by the dotage of his declining years. was modelled early on the lines of Kant s example. an ell-long pipe. artistic side of he thought. he generally read for an hour. however. and was known occasionally leave let to the hall after such a piece. to keep an open heart life. thinker : general his rule of life. rather than wait to the impression be effaced or vulgarized by meaner Between eight and nine. and a certain susceptibility : for the to out for if the eye is the things. fortune for the aged still to retain their love of study. a longer than ordinary time for recuperative inactivity and whereas in early. Its a melody to which the whole world is the text. it was also well.

&quot. the Will in Nature.&quot. by the societies for the prosecution of natural history. entitled. and geography. just as there as little is no necessity for a perfectly beautiful human being to be a great sculptor. in 1836. To discover and accumulate such corroborations had in fact become .It necessary that the saint should be a philosopher as that the philosopher should be a saint. it was apparently the wisest course. It is a strange require ment to insist that the moralist shall recommend no other virtue than he himself possesses. the first break in the silence he had maintained since his 1818 was &quot. or for a great sculptor to be also a perfectly beautiful human being. of a small book. To and distinct. in conceptions. and described on the title-page as a discussion of the corroborations which the philosophy of the author has since its first appearance received at the hands of empirical science. which were established there shortly before his settlement in the town. much to the point to say. to is &quot. maliciously He himself ascetic ideal he had so highly glorified. Nor is it repels the suggestion that the philosopher realize his own great ideal is bound more than other men. as has been that it was far removed from the insinuated. and in these permanent pro ducts of reason to preserve at disposal. publication. At any rate. cannot be said that it 179 was either misspent or unworthy of For such a temper and such an estimate a philosopher. this its image and else reflection always and nothing is philosophy.SCHOPENHAUER. abstract. the reproduce whole essential being of the world. of life as he took. point at which Frankfort-on-the-Main gave special impetus to his reflections seems to have been furnished The physics. On &quot. universal.&quot.

has arrived at a point where it meets with metaphysics . In that case physics. viii. or saw.&quot. descend to the earth s surface in lines perpendicular to it. starting from its terminus. &quot. at last experience the long-expected delight of hearing the blows from each other s hammers. or heard. that on to which Schopenhauer himself Physical Astronomy attributes special merit may serve as a sample of the &quot. method. when raised into and quietly abandoned. passed at once in his mind through an alembic heated by the intense conviction in which he And it appeared to him that held his central dogmas.All bodies with which the air we are acquainted.&quot.fixed idea&quot. who. and turn on his metaphysical theory. the eight or nine chapters all which make up the book. The essay comments upon a text furnished by a passage in Sir John Herschel s Astronomy. and in the con and firmation which the teachings of either method both give the two sets of investigators must feel like receive. published in 1833 in the &quot. after they have long worked in subterranean dark compass and level only. if own scientific prophets had he could show that certain of its been occasionally led on his to utterances which resembled own. They are therefore urged thereto by a force or effort [which it is but reason- . and who. from opposite points. trusting to Of &quot. which at present stands as follows (the words in square brackets being inserted in later editions): Chap.Cabinet Cyclopaedia. an incredulous and careless age would be most likely to listen and believe. almost a with him. 440: &quot. are bringing the two ends of a tunnel to meet. miners in the depths of the earth. Whatever he read.180 LIFE OF &quot. ness.

which force we term this not very promising substratum he On to proceeds the develop that metaphysical will doctrine of essential paramountcy of the noticed. The Will.&quot.An- and gave advice Rosenkranz anent his edition of Kant. as the son of the celebrated authoress. our power to trace.the In my view. is organism. able to consciousness 181 regard as] the direct or indirect result of a and a will existing somewhere. Johanna to address a Schopenhauer. so. the public would not have his meta the book made but few converts. than for his personal merits.Nathless he so endured.&quot. s colour theory for Poggendorffs to &quot.SCHOPENHA UER. which depends upon it. the secondary. is which. The intellect is posterius of the organism on which of the brain. Even in his own town. eternal and I indestructible element in man. sat to consider the monument to the greatest of Frankfort s sons.&quot. soul.&quot. as has been often he says* not the so hard to reconcile with his ethical doctrine of the supremacy of intellect. he ventured. the it.&quot. and undismayed offered to Yet even : vindicate Goethe nalen. is This memorial laid down the principle that a bust the only statuesque monument suitable to the heroes of . where he was better known &quot. physics at any price &quot. the prius of the on the contrary. what is therefore constitutes the vital principle in him. the conjunction of the will may be allowed with the intellect. depends. &quot. but if a chemical expression The sothe radical of the soul. called Soul is a compound. though beyond gravity. and that is the Will. a mere function primary.&quot. &quot. in the interests of to a civic memorial plan of a Goethe and good committee which taste.

LIFE OF and that the shortest inscription is the best. had been composed con amore. Scientific offered a Society of Drontheim in Norway had prize for the best essay on the question.&quot. as he said. In 1838 his opportunity seemed really to have come. and then with considerable detail suggested the general con The civic committee of ception of a work in bronze. engaged tition for in the composition of a second essay.&quot. his essay. performance was soon ready . not later than the following year. and contained thoughts on which he had pondered long and made frequent notes things to last for this and for many a year. for a discussion of the sources or foundation of So confidently did he look for victory. free-will Whether could be proved from the evidence of for consciousness. cut out . offered as long ago as 1837 by the Royal Danish Academy of the Sciences at Copen hagen. Meanwhile he was &quot. in compe another prize. and in February. 1839. which he had expended much ingenuity in showing to involve no loss to the Society. The &quot. His request. It seemed him his at last as if he heard the shouts of applause from the long waited-for crowd approaching to hail his triumph. course knew better than to accept what it regarded as the eccentricities of a mere scholar and amateur. was granted. that in morality. as it were. thanking them in his lucid and graceful style for their kindness. To the Society he wrote a Latin letter. he heard that it had won the prize. which. the envelope containing his address he enclosed a request to the Academy to expedite the news of the award by .182 letters. and asking to be allowed to publish in Germany. The subject was. and that he was elected a member of the Society.

that the essay contained no adequate examination of the bearings of metaphysics on ethics . or in knowledge. like a Caspar Hauser (a half Fichte. the true and prince rightful heir. and to secure for the vile pretenders the But continued enjoyment of academic sovereignty. had been The last article as if the contumeliously dealt with. and humbugs. in the dungeons. and ethics in was to be sought the analysis derivative moral conceptions. Whether of other an intuitive moral of and foundation of idea. bury him in silence. witted creature whom political fanatics for a while claimed to be the disinherited heir of Baden). these babblers. is only tempered by withering contempt for their wretched henchmen. post. Schelling. adduced in proof of com passion being the root of morality. the true heir to the Kant s throne. the professors of philosophy. were weak third. terrible shock when the Danish Academy made known and a statement its had been offered the source decision that the one essay (Schopenhauer in solution of the question. arch-deceivers. and by lordly pity for their There was. second. : was unworthy of the some other principle prize. to ignore him. that the arguments. and Hegel. to shut him. he felt sure. a plot to infatuated dupes. . s) which in &quot. 183 that he proposed to publish the with that It was a essay along accepted at Drontheim. that several of the chief philosophers and .SCHOPENHA UER. and that on three grounds first. SHtnmi philosophi were to be held sacrosanct and in violable was too much for one who already regarded himself as a succession of summus philosophus. From this time his rage against the accursed three.&quot. which had been usurped by sophists.

natural antipathy to alien modes of thinking. was liable to be splashed with abuse. for those themselves to the vulgar intellect who have not the capacity appreciate them. It was through these of an on able but biassed mind that promptings vanity every author in philosophy who did not allude to his services.184 LIFE OF : and his motto henceforth suppressed he would not be His writings from was war to the knife and no quarter. The names of Hegel and Fichte. the loudest advocates of these systems merely followed a and had not got more than a new weapon of dialectic. had no great on the weak points in his adver saries systems. and. led him to arrogate over other philosophers rights of judicature which no human being can claim or safely exercise. or who disparaged or criticised them. assisted perhaps by his isolation and selfinvolved ruminations. and by the of transcendental nonsense. like jealousy of an difficulty in fastening unsuccessful competitor. undoubtedly the not so lightly as his fact that the works of these thinkers do commend and own . are like the red rag to the angry bull. of It is Schelling. this time forth are perpetually exploding in invectives. if he had contented himself with with the demonstration that many of fashion. Schopenhauer. this criticism. in a less degree. but prejudiced stimulated at once by the critic. Un ability fortunately a disproportionate sense of his own and honesty. it or the training requisite to easier course to is the pooh pooh them with the usual epithet An acute. or Nor. dirt Even a friend who diverged was from a very ample vocabulary of apt to be visited with mild contempt. would he have been outside the mark. and a hint to study once more in .

sciousness.SCHOPENHA UER. These two problems are The the freedom of the will. shows that on a given But free character motives have a predictable result. as generally mean a denial of the law by which act and regularity charac depend upon motive with the of causal sequence elsewhere. is not more tolerant of speech. &quot. are even as a Koran. will.. con chimera. creators. in its original self-hood. in the real sub-conscious world which the intensity of self-knowledge discloses our own will. The two ethical treatises which had not carried off the prize one which had. The Will. happens. system. I of the grand Lama of dread silence about my &quot. and one he published in &quot. unless it be inspired His works. as a burnt child dreads the fire . i. their 185 integrity the utterances &quot. The Two Funda 1841 at Frankfort. he decides. he confesses. and the basis of morality. if thus eliminated from the realm of observation. he the by respectful allegiance of a disciple. after Kant s example.e.&quot. hints plainly to some of those devoted followers who but he could not stifle an occasional hesitation. under the title of mental Problems of Ethics. re-instated in the metaphysical in world. Frankfort on the subject. the forms of causality. discussion is little principal work. above and beyond In the mysterious region where is we are our own When we consider ourselves re-absorbed in the . which. to volition teristic but an expansion of some pages in his Freedom of Will. is.&quot. a In the phenomenal or empirical field. when interrogated. rightly studied and commented upon by the illustration Sura throws upon Sura. our character is ultimately formed. is able to make wise even unto salvation. if taken. is.

according to the theistic doctrines. for all accomplished. which. because it is the same timeless self which wills and acts to-day as willed and acted of yore.. We are metaphysically speaking. On teach the question of the original or derivative nature of &quot. i. heteronomy. is seen from a higher standpoint to be the continuing affirmation of act. by the light of discover as our irrevocable character. sub-conscious or We are free. we as the principle of action out of which. because in the supra-conscious life. we are each to ourselves that omnipotent and originative Cause.186 LIFE OF find we are. bosom of undivided were. we make. we find the source of our responsi The It is to our real selves we are responsible. in short. according to Kant. ments to Schopenhauer parts company from all who or the reference of the moral judg the law and sanction of an external authority. Thus in the in accessible reality into which we can as by faith transport ourselves. on the stimulus of occasion. that eternal is act of self-assertion it or will-realization. which once carelessly spoken of as had been already still. bility. flow the thousand acts and volitions which in their successive aggregation gradually reveal what manner of beings we are. morality. and. as it which. s the or source of the moral law unconditional command .&quot. directing us as if we were mere puppets in his hand. rules over us from without as a transcendent providence. Amongst these he takes the liberty of including Kant is : for the reasoning power which. which. flows by necessary sequence from a character unalterably fixed. that original consciousness. reality. will. free in each single act. resp onsible. from one point of view.e.

That principle faint or &quot. it has no original or indefeasible right of its own Not to issue commands. its it requires the co-operation of something within the agent it seeks outwardly to control. all it can do for morality is to restrain wrong-doing by the terror of For whatever else it may effect. The only conception of God he admits is a transcendent the God of the Jews&quot. The sanction and source. self-denial. Reasoning. 187 is alleged by Schopenhauer to be a merely nominal disguise of the Divine law. taken alone. can ever transform might into right. Beyond the egoism life foster. where the storm and stress of life silence its utterances. which the conditions of individual love &quot. and unselfish love. &quot. and beyond which craves only for the satisfaction of selfish appetite. the of solidarity between individual sense of brotherhood pervading. a real and vital fact in the human being. can only apply by deduction what has been otherwise es tablished . It may count for little in the phenomenal sphere. Schopenhauer discovers unconscious &quot. of morality must be an inward principle. a longing which provokes to self-sacrifice.) in the feeling (however and individual. But . though unnoticed. Where then are we to seek the ? original in form of that law which reason administers God. : even of omnipotent authority. and no fiat of authority. he holds. kin. God. absorbing selfish ness and losing self in the totality. As for political society. all the generations that share in animated life. and not in Society and the State.SCHOPENHA UER. standard and criterion. penal sanctions. a self-same metaphysical substance which makes the whole world one the selfish &quot. categorical imperative. as he had from the first held. there is an altruism.

perhaps. self-absorbed. still less does it command. : meta not physically. Avhich in ordinary In the heyday and frolic of consciousness you forget. morality ethics of Schopenhauer is no concealed appeal to cupidity. it says.&quot. when and the eagle eye of wise genius has seen through the vanity of selfish life. and of a society which could is be no more than a despot. inward experience is that the moralist To preach morality is easy . does not seek to persuade. life you roam about the world. no roundabout proof It that it is more politic to be moral. is after all only a principle of mediocrity. Morality. to find a foundation for The hard. Man. therefore. to burst the bonds which cut you off from union It can teach with others. organism of you are only a But it does not . a moral being and it is to that inner being transcendent to his outward observation to his though not appeals. The moralist opens your eyes to your place and surroundings. and forgetful of others except with a view to making use of them. is your inmost nature resting on the of your metaphysical being. these truths are heard and appre ciated. &quot. had been the motto of the essay.188 LIFE OF the schooling of adversity has taught the foolish. That sense or feeling ethics clothes in abstract language. if not. It is on this latent sense of the ultimate identity of one and all that morality is founded.gt. you what your natural endowment prepares you fragment in the great to feel that life. sucking the sweets of laws existence. But morality It can help&amp. and without such underlying sense the theory would only be a vain attempt to lay on man a foreign yoke the yoke of a God whom he knows physically.

he hoped at length to win the long-delayed recognition of &quot. The change tardy. gti tar 189 life enough to reveal the delusion of that. about ten years after the death of the effect. To must be transfigured into the religion of an inner self-denial which annuls also the world of vanity in which that false self resides. and which. from which. Historical inquiries. as time went on. and the tendencies of specialist inquiry. by the secession of the abler and students who had learned its methods. Three years later (in 1844) appeared the second accomplish edition of The World as Will and Idea. in 1815. morality altogether. but had to contend with the suspicions of religious orthodoxy.SCHOPENHAUER. The founder. and determined to burst asunder the chains of authoritative the tradition. it lent itself to the service of the existing organization. But. as the fruit of twenty-four years study and reflection. though. there arose a new generation which found itself unable to accept the identification of the real and the reasonable which set individual in utter antagonism to the state. took the place of attempts to rationalize and adapt to the use of . and righteousness. It seemed at first as if even these hopes were in the destined to failure. after the War of Liberation. Its strength lay in that high-souled idealism which had descended from the age of Revolution. public temper and judgment was And yet a change was gradually taking reign of Hegelianism had come to an end. first it more ambitious Even from the superficial had never been so solidly founded as a view suggested.&quot. his worth. yet never forgot its first-love the realization of truth. and especially researches into the origin of the creeds of the Church. beauty.

with his philological and archaeological criticism. and divided the re new completely between reformers and revolutionists. a gradual transformation had taken place in repub lican ideals. animated by the spirit of notorious Macaulay essay on Bacon. 1848. which at first sight had secured the triumph of the more moderate republicans. 1830. Projects of social ultimately in the course of events helped to throw the balance of revolutionary powers into the hands of socialist democracy and more or less pronounced anarchism. held worth tons of theory . the ideas of Schopenhauer. The socialistic and communistic tendencies. and economical re-organization on terms were rife. and foremost among them the immense increment in the power and scope of the experimental sciences. publican camp The various revolutions in 1848. scientists. other influences were active. Through the breaches which these movements had made bulwarks of the older creeds. which the great insurgent Revolution had various began more and more to dominate the minds of the reformers in the states of Europe. following upon the growing attention to material progress.190 LIFE OF present intelligence the beliefs of the established regime. Another propulsive force was even more potent. especially after the collapse of the revoin the . violently repressed. found fashion on their side when they twitted the Natur-philosophie with like s its useless and groundless speculations. and that of February. But besides the disintegrating force of the historical inquirer. Be tween the revolution of July. An ounce of fact was and enthusiastic young Schleiden.

began to find a way. The very contrary is the case. Biichner. art. 191 Not lutionary successes of 1848. Still Schopenhauer .SCHOPENHA UER. their no studies in the humanities&quot. contemptuous of the Gottingen professors. schott. he was &quot.&quot. Vogt. so he waged war against the materialism which the louder champions of Science were proclaiming as the If final and most precious result of all her discoveries. Such sympathy hardly goes with an attitude of mind that holds 300 millions of the vulgar manu factured article called human beings not equal to a man. As he had denounced and disowned the feminine supremacy nominally proclaimed in European society. and Moleslearned In his fury against &quot. single great and literature may be cultivated.&quot. to expect from a Schopenhauerite little With the rising tide of democracy he had more sympathy.in stupid audacity presume to deal with the nature of things and of the world. or that he took part in the dominant worship of the rising sun of Science. vulgarity of their opponents. he expresses satisfaction at the news that Biichner (on account of his Force and Matter&quot.) had been suspended from his post at Tubingen (1855). Materialism and materialistic science or pseudo-science had evidently no mercy inquisitor. who defended he was not less indignant against the the Soul. and who yet &quot. and that finds it sufficient Ideological justification of the hard lot of the masses that they supply the necessary surplus out of which science. that he was an admirer of democracy (socialist or otherwise). Rudolph Wagner and Hermann Lotze. fellows who have nothing but their little bit syringe-ology no philosophy.

between the almost say only two names. has a load of labour. the difference is verbal. he to bear heavier exploitation &quot. than on a But if average should fall to his share. he carry social Marx compassionate mind to the too untrained in inquiry to methods of and political deeper issues. and complexity of structure as a test of real advance. : He suffers but misappropriated to the use of others. Schopenhauer does not count pure improve And so too he occasionally adopts the tone of contemporary socialism. course of extending his abode to colder regions. of the same thing and the essence of that thing is that the forces of a labouring man are in major part not applied for his own benefit. or generally the tenant. The process. and hypothe cated debtor. leaseholder. as he opines. . on an average sixty million lashes. Man. these points.192 is LIFE OF not a follower of those happy minds which read hail greater evolution as another name for progress. one might Russia. he has become white and carnivorous. and three million European weavers anxious and hunger-stricken. and carry the problems to he reverts to his habitual attitude. The keenest symptom of the world s misery he finds in the fact that six million negro slaves receive daily. rather than real. &quot. for a moment the arguments of Engels and his naturally is away exaggeration. and landlordism serf. feebly vegetate in damp Between serfdom as in houses and cheerless factories. was a dusky-hued inhabitant of climates. even in ment. warm in the where he fed on fruits : since then. Poverty and slavery are only two forms. : and to receive a fair more stinted satisfaction of his wants. on their bare bodies. as in England.

standing above the laws.parasite or pensioner of the whole organism. is based on the conviction is so long as the great bulk of mankind egoistic. concentrated in one man. humanity needs a power. and unscrupulous. making everything bow before it. His that real argument. and can only be excused as a relic of the days of barbarism. which has to settle accounts with his contrary estimate of the brain as the &quot. In governments. rather. Even in the stormy his alarms of social disaster March-days &quot. by the way. on the it is unfavourable to the arts and sciences and the whole higher life. he is the victim of Even as a judge. 193 he admits. and mendacious. unjust. and can never manage released from own is always concerns. demagogues. that sovereignty belongs to the &quot. often malicious endowed with very scanty intelligence. The contrary. regarded as a being of higher kind. Infinite risks assail his unchartered freedom. These anti-democratic sentiments had received a lively re-enforcement by the events of which Frankfort had been the scene in the revolutionary year 1848. Even the animal organism is monarchically constructed. completely irresponsible. . the multitude shows its incapacity for trial by jury is the worst of all possible modes of criminal procedure. as unnatural as republican system is. is a sovereign who his under age. monarchy is whereof the brain alone is the ruler and driver a re mark. But Demos &quot. a ruler by divine grace. people. It is certain. : Whenever more legitimate ward. : the only form natural to man for nature is essentially pledged to the rule of the abler and stronger. and which throws a beautiful light on the worth of analogical arguments.&quot.SCHOPENHAUER.

threw itself on the support of the mob. having obtained entrance. parliament which sat at Frankfort had seen gradually emerge in it the antagonism between the more moderate reformers and the thorough-going democrats. were a deed of which even years Schopenhauer could not speak calmly. which. in defence of the royal authority against the socialistic revolution. made in 1852. and heard the shots exchanged between them and the military On the 8th of an adjoining street. under the idea that he was assailed by the sovereign canaille. and even borrowed his opera-glass to help them to detect the enemy.194 LIFE OF had made him countermand orders he had given for the purchase of books. therefore. . that left surviving in relatives of those who had fallen. at Berlin 1848.) was most brutally murdered later 1 in the public street Auerswald and Lichnowski. and the order. September he looked out on the insurgents raising a barricade on the bridge. He it was relieved to hear his maid calling to him that was a party of Austrian troops. worsted in parliament. of the tion deputies of Austria (against which the indigna furious. the bulk of his estate to be appropriated to the benefit of the soldiers who had been wounded. used his house to shoot from. and enraged by the collapse of the war of emancipation in SchleswickTwo Holstein. the prospect of losing The German The latter party. It is.&quot. in &quot. and for several months he quailed at all his means in a general deb&cle. only what we should expect from an adherent of the party (as it is styled) of law and he by the terms of his will. Suddenly loud noises on his door made him proceed to bolt and bar it.

Schopenhauer. scientific materialism. Much more did he owe to the deep trombone (Posaune) of (Trompete) as &quot. &quot. but these scattered voices spread the news with zeal around them. Yet he had always a kindly word for the Trumpet he sportively styled his first apostle. Scho penhauer favour tributed saw the to his by carried into public speculations flood which these tendencies con swell. Frauenstadt. the &quot. gave the title of apostles and evangelists. radotages (fun vieillard with a half. Dorguth. Yet though himself 195 historical unsympathetic with criticism.perplexed indulgence. spread the by newspaper renown of his magazine assisting article to him with . working indefatigably who had skimmed more than first made his master s personal From that date onwards he con and chief. a fluent and active writer. Julius Frauenstadt. The old man. in At first it and there the wilderness which was only a voice here answered his call. one system of thought. in a small tract he published in 1843.SCHOPENHA UER.councillor who had of justice&quot. an eccen tric &quot. who read Schopenhauer more treat with his three daughters. To such earliest recruits the feeling of his vocation of religious teacher. conferred on Schopenhauer the title of being the first real systematic thinker in the whole history of literature This was ! followed by a succession of similar brochures up to Dorguth s death in 1854. at the age of seventy-seven. at Magdeburg. The first of them to make himself heard was F. arch-evangelist. acquaintance in 1847. who. was loyal than intelligent. tinued an assiduous friend and correspondent. and democracy. and his idol was obliged occasionally to what he called the &quot.&quot.

He made the summer of forth philosopher s personal 1852. assistant adhesion of E. Arthur Schopenhauer : Of him : On him. may be named &quot. Of a long list of works destined more or less to expound Schopenhauer s views to a larger public. a well known Liberal newspaper. translated from The West of April.&quot.&quot. a lawyer in practice at Munich.&quot. as a pledge of the action of coming to the A more public character belongs O. was advocate in the press. published in 1854. A break. 1853.&quot. Lindner. Adam von Doss. occurred in this intimacy. ever. . He was a styled by his master his &quot. while he also popularized his ideas in relation to musical theory. ended however by a letter a few months his words had before his death. His &quot. but his letters were read by Schopenhauer in consideration with deep emotion generations.&quot. an Englishwoman.Parerga. was.196 LIFE OF advice and intervention in the publication of his books. written with all the old cordiality. Oxenford s article on Iconoclasm in German Philosophy.Apostle John. After Schopen wife. how In 1856 Frauenstadt felt against himself forced to protest the injustice with which been misconceived. with the result that for three years the old lion maintained a complete silence. s hauer death Lindner defended his memory against : par inadequate representations and personal attacks ticularly as joint author with Frauenstadt of the work &quot. of a fanatical fervour of discipleship. minster Revieiu. and bringing to his notice every paragraph in which he and his ideas were referred to.Letters on Schopen hauer s Philosophy. editor of the Vossische Zeitung. silent follower.&quot. &quot. after reading the his energetic acquaintance in the and thence &quot.

Nearer home. Schopen popularity in Germany. It welcomes in the misanthropic sage of Frankfort an ally in the battle which the English empiricists had been waging against metempirical speculation and theological prejudice. hauer figures in it as the leader of a re-action against the dominant transcendentalism which.SCHOPENHA UER. 1858. had been given out in England to be the typical German philosophy. a young man . and Kant s Pure Reason in the other. made the acquaintance of November. The article in question. about W. under the auspices of Coleridge and others. it But that is especially for his literary power and skill Schopenhauer is commended. It was therefore a grateful surprise to him to anti-clerical an mission to receive this public recognition from light. with touches of mild regret that his distinguished talents of exposition have not been devoted to the service of more utilitarian and sounder &quot. and introduction of Schopenhauer to the English as indirectly supplying a stimulus to his As its title indicates. Emden. he had. 197 a paper of by John Oxenford some twenty pages earliest though of slight intrinsic import ance. nation in Europe. some children of even in that benighted land. and he lost whom 1 by death in 854. besides Dr. claims a passing word of notice as probably the public. Schopenhauer had written severely of the bigotry of the Church. The larger outlines of his ethical and metaphysical doctrines are stated. truth. and in almost every respect the first. advocate. he had even suggested England with Strauss in one hand. which degraded what he called the most intelligent.&quot. Gwinner. a well-to-do Jewish who acted as a friendly legal adviser.

From 1855 he was an ardent champion and an unwearied correspondent. A. a district judge in Alzey. &quot. who from 1850 onward was settled at Mayence.198 LIFE OF who was destined to be his biographer. who was attracted by Schopenhauer s theory of music. been offered to three who successively declined it. . Becker started in his earliest letter difficulties in some of the more serious hauer is which the theory of the Will in Schopen involved. had been drawn to him before the publication of the Parerga und Paralipomena (Chips and Scraps) in 1851. a good English scholar. paying the of Berlin Hayn author with ten free copies of his own work. The correspondence with business as well as philosophy. &quot. At an earlier date. and whom he. 1844. (from which Emden as a general friend is to be excluded) may be closed by Dr. who. though not all of these disciples. which continued up to Schopenhauer s death. belonged to the legal and journalistic classes. This work. Some. as may be observed. Becker. and Becker. began a corre spondence with J. and well deserved the credit which the latter gave him of having of all his disciples most deals correctly understood him. had. appointed his executor. which was mainly instrumental in gaining for him the popular ear. teacher in a commercial academy at Leipsic. outside the strictly academic circles. when finished. took frequent opportunities of visiting his friend in the neighbouring The list of these disciples of the first order Frankfort. It was only mediation of his friend Frauenstadt that the through undertook to bring it out. Being publishers. David Asher. with the bequest of his collection of books.

and the dialogue on Religion in Vol. issued at a lower price than (in its 199 predecessors. aphoristic and episodic deliverances. Provocative tongue.. and is liberally used.SCHOPENHAUER. Here is no abstract scientific generality. there are a series of shorter unsystematic notes. discussed these are in his more academic treatises. Several of so evidently inspired by personal experience The that they have the interest of autobiography. something to his The may pick out longest essays are those on University Philosophy. the its book pedantic title the author the allegation that he justified by (which wrote in the first instance for scholars) attracted by the variety of its two volumes). Nor is the discussion con- . taste. but wearing that average of decorative style itself to which commends the prevalent. but the self- inspection of a very characteristic individuality. or even smooth the rudeness of the strong sarcasm. on most of the chief problems that ever-interesting topic. notwithstanding contents a fair number of heterogeneous readers. It is a medley. and on Spiritualistic Phenomena. is one of those performances which find readers because they give lucid expression to the views which a partly-enlightened public vaguely holds on Besides these longer essays. with a touch of Shelley. and overcharged with rhetoric. flavour of personal feeling comes out from every page. without scruples or limitations to shut the mouth. if not to the scholarly. The in Vol. I. little sharp cum still brous perhaps. A wide sweep of literary illustration is at the writer s com mand from all the great authors of ancient and modern times. a are everywhere wit. savouring of Hume and Voltaire. last named. II. in which each taste. feeling.

His disciples are so many eyes in various corners of the earth to catch the first faintest blush of the coming dawn. . natural philosophy. at the notice consumes him. years later he sent out (1859) a third edition of the &quot. Schopenhauer saw a second Will in Nature appear in 1854. Germany its yet unrecognized prophet. It itself to quotation.200 fined to principles : LIFE OF it descends again and again to instances.World as Will and Idea. and its sayings are ap propriate as well as fine. the &quot. transpoit to him the news.&quot. same time painful to read in his letters during the period 1847-60 (as published by Frauenstadt and Asher) the eagerness with which he waits to snap up every A very wolf s hunger for public morsel of applause. . &quot. &quot. It is pleasing to see his joy over these signs of success and appreciation. and threw a reflected popularity on edition of the the works which preceded. found new readers. the reality and the profession of man s life age and sex . and almost his last days in 1860 saw Two Funda the appearance of a second edition of the mental Problems of Ethics. im mortality and asceticism . .&quot. a very lends fair . these are a few of the topics touched on in the Parerga and Paralipomena. every one who fails to recognize his work is judged . even from the humblest. .&quot. Stories alternate and the concentrated wisdom of aphorism imitation of Chamfort or La Rochefoucauld. Metaphysics and physics. and politics the art of life and the laws of literary style archaeology and Sanscrit ghosts and special providences language and logic . and so many messengers to In this feverish expectancy. but it is &quot. Five &quot. When The Westminster Review had revealed to with is jests.Parerga&quot. ethics.

show are expected to impute to pour scorn on treasury of abuse little recalcitrancy when they mean motives to every adversary. 201 every one who still expounds the old or other views than his. famous Thebes. and man of the world Probably as a gentleman he feels that a gallant capacity for strong language is a point in which he can hold his own with any mere professor of philosophy. in tone or tendency. like by which it might be entered. had. crowd. is a charlatan To say anything which at all. initial letter. if but a scanty. Frauenstadt and Asher. and all who stand aloof. a hundred gates Of some systems of his might have been said that strait was the gate. if truth it were. he were due.SCHOPENHA UER. drelly plagiarist. had been specially per suaded by the mystic explanation of sexual love. Nothing can appease or mollify him except complete submission to his dogma only that submission must put on an air of willing and intelligent Even so. there was gathered a motley. and narrow the way. it is hard to please him. a malignant. That . recalls what he has taught. But within the walls to which led the broad and diverse roads of Schopenhauer s argument. and few those who found access to their central truth. time it His philosophy. two a faithful watch-dogs. faintly of an &quot. a brewer. His acceptance. Such an ample can seldom be found as the veiled in &quot. in the letters to these friends terms sometimes so coarse that they have to be the uncertainty &quot. It is curious and would be instructive were the data more complete to note the special attractions to which his different conquests used to boast. &quot. One admirer. familiar views. is to be a scoun and a windbag.

. there for Schopenhauer. Nor is that all. Schopenhauer affords a grateful refuge to that love of the mysterious and unearthly. this word Will. and not the most central reality of things is to secure the suffrages of that numerous body which would prefer Intellect. laid stress on the sympathies between his views and the beliefs in animal magnetism and other ward of cosmic nature. a possible disciple He who says the Will means the heart and to place the Will. and refuses to be charmed away by the wisest and wittiest demonstration of the scientific masters that measurable matter is all. with all ambiguities. &quot. and in all. or to a mere intuitive intelligence. &quot. recommendation. &quot. satisfied soul. longing for direct Wherever there lives an un communication with the is potency in universal nature. he reminds them there are more things in earth than the his friends dominant philosophies acknowledge. and a theory of the its vagaries by the way necessities needs no external Many. as the that the heart rather than the head should be the supreme this motor of the universe. at the same time. mere grade of force. shading off And into it yet. and in his indignation at the scepticism oppose to cases of mediumistic susceptibility. and among them the philoso pher himself. In thus keeping open and guarding that small door leading to the Unseen. which came in with the American rapping spirits in 1848. lies a strong charm for those with an ineradicable dislike to an abstract rational deity. Table-turning he holds of supreme importance for his theories. spiritualistic phenomena if we may antedate a name &quot. which lingers in many hearts. which explains a topic which finds few insensible.202 is LIFE OF universal passion. its In identification.

as . and His thoughts far unlike human Will when they hear the attributes and faculties of they remember that names are but &quot. Truly. And to others still. proclaiming vanity of vanities behind and the kingdom of heaven within. and other misty abstractions. they know that God is not as man. &quot. and hinders us from assigning the personality of a spiritual being to the one and slight but sufficient flavour of physical realism &quot. from India to Egypt. on which Schopenhauer s doctrines are much of the old faith lives disguised in the new .&quot.SCHOPENHA UER. A clings to the name. smoke. and been driven by scien tific criticism out of its belief in miracle and legend. lines. who vaunted that he wrote first and foremost for scholars. 208 does not carry us wholly off the solid material world into a region of mere ideas. from Palestine to Greece.&quot. and saves it from a too abrupt antagonism to the formula? of science. there is many an access for those who would enter to possess this philosophy. as in hundred-gated Thebes. But this fancy that he belonged to the academic aristocracy. and who made his evangelists. dogma of Schopenhauer commended itself as the religion of the religionless a new rock for the faith in the supernatural which had lost all hold on its ancient supports of tradition. enclouding the blaze of heavenly light.sound and . all. Schopenhauer. and in the message of pessimism and asceticism they can hear the eternal voice of wisdom. or can read between the decipher the palimpsest inscribed. yet still and craved for something more sustaining than matter For those who force. the &quot. was surprised to see that the un learned were they who came most most zealous gladly to hear him.

similes As his friend remarked. at the quarter his therefore be astonished. and helps them to picture out in detail what the writer is driving at. are only far from rare is self-deception. seems to shed around it. indeed. as Schopenhauei One day disciples came from. possessed of general culture. and the public which he writes the so- called educated class. but it is the lucidity which a forcible intuition. as he said. not the Such lucidity of a purified and transparent intelligence. and the in the per point. or rather. One need not in was. feel of ideas. his instances to prove His strength sistency lies in one-sidedness. afford a clear and striking picture Schopenhauer s of what he difficulties wants you to think. read nothing else for the three years preceding. Next quartered year another there brought the news were equally officer retired was . backed up by a wealth of imaginative faculty. with which he for reverts to same is Neither his style nor his method are those of the trained scholar. But for the majority of readers a word which suggests a palpable image. He that a score of officers enthusiastic. luminous. but really contain no solution of the involved in the thought itself. a pictorial luminosity is more likely to attract the mass of those familiar with the &quot. 1854 he was visited by a lieutenant of the Magdeburg garrison. is all the demonstration that is held needful. &quot. He is lucid. who was so well grounded in his writings as to be able to cite a passage appropriate to almost any topic as well he might if he had.204 well as another that LIFE OF how he never repeated himself. than to per suade the classes who have in some measure penetrated these ideas.

and who was its present possessor. even. to take his The sittings for this purpose were given in what . he writes. In Dantzic.SCHOPENHA UER. that my philosophy finds so in much acclama especially among officers. and Konigsberg. &quot. apropos of this incident. Neu-Ruppin. in what house. wrote to ask how he could get a copy of the lectures on the philosophy of religion. Friends at a distance expressed to get some memorial of his countenance. Magdeburg. &quot. among those 205 congratulations who &quot. Neisse. one of these celebrity-hunters would note his distinguished air. On his birth days copious streams of felicitations began to pour in upon him. In 1855 he accepted the offer Jules Lunteschiitz. portrait. But the whole only in Prussia. Spandau. It strange.&quot. and a fervid believer in his gospel had even died with his name on his tongue. laid is their epistolary at his feet. the more intelligent members of the military profession should. tion. those who followed his philosophy witness the lieutenant of cuirassiers at Pasewalk. essays were written on his philosophy. daguerreotype of a French painter. in the enforced leisure of garrison life. Such strange creatures are men People came to see the lion feed at the Englischer Hof . intelligence. After all. who on behalf of himself and : other friends there. ! another discover a likeness to Talleyrand. occasionally show an interest in Even Hegel had in the army speculative questions.&quot. Even from the ladies the old misogynist had at length to welcome what he was pleased to call symptom of &quot.a Half amused he heard of devotees anxiously on what eliciting day of the week their saint was born. during these long years of peace. it was not so strange that. their desire At first a sufficed.

we find him practically restless wishes. yet.&quot. produced a good likeness. And he was not satisfied. withal. has been multiplied by etchings and lithographs. greater satisfaction. who charmed It her sitter. Grandiose dreams that he had caught that world-secret which his predecessors and contemporaries had missed were not likely to be satisfied short of universal assent. and this portrait. an artist of Frankfort. been relegated to a small reading- entrance. by help found so kindred to of a photograph. in 1859.&quot.that I don t learn even the half Don t mind the postage.&quot.&quot. What a pity. mattered not that he read in The Times that Max Miiller. like the other. of what is written about me. &quot. &quot. whose mystic piety Schopenhauer &quot. had saying again and again. his own creed in the old Deutsches Herrenhaus across the Main.Brahman meant and the propulsive power of originally force. Lastly. which used to hang in the dining-hall of the Englischer Hof. on the Veda (1853). and Lunteschtitz subsequently. portrait by this artist. his bust artist room by the was modelled by a young lady and of Berlin. The tide did not flow fast enough for his creation. made out The a half-size portrait which gave has. &quot. opposite the house (in the Schone Aussichf) where he then lived. Elizabeth Ney. The painting was not a success . he adds.206 LIFE OF had been the abode of the reputed author of the Theologia Deutsch. postage.&quot. in his essay said that &quot.every piece of news about my philosophy is and so it is for me to pay the written on my business . In 1856 he was also painted by Goebel. in to the consequence of recent alterations and additions building. and as yet his by anything conquests were . will. wish.

sought to avenge himself by maintaining that another 1857 essay. So infatuated was he in his self-confidence.$CHOPENHA UER. s &quot. Praise of Lotze Medical Psychology &quot. treated Schopenhauer as more noteworthy in a literary than a philosophical capacity. especially that of professors Every contemporary fame was bitterness to him whose god was popularity. that he fell a prey to the imaginative faculty of a poetical youth who. Baehr was what really deserved the prize. and at once the irritable ! the prize-essay. Alas by Rudolph Seydel. had been on foot. also published in a laudatory exposition by a son of his Dresden friend Dr. they might profess to see and hear him were really trembling in their hearts at the approach of this new Joshua to their doomed Jericho. he spoke of as . confided to him that plans were bruited specially for abroad for establishing at Ziirich a chair s Schopenhauer any such project philosophy. and that revelled in the idea that. where more than one German professor found a home in the reactionary And. would have been the most It likely place. seemed in 1856 as if the Universities were at last beginning to abandon their supposed policy of ignoring him. fessors of philosophy far from filling a heart however much the pro not. The philosophical faculty at Leipsic offered a prize for the best statement and criticism of his system. if times which followed after 1848. Nothing short of adulation could suffice this hungry heart. fresh from the enthusiastic meetings of like-minded admirers. perhaps Zurich. philosopher. convinced that Seydel was the mere tool of a professorial conspiracy. in the 207 day of small things.

some personal bond Schopenhauer was he had long been. LIFE OF old woman s &quot. a motley soul. name At a later date Gregoire. invited his old friend to pay Chateau came could visit at his house. as throne of philosophy. But old memories him a not be galvanised. had page of a novel (&quot. was. and the gratula- tions o. a hermit in the city. coming of Johanna Schopenhauer on the titlepublished in 1823). &quot.&quot. as thrones generally are. His mother 1838. compilation by Frauenstadt described Lotz Except admirers distant for the almost of official touches the lonely fain friendships of his thinker s hand by adherents who would give their relation the vitality of now.Die Tante. whilom the boy he had played and learned with at Havre. surrounded by a waste. now Juziers. the philosopher retorted that saying Montblanc and a mole-hill beside it stood on the same ground. with his daughter to Frankfort. yearning Most of the friends of his youth had passed the traveller band but poorly satisfy the bourne from which no returns.&quot. that failing. near Meulan. argument. worth and when and Botz Helmholtz and Schopenhauer as (in their theory of vision) &quot. of a . The The ceremonial for the kiss of a fervid disciple cannot make up want of the look of true love. on which he in imagination sat.&quot. &quot. up to 1817. 1849.standing on the same it was as bad as ground.208 laudation of the less &quot. and with whom. and. he had exchanged across the letters. &quot. In 1845 ne h a d a visit horn Anthime Grdgoire de in his sister in had died Blesimare. but long before these dates they had passed out of the story of his life. Schopenhauer found the .

as floor. and derived little comfort from the meeting. and an upright Gutzkow was s silly mis representations notwithstanding. and there continued till 1859. No. 16. was his only living His poodle. when he moved Alarm about the into the house next door. of house mate less and one is glad to know that the faithful dog (no than other friends and attendants) was duly re membered in his master s will. on the Main. Schone Aussicht. Timon-like and they renewed genially recollections of student days at Gottingen. who had been for the previous three Bunsen excused himself years settled at Heidelberg. him had of fire made prefer the groundpossibilities His rooms were simply and usefully furnished. On his desk stood (after 1851) a plaster-of-Paris bust of Kant philosophers the his hero among man whom he owned as his spiritual guide. not in the fashion or fancies of .SCHOPEKHA UER. after the spring of 1856. he sometimes seems in own captious criticism to make Kant only a pedestal for his fame.&quot. Schopenhauer had successively occupied three different lodgings but in 1843 he settled at No. and whose interests lay. 209 Frenchman in far other planes of thought than his own. far from a whatever colour it might be. friend s &quot. although. stocd . 17. sooth to say. material decoration. In 1857 he had a short interview with Bunsen. befitted one who was neither luxurious nor aesthetic. for the too-ready credence he had given to reports of his misanthropy. his Sybaritic or vulgar style of living. During his first ten years at Frankfort. the scholar and ex-diplomatist. intellect but in the cultivation of a clear heart. higher position still was reserved for the A bronze Buddha which.

so impossible and vain life for noble ends seemed infinite &quot. as others cite the Psalmist life. beyond all fear. passion things. To this pessimist who held the aims of vulgar imagination. ascerbity.&quot. led him into. still worth living.panishads in Duperron s translation as his service- book. sees within himself the Self. who. undying. his face set towards Nirvana. vainglory. he cherished an inner where he at least craved after the eternal tranquillity of his senses. the great unborn Self which is undecaying. quiescent. all the sage. &quot. and if he spoke of the U. self- for . The glorified gentle smile on the Buddha s face of renunciation was his consolation against his limitation of own yet Even span of clinging weaknesses. and indicated life amidst the and egotism his excessive sensitivity in the sanctuary.210 gilt LIFE OF and glorious on a console in the corner. less. s man s so he would rely on the Upanishads assignment of a hundred years. the goal of happiness. and that. he was never smitten by the contagion of that annual epidemic of holiday touring. which he counted a relic of primeval nomadism. His daily run into the suburban by-ways a practice he &quot. sees the universal Soul. accustomed to carry out the old Greek ideal of Even when he longed sufficing independence. realm of thought the great ocean of eternity Calmly contented with his with what Jean Paul called kept up in all weathers to his latest years afforded him For all along he had been the vicissitude he required.checking ready to suffer fixed in ecstasy. His devotions to the victoriously-perfect One of the East were not altogether a whim . it meant that his trust was in the Atmun.

as well as to shorten his rapid walks. His is that God-like confidence which cannot understand disobedience. that he challenges their reverence.&quot. that finished in November. &quot.&quot. there s no place was nearer than he supposed. and was forced at times to stop for rest. He demanded it as his due. which he Idea. his life who had been bow accustomed to vigorous exercise. he refused to take any steps to suborn it in his favour. he had suffered from home. in mori. He was active to the last. circumstances. How short the day is Friends might suggest that Mihi est prohotel life was a strain .&quot. than for any basely-interested aim. and which explains in difference as wilful high-treason. in 1859 he worked three or four hours daily correcting proof-sheets for the third edition of the World as Will and and. In September he had another attack of . but since April. It is more because he identifies pre-eminence with the victory of truth. 1860. 211 recognition. His was not the temperament that easily submits to the head to &quot. The final rest palpitation. got off his hands in August. had been good. save for petty ailments. of air like . taberna They might advise change positum ! &quot. His health for many years. 1860. and he quoted &quot.SCHOPENHA UER. that he must the abhorred approaches of old age. he gave his best energies to a new edition of his Ethics. But it was hard to all convince the stout-hearted old man. Well might he say. For several months &quot. he replied.&quot. as infatuated worship of the return of a misguided people from their mere stage kings to the allegiance true due to their his sovereign. as the reverence which the natural inferior owes to his natural king. I like my rest . &quot.

with the sole words &quot. he talked cheerfully about literature and politics. On the 2ist he had risen as usual. followed by inflammation of the lungs. As he spoke in the dim religious peace it candle-light. ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER.&quot. Over his place of rest lies a flat granite stone. and complain ing that something was amiss with the beating of his heart. his countenance calm. some years of service might be reserved for him. expressed his joy that they had in the unbiassed minds of the non- academic world been found a spring of and comfort. he somewhat recovered. On the 26th he was seemed as if interred. . doctor entered and found him lying back dead in the corner of the sofa. Sitting on his sofa. he. Gwinner. as if his end had been swift and painless. and sat down to A few minutes after the maid had left. Dr. He was seen by his biographer. sudden last faintness.212 LIFE OF SCHOPENHA UER. from which. with the Evangelical service read at his grave. however. with a softened accent of his strong voice. his breakfast. on the evening of September iSth. But on the soth he had another bad attack. THE END. As the conversation turned on his writings.

Schopenhauer s views 16-18 on. Dresden. E. Eisenach. 198. 68-73. Thos. 103 &quot. 67. 57-58 Dorguth... Dr. 151 J. 142.&quot. 106-111 Blichner. A. Emclen. 73. Christianity. quoted. 29-30. Italy. A. 142. Lord. Berlin. in Feuerbach. Architecture. 198 Beneke. 85. W. K. D. 201 Astor. 154 Becker.. T 47I 49I 55&amp. 161-163 . 200. C. Thos. 63. 141 81 Fichte.. 46. 139-140 Aristotle. 117. 52 Bunsen. 196 Dantzic. W. 147 163. Anselm von. 209 Byron. 22. 196 Asher. influence of. Cabanis. 153 Campbell. 71 Brockhaus. Tfi?. 70-72. quoted. 143 Bouterwek. 129 104-105 Florence. R. 65. Bologna. 183. E. 16. Adam von. F.gt. Schopenhauer and. 165.of him on him. 32-37. F. 205 Doering.INDEX. 147. : Arthur Schopenhauer :. 198 F. 64.. 197. Professor. 24. 67 B.. the publisher. David. 48. Dr. L. 163 Foreign Review and Continental Miscellany. 89. 162 Carlyle. 96. . quoted. 195 Doss.. 65. 184. 69. F.. 191 Fernovv.

48. Lancaster. 18. 212 L. Mr. Dr. Caroline. Mr. 206 Jagemann. 163. 147 &quot. Lindner. 206 23-24 Karlsbad decrees. 161-163. 200. 198.. 161-163 Heidelberg. 64. 36. 16. N. Kant. Mons. 193-194. 109.&quot. 18- Humboldt. the O. 44. 75. 201. 196 41-42. quoted. 170-179.. 46-47. Gall. 106 Herbart. 207-208 Jules. . Iconoclasm in German Philo Oxcnford s article on. 160. Ney. The. 149-150. the artist. 197198. Fr. Anthime.214 Frankibrt-on-the-Main. Haywood. 183. Dr. 15.&quot.. 56 I. 83-85. 41 London. 166 philosophy. 42 &quot. G. Elizabeth. Italy. the painter. Professor.. &quot. 96. 49. 117. Frauenstadt s.. letter to. influence of. 142. 28-29 . 66. 159.goire. 49. 196 Lichtenstein. 143 138-143. 185. 41 Gwinner. 209 1 quoted.. 196-197 Naples. 159. Lunteschiitz. 163. 208 Gre&quot. INDEX. 75.Letter-bag.&quot. 53 Havre. 184. 189. losophy. 157 Ohra. the phrenologist. 141. 164. 205 Ilelvetius. 208- 212 Frauenstadt. P. 153 Moleschott. quoted. 42 Lotze. *55 Caroline L. 63 Oliva. 152-15 Schopenhauer 21 view of the. 41. 116. 57. 153 J. 45 Majer. 186.. artist. 56. 73 167. Milan. Jameson. 57-58 Gottingen. no. 17. 148 H. O. 154 Goebel. 64-68. 163.. 195196. von.5i. Hermann. 78 Munich.. 147 Hegel. 143 Gotha. 64. 104 205-206 Lyons. Hamburg. 16. 56 Historical Mannheim. 208 K. W. influence of. 191 Miiller. 148 Goethe. sophy. W. 153 Letters on Schopenhauer s Phi Dr. 27 Jena. 153 &quot. 143. method s in Marguet. Dr. 191. Friedrich von. 38. Rev. Kotzebue. E. 46 Gastein. 147 Gregoire.

great grandfather of Arthur. J. 150 52 . 41 school there. 89 years in early re Dantzic. 30-32 . 47-48 he becomes a Romanticist.&quot. J 57. The. Andreas. 46 death of his father. Schleiermacher. 49. 25 Schopenhauer. sibter the Will in Nature. 182-183 Rudolstadt.INDEX. . his &quot. 66 Prussia and Dantzic. 143. grand 197 P. 80. more akin to the English than to the Ger man Paris. influence of. 49-52 commercial education. Franz. his parents. 36 . 42-46 early traits Schaffhausen. Philosophical Treatise on the Fourfold Root of the Principle method in philosophy. moval to Hamburg.. birth. 53 . German and English compared. 200 Colours. . Quandt. &quot. Philosophy. 31 Andreas. 18-20 the cause of his success as a of Sufficient Reason. 208 Schopenhauer. born at Dantzic. quoted. 154 Schelling.&quot. 49. Plato. first at . 11-14 &quot. 22 . 196. 24. 47 his mother . father of Arthur. On 1 60 Vision and s article 85-88. . a tour through Europe with . 25-29 G. 73-78 the Hamburg. 184 Schiller. 58 Philosophy. Arthur. 69. 30. 68. 14-15 . Rome.On 215 Adule. 64. 56. Mons. his early training contrasted with that of his predecessors. his father s view of a 38-39 . von.&quot. 179- Schopenhauer. 142 Royal Danish Academy of Sciences.&quot. 41 objects to a commercial life.&quot. rents. . 42 . 43-45 enters a . 64 of Dantzic republican training. 91 Romanticism. his contempt for the historical . 41 returns to . 48. pa Q. 196- Schopenhauer. 22 in herits Dutch mercantile pride. 24-25 . in. 34-36 Dutch extraction. Frederick. Dant Schlegel. 41 42 but declines the alternative. 159. becomes an authoress. Arthur. . 183. Renan. 198-200 . Reinhold. merchant zic. 22-24 ! ancestors. 24 Parerga and Paralipoinena. uncle of Arthur. &quot. Oxenford in on &quot. 181. 144. 40. uf 14*3. 64.&quot. 39-40 goes to Havre. Lan the then at Hamburg. s office. . of character and impressions of his journey. 21 . dissatisfaction with life. &quot. * 66. 65. 73-77 teacher. . guage and Wisdom 106 of Hindoos. . 36-38 his irregular education. philosopher. quoted. 44 Passow. n. l6 5. 106 Schopenhauer. 70. effects R. 32.Iconoclasm German Andreas. 15-18 . 29 . 16.

. Switzerland and his Italy. . . &quot. 85 On Vision and Colours. . 138143 bankruptcy of the Dantzic business in which he had a ! .&quot. Parerga and . turns to Weimar. difficulties. 189-195 the chief of his early disciples. 212 . 70-72 takes his Rudolstadt. . 166 finally settles . him. . 183-185 . . Will and Intellect. . 89 .&quot.gt. 106-108 . . contempt for the . 93-99 his view of the true philosopher.&quot. 90-91 his contempt for the physical nature of man. 182-183 I his fury at s support of his theories on Light. death. at Frankfort. 100-104 99-100 . 59-63 comes into his property. . Parali- of his philosophy. &quot. as revealed in his &quot.lt. 150-153 visit . 205-206 still dissatisfied with his popularity. 143-147 turer. the nature and growth . &amp.The World works. portraits of The World as Will and . to larity. 82-83 Goethe seeks Schopenhauer . . his ill-temper leads him . 195-198 . rivalry and opposition. and sister. . fold character.&quot. 167 . s two out with the Universities . 68 . . of genius. . 91-93 . . 53 . gains a prize for an essay on the free dom of the Will.&quot. . 179-181 . 200-201 his popularity with the general his reading. 104-106 difficulties with his publisher. 57-58 his regard for the his relations classics. 5354 school at Gotha and Wei . essay &quot. his life at Frankfort. his gratitude to his father. with women. . III-H2 as Will and Idea examined. 155-160 attempts by fresh work.&quot. causes of the gradual apprecia tion of his works. 73 Phi Doctor s degree.&quot. II 3~ I 37 v isit to Italy. 198-200 his craving . . 108-111 Schopenhauer .gt. life at 66-67 Gottingen. 58-59 with his mother. &quot. public. The Two Fundamental Pro blems of Ethics. 83-85 moves to Dresden. jected. again. 68 moves to his University of Berlin. 73 his professor.On the 73-77 . &quot. during later years. 163-164 re-opens correspondence with his mother . &amp. share. &quot. 201-205 . for public applause. 170-179. gain popu to moves 160-163 Frankfort. in Nature. . 153-154 his rela temperament and . 147-150 . 185-189 .216 retires INDEX. his two essays published as . losophical Treatise on the Four fold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. mar. 64 his views on Plato and Kant. 165-166 moves to Mannheim. re Will final 78 rupture with his mother. 78-82 his views on the heredity of the . into to . 63 enters the University of Gottingen. Idea. a on college lec his failure. 182 an essay on the basis of morality re . espe tions cially translations. pomena. his pessimism. university- 69-70 his reported moves to plagiarisms. 206-207 falls &amp. &quot. from mercantile life. 207-208 his mode of life 208-212 . 85-88 life at Dresden. 67 meets Wieland.

185-189. Heinrich Flor &quot. Johanna ette. quoted. 53. Two Fundamental Ethics. 141-143. 191 Weimar. 32. 48. j The. 217 Problems of s. 200 Switzerland. 41.&quot. 68 T. Wimbledon. 210 The. 144. V. 181. no Wackenroder. 142. E. Seydel. 189. 153. 196-197. influence of. The.78-82. Travel-book. 59-63. 153 Wieland. 69 153 Wolff. Spinoza. The. 45 uncle of Arthur. 211 . G. 73. Schopenhauer s teacher at GiJttingen.. Schopenhauer.. 3536.Senilia. 165 64. Rudolph. Rudolph. 56-57. 47-48. 42. 45 &quot.&quot. 15 World as Will and Idea. 43. 191 w. . 52-53. mother of Arthur. 30-31 The. 58-59. Schopenhauer. &quot. Toulon. Upanishads. 154 IO8-III. 78-79. father of Arthur. 211 54 Henri&quot. 182 1 &quot. ! Vogt. 47. 60. 165-166. 42-43 Wolf. 73 74. 69 Scientific Society of Drontheim.&quot. 153 208 Schopenhauer. 97 Wagner.&quot. 39-42. A. II3-I37. 65. 44. 22 Stuthof. U. first introduces Schopenhauer to the English public. John Frederick. Trient. Venice. Christian. 2OO. quoted. 25-30. 25 Schulze. 83.INDEX. 46. 26-30. 207 Westminster Review. Vienna. 105. F. 200.


Ueber die Freiheit des mcnschlichen Willens. handAb- handlungen. Ein Wort der Ueber ilin. von J. etc. Manuscript. 1873-4. 8vo. Leipzig. (British I. Von ihm. 8vo. Herausgegeben 6 Bde. 1864. und Fragments. J. Baltasar Gracian s Iland-Orakel nnd Kunst der Wcltklugheit aus dessen Werken gwcogen von Don V. Lind ner Nachgelassenes [Edited by J.] Arthur Schopenhauer.BIBLIOGRAPHY. C UUONOLOGICAL WOKKS. Leipzig. Frauenstadt. Ueber das Fundament der Moral. Berlin. Criticism. 8vo. SELECTIONS. 1862. III. WORKS. Herausgegeben von stadt. de Lastanosa und aus dem Spanischen Original iibersetzt von A. APPENDIX etc. I. behandelt in zwei akademischen Preisschriften. 186-3. Frankfurt-am-Main. Schopenhauer. BY JOHN P. Biography. . 0. II. Aphorismen Anmerkungen. II. und Meraorabilien. Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik. Briefe tind Nachlasstiicke von Julius s Frauenstadt. WORKS. 1841. LIST OF Magazine Articles. 8vo. Aus Arthur Schopenhauer schriftlichem Nachlass. ANDERSON Museum). Vertheidigung von E. J. Leipzig. IV. I. Frauenstadt. Frauen Arthur Schopenhauer s Siimintliche Werke. 8vo.

erhalten hat. Ueber den Willen in der Natur. verbesserte und ver- mehrte Auflage. Leipzig. Herausge geben von Julius Frauenstadt. geben von Julius Frauenstadt. Dritte. serte mehrte Auflage. welche die Philosophie des Verfassers 1844. : Dritte. Ein philosophisches &quot. Milwaukee. London. P. 1830. 1870. 1859.&quot. Berlin.) Lipsiae. Two Essays penhauer. Svo. Svo. Leipzig. Vierte Auflage. mehrte Herausge Auflage.Bohn s Philosophical Library. durchgangig verbes sehr vermehrte und 2 Bde.&quot. Bde. Svo. Commentatio undecima. 1883. 8vo. 1S67. herausgegebeu von J. Eine Erbrterung der Best. Leipzig. Schopenhauer Lexikon. translated by G. verbesserte und ver- mchrte Auflage. Svo. 1-58 of &quot. Frauenstadt. 1881. Leipzig. auctore Artliurio Schopenhauero Berolinensi. Frauenstadt. Leipzig. Svo. Leipzig. und verbessevte Dritte. (In Vol. Arthur Scho On the Fourfold Ueber das Sehn und die Farben. Parerga und Paralipomena: kleine 2 Schriften. Droppers and C. der die Kritik der Kantischen Philosophic enthalt. nach Arthur Sehopenhauers bearsammtliche Schriften. Briefwechsel zwischen Arthur und Johann Schopenhauer August Becker. Svo. Select Essays. sehr verbesserte und betrachtlich vermehrte Auflage. A literal transla in Nature. Svo. Herausgegeben von J. TJeber die vierfache Wurzel des zureichenden vom Satzes Vierto gebcn von Grunde. Svo. Zweite. Becker. exponens Theoriam Colorum Physiologicam. philosophische Bde. verbesserte Root of the Principle of Suffi II. Svo.Worterbuch. 1836. 1819. Zweite. 1864. 8vo. Dritte. Zweite. 1813. 1851. eandcmquo primariam. Svo. 1854.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Frankfurt-amMain. Separatausgabe aus &quot. 2 beitet von J. . Part of &quot. 2 Bdchn. Leipzig. 8vo. vermehrte und ver besserte Herausge Auflage. 1836. Leipzig. Leipzig. Vierte. nebst einem Anhange. Svo. Svo. 1847. Leipzig. Svo. 1889.&quot. Herausgegeben von Julius Frauenstadt. verbesserte und ver- Leipzig. Frankfurt-am-Main. tion. Svo. und ver- mehrte Auflage. Edidit Justus Radius. On the Will cient Reason. Leipzig. 8vo. Svo. 1871. betrachtlich vermehrte Auflage. Eino philosopliische Abhandlung. Svo. Frauenstiidt. verbesserte und ver Parerga und Paralipomena. 1S75. pp. 2 Bde. Dachsel. herausgeAuflage. Aphorismen zur Lebensweisheit. 1854. 1873. 2 Bde. Zweite. 1878. Leipzig. K. by I. Rudolstadt. J.itigungen. Auflage. Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung vier Bu cher. Frankfurt-am-Main. Leip zig.Scriptores OphthalmologiciMinores. III. 1816. geben von Julius Frauenstadt. Svo. A. Svo.

2 ii . ETC. Moral. Schopenhauer. Arthur Scho penhauer [concerning his philo sophical system]. des Kritische Besprechung Hegel-Haitmann schen Evolutionismus aus Schopenhauerschen Principien. Svo. Balche. David. Christian. A.-xxiv. Francis. Paris. Helene. Bahnsen. LichtArthur Schopenhauer. Alexandre de. M. Vols. pp. 18S3. 283-290 pp. Das Endergebniss der Schopenhauer schen Philosophic in seiner Uebcreinstirnmung mit einer der altesten Religionen [i. IS 63. Von Julius Frauenstadt. (Ausspriiche fiir Alle. Charakteristik Schopenhauer s. Svo. Julius Vom Stillcstehen des Verstandes. Ilcrausge- Asher. Svo.e. die redlich forschen vrollen. Haldane.gt. . Svo. of &quot. Gotha. Eine sophie der Geschichte. ihren in sche Philosophie und dargestellt Gruudziigen kritisch beleuchtet. Leipzig. Asher. Histoire critique des doctrines religieuses de la philosophic moderne. 1857. etc. 2 Bdc.. C. English and Foreign Philosophical Library. 1855. Leipzig. Leipzig. etc. 1872. Schopenhauer s Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.A. London. Leipzig. Bartholmess. Svo. Svo. Arthur Schopenhauer als In terpret des Gothe schen Faust. M. Renan Essai Arthur Schopenhauer. 1877. Lon don [1877]. Berlin. Svo. Svo. APPENDIX. gebcn von Julius Frauenstadt. SendOffenes David. de Svo. G. -Ueber den Tod und Arthur Schopenhauer. 1SS6.. II. torn. Herbart et Schopenhauer. Dresden. Odessa. Berlin. 1S70. schreiben an Dr. Svo. III. A. Werseinen aus strahlen Mit eincr Biographic und kcn.) Bremen.] zur Unzersein Verhaltniss storbarkeit unsers Wesens an sich. Modern Philo sophy from Descartes to Scho penhauer and Hartmann. 1878. and J. Zur Philo F. 1879. Barzellotti. CRITICISM. 1885. 423-459. The World as AVill and Idea. SELECTIONS. Die SchopenhauerBachr. Arthur Schopenhauer. Kemp. . 1882. B. [Letters. et M. torn. 1855. Arthur Schopen Otto. Religion und Adler. Neues von ih in nnd iiber ihn.] Heidel berg. BIOGRAPHY. Fiinfte Auilage. hauer. 1871. Svo.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Leipzig. T&amp. Svo. [A review of Schopen hauer s philosophy. 1859. Svo.&quot. Ein Beitrag zur Erzieh- Giacomo. etc. Leip zig.The Judaism]. dello II pessi- mismo Basch. Svo. 1862. Svo.p. etc. 389-423. Svo. critique. Translated from the German by R. Firenze. Bowen. vom Standpunkte ungsfrage der Schopenhauerschen Ethik. 3 vols. xxii.

Singer. Colien. Der Fortim Lichte der Lehren Schopenhauer s und Darwin s.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Paris. Dageraadsman. 394-415. Coniill. Friedrich. E. Svo. 1876.. pp. 446-479. Sicele. Svo. E. Svo. Svo. 1888. iii. schritt Emerich. 1850. en der deutschen Schauspiel- Frommann. gc^en wissenschaftlichen Darder Geschichte der stcllung neuern Philosophic. 1862. Schlussbemerkung zu lierbart und Schopenhauer. Alexandre. Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer und sein mismus. System dcr Ethik. 1878. penhauer. Magdeburg. llartmann. 1584. Drei VorlesSchopenhauer. pp. Magdeburg. Wien. Jena. Svo. Cornill. 1880. M. XIXc Le Pessimisme au Leopardi. Diiitetik der Seele. Bedankjcvanecn Dageraadsman voor de prise uit de doos van Schopenhauer. 1834-53. Aus dern Franzosischen iibersetzt von J. Das Licht der wahrhaften kosmischen dem Irrlichte der Hegel schen Dialektik gegeniiber. Cam. Hamburg. Leipzig. 1852. 381412. Briefe iiber Frauenstadt. Svo. van dcr Liude. Oldenburg. schichte der Kritischo Philosophic. 1876 [1875]. als Ucbergangsferma- tion von cincr idealistischen in cine realistiche Weltanschauung Riga. Imanucl H. aangeboden door A. Mit Begleitstellen aus den Werken von dargestellt von A. Svo. schichte der Genetische Ge Another edition. Andentungen iiber .. Amsterdam. Kimviii-fo 1871. Svo. Bemerkungen Brief iiber die Philosophic ein Schopen an den Geetc. Hd. Svo Schopenhauer. Svo. pseud. : C. Leip Berlin. 1854. Arthur Schopen hauer. Ein Schreiben an den Herrn Dr. 1856. 1862. pp. Erdmann. Heidelberg. i. Neue Briefe iiber die Schopen Meister. Pessi- Du Mont. 3 Bde. die Schopenhauer sche Philo sophic. Fouchcr de Careil.pp. Svo. Svo. penhauer. 1864. ungen. Leipzig. Arthur Hermann. E. Tlicorie dor Erfahrung. Julius. eincr Schopenhauer 105-182. s etc. Magdeburg. Beziehungzu Schopen Chemnitz. s die tr. Berlin. Otto. Schopen hauer in seiner Wahrheit. EUer. Svo. Philosophic seit Kant. Kant s Johann Versuch Hermann. Die HoflhungFrugifer. 407-423. pp. kuust. 8vo. gegriindet auf die Principien der Schopenhauer schen Philosophic. 1878. Zur Feuchtersleben. Schopenhauer. Svo. Leipzig. Fortlage. Svo. Vermischte hauer s. 1852. Svo. Scho Paris. Mit einem Anliange iiber das abstrakte Rechte. Diihnng. 1869. Wagner hauer. Arthur Scho Adolph. Th.-inscendentale Deduction. 1845. etc. Svo. etudes Hegel ct Schopenhauer sur la philosophic allemando moderne depuis Kant jusqu a nos jours. Svo. Dorguth. pp. zig. hauer sche Philosophic. Fichte. Leipzig. 1872. 412-417. Arthur Schopenhauer. Ernest von. Svo.

Hermann. Schopenhauer Mein Verthiiltniss zu SchopenDie Schopenpp.. Bd. Neukantianismus. vi. critica 1 Baldussare. 267-319. 371-387. ard Wagner und Schopenhauer. 1879. Palu-mo. pp. ITartmann. Arthur Schopenhauer. Inedita Schoperhaueriana. 8vo. 25-37 hauer sche Schule. 190-196 . Arthur Scho Ein penhauer s Philosophie. Schopenhauer aus personlichen Ein Umgange dargestellt. G winner. Gwinncr. 121-147. Gizycki. Frauenstadt. Ernst. Bd. 38-57. 1874. 1SS1. im Lebensbilder. Svo. Denkrede auf Arthur Scho penhauer. Leipzig. 8 Bd. 156-159. Note di oJierno \z Amore. von E. Victor. Leipzig. Svo. Berlin. pp. 1877. Fricdricli von. Johannes. con appendice donne. Hayrn. Berlin. Eine Bibliographic. ueber die Thiero und den Thierschutz. cd il inatriA. Hermann. 8vo. Bd. Freiburg Breisgau.. 1862. Arthur Schop enhauer. . pp. Arthur Schopenhauer aus personUmgange dargestellt von Bd. Gegenwart.segger. Eine Darlegung der philosophischcu Anschauungen Richard Wagner s an der Hand seiner Werke.. Kant und Zwei Aufsatze. \Vohin ? Schopenhauer s Antwort auf die letzten Lebensfragen. Svo. 147-155. 8vo. G3G-C49. lichem Leipzig. 8vo. und Zeit Janssen. Erlangen. 1877. Der Pessimismus und die Ethik Schopenhauer s von Kiy. 1863. Schopenhauer und die Farbenlehre. Leipzig. pp. etc. 4to. 8vo. erganzt Bonn. Wilhelm. Schopenhauerianismus. Leipzig. Stiidicn und Gesammelte Aufsiitze. Hartmann. Georg von. pp. -Kritische Wanderungen durch die Philosophie der Gegenwart. 20-42. von. 1888.. Aus Berlin.BIBLIOGRAPHY. seine und Schopenhauer etc. Bd. iv. 8vo. Svo. pp. Carl Robert E. 520-525 Schopenhauer s Panthelismua. Leipzig. 1890. Harms. GuctzlaflF. Friedrich. 1876. Schopenhauer. Bd. PhilosophHoffmann. 1878.. Leipzig. 4 to. Schopenhauer etc. . 1878. 1888. Leipzig. Berlin. Rich Hau. seinen Charakter und seine Lehre. Franz. 1876. Arthur Schopenhauer. Arthur und Zweite. Der Philosoph Arthur Schopen hauer.. Schelling s positive Philosophic als Einheit von Hegel und Berlin. iv. Carl Robert E. Eduard. 1888. 8vo. 83-104.*. von R. pp. Edita und Grisebnch. 8vo. 1868-1882. etc. XH Schopenhauer s hundertjahrigem Geburtsta. pp. . liauer. Arthur Schopenhauer s hanclschriftlichem Nachlass. inonio di Schopenhauer. von J. pp. Blick auf scin Leben. 8vo. Arthur Schopenhauer und Franz Baader. und Hegelianismus in ihrer Stellung zu den philosophischen Aufgahen der Gegenwart. Berlin. zusammengefasst Freunde. ische Schriften. etc. Schopenhauer. etc. viii. R. pp. pp. von. 1864. Wohcr und und Umgange dargestellt. ii. Philosophische Fragen dor 1885. Svo. umgearbeitete vermelirte Auflage der Schrift: Arthur Schopenhauer aus personlichen Schopenhauer s Leben. iv. 8vo. 8vo. 1869. Leipzig. Vortrage. Haym. Gallctti. Svo.

Koeber. F. und Victor. 1886. Bonn B. Moritz. Das Dasein Gottes Kroenig. CharakterKletschke. hauer-Literatur.Kaphael. pharitastischen zum freudigen 1880.der WeisMueller. etc. 1886. E.&quot. 1866. Schopen hauer. und das Gliick der Menschen. Korten. Kiy. Wien. 1&66. Die WcltanGeorg.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Die SchopenVersuch einer Uber &quot. zuge aus dem Leben Artluir 8vo. 1872. Carl R. 1881. Lehmann. herausgegeben von Virchow und Holtzendorff. Hugo. die moralische Triebfeder. 2 pts. Arthur 1872. . selben. Materialistischerfahrungs philoStudien . Svo. Meltzl von elb Jei. Ein zur Kritik der Beitrag. etc. Svo. pp. Berlin. bolcselmi Schopenhauer Kolozsvar. pp. Weltelend Meyer. Leipzig. etc. Leipzig. Klee.Sammlung Hauptlehren Kant s und Schopenhauer s. Laban. kritischen Bemerkungen iiber pessimistische Ansichten und Ausspiiiche von A. Schopenhauer ala Mensch und Denker. ser. Ueber Kant s der Ethik und Principicn Schopenhauer s Beurteilung derselben. Hermann. 8vo. Schopenhauer. Erlosungslehre. 8vo. Schopenhauer s Lomnitz. 18SO. Ephesus und Arthur Schopen hauer. Svo. iiber sophische of &quot. Heraklit von Mayer. Svo. 65-101. Leipzig [1882]. Berlin. Saxonum 1872. Quomodo Scho Denkmiinze zum Centenarium Schopenhauers. tus sit. Svo. 157-203. 1873. Leip &amp. 8vo. Stuttgart. Jcllinek. Halis [1864]. Kant und die Stuttgart. H. Schopenhauers. A. 1888. Berlin. Eine kritische Studie. scliauungen Leibnitz uud Scho penhauer s. Berlin. Ferdinand. penhauer ethicam fundamento metaphysico ccnstituere conaDissei tatio. Klencke. Berlin. 1881. etc. 8vo. Svo. Ueber den individuellen Beweis fiir die Freiheit des Willens. ihre Griinde uud ilire Hauptsalzc Kant s und Scho penhauer s in allgemein verstaudlicher Darlegung. 1874. Berlin. Last. 8vo. 1880. Berechtigung. Gottlob. Die transcendents Richtung-Schopenhauer. Otto. Juergen und Weltschmerz. Liebmann. Heidelberg. 8vo. Das Mitleid als Kober. Der Pessimism us die Etliik Schopenhauer s. 8vo. etc. Hermann. die gemeinverstandlicher wisaenschaftlicher Vortrage. Berlin. Svo. L. Vom : Pessimismus Realismus Schopenhauer und Spinoza. Zeitz.&quot. heit letzten Mit Schluss. vii. Pt. Eine Rede gegen Schopenhauer s und Hartmann s Pessimismus. A.lt. Eine historisch-philosophisch Parallele. Svo. Grundziige einer Aesthetik nach Schopen hauer. Svo. etc. Svo. zig. etc. . P. Svo. 1875. Schopenhauer schen Ethik. Die Philosophic A. Chronologischen Uebersicht derLeipzig. Mehr Licht ! Die . Kritik tier Schopenhauerschen Freiheitslehre. Otto. 1865. Svo. 145. Epigonen. 8vo. Hermann. 1886. Leipzig [1884].

Siebentist. Berlin. Rousseau. A History of J. Parallelen. Vratislavise [1865]. 1861. Desire. : Friedrich. by Roma. 8vo. Schopenhauer als Philosoph der Tragodie. Philosophy. Z. 8vo. Saggi Napoli. 18mo. 238- Arthur Schopenhauer s. Schopenhauer. Paris. 269-276. L Esprit de la Spiegel. Reich. 291. 1870. zu Begleitende Faust und die Schopenhauer- Schopenhauers philosophischen Systeme &quot. hauer e il Rosmini. La Critique de Kant. Carl. 8vo. 1880. Grundsatzo Leipzig. 427-442. 8vo. Zu dessen hundertjahrigen Ge[An account of his burtstag. de Schopenhauer. Bd.&quot. Arthur Scho Suhle. Eine kritische Studie. 1863. De Nietzsche. Leipzig.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Carl von. 1874. tet. J. August. 8vo. 8vo. Arthur Schopenhauer. Wessel. 8vo. 1857. Arthur Scho Scheffer. Alessandro. etc. Stieglitz. Schopenhauer. Nagel. Francesco Critici. No more published. 1880. Berthold. Schwegler. penhauer und die Philosophie der Gegenwart. Arthur Schopen hauer als Philosoph und Schriftsteller. 1865. Grillparzer. 8vo. Schopen Philosophie der TragoPressburg. Unzeitge- net Pessmiisrne. J. Rosenkranz. etc. 1. 8vo. 1875. pp. Hegel als 1888. Ribot. 1872. 1885. pp. 8vo. 8vo. Peters. 8vo. 8vo.] Zurich. 1881. J. Dorpat. Berlin. Schopenhauer. Sanctis. Wien. vti Wilhelm. Pessimism. 8vo. 8vo. S. penhauer. etc. Darmstadt. James. Frankfurtam-Main. Arthur medicinSchopenhauer vorn ischen Standpuncte aus betrachpp. Seydel. Rudolf. Philosophic de Schopenhauer. 8vo. Philosophie van Leiden. Schloss-Chemnitz. Nationalphilosoph. Wien. La Philosophic Paris. Bemerkungen sche Philosopliie. Emil. Seelye. Ernst. Schopenhauer e Leopardi. Drittes Stuck Schopenhauer als Erzieher. 441-448. etc. de. Dissertatio philosophica. hauer die. Sauerlaender. G. 8vo. s 8vo. 1 Schopen New H. Schopenhauer.die Welt als Wille und Bremen. Goethe s a 5 . Friedrich Carl Albert. pp. Dr. translated Lo Paoli. Sully. Theodor. Wegweiser zur Philosophie Arthur s. Stern. Schopenhauer s Philosophisches System dargestellt und beurtheilt. life and doctrines. Seidlitz. Vorstellung. 1888 . Eine Skizze. von. 1870. 1862. De Schopenhaueri Pawlicki. J. Arthur. der aus historischen Entwicklung Philosophie den iibereinstimmendeu der Principien Eine Studie. Schopenhauer Chemnitz. deutscher K. masse Betrachtungen. York. 8vo. Wieu. 1879. 1875. J. 8vo. Rousseau. 1878. Schopenhauer. doctrina et Philosophamli ratione. 1881. Theodule. Nolen. 8vo. 1869.

Friedrich. aminer. 8vo. London. Arthur. Die Philo Tschofen.. giuridica di Schopen hauer e di Hartmann. Synthese. 1871. 1858. 8vo. E. 1884. . sophic Arthur Schopenhauers zur Ethik. pp. vol. pp. Solly. Schopenhauer. Contem Lawporary Review. 1868. of Zeitgenossen. 74-105. Translated by E. Schopenhauer. 4 Dec. pp. Heft vi. Zurich. Dial. Schopenhauer. A. Prince D.Arthur W. 557. 8vo.&quot. eine Hannover. Naturgesetz der Seele. Kant s und Untersuchung iiber Schopenhauer s Leipzig. Zange. Dannreuther.BIBLIOGRAPH\. pp. 1882. 8vo. vol. 47-52. Review. by W. H. philosophy. ii. Miinchen. Fortnightly Review. critico [1889]. Schopen Eine Scholastiker. vol. C. (Encyclopedia Britannica. Schopenhauer. 1864. Europa. 8vo. 1879. Theoriya poznaniya i metafizika.. 8vo. by H. Article xxi. &quot. Biographische Skizzen von A.) London.. 320. Johann M. 1872. Schopenhauer. 185:0. 4. Rudolf. Lon history and a criticism. 53. by F. 245-248. Wien. vol. 264- Ueber das M. 1863. etc. Leip 1876. Saturday Revie\ pp. 448-458. 3 Thle. 1873. der Geschichte der Philosophic. vol. in ihrer Relation Tsertelev. Berlin. 395-412. Professor &quot. 1876. Schopenhauer in Willy. La dottrina Vadala-Papale G.. pp. F. Uber Schopenhauer s Thilo. 1877. pp. 8vo. The vol. pp. 8vo. 463. 8vo. Beethoven. 556. 8vo. etc. 1886. ethischen Atheismus. No. scincm Verhaltniss zu J. 773-792. Das Grundriss Uebervveg. M. G. iii. Hedge. 1876. Christian Ex pp. Leipzig. 46-80. Illustrirte Zeitung. MAGAZINE ARTICLES. oder Herbart und Schopenhauer. Helen. Wyneken. 4to. 255-264. Wurzbach. 8vo. &quot. 1869. his life London. Wilhelm Wagner. F. 8vo. Theologi 76. by F. Th. Ernst Friedrich. 440reriny. 20 X.. Venetianer. 8vo. kritische by Morris. hauer als Moritz. Alfred von. HuefFcr. G. Kritik der Schopenhauer schen Theorie von der Unveranderlichkeit des Charaktera. Fichte und Schelling. Filosofiya Shopengauera Pervaya Chast. Arthur Scho and his penhauer. 21. 275. vol. pp. 13. cal Kritik der Schopenhauer schen Philosophie. ETC. 1874. pp. pp.S. 1883. . von Wurzbach. filosofico Moralpiinzip.\Vith ment from the Works of Arthur Schopenhauer. Ueber Freiheit und Charakter des Menschen. 8vo. 1862. Fundament der Ethik. Zimmern. 5. 1880. Wollny. 12mo. St. vol. Arthur zig. 1873.&quot. 128-136. Petersburg. don. Payne. Richard. by H. S. Eine History Translated of Philosophy. etc. S. Berlin. Schopenhauer. 1876. Studio Trani sistematico. supple Philosophical a London Wallace.

1873. 131-149. ChallemelLacour. of Speculative Philo F. by W. 492-504.pp. 113-138. 209-226. Critic. 1886. in English.S. B. 1852. pp. Revue des Deux Germany. North American Review. pp. 1877. Zeitschrift fur Philosophic. des Savants. French des Physiology.S. Life. by A. International Re pp. andvonHartmann. 19 N. vol. pp. torn. . Mind. 510. pp. by R. Schopenhauer. 50. Nation. 3 N. by 9. 1876. Presbyterian Quarterly. Literary Aspects of Work of. 210. New Quarterly Magazine. pp.ski. by C. Metho dist Quarterly. pp. 162-168. 211. vol. of vol. pp. 1880. Gryzanov. vol. same article. 8. vol. by J. 162-160.veque. Lacroix. and Kant. 1884. pp. by M. 491-509. Germanujue. 39. Paul Janet. pp. 15. 352-378. by J. World Literary (Boston).511. o Men. Fraser s Magazine. and German and Revue 35-59. Morse. by 8.. 58. Hermes. Revue Dollfus. Adamson. 1853. by torn. vol. pp. 13. 1876. Deux Mondes. World as Will and Idea. pp. 769-777 Appleton s Journal. pp. A Buddhist Contemporary in Schopenhauer. 782-796. 1877. vol. 51. Journal of Speculative Philosophy. 86. vol. Harms. Princeton Review.. Journal 1876. F. 1-50. vol. Finck. 367-394. vol. T. 93117. Philosophy of. 433-443. and his Pessimism. P. 37-80. 215-220. by J. R. . pp. pp. 7 N. torn. Pessimism of. pp.. Thought. 1877.S. Erdmann. 1879. 13. Journal Le&quot. vol. vol. March 1878. pp. vol. 117. 823-837. 1820. Francis Huefler. 1870. and Music. pp. pp. L. vol. Arthur. No. . Tluving. view. 4. vol. 7. 1874. and by Professor Caird. pp. by Ch. Cornhill 1876. 1. by C. Arthur. vol. pp. sophy. Views Magazine. pp. 42. 388-407. by H. and Herbart. Mondes. Bd. 21. Alexander. Westminster Review. 296332. Stirling. by P. H. 5. 4. lative Journal of Specu Philosophy.BIBLIOGRAPHY. vol. by John Oxenford. pp. 1879. 11. 1875. by E. 1884. Edwards. 487-510. Books. 33.

.. J... . 1864 1883 Printed by WAI. Ueber die vierfache Wurzel cles Satzes vom endenGrunde 1813 1816 1819 Ueber des Sehen und die Farben Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung Theoria colorum . Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik zureich.. Weltklugheit.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Felling.. aria (In eademque Scriptores . . ed. Translated.TKR SCOTT. Schopenhauer s ..) Briefwechsel Ueber den Willen Natur . zwischen A.. .... Parerga und Paralipomena 1841 1851 Baltasar Gracian s Orakel ( logica. CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF WORKS. Newcastle-on-Tyne. . A.. 1862 prim- 1830 Aus opthal- handschriftlichem Nachlass vwlof/ici minores. IV. .. in physio- Handund Kunst der etc. Justus Radius.. ) A.. der 1836 Schopenhauer und Becker . .

by Walter Lewin.THE SCOTT LIBRARY. BY JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL. WITH 13 THE BIGLOW PAPERS. 7 PLUTARCH S LIVES (LANGHORNE). 11 MY STUDY WINDOWS. by Ernest Rhys. 3 THOREAU S Will H. LOWELL S ESSAYS ON THE ENGLISH a new Introduction by Mr. WITH AN INTRO- by Will H. EDITED. London: WALTER SCOTT. 1 VOLUMES ALREADY ISSUED MALORY S ROMANCE OF KING ARTHUR AND THE Quest of the Holy Grail.D. 6d. With a Prefatory Note by Ernest Rhys. ESSAYS. ETC. Garnett. Addington Symonds. M.A. Dircks. Dircks. Price is. WITH PREFATORY NOTE BY EDITED. LIMITED. Edited by Ernest Rhys.WEEK. per Volume. LANDOR S IMAGINARY CONVERSATIONS. Uncut Edges. By Thomas De Quincey. J. LL. WITH Introductory Note. CONFESSIONS OF AN ENGLISH OPIUM-EATER. Gilt Top. CHOSEN AND ARRANGED. Snell. 12 POETS. by Havelock Ellis. Lowell. SWIFT S PROSE WRITINGS. 2 THOREAU S WALDEN. With Introductory Note by William Sharp. &quot. WITH INTRODUCTORY NOTE by Will H. With Introduction by E. ETC. ductory Note by B. SELECTED. with Introduction. 24 Warwick Lane. 4 5 6 THOREAU S duction.&quot. SHELLEY S ESSAYS AND LETTERS. Dircks. Cloth. . duction by J. WITH INTROWITH INTRO- 8 9 10 BROWNE S RELIGIO MEDICI. with Introduction. BY JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL.

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WITH INTROEDITED. by Charles Sayle.TABLE. W. by Havelock Ellis. Thackeray. POLITICAL Macaulay. 33 SELECT WRITINGS OF EMERSON. AND OTHER IMAGINARY Conversations. Oliver Wendell Holmes. SELECTED AND Edited. London WALTER SCOTT. Sparling. JOHNSON. 35 ENGLISH PROSE. 40 LANDOR S PENTAMERON. BY LORD CHESTERFIELD : S LETTERS TO HIS SON. Ellis. with an Introduction. Edited. by Frank Carr. 45 THE POET AT THE BREAKFAST-TABLE. with Preface. duction by H. B. WITH Introduction by Ernest Rhys. Reid. Dircks. BY OLIVER GOLDSMITH. VOLSUNGA SAGA. by Ernest Rhys. 44 THE AUTOCRAT OF THE BREAKFAST-TABLE. with a Preface. WITH INTRO- 32 SARTOR RESARTUS. BY THOMAS CARLYLE. 34 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF LORD HERBERT. with Introduction. by H. SpCIETY. WITH INTRO- 42 VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. Selected by 38 ESSAYS OF DR. Oliver Wendell Holmes. H. WITH BIOGRAPHICAL Introduction and Notes Stuart J. EDITED. 43 ORATIONS. FROM WENTWORTH TO BY Edited. . FROM MAUNDEVILLE TO AND OTHER PLAYS. with Introduction and Notes. Yeats. 37 IRISH FAIRY AND FOLK TALES. by Ernest Rhya. BY OLIVER Wendell Holmes. 24 Warwick Lane. 41 POE S TALES AND ESSAYS. by Will H. LIMITED. BY EDITED AND Chosen and Edited by Arthur Galton. duction by Percival Chubb. by William Clarke. Edited.THE SCOTT LIBRARY 31 continued. 36 THE PILLARS OF Henrik Ibsen. Selected. duction. with Introduction. with an Introduction. WILLIAM MORRIS. Edited. by 39 ESSAYS OF WILLIAM HAZLITT. 46 47 THE PROFESSOR AT THE BREAKFAST.

62 BALZAC S SHORTER STORIES. WITH INTROaction. EDITED EDITED. 50 ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND. by James Ross. EDITED BY Clement K. by Arthur Gallon. 49 JANE EYRE. TRANSEDITED BY with an Introduction. STORIES FROM CARLETON. SELECTED. Yeats. with an Introduction and Notes. J. BY CHARLOTTE BRONTE. EDITED. with an Introduction. 52 A SELECTION. by Dr. BY CHARLES LAMB. Edited. 60 61 ANNALS OF TACITUS. S. STUDIES. Williams. BY EDMUND GOSSE. 59 LANDOR S PERICLES AND an Introduction. ESSAYS OF ELIA. EDITED BY ARISTOTLE S Lewes s 58 ETHICS. with a Preface by Dr. Sidney Hartland. 54 SADI S GULISTAN. 53 MORE S UTOPIA. TRANSLATED EDITED. NORTHERN E. with an Essay. WITH a Note by Ernest Rhyg. lated. BY William Wilson and the Count Stenbock. EDITED BY LOTHROP DAVIS. 24 Wai-wick Lane. Introductory Note. W. . EDITED. EARLY REVIEWS OF GREAT WRITERS. by Ernest Rhys. WALTER SCOTT. London : BY CHARLES DARWIN. with an Introduction. Rolleston. EDITED. LIMITED. Withington. W. CORAL REEFS. by T.THE SCOTT LIBRARY 48 (1 -continued. OR FLOWER GARDEN. Stevenson. E. L. WITH GEORGE HENRY WITH Essay on Aristotle prefixed. by WITH AN EDITED. FumiyalL 51 THE PROSE WRITINGS OF THOMAS SPENCE S ANECDOTES. Shorter. by John Underbill. Gwynn. THOMAS GORDON S TRANSlation. ASPASIA. 55 56 57 ENGLISH FAIRY AND FOLK TALES. by Maurice Adams. by Havelock Ellis. AND LIFE OF EDWARD V. 63 64 COMEDIES OF DE MUSSET. with an Introduction. by W.

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WITH an Introduction. . with an Introduction. Edited. Sykes. Translated. GERMAN 84 85 PLAYS AND DRAMATIC ESSAYS OF CHARLES LAMB. by Professor William Knight. 83 CARLYLE S ESSAYS ON With an Introduction by Ernest Rhys. by Major-General Patrick Maxwell. with an Introduction and Notes. Giacomo Leopardi. by Major-General Patrick MaxwelL 87 THE INSPECTOR-GENERAL By Nikolai V. by Arthur A. Gogol. LORD BACON: John Buchan. by Richard Garnett. 89 PROSE OF MILTON : SELECTED AND EDITED. LIMITED. London: WALTER SCOTT. by Rudolf Dircks. SELECTED AND Edited. WITH LITERATURE. with an Introduction and Notes. with an Introduction. Translated from the original. Edited. 86 AND THOUGHTS OF COUNT A RUSSIAN COMEDY.D. SCHILLER S WILLIAM TELL.THE SCOTT LIBRARY 82 continued. 24 Warwick Lane. ESSAYS. LL. DIALOGUES. an Introduction. by 88 ESSAYS AND APOTHEGMS OF FRANCIS. with an Introduction. THE PROSE OF WORDSWORTH. TRANSLATED.

Life of Darwin is a sound and conscientious A. Nothing could be more felicitous and than the way in which he takes us through Carlyle s life and works. By COLONEL F. pleasant book. Mr. is an admirable book. . BirreU s By &quot. LIFE OF DARWIN.Those who know much of Charlotte Bronte will learn more. LIFE OF DICKENS.&quot. By R. By FRANK T. A.Brief skill. and accuracy. P. T. LL.&quot. Illustrated Ltndon A ewt.Colonel taste. Price 1/6. &quot. London. &quot.thenceum. KNIGHT. The Graphic. Gilt Cloth.&quot.&quot. MARZIALS. LIFE OF COLERIDGE. By HALL CAINE. work. and vigorous. A most readable little Liverpool Mercury. British Museum. James Gazette. Uncut Edges. LIMITED. LIFE OF CHARLOTTE BRONTE. By s GRANT.&quot.D. Pall Mall Gazette. BIRRELL. Complete Bibliography to each Volume. St. ANDERSON. Marzials s little book. GARNETT. have been at a loss to recommend any popular life of England s most popular novelist as being really satisfactory. until we came across this volume. T. DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI. by J. sound judgment. we should.&quot. written throughout with spirit and great literary Scotsman. LIFE OF &quot. Grant has performed his task with diligence. &quot. G. By PROF. .This London: WALTER SCOTT. BETTANT. LIFE OF fairer THOMAS CARLYLE.Notwithstanding the mas of matter that has been printed relating to Dickens and his works . &quot. 24 Warwick . the fullest and LIFE OF good &quot. VOLUMES ALREADY ISSUED LIFE OF LONGFELLOW. SAMUEL JOHNSON. and those who know nothing about her will find all that is best worth learning in Mr. Bettany Saturday Review. S. Knight s picture of the great poet and painter best yet presented to the public. By J. The difficulty is removed by Sir.GREAT WRITERS. MARZIALS. is Mr. Top. G. Edited by ERIC ROBERTSON and FRANK T.&quot. &quot. ROBERTSON. A A NEW SERIES OF CRITICAL BIOGRAPHIES. ERIC work.&quot.

Atheniewn.&quot. By CANON VENABLES. question. A capable record of novel. By LIFE OF KEATS.Mr. &quot. Daily LIFE OF SCOTT. book. LIFE OF BUNYAN.&quot. M.&quot. is here retold. LIFE OF SHELLEY. entitle this capital Shelley. Scotsman.A most memoir. . By FRANK T. and valuable intelligent. An admirable monograph more &quot. London : WALTER SCOTT. By DAVID HANNAY. No record of Emerson s life could be more desirable.D. ample information which it contains. &quot. Saturday Review. with all its humorous vicissitudes. By WILLIAM SHARP. LIFE OF VICTOR HUGO. Saturday Review. &quot. E. .No English poet since Shakespeare has observed certain aspects of nature and of human life more closely.&quot. Mr. 24 Warwick Lane.&quot.&quot.This By PROFESSOR YONGE. LIFE OF BURNS. Marzials s volume presents to us. KEBBEL. Scotsman. .Mr. LL. The editor By PROFESSOR BLACKIE.The By WILLIAM SHABP. R. certainly made a hit when he persuaded Blackie Pall Mall Gazette.&quot. LIFE OF GOETHE. MARZIALS. By JAMES is beyond LIFE OF CONGREVE. to write about Burns.GKREAT LIFE OF &quot. Scotsman.WRITERS continued.P. a writer who still remains one of the great masters Saturday Review. for the ROSSKTTI. &quot. ADAM SMITH. B. Cambridge Independent. James Sime s competence as a biographer of Goethe Manchester Guardian. criticisms . LIFE OF SMOLLETT. . SIMB. fully written up to the level of recent knowledge and criticism than any other English work. &quot. the summary of what is known about the life of the great poet. By T.&quot. &quot. is a most enjoyable Aberdeen Free Press. Gosse has written an admirable biography. &quot. of the English LIFE OF GOLDSMITH.Written with a perspicuity seldom exemplified when dealing with economic science. By RICHARD GARNETT. &quot.&quot. LIFE OF EMERSON. .Valuable By W.&quot. &quot. in a more handy form than any English or even French handbook gives. M. By EDMUND GOSSE. &quot. story of his literary and pathetic and social life in London. &quot. &quot.The By AUSTIN DOBSON. Academy. appreciative. monograph to be ranked with the best biographies of Westminster Review. LIFE OF HEINE.&quot. .&quot. HALDANE.&quot. &quot. as none could tell it better. LIMITED. LIFE OF CRABBE.&quot.

and Mr. LIFE OF BROWNING.&quot. News. By RICHARD GARNETT. measured by comparison with his successors. By OSCAR BROWNING. and we have little doubt that it will prove also a fascinating book to those who have still to make her acquaintance. It is a delightful causerie LIFE OF SCHOPENHAUER.&quot. By GOLDWIN SMITH. By W. Saturday Review. genial talk about a most interest Easy and conversational as the tone is throughput. LIFE OF LESSING. most sympathetic and discriminating s life in memoir. The Speaker. &quot. Browning s. &quot. whose greatness piece of careful Has never been more charmingly or adequately By FREDERICK WEDMORE.&quot. By MONCURB CONWAY. told. llannay has done justice to him. &quot.&quot. pleasant. Mr. HAWTHORNE. London : WALTER SCOTT. ing man. is a neat and nice in style. was much to be desired. It and it cannot philosophy. BYRON By HON. 24 Warwick Lane. a neatly rounded picture. Presents the poet LIFE OF CAPTAIN MARRYAT. &quot. W. Wallace s. it volume is a model of excellent English. RODEN NOKL.Mr. writers of fiction. This little LIFE OF &quot.GREAT LIFE OF MILL. Glasgow Herald. Scotsman. &quot. &quot. NBVINSON. By HENRY W. no important fact is omitted. Saturday Review. LL.&quot.A &quot.A book of the character of Mr.&quot. Scottish Leader. no valueless fact is recalled . series. . be said to be at all ferociously critical in dealing with the Mr. &quot. Cross and the very slight sketch of Miss Blind.&quot. and it is entirely exempt from platitude and conventionality. Daily LIFE OF GEORGE ELIOT.D. &quot. Goldwin Smith has added another to the not inconsiderable roll eminent men who have found their delight in Miss Austen.We By PROFESSOR WALLACE.&quot. perhaps. of . Spectator. LIFE OF SCHILLER. just published by Walter Scott.WRITERS COURTNEY. &quot. Roden Noel readable in the excellent volume on Byron is decidedly one of the most Great Writers series. continued. be. to be and critical composition. ROLLESTON. to stand midway be tween the bulky work of Mr. LIMITED. LIFE OF MILTON. and not without skill. One of the best books of the Manchester Guardian.We have nothing but praise for the manner in which Mr.&quot.&quot. By DAVID HANNAY.&quot. little can speak very highly of this book of is. . Manchester Guardian. excessively lenient in dealing with the man. L. LIFE OF JANE AUSTEN. &quot. LIFE OF BALZAC. . LIFE OF &quot. By T.&quot. is certainly a fas cinating book to those who already know her and love her well . His little book upon her. Browning has done hia work with vivacity. Wedmore s monograph on the greatest of French is Scottish Leader. s The Hon. and in every respect seems to us what a biography should Public Opinion. By WILLIAM SHARP.

Monkhouse has brought together and skilfully set in order much The candid as well as sympathetic. &quot. By COSMO MONKHOUSB.In this little volume the wayfaring man who has no time to devour libraries will find most things that it concerns_ him to know about Voltaire s actual life and work put very clearly. and accurately for the most part. excellent bibliography. &quot. LIFE OF LEIGH HUNT. Black and White. and the book. George Saintsbury.&quot. T.&quot. says: &quot. Mr. &quot. J. is really best existing To say that Mr. WATTS.&quot.&quot. is one which neither the student nor the general reader can well afford to miss. LIFE OF THACKERAY. . to the useful series LIFE OF VOLTAIRE. 24 Warwick L^na. than the work in this little volume. useful By W.GREAT WRITERS LIFE OF SHERIDAN. London: WALTER SCOTT. Demy 8vo. &quot. with its LIFE OF CERVANTES. has produced the to award much fainter praise Manchester Examiner. LINTON.&quot. memoir of Sheridan. deserves. LIBRARY EDITION OF GREAT WRITERS. Pall Mall Gazette.We can commend this to which it belongs. MARZIALS. By LLOYD SANDERS. &quot.&quot. sufficiently. E. . &quot. Lloyd Sanders. .The By HERMAN MKRTVALE and F. LIMITED. widely scattered material Mhenceum. . continued. book as a worthy addition London Daily Chronicle. By FRANCIS ESPINASSK. . 6d. . LIFE OF WHITTIER. Well written. 2s. . in The Illustrated London News. By H. and well worthy to stand with preceding volumes in the Great Writers series.&quot. monograph just published is well worth reading.




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