Dictionary of Metis Biography

Volume M
Edited and Compiled By Lawrence J. Barkwell
2014

McDermott (Mactavish) Mary Sarah “Sally”. (1829-1875) Sally McDermott Mactavish was one of the Metis “First a!ies" of #$$er Fort %arry an! the &e! &iver Settlement' Mary Sarah (Sally) McDermott was *orn c' 1829 at +orway ,o-se. the !a-/hter of 0n!rew McDermott an! Sarah Mary Mc+a**. who raise! her in the &oman 1atholic faith' Sarah)s father was *orn in 2relan!. 3oine! the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any an! arrive! at 5or6 Factory in 1812' 0ro-n! 1817 he marrie!. 8 la fa9on !- $ays. Sarah Mc+a*. the !a-/hter of :homas Mc+a* an! a Sa-ltea-; woman' Sarah)s sister 0nnie McDermott was marrie! to 0n!rew 4annatyne. a ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any em$loyee who went on to *ecome a very wealthy merchant' 2n 1858. Sally marrie! <illiam Mactavish. the 21st 1hief of 1lan Mactavish. an! a ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any officer from 18== an! the %overnor of 0ssini*oia from 1858 to 18>9' 0s the (First a!y) of &e! &iver at the time of the &e! &iver &esistance. Mary Sarah (Sally) McDermott Mactavish live! with her h-s*an!. <illiam. their yo-n/ sons. 0n!rew D-/al! (a*o-t = yrs ol!). an! ?ames <illiam (a*o-t 8 yrs ol!). an! their twin !a-/hters Mary etitia an! Florence 0nne (a*o-t 7 years ol!). in the %overnor)s ,o-se at #$$er Fort %arry !-rin/ the formation an! o$eration of the @rovisional %overnment of 0ssini*oia' Sarah)s eleven-year term as hostess at #$$er Fort %arry was lon/er than that of any $revio-s /overnor)s wife' ,er h-s*an! was well-li6e! thro-/ho-t the settlement' 0 note on <illiam Mac:avish (1815-187A) Shortly after comin/ to &e! &iver. Mactavish en!e! a life of !etermine! *achelorhoo! *y marryin/ Mary Sarah McDermott. the Metis (1atholic) !a-/hter of

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*-sinessman 0n!rew McDermott' 0ltho-/h Mactavish)s will $rovi!e! for three “ille/itimate !a-/hters" in Stromness. Scotlan!. the fo-r “co-ntry-*orn" chil!ren that are 6nown are *y his wife Mary Sarah' 0$$ointe! /overnor of 0ssini*oia in 1858. he *elieve! the /overnance of the f-r tra!e an! the settlement sho-l! *e se$arate!' +evertheless. in 18>9-7A he was /overnor of *oth &-$ert)s an! an! 0ssini*oia' Mactavish ha! ta6en an a$$ointment at 5or6 Factory in 185A. an! from 1851 to the a-t-mn of 185> ha! char/e of itB he receive! his commission as chief factor in 1852' Mactavish s$ent another f-rlo-/h in Cn/lan! *efore ass-min/ the new $ost of officer in char/e of #$$er Fort %arry' 2t was as /overnor of &-$ert)s an! an! /overnor of 0ssini*oia that Mactavish serve! thro-/ho-t the &e! &iver &esistance of 18>9D7A' ,e *elieve! that the ma3ority of &e! &iver inha*itants. *oth Cn/lish an! French s$ea6in/. s-$$orte! at least $assively the e;istin/ 1o-ncil of 0ssini*oia' :he o$$osition which flare! -$ s$ora!ically he consi!ere! to *e the wor6 of a few “!esi/nin/ !ema/o/-eEsF'" ,is sym$athies lay with the ol!er inha*itants of &e! &iver. the MGtis. the ,41 $eo$le. an! the !escen!ants of the colonists *ro-/ht *y or! Sel6ir6F. all of whom. he ar/-e!. sho-l! have ha! a voice in the transfer of &-$ert)s an!' 2n fact Sarah McDermott)s /reat a-nt H :homas Mc+a*)s sister H Sarah Mc+a* (*orn c' 1778). ha! marrie! :homas. an! was the mother of Dr' 3ohn 4-nn a 1o-ncillor of 0ssini*oia. an! /ran!mother of :homas. a 1o-ncillor in the e/islative 0ssem*ly of 0ssini*oia an! mem*er of o-is &iel)s e;ec-tive' From 1> +ovem*er 18>9 to Fe*r-ary 187A her an! his family contin-e! to live in #$$er in Fort %arry while o-is &ielHwho was Sarah)s ne$hew-in-lawHhel! sway in the Fort' 0t that time he was mostly *e!ri!!en with a!vance! t-*erc-losis' <hen he too6 action it was thro-/h the a/ency of his $rivate secretary. ?'?' ,ra/rave (his ne$hew) an! 0'%'4. 4annatyne. his *rother-in-law' ,e resi/ne! on 15 ?an-ary 187A' ,e an! his family left for Scotlan! on 17 May. an! he !ie! -$on !isem*ar6ation at iver$ool in ?-ly' &eferenceB +orma ?ean ,allI htt$IJJhalln3ean2'wor!$ress'comJthe-re!-river-resistenceJwomen-an!the-resistanceJmary-sarah-mc!ermot-mactavishJ Macdonald, Allen'(18=2-19A1) 0llan was *orn May 19. 18=2 at Fort an/ley. 4ritish 1ol-m*ia. the son of a ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any chief tra!er 0rchi*al! Mac!onal! an! his Metis wife. ?ane Klyne' 0llan was a note! farmer. rancher an! *-sinessman' ,e was a ie-tenant 1olonel in the 11th 4attalion of &ifles. also 6nown as the 0r/ente-il &an/ers an! a farm instr-ctor an! 2n!ian 0/ent for the De$artment of 2n!ian 0ffairs' ,is a!vocacy for 2n!ian ri/hts an! $rotection of 2n!ian lan!s acco-nte! for his lac6 of $romotion. attem$te! !ismissal an! then !emotion within the 2n!ian 0ffairs De$artment' <hile his father was on f-rlo-/h from the 1om$any. his wife an! chil!ren live! at

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&e! &iver' #$on fathers ret-rn. they live! at Fort 1olvile. <ashin/ton' 0llen was then sent to ower 1ana!a for schoolin/' ,e inherite! the family farm at St' 0n!rews in 185=' 0llan $artici$ate! in the 1ari*o- /ol! r-sh. was active in the militia. $art of the <olseley C;$e!ition. an! farme! near St' 0/athe' ,e was an 2n!ian 0/ent in so-theastern Sas6atchewan an! western Manito*a. *ase! first at Swan &iver. then at Fort L-)0$$elle' ,e also ne/otiate! several 2n!ian :reaties' :hro-/h his wor6 at the 1roo6e! a6es 0/ency. these *an!s !emonstrate! the most a!vance! farmin/ metho!s' Mac!onal! e;$erimente! with many varieties of fr-its. see!s an! *-shes in the a/ency /ar!en an! was instr-mental in acM-irin/ mo!ern threshin/ eM-i$ment an! a /ristmill for the a/ency' <hen De$-ty-S-$erinten!ent ,ayter &ee! attem$te! to a*olish the electe! offices of chiefs an! hea!men Mac!onal! o$$ose! the or!er on the *asis that it was a :reaty ri/ht' Macdonald, Blanche' (19=1-1985) 4lanche Mac!onal! was a Metis *orn in Fa-st. 0l*erta' She was the fo-n!er of the 4lanche Mac!onal! Mo!ellin/ School an! 1areer 1olle/e in Nanco-ver. 4ritish 1ol-m*ia' 0lon/ with Mel 4evon. she also esta*lishe! +ative 1omm-nications in 4ritish 1ol-m*ia' :his is an 0*ori/inal ra!io o$eration that reaches most +ative comm-nities in the $rovince' Macdonald, anald' (1827-1897) 2n 1878. &anal! Mac!onal! was !etermine! to visit ?a$an. which at the time was a close! co-ntry' Forei/ners were $rohi*ite! from enterin/ the co-ntry' ,e shi$$e! from ,awaii on the whaler Plymouth an! arran/e! to *e !ro$$e! off. a$$earin/ to *e a shi$wrec6e! sailor. near the west coast of COo. ,o66ai!o' :he ?a$anese a-thorities too6 him to +a/asa6i as a $risoner' D-rin/ his confinement in a :em$le he met Cinos-6e Moriyami. an official inter$reter of the ?a$anese sho/-nate an! *ecame the first teacher of Cn/lish in ?a$an when he was as6e! to teach Moriyama an! thirteen other /overnment inter$reters' 2t was &anal! Mac!onal!)s t-tela/e that ena*le! the ?a$anese to -n!erstan! 0!miral @arry when he arrive! in ?a$an several years later in 1857'

0 mon-ment commemoratin/ &anal! MacDonal! in +a/asa6i. ?a$an

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&anal! was *orn on Fe*r-ary =. 1827 at Fort %eor/e (0storia. Pre/on). the el!est son of ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any f-r tra!er 0rchi*al! Mac!onal! an! his wife Kaole);oa. the !a-/hter of :illamoo6 1hief 1omcomly' ,is mother !ie! shortly after his *irth an! &anal! was raise! *y his ste$mother ?ane Klyne (also Metis)' ,e an! several of his ste$si*lin/s were sent to the &e! &iver 0ca!emy at Fort %arry for their e!-cation' ater he was sent to St' :homas. #$$er 1ana!a to train in *an6in/ -n!er the t-tela/e of his father)s frien! C!war! Crmatin/er' &anal! ha! collecte! an im$ressive li*rary of *oo6s which he ha! ta6en with him to ?a$an an! this /reatly ai!e! his teachin/ efforts' (1ontri*-te! *y Davi! +' 1oo$er') MacDo!"all, Brenda . (*' 19>9) Dr' MacDo-/all was a$$ointe! the 1hair of MGtis St-!ies at the #niversity of Pttawa in ?an-ary 2A1A. she is now en/a/e! in Pntario-*ase! MGtis historical an! comm-nity research' 4ren!a 3oine! +ative St-!ies at the #niversity of Sas6atchewan in 1999 an! wor6e! with MGtis comm-nities !oc-mentin/ their history while e;$lorin/ as$ects of MGtis in!i/eno-s 6nowle!/e relate! to family' 4ren!a has *een active with vario-s research $ro3ects. a colla*orative $ro3ect with Drs' +icole St-Pn/e. 1arolyn @o!r-chny an! ,eather Devine' She is com$letin/ her research on MGtis

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comm-nities on the *or!er with the #nite! States loo6in/ at how the 2nternational 4or!er has im$acte! the a*ility of MGtis comm-nities to !efine themselves as well as $-rs-in/ a $ro3ect !etailin/ early twentieth cent-ry 0*ori/inal $olitical an! c-lt-ral movements in western 1ana!a' ,er first *oo6. One of the Family: Métis Culture in Nineteenth-Century Northwestern Saskatchewan (2A1A). was release! *y the #niversity of 4ritish 1ol-m*ia an! e;$lores the history of MGtis comm-nities in northwestern Sas6atchewan within a system of family relationshi$s an! as roote! in a $artic-lar $lace' 0s a $art of that wor6. she is colla*oratin/ with researchers from the #niversities of 0l*erta an! Sas6atchewan as well as the +orthwest Sas6atchewan MGtis 1o-ncil to $ro!-ce an atlas of the MGtis e;$erience in northwestern Sas6atchewan' :he occasional $a$erB Île à la Crosse: family, history, an the emer!ence of community in Northwestern Saskatchewan, "##$-"%&#, was $-*lishe! in 2A1A as 1#&0 Oti'msuak iscussion 'a'er no( )( MacDo-/all. 4ren!a' Q(:he 1omforts of Marrie! ife)I Metis Family ife. a*o-r. an! the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any'Q*a+our: ,ournal of Cana ian *a#o!r St!dies Nol' >1 (S$rin/ 2AA8)' MacDo-/all. 4ren!a' <ah6ootowinI Family an! 1-lt-ral 2!entity in +orthwestern Sas6atchewan Metis 1omm-nities. Cana ian -istorical .e/iew vol' 87. no' = (Se$tem*er 2AA>)I 7=1-7>2' Mac!o-/all. 4ren!a' “Rle 8 la 1rosseI Family. ,istory. an! the Cmer/ence of 1omm-nity in +orthwestern Sas6atchewan. 177>-19A7. Disc-ssion @a$er" for “Oti'imsuak0the Free Peo'le: Métis *an an Society in North$est Sas%atche$an,” 1omm-nity-#niversity &esearch 0lliance. 0$ril 2AA>' 4ren!a Mac!o-/all. with Fran6 :o-/h an! &o* 2nnes. “:he ,istory of &eserve Cconomies in Sas6atchewan. 1899 D 19A1'" K'2' F-n/ (C!)' 1tlas of Sas%atche$an. McDo!"all, Ale&ander. (1871-1927) 0le;an!er McDo-/allB *orn May 11. 1871 at St' 4oniface. was the son of D-ncan McDo-/all1 an! Mar/-erite McDonal! (*' 182A)' 0le;an!er marrie! Maria 2rwin. the !a-/hter of
%eor/e 2rwin an! 1olette S@ollyS Fi!ler. on 28 0-/ 18>2 St' 4oniface' 0le xander died 1924 at St. Louis, Saskatchewan.

0le;an!er an! Maria move! to St' o-is !e an/evin in 1882' D-rin/ the 1885 &esistance 0le;an!er was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4a$tiste 4o-cher)s 1om$any (4o-cher was also a resi!ent of St' o-is' 0le;an!er a$$ears on @hili$$e %arnot)s list of resistance $artici$ants as no' 177' 1hil!ren of 0le;an!er McDo-/all an! Maria 2rwin were as followsI

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o-is McDo-/allB *orn 19 Dec 18>2 at St' 4onifaceB !ie! 1> 0-/ 18>7 at a/e 1'

D-ncan (*' 179>) !rowne! in the &e! &iver near <inni$e/ in 187A' D-ncan ha! a ferry service on what is now calle! So-th @oint on the so-th si!e of the 3-nction of the &e! an! 0ssini*oine &ivers' ,e may have fallen off the ferry or sli$$e! into the river *y acci!ent'

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• • • • • • •

Marie ?ane McDo-/allB *orn an! *a$tiOe! 19 Fe* 18>5 St' 4oniface !ie! 2 Se$ 18>> St' 4oniface at a/e 1' Marie Marta McDo-/allB *orn 19 Mar 18>7 St' ?ames' 0le;an!re @eter McDo-/all. *orn 7 Mar 18>9 St' ?amesB marrie! Nir/inie e$ine the !a-/hter of Ma;ime e$ine an! ?ose$hte avallee' ?ose$h McDo-/all. *orn 0$ril 7. 1871 at St' 4oniface. marrie! Flora 0t6inson. the !a-/hter of :homas 0t6inson an! ?ose$hte Morrissette in 1888' @ierre McDo-/all. *orn 187=. marrie! Mathil!e Fer/-son' Sam-el McDo-/all. *orn 1875. marrie! Delia &e/nier' ,enry 0n!re Mc!o-/all. *orn 1879. marrie! 1ecile Monto-r'

:heir /ran!son. MG!Gric McDo-/all. was a fo-n!er of the Metis Society of Saskatchewan and received the Order of Canada in 1986. McDo!"all, Daniel 'l(ear. (187=-188A) Daniel was *orn at esser Slave a6e in +ovem*er of 187=. the son of ?ohn %eor/e McDo-/all an! %enevieve “?ane" ?as$ar! (%as$ar!)' ,is father. a Scottsman. was the first 1hief Factor of the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any for the C!monton District' ,is mother. %enevieve. was a MGtisse' %eor/e McDo-/all !ie! in 1879 an! after his !eath ?ane (%enevieve) move! her family of seven chil!ren to Fort C!monton' 2t was there that the chil!ren *e/an to receive reli/io-s instr-ction from the 1atholic Missionaries' 2n 185=. ?ane move! the family to &e! &iver an! her !a-/hter Mary ?ane (*' 1877) entere! the 1atholic 4oar!in/ School' Pn Decem*er 2=. 18>2. Mary ?ane *ecame a novice in the Pr!er of the %rey +-ns an! too6 her vows on May =. 18>5' 2n 1857. Daniel McDo-/all alon/ with o-is &iel an! o-is ( afertG) Schmi!t were atten!in/ school at St' 4oniface with the FrTres !es Ucoles 1hrGtiennes when their mentor M/r' :achG !eci!e! to sen! the *oys to 4as-1ana!a to com$lete their st-!ies in L-G*ec in 1858' o-is &iel went to the 1ollT/e !e MontrGal. Daniel McDo-/all to the 1ollT/e !e +icolet an! o-is Schmi!t to the 1ollT/e !e Saint-,yacinthe' Pn ?-ne 18. 18>> at St' 4oniface. Daniel marrie! Mar/-erite 4r-nea- (*' 18=9) the !a-/hter of Fran9ois 4r-nea- an! Mar/-erite ,arrison' :he co-$le were amon/ a n-m*er of Metis families who move! from St' 4oniface to areas f-rther so-th s-ch as orette after the tro-*les of the 18>9-7A &esistance' Daniel first esta*lishe! a homestea! on the so-th si!e of the Seine &iver near orette in 18>9-71 an! then o*taine! lan! on the north *an6 of the Seine $rior to his !eath in 188A' ,e !ie! as the res-lt of a train acci!ent in St' 4oniface in which he lost a le/' ,e left his wife an! two sons. Fran9ois Daniel an! 0le;an!re to s-rvive him' Mc!o-/all)s sister Mary ?ane wor6e! for the %rey +-ns at St' +or*ert to esta*lish St' Mary)s 0ca!emy an! Sister McDo-/all oversaw their *oar!in/ school' <hen she a$$lie! for her Metis lan! in 1875 she liste! herself as a +-n at the %eneral ,os$ital of St' 4oniface' 2n 189A she was name! s-$erior of the *oar!in/ school' :hereafter she wor6e! at Ste' 0nnes !es 1hVnes an! L-)0$$elle' She ret-rne! to r-n @rovencher 0ca!emy' 2n

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1895. she travelle! to the Pr!er)s mother ho-se in Montreal an! *ecame ill while there an! !ie! in Montreal on +ovem*er =. 189>'

McDo!"all, D!ncan )r.. (18=7-192>) 4y ?im ?erome an! awrence 4ar6well D-ncan McDo-/all was *orn at &e! &iver on May 25. 18=7. the son of D-ncan McDo-/all an! Mar/-erite McDonell (McDonal!). the !a-/hter of 0le;an!re McDonell an! S-sanne a-rin (Metisse)' :he McDo-/all family (D-ncan Sr' an! sons) live! near the 3-nction of the &e! an! 0ssini*oine rivers. o$$osite the For6s where they o$erate! the ferry'2 D-ncan Sr' !rowne! in the &e! &iver near <inni$e/ in 187A' D-ncan ha! a ferry service at the for6s. crossin/ *oth the &e! &iver an! the 0ssini*oine &iver' ,e may have fallen off the ferry or sli$$e! into the river *y acci!ent' D-ncan ?r' marrie! &osalie es$erance. the !a-/hter of 0le;is 4onami es$erance an! Mar/-erite %renon' ,er father was a lea!er of the a oche 4oat 4ri/a!es an! later retire! to St' Francois Wavier' D-ncan an! &osalie were marrie! at St' Francois Wavier in 1858' D-ncan ?r' was em$loye! as a sa!!ler for the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any as was his father' :hey move! to Ste' 0/athe an! live! there for 2A years. then move! to orette where he farme! -ntil his !eath on May 1=. 192>' ,is *rother 1harles McDo-/all. marrie! to MoniM-e Klyne. live! in 4-tte. Montana' ,is *rother 0le;an!re McDo-/all o$erate! the ferry at St' o-is. Sas6atchewan'

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:he ferries o$erate! from “So-th @oint" *etween the rivers an! crosse! the &e! an! the 0ssini*oine'

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McDo-/all Family home :hey ha! 12 chil!ren' :he family live! in the $arish of Ste' 0/athe for 2A years *efore movin/ to orette' ,e !ie! there in 192>' 1hil!ren of D-ncan McDo-/all an! &osalie es$eranceI • • • • • • • • • • • • 0ma!ee. *orn circa 1858. marrie! ?ose$hte 4erar!' Cmelie. *orn circa 1859. marrie! 0le;an!re arocM-e. then Mo!este a/imo!iere' Marie Mar/-erite. *orn Se$tem*er 12. 18>1 at St' Francois Wavier. !ie! 19A7 at <inni$e/' 0le;an!re. *orn Decem*er 22. 18>2 at St' Francois Wavier. marrie! 0!ele @oitras' &osalie. *orn May 21. 18>7 at St' 4oniface. !ie! Pcto*er >. 18>5' <illiam. *orn +ovem*er 8. 18>5 at St' 4oniface' o-is 0le;. *orn March 2>. 18>7 at St' 4oniface' 0lfre!. *orn March 21. 18>9 at St' 4oniface' &osalie. *orn 0-/-st 2>. 187A at St' Francois Wavier' Pctave. *orn +ovem*er 7. 1871 at St' Francois Wavier. marrie! Melanie arocM-e' ?ose$h 0l*ert. *orn March =. 187= at St' 4oniface. marrie! Marie NeroniM-e ?ose$hine Delorme. the !a-/hter of @ierre Delorme an! 0!elai!e 4ea-chemin' Marie 0!ele. *orn Se$tem*er =A. 1877 at St' 4oniface'

McDo-/all ,o-se. now at St' +or*ert'
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:he McDo-/all family was amon/ many MGtis who relocate! from St' 4oniface-St' Nital to orette an! other areas in :achG !-rin/ the tro-*le! years of 18>8-7A' Daniel McDo-/all. 27. fo-n! $ro$erty to his li6in/ so-th of the Seine &iver in 18>9. sta6e! his claim (8-5C-11). an! *e/an $lo-/hin/ his fiel!' 4y 1871. McDo-/all an! his family ha! *-ilt a >'1 ; 7'> m (2AS ; 25S) lo/ ho-se an! ta6en -$ $ermanent resi!ency' ,owever. McDo-/all !ie! on May 28. 188A. shortly after a train acci!ent in St' 4oniface in which he lost a le/' ,e left his wife an! two sons with lot 11 (1=>'8 ha' or ==8 ac'). two *-il!in/s an! some c-ltivate! lan!' ,e also ha! *o-/ht lot 59 from another sM-atter in 187A (8A'9 ha'. 2AA ac') an! claime! $art of lot >A (1='A ha'. =2 ac'). *oth on the north *an6 of the Seine' :hree years after her h-s*an!Ss !eath. Mrs' McDo-/all an! her teena/e sons move! across the river an! *-ilt a st-r!y lo/ ho-se 5'8 m ; >'7 m (19S ; 21S) on lot 59'9' :his ho-se now stan!s on a new site in St' +or*ert' Fran9ois-Daniel. the el!est chil! of Daniel McDo-/all. event-ally too6 over the 188= ho-se' ,is mother move! into the near*y villa/e of orette an! o$ene! a /eneral store that laste! several years' 0le;an!re. the secon! son. also move! o-t to esta*lish his own farm' etters $atent for lot 59 were /iven to the three McDo-/alls in 1885B two years later. the westerly two chains of lot >A were a!!e!' Pf these 9='9 ha' (2=2 ac') 1A'1 ha' (25 ac') were -n!er c-ltivation an! the family owne! assorte! livestoc6' 4y 1889 the family also hel! letters $atent for the westerly 97'7 ha' (2=7 ac') of lot 11' Mrs' McDo-/all an! her two sons ha! receive! lot 11 thro-/h the $roce!-re lai! o-t in the 1881 Pr!er-2n-1o-ncil. incl-!in/ a /rant of >7'8 hectares an! $-rchase of the remain!er at X1JA'7 hectares' 2n total. the entire 1=>'8 ha' (==8 ac') cost the family X21A'1>' Fran9ois-Daniel marrie! Nir/inie Flaman! (*orn 18>9)' :hey ha! two sons an! fo-r !a-/hters (altho-/h one of the sons !ie! soon after *irth)' 2n 19A2. Fran9ois-Daniel !ie! at the a/e of =5 of small$o;. *-t his !escen!ants contin-e! to -se the 188= lo/ home' 0 !a-/hter. 0le;ina. live! in the ho-se -ntil 19>5 (two years after her motherSs !eath). then move! to St' +or*ert (only to have the ho-se follow her thereY)' Scri$ affi!avit for McDo-/all. D-ncanB *ornI May 25. 18=7B fatherI D-ncan McDo-/all (Scot)B motherI Mar/-erite McDonal! (MGtis)B claim noI 7>1B scri$ noI 5929 to 59=>B !ate of iss-eI ?-ne 2>. 187>B amo-ntI X1>A' Scri$ affi!avit for McDo-/all. Mar/-erite (his mother) *ornI +ovem*er 2. 182AB wi!ow of D-ncan McDo-/allB fatherI 0le;an!re McDonal! (Scot)B motherI S-Oette a-rin (MGtis)B claim noI 7>AB scri$ noI 5921 to 5928B !ate of iss-eI ?-ne 2>. 187>B amo-ntI X1>A'

9

Scri$ affi!avit for McDo-/all. &osalie (his wife)B *ornI 0-/-st 1=. 18=8B wife of D-ncan McDo-/allB fatherI 0le;is es$erance (French 1ana!ianB motherI Mar/-erite %-ernon (MGtis)B claim noI 7>2B scri$ noI 59=7 to 5977B !ate of iss-eI ?-ne 2>. 187> D-ncan Sr' an! sons o$erate! the ferry at #$$er Fort %arry' ?' ?' ,ar/rave has m-ch to say a*o-t the o$eration of this ferry in 18>1I= 1,0@:C& W2N' 18>1' @a/e 18= - 185 :he Q@ioneerQ !rew -$ *y the river *an6 at St' 4oniface. an! the $assen/ers $re$are! to /o on shore' 0s the !estination of Mr' Mor/an an! myself lay on the o$$osite si!e of the river an! no *ri!/e e;iste!. we. alon/ with a consi!era*le n-m*er of o-r fellow travellers. too6 $assa/e in the local ferry *oat. which was rea!y to ta6e -s across' 2 have not yet mentione! this ferry. which is the only one e;istin/. -n!er the $atrona/e of the %overnment of the colony. to which its mana/ement ha! ever *een a so-rce of ve;ation' :he $osition of the ferry is at the confl-ence of the &e! &iver an! 0ssini*oine' 2ts $-r$ose is to trans$ort foot $assen/ers an! vehicles across either or *oth of these rivers' :he means *y which this is effecte! consists of two scows wor6e! on ro$es. a canoe an! $assen/er s6iff' 4y or!er of co-ncil. no other ferry *oat is $ermitte! to $ly for hire within a ra!i-s of several miles from the site of the ferry' :he name of the ferryman is D-ncan Mac!o-/all' ,e is a lin/-ist. *ein/ com$etent to s$ea6 Cn/lish. French. 1ree an! %aelic. an! in conseM-ence of his a*ilities an! -sef-lness as an inter$reter. o-/ht lon/ *efore his $resent time of life to have occ-$ie! a /oo! $osition' ,e is. however. incline! to conviviality. which circ-mstance has interfere! as m-ch with the $ro/ress of his fort-nes as with the !is$atch of his *-siness' ,is ho-se is sit-ate! close to th e scene of his la*o-rs. on the so-th si!e of the 0ssini*oine. at the $oint where *oats to-ch in ma6in/ the crossin/ of the &e! &iver' Pn this $oint. in conseM-ence of its *ein/ the centre of traffic. several $-*lic ho-ses have flo-rishe!' 2n the latter the ferryman has s$ent a /oo! !eal of his time. while some of the i!le men aro-n! were statione! in the *oats' :he eye of the master not *ein/ on the s-*or!inates. m-ch la;ity $revaile! in wor6in/ the scows. while the canoe an! s6iff were freM-ently a$$ro$riate! *y i!le *oys !esiro-s of en3oyin/ aM-atic s$orts *y stealth' :he res-lt was that often !-rin/ the !ay $assen/ers were o*li/e! to wait for a shamef-lly $rotracte! $erio! *efore /ettin/ across. an! after si; oScloc6 in the evenin/. the silence was *ro6en *y the sho-ts of an/ry Cn/lishmen. callin/ across the rivers for the means of trans$ort. min/le! with the entreaties of *elate! Frenchmen that QMac Do-/.Q as the latter $rono-nce the ferrymanSs name. wo-l! come to their assistance' 2n a!!ition to these evils the craft were in a very !ila$i!ate! con!ition' :he floorin/ of the scows ha! *een re!-ce! to s-ch a state of !isre$air. that every ste$ of the horses. or motion of the carts. !eran/e! the *oar!in/. sometimes to s-ch an e;tent that. owin/ to the
=

?ose$h ?ames ,ar/rave. .e .i/er' MontrealI ?ohn ovell. 1871I 18=-185'

1A

intervention of a tolera*ly central f-lcr-m -n!er neath. one en! of the *oar! went !own -n!er $ress-re of a foot. while the other flew -$ with a certain !e/ree of violence a/ainst the face of some nei/h*o-rin/ *east of *-r!en' <hile the animal. whose le/ ha! s-n6 thro-/h the floorin/. was on his 6nees tryin/ to recover himself. the other. who ha! receive! the stro6e on his $ro*oscis. mi/ht *e on his ha-nches. the $assen/ers sho-tin/ for mercy an! assistance. the *oatmen contem$latin/ a lea$ into the water. an! the scow floatin/ in mi!-channel of the river' :he s6iff. or canoe. when it was to *e fo-n! on !-ty. was /enerally $retty heavily la!en with m-!!y water. the res-lt of $rotracte! lea6a/e or heavy rains' :he amo-nt of o*loM-y inc-rre! *y this instit-tion may *e ima/ine!' P-t*rea6s of $-*lic in!i/nation constantly occ-rre! on the s$ot. when cram$e! foot $assen/ers. wet to the 6nees. iss-e! from the inconvenient s6iffs. or *reathless carters -r/e! their sorely trie! horses or o;en to st-m*le at a trot over the -nstea!y floorin/ of the scows. in or!er to /ain a little im$et-s $revio-s to ma6in/ the stiff ascent of a*o-t two in three. forme! *y the lan!in/ trac6 lea!in/ from the water level to the s-mmit of the riverSs *an6' :hen the si;$enny tr-m$et of the Q +orS <esterQ *lew. at fortni/htly intervals. in!i/nant $eals em*o!yin/ the lon/est terms of e;ecration in the e!itorial voca*-lary. an! levele! at Qthe ferry n-isance'Q From time to time $etitions. n-mero-sly si/ne! *y the QcitiOens of 0ssini*oia.Q $rayin/ for the !ismissal of D-ncan MacDo-/all from the office of ferryman. were $resente! to the co-ncil' 0/ain an! a/ain the res$onsi*le committee of this *o!y. in answer to the $rayer of the $etitioners. !ismisse! the o*no;io-s $-*lic servant. an!. after m-ch tro-*le an! $ers-asion. $revaile! on some eli/i*le $erson to acce$t the sit-ation' :he new man. after re$airin/ the !ila$i!ate! $lant an! en/a/in/ tr-stworthy s-*or!inates. a!!resse! himself to the /iant !iffic-lty of the -n!erta6in/ *efore him. that of sec-rin/ from each foot-$assen/er $atroniOin/ his craft the small s-m of one half$enny. an! from the owner of each horse an! cart the s-m of fo-r $ence $er tri$' :he storm which ha! *lown in the time of his $re!ecessor was as nothin/ to the tem$est which wo-l! *-rst forth in the canoe of the new official on the *are intimation of so -nwonte! a $rocee!in/. an! new $etitions. /ivin/ the lie to the ol! ones. were instantly set on foot. an! n-mero-sly si/ne! *y the 1ana!ian French $o$-lation. $rayin/ for the re-instatement of the /enero-s QMacDo-/.Q who scorne! to to-ch the half$ennies of the $oor an! never ref-se! cre!it to a frien!' :he -$shot /enerally was that the *ol! interlo$er vol-ntarily resi/ne!. after a short ten-re of office. leavin/ the way clear for the tri-m$hant ret-rn of the inevita*le D-ncan' :he s6iff in -se on the !ay. when. for the first time. 2 traverse! the &e! &iver. was of the 6in! calle! in the co-ntry a QD-/o-t'Q 2t is forme! from the tr-n6 of a lar/e tree. the centre of which is scoo$e! o-t. an! the e;terior sha$e! into the sem*lance of a canoe' 2t ha! no seats. an! we were o*li/e! to 6neel !own. one *ehin! the other. on some !am$ straw hastily scattere! over the wet interior. while a *oy. seate! in the stern of the !ocile s6iff. with a sin/le oar. wor6e! alternately on either si!e of the canoe. $a!!le! -s M-ic6ly across' McDo!"all, Mary )ane. (1877-189>) Mary ?ane was *orn at esser Slave a6e in ?an-ary of 1877. the !a-/hter of ?ohn

11

%eor/e McDo-/all an! %enevieve “?ane" ?as$ar! (%as$ar!)' ,er father. a Scottsman. was the first 1hief Factor of the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any for the C!monton District' ,er mother. %enevieve. was a MGtisse from the :Vtes @lates Salish tri*e' %eor/e McDo-/all !ie! in 1879 an! after his !eath ?ane (%enevieve) move! her family of seven chil!ren to Fort C!monton' 2t was there that the chil!ren *e/an to receive reli/io-s instr-ction from the 1atholic Missionaries' 2n 185=. ?ane move! the family to &e! &iver an! her !a-/hter Mary ?ane (*' 1877) entere! the 1atholic 4oar!in/ School' Pn Decem*er 2=. 18>2. Mary ?ane *ecame a novice in the Pr!er of the %rey +-ns an! too6 her vows on May =. 18>5' Mary ?ane wor6e! for the %rey +-ns at St' +or*ert to esta*lish St' Mary)s 0ca!emy an! Sister McDo-/all oversaw their *oar!in/ school' <hen she a$$lie! for her Metis lan! in 1875 she liste! herself as a +-n at the %eneral ,os$ital of St' 4oniface' 2n 189A she was name! s-$erior of the *oar!in/ school' :hereafter she wor6e! at Ste' 0nnes !es 1hVnes an! L-)0$$elle' She ret-rne! to r-n @rovencher 0ca!emy' 2n 1895. she travelle! to the Pr!er)s mother ho-se in Montreal an! *ecame ill while there an! !ie! in Montreal on +ovem*er =. 189>' 2n 1857. Mary ?ane)s *rother. Daniel McDo-/all. alon/ with o-is &iel an! o-is ( afertG) Schmi!t were atten!in/ school at St' 4oniface with the FrTres !es Ucoles 1hrGtiennes when their mentor M/r' :achG !eci!e! to sen! the *oys to 4as-1ana!a to com$lete their st-!ies in L-G*ec in 1858' o-is &iel went to the 1ollT/e !e MontrGal. Daniel McDo-/all to the 1ollT/e !e +icolet an! o-is Schmi!t to the 1ollT/e !e Saint,yacinthe' Pn ?-ne 18. 18>> at St' 4oniface. Daniel marrie! Mar/-erite 4r-nea- (*' 18=9) the !a-/hter of Fran9ois 4r-nea- an! Mar/-erite ,arrison' :he co-$le were amon/ a n-m*er of Metis families who move! from St' 4oniface to areas f-rther so-th s-ch as orette after the tro-*les of the 18>9-7A &esistance' Daniel first esta*lishe! a homestea! on the so-th si!e of the Seine &iver near orette in 18>9-71 an! then o*taine! lan! on the north *an6 of the Seine $rior to his !eath in 188A' ,e !ie! as the res-lt of a train acci!ent in St' 4oniface in which he lost a le/' ,e left his wife an! two sons. Fran9ois Daniel an! 0le;an!re to s-rvive him' McDo!"all, M*d*ric +*,hirin -.M. “Me!ric" McDo-/all was a fo-n!er of the Metis Society of Sas6atchewan an! receive! the Pr!er of 1ana!a in 198>' ,e was *orn on Decem*er 29. 19A= at St' o-is. Sas6atchewan the son of 0le;an!re @eter McDo-/all an! Nir/inie G$ine' Pn Fe*r-ary 2. 19==. Me!ric marrie! 0nne Marie 1' e$ine. the !a-/hter of @atrice :o*ie e$ine an! -cie +olin (!a-/hter of 1harles +olin)' MG!Gric was the /ran!son of 0le;an!re McDo-/all an! Ma;ime e$ine. two men who were active in the 1885 Metis &esistance at 4atoche' MG!Gric was a$$ointe! as a Mem*er of the Pr!er of 1ana!a on Decem*er 2=. 1985

12

an! his investit-re too6 $lace on 0$ril 9. 198>' :he citation rea!sI 0 former em$loyee of the m-nici$ality of St- o-is. Sas6atchewan. school tr-stee an! mem*er of the villa/e co-ncil. he has wor6e! for the a!vancement of his $eo$le' 0 fo-n!in/ mem*er an! !ele/ate of the MGtis 0ssociation an! $resi!ent of the local cha$ter of the 0ssociation c-lt-relle franco-cana!ienne. he has *een faithf-l all his life to his $eo$le an! the French lan/-a/e' 0ltho-/h retire!. he is actively involve! in im$rovin/ con!itions for senior citiOens an! in $re$arations for the centennial cele*rations of o-is &ielSs i*eration Movement Me!ric was involve! with the Metis Society of Sas6atchewan from its earliest !ays' 2n the 19=As he wor6e! to or/aniOe the Metis comm-nities of St' o-is. 4atoche an! St' a-rent' ,e was a fo-n!in/ mem*er an! also serve! on the *oar! of the St' o-is 1re!it #nion for 25 years' ,e was a s-$$orter of the Metis se$aration from the former 0ssociation of Metis an! +on-Stat-s 2n!ians of Sas6atchewan (0M+S2S)' ,e was also a s-$$orter of the wor6 of ,owar! 0!ams. his ne$hew' Me!ric)s $aternal /ran!father. 0le;an!re McDo-/all (1871-1927) was the son of D-ncan McDo-/all an! Mar/-erite McDonal!' 0le;an!re marrie! Maria 2rwin at St' 4oniface in 18>2' :he family move! to St' o-is Sas6atchewan in 1882' ,e was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4a$tiste 4o-cher)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' 0le;an!re a$$ears on @hili$$e %arnot)s list of &esistance $artici$ants as Z177' ,is son. 0le;an!re marrie! Ma;ime G$ine)s !a-/hter Nir/inie' Me!ric)s maternal /ran!father Ma;ime G$ine (18=>-1897) was *orn in St' 4oniface. the son of ?ean-4a$tiste 4Grar! it G$ine7 an! ?-lia ,enry' Ma;ime marrie! ?ose$hte avallGe. also of St' 4oniface. in 1857' :hey ha! si; chil!ren who live! to a!-lthoo!' ,e live! at St' Fran9ois-Wavier in the 187As ran a frei/htin/ com$any that -se! &e! &iver carts to trans$ort /oo!s as far west as 1arlton an! 2sle-8-la 1rosse an! so-th to @em*ina an! St' @a-l' Ma;ime was a *rother-in-law *y marria/e an! a close frien! of o-is &iel' 4oth Ma;ime an! his *rother 0m*roise-Di!yme were mem*ers of &iel)s first $rovisional /overnment in 18>9' 0fter Manito*a entere! 1onfe!eration in 187A. Ma;ime mana/e! to esca$e re$risals from the Pntario Pran/emen (-nli6e %o-let an! his *rother)' ,e was a fo-n!in/ mem*er of the Metis or/aniOation #nion Saint-0le;an!er in 1871' Ma;ime was electe! to the Manito*a e/islat-re on Decem*er 2=. 1877 as M 0 from St' Fran9ois-Wavier an! serve! -ntil 1878' Disill-sione! *y the infl-; of settlers an! erosion of Metis lan! ri/hts. he left the $rovince in 1882. an! move! to St' o-is !e an/evin. on the So-th Sas6atchewan ( ot 5. :75-28-2)' :here he o$erate! a ferry from his river lot an! farme!' Pn +ovem*er 19. 188= he ha! si/ne! a $etition $rotestin/ the 188= Pr!er in 1o-ncil transferrin/ the Metis lan!s at St' o-is to the @rince 0l*ert 1oloniOation 1om$any' ,e was a mem*er of &iel)s 1o-ncil (C;ove!ate) at 4atoche
7

4a$tiste e$ine hel! ,41 lots 272 an! 785 at &e! &iver'

1=

!-rin/ the 1885 &esistance' 0lon/ with his two sons. he fo-/ht at :o-ron!)s 1o-lee in 0$ril 1885 an! at 4atoche in May' .eferences: New 3ree ' “Me!ric McDo-/allI Metis Cl!er an! Pr/aniOer'" New 3ree Ma!a2ine. Decem*er 1988I 8-9' @ayment. Diane' “Ma;ime G$ine'" 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy. Nol' W22 (189119AA)' :orontoI #niversity of :oronto @ress. 199AI 557-555' Mc.illis, An"!s )r. (*' 18=7) 0n/-s was *orn on +ovem*er 27. 18=7. the son of 0le;an!er “?erome" Mc%illis an! Mar/-erite 4ottinea-. he marrie! 2sa*elle Fa/nant the !a-/hter of ?ean 4a$tiste Fa/nant an! ?ose$hte Monet !it 4elh-me-r. in 1858 at St' Francois Wavier' :he family resi!e! at <illow 4-nch' 0n/-s too6 $art in the 4attle of the %ran! 1otea- in 1851' :his was a confrontation *etween a Metis *-ffalo h-ntin/ $arty from St' Fran9ois Wavier. le! *y ?ean 4a$tiste Falcon an! the 1-t ,ea! (@a*a6sa) 5an6tonai (2han6tonwanna) Da6ota. le! *y 1hief Me!icine (Sacre!) 4ear. on ?-ly 15 to 1>. 1851' ,is co-sins. <illiam an! 1-th*ert Mc%illis were also $art of this *ri/a!e' Scri$ affi!avit for Mc%illis. 0n/-sB *ornI Fall 18=8B fatherI 0le;an!re Mc%illis (MGtis)B motherI Mar/-erite 4otinea- (MGtis)B claim noI =1=7B scri$ noI 12759B !ate of iss-eI ?-ne 1. 1882B amo-ntI X1>A Scri$ affi!avit for Mc%illis. 2sa*elleB *ornI 0$ril =A. 18=8B wife of 0n/-s Mc%illisB fatherI ?ean 4a$tiste Fa/nant (MGtis)B motherI ?ose$hte Monette (MGtis)B claim noI =1=5B scri$ noI 127>AB !ate of iss-eI ?-ne 1. 1882B amo-ntI X1>A' Mc%illis. ?ohnB a!!ressI <illow 4-nchB *ornI 2= March near <illow 4-nchB fatherI 0n/-s Mc%illis (MGtis)B motherI 2sa*elle Fayant (MGtis)B scri$ cert'I form 1. no' >B claim no' 25' 2sa*elle also a$$lie! for scri$ for their !ecease! chil!renI +athalie *' 1871. Clise *' 1877. 0lfre! *' 1878. 1harles *' 1881. an! ?ose$h *' 1887' Mc.illis, /.). /illiam' (*' 1817) <illiam was *orn c' 1817. *rother of 1-th*ert Mc%illis. son of 0n/-s Mc%illis (*' 1777) an! Mar/-erite +otini6a*on 4ottinea- (*' 1791)' ,e marrie! Marie 1am$*ell. the !a-/hter of ?ohn D-ncan 1am$*ell an! 1atherine Monti/nais in 18=> at St' Francois Wavier' <illiam was em$loye! as a $lains h-nter *y the ,41

17

<illiam an! his *rother 1-th*ert too6 $art in the 4attle of the %ran! 1otea- in 1851' :his was a confrontation *etween a Metis *-ffalo h-ntin/ $arty from St' Fran9ois Wavier. le! *y ?ean 4a$tiste Falcon an! the 1-t ,ea! (@a*a6sa) 5an6tonai (2han6tonwanna) Da6ota. le! *y 1hief Me!icine (Sacre!) 4ear. on ?-ly 15 to 1>. 1851' Mc0en(ie, Ale&ander Blac%. (1828-187=) 0le;an!er was a @rotestant ,alf-4ree! who was a !ele/ate re$resentin/ St' 1lements at the 187A 1onvention of Forty' ,e was *orn at Fort <illiam. on 0-/-st =A. 1828 the son of 1a$tain &o!eric6 McKenOie (*' 1772. Scottish) an! 0n/GliM-e Mallette (Metis)' Shortly after 0le; was *orn. the family move! to 2le a la 1rosse' &o!eric6 was a 1hief :ra!er with the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any' i6e his father 0le;an!er was em$loye! in the f-r tra!e' ,e marrie! 1hristina 4ell. the !a-/hter of ?ohn 4ell an! 0nn Dease' 1hristina was *orn on +ovem*er 7. 1829 at Fort %oo! ,o$e' She too was a !escen!ant of famo-s e;$lorers an! early f-r tra!ers' She was the daughter of Ann Dease and John Bell (112341535) 6rom Scotland, a 6amo!s Arctic e&,lorer. ,er maternal "rand6ather $as 7eter /arren Dease (1788-1863), also a famous Arctic ex lorer! 2n 187>. 0le;. 18 years ol!. *e/an his career with the ,41 as an 0$$rentice 1ler6 in the McKenOie &iver District' From 185> to 1859 0le; was at "ort #iard wor6in/ -n!er ?ohn 4ell' 2t was !-rin/ this $ostin/ that 0le; *e/an a life-lon/ relationshi$ with the (*oss)s !a-/hter). wi!ow 1hristina 4ell-@eers' 4etween 18>A an! 18>7 0le; was $oste! to Fort &esol-tion alon/ the so-th si!e of %reat Slave a6e not far from the mo-th of the 0tha*asca &iver' 2t was here that 1hristina /ave *irth to their first two chil!ren to/ether. daughters -hristina (0-/ =. 18>A) and Alice (May 12. 18>2' 2n 18>7. 0le; was move! to %reen a6e in the Cn/lish &iver District where he wo-l! remain -ntil his retirement fo-r years later' :he rest of 0le;)s chil!ren were *orn hereB @eter awrence (aro-n! 18>7). 0nna*ella 1atherine (circa 18>>) an! 0le; %eor/e (circa 18>7)' 0le;an!er McKenOie !ie! on Decem*er >. 187= at 75 years of a/e at St' 1lements' Mc0en(ie, everend Ben8amin (18=7-1928) 4y ,eather ,allett an! awrence 4ar6well 4en3amin McKenOie was *orn on Decem*er 15. 18=7 at Fort Nanco-ver. <ashin/ton. #'S'0' ,is father was 4en3amin McKenOie. 1hief 0cco-ntant for the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any. an! his mother was 1atherine 1am$*ell. the !a-/hter of 1olin 1am$*ell an! CliOa*eth Mc%illivray' ,is $aternal /ran!$arents were &o!eric6 McKenOie an! 0n/eliM-e Mallotte' &o!eric6 was *orn at 2nverassynt. Scotlan!. an! 0n/eliM-e was an P3i*wa 2n!ian from the +i$i/on !istrict of Pntario' 4en3amin was sent to St' ?ohn)s 0ca!emy in <inni$e/ at the a/e of seven. where he event-ally *ecame a teacher' ,e was livin/ an! teachin/ at @orta/e la @rairie at the time of his marria/e to ,arriet Fi!ler (*orn 18=7) in 1859' 4en3amin an! ,arriet wo-l! /o on to have twelve chil!ren to/ether'

15

:he McKenOies move! to the Settlement of Nictoria Mission (east of $resent !ay C!monton) in 18>7' 4en3amin was em$loye! to teach at the <esleyan Metho!ist School -n!er the &everan! %eor/e McDo-/all' :his school was one of the first $rotestant schools west of Manito*a' :he family live! there for nine years. -ntil 4en3amin was as6e! to move *ac6 to Manito*a to st-!y for the Ministry at St' ?ohn)s 1olle/e' 4y this time. 4en3amin was an accom$lishe! scholar an! co-l! teach ,e*rew. %ree6. atin. an! French' :he family live! in &e! &iver -ntil 187>. when they move! to 1-m*erlan! ,o-se some time after 4en3amin)s or!ination as an 0n/lican Minister' :he family wor6e! as missionaries to the 2n!ians' 0fter five years. they were transferre! to minister to the 2n!ians at St' @eter)s &eserve 3-st north of $resent !ay <inni$e/' 2n 189A. 4en3amin retire! to the @arish of St' 1lement)s' :he family live! there for fifteen years' D-rin/ that time. 4en3amin was in char/e of the Mission at a6e Manito*a. St' 0n!rew)s @arish. an! the 4lac6 &iver Mission' ,e then move! to &o*inson S$-r in 19A5. an! to <hytewol! in 1927' 4en3amin ha! s$ent over fifty years in the 0n/lican Ministry' ,e !ie! at a/e ninetyone on May 1A. 1928. an! was *-rie! at St' 1lement)s 0n/lican 1h-rch' ,arriet $re!ecease! 4en3amin on Se$tem*er 21. 1927' Mc0en(ie, M!rray. (1927-2AA7) 4y 0man!a &oOy6 M-rray McKenOie was an accom$lishe! $hoto/ra$her. havin/ his art !is$laye! an! $-*lishe! in local. national an! international ven-es' &emar6a*ly. he too6 more than 5AAA $hoto/ra$hs thro-/ho-t his career' M-rray)s love of $hoto/ra$hy *e/an at the a/e of seventeen' ,e was !ia/nose! with t-*erc-losis an! was a!mitte! to a sanatori-m' D-rin/ this time. his mother /ave him his first camera an! he $asse! the lon/ ho-rs in the hos$ital *y ta6in/ $ict-res of the other $atients for twenty-five cents a $ict-re' :his s$ar6e! a !esire in M-rray to contin-e ta6in/ $ict-res of +ative $eo$le. ca$t-rin/ their s$irit. talents an! nat-ral !i/nity' M-rray too6 a two-year corres$on!ence co-rse from the +ew 5or6 School of @hoto/ra$hy. however he was $rimarily self-ta-/ht' ,e wor6e! as a re/-lar freelance $hoto/ra$her for the 5inni'e! Free Press an! has more $hoto/ra$hs $-*lishe! in that news$a$er than any other $hoto/ra$her' ,e was also the first news $hoto/ra$her to ta6e $ict-res more than 1.1AA 6ilometres north of <inni$e/' M-rray cre!ite! his $hiloso$hy of $hoto/ra$hy to his /ran!mother an! her tra!itional teachin/s' <hen ta6in/ $hoto/ra$hs of +ative $eo$le. he cele*rates their $ro-! an! honest manner an! $ortrays the $ositive si!e of +ative c-lt-re'

1>

M-rray)s wor6 has *een !is$laye! in $resti/io-s /alleries in :hom$son. :he @as. +orth 4ay. <hitehorse. ,amilton. on!on. :oronto an! +ew 5or6' 0n invitation to !is$lay his art to an international a-!ience occ-rre! in 1997. when he was as6e! to e;hi*it his $hoto/ra$hs in M-nster)s <est$halian M-se-m in %ermany' M-rray was the first +ative $hoto/ra$her to hol! a C-ro$ean e;hi*ition' M-rray)s wor6 has *een $-*lishe! in the 6oronto Star. Photo *ife. 7S Camera an! 6ime Ma!a2ine' Pne of his most famo-s $hoto/ra$hs was also selecte! as a national $oster *y the 1ana!ian 1ancer Society. an! as a selection in the For! Motor 1om$any)s “Faces of 1ana!a C;hi*ition'" M-rray wor6e! in a variety of other fiel!s as well. incl-!in/ tra$$in/. commercial fishin/ at &ein!eer a6e. $-l$ woo!c-ttin/. mill sol-tion o$eratin/. careta6er at a cam$ site. an! minin/' ,e was also an instr-mental force in $ro!-cin/ the first 1ree lan/-a/e ra!io $ro/ram ever offere! in +orthern Manito*a. an! was the voice *ehin! many ra!io *roa!casts' 2t sho-l! also *e note! that M-rray $laye! a very im$ortant $art in the !evelo$ment of the 0*ori/inal Frien!shi$ 1entres in :he @as an! :hom$son. Manito*a' @hoto/ra$hy remaine! M-rray)s tr-e $assion however. an! one of his $ro-!est achievements incl-!e! teachin/ st-!ents thro-/ho-t the +orth a*o-t the art of $hoto/ra$hy an! ins$irin/ them to ca$t-re their s-rro-n!in/s' M-rray McKenOie. of Scots-Metis an! 1ree !escent. was *orn on March 1>. 1927 in 1-m*erlan! ,o-se. Sas6atchewan' ,e move! to Sherri!on. Manito*a where he was raise! from the a/e of three. an! later move! to :he @as. Manito*a to live with his /ran!mother at the a/e of seven' M-rray was father to seven chil!ren live! with his wife in :hom$son. Manito*a' Mc0en(ie, 9ancy (179A-1851) :he story of +ancy McKenOie an! @ierre e 4lanc is ill-strative of the ways %overnor %eor/e Sim$son treate! *oth his em$loyees an! Metis women' @ierre e 4lanc serve! *oth the +<1 an! the ,41 as a 3ac6 of all tra!es (car$enter. $ainter. /laOier. storeman. *-il!er. 2n!ian tra!er. con!-ctor of wor6) E,4&S WWW. $' 2=7. ,4&S 222. $' 777F. *efore meetin/ a tra/ic en! in the 1ol-m*ia ra$i!s *elow the Dalles !es Morts' @ierre was em$loye! in *-il!in/ the ,41 stone fort at ower Fort %arry in 18=1' 2n 18=7-=5 when the new fort was *-ilt at #$$er Fort %arry. e 4lanc was *ro-/ht -$ from ower Fort %arry to oversee the stonewor6' e 4lanc *e/an his career with the +<1 in 18A= or 181A an! staye! on with the ,41 after the coalition' ,e retire! in 1827 *-t re3oine! the service in 1828 s$en!in/ most of his time in the &e! &iver area where. in 18=1. he entere! an arran/e! marria/e to +ancy McKenOie5. niece of 1hief Factor Donal! McKenOie an! the former co-ntry wife
5

+ancy “Matoos6ie" McKenOie. *orn circa 179A. was one of three Metis chil!ren fathere! *y &o!eric6 McKenOie an! an -ni!entifie! 2n!ian woman. !-rin/ his service in the 0tha*asca co-ntry *etween 1789 an! 18A1' 0s was c-stomary amon/ +or)<esters. McKenOie !i! not ta6e his two !a-/hters with him when he retire! to ower 1ana!a in 18A1. *-t entr-ste! them to the /-ar!ianshi$ of fellow +or)<ester ?ohn

17

of ?ohn %eor/e Mc:avish' She ha! *een -nceremonio-sly !-m$e! *y Mc:avish' 2n 18=A. while on f-rlo-/h in %reat 4ritain. Mc:avish. with the enco-ra/ement of ,41 /overnor %eor/e Sim$son. a*r-$tly !efie! the norms of co-ntry marria/e an! le/ally marrie! a Scottish woman' 0fter travellin/ *ac6 to +orth 0merica in com$any with Sim$son an! the /overnor)s new *ri!e. Frances &amsay Sim$son. Mc:avish !i! not ret-rn to 5or6 Factory *-t went !irectly with his new wife to his $ostin/ at Moose Factory. leavin/ his collea/-es to *rea6 the news to +ancy' “:he first *low was !rea!f-l to witness." re$orte! ,41 cler6 ?ames ,ar/rave. *-t “the $oor /irl is fast acM-irin/ resi/nation'" +ancy an! several of her chil!ren were ta6en in tem$orarily at the ,41 $ost Fort 0le;an!er *y St-art. who. who alon/ with her -ncle 1hief Factor Donal! McKenOie. were $artic-larly vocal in !eno-ncin/ Mc:avish for his !ece$tion an! !eman!e! s-*stantial com$ensation for +ancy' %overnor Sim$son. however. ha! !eci!e! that remarria/e was the *est means of $rovi!in/ for cast-off co-ntry wives an! he ha! *een !ele/ate! to settle Mc:avish)s affairs' Des$ite +ancy)s e;$resse! wish that she not *e force! to marry a/ain. the !owry of [2AA offere! *y Mc:avish soon ena*le! Sim$son to arran/e for her marria/e to a res$ecta*le com$any em$loyee. @ierre e 4lanc. then in char/e of *-il!in/ ower Fort %arry' +ancy McKenOie was *a$tiOe! an! the co-$le were marrie! in the &oman 1atholic ch-rch at the &e! &iver settlement on Fe*r-ary 7. 18=1' ,e was /iven a wee6 off to /o to 4as !e la &iviere to meet +ancy McKenOie an! they were marrie! at &e! &iver' Pn Pcto*er 22. 18=8. after *ein/ $oste! as $ost master !is$osa*le in the 1ol-m*ia !istrict. he an! his three chil!ren (alon/ with seven other fellow canoeists) !rowne! in the ra$i!s of the 1ol-m*ia &iver' 0 month *efore @ierre an! +ancy)s el!est !a-/hter. ,enriette. ha! !ie! an! was *-rie! on the *an6 of the 0tha*asca &iver' @ierre e*lanc ha! one wife. +ancy. niece of 1hief Factor Donal! McKenOie. an! three recor!e! chil!ren' :he e*lanc chil!ren were ,enriette (18=2-18=8). @ierre (18=7-18=8). Marie &ose (c'18=7-18=8) an! an -nname! chil! (\-18=8) who !isa$$eare! in the river' Followin/ this acci!ent +ancy an! her yo-n/est !a-/hter *y Mc:avish. %race. were /iven a home at Fort Nanco-ver (<ashin/ton)' 2n 1872 %race marrie! 1harles Do!!. ca$tain of the steamshi$ 4eaver, an! +ancy McKenOie live! with the Do!!s -ntil her !eath at Fort Nictoria in 1851' &eferenceI Sylvia Nan Kir6. “+ancy McKenOie." 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy Pn- ine' htt$IJJwww'*io/ra$hi'caJenJ*ioJmc6enOie]nancy]8C'html
St-art' +ancy was with St-art when he went to +ew 1ale!onia (4'1') to ta6e char/e of the !e$artment for the +orth <est 1om$any in 18A9' 2n 181= St-art 3oine! +<1 $artner ?ohn %eor/e Mc:avish on the 1ol-m*ia &iver an! it was $ro*a*ly in that year that +ancy was marrie! to Mc:avish. *y the c-stom of the co-ntry' 0fter the -nion of the +<1 an! the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any in 1821. Mc:avish was a$$ointe! chief factor in char/e of 5or6 Factory (Man') an! !-rin/ the 182As his wife share! his social $rominence as the +our!eoise of the fort' D-rin/ these years they ha! as many as seven chil!ren' (Mary (*' 1817). Flora (*c' 1822). Mar/aret (*c' 182=). 0nn (*c'' 182>). %race (*c' 182>)'

18

Ma"ill (Mc.illis), Ale&andre (*' 187A) 0le;an!er Mc%illis. *orn at St' Francois Wavier was the son of 0le;an!re Mc%illis Sr' an! Marie 4ottinea-' ,e marrie! Marie ?eanotte. the !a-/hter of Francois ?eanotte an! Ma!eleine Falcon on 0-/-st 25. 18>5 at St' Francois Wavier' :heir chil!ren were *orn at <illow 4-nch an! 1y$ress ,ills' 0le; was one the ,alf-4ree!s livin/ in the vicinity of 1y$ress ,ills who $etitione! the /overnment in 1878 for their own reserve' :his is a $etition reM-este! a re-o$enin/ of the *-ffalo h-nt *etween +ovem*er 17 th an! Fe*r-ary 15th each year an! the /rantin/ of Metis “reserve" lan!' Ma8or(e), :homas. (19A9-1978) 4y awrence 4ar6well an! Del Ma3ore> :om Ma3or of e*ret was one of the earliest mem*ers of the Metis Society of Sas6atchewan - first 6nown as “:he ,alf*ree!s of Sas6atchewan'" :his or/aniOation was forme! in 19=1-=2 *y Metis in &e/ina an! the imme!iate area northeast of &e/inaB namely. e*ret. L-S0$$elle an! estoc6' :he ,alf*ree! P/aniOation. as it was calle! -$ to 19==. was 3-st for Metis' :his then *ecame the Metis Society of Sas6atchewan an! :homas was $resi!ent in 197A' :homas was the /reat /reat /ran!son of &o!eric6 &oss. whose !a-/hter @hilomene (his /reast /ran!mother) was marrie! to @ierre @elletier of e*ret' &o!eric6 &oss (*' 1829) was a St' Francois Wavier tra!er. the son of ,-/h &oss an! Sarah Short' ,e marrie! Marie Delorme the !a-/hter of #r*ain Delorme an! Ma!eleine Nivier' 2n 1878. &o!eric6 an! other Metis *-ffalo h-nters at 1y$ress ,ills wrote a $etition as6in/ for a s$ecial Metis reserve of lan!' :heir !a-/hter &ose was marrie! to %re/oire <ills (<elsh)' <ills (<elsh) also si/ne! the $etition for a reserve' ,e later *ecame a resi!ent at e*ret near the 1atholic Mission'7 2n the !irty thirties :om 3oine! the “#nion of the #nem$loye!'" 0 n-m*er of them also 3oine! the 1omm-nist @arty of 1ana!a' :he .e!ina *ea er-Post !escri*e! :om as the *arefoot *oy who was /oin/ to lea! the Metis $eo$le into another re*ellion' :om
>

7

Del Ma3ore is :homas Ma3ore)s /ran!son' &o!eric6 &oss an! Marie Delorme ha! thefollowin/ chil!renI • Marie 0n!roniM-e. *' 185A. marrie! o-is Marion' • 2sa*elle. *' 1852. !ie! 185>' • Ma!eleine. *' 1857. marrie! 0ntoine Faillant !it afontaine' • Sarah. *' 185>' • &ose. *' 1857. marrie! %re/oire 0' <ills (<elsh) then marrie! 0le;an!re @eletier' • @ierre. *' 1859. marrie! 4etsy <elsh' • @hilomene. *' 18>A. marrie! @ierre @elletier' • &o!eric6. *' 18>2' • #r*ain. *' 18>5' • Florestine. *' 18>7. marrie! Michel :hi*a-lt' • ClOear. *' 18>9. marrie! CliOa*eth @elletier'

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enliste! as a @rivate in So-th Sas6atchewan &e/imentB he serve! in 1ana!a *-t after ei/ht months was !ischar/e! as 1ate/ory C. not meetin/ the $hysical stan!ar!s' 2t is noteworthy that while away from home on service the &1M@ searche! his home *eca-se of his $olitical activities' :homas was the son of 0lfre! ?ose$h Ma3ore (*' 1881) an! Marie ?-lie Des3arlais (*' 187=)' ,e marrie! 0/nes @elletier (*' 19A9). the !a-/hter of ?ose$h @elletier (*' 1885) an! ?-stine Desmarias (*' 189A)' Martin Kn-tson' ?'^' a &ocM-e. an! two MacKenOies starte! or/aniOin/ the Metis in the city of &e/ina in 19=1' :hey were tryin/ to follow -$ on Metis lan!s an! what ha$$ene! with Metis scri$' Solomon @ritchar!. from 4al3ennie was hel$in/ them then the Mc%illises an! 4ea-!rys at <illow*-nch /ot involve! alon/ with the St' Denis family of @rince 0l*ert' S-*seM-ently. the Sas6atchewan Metis Society was forme! in +ovem*er 19=7 to forwar! the Metis constit-tional claims re/ar!in/ the !is$ossesse! Metis of Sas6atchewan' :he first $rovincial *oar! wasI 4ill arocM-e. 4o* a&ocM-e. ?'^' a&ocM-e. ?erry a&ocM-e. Martin Kn-!ston. C! Klyne. ?oe McKenOie. ?ac6 4lon!eaan! ?oe &oss' 2n the 197As. a n-m*er of townshi$s of $-*lic lan! were set asi!e for the Metis *y the 1ana!ian De$artment of the 2nterior' :his was a tem$orary relief effort. the Metis hel! the lan! -n!er a 99-year lease' 0fter 197A. ?oe &oss *ecame the $resi!ent an! ?ose$h a &ocM-e (?'^' a &ocM-e) *ecame the vice-$resi!ent' 2n 1971 they ha! a mem*ershi$ of 28AA' Family Scri$I Ma3or. 0lfre!B a!!ressI e4retB *ornI 17 ?-ne. 1881 at e4retB fatherI ?ose$h Ma3or (<hiteman)B motherI Marie St' Denis (MGtis)B scri$ cert'I form C. no' =>8B claim no' 787' @elletier. @ierreB heir to his !ecease! chil!renB ?ose$h +orman. *ornI 1881 at e*retB !ie!I 9 ?-ly. 1888B <illiam ?ohn. *ornI 188= at e*retB !ie!I 25 March. 188>B a!!ressI File ,illsB fatherI @ierre @elletier (MGtis an! !e$onent)B motherB @hilomGne &oss (MGtis)B scri$ cert'I form F. no' 18>1. ?ose$h +ormanB scri$ cert'I form D. no' =28. <illiam ?ohnB claim no' 7A7' Scri$ affi!avit for Des3arlais. MichelB *ornI ?-ly 1819B fatherI 0ntoine Des3arlais (MGtis)B motherI 1atherine 0llary (MGtis)B claim no'I =117B scri$ no'I 12771B !ate of iss-eI ?-ne 1. 1882B amo-ntI X1>A' Malaterre, Ale&is. (*' 1825) 0le;is Malaterre was *orn in ?-ly 1825 at St' Francois Wavier. the son of ?ean 4a$tiste Malaterre an! 0n/eliM-e 0!am' ,e marrie! Mar/-erite <ar!. the !a-/hter of ?ohn <ar! an! 0n/eliM-e 4r-yere' 0le;is was as mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878'

2A

Malaterre, -harles. (*' 18>2) 1harles was the son of o-is Malaterre an! C-$hrosine a @ierre' ,e marrie! 2sa*elle &oche*lave. the !a-/hter of 0ntoine &oche*lave an! +ancy @elletier in 1885 at e*ret' 1harles was a mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' Malaterre, )ean Ba,tiste' (1815-1851) ?ean 4a$tiste was one of the Metis sco-ts !-rin/ the 1851 4attle with the Sio-; at the %ran! 1otea-' Pn ?-ly 1=. 1851 he an! two other sco-ts were ta6en $risoner *y the 2n!ians' :he other sco-ts were fort-nate to esca$e than6s to their swift horses' ?ean 4a$tiste Malaterre. the remainin/ $risoner. was 6ille! *y the Sio-;' ,is /ravesite is at 4-tte !e Morale. +orth Da6ota. locate! nine 6ilometers northeast of to!ay)s ,arvey. +orth Da6ota' ?ean 4a$tiste was the son of a father of the same name an! 0n/eliM-e 0!am' Pn +ovem*er 2>. 18=9. he marrie! :herese 1om$tois at St' Fran9ois Wavier' She !ie! in 187> while /ivin/ *irth to their thir! chil!' ,e then marrie! o-ise Marchan! it a$ierre in 185A' Malaterre, )ohn. (*' 1857) ?ohn was the son of o-is Malaterre an! C-$hrosine a @ierre' ?ohn marrie! Marie &oche*lanc (&oche*lave) the !a-/hter of 0ntoine &oche*lave an! +ancy @elletier in 1879 on the Mil6 &iver' ?ohn was as mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' Malaterre, ;o!is. (#. 15<4) o-is Malaterre. was *orn on Se$tem*er 28. 18=7. the son of ?ean 4a$tiste Malaterre an! 0n/eliM-e 0!am' ,e was a :-rtle Mo-ntain 4an! mem*er' ,e marrie! C-$hrosine a$ierre. the !a-/hter of 0ntoine Marsant it a$ierre an! o-ise Mache/one. in 185= at St' Francois Wavier' o-is !ie! at %reat Falls. Montana. ?-ne 25. 1895' o-is was one the ,alf-4ree!s livin/ in the vicinity of 1y$ress ,ills who $etitione! the /overnment in 1878 for their own reserve' :his is a $etition reM-este! a reo$enin/ of the *-ffalo h-nt *etween +ovem*er 17th an! Fe*r-ary 15th each year an! the /rantin/ of Metis “reserve" lan!' Malaterre (Militaire) , ;o!is. (*' 187>) Pn Se$tem*er 7. 187>. he was one of =A Metis at Fort <alsh who s-*mitte! a $etition. on *ehalf of the Metis of the fo-r !istricts of 0ssini*oia to 3oin :reaty 7' o-is was *orn on Fe*r-ary 2=. 187>. at St' Francois Wavier. the son of ?ose$h Malaterre an! Marie Nivier' ,e marrie! ?-lie 1ris &o*ertson &o*son in 1882 at St' a-rent on the so-th Sas6atchewan' :hey live! at D-c6 a6e *-t after 1885 move! to Fort Cllice' o-is was as mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' o-is was active as a sco-t an! fi/hter !-rin/ the 1885 &esistance at 4achtoe' Pn 0$ril 22. 1885 he receive! a vote of than6s from the 1o-ncil for reconnaissance at 1lar6e)s 1rossin/ (So-th of Fish 1ree6)' :his sco-tin/ activity was to re$ort on Mi!!leton)s $ro/ess northwar!s'

21

Mal#oe!6, 'tienne' (*' 1775) Ctienne was *orn at ac !e Sa*le. 1ana!a' ,e was the son of Fran9ois Mal*oe-f. who ha! at least seven chil!ren with vario-s 2n!ian women' Ctienne was livin/ at Kas6as6ia when he si/ne! on with ewis an! 1lar6)s C;$e!ition of Discovery in 18A7' ,e accom$anie! them as far as the Man!an villa/es where he wintere! *efore ret-rnin/ to St' o-is in 18A5' Mandeville, =ran>ois. (1878-1952) Fran9ois was *orn in 1878 at Fort &esol-tion' ,e was *orn into a lon/ line of inter$reters an! lin/-ists. s6ills for which he *ecame renowne!' ,is father was Michel Man!eville. an inter$reter for the :reaty Ci/ht ne/otiations at Fort &esol-tion' ,is mother was Marie Fa*ien. also a Metis' 0s a yo-n/ man. Fran9ois wor6e! for the ,41 at Fort &esol-tion' ,e marrie! Mar/aret afferty in 19A1 at Fort &ae an! they ret-rne! to Fort &esol-tion in 19A2 where their only chil! @hili$ was *orn' 0$$arently the Metis were /iven scri$ in 19A1 an! Fran9ois ha! sol! his scri$ to finance his marria/e' 2n 19A8. he an! his family move! to ,ay &iver where he wor6e! for the f-r-tra!in/ firm of ,eslo$ an! +a/le' 0t this $ost. he learne! to s$ea6 the Slavey an! 4eaver lan/-a/es that com$lemente! his 6nowle!/e of 1hi$ewyan an! French' ,e learne! the Do/ri* lan/-a/e from his wife. who s$o6e *oth Do/ri* an! French' 2n 191A he move! to Fort @rovi!ence *-t move! *ac6 to Fort &esol-tion in 1911 to wor6 for the ,41' ,e then s$ent two years r-nnin/ the tra!in/ $ost at Fort Smith' :his was followe! *y a two year stint at Fort <ri/ley an! a move to 0rctic &e! &iver in 1915 ,e learne! the ,are an! oche-; lan/-a/es 0t this location' 2n 1921. he move! to wor6 for an in!e$en!ent tra!er at Fon! !- ac' 2n 1925. he retire! to Fort 1hi$ewyan *-t 6e$t *-sy *-il!in/ canoes an! *oats' 2n 197A. he res-me! f-r tra!in/ in <oo! 4-ffalo +ational @ar6' 2t was there that he learne! the 1ree lan/-a/e' 2n 1928. he wor6e! with lin/-ist Dr' Fan/-K-ei i' ,e relaye! a h-/e set of 1hi$ewyan stories to i' From these. they $ro!-ce! translations. $honetic notation an! ver* $ara!i/ms' :he res-ltin/ *oo6s were to *ecome the seminal te;ts on the 1hi$ewyan an! 0tha*as6an family of lan/-a/es' .eference Scollon. &onal!. an! S-Oanne Scollon' *in!uistic Con/er!ence: 1n 8thnolo!y of S'eakin! at Fort Chi'ewyan, 1l+erta' +ew 5or6I 0ca!emic @ress. 1979I =9-75' Mandeville (;e -omarade de), )ean4Ba,tiste. (*' 1798) ?ean-4a$tiste e 1omra!e !e Man!eville was the son of a Frenchman from +orman!y an! his Dene wife' ?ean-4a$tiste an! his family mem*ers were the fo-n!ers of the Metis settlement at Fort &esol-tion' 2n 18==B Man!eville hel$e! to *-il! Fort &eliance at the east en! of %reat Slave a6e near the mo-th of the oc6hart &iver' 2t was at the same s$ot that the P*lates later esta*lishe! the St' Nincent !e @a-l Mission' Kin/ 4ea-lie-. a son of Fran9ois 4ea-lie-. later ran the $ost' ?ean-4a$tiste)s son 0n/ele si/ne! :reaty Z8 as a 1hief or ,ea!man' 0nother son. <illiam is sai! to have starte! the ittle 4-ffalo &iver Settlement' 4a$tiste. a French Metis 3oine! the first Fran6lin e;$e!ition to the 0rctic Pcean in 182A'

4 22

.eference Mc1arthy. Martha' From the 9reat .i/er to the 8n s of the 8arth ' C!montonI #niversity of 0l*erta @ress. 1995' Marcotte, Madeleine (;a6ram#oise). (178A-187>) Ma!eleine is consi!ere! to *e Michi/an)s first *-sinesswoman' She was a Metis matriarch of early nineteenth cent-ry Mac6inac. Michi/an where she tra!e! in the s-mmer an! Dansville (now owell. Michi/an) where she o$erate! a f-r tra!in/ $ost from 18A> to 1821' Ma!eleine afram*oise was a *-sinesswoman. who mana/e! several *ri/a!es of Metis. 1ana!ien. an! 2n!ian voya/e-rs' She was so affl-ent that she owne! slaves' Ma!eleine was the !a-/hter of French-1ana!ian f-r tra!er 4a$tiste Marcotte an! his Pttawa wife Marie +es6ech' 0ltho-/h illiterate -ntil she retire! she was fl-ent in the Pttawa. French an! Cn/lish lan/-a/es' 2n 189>. at a/e 17 she marrie! ?ose$h afram*oise' :hey ha! two chil!ren. ?osette an! ?ose$h who she sent to Montreal for schoolin/' #$on ret-rnin/ to Mac6ina6 ?osette marrie! 1a$tain 4en3amin @iece the 1omman!ant of Fort Mac6ina6' ,er *rother-in-law Fran6lin @ierce *ecame @resi!ent of the #nite! States in 1852' :o/ether Ma!eleine an! ?ose$h *-ilt a lar/e f-r-tra!in/ *-sinessB they ha! $osts at Mac6inac 2slan! an! %ran! &iver' 2n 18A>. <hite P;. an Pttawa 2n!ian. m-r!ere! Ma!eleine)s h-s*an! *eca-se he ref-se! to /ive him liM-or' :h-s at a/e 2>. Ma!ame afram*oise *ecame sole $ro$rietor of the *-siness' She was e;tremely com$etent an! was sai! to earn as m-ch as X1A.AAA $er year whereas other f-r tra!ers consi!ere! themselves s-ccessf-l if they earne! X1.AAA' She retire! in 1822 an! !ivi!e! her time *etween Montreal an! Mac6inac 2slan!' She !ie! there on 0$ril 187>' Marion, Arth!r )!les. (*' 1887) 0rth-r ?-les Marion was +ovem*er 19. 1887 in D-c6 a6e. where he was *a$tiOe! +ovem*er 29th
1887 in the D-c6 a6e Mission' ,e !ie! 0$ril A5. 1971 in Mea!ow a6e. Sas6atchewan' ,e re$resente! 2le a la 1rosse in the Sas6atchewan e/islat-re 192>-1971B his son o-is Marcien serve! as an M' '0' from 1977-1952' 0rth-r ?-les Marion was the son of o-is Marion (*' March 17. 187A). an! Marie

0n!roniM-e &oss (*' ?-ly 25. 1879)' She was the !a-/hter of &o!eric6 &oss an! Marie Delorme' o-is was a $lains *ison h-nter. often accom$anyin/ %a*riel D-mont on h-nts. also a tra!er. voya/e-r an! farmer' ,e was the farm instr-ctor at Pne 0rrow &eserve at the time of the 1885 &esistance' 0rth-r ?-les marrie! Nictorine 4erna!ette 4o-cher (*I Fe*r-ary 18. 1887 in St' o-is) in 19A7 at St' o-is. Sas6atchewan' She was the !a-/hter of ?ean 4a$tiste 4o-cher ?r' an! Marie- o-ise “Mariya" 4remner' 0rth-r ?-les Marion was a Metis $olitician an! *-sinessman' ?-les Marion *o-/ht the *-siness owne! *y o-is &oy' o-is &oy owne! a store. cafe. an! $ool hall in 2le a a 1rosse' 2t was the local /atherin/ $lace' ,e *-ilt *ar/es. ha-le! frei/ht. an! sol! woo!' ,e sol! the *-siness to the Marion. the M 0 for the li*eral /overnment for cash'

2=

Marion was electe! as a i*eral M 0 in the !istrict of 2le-a-la-1rosse from 192> to 19=7 an! the !istrict of 0tha*asca from 19=8 -ntil his !eath in 1971' ,e was !efeate! in 19=7 *y Dea6in 0le;an!er ,all. who was also r-nnin/ i*eral' ,is son o-is Marcien Marion later serve! as M 0 in 0tha*asca from 1977 to 1952' ?-les Marion was the *rother-in-law of fe!eral i*eral Senator <illaim 0l*ert “4oss" 4o-cher' Marion, 'do!ard. (*' 18=7) C!o-ar! was *orn on ?an-ary 25. 18=7. at 5or6 Factory. the son of +arcisse Marion Sr' an! Marie 4o-char!' ,e marrie! Clise Mc!o-/all' ,e was a St' +or*ert farmer' 0n o$$onent of &iel. he was im$risone! !-rin/ the 18>9-7A &esistance' Marion, 'lise . (*' 18=1) Clise Marion. *orn Decem*er 18. 18=1 at 5or6 Factory' Clise was the !a-/hter of ,41 *lac6smith +arcisse Marion of +orwoo! (*I Decem*er 8. 18A5) an! Marie &osalie %ran!*ois !it 4o-char! or &ichar! (*I 1817)' Clise marrie! +orman <olfre! <illiam Kittson8 (*I 1817) in 1877 in St 4oniface @arish 1h-rch' Clise was 17 an! Kittson was ==' ,e was the son of <illiam Kittson an! ,elene McDonal!' 1ommo!ore +orman <' Kittson. was the millionaire hea! of the &e! &iver +avi/ation 1om$any)s fleet of sternwheel steamers which serve! <inni$e/ in the early !ays' Kittson. a f-r tra!er. hel$e! en! the ,-!son 4ay 1om$any)s f-r tra!in/ mono$oly' 2n 1879B he *ecame a mem*er of the Minnesota :erritorial 1o-ncils 7th District. from 1852 to 1855 he was mayor of St' @a-l Minnesota' From 1858 to 1859B he o$erate! steam*oats on the &e! &iver from Minnesota north into <inni$e/ in the 187A' ,e then wor6e! with ?ames ?' ,ill to *-il! the St' @a-l. Minnea$olis an! Manito*a &ailway in 1879-81' 1ommo!ore Kittson was == when he came see6in/ a *ri!e at the ho-se of +arcisse Marion' Clise Marion was 3-st fo-rteen' 4ri!e/rooms of $ioneer !ays were often ol!erB *-t Kittson. who ha! ma!e a fort-ne in the f-r tra!e an! another fort-ne in the steam*oat *-siness. ha! since he was a yo-n/ man carrie! a wei/ht of res$onsi*ility
8

Kittson was $revio-sly marrie! to 0/nes a :en!er. !a-/hter of @a-Si-Mon an! Ma-1he-L-o-+o6 in the <ashin/ton :erritory sometime *efore 1829 in a 1o-ntry 1-stom Marria/e' ,e then marrie! 0!ele Marion''

27

which. ha! *ro-/ht early wrin6les an! the as$ect of a/e' Clise Kittson. in her /ran! home on S-mmit 0ven-e. St' @a-l. was a hostess of hostesses when her +orwoo! frien!s came to visit her' :he 1ommo!ore live! on con/enially till. in the late ei/hties he !ie! in a slee$in/ car enro-te to 1hica/o' Clise !ie!
Decem*er 28. 18>7 in St @a-l. Minnesota. at the a/e of => years' Kittson !ie! in 1888'

Marion, )ose,h 'do!ard. (*' 1878) ?ose$h. Ma;ime an! +orman Marion were *rothers. the sons of +arcisse Marion an! Mary 4o-char!' ?ose$h was as mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' ?ose$h was *orn on 0-/-st 1>. 1878 at St' 4oniface. the son of +arcisse Marion an! Marie 4o-char!' ,e si/ne! the Metis @etition of 0-/-st 29. 1882 that was sent to C!/ar Dew!ney. the ie-tenant %overnor of the +orth-<est :erritories statin/ that the Pntario an! L-)0$$elle an! com$any was !is$ossessin/ the Metis of their lan!s *eca-se the s-rveys that ha! *een !one showe! some of them to *e on railway lan!' ?ose$h marrie! 0nnie McDermott. the !a-/hter of :homas McDermott an! Clisa*eth 1ollin in 187A' Marion, )!les. (*' 18>7) ?-les 0rth-r Marion was *orn on Decem*er 11. 18>7 in St +or*ert' ,e was the son of C!o-ar! Marion (*' Fe*r-ary 27. 18=7) an! CliOa McDo-/all (*' ?-ly 1>. 18==)' C!o-ar!)s father was Francois Marion (*'1781) . 0ssom$tion. L-e*ec. em$loye! +<1 (181>-1821) St' MarySs (Sa-lt Ste' Marie) then Fort <illiam (1819-1821) an! then ,41 (1822-18==) &e! &iver. 5or6. an! +orway ,o-se as *lac6smith' ,e marrie! iOette Martelle' ?-les 0' Marion (18>7-1929) was em$loye! with the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any (1891-1892)' • • • • @arentsI C!o-ar! (*' 18=7) an! CliOa McDo-/all Marion (@0M. &e! &iver 1ens-s. 187A) %ran!$arentsI +arcisse (*' 18A5) an! Marie &ichar! Marion (@0M. &e! &iver 1ens-s. 187A) ?'%' McDo-/al (@0M. &e! &iver 1ens-s. 187A) %reat /ran!$arentsI Francois (*'1781. !' 18>=) an! iOette Martelle Marion (@0M. &e! &iver 1ens-s. 187AB S$ra/-e an! Frye)' Son was 0!ol$h ?ose$h Marion'

?-les Marion a$$eare! in the 1889 C;$osition #niverselle (@aris <orl!s Fair) with 4-ffalo 4ill 1o!y' ?-les Marion. alon/ with Ma;ime %o-let. Ma;ime e$ine. an! Michel D-mas were $resente! as French-1ana!ien tra$$ers with teams of Cs6imo sle! !o/s Marion left St' 4oniface on March =A. 1889. with Ma;ime %o-let. 0m*roise e$ine. Michel D-mas an! ?-les Marion on the way to the @aris <orl!)s Fair to ta6e $art in the <il! <est Show' :hey too6 two &e! &iver 1arts. two trains of !o/s an! a *-ffalo /-n' :hey *-ilt a Metis lo/ ca*in at the Fair'

1 25

1

2n the finale at the <il! <est Show their lo/ ca*in was set on fire an! they were !e$icte! as tra$$ers -n!er attac6 *y 2n!ians who are resc-e! *y 4-ffalo 4ill an! his men' :he <il! <est Show too6 two Metis !o/ teams. twenty *-ffalo an! 2AA horses with them to @aris' Marion, ;o!is. (*' 187A) o-is was *orn at &e! &iver on March 17. 187A' ,e was the son of +arcisse Marion Sr' an! Marie 4o-char!' ,e marrie! Marie 0n!roniM-e &oss' :his was a $lains *-ffalo h-ntin/ family that ran/e! as far west as 4lac6foot 1rossin/ an! 4-ffalo a6e (4oss ,ill)' 0t the time of the &esistance they were livin/ at D-c6 a6e an! he was wor6in/ as the farmin/ instr-ctor on 4ear!y)s &eserve' o-is was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4a$tiste Nan!al)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' ,e a$$arently !eserte! from this com$any' Marion, ;o!is. (*' 187A) o-is Marion was *orn at @em*ina. +orth Da6ota on Fe*r-ary 11. 187A' o-is was the son of Ma;ime Marion an! Clise ?erome. /ran!son of +arcisse Marion an! /reat/ran!son of Fran9ois Marion' ,is family move! to :-rtle Mo-ntain aro-n! 188>' ,e marrie! @hilomene DeMonti/ny in 19A8' o-is was e!-cate! at &ensselaer. 2n!iana then St' ?ose$h)s 1olle/e (1891) an! the ,as6ell 2nstit-te at awrence. Kansas' ,e *ecame :ri*al chairman of the :-rtle Mo-ntain 4an! in 197A an! was re-electe! in 1971. 197= an! 1977' ,e was a 4an! 1o-ncilor from 1975 to 195=' Marion, ;o!is Marcien. (19 6!19"9# Louis serve! as an M' '0' from 0tha*asca in the Sas6atchewan e/islative 0ssem*ly from 1977-1952' o-is Marcien Marion (0-/-st 12. 19A> D 0$ril >. 1979) was a tra!er an! $olitical fi/-re in Sas6atchewan' ,e re$resente! 0tha*asca from 1977 to 1952 in the Sas6atchewan e/islative 0ssem*ly as a i*eral an! then 2n!e$en!ent mem*er' ,e was the son of 0rth-r ?-les Marion. who re$resente! the same $rovincial 2 2>

ri!in/ from 19=8 to 1971. an! Nictorine 4o-cher' o-is) /ran!$arents were o-is Marion (*' March 17. 187A). an! Marie 0n!roni$ue %oss (&. 'u() 2*, 1849#. She was the !a-/hter of &o!eric6 &oss an! Marie Delorme' o-is was a $lains *ison h-nter. often accom$anyin/ %a*riel D-mont on h-nts. he was also a tra!er' o-is Marion was *orn in 4ellev-e. Sas6atchewan an! was e!-cate! in 4attlefor! an! C!monton' ,e was a tele/ra$h o$erator in 2le-a-la-1rosse an! later o$erate! a tra!in/ store there' 2n 19=1. o-is Marion marrie! 1onstance %' <ri/ht' Marion, Marie osalie .rand#ois dit Bo!chard or ichard. (1811-1877) Marie &osalie 4o-char! !it &ichar! was one of the Metis “First a!ies" of the &e! &iver Settlement as were several of her !a-/hters who were marrie! to $owerf-l &e! &iver merchants' Marie &osalie 4o-char! !it &ichar! was *orn on May 11. 1811. at ac a$ine near 5or6 Factory. the Metis !a-/hter of Francois 4o-char! !it &ichar! an! an -n6nown 1ree woman' She marrie! +arcisse Ma-rice (Wavier) Marion in 18=A' +arcisse was a ,41 *lac6smith (*' 18A5)' ,e was the son of Francois Marion (*'c' 1781) an! isette Martel' 0 n-m*er of their chil!ren marrie! into the t-rtle Mo-ntain 4an! at 4elco-rt. +orth Da6ota' 1hil!ren of Marie &osalie &ichar! (4o-char!) an! +arcisse MarionI Clise Marion was *orn on Decem*er 18. 18=1 at 5or6 Factory' Clise marrie! +orman <olfre! <illiam Kittson (*I 1817) in 1877 in St 4oniface @arish 1h-rch' Clise was 17 an! Kittson was ==' ,e was the son of <illiam Kittson an! ,elene McDonal!' 1ommo!ore +orman <' Kittson. was the millionaire hea! of the &e! &iver +avi/ation 1om$any)s fleet of stern wheel steamers which serve! <inni$e/ in the early !ays' Kittson. a f-r tra!er. hel$e! en! the ,-!son 4ay 1om$any)s f-r tra!in/ mono$oly' 2n1879B he *ecame a mem*er of the Minnesota :erritorial 1o-ncils 7th District. from 1852to 1855 he was mayor of St' @a-l Minnesota' From 1858 to 1859B he o$erate! steam*oats on the &e! &iver from Minnesota north into <inni$e/ in the 187A' ,e then wor6e! with ?ames ?' ,ill to *-il! the St' @a-l. Minnea$olis an! Manito*a &ailway in 1879-81' 1ommo!ore Kittson was == when he came see6in/ a *ri!e at the ho-se of +arcisse Marion' Clise Marion was 3-st fo-rteen' 4ri!e/rooms of $ioneer !ays were often ol!erB *-t Kittson. who ha! ma!e a fort-ne in the f-r tra!e an! another fort-ne in the steam*oat *-siness. ha! since he was a yo-n/ man carrie! a wei/ht of res$onsi*ility which. ha! *ro-/ht early wrin6les an! the as$ect of a/e' C!o-ar! was *orn of Fe*r-ary 27. 18=7 in St' 4oniface' C!o-ar! marrie! CliOa McDo-/all (*' 18==) circa 18== at &e! &iver' She was the !a-/hter of ?ohn “%eor/e" McDo-/all an! %enevieve “?ennie ?as$er (%as$ar!)' :he-ir son. ?-les Marion (*' 18>7) a$$eare! in the 1889 C;$osition #niverselle (@aris <orl!)s Fair) with 4-ffalo 4ill 1o!y' :he other Metis from Manito*a in this show were. Ma;iome /o-let. Ma;ime e$ine an!

27

Michel D-mas' :hese men were $resente! as French-1ana!ian tra$$ers with teams of Cs6imo sle! !o/s' ?ose$hte (?osette) was *orn on May 1A 18=> in St' 4oniface' She first marrie! ?ose$h %enthon (*' 18=A) an! then marrie! Francois %in/ras. the son of Metis tra!er 0ntoine 4lanc %in/ras an! ScholastiM-e :rottier' Ma;ime was *orn on 0$ril 25. 18=8 in St 4oniface' ,e !ie! on May 15. 191A on the :-rtle Mo-ntain &eserve. near 4elco-rt. +orth Da6ota' Ma;ime marrie! Clise CliOa*eth St' Matte !it ?erome (*I ?-ne 15. 187=) on Se$tem*er 1. 18>2 in the 0ss-m$tion Mission. near @em*ina. +orth Da6ota' She was the !a-/hter of Martin St' Mathe !it S' Matte Sr' !it ?erome an! CliOa*eth 2sa*elle “4ethsy" <il6ie' Ma;ime Marion was a /-i!e for the 4o-n!ary 1ommission in 1872-7=. for $ortion of the s-rvey from a6e of the <oo!s to the &e! &iver' o-is was *orn on March 17. 187A. at St' 4oniface' ,e marrie! 0n!roniM-e &oss. the !a-/hter of &o!eric6 &oss an! Marie Delorme' :his was a $lains *-ffalo h-ntin/ family that ran/e! as far west as 4lac6foot 1rossin/ an! 4-ffalo a6e (4oss ,ill)' Pn the family)s scri$ a$$lications of 187>. o-is is liste! as a voya/e-r. tra!er an! farmer' :he Marion family from St' Francois Wavier followe! the *-ffalo an! ha! esta*lishe! hivernant cam$s in the So-ris &iver *asin' o-is *rothers 0ma*le. +arcisse. &o/er. +orman an! 0!o$he settle! aro-n! Pa6 a6e in the late 187As' o-is s$o6e French an! 1ree' ,e accom$anie! %a*riel D-mont on *-ffalo h-nts in the 187As' o-is 3oine! the comm-nity aro-n! @etit Nille. 4atoche an! D-c6 a6e' o-is an! his *rothers Ma;ime (an! wife Clise ?erome) an! ?ose$h (wife 0nnie McDermott) 3oine! the :-rtle Mo-ntain 1hi$$ewa 4an! sometime after 1885' 0t the time of the 1885 &esistance o-is an! Marie were livin/ at D-c6 a6e an! he was wor6in/ as the farmin/ instr-ctor on Pne 0rrow)s &eserve' ater. their !a-/hter Clise wo-l! marry Francois Morea- the son of &esistance 1a$tain o-is was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4a$tiste Nan!al)s com$any. one of the 19 !iOaines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' o-is !i! not want to 3oin the fi/htin/ an! was loc6e! -$ *y o-is &iel. who threatene! to shoot him if he !i! not 3oin' #n!er !-ress he a/ree! to $artici$ate. then -n!er the $retence of /oin/ home for a /-n mana/e! to esca$e *efore the fi/htin/ *e/an' ,e /ives the followin/ statement I Pn the 17th March 2 was at <alter)s store at 4atoche an! a yo-n/ man came an! tol! me there was /oin/ to *e tro-*le' +e;t mornin/ we were remove! to the ch-rch an! they ha! a meetin/ an! &iel tol! me that 2 ha! ten min-tes to consi!er if 2 wo-l! 3oin them or else he wo-l! have to !o somethin/' 2 $romise! to 3oin *-t first chance 2 esca$e!_ 2 saw a son of %eor/e Fisher an! a son of Salomon Nenne an! yo-n/ %area-lt who ha! *een *ro-/ht this way' 2 saw a n-m*er of 2n!ians there. some of Pne 0rrow)s *an!. some of 4ear!y)s *an! an! some Sio-; 2n!ians' 2 hear! that many were force! to 3oin' 0ma*le Marion was *orn on ?-ly 1>. 1872' ,e never marrie! his $artner Francoise Mc%illvray' ,e !i! marry ?ose$hte 4erar!. the !a-/hter of o-is 4erar! an!
28

1atherine ,-/hes in 1875' :hey ha! one a!o$te! son an! two chil!ren of their own' &osalie Marion was *orn on Se$tem*er 17. 1875 at St' 4oniface. she marrie! ,orace 4elan/er. the son of C!o-ar! 4elan/er an! So$hie 1as/rain' She !ie! in St' 4oniface at a/e 71' &o/er Marion. M'@' (*' 187>)' &o/er marrie! ?-lienne 1arriere. on ?-ly =1. 187=' She was the !a-/hter of Francois 1arriere' :hey ha! si; !a-/hters. three of whom *ecame n-ns. an! two sons' 0 $olitician. Marion was the 1onservative M'@' for 1arillon in 188> an! 1888. he was !efeate! in 1892 an! re-electe! in 189>' ,e was the mayor of St' 4oniface from 1887 to 1889' 2n 1891. he was electe! $resi!ent of the #nion MGtisse Saint-?ose$h' &o/er was *orn at 5or6 Factory an! e!-cate! at 1ollT/e !e Saint4oniface' ,e wor6e! for several years at the tra!in/ $ost of 1harles 4ottinea- in Da6ota :erritory. after the 18>2' ,e wor6e! from 1872 to 187> with the 1-stoms Service then serve! as Manito*a icense 1ommissioner from 1879 to1885' ?ose$h was *orn on 0-/-st 1>. 1878 at St' 4oniface' ,e marrie! 0nnie McDermott the !a-/hter of :homas McDermott an! Clisa*eth 1ollin' :hey ha! five chil!ren' ,e !ie! in 189A' +arcisse ?r' was *orn in Pcto*er 185A in St 4oniface @arish' +arcisse was a*le to s$ea6 fl-ent Cn/lish. French an! 1ree' ,e also $ic6e! -$ some 4lac6foot. Stoney an! P3i*wa' +arcisse ?r' move! to 0l*erta in the late 187As or early 188As' ,e marrie! Marie %a-!in M-nro. who ha! *een *orn at St' 0l*ert. 0l*erta in 18>A' :hey ha! two chil!ren. o-is an! Cmilie. *oth of whom $asse! away' 2t is not clear if these two chil!ren were *-rie! in 1al/ary or whether they were interre! in the lar/ely - for/otten First +ations an! MGtis cemetery that is locate! on the sho-l!er of the +orth ,ill. *elow the former site of St' ?ose$h 1onvent' 2n the mi!-188As. the Marions move! to the @o$lar &i!/e !istrict. west of &e! Deer' +arcisse was a*le to sec-re a homestea!' ,owever. he !i! not !o m-ch farmin/' ,e $referre! to s-$$ort himself an! his family *y h-ntin/. tra$$in/ an! actin/ as a lan! /-i!e to new settlers comin/ into the !istrict' +orman “+or*ert" was *orn on Pcto*er 9. 1857 at St' 4oniface' ,e marrie! &ose P-elette (or Cllette). the !a-/hter of Met-is tra!er 0ntoine “&atte" P-elette an! 0n/eli$ue +ottineau. ,he) had seven chi(dren &orn at -.ood /ountain and
Oak Lake.

2n 1879. +arcisse Marion was !esi/nate! to serve on the 1o-ncil of 0ssini*oia. *-t %overnor Sim$son ref-se! to acce$t his nomination' :his <inni$e/ Metis *lac6smith was an o$$onent of o-is &iel an!. altho-/h he wor6e! to s-$$ort the e/islative 0ssem*ly of 0ssini*oia the 1om$ensation 1ommission awar!e! him X1AA for har!shi$ !-rin/ the $erio! of riel)s @rovisional %overnment' 2n the early 187As. Marion *-ilt a win!mill so-th of the St' 4oniface Mission 1h-rch' #$ -ntil the 185As this was the only win!mill on the east si!e of the &e! &iver (e;ce$t the one m-ch f-rther north at St' @eters'

29

?istorian ;illian :homas $rites o6 Marie osalie Marion@ 2n this $a$er 2 wo-l! li6e to honor the women who ma!e the first homes in the <est' :heir contri*-tion was so im$ortant they sho-l! not *e over-loo6e!. *-t we fin! very little a*o-t them in the recor!s we have' 2 am. however. /oin/ to mention one woman who was ty$ical of many in her /enero-s hos$itality. an! her home was freM-ently mentione! *y early historians' 2 am referrin/ to Ma!ame +arcisse Marion' :he Marion home was in St' 4oniface' 2t seeme! that most newcomers arrivin/ there soon t-rne! -$ at the home of +arcisse Marion' 0mon/ them was &everen! ?ohn 4lac6. the first @res*yterian minister in the &e! &iver settlement' EForF forty years the Sel6ir6 Settlers ha! $raye! for a minister of their own faith. an! when he arrive! he was not e;$ecte!' Ma!ame Marion entertaine! him -ntil he was reste! an! refreshe!' Mr' Marion then too6 him to his new home' 0 very /oo! !escri$tion of the 6in! of home Ma!ame Marion 6e$t is /iven *y ?' <' &a!i/er. ,ea! 1ler6 of the ,-!sonSs 4ay 1om$any' ,e wroteI Q2n a *ea-tif-l settin/ of trees. water an! wil! flowers 2 reache! a s$ot where a $eacef-l an! cosy home was stan!in/' 2 6noc6e! at the front !oor an! was welcome! *y a *rown-eye! mai!en wearin/ a !ainty merino !ress an! a s$otless white $inafore' <ith a winnin/ smile an! an invitin/ co-rtesy she intro!-ce! me to a tall. stron/ an! healthy /entleman. the real ty$e of a 1ana!ian from ol! L-e*ec' 0fter a few inM-iries 2 was invite! to have !inner with the family' :here was the father. M' +arcisse Marion. the mother. a tall. stately woman. an! their three !a-/hters. ?ose$hine. Clise an! &osalie' 0 yo-n/ mai! *y the name of Ma//ie waite! on ta*le' Q0 strict etiM-ette was !is$laye! in the $re$aration an! the servin/ of the foo!-the latter !one to $erfection' 2 was am-se! *y the fact that the hea! of the family was not M-ite familiar with the Cn/lish lan/-a/e. an! this ma!e me realiOe how $erfectly the yo-n/ la!ies s$o6e it' Q2 !i! a$$reciate their res$ectf-l an! !elicate manners when necessary errors in s$eech ha! to *e correcte!. to ma6e the meanin/ clear' QPn leavin/ 2 e;$resse! my s-r$rise. my than6s an! a!miration to those 2 now n-m*er amon/ my *est frien!s in the <est' &eally 2 co-l! not have fo-n! in my own co-ntry more refine! or *etter e!-cate! $eo$le than those 2 have met here to!ay'Q Pne can ima/ine the infl-ence of s-ch a home. an! hono-r the women who 6e$t -$ s-ch a stan!ar!'9

9

illian 4eynon :homas' “Some Manito*a <omen <ho Di! First :hin/s'" Manito+a -istorical Society 6ransactions. Series =. +o' 7. 1977-78

=A

Marion, Ma&ime. (18=8-191A) Ma;ime Marion, . a 4o-n!ary 1ommission /-i!e in 1872-7= east of the &e! &iver.
was *orn on 0$ril 25. 18=8 in St 4oniface' ,e !ie! on May 15. 191A at :-rtle Mo-ntain &eserve. near 4elco-rt. +orth Da6ota' ,e was the son of Francois Marion (*' 181A) an! 0n/eliM-e

Descham$s !it Morea- (* 1812)' ,e marrie! Clise-CliOa*eth St Matte !it ?erome (*' ?-ne 15. 187=) on Se$tem*er A1. 18>2 in the 0ss-m$tion Mission. near @em*ina' Clise was the !a-/hter of Martin St' Mathe Sr' !it St' Matte !it ?erome an! CliOa*eth2sa*elle-Q4ethsyQ <il6ie' Ma;ime liste! himself as a $lains tra!er' Ma;ime was as mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' Ma;ime Marion was *orn 0$ril 25. 18=8. at St' 4oniface' ?ean 4a$tiste <il6ie. the Metis chief. was his -ncle' Ma;ime was a si/natory to the :-rtle Mo-ntain :reaty of ?-ly 1=. 1892' ,e an! his family a$$ear on the :-rtle Mo-ntain 4an! cens-s 1888-1892'

Ma;ime)s *rother. &o/er Marion. was the 1onservative M'@' for 1arillon in 188> an! 1888. he was !efeate! in 1892 an! re-electe! in 189>' &o/er was the mayor of St' 4oniface from 1887 to 1889' 2n 1891. he was electe! $resi!ent of the #nion MGtisse Saint-?ose$h' &o/er was *orn at 5or6 Factory an! e!-cate! at 1ollT/e !e Saint4oniface' ,e wor6e! for several years at the tra!in/ $ost of 1harles 4ottinea- in Da6ota :erritory. after 18>2' Marion, 9arcisse' (18A>-1877) +arcisse was *orn on Decem*er 7. 18A>. the son of Fran9ois Marion an! isette

=1

Martel' Pn an -n6nown !ate. $ossi*ly at 5or6 Factory or +orway ,o-se he marrie! Marie 4o-char! ($ossi*ly 4o-cher or 4ea-cham$ *' 1817) an! they ha! twelve chil!ren' 0ccor!in/ to ch-rch recor!s they *a$tiOe! two infants *orn in 18=1 an! 18=7 at either 5or6 Factory or +orway ,o-se' 2n 1879. he was !esi/nate! to serve on the 1o-ncil of 0ssini*oia. *-t %overnor Sim$son ref-se! to acce$t his nomination' :his <inni$e/ Metis *lac6smith was an o$$onent of &iel an!. altho-/h he wor6e! to s-$$ort the @rovisional %overnment. the 1om$ensation 1ommission awar!e! him X1AA for har!shi$' 2n the early 187As. Marion *-ilt a win!mill so-th of the St' 4oniface Mission 1h-rch' #$ -ntil the 185As this was the only win!mill on the east si!e of the &e! &iver (e;ce$t the one m-ch f-rther north at St' @eters)' Marion, 9arcisse )r. (*' 185A) :he local le/acy of +arcisse MarionI 4y Michael Dawe - &e! Deer C;$ress @-*lishe!I ?an-ary 2=. 2A1= 7I5A 0M Pne of the very ol!est families in the &e! Deer area an! in all of <estern 1ana!a is the +arcisse Marion family' Mem*ers of the family have live! in &e! Deer an! !istrict for more than 125 years' +arcisse Marion was *orn at St' 4oniface. Manito*a in Pcto*er 185A. one of 1A chil!ren to +arcisse an! Marie 4o-char! !it &ichar! Marion' ,is father was a *lac6smith who was also a fame! !ancer of the &e! &iver 3i/' +arcisse Marion Sr' was also note! for havin/ literally !ance! himself to !eath at the we!!in/ rece$tion for his !a-/hter Clise'1A She ha! marrie! +orman Kittson. a f-r tra!er an! entre$rene-r who ha! *ecome one of the wealthiest men in western +orth 0merica' Since his *rother &o/er. later a Manito*a M 0 was e!-cate! at 1ollG/e !e Saint 4oniface. it is li6ely +arcisse ?r' was e!-cate! there as well' %iven his *ac6/ro-n! an! -$*rin/in/. +arcisse was a*le to s$ea6 fl-ent Cn/lish. French an! 1ree' ,e also $ic6e! -$ some 4lac6foot. Stoney an! P3i*wa' +arcisse ?r' move! to 0l*erta in the late 187As or early 188As' ,e marrie! Marie %a-!in M-nro. who ha! *een *orn at St' 0l*ert. 0l*erta in 18>A' :hey ha! two chil!ren. o-is an! Cmilie. *oth of whom $asse! away' 2t is not clear if these two chil!ren were *-rie! in 1al/ary or whether they were interre! in the lar/ely - for/otten First +ations an! MGtis

1A

C!itor)s noteI :his is an oft re$eate! tale that has ma!e its way into Marion fol6lore' Clise was marrie! in 1877 an! her father +arcisse in fact !ie! in 1877'

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cemetery that is locate! on the sho-l!er of the +orth ,ill. *elow the former site of St' ?ose$h 1onvent' 2n the mi!-188As. the Marions move! to the @o$lar &i!/e !istrict. west of &e! Deer' +arcisse was a*le to sec-re a homestea!' ,owever. he !i! not !o m-ch farmin/' ,e $referre! to s-$$ort himself an! his family *y h-ntin/. tra$$in/ an! actin/ as a lan! /-i!e to new settlers comin/ into the !istrict' 0fter their arrival in the &e! Deer area. +arcisse an! Marie ha! sons <illiam. Nictor an! o-is (the secon!) an! !a-/hters &-*y an! Nelma' :hey also a!o$te! another !a-/hter. CliOa*eth' i6e his father. +arcisse *ecame a note! !ancer of the &e! &iver 3i/' 0ccor!in/ to one acco-nt he was “0s li/ht as thistle !own on moccasine! feet'" ,e also *ecame famo-s for his talents with a violin' 2t was recor!e! that he “co-l! almost ma6e a fi!!le tal6'" Moreover. sometimes. very late at ni/ht. he wo-l! start to fall aslee$ while $layin/' ,owever. as soon as he realiOe! what was ha$$enin/. he wo-l! wa6e himself with a 3er6 an! 6ee$ $layin/ witho-t missin/ a *eat' 1onseM-ently. +arcisse was always in /reat !eman! at many early !ances an! socials' ,e also freM-ently sto$$e! *y the :e! C!/in/ton ho-se on Nictoria 0ve' (7=) St' 0ll 6in!s of $eo$le. $artic-larly yo-n/ a!-lts an! teena/ers. wo-l! 3oin him for a ni/ht of m-sic. !ancin/ an! a /reat !eal of f-n' +arcisse atten!e! the first ann-al *anM-et of the <as6asoo (&e! Deer) Pl! :imers) 0ssociation in the 0le;an!ra ,otel on &oss St' on Fe*' 28. 191A' ,e was /iven the hono-r of *ein/ the atten!ee with the lon/est resi!ence west of the %reat a6es (59 years)' 2n the years lea!in/ -$ to the First <orl! <ar. *oth of +arcisse an! Marie)s ol!est sons. <illiam an! Nictor. were a*le to sec-re 3o*s at the <estern %eneral Clectric $owerho-se. which was locate! a short !istance west of the ol! 1'@'&' rail *ri!/e' <hen the First <orl! <ar *ro6e o-t. Nictor enliste! with the local 187 4attalion. later transferrin/ overseas to the 5A 4attalion an! the 1A 4ri/a!e trench mortar *atter' +arcisse $asse! away in ?an-ary of 1917' ,is o*it-ary $raise! him as a man who *elieve! in *ein/ “honest. tr-thf-l an! 6in!" an! of havin/ “native !i/nity'" +arcisse is *-rie! in the Mo-nt 1alvary &oman 1atholic 1emetery on >7 St' :here are mem*ers of the Marion family still livin/ in &e! Deer' Marion, 9orman. (*' 1857) +orman was *orn at St' 4oniface. the son of +arcisse Marion (*' 18A5) an! Marie 4o-char!' ,e marrie! &ose P-ellette. the !a-/hter of Metis tra!er 0ntoine P-ellette an! 0n/eliM-e 4ottinea-' :y$ical of h-ntin/ families they ha! chil!ren across the $rairies at <oo! Mo-ntain. ewistown. e*ret an! Pa6 a6e' +orman)s father-in-law is liste! *elow' +orman was as mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' +orman also si/ne! o-is &iel)s 0-/-st > th 188A $etition for a

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Metis reserve in Montana' Marion, o"er, M.7' (*' 187>) &o/er was the son of +arcisse Marion Sr' an! Marie 4o-char!' ,e marrie! ?-lienne 1arriere' 0 $olitician. Marion was the 1onservative M'@' for 1arillon in 188> an! 1888. he was !efeate! in 1892 an! re-electe! in 189>' ,e was the mayor of St' 4oniface from 1887 to 1889' 2n 1891. he was electe! $resi!ent of the #nion MGtisse Saint-?ose$h' &o/er was *orn at 5or6 Factory an! e!-cate! at 1ollT/e !e Saint4oniface' ,e wor6e! from 1872 to 187> with the 1-stoms Service then serve! as Manito*a icense 1ommissioner from 1879 to 1885' Martin, Al,honse (#. 15<5) 0l$honse was *orn on Se$tem*er 29. 18=8. the son of 0*raham Martin !it 4arna*e an! C-$hrosine %arie$y. the !a-/hter of o-is %arie$y an! ?ose$hte (Sa-ltea-;)' ,e marrie! 2sa*elle &acette. the !a-/hter of %eor/e &acette an! Francoise %-il*ea-lt in 18>1 at SFW' :hey ha! nine chil!ren. the last three were *orn at L-)0$$elle' 0l$honse si/ne! the Metis @etition of 0-/-st 29. 1882 that was sent to C!/ar Dew!ney. the ie-tenant %overnor of the +orth-<est :erritories statin/ that the Pntario an! L-)0$$elle an! com$any was !is$ossessin/ the Metis of their lan!s *eca-se the s-rveys that ha! *een !one showe! some of them to *e on railway lan!' :heir son %il*ert (*' 18>2) marrie! 1lemence Sim$son the !a-/hter of ?ohn Sim$son who also si/ne! this $etition' Scri$ affi!avit for Martin. 0l$honseB *ornI Fall. 18=8B fatherI 0*raham Martin (French 1ana!ian)B motherI C-$hrasine %arie$y (MGtis)B claim noI 292>B scri$ noI 12772B !ate of iss-eI May 9. 1879B amo-ntI X1>A Scri$ affi!avit for Martin. 2sa*ellaB *ornI May =A. 18=7B wife of 0l$honse MartinB fatherI %eor/e &acette (MGtis)B motherI Francoise %il*ea- (MGtis)B claim noI 2927B scri$ noI 1277=B !ate of iss-eI May 9. 1879B amo-ntI X1>A Martin, -harles. 1harles was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4ernar! @a-l)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' Martin, )ohn. ?ohn was also a mem*er of 1a$tain 4ernar! @a-l)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' Martin, 7ierre. @ierre was the son of 0l$honse Martin an! 2sa*elle &acette' ,e was a $lains h-nter marrie! to Clise avallee' ,e was also a mem*er of 1a$tain 4ernar! @a-l)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' Martin, -harles. (*' 18>7) 1harles was *orn on Pcto*er =. 18>7. the son of a-rent Ctiene Martin an! 0n/eliM-e 1halifo-;' 1harles was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4ernar! @a-l)s com$any. one of

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the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' Martin, )ohn. ?ohn was also a mem*er of 1a$tain 4ernar! @a-l)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' Martin, 7ierre. (*' 1859) @ierre was the son of 0l$honse Martin !it 4arna*e an! 2sa*elle &acette' ,e was a $lains h-nter marrie! to Clise avallee' ,e was also a mem*er of 1a$tain 4ernar! @a-l)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' Mar4yarm4mons. See afontaine. o-is' Maracle, ;ee. (*' 195A) ee Maracle. *orn on the west coast of 4ritish 1ol-m*ia. is of SalishJMetis herita/e' She is the a-thor of novels. non-fiction wor6s. $oetry. an! short stories' She has $-*lishe! in over a !oOen antholo/ies. an! in n-mero-s 3o-rnals an! ma/aOines' ee an! her si*lin/s were raise! *y their Metis mother. one of the wor6in/ $oor. in a +orth Nanco-ver nei/h*o-rhoo!' Carly on. ee re3ecte! im$ose! racism. !ro$$e! o-t of school an! *ecame $art of the “hi$$ie" s-*c-lt-re *efore *ecomin/ $olitically active in the “&e! @ower Movement'" She was one of the first 0*ori/inal $eo$le to *e $-*lishe! in the early 197As' ,er a-to*io/ra$hy. 3o++i *ee: :n ian .e+el. was $-*lishe! *y the i*eration S-$$ort Movement @ress in 1975' ,er secon! *oo6. : 1m 5oman (Nanco-verI <rite-on @ress. 1988). is her literary e;$ression of the fi/ht for li*eration an! !ecoloniOation' She is one of the fo-n!ers of the 8n;owkin :nternational School of 5ritin! in @enticton. 41. a learnin/ instit-te with an 2n!i/eno-s Fine 0rts @ro/ram an! an P6ana/on an/-a/e @ro/ram' Maracle has ta-/ht creative writin/ an! hel! a visitin/ $rofessorshi$ with the <omenSs St-!ies $ro/ram at the #niversity of :oronto' She was the tra!itional c-lt-ral !irector for the Centre for :n i!enous 6heatre an! the 1+ori!inal Mentor in the :ransitional 5ear @ro/ram at the #niversity of :oronto' She has *een the 4istin!uishe <isitin! Professor of Cana ian Culture at <estern <ashin/ton #niversity an! a <riter-in-&esi!ence at the #niversity of %-el$h' Maracle $-*lishe! her first $oetry *oo6. 3ent 3o= in 2AAA' ,er literary wor6s incl-!eI So>ourner;s an Sun o!s, .a/enson!, 4au!hters 1re Fore/er, 5ill;s 9ar en, 3ent 3o=, : 1m 5oman? she is also the co-e!itor of a n-m*er of antholo/ies incl-!in/ the awar! winnin/ $-*lication. My -ome 1s : .emem+er' She is a co-a-thor of 6ellin! :t: 5omen an *an!ua!e 1cross Culture' Mason, So,hia :homas. (18A5-18>1) So$hie :homas was *orn circa 18A5 at &e! &iver. the thir! !a-/hter of Dr :homas :homas an! his 1ree wife Sarah' ,er ol!er sister Mary 0nn was marrie! to %eor/e 4ir!. the son of ?ames 1-rtis 4ir!' ,er yo-n/er sister CliOa*eth marrie! ?ose$h 4ir!. %eor/e)s

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*rother' ,er father was a ,41 chief factor an! /overnor of the +orthern De$artment' She was *a$tiOe! on +ovem*er 1A. 1822 at St' ?ohn)s. &e! &iver' <hen Dr :homas !ie! in 1828 he left each of his si; !a-/hters [1.AAA in = $er cent consoli!ate! 4an6 of Cn/lan! ann-ities' So$hia ha! the *enefit of a /oo! -$*rin/in/. first in the home of the &everen! Davi! :homas ?ones. in whose tr-st she ha! *een $lace! *y her father. an!. after ?ones) !eath. in the home of the &everen! <illiam 1oc6ran' She receive! her e!-cation at the &e! &iver 0ca!emy' 2n 187=. an offer ma!e to her to *e a /overness in the la!ies) section of the aca!emy' She !ecline! in or!er to marry. the &everen! <illiam Mason. a <esleyan Metho!ist missionary. on 0-/-st 1A. 187= at St' ?ohn)s' :he co-$le was first $oste! at the &ossville mission. at +orway ,o-se in 187=' :his *ecame their home for 11 years' 0t that time &ossville mission was in the char/e of the &everen! ?ames Cvans. the inventor of the sylla*ic system of writin/ the 1ree lan/-a/e' 2n the s-mmer of 1875 Cvans left with his family *eca-se of ill health' 2t th-s fell to <illiam Mason to $ro$a/ate the %os$el amon/ the 2n!ians *y means of the $rinte! wor!' So$hia Mason)s a*ility to s$ea6 1ree was of /reat assistance to her h-s*an!' So$hia. hel$e! o-t at the 2n!ian !ay school. ma!e visits to the 2n!ian homes. as well as atten!in/ to the nee!s of their lar/e family. in s$ite of rather fra/ile health' 2n 1857 Mason left the Metho!ist 1h-rch. 3oine! the 1h-rch of Cn/lan!' :hey then move! to 5or6 Factory' Fo-r years later the Masons saile! to Cn/lan! to s-$erinten! the $rintin/ of the +ew :estament in 1ree sylla*icsB when this was com$lete! in 1859. they remaine! to see the Pl! :estament thro-/h the $ress' Shortly after her arrival in Cn/lan! in 1858 So$hia s-ffere! a severe attac6 of $le-risy. an! she contin-e! to have $-lmonary afflictions' ,er translatin/ was freM-ently interr-$te! *y seiO-res of $ain' 2n ?-ly18>1. she /ave *irth to her ninth chil!' She contin-e! her wor6 on he last of the Pl! :estament *oo6s an! three months later was !ea!' &eference 4r-ce @eel. “So$hia :homas'" 2n 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy. Nol' 2W (18>1187A)' :orontoI #niversity of :oronto @ress. 197>' Mattes, -atherine. Metis c-rator an! writer 1atherine Mattes lives in Shilo. Manito*a an! has roots in @orta/e a @rairie' She com$lete! her 40 at the #niversity of <inni$e/ in 199> an! her M'0' in 0rt ,istory in Montreal at 1oncor!ia #niversity in 1998' She was co-c-rator for the art e;hi*it. .ielisms. which a$$eare! at the <inni$e/ 0rt %allery. ?an-ary 25 to March 18. 2AA1. an! the D-nlo$ 0rt %allery in &e/ina also 2AA1' 2n this e;hi*it ten artistsHof Metis. First +ations. an! C-ro1ana!ian ancestryH$resent their own inter$retations of this iconic fi/-re' 1atherine foc-ses on 0*ori/inal 2ss-es an! 0rt in her $ractice' She has or/aniOe! or assiste! in n-mero-s e;hi*itions of this ty$e. for e;am$le. 6attoonation (1o-1-rator. +ation2+ation. Montreal. 1997). .e:Collections@First Nations Photo!ra'hy an 8=hi+ition (Pr/aniOer. 2AAA-2AA1. #r*an Shaman %allery. <inni$e/ with 4oomalli 0*ori/inal 0rtists 1o-o$erative. Sy!ney. 0-stralia)' 1athy has $resente! critical art historical $a$ers at conferences s-ch as the earne! Society of 1ana!a an! the #niversity

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0rt 0ssociation of 1ana!a' She has ha! articles $-*lishe! in 1+ori!inal <oices. 3or er Crossin!s an! was a /-est e!itor for Prairie FireAsI First <oices First 5or s (Nol' 22. +o' =. 0-t-mn 2AA1)' 1atherine contri*-te! a cha$terB “Metis @ers$ectives in 1ontem$orary 0rt." to the recent o-is &iel 2nstit-te. 1ana!a Millenni-m 4-rea- *oo6 $ro3ect Metis *e!acy (@emmican @-*lications 2nc' 2AA1)' She is a *oar! mem*er of the #r*an Shaman %allery in <inni$e/' McDermot Bannatyne, Annie. (18=A-19A8) 4y :o!! amiran!e 0nnie)s father was *orn in 2relan!. 3oine! the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any an! arrive! at 5or6 Factory in 1812' 0ro-n! 1817 he marrie!. 8 la fa9on !- $ays. Sarah Mc+a*. the !a-/hter of :homas Mc+a* an! a Sa-ltea-; woman' :he co-$le ha! nine !a-/hters an! si; sons who s-rvive! infancy. of which 0nnie was the fifth !a-/hter' 2n 185A. she marrie! 0n!rew 4annatyne. a ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any em$loyee who went on to *ecome a very wealthy merchant' She *ecame a lea!in/ force in early $hilanthro$y at &e! &iver' ,er la!ies association !i! e;tensive f-n!raisin/ for ca-ses s-ch as the <inni$e/ %eneral ,os$ital' She is $erha$s *est 6nown for horsewhi$$in/ :oronto writer an! $oet 1harles Mair as a conseM-ence for the !is$ara/in/ remar6s he ha! ma!e a*o-t ,alf-4ree! women an! &e! &iver society in letters $-*lishe! in the :oronto %lo*e' :he !a-/hter an! wife of two of the most $rominent men !-rin/ the &e! &iver Settlement era. 0nnie 4annatyne)s horsewhi$$in/ of 1harles Mair. an act still remem*ere! *y some $eo$le to this !ay. $rove! that she was not a mere a$$en!a/e to the men in her life' @re!atin/ the &iel &esistance *y almost a year. this act also sym*oliOe! the /-lf *etween the ol! settlers an! the *rash newcomers from 1ana!a' Mrs' 4annatyne certainly acM-ire! /-m$tion in a h-rry' 4orn in 18=A. she /rew -$ in a $ioneer environment lac6in/ many of the amenities fo-n! *ac6 east. an! e;$erience! a climate that varie! wi!ely *etween e;tremes of hot an! col!' 0nnie McDermot)s early -$*rin/in/ was not all a life of $rivation *eca-se she /rew -$ as the !a-/hter of the wealthiest man in &e! &iver' 0n!rew McDermot was *orn in 2relan!. 1o-nty of &osscommon. in 1791. the son of Myles McDermot. a !escen!ant of 2rish royalty' 0fter the !eath of his first wife. Myles ha! a family with the “Fair Kitty" P)1onnor. a marria/e which was never consecrate! *y the 1atholic 1h-rch' 0n!rew was the $ro!-ct of this ille/itimate -nion. which mi/ht e;$lain his wea6 a!herence to the 1atholic faith an! the fact that several of his chil!ren. incl-!in/ 0nnie. were marrie! o-tsi!e of the 1h-rch' ,e event-ally left the 1h-rch in 18>>' McDermot)s ille/itimacy wo-l! li6ely have limite! his o$$ort-nities an! it most

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li6ely was a ma3or contri*-tor to his !ecision to leave 2relan!' 0n!rew McDermott was the &e! &iver em*o!iment of the ,oratio 0l/er myth' 0fter a !oOen years in the service of the ,41. he retire! to the &e! &iver Settlement in 1827 an! str-c6 o-t on his own' 4y that time he co-l! s$ea6 several 0*ori/inal lan/-a/es. “r-n li6e a !eer an! en!-re col! li6e an Cs6imo !o/. an! there was no *etter 3-!/e of men an! horses in &e! river. or any man who was his eM-al in a!!ress an! accommo!atin/ M-alities. in h-mor an! shrew!ness an! the $ower of ma6in/ money'" 11 Startin/ o-t with [7A to [5A. he ha! amasse! a small fort-ne of *etween [8.AAA to [1A.AAA *y the 187As'12 ,is s-ccess is star6ly reveale! in the 0ssini*oia District cens-sI in 18=2 he owne! 12 carts. 5 *-il!in/s. 7 o;en. 7 horses. an! ha! 11 acres -n!er c-ltivationB *y 1879 he ha! 2A carts. 11 *-il!in/s. 7A o;en. =2 horses. a win!mill. a sho$ of merchan!ise. an! 7A acres -n!er c-ltivation'1= :his was far more $ro$erty than the avera/e resi!ent of &e! &iver owne! at the time' 0le;an!er &oss wrote one of the *est !escri$tions of McDermot an! his m-ltifario-s interestsI “EMcDermot` is at once a merchant. a farmer. a horse 3oc6ey. an! a !ealer in cattle' 2n *arter. traffic. an! *ar/ain ma6in/. he stan!s -nrivalle!' ,e has trie! everythin/ an! everythin/ he has trie! fort-ne has t-rne! to his a!vanta/e _ the $oor man)s frien! an! the rich man)s com$anion'"17 &oss was $ro*a*ly in!-l/in/ in a *it of ha/io/ra$hy' Stories that s-rvive! !own to the %reat De$ression s-//est that McDermot)s $arsimony hel$e! his *-siness s-ccessB for e;am$le. he wo-l! $-t -se! tea *ac6 in the tea chests to later *e sol! to -ns-s$ectin/ c-stomers'15 Cven when he wor6e! for the ,41 as a tra!er. McDermot was not a*ove shortchan/in/ the 2n!iansI “he_!eceive! them so often that they $-t no faith in his wor!'"1> &e/ar!less of how he acc-m-late! his wealth. it no !o-*t $rovi!e! a relatively comforta*le life for his family an! a relatively $rivile/e! -$*rin/in/ for 0nnie' @art. if not all. of her chil!hoo! wo-l! have *een s$ent at Cmeral! o!/e.17 also 6nown as Cmeral! %rove. the resi!ence an! store *-ilt a few h-n!re! yar!s north of Fort %arry *y McDermot' <'?' ,ealy recor!s a !escri$tion of the ho-se *y one of his /ran!!a-/htersI 2t was a very lar/e two-storey ho-se. *-ilt of lo/s. with weather*oar! on to$' 2t was $lastere! insi!e' 0 hallway ran !own the mi!!le. with two lar/e rooms on each si!e of it at the front' :here were fire$laces of m-!. which were afterwar!s of *ric6. in each of those rooms' :he *e!rooms -$stairs were heate! *y 1arron *o;-stoves' :here was /oo! waln-t f-rnit-re in the livin/ roomDsome heavy chairs an! other
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<'?' ,ealy. 5omen of .e .i/er (<inni$e/. 19>7). 129-1=A' Claine 0llen Mitchell. “0 &e! &iver %ossi$." 6he 3ea/er (S$rin/ 19>1). 8' 1= @'0'M'. 0ssini*oia DistrictD1ens-s. 18=2. 11B 1879. 9-1A' 17 &oss. =99' 15 @'0'M'. 1harles +a$ier 4ell @a$ers. *o; 1. Z7=7-=>' Do-/las <a-/h to 4ell. +ovem*er 1=. 19==' 1> ,'4'1'0'. 4 122JeJ1. <illiam 4rown. .e'ort of the Manito+a 4istrict for "B"B C "B"%' 17 Cmeral! o!/e was also 6nown as McDermotown' :he collection of *-il!in/s owne! *y McDermot forme! the n-cle-s of the f-t-re <inni$e/' 4arry C' ,yman. “0n!rew McDermot." 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy. vol' W2. 1881-189A (:oronto. 1982). 57>'

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thin/s_18 0nnie live! in what was most li6ely one of the most $resti/io-s *-il!in/s in the co-ntry. *-t it was not -$ to eastern stan!ar!s' ?ose$h ?ames ,ar/rave commente! on the state of ho-sin/ in &e! &iver when he visite! in the 18>AsI “,o-se *-il!in/ is in a very $rimitive state_' Cven the resi!ences of many of the com$aratively $ros$ero-s. evince a /ross i/norance of the essentials of comfort on the $art of their !esi/ners." he scoffe!' 19 2n!ee!. ima/es of Cmeral! o!/e !atin/ from the 185As /ive some cre!i*ility as to the h-m*le state of the McDermot a*o!e' +one-the-less. their $ro;imity to Fort %arry an! the $rominence of 0nnie)s father ins-re! that she was e;$ose! from an early a/e to the *est cosmo$olitan milie- that &e! &iver co-l! offer' :he Fort was the centre of commerce an! social life for most of the settlement' 2t was a “lively an! attractive station. f-ll of *-siness an! *-stle' ,ere all the affairs of the colony are chiefly transacte!. an! here la!ies wear their sil6en /owns. an! /entlemen their *eaver hats' 2ts /ay an! im$osin/ a$$earance ma6es it the !eli/ht of every visitorB the ren!eOvo-s of all comers an! /oers'"2A Many travellers from across the continent s$ent the ni/ht at Cmeral! o!/e. the “-nofficial" hotel of &e! &iver' ,ere they wo-l! tell stories of !an/er an! a!vent-re that li6ely ma!e an im$ression on the yo-n/ 0nnie an! which $ro*a*ly contri*-te! to her wan!erl-st' :he McDermot family)s hos$itality wo-l! mar6 a $rece!ent that the later Mrs' 4annatyne wo-l! em*race heartily when she *e/an her own career of entertainin/ /-ests' 2t is !iffic-lt to s$ec-late m-ch a*o-t her chil!hoo! *eca-se their family was not a s-*3ect that intereste! contem$orary writers s-ch as 0le;an!er &oss' ,owever. the reminiscences of 0n!rew McDermot)s /ran!!a-/hter. ,arriet :r-thwaite. offer a few insi/hts into 0nnie)s chil!hoo!' She recalle! that McDermot showe! an affectionate an! ro/-ish si!e to his /ran!chil!renI ,e was always fon! of teasin/. an! 2 remem*er that when he was M-ite ol! an! -se! to sit in his sM-are chair smo6in/ his $i$e. with his han!s restin/ on the oa6 stic6 he always li6e! to have. yo- co-l! never *e s-re what tric6 he wo-l!n)t $lay on yo- if yo- /ot within reach of him' <hen we were /oin/ somewhere an! all !resse! -$. with the trains we -se! to wear. we -se! to have to hol! o-r trains an! 6ee$ well away from him or he wo-l! s-!!enly $-t o-t his stic6 an! try to hol! the train of a !ress to the floor with it'21 McDermot)s store. with its e;otic items an! aromas. was a “$lace of won!er" for his /ran!chil!ren' ,e wo-l! often “h-moro-sly" search the chil!ren)s $oc6ets to ma6e s-re they ha!n)t a*scon!e! with any l-m$s of s-/ar after so3o-rnin/ in the store' 22 ,e -n!o-*te!ly wo-l! have shown the same affection for his own chil!ren when the vi/o-r of yo-th wo-l! have ma!e him even more im$ish'
18 19

,ealy. 1=7' ?ose$h ?ames ,ar/rave. .e .i/er (0ltona. 1977 re$rint). 7>8' 2A &oss. 17=' 21 ,ealy. 1==' 22 2*i!'. 1=7'

=9

0nnie McDermot)s -$*rin/in/ wo-l! not have *een as ri/oro-s as many of the other mi;e!-*loo! chil!ren in the settlement' 1ertainly. it was not as severe as the Metis chil!ren who accom$anie! their $arents on the semi-ann-al *-ffalo h-nts. where they wo-l! $artici$ate in the !ressin/ of *-ffalo ro*es an! the ma6in/ of $emmican' 4y the time she was ei/ht or nine years ol!. an! -$ to the time of her marria/e. a female servant was co-nte! amon/ the occ-$ants of Cmeral! o!/e' 2= 2n a ho-sehol! that often containe! -$ to a !oOen $eo$le. a servant wo-l! not mean that 0nnie was entirely free from chores' 2n a frontier settin/. she wo-l! not esca$e coo6in/. cleanin/ an! other !r-!/ery that constit-te! “women)s wor6'" 5et this $ioneerin/ lifestyle !i! not mean she was free to avoi! /oin/ to school' 0/ain. some s$ec-lation is necessary' 0n e;istin/ short *io/ra$hy s-//ests that her e!-cation was hi/her than that receive! *y many /irls in the settlement' 27 Pne of &iel)s *io/ra$hers. Ma//ie Si//ins. states that the yo-n/ McDermot was e!-cate! at the %rey +-n)s 1onvent.25$ossi*ly -n!er the ass-m$tion that Mr' McDermot was a 1atholic' :he %rey +-ns. however. !i! not start a school for /irls -ntil ?-ly 11. 1877. three wee6s after they arrive! in &e! &iver' 4y this time. 0nnie wo-l! have *een a*o-t 17 years ol!' 0ltho-/h she was $ro*a*ly *orn into the 1atholic faith. it is -nli6ely that the %rey +-ns e!-cate! her. es$ecially since they schoole! their $-$ils in French' She more li6ely atten!e! the &e! &iver 0ca!emy. a *oar!in/ school that was fo-n!e! in 18== *y the 0n/lican Missionary Davi! ?ones an! his wife Mary' :he 0ca!emy was an attem$t to trans$ort the morals an! val-es of 4ritain into the $rairie wil!erness. altho-/h it was lar/ely for the *enefit of the -$$er classes of the f-r tra!e in &-$ert)s an!' ?ones wrote to %overnor Sim$son that a school was nee!e! “for the moral im$rovement. reli/io-s instr-ction an! /eneral e!-cation of *oysB the sons of /entlemen *elon/in/ to the f-r tra!e'"2> 0lmost as an aftertho-/ht. Sim$son s-//este! that $rovision *e ma!e for the e!-cation of /irls as well' ?ones a/ree!. an! a two story woo!en *-il!in/ was erecte! near St' ?ohn)s 1h-rch. a*o-t three 6ilometres north of Fort %arry' 2t is !iffic-lt to 6now with certainty whether 0nnie atten!e! the *oar!in/ school or ma!e !aily tri$s from Cmeral! o!/e' <hereas *oys receive! schoolin/ heavy in the classics. the yo-n/ 0nnie receive! a more /eneral e!-cation that em*race! “rea!in/. writin/. arithmetic. /eo/ra$hy. the -se of /lo*es. history an! catechical information'" 27 4eca-se the 0ca!emy serve! &e! &iver)s -$$er cr-st. 0n!rew McDermot wo-l! -nM-estiona*ly have sent his !a-/hters there' Fin!in/ a schoolmistress was $ro*lematic' 4etween 18== an! 187A. several women came an! left the 0ca!emy. most often in or!er to *e marrie!' Mary owman. for e;am$le. left in the mi!!le of a school year to marry 1hief Factor ?ames 4ir!. leavin/ the /irls to the “harsh !isci$line" of the *oy)s instr-ctor. ?ohn Macall-m' From 187A to 1875.
2= 27

0ssini*oia 1ens-s. 18=8. 1879. ==.1A' Manito*a i*rary 0ssociation. Pioneers an 8arly Citi2ens of Manito+a (<inni$e/. 1971). 11' 25 Ma//ie Si//ins. .iel: 1 *ife of .e/olution (:oronto. 1997). 87' 2> <illiam ?' Fraser. St( ,ohnAs Colle!e, 5inni'e! "B$$-"%$$: 1 -istory of the first -un re Dears of the Colle!e (<inni$e/. 19>>). 12' 27 :+i '. 1='

7A

the li6ely !ates for 0nnie)s atten!ance. a Miss 0llan ta-/ht the /irl)s section' She was !escri*e! as careless an! laOy an! event-ally !ismisse! in 1875' Des$ite these $ro*lems the school)s e!-cation t-rne! o-t reasona*le facsimiles of “$ro$er Cn/lish la!ies'" ,istorian Sylvia Nan Kir6 has $ointe! o-t that the 0ca!emy ma!e consi!era*le $ro/ress in $ro!-cin/ women with the /race an! $olish e;$ecte! of yo-n/ Nictorian la!ies'28 2n!ee! ,41 1hief :ra!er. ?ames ,ar/rave tol! McDermot in 18=9. that one of his ol!er !a-/hters. who $ro*a*ly atten!e! the 0ca!emy. was more li6e a 4ritish la!y “than any other 2 have met in this lan!'" 29 :his 6in! of $-*licity ma!e the /irls !esira*le marria/e $artners' 0nnie McDermot)s match came in the form of a yo-n/ Scotsman who wo-l! event-ally rival an! s-r$ass 0n!rew McDermot in fort-ne an! $rominence' 0n!rew %raham 4allen!en 4annatyne was *orn in the Pr6ney 2slan!s a year *efore the *irth of his f-t-re wife' ,e followe! his /ran!father an! /reat/ran!fathers into the service of the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any at a/e fo-rteen' 2nitially $oste! to Sa-lt Ste' Marie. he was transferre! to &e! &iver two years later' ,e soon witnesse! how free tra!ers li6e 0n!rew McDermot an! +orman Kittson en3oye! more material wealth than that of the com$any em$loyees' :he o-tcome of the %-illa-me Sayer trial in 1879. with its cries of “ e commerce est li*reY Nive la li*ertGY." $ro*a*ly a!!e! f-el to his am*ition. an! he event-ally left the ,41 in 1851' :his s$lit with the ,41 was not an amica*le $artin/' 4annatyne was not invite! to the *on voya/e $arties hel! for Dr' ?ohn &ae' ,e later wrote to ,enry Fisher a*o-t *ein/ sn-**e!I “2 was not invite! to their /reat !inner' 2 am still in Ethe ,41)sF *lac6 *oo6' 2 wish the whole of them were now in McKenOie)s &iver livin/ on nothin/ *-t ?ac6 Fish'" =A 5et. his time at &e! &iver m-st have *ro-/ht him to the attention of *oth 0n!rew McDermot an! his !a-/hter 0nnie' :he M-estion arises as to whether 0n!rew 4annatyne marrie! 0nnie McDermot o-t of love' First. altho-/h she wo-l! have some choice. this was limite! to men of a certain class an! s-*3ect to $arental a$$roval' Secon!. f-r-tra!in/ families often intermarrie! with one another to stren/then *-siness ties' McDermot)s ol!est !a-/hter Marie marrie! a com$any cler6. &ichar! aneB Cllen marrie! :homas 4ir! son of a former 1hief FactorB Mary Sally marrie! %overnor Mac:avishB an! 0nnie marrie! a former com$any cler6' 4annatyne)s letter to Fisher in 185A an! 1851 /ive no inclination of $lans to marry' ,owever. it was common for em$loyees to reveal little a*o-t their $ersonal lives' +early one year later he *e/ins a letter to FisherI “Since 2 ha! the $leas-re of seein/ yo- last 2 have /ot marrie! a left the 1om$any)s service a settle! !own a Merchant' 2 now live with Mr' McDermot a feel M-ite ha$$y'" =1 :he tone of the letter s-//ests a M-ic6 co-rtshi$. *-t the $ro;imity of Fort %arry to Cmeral! o!/e meant that 4annatyne -n!o-*te!ly ha! freM-ent contact with the McDermot)s an! over time co-l! have *ecome smitten with 0nnie' Nan Kir6. 151' L-ote! in Nan Kir6. 151' =A 0'0'St'4'. Fon!s FisherD!)Cscham*a-lt. F-A5A5-A5=8. 4annatyne to Fisher. March 12. 1851' =1 P$' cit'. 4annatyne to Fisher. Fe*r-ary 21. 1852'
28 29

71

:he marria/e of 0n!rew 4annatyne to 0nnie McDermot too6 $lace on 0-/-st 19. 1851' :his !ate is somewhat o!! *eca-se 4annatyne was a @res*yterian. an! the settlement)s first f-ll-time or!aine! @res*yterian minister. &everen! ?ohn 4lac6. =2 !i! not arrive -ntil e;actly one month later' <hy the yo-n/ co-$le !i! not wait -ntil his arrival is -n6nown' @res*yterians within the &e! &iver Settlement ha! *een witho-t their own cler/yman for its first fo-rty years' :he 0n/lican 1h-rch ha! ma!e some accommo!ations. *-t *y the mi! 187As these ha! !isa$$eare! an! @res*yterian worshi$ers were $etitionin/ *ac6 Cast for their own minister' :his reli/io-s !ivision came to a hea! when one of the 0n/lican cler/y $roclaime! from the $-l$it. “no @res*yterian wo-l! ever enter the 6in/!om of heaven'"== 2t is therefore -nli6ely that the co-$le marrie! in the 1h-rch of Cn/lan!' 2n the early years of the Sel6ir6 1olony. a @res*yterian 1h-rch el!er. ?ames S-therlan!. ha! *een a-thoriOe! to $erform marria/es an! *a$tisms an! it is $ossi*le the same $ractice was still in $lace *y the time of the 4annatyne)s marria/e' @erha$s. &e! &iver historian 0le;an!er &oss. the ac6nowle!/e! lea!er of the @res*yterian comm-nity. $erforme! the ceremony himself' :he first co-$le of years of marria/e *ro-/ht tri-m$h an! tra/e!y for the new Mrs' 4annatyne' 0 little over one year after the we!!in/ a son ?ohn was *orn' Shortly thereafter. a family tra!ition was *e/-n with the 4annatyne)s' 0ltho-/h he wo-l! s$en! the rest of his life in &e! &iver. 4annatyne *ecame what wo-l! later *e terme! a “snow*ir!'" ,is first o$$ort-nity to avoi! the harsh Manito*a climate came !-rin/ the winter of 185=-57 when he too6 his wife an! infant son to Scotlan!' :he tri$ was no !o-*t a com*ination honeymoon an! a chance to show 0nnie the co-ntry of his *irth' :ra/ically. the yo-n/ ?ohn 4annatyne !ie! !-rin/ the 3o-rney on +ovem*er 27. 185=' ,e was *-rie! in C!in*-r/h. Scotlan!' 0ltho-/h it was common to have lar/e families with the e;$ectation that a few chil!ren wo-l! not s-rvive to a!-lthoo!. 0nnie 4annatyne wo-l! en! -$ o-tlivin/ seven of her ten chil!ren' :hese !eaths m-st have *ro-/ht /reat sa!ness thro-/ho-t her life' ,owever. she sol!iere! on an! never let them affect her $-*lic $ersona. which !evelo$e! into that of a frien!ly an! /racio-s host' ,er s6ills as an entertainer. learne! in the McDermot family home. ten!in/ to travellin/ !i/nitaries. were $-t to /oo! -se as her h-s*an! rose in $rominence' #n!er the t-tela/e of 0n!rew McDermot. 4annatyne s-r$asse! all of the other sons-in-law when it came to *-siness ac-men' ,e soon ha! his own store *-ilt on a river lot ri/ht ne;t to that of his father-in-law' 4annatyne)s s-ccess as a free tra!er soon *ro-/ht him to the attention of the com$any he so loathe!' 2n 1857. he went north to +orway ,o-se to tra!e *-t he was arreste! an! sent *ac6 to &e! &iver for violatin/ the ,41)s tra!in/ mono$oly' ,owever. there wo-l! *e no re$eat of the Sayer trial *eca-se %overnor Mac:avish release! 4annatyne soon after his arrival' ,e was now a*le to contin-e his tra!in/ $ractices -nfettere! an! he contin-e! his rise in $rominence' 4y 18>7. 4annatyne)s s6ill an! *-siness sense ha! *ro-/ht him to the to$ of the &e! &iver merchant hierarchy' 0 traveller who ha! 3o-rneye! thro-/h the settlement in 18>7 later commente!I 4lac6 was marrie! to a !a-/hter of 0le;an!er &oss' <hen she !ie! he marrie! a-ren!a %' 4annatyne. 0n!rew 4annatyne)s sister' == &oss. =7>'
=2

72

Few $eo$le ever $asse! thro-/h &e! &iver at that time witho-t e;$eriencin/ the 6in!ness an! hos$itality of Mr' 0n!rew %' 4annatyne. the lea!in/ merchant of the (town') <e were no e;ce$tion. an! were most $leasantly entertaine! at his comforta*le a*o!e. which was f-rnishe! in a manner s-r$risin/ to see after the $lain f-rnishin/s $rovi!e! *y the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any for the M-arters of their officers'=7 Pf co-rse as mistress of the ho-se. 0nnie wo-l! have *een the one who ma!e the “a*o!e" comforta*le an! who $rovi!e! most of the hos$itality' 4y this time. she was renowne! thro-/ho-t &e! &iver for her hos$itality an! frien!liness' “Mrs' 4annatyne ha! a 1hristmas Etree\F last :h-rs!ay an! she came !own herself an! invite! myself an! 0nnie_ ne;t :-es!ay they are to have another /ran! /atherin/' :hey will /o thro-/h some ceremonies an! have a /ran! !inner after. all the la!ies of the freemasons an! a few others (myself incl-!e!) will *e $resent." wrote ,enrietta 4lac6 (nGe &oss) to her *rother ?ames !-rin/ the 1hristmas season of 18>7'=5 ,er role as hostess in the !inner to cele*rate the esta*lishment of a Freemason)s o!/e => was 3-st one e;am$le of how 0nnie 4annatyne)s $osition was to *e fo-n! firmly amon/st the crEme e la crEme of the settlement' She !i! not. however. -se her $osition to merely $-t on a$$earances' 2n the late 18>As Mrs' 4annatyne involve! herself in charita*le f-nctions an! *ecame a lea!in/ force in early efforts of &e! &iver $hilanthro$y. this activity was to *ecome a life-lon/ $assion' D-rin/ the 18>> 1hristmas season. 0nnie an! several of the other $rominent women of the settlement or/aniOe! a *aOaar where they raise! an! !istri*-te! [>A or [7A to the $oor' :hese *aOaars *ecame an ann-al event' ?ames ,ar/rave commente!I “0 similar effort. assiste! *y an amate-r concert in 18>7 $ro!-ce! a*o-t [1AA. an! /ave occasion to a series of very lar/e an! $leasant /atherin/s of $eo$le from all M-arters !-rin/ the 1hristmas wee6'"=7 2n fact. the 18>7 *aOaar was hel! in Mr' 4annatyne)s new *ric6 store on what *ecame <inni$e/)s Main Street' :he 4aOaars hel$e! a n-m*er of charita*le ca-ses. *-t 0nnie *ecame $artic-larly involve! in esta*lishin/ <inni$e/)s first hos$ital in the early 187As' Pn Decem*er 18. 1872. 0n!rew 4annatyne chaire! an infl-ential meetin/ “com$ose! of men of all classes" to consi!er esta*lishin/ a hos$ital.=8 one can only s$ec-late on the amo-nt of infl-ence his wife may have ha!. /iven that at this time they ha! lost a five year ol! son an! infant !a-/hter' :hese tra/e!ies may have s$-rre! 0nnie to *e/in f-n! raisin/ an! motivate! 0n!rew to !onate the lan! for a hos$ital' 2n 1875. Mrs' 4annatyne)s a!ies 0ssociation was a*le to 2saac 1owie. 6he Com'any of 1 /enturers (:oronto. 191=). 157' @'0'M'. &oss @a$ers. Z27=. ,enrietta 4lac6 to ?ames &oss. Decem*er 27. 18>7' => 0ccor!in/ to 1harles Mair. Freemasonry ha! *een esta*lishe! to “heal the fierce anta/onisms of the time an! $lace. *-t faile! in its o*3ect an! fell to $ieces'" L-ote! in <illiam Do-/las. Freemasonry in Manito+a (<inni$e/. 1925). 77-78' 2ts fail-re was $ro*a*ly !-e to the !ifference in o-tloo6 on the M-estion of anne;ation as re$resente! *y the lo!/e)s two lea!in/ mem*ersI ?ohn 1hristian Sch-ltO. the chief $ro$onent of &-$erts an! anne;ation. an! 0n!rew 4annatyne. who en!e! -$ si!in/ with o-is &iel' =7 ,ar/rave. 721' =8 Manito+a 9a2ette. Decem*er 25. 1872I 2'
=7 =5

7=

han! over X1.=75'8A to hel$ f-n! the <inni$e/ %eneral ,os$ital' =9 :his a!ies 0ssociation event-ally evolve! into the <omen)s ,os$ital 0i! Society. which hel$e! to raise money an! sec-re! the !onation of /oo!s for many years to follow' :he a*ove note! activities were ty$ical for wealthy women of that time. *-t early one !ay in 18>9. 0nnie ste$$e! o-tsi!e her /en!er role an! committe! a sin/le act of resistance that fire! the ima/ination of a yo-n/ o-is &iel. an act which is still remem*ere! *y many Manito*ans to this !ay' :he inci!ent *e/an with the arrival of 1harles Mair into the &e! &iver Settlement' :he 1ana!ian Minister of @-*lic <or6s. <illiam McDo-/all. sent ?ohn Snow an! a /ro-$ of men to s-rvey an! *-il! a roa! from a6e of the <oo!s to Fort %arry' Mair -se! his frien!shi$ with McDo-/all to sec-re a 3o* as $aymaster on the $ro3ect' ?-st *efore arrivin/. Mair an! a few collea/-es ha! forme! a /ro-$ calle! “1ana!a First." a!vocatin/ the anne;ation of the +orth-<est *y 1ana!a' +at-rally he fell into lea/-e with Dr' ?ohn 1hristian Sh-ltO. who also !esire! this anne;ation an! was ma6in/ this view 6nown thro-/h his news$a$er. the NorA5ester' Sch-ltO ha! also *ecome &iel)s chief nemesis !-rin/ the &esistance' Mair. who ha! $-*lishe! a well-receive! *oo6 of $oetry. an! consi!ere! himself an ac-te o*server of the h-man con!ition. also tho-/ht of himself as $art of the van/-ar! of a wave of settlers who wo-l! one !ay ma6e the +orth <est a $art of the Pntario frontier' Mair)s arro/ance an! *elief that the c-rrent inha*itants wo-l! nee! to ma6e way for the more -$stan!in/ an! in!-strio-s settlers soon to come from Pntario !i! not ma6e him many frien!s amon/st the ol!er settlers'7A Some of these sentiments are a$$arent in his corres$on!ence' Mair)s letter. ostensi*ly written to his *rother. was $-*lishe! in the :oronto 9lo+e. an! *ro-/ht him the hostility of the settlement an!. in $artic-lar. raise! the ire of 0nnie 4annatyne' Mair a$$arently !i! not realiOe. or care. that the 9lo+e was event-ally !elivere! to &e! &iver' 2n the thir! letter of a series re$rinte! in the $a$er (+ovem*er 19. 18>8) Mair ca-se! a real sensation' 0ltho-/h a !ro-/ht an! infestation of /rassho$$ers ha! r-ine! the 18>8 harvest an! ca-se! “,alf-4ree!" families to *e in want. Mair *lame! their $re!icament on their ref-sal to ta6e -$ farmin/' 71 0fter movin/ o-t of the D-tchman)s ,otel. into Dr' Sch-ltO)s ho-se Mair also commente!I “:he chan/e was comforta*le. 2 ass-re yo-. from the rac6et of a motley crow! of ,alf-4ree!s. $layin/ *illiar!s an! !rin6in/. to the M-iet an! soli! comfort of a home'" 72 :his remar6 -$set the @'0'M'. Sessional @a$ersHManito*aH e/islative 0ssem*lyJ:he :reas-rerJ2n acco-nt with the <inni$e/ %eneral ,os$ital from May 17th 1875 to =1st Decem*er 1875' 7A 0le;an!er 4e// -ncharita*ly $ortraye! Mair in his novel. 4ot it 4own. as a “Sto-t !-m$y little fellow. who a$$eare! to thin6 himself of more im$ortance than the whole of those in the room $-t to/ether'" 0le;an!er 4e//. 4ot it 4own? 1 Story of *ife in the North-5est. (:oronto. 1871). 252' 71 etter re$rinte! in 0le;an!er 4e//. 3e!!As .e .i/er ,ournal. e!ite! *y <' ' Morton (:oronto. 195>). =95-=99' 72 :+i '. =95'
=9

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hotel)s owner. %eor/e Cmmerlin/. who vowe!. “Sho-l! the a-thor of these $hili$$ics Eanta/onistic wor!sF ever enter the ho-se he ha! mali/ne!. he sho-l! *e e;$elle!'"7= ,owever. it was Mair)s remar6s a*o-t the la!ies of &e! &iver that ca-se! the most commotion' 0fter a $arty hel! *y Mr' an! Mrs' 0le;an!er 4e//. he wroteI 0lto/ether. 2 receive! hos$italities to my heart)s content. an! 2 left the $lace thoro-/hly $lease! with most that 2 ha! met' :here are 3ealo-sies an! heart-*-rnin/s. however' Many wealthy $eo$le are marrie! to half-*ree! women. who havin/ no coat of arms *-t a “totem" to loo6 *ac6 to. ma6e -$ for the !eficiency *y *itin/ at the *ac6s of their “white" sisters' :he white sisters fall *ac6 -$on their whiteness. whilst the h-s*an!s meet each other with !es$erate co-rtesies an! hos$italities. with a view to filthy l-cre in the *ac6/ro-n!'77 Mair)s -n6in! remar6s !rew the an/er of the !inner $arty)s host. who ha! o*vio-sly *een offen!e! *y the hy$ocrisy of someone whose *oorish *ehavio-r !i! not ma6e him *eyon! re$roach'75 2n 4e//)s. 4ot it 4own. a !inner $arty ta6es $lace where Mair is reincarnate! as an ill-mannere! sot who ins-lts a ,alf-4ree! woman. an! receives a sla$ in the face from her' :h-s. 4e// sava/es what little re$-tation Mair ha! in the settlement' :his also seems to have *een a meta$horical re$resentation of the horsewhi$$in/ that 0nnie 4annatyne a!ministere! to Mair' :here are several versions of Mair)s come-$$ance' ?ames ,ar/rave reco-nte! that three women ha! assa-lte! himI one “1onfine! herself to wor!s" *-t “one la!y $-lle! the $oet)s nose. while another -se! her fin/ers r-!ely a*o-t his ears'" 7> :here is no mention of Mrs' 4annatyne)s involvement. altho-/h another contem$orary acco-nt !escri*e! how she “Sla$$e! his face then str-c6 him several times with a ri!in/ whi$_" 77 4-t the *est version comes co-rtesy of St' 4oniface $riest. %eor/es D-/asI Mair. havin/ committe! the in!elicacy of writin/. in Pntario news$a$ers. some c-ttin/ wor!s a*o-t the women of <inni$e/. s-ffers the h-miliation of *ein/ horsewhi$$e! in the cityS) $ost office. *y Mrs' 4annatyne. the wife of one of the townS) most nota*le citiOens' She ha! rea! MairS) writin/. an! she $romise! herself to ma6e him $ay for it' She or!ere! the cler6 of Eher h-s*an!S)F store. where the $ost office was locate!. to come an! warn her when Mair arrive! to collect his letters an! news$a$ers. as he !i! every Sat-r!ay' :herefore. one Sat-r!ay. at fo-r in the ,ar/rave. 75>' 3e!!As .e .i/er ,ournal. =9>' 75 4e// !e!icate! his first an! only novel to the 4annatyne)s (0n!rew was his *-siness $artner at the time of this inci!ent)' 2n!ee! Mair a$$arently motivate! the *oo6' 2n the !e!ication 4e// writes. “it has ca-se! me m-ch tro-*le an! in!i/nation to see the 6in!hearte! $eo$le of &e! &iver vilifie! *y scri**lers in the $-*lic $ress_" 7> ,ar/rave. 75>' 77 @'0'M'. &oss @a$ers. Z=>7. 0'<' &oss to his *rother. Fe*r-ary 15. 18>9'
7= 77

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afternoon. while the store was f-ll of $eo$le. Daniel M-lli/an. the cler6. havin/ seen Mair)s arrival. ran to tell Mrs' 4annatyne' She M-ic6ly throws a shawl on her hea! an! *-rsts into the $ost officeB hol!in/ a lar/e whi$ in her han!' <itho-t hesitatin/. she a!vances on Mair. seiOes his nose *etween her fin/ers an! /ives him five or si; stro6es of the whi$ on !ifferent $arts of his *o!y' “ oo6." she says. “this is how the women of &e! &iver treat those who ins-lt them'" :he scene laste! only half a min-te' 4-t it a$$eare! lon/er to Mair who left M-ic6ly. !arin/ neither to s$ea6 nor see6 reven/e' 4y evenin/. the inci!ent was 6nown all across the co-ntry'78 +ee!less to say. Mair ha! a stormy meetin/ with the h-s*an!s in the $ost office that same Sat-r!ay ni/ht. where he trie! to e;$lain that his letter ha! not *een meant for o-tsi!e rea!ers' 0s $art of the !ama/e control. he wo-l! later write a rather *ac6han! a$olo/y' “2 ha! receive! m-ch 6in!ness in &e! &iver an! certainly *ore no feelin/s of !isli6e or illwill to anyone' 4-t $olitical an! mono$olistic anta/onisms ran hi/h. an!_ this letter_ amon/st sensi*le $eo$le. at any other time wo-l! have only $rovo6e! a smile'" 79 0ltho-/h the whi$$in/ ca-se! an imme!iate sensation aro-n! the settlement. it also ha! some lon/er lastin/ effects' For 1harles Mair. the h-miliation of *ein/ horsewhi$$e! was still *ein/ felt a !eca!e later' 4y that time. he ha! *ecome a $rominent citiOen in @rince 0l*ert. where he raise! the an/er of awrence 1lar6e. the 1hief Factor of the local ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any $ost' 4oth men soon *ecame en/a/e! in a war of wor!s that they con!-cte! in the local news$a$er' 2n re*-ttal to an article Mair wrote in the Saskatchewan -eral . where he criticiOe! the ,41. 1lar6e vir-lently attac6e! Mair)s $ersonal cre!i*ility' ,e accom$lishe! this feat *y !re!/in/ -$ Mair)s $ast e;$eriences at &e! &iver' ,ere was a man whose inte/rity co-l! not *e tr-ste! an! whose wor! co-l! not *e *elieve!B after all. he ha! *een “$ersonally chastiOe! *y a la!y in <inni$e/. a native of the co-ntry. for the wic6e!. malicio-s. lyin/ remar6s he ha! ma!e on the ,alf-4ree! race." wrote 1lar6e'5A Mair. nevertheless. wo-l! event-ally *ecome a relatively wealthy man thro-/h lan! s$ec-lation in @rince 0l*ert an! later in Kelowna. 4'1'. *-t he wo-l! lose his wealth in a *-st cycle an! *e a/ain force! to wor6 for a livin/ at an a!vance! a/e' 0nnie 4annatyne)s whi$$in/ also ma!e an im$ression on a yo-n/ man who ha! recently ret-rne! to &e! &iver from the east' 2t is interestin/ to s$ec-late on how m-ch 0nnie)s resistance to Mair. the arro/ant 1ana!ian *ecame a sym*olic catalyst for o-is &iel' Di! it in some way ins$ire him to sto$ the anne;ation of &-$ert)s an! *y 1ana!a\ &iel ha! arrive! in 18>8 to a &e! &iver rife with r-mo-rs of $olitical chan/e. an! accor!in/ to his frien!. o-is Schmi!t. the local anne;ationists ha! $lans ma!e. *-t nothin/ in $lace. $referrin/ to wait -ntil the )0**G %' D-/as, -istoire <éi iFue es faites Fui ont Pré'aré le mou/ement es Metis a la .i/iEre-rou!e en "B$% (MontrGal. 19A5). 27-28' 79 1harles Mbair M-ote! in %re// Shalli!ay. e!itor. Manito+a "GH: 1 -istory, /olume one (<inni$e/. 199=). 2A7' 5A awrence 1lar6e M-ote! in +orman Shrive. Charles Mair: *ierary Nationalist (:oronto. 19>5). 15A' Pne sho-l! also *e aware that awrence 1lar6e)s wife was Metis'
78

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1ana!ian /overnment acte! first'51 5et. the horsewhi$$in/ of Mair ha! ma!e an in!eli*le im$ression on &iel' 0n act. which he inter$rete! as one of resistance to the c-rrent $olitical a/itation' Pn Fe*r-ary 25. 18>9. *e Nou/eau Mon e $rinte! a letter from a ,alf-4ree! which was si/ne! “ '&'"' &iel -n!o-*te!ly wrote this letter. one in which he sava/ely ta6es Mair to tas6 for his o*servances on &e! &iver life an! es$ecially its la!iesI “5o- s$ea6 of a /reat many thin/s that yo- have not ha! time to see or 6nowB that wo-l! *e worth as m-ch as the remain!er of yo-r letterB as m-ch as the scarcely co-rteo-s terms. 2 will even say *arely civiliOe!. which yo- -se in s$ea6in/ of the la!ies of the co-ntry_"52 ?-st two $ara/ra$hs a*ove this remar6. &iel res$on!e! to Mair)s im$lication that the “f-t-re of the co-ntry" was its inevita*le anne;ation to 1ana!a' “E&e! &iverF will have some 6in! of f-t-re. *-t not that which Mr' Mair $re!icts for it." re$lie! &iel'5= Some time in 18>9. &iel wrote a $oem entitle! “0t Pa6 @oint." 57 in which he ri$$e! a$art Mair)s character. an!. thro-/h a clever $lay on his name. characteriOe! him as a chien e Mer (sea !o/)' :he 6ey stanOas closely associate 1ana!a)s thirst for lan! with the resistance of 0nnie 4annatyne' <e say on o-r lan!s a-i-to--tra-laY 4is' <e say on o-r lan!s ,e wants to *e the master Pver thereYYY Sen! -s *ac6 M-ic6ly a-i-to--tra-laY 4is' Sen! -s *ac6 M-ic6ly :hat sea !o/ -n!er water Pver thereYYY :he atmos$here is too !ry a-i-to--tra-laY 4is' :he atmos$here is too !ry For him to stay there Pver thereYYY et)s $-t o-t to !ry a-i-to--tra-laY 4is' et)s $-t o-t to !ry :he noses of the sea !o/ Pver thereYYY o-is Schmi!t. “ es MGmoires !e o-is Schmi!t." Patriote e *AOuest. ?an-ary 25. 1912' 52 etter re$rinte! in 3e!!As .e .i/er ,ournal. 7A1' 5= :+i ' 57 Pa6 @oint. later 6nown as Ste' 0nne !es 1hVnes. was where Mair wor6e! as $aymaster on the constr-ction of Dawson &oa!'
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2t)s a la!y that will show -s a-i-to--tra-laY 4is' 2t)s a la!y that will show -s ,ow we sho-l! treat them Pver thereYYY55 0s shown in the memoirs of ?ean-4a$tiste a!ero-te. *y the en! of 0$ril 18>9. &iel was associatin/ 0nnie 4annatyne)s stan! a/ainst Mair with his own stan! a/ainst the ta6eover of &e! &iver *y the 1ana!ian /overnment' 0fter wor6 one !ay that 0$ril. a!ero-te went to Moncham$)s saloon for a !rin6 an! met +arcisse Marion. Dr' <alter 4rown an! 1harles Mair' ?ose$h %enthon an! &iel arrive! shortly thereafter. an! after *ein/ intro!-ce! to each other. the men sat !own for a frien!ly chat' 4rown ha! recently ta6en over ownershi$ of the NorA5ester. the settlement)s only news$a$er. from Dr' Sch-ltO. an! he solicite! the /ro-$)s o$inions re/ar!in/ his e!itorshi$' Marion was !i$lomatic an! sai! there was nothin/ *etter in &e! &iver. *-t &iel was M-ic6 to remin! 4rown that he was “not always correct in EhisF news$a$er." $ointin/ o-t the r-!e remar6s that ha! a$$eare! a*o-t &e! &iver women' 4rown ri/htly !enie! that he ha! committe! s-ch an offence. *-t &iel !are! 4rown to accom$any him on a visit to Mrs' 4annatyne an! have her $rove the veracity of his remar6s'5> :he conversation M-ic6ly t-rne! to the im$en!in/ transfer of soverei/nty of the &e! &iver Settlement to 1ana!a' &iel !eclare! that the $olitical chan/e was not /oin/ to ha$$en as ha! *een foreseen' Dr' 4rown an! Mair as6e!. “<ho is /oin/ to sto$ it\" &iel answere!. “2t is 2 who is /oin/ to sto$ it'" 57 1learly. 0nnie)s act ha! *ecome a sym*ol for &iel. *eca-se he closely associate! her resistance with his own $lans' 4eca-se she left no recor! of her own. 0nnie)s reason for attac6in/ Mair will never *e 6nown $recisely' 2t is -nli6ely that her attac6 on Mair was for $olitical reasons an! it seems more li6ely that she was !efen!in/ her stat-s as an elite mi;e!-*loo! woman a/ainst a very r-!e an! -nct-o-s $erson who con!escen!in/ly felt himself to *e a c-t a*ove the local inha*itants' 0s 18>9. events move! to o$en resistanceB 0n!rew 4annatyne *ecame M-ite actively involve! on the Metis si!e' 2t is an o$en M-estion as to how m-ch his wife infl-ence! his sym$athies to the Metis ca-se' :he n-m*er of inci!ents an! events where 0n!rew 4annatyne was involve! !-rin/ the &iel &esistance are too n-mero-s to !oc-ment here. *-t his $artici$ation was nearly always s-$$ortive of &iel an! the $rovisional /overnment' 2n!ee!. early in the resistance. @oem re$rinte! in 6he Collecte 5ritin!s of *ouis .iel, /olume I. e!ite! *y %len 1am$*ell (C!monton. 1985). 8>' 5> <ritten some 7= years after the event. a!ero-te)s recollections of the &esistance will -n!o-*te!ly *e lac6in/ in acc-racy' 0s $ointe! o-t $revio-sly. Mair)s letters were $rinte! in the :oronto 9lo+e not the NorA5ester' &iel. therefore. sho-l! not have acc-se! 4rown of havin/ $rinte! them' ,owever. &iel wo-l! not have $asse! -$ a chance to nee!le Mair on his *reech of etiM-ette' P*lats !e Marie 2mmac-lGe. @rovince !Manito*a. !ossier o-is &iel. ?ean-4a$tiste a!ero-te. Mémoires es 6rou+les u Manito+a. 18>9-7A. $' =' 57 :+i '. $' 5'
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acc-sers char/e! 4annatyne with $rovisionin/ the French an! Metis for their o*str-ction of <illiam McDo-/all entry into the co-ntry an! assistin/ them in havin/ the mail o$ene!. char/es that. at the time. 4e// vehemently !enie!'58 0ltho-/h he may not have *een !irectly involve! in these acts. 4annatyne ma!e his $osition on the &esistance 6nown in a letter to 4isho$ :achGI “My feelin/s are with @resi!' &ielle (sic) a 2 !on)t hi!e it while 2 6now he is wor6in/ for the /oo! of the 1o-ntry'" 59 :his s-$$ort. however. !i! not $revent &iel from arrestin/ 4annatyne for attem$tin/ to visit %overnor Mc:avish an! Dr' 1owan. *oth of whom were -n!er ho-se arrest' Cvent-ally. their !ifferences were resolve! an! they were -n!er frien!ly terms' ,avin/ a Metis wife !i! not necessarily /-arantee em$athy for &iel' 2n fact. 0nnie)s father. the cr-sty ol! 0n!rew McDermot a$$arently trie! to convince his !a-/hter. Mary Sally Mc:avish. to assassinate &iel'>A 2t is ty$ical of the way that history has treate! women that most of the activities that 0nnie may have $artici$ate! in !-rin/ the &esistance went -nrecor!e!' +onetheless. ,er sister. Mrs' Mc:avish. !i! accom$any her on a visit to Father estanc in an effort to save the life of Ma3or 4o-lton'>1 0lso in an attem$t to !iscre!it &iel. the esca$e! Dr' Sch-ltO s$rea! the r-mo-r that he ha! almost ca-se! Mrs' 4annatyne an! Mrs' 4e// to *e a$$rehen!e! on s-s$icion of es$iona/e'>2 0ny f-rther involvement in events *y 0nnie en!e! when she an! some of her chil!ren accom$anie! her sister an! %overnor Mc:avish (who was s-fferin/ from t-*erc-losis) on the steamer. the :nternational. when it left &e! &iver on May 17. 187A' :he reasons she left are -nclearB it may have *een that her h-s*an! was concerne! for her safety. es$ecially after the e;ec-tion of :homas Scott' ,e himself left in 0-/-st' ,e wrote to :achG that he was a$$rehensive as to his own safety !-e to the a/itation of the #$$er 1ana!ian $eo$le. who were e;cite! over Scott)s e;ec-tion' >= 0nnie ha! $ro*a*ly left to assist her ol!er sister care for her invali! h-s*an!' %overnor Mc:avish !ie! on ?-ly 2=. 187A. in iver$ool. two !ays after !isem*ar6in/' 0n!rew 3oine! 0nnie in %reat 4ritain an! they then ret-rne! to 1ana!a' She m-st have *een ill !-rin/ the 3o-rney *eca-se a letter from &iel receive! -$on their ret-rn. e;$resses ho$e that her 3e!!As .e .i/er ,ournal. =19' 0'0' St'4'. Fon!s :achG. 0'%'4' 4annatyne to 4isho$ :achG. 0-/-st >. 187A' >A Pf co-rse. this anec!ote may *e a$ocry$hal. *-t a$$arently Mrs' Mc:avish an! a com$anion “*oth loo6e! horrifie!" when McDermot showe! them how to -se a /-n an! s-//este! that they 6ill &iel with it. hintin/ that “no *lame wo-l! ever attach to them" an! the settlement wo-l! *e *etter off *eca-se al the tro-*les he ha! ca-se! wo-l! *e over once an! for all' Manito+a Free Press. March 7. 1917I 7' >1 4o-lton ha! *een con!emne! to !eath for his role in tryin/ to overthrow &iel)s $rovisional /overnment' :his is the inci!ent that res-lte! in the ille/al a$$rehension of +or*ert @risien an! s-*seM-ent !eaths of ,-/h S-therlan! an! @arisien' 0ltho-/h Donal! 0' Smith is -s-ally /iven cre!it for havin/ 4o-lton)s sentence comm-te!. S-therlan!)s mother $lea! $assionately with &iel not to -se her son)s !eath as an e;c-se for f-rther *loo!she! an! $ro*a*ly ha! the /reater infl-ence' ,ealy. 22>-227' >2 3e!!As .e .i/er ,ournal. =19' >= 0'0' St'4'. Fon!s :achG. 0'%'4' 4annatyne to 4isho$ :achG. 0-/-st >. 187A'
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health has im$rove!'>7 :he strait-lace! con-ventions of Nictorians often !o not allow one to ma6e insi/hts into matters of the heart. *-t there is some evi!ence to s-//est that the 4annatyne)s marria/e was one *ase! on love an! com$anionshi$' Sometime after the &e! &iver &esistance. Mr' 4annatyne wrote to &iel to a$olo/ise for not ret-rnin/ a wa/on *orrowe! from &iel)s mother' ,is e;c-se was 0nnie)s illness “_ my /oo! wife was ta6en so very -nwell that 2 have *een at her si!e all the time a 2 for/ot it' 2 am than6f-l to *e a*le to say she is a little im$rove!. *-t very wea6 yet' 2 tr-st this will in some way e;c-se my r-!eness a ne/lect'">5 0ltho-/h 0nnie)s illness may have *een 3-st a -sef-l e;c-se. the two of them were close com$anions on their voya/es. with 0n!rew often !eferrin/ to his wife' <hile winterin/ in ,ot S$rin/s. 0r6ansas. in 1882. 4annatyne was -n!eci!e! as to whether to /o on an! visit 1hica/o an! +ew 5or6. altho-/h “the /oo! wife EwasF very an;io-s to /o'">> 2t was li6ely that 0nnie !i! convince her h-s*an! to visit these cities. an! she may have convince! 0n!rew to $rocee! with a tri$ to 4ritain the followin/ a-t-mn. !es$ite the colla$se of his wealth as the Manito*a lan! *oom came to a crashin/ th-!' “:he only thin/ my cre!itor)s can)t ta6e is my tri$ to C-ro$e." he 3o6e!' >7 :he !escri$tion of this tri$ in one of his letters ma6es it so-n! li6e a tr-e vacation. or even a secon! honeymoon' :he co-$le went to the theatre. ro!e the “-n!er/ro-n! railway". reviewe! the troo$s on their ret-rn from C/y$t. ma!e an -ns-ccessf-l attem$t to /et insi!e the ,o-ses of @arliament. ha! 0nnie $resente! in 1o-rt *efore L-een Nictoria >8 an! /ot ca-/ht in a on!on thron/' :ra/ically. 0nnie an! a few of her chil!ren accom$anie! 0n!rew on a final tri$ inten!e! to im$rove his health' 0n!rew 4annatyne $asse! away in the Merchant)s ,otel in St' @a-l Pn May 18. 1889. while ret-rnin/ from :e;as' ,is health an! fort-ne ha! *oth !ecline! !-rin/ the 188As. an! his $assin/ was therefore “sa!. tho-/h not entirely -ne;$ecte! news'">9 0nnie no !o-*t accom$anie! the *o!y *ac6 to <inni$e/ where a lavish f-neral. the “lar/est that Eha!F *een seen for years" was hel! at 4annatyne)s castle'7A :he lon/ $rocession ma!e its way from 0rmstron/)s $oint to Kil!onan 1emetery. where several 4annatyne chil!ren were alrea!y *-rie!' 0nnie live! another nineteen years after his !eath an! 6e$t a relatively low $rofile' McDonald , D!ncan (1879-19=7) :he Sa"e o6 the =lathead o-is &iel to 0'%'4' 4annatyne. Decem*er 29. 187A' &e$rinte! in 6he Collecte 5ritin!s of *ouis .iel, /olume ". e!ite! *y &aymon! ,-el. 127' >5 @'0'M'. o-is &iel @a$ers. Z>>. 0'%'4' 4annatyne to o-is &iel. n'!' >> @'0'M'. 0'%'4' 4annatyne @a$ers. Z=. 0'%'4' 4annatyne to 0n!rew Stran/. ?an-8ary 22. 1882' >7 4annatyne M-ote! in ?'C' &ea. “0n!rew %raham 4allen!en 4annetyne." 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy, /olume J:, "BB"-"B%& (:oronto. 1982). 77' >8 0ltho-/h 0nnie)s /ran!!a-/hter mentione! the meetin/ with the L-een. she !i! not /ive a !ate. *-t this is most li6ely the time *eca-se of the $rominence of the 4annatyne)s' >9 Manito+a 4aily Free Press. May 2A. 1889. 1' 7A Free Press. May 22. 1889. 7'
>7

5A

D-ncan McDonal! McDonal! was *orn on 1879 at Fort 1onnah in Mission Nalley (Montana). the last ,41 $ost esta*lishe! within the $resent *o-n!aries of the #nite! States' ,is father. 0n/-s McDonal!. was *orn in &oss Shire in 181>. 3oine! the ,41 in 18=8. an! was $oste! to Fort 1olville in Pre/on :erritory' Fl-ent in %aelic. French. an! several +ative lan/-a/es. 0n/-s soon *ecame well res$ecte! in *oth 2n!ian an! white circles' :erritorial /overnor 2saac 2' Stevens tho-/ht very hi/hly of him' D-ncan)s mother was f-ll-*loo!. Salish-s$ea6in/ Flathea!' :h-s. D-ncan McDonal! /rew to mat-rity with one foot in *oth the 2n!ian an! white worl!s' 0fter retirin/ from the ,41 McDonal! senior ran lar/e her!s of cattle on the $lains of Montana' ,e !ie! in 1889. the year Montana *ecame a state' McDonal! ha! hire! t-tors to teach D-ncan to rea! an! write. talents that allowe! his son to *ecome the most $rominent mi;e!-*loo! s$o6esman in Montana)s history' D-ncan /aine! his initial a-!ience shortly after the +eO @erce war of 1877' 4oth McDonal!s *elieve! that the +ative version of the conflict !eserve! $-*licity' :hey contacte! a local news$a$er. the Deer o!/e New North-5est, an! the $a$er $ai! D-ncan)s e;$enses to travel to 1ana!a to interview <hite 4ir!. to whom he was relate!. $l-s a n-m*er of other +eO @erce lea!ers' :o/ether with his father. D-ncan rewor6e! his e;tensive notes into a series of essays that the New North-5est $-*lishe! in several installments from ?an-ary 1879 forwar!' :he e!itors *oaste! that the !ata in the articles “can *e relie! -$on as a-thentic from the +eO @erce stan!$oint'" 2n a*o-t the year 1878. D-ncan McDonal!. Metis son of 0n/-s McDonal!. visite! a6e McDonal!. then 6nown as :erry a6e' D-ncan. who ha! the 3o* of frei/htin/ a lar/e amo-nt of s-$$lies to 1ana!a. ha! inten!e! to /o -$ the +orth For6 of the Flathea!. $ro*a*ly over the ol! %raves 1ree6 :rail ro-te *-t. -$on fin!in/ the ro-te *loc6e! *y a *an! of -nfrien!ly 2n!ians. he sw-n/ eastwar!. travelin/ the a!3acent $arallel valley. or McDonal!' 0t the close of the !ay. accom$anie! *y his com$anions. a /ro-$ of Salish 2n!ians. he came -$on this la6e an! cam$e! there overni/ht' <hile in cam$ he carve! his name -$on the *ar6 of a *irch tree' :he ne;t !ay he contin-e! his 3o-rney. reachin/ 1ana!a safely' :he tree *earin/ his name remaine! for many years near the $resent

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villa/e of 0$/ar' @eo$le who saw the name on the tree /ra!-ally *e/an to call the la6e “McDonal!Ss a6e." an! as s-ch the name *ecame fi;e!' 0 few years $rior to his !iscovery of a6e McDonal!. D-ncan was in char/e of the ,-!sonSs 4ay :ra!in/ @ost so-th of Flathea! a6e' 2n 1877 he ma!e his first tri$ thro-/h Marias @ass. in com$any with several @en! Preille 2n!ians' :hey travele! on snowshoes an! chose this as the shortest ro-te for McDonal! from their cam$ on the Marias to his $ost on the Flathea!' 0t the s-mmit the 2n!ians t-rne! *ac6. leavin/ McDonal! an! his 2n!ian /-i!e to contin-e alone' :his tri$ showe! that the $ass co-l! still *e -se! an! that it was still 6nown an! $ossi*ly -se! *y the 2n!ians at times' ater McDonal! was to cross this $ass several times. *-t. li6e so many *efore him. he left no recor! of his $assin/ an! several years were yet to come *efore the $ass was locate! an! $-t into /eneral -se *y the %reat +orthern &ailroa!' D-ncan McDonal! ass-me! many roles in Montana society' +ot only !i! he write the first 2n!ian-$ers$ective history. he was also the first 0merican 2n!ian to com$ile a list of 1oyote tales an! systematically $resent them to white a-!iences' &e$orter ,' :' 4alley calle! him “the sa/e of the Flathea!'" i6e his father. an inveterate storyteller. McDonal! first tol! his versions of 1oyote tales over several sittin/s to #niversity of Montana 3o-rnalism !ean 0' ' Stone. who later $rinte! them in a series of articles in 1912'

D-ncan McDonal! an! his wife on horse*ac6. 19A7' (+ational 1ow*oy an! <estern ,erita/e M-se-mI @hoto/ra$her -n6nown 2AA5'A9=)

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McDonald, )ane 0lyne 4y %eor/e an! :erry %o-let 0s the f-r tra!e e;$an!e! westwar! across the +orth 0merican continent. “co-ntry wives” $laye! a momento-s role in its $ro/ress an! in the ai! an! comfort they *ro-/ht to their f-r-tra!in/ h-s*an!s' 2n the early $art of the 18AAs this was $artic-larly evi!ent west of the &oc6y Mo-ntains where they ma!e -niM-e contri*-tions to the !evelo$ment of 4ritish 1ol-m*ia from f-r tra!in/ o-t$osts to colony an! event-ally to $rovincial stat-s' 0 nota*le MGtis co-ntry wife in this area was ?ane Klyne who entere! into a co-ntry marria/e in 1825 with 0rchi*al! McDonal!. a Scottish *orn f-r-tra!in/ officer of the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any (,41)' ?ane Klyne McDonal! ( i*rary an! 0rchives 1ana!a) ?ane)s father Michel Klyne was of D-tch-1ana!ian ancestry' 0 former voya/e-r with the +orth <est 1om$any (+<1). Michel was event-ally a$$ointe! to the $osition of @ostmaster at ?as$er ,o-se *y the ,41' :his was the hi/hest $osition that a servant. who was not an officer. co-l! attain in the ,41' Michel marrie! S-Oanne la France. a MGtis woman. in accor!ance with the c-stom of the 2n!ian 1o-ntry' ?ane Klyne was *orn on 0-/-st 2=. 181A at ?as$er ,o-se. an ,41 $ost in the 0tha*asca District in what is to!ay the @rovince of 0l*erta' 0s a chil! ?ane an! her sisters accom$anie! their $arents on vario-s tri$s that their father Michel too6 in $erformance of his !-ties in the f-r tra!e' Francis Crmatin/er. a tra!er with the ,41. reco-nte! in one of his letters a tri$ that he too6 with the Klyne family from C!monton ,o-se to ?as$er ,o-se' ,e note! that the /ro-$. incl-!in/ yo-n/ ?ane. ro!e horses an! travele! *y canoe an! on foot in or!er to reach their !estination' 0s with other MGtis /irls. ?ane acM-ire! the art of ma6in/ moccasins an! nettin/ thon/s to ma6e snowshoes' 0s she /rew ol!er she also assiste! her $arents in loo6in/ after her yo-n/er si*lin/s' ?ane ma!e her first acM-aintance with her f-t-re h-s*an! 0rchi*al! McDonal! when she was a teena/er' :hey met when her father Michel too6 his family with him west of the &oc6y Mo-ntains on one of his 1om$any tri$s' :his enco-nter $ro*a*ly occ-rre! at the 4oat Cncam$ment locate! at the 3-nction of the 1ol-m*ia an! 1anoe &ivers'

5=

2n time they fell in love an! were soon fon!ly referrin/ to each other as ?enny an! 0rchy' :he 15 year ol! MGtis /irl marrie! her han!some f-r tra!er in Se$tem*er. 1825 à la faKon u 'ays' 0rchy was then some twenty years ol!er than ?enny' She was 0rchy)s secon! co-ntry wife' ,e ha! $revio-sly *een marrie! à la faKon u 'ays in the Pre/on 1o-ntry in 182= to @rincess &aven. one of the !a-/hters of the $owerf-l an! fame! 1hinoo6 1hief 1oncomly' @rincess &aven !ie! a*o-t one year after her co-ntry marria/e to 0rchi*al! McDonal!' She an! 0rchy ha! one son &anal! who was *orn on the =7th *irth!ay of his father on Fe*r-ary =. 1827' 0rchi*al! McDonal! was *orn at eech6enti-m. Scotlan! on Fe*r-ary =. 179A' ,is father was 0n/-s McDonal! an! his mother was Mary &an6in' 0ltho-/h he st-!ie! some me!icine. li6ely at the #niversity of C!in*-r/h. he !i! not *ecome a $hysician' 0s a yo-n/ man he acte! as a cler6 an! recr-itin/ a/ent in Scotlan! for :homas Do-/las. Fifth Carl of Sel6ir6' or! Sel6ir6 was then the lar/est sharehol!er in the ,41' 2n 1811 the ,41 ha! /rante! Sel6ir6 a h-/e tract of lan! in &-$ert)s an! eM-alin/ a*o-t 11>.AAA sM-are miles in what now is 6nown as so-thern Manito*a an! Sas6atchewan. an! the northern $arts of +orth Da6ota an! Minnesota' Sel6ir6 wishe! to esta*lish an a/ric-lt-ral colony an! $eo$le it with $oor Scottish an! 2rish immi/rants an! their families' :he ,41 was then -n!er/oin/ financial !iffic-lties' :he 1om$any ha! sto$$e! iss-in/ !ivi!en!s an! the $rice of its shares ha! si/nificantly !ro$$e!' 2n settin/ -$ the Settlement Sel6ir6 was $rom$te! *y his am*itio-s mercantile nat-re. the cor$orate !esi/ns of the ,41 to e;$an! its tra!e in the 2n!ian 1o-ntry in o$$osition to the +<1. an! $erha$s *y h-manitarian concerns' 4eca-se of the close connections *etween Sel6ir6 an! the ,41. his altr-istic motives may have *een somewhat ten-o-s' 0ccor!in/ to %lyn!wr <illiams in an article in 6he 3ea/er ma/aOineI “_' the first recr-its for &e! &iver si/ne! for service with the 1om$any _' :he !istinction *etween colony an! 1om$any was a fine one'" :he overla$$in/ interest of the Sel6ir6 Settlement with that of the ,41 is also manifeste! in the a$$ointment of Miles Mac!onell as the first %overnor of the Settlement' +ot only was he $ersonally selecte! *y Sel6ir6 for this $osition. Miles Mac!onell was also /iven a commission *y the ,41' 2t was in 1812 that or! Sel6ir6 recr-ite! the 22 year ol! 0rchi*al! McDonal! to fin! settlers for the &e! &iver Settlement' :he followin/ year 0rchy left Stromness as secon!-in-comman! of over 9A immi/rants to the &e! &iver Settlement' :hey wintere! near Fort 1h-rchill an! finally arrive! at &e! &iver in the s-mmer of 1817' :he esta*lishment of Sel6ir6)s colony an! the ar*itrary !ictates $roclaime! *y %overnor Miles Mac!onell an/ere! the +<1 an! the MGtis of this area' :he MGtis saw these matters as a threat im$ose! *y forei/n intr-!ers to their economic well-*ein/ an! their tra!itional way of life' :he +<1 viewe! it as a scheme *y the ,41. controlle! *y Sel6ir6 an! his *rother-in-law 0n!rew 1olvile. to !o serio-s !ama/e to the +<1)s f-rtra!in/ o$erations' :he animosities that !evelo$e! le! to an -n$reme!itate! o-t*rea6 of hostilities in 181> in which the recently a$$ointe! %overnor &o*ert Sem$le of the Sel6ir6 1olony an! 2A of his men were 6ille! *y the MGtis' S-*seM-ently <' 4' 1oltman

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was a$$ointe! as a &oyal 1ommissioner to investi/ate this 4attle of Seven Pa6s that occ-rre! in the 1olony' 1oltman re$orte! that “ne;t to certainty" the first shot was fire! *y Sem$le)s men' :his occ-rrence (to/ether with Sel6ir6)s !eath in 182A) was a factor that le! to the mer/er of the +<1 with the ,41 in 1821 -n!er the contin-in/ name of the ,41' 2n 182A. 0rchi*al! McDonal! *ecame a cler6 with the ,41' 0fter a short time at Rle-8-la 1rosse (in what is now Sas6atchewan) he was $oste! to Fort %eor/e (formerly Fort 0storia) in the Pre/on 1o-ntry' Five years later in 1825 ?ane Klyne *ecame the co-ntry wife of 0rchi*al! McDonal!' :he followin/ year %overnor %eor/e Sim$son of the ,41 $lace! 0rchy in char/e of the :hom$son)s &iver District at Fort Kamloo$s in +ew 1ale!onia' 0 few wee6s after /ivin/ *irth to her first chil! 0n/-s at Fort P6ana/an on 0-/-st 1. 182>. ?enny arrive! at Fort Kamloo$s' 0nother son 0rchi*al! ?r' was *orn at Fort Kamloo$s on Fe*r-ary =. 1828' ater that year McDonal! ma!e a tri$ with %overnor %eor/e Sim$son from +orway ,o-se to west of the &oc6y Mo-ntains' :hey travele! in the same *oat !own the Fraser &iver to Fort an/ley where they arrive! on Pcto*er 11. 1828' :heir /-i!e was the e;$erience! 0le;is )Cs$erance then statione! at +orway ,o-se *-t $rior to that he ha! *een em$loye! *y the ,41 in the 1ol-m*ia District' 0ccor!in/ to the a-thor Dennis F' ?ohnson. )Cs$erance *ecame a “le/en!ary /-i!e" with the ,41' )Cs$erance is the /reat /reat /ran!father of %eor/e %o-let. one of the a-thors of this cha$ter' %overnor Sim$son a$$ointe! McDonal! to the $osition of 1hief :ra!er an! transferre! him from :hom$son)s &iver to ta6e char/e of Fort an/ley' 2t was Sim$son)s intent that McDonal! wo-l! ma6e Fort an/ley self-s-fficient an! he e;$ecte! that there wo-l! *e “1-ltivation an! the rearin/ of 1attle" at that location' :he !imin-tive ?ames M-rray 5ale. who was to *e McDonal!)s secon!-in-comman! at Fort an/ley. ha! also accom$anie! Sim$son an! McDonal! on their tri$ !own the Fraser &iver' 0t the time of 0rchie)s a$$ointment. ?ane an! the chil!ren were then at Fort Nanco-ver' :hey !i! not arrive at Fort an/ley -ntil the followin/ s-mmer of 1829' ,er h-s*an!)s $osition of comman! an! her ta6in/ -$ resi!ence at the Fort meant that she was now the “ ea!in/ a!y of Fort an/ley"' ?ane *ecame the Mistress of Fort an/ley an! a role mo!el for the co-ntry wives at that Fort' McDonal! has left a vivi! !escri$tion of the Fort as it then was' 2n Peace .i/er: 1 Canoe <oya!e from -u sonAs 3ay to the Pacific . McDonal! wrote in his ?o-rnal that the Fort was 1=5 feet *y 12A feet. ha! two /oo! *astions an! was s-rro-n!e! *y a /allery fo-r feet wi!e' :here was a *-il!in/ with three com$artments to ho-se the servants an! a small lo/ ho-se of two com$artments for the /entlemen' :here were also two other ho-ses. one of which ha! two sM-are rooms with a fire$lace in each. an! an a!3oinin/ 6itchen ma!e of sla*' Fort an/ley ha! *een *-ilt in 1827 -n!er the lea!ershi$ of ?ames McMillan *y. amon/ others. MGtis servants of the ,41' :o!ay Fort an/ley is !esi/nate! as a 1ana!ian +ational ,istoric Site' Pne of the $laM-es on the wall of the Nisitor 1entre at the Fort rea!s in $artI

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2n 1827. a /ro-$ of twenty-five men D 4ritish. ,awaiian. French 1ana!ian. M*tis an! 2roM-ois D were sent *y the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any to esta*lish Fort an/ley'_' within a year relationshi$s were esta*lishe! thro-/h the marria/e of the fort)s men to local Stcld women' ECm$hasis a!!e!'F ?ane Klyne)s h-s*an! 0rchy was a reso-rcef-l an! intelli/ent stewar! of the Fort' ,e also maintaine! informative 3o-rnals in which he /ave acco-nts of the +atives. rivers. climate. soil. *irths of chil!ren an! other matters' #n!er his shrew! lea!ershi$. /oo! relations were esta*lishe! with the +ative tri*es in the area' 0s a conseM-ence Fort an/ley soon $laye! a si/nificant role in the !evelo$ment of the @acific Slo$e an! the Fraser &iver. @-/et So-n! an! Nanco-ver 2slan!' <ith the !e$letion of f-r-*earin/ animals in the area. Fort an/ley)s f-nction was *ein/ !iversifie! from that of f-rs to $rovisions' Fish. farm $ro!-ce. cran*erries. an! l-m*er *ecame the foc-s of activities' :he farm o$erations at Fort an/ley were e;$an!e! to 2.AAA *-shels of $otatoes. !o-*le its $rior o-t$-t' 0fter witnessin/ the lar/e n-m*er of salmon *ein/ *ro-/ht to the Fort *y the +atives to tra!e for *-ttons an! other trin6ets. the $otential for e;$ortin/ fish from the Fort was reco/niOe!' 2n this res$ect a lar/e scale $rocessin/ system for c-rin/ salmon was im$lemente!. an! a M-alifie! coo$er to ma6e *arrels for shi$$in/ the salmon was *ro-/ht to Fort an/ley from Fort Nanco-ver' 0 storeho-se an! coo$era/e were erecte! at the Fort an! in !-e co-rse tho-san!s of tons of $reserve! salmon as well as other /oo!s were shi$$e! o-t of Fort an/ley to the San!wich 2slan!s (,awaii). 0las6a an! other locations s-ch as 1alifornia' Pn ?an-ary 15. 18=1 McDonal! wrote to ?ohn Mc eo! of the /rowin/ fishery tra!eB “P-r salmon. for all the contem$t entertaine! for everythin/ o-tsi!e of the ro-tine of *eaver at 5or6 Factory. is close -$ to =AA *arrels'" :his $erio! of time also saw the em*ryonic *e/innin/s of the l-m*er in!-stry in 4ritish 1ol-m*ia incl-!in/ the active $artici$ation of the MGtis ,41 em$loyees' Staves were ma!e o-t of felle! trees an! *arrels were man-fact-re! from them in the coo$era/e *-il!in/' :ho-san!s of ce!ar shin/les an! many $lan6s were also $ro!-ce!' 2t was into this *-sy wor6 atmos$here that ?ane Klyne McDonal! an! their chil!ren came to Fort an/ley' 0t that time their chil!ren were 0n/-s. 0rchi*al! ?r' an! ?ane)s ste$son &anal!' 2n Peace .i/er: 1 Canoe <oya!e from -u sonAs 3ay to the Pacific there is a !escri$tion /iven of a !wellin/ ho-se !escri*e! *y 0rchy in his 3o-rnal asI _' a /oo! !wellin/ ho-se. with an e;cellent cellar an! a s$acio-s /arret. a co-$le of well finishe! chimneys are -$. an! the whole insi!e now rea!y for wainscotin/ an! $artitionin/. fo-r lar/e win!ows in front. one in each en!. an! one with a corres$on!in/ !oor in the *ac6' 2n her *oo6 ?ean M-rray 1ole states that this was the “4i/ ,o-se" inten!e! for the 1hief :ra!er an! his family' :his home ha! a 6itchen an! *a6e oven in which ?ane wo-l! have -tiliOe! her coo6in/ s6ills' 0ll was in rea!iness when ?ane arrive! at Fort an/ley in the s-mmer of 1829'

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?ane ha! come from mo!est ori/ins an! /rew -$ with little e!-cation' 0rchy was !etermine! that not only his chil!ren *-t also ?enny sho-l! *e ta-/ht to rea! an! write' ,e $ersonally t-tore! them at Fort an/ley an! later at Fort 1olvile' C!war! Crmatin/er ha! serve! with the ,41 west of the &oc6y Mo-ntains for a n-m*er of years *efore retirin/ to St' :homas. #$$er 1ana!a' 0fter his retirement many of his former ,41 cohorts carrie! on an active corres$on!ence with him' :his corres$on!ence $rovi!es an insi/ht into many of the $ersonal e;$eriences of the *o-r/eois f-r tra!ers an! of the activities of the ,41 west of the mo-ntains !-rin/ this time $erio!' 0rchy. for some reason. -s-ally a!!resse! Crmatin/er as “Sir" in his corres$on!ence' Pn the other han! ?ohn <or6. another ,41 officer. a!!resse! him as “+e!"' Pn Fe*r-ary 2A. 18=1 0rchy wrote from Fort an/ley to Crmatin/er statin/I “+ow two wor!s a*o-t ?enny an! the 4oys _' She *ro-/ht her thir! son E0le;an!erF to this worl! on the 28th of Pctr' last a that she is *ecome an e;cellent Scollar EsicF'" Cven tho-/h she was *-sy with her yo-n/ family. ?enny contin-e! with her $-rs-it of learnin/' 0rchy wrote to his frien! ?ohn Mc eo! on ?an-ary 15. 18=2 a*o-t his efforts to teach his familyI “<hat 2 re/ret most is the con!ition of the 4oys D for there is nothin/ li6e early e!-cation D however 2 6ee$ them at it Mother an! all' My 1hinoo6 E&anal!F now rea!s $retty well an! has commence! cy$herin/ Ean archaic wor! for arithmeticF'" ?ane /ave *irth to her fo-rth son. 0llan. at Fort an/ley on May 19. 18=2' :he followin/ year 0rchy wrote a*o-t her an! his chil!renI “_' so that with herself an! :oole at the hea! of the class 2 am in a fair way of havin/ a thrivin/ school'" :oole was the nic6name for ?ane)s ste$son &anal!' 2n that same letter. McDonal! a!!e! that his !-ties wo-l!I “_' $-t an en! to this a/reea*le an! interestin/ $astime'" ,e in!icate! that in or!er to f-rther their e!-cation he wo-l! soon sen! his ol!er *oys to an aca!emy that ha! recently o$ene! in the &e! &iver Settlement' ?ane)s ten-re as mistress of Fort an/ley was to en! in 18==' D-rin/ her time there she ha! *ro-/ht with her to the Fort an! its comm-nity the MGtis herita/e an! c-lt-re that she ha! /rown -$ with in the 0tha*asca area' 2n antici$ation of a tri$ to %reat 4ritain in 18=7. 0rchy first went to Fort Nanco-ver' @rior to his overseas tri$ he was sent in May 18== to the @-/et So-n! area to select a site for Fort +isM-ally' 2t was to this area that the &e! &iver C;$e!ition (consistin/ of mostly MGtis immi/rants an! le! *y ?ames Sinclair) was sent *y the ,41 in 1871' 4efore he left for Scotlan! an! Cn/lan!. 0rchy arran/e! for ?ane an! their fo-r sons to stay with her $arents at their ?as$er ,o-se home' Cn ro-te there. ?ane /ave *irth to her only !a-/hter Maryanne at &oc6y Mo-ntain ,o-se (in $resent !ay 0l*erta) on Fe*r-ary =. 18=7' She was now the mother of si; MGtis chil!ren incl-!in/ her ste$son &anal!' ater that year ?ane an! the chil!ren travele! to the &e! &iver Settlement to enroll the ol!er *oys in school there' 2t is li6ely that her $arents accom$anie! them on this 3o-rney. since that same s-mmer her father Michel Klyne relocate! to the &e! &iver Settlement on his retirement from the ,41' 0t &e! &iver ?ane an! the chil!ren live! with the 0n/lican $riest &everen! <illiam 1oc6ran an! his wife 0nn' :he ol!er *oys were enrolle! in the &e! &iver 0ca!emy'

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0nother 0n/lican missionary &everen! Davi! ?ones an! his wife Mary ha! o$ene! the 0ca!emy in 18=2' <hile stayin/ with the 1oc6rans. ?ane ma!e a !ecision to formally 3oin the C$isco$alian faith of her h-s*an! 0rchy' &everen! 1oc6ran christene! ?ane. their fo-r sons. their !a-/hter an! her ste$son &anal! on +ovem*er 2. 18=7' Pn his ret-rn from his C-ro$ean 3o-rney in ?-ne 18=5. 0rchy met -$ with ?enny an! his offs$rin/ at &e! &iver' <hile there. ?enny an! 0rchy !eci!e! to formaliOe their co-ntry marria/e *y -n!er/oin/ a reli/io-s ceremony' &everen! 1oc6ran $erforme! the service on ?-ne 9. 18=5' 0rchy wrote to C!war! Crmatin/er on 0$ril 1. 18=>' 0fter first referrin/ to the insanity of :ra!er ?ohn :o!)s Cn/lish wife CliOa. 0rchy !rolly a!!e! of his own we!!in/I “tho-/ht the safest a least *othersome co-rse for me to $-rs-e was to close in with the ol! woman to-t !e *on'" 2n view of his faithf-l ten year marria/e to ?enny an! their many chil!ren. he wittily a!!e! that in the $resence of the ,41 1o-ncil (which ha! 3-st com$lete! a meetin/ at &e! &iver)I “0rchy an! ?enny were 3oine! in holy we!loc6 _' Ean!F of co-rse !eclare! at f-ll li*erty to live to/ether as man a wife a to increase a m-lti$ly as to them mi/ht seem fit'" 2n that same letter 0rchy reveale! that he ha! finishe! “an 0merican Sle!/e Esle!F". an! thatI “_' in com$any with my wife a little 1hil!ren have en3oye! myself with last winter to my hearts content'" ,is ret-rn from %reat 4ritain also witnesse! a new assi/nment for him' ,e was a$$ointe! the hea! of Fort 1olvile in the Pre/on 1o-ntry' ,e an! ?enny ma!e a heartfelt !ecision to leave the five ol!er chil!ren (a/e! five to eleven) in the &e! &iver Settlement to carry on with their schoolin/' :his meant that they wo-l! li6ely not see their $arents for -$war!s of five years 0s events -nfol!e!. when ?ane)s ste$son &anal! was fifteen year)s ol! he went to St' :homas to wor6 for C!war! Crmatin/er as a *an6 a$$rentice for a short time' ater as an a!-lt. &anal! $rove! to *e an interestin/ character in his own ri/ht' <antin/ to see ?a$an. he arran/e! to *e maroone! there' ,e s$ent a year in ?a$an teachin/ Cn/lish *efore he was -nceremonio-sly evicte!' 2n the fall of 18=5. 0rchy an! ?enny arrive! at Fort 1olvile' :his Fort ha! s-*stantial farm an! livestoc6 o$erations' 2t was also the center for the constr-ction of *atea-;' :hese *oats were essential for river frei/htin/ alon/ the ,41 f-r-*ri/a!e trans$ortation system west of the &oc6y Mo-ntains' ?enny once a/ain *ecame the lea!in/ la!y an! role mo!el for the women of a thrivin/ fort' 2n a!!ition to the male servants of the ,41. there were !oOens of women an! chil!ren then livin/ there' ?ane ha! staff to hel$ her with her many !-ties at this Fort' :his was hel$f-l since she an! 0rchy entertaine! visitors. /-ests. an! travelin/ ,41 officials on a re/-lar *asis' She too6 a lea! role in $rovi!in/ hos$itality to them' :he hei/ht of ?ane)s /enerosity an! o$enhearte!ness an! that of her h-s*an! occ-rre! at Fort 1olvile' <hen the missionaries 1-shin/ Cells an! Cl6anah <al6er an! their wives an! a yo-n/ *a*y 1yr-s <al6er arrive! in the Pre/on 1o-ntry in 18=8. the !wellin/s that they were to occ-$y were in a sa! state of !isre$air' ?ane an! 0rchy invite! them to resi!e in their home at Fort 1olvile -ntil the home for the missionaries co-l! *e ma!e fit to live in' Pn Se$tem*er 17. 18=8 &everen! <al6er wrote in his 3o-rnalI “&eceive! a cor!ial welcome from Mr' McDonal! an! la!y'" :hey referre! to

58

?ane as “a 3ewel _' of rare e;cellence". an! her chil!ren as “livin/ testimony to her maternal efficiency"' 2n 8=ile in the 5il erness *y ?ean M-rray 1ole. ?ane is M-ote! as writin/ to &ev' <al6er an! his wife MaryI “0ltho-/h 2 have more atten!ants than yohave. still they leave me M-ite eno-/h to !o'" D-e to 0rchy)s increase! !-ties at Fort 1olvile. it *ecame necessary for ?ane to ass-me the e!-cation of their yo-n/er chil!ren that were with them' <ithin a few years. her role ha! chan/e! from that of a st-!ent to that of a teacher' :his was a tri*-te to her innate intelli/ence an! her a*ility to learn M-ic6ly' 2n an article *y 1ole in the 1972 S-mmer iss-e of 6he 3ea/er ma/aOine there is a M-ote *y %eor/e 0llan. an acco-ntant em$loye! at Fort Nanco-ver' ,e is M-ote! concernin/ Fort 1olvile an! the socia*ility of ?ane an! 0rchyI _' nothin/ 2 have yet seen in the 2n!ian co-ntry can eM-al the *ea-ty of its sit-ation_' <hen seate! at ta*le with Mr' an! Mrs' McDonal! an! their family. one cannot hel$ thin6in/ himself once more at home en3oyin/ a tVte-8-tVte in some !omestic circle' 2n !inin/ with his wife an! chil!ren. 0rchy !iffere! from the -s-al $ractice of ,41 officers havin/ !inner only with other officials of the fort an! not with their families' <hen officials an! /-ests visite! the Fort. ?ane wo-l! s-$ervise the meals an! sit !own to eat an! chat with their /-ests' 2n the s-mmer of 1871 %overnor %eor/e Sim$son of the ,41 was travelin/ in the Pre/on 1o-ntry on a le/ of his 3o-rney aro-n! the worl!' 4efore the %overnor reache! Fort 1olvile. 0rchy an! some of his men ro!e a !istance from the Fort to meet Sim$son an! his $arty' 0rchy *ro-/ht a !electa*le an! n-tritio-s meal to them' #n!o-*te!ly ?ane wo-l! have $laye! a si/nificant $art in the arran/ement an! $re$aration of this festive *anM-et that was $re$are! for Sim$son an! his ento-ra/e' 2n his Narrati/e of a ,ourney 1roun the 5orl . Sim$son wrote a*o-t this mealI ?-st fancy. at the *ase of the &oc6y Mo-ntains. a roaste! t-r6ey. a s-c6in/ EsicF $i/. new *rea!. fresh *-tter. e//s. ale. ac'B an! then contrast all these !ainties with short allowance of $emmican an! water' +o won!er that some of o-r $arty ate more than was /oo! for them' P*vio-sly this was an eloM-ent tri*-te to ?enny)s c-linary talents an! or/aniOational s6ills' 0rchy was very $ro-! of ?enny)s !omestic an! c-linary a*ilities' Pn ?an-ary 25. 18=7 he wrote to C!war! Crmatin/er a*o-t ?aneI “0t 1olvile. the wife a myself are in e;cellent $ractice - her 4-tter. 1heese. ,am. a 4acon wo-l! shine in any or!inary mar6et_'" 2n this letter he also referre! to Fran6 (C!war!)s *rother) stayin/ with him an! ?enny at Fort 1olvile in Decem*er 18=>' 4efore 1hristmas. Fran6 left the Fort. *-t at the S$o6ane For6s he *ecame ice *o-n!' ,e an! his men ret-rne! to Fort 1olvile' P*vio-sly they arrive! in time for a s-m$t-o-s 1hristmas !inner with the McDonal! family an! their /-ests since 0rchy state! in his letter that they came *ac6 a/ainI “_' 3-st in time for the &oast 4eef a $l-m $-!!in/_' 0fter !oin/ o-rselves a a*o-t five a thirty men all the 3-stice _' of /oo! thin/s at 1olvile _' he a $arty a/ain left_'" 0fter the *anM-et with %overnor Sim$son in 1871. McDonal! was e;$ectin/ the arrival of
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?ames Sinclair an! the &e! &iver C;$e!ition of MGtis immi/rants to the Pre/on 1o-ntry' Pne of them was ?ane)s *rother ?ose$h Klyne' :he C;$e!ition !i! not arrive at Fort 1olvile -ntil the a-t-mn of 1871 as they ha! ta6en a !ifferent ro-te than e;$ecte! an! also enco-ntere! !elays' Some months later in March 1872 in his letter to C!war! Crmatin/er. 0rchy wrote a*o-t the &e! &iver C;$e!itionI “0nother memora*le event is the mi/ration this way of some of the &e! &iver Settlers -n!er the con!-ct of Mr' ?ames Sinclair'" :he ,41)s &e! &iver C;$e!ition was le! *y the MGtis ?ames Sinclair' 2ts intent was to create a lar/er $o$-lation of 4ritish s-*3ects in the !is$-te! Pre/on 1o-ntry with a view to enhancin/ ,41 an! 4ritish claims to the area' +otwithstan!in/ her MGtis *loo!. ?ane was /enerally acce$te! *y cler/y wives in the re/ion' :his !iffere! from the !is!ainin/ attit-!es of missionary wives at Fort Nanco-ver (in what is now the State of <ashin/ton) an! Fort Nictoria' 0ltho-/h their h-s*an!s were ,41 1hief Factors. two other $rominent MGtis women (Mar/-erite <a!in McKay Mc o-/hlin an! 0melia 1onnolly Do-/las) e;$erience! racial !iscrimination from the s$o-ses of other missionaries' 2n 18=8 the 1ol-m*ia Maternal 0ssociation was forme! *y several wives of the cler/y in the area of Fort 1olvile' 2t was a 1hristian or/aniOation of women esta*lishe! for $rayer. conversation. to hel$ the mem*ers in their maternal !-ties. an! for other activities' ?ane was welcome! *y these women as a mem*er of this 0ssociation' ?ane an! 0rchy live! at Fort 1olvile from 18=5 to 1877' 2n that $erio! they hee!e! &everen! 1oc6ran)s wor!s at &e! &iver “to increase an! m-lti$ly as to them mi/ht seem fit"' :o their /reat 3oy. si; a!!itional MGtis chil!ren were *orn to them !-rin/ their time at the Fort' :hey also e;$erience! trials an! sorrows' :heir son ?ohn !ie! shortly after his *irth in 0$ril 18=>' :heir ne;t son. *orn the followin/ year. was also name! ?ohn' :wins name! Donal! an! ?ames arrive! on ?-ly 2=. 18=9 an! Sam-el saw the li/ht of !ay on Se$tem*er 28. 1871' ?ose$h was *orn in the a-t-mn of 187= while they were still mo-rnin/ the !eath of their first chil! 0n/-s who ha! !ie! earlier that year' 0rchy was a$$ointe! to the covete! $osition of 1hief Factor in 1872' ,owever. he was now 52 years ol! an! tirin/ of the f-r tra!e life in the 2n!ian 1o-ntry' ,e retire! from active !-ty with the ,41 in 1877' 2n Se$tem*er of that year 0rchy. the a/ain $re/nant ?enny an! their chil!ren that were with them (three others were still away at school) left Fort 1olvile with the intention of retirin/ in Montreal' :he family crosse! the &oc6y Mo-ntains. inten!in/ to winter at C!monton ,o-se' <hile en ro-te a son 4en3amin was *orn in +ovem*er. two months after their !e$art-re from Fort 1olvile' 2n 1875 misfort-ne str-c6 C!monton ,o-se while the McDonal!s were there' 2n May of that year scarlet fever too6 the lives of three of their chil!ren D two year ol! ?ose$h an! the twins Donal! an! ?ames. who were not yet si; years ol!' :hese !eaths were very !iffic-lt for the family' ?ane ha! always *een so $ro-! of her twins' 2n his March =A. 1872 letter to C!war! Crmatin/er. 0rchy ha! referre! to “my whole *roo! of ten" an! state! of the twins “_' the mother to a threa! 6ee$s them in the
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Same 6in! of /ar*'" :he McDonal!s reache! Montreal later that year' :heir last chil!. also name! 0n/-s. was *orn there on +ovem*er 27. 187>' :he family !i! not remain lon/ in Montreal' 2n 1877 0rchy $-rchase! a farm near St' 0n!rews Cast on the Pttawa &iver in 1ana!a <est (formerly #$$er 1ana!a an! now Pntario)' 0ltho-/h she an! her chil!ren were MGtis. ?ane ha! no tro-*le fittin/ into “white society" in their new comm-nity' :he MGtis *loo! in ?ane)s veins was also stron/ in that of her *rothers %eor/e an! 0!am' :hey were livin/ in the &e! &iver Settlement at the time of the &e! &iver &esistance of 18>9-7A' 2n the initial sta/es they *ac6e! the notorio-s Dr' ?ohn Sch-ltO an! o$$ose! the o-is &iel s-$$orters' 0t one $oint &iel even ha! %eor/e Klyne arreste! for a *rief time' Shortly afterwar!s in ?an-ary 187A. %eor/e Klyne was electe! as one of the French (not Cn/lish) !ele/ates to the 1onvention of Forty' :his 1onvention. consistin/ of 2A Cn/lish-s$ea6in/ an! 2A French-s$ea6in/ re$resentatives. was forme! to !isc-ss the a!mission of &e! &iver into the 1ana!ian 1onfe!eration' 2t res-lte! in the formation of a @rovisional %overnment with o-is &iel electe! as its @resi!ent' 0fter they settle! in 1ana!a <est. ?ane an! 0rchy le! a M-iet an! a ha$$y life' Pn ?an-ary 15. 185= 0rchy s-!!enly $asse! away' ,e was then 3-st short of his >= r! *irth!ay' :he co-ntry marria/e ma!e west of the &oc6y Mo-ntains over a M-arter of a cent-ry earlier *etween a yo-n/ MGtis woman an! an as$irin/ Scottish f-r tra!er ha! come to an en!' @rofessor <' ' Morton in the intro!-ction to 8=ile in the 5il erness wrote of ?ane an! 0rchy)s marria/eI “:he family ties were close an! en!-rin/. an! the marria/e an e;em$lar of f-r tra!e marria/es'" :he wi!owe! ?enny live! o-t the remain!er of her life in 1ana!a <est in a M-iet manner' 0t some $oint ?enny. her chil!ren an! her ste$son &anal! commence! s$ellin/ their s-rname “MacDonal!" rather than McDonal!' 2n writin/ to C!war! Crmatin/er on +ovem*er 17. 185> see6in/ a $osition for her 19 year ol! son ?ohn. the wi!owe! ?ane si/ne! her name “?ane. Klyne. MacDonal!"' ,er letter containe! well-str-ct-re! sentences. a fine voca*-lary an! no s$ellin/ errors other than “their" instea! of “there"' ,er clear han!writin/ is easier to rea! than 0rchy)s scri$t' :his letter $rovi!es tan/i*le $roof of 0rchy)s teachin/ s6ills many years earlier an! ?ane)s a*ility as a *ri/ht an! intelli/ent st-!ent' ?enny !ie! on Decem*er 15. 1879' 0s a wife an! mother she re$resente! the role of a co-ntry wife in an e;em$lary fashion' ,er !eath *ro-/ht to an en! the life of this remar6a*le MGtis woman. who has left her mar6 on the history of 4ritish 1ol-m*ia an! the @acific +orthwest' .eferences: 4rown. ?ennifer S' ,' Stran!ers in 3loo : Fur 6ra e Com'any Families in :n ian Country (#niversity of 4ritish 1ol-m*ia @ress. Nanco-ver. 198A)' 1ole. ?ean M-rray (1) “C;ile in the <il!ernessI 0rchi*al! McDonal!)s ten years at Fort 1olvile". 6he 3ea/er. S-mmer. 1972'

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%eor/e an! :erry %o-let' “?ane Klyne Mc!onal!I ea!in/ a!y of Fort an/ley." 6he Metis in 4ritish -ol!m#ia: From Fur 6ra e Out'osts to Colony( Nanco-ver. 41 an! 1al/ary. 04. Fa*?o*. 2AA8I1>7-18A' McDonald, )ohn. (1825-1912) ?ohn was *orn at Fort C!monton on ?-ne 17. 1825. the Metis son of “4i/ Donal!" McDonal! (*' 1797) an! ?eanne 4ea-!ry' ,e marrie! +ancy McDonal!. the Metis !a-/hter of “ ittle Donal!" McDonal! an! +ancy Fer/-son. an! they ha! at least ei/ht chil!ren *orn *etween 1878 an! 1872' :hree of their sons. <illiam (*' 1878). 0le;an!er (*' 185=) an! ?ohn (*' 185>) were Noya/e-rs with the +ile C;$e!ition of 1887-85' ,is family move! to &e! &iver in 18=7' 0fter several tri$s to 5or6 Factory he *ecame an e;$erience! voya/e-r an! was chosen *y Dr' ?ohn &ae to 3oin the crew of the Fran6lin search in 185= an! 1857' 0s a mem*er of this crew he was awar!e! the octa/onal silver me!al of L-een Nictoria for 0rctic e;$loration' ater he farme! at St' 0n!rew)s. &e! &iver. where he !ie! on 29 0$ril 1912' McDo!"all, Ale&ander Sr. (1871-1927) 0le;an!er McDo-/allB *orn May 11. 1871 at St' 4oniface. was the son of D-ncan McDo-/all71 an! Mar/-erite McDonal! (*' 182A)' 0le;an!er marrie! Maria 2rwin. the !a-/hter of %eor/e 2rwin an! 1olette S@ollyS Fi!ler. on 28 0-/ 18>2 St' 4oniface' 0le;an!er !ie! 1927 at St' o-is. Sas6atchewan' 0le;an!er an! Maria move! to St' o-is !e an/evin in 1882' D-rin/ the 1885 &esistance 0le;an!er was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4a$tiste 4o-cher)s 1om$any (4o-cher was also a resi!ent of St' o-is' 0le;an!er a$$ears on @hili$$e %arnot)s list of resistance $artici$ants as no' 177' 1hil!ren of 0le;an!er McDo-/all an! Maria 2rwin were as followsI • o-is McDo-/allB *orn 19 Dec 18>2 at St' 4onifaceB !ie! 1> 0-/ 18>7 at a/e 1' • Marie ?ane McDo-/allB *orn an! *a$tiOe! 19 Fe* 18>5 St' 4oniface !ie! 2 Se$ 18>> St' 4oniface at a/e 1' • Marie Marta McDo-/allB *orn 19 Mar 18>7 St' ?ames' • 0le;an!re @eter McDo-/all. *orn 7 Mar 18>9 St' ?amesB marrie! Nir/inie e$ine the !a-/hter of Ma;ime e$ine an! ?ose$hte avallee' • ?ose$h McDo-/all. *orn 0$ril 7. 1871 at St' 4oniface. marrie! Flora 0t6inson. the !a-/hter of :homas 0t6inson an! ?ose$hte Morrissette in 1888' • @ierre McDo-/all. *orn 187=. marrie! Mathil!e Fer/-son' • Sam-el McDo-/all. *orn 1875. marrie! Delia &e/nier' • ,enry an!re Mc!o-/all. *orn 1879. marrie! 1ecile Monto-r' :heir /ran!son. MG!Gric McDo-/all. was a fo-n!er of the Metis Society of Sas6atchewan an! receive! the Pr!er of 1ana!a in 198>' D-ncan (*' 179>) !rowne! in the &e! &iver near <inni$e/ in 187A' D-ncan ha! a ferry service on what is now calle! So-th @oint on the so-th si!e of the 3-nction of the &e! an! 0ssini*oine &ivers' ,e may have fallen off the ferry or sli$$e! into the river *y acci!ent'
71

>2

McDo-/all. 0le;an!re ?r' (*' 18>9) 0le;an!re was the on of 0le;an!re McDo-/all Sr' an! Maria 2rwin' ,e was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4a$tiste 4o-cher)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' 2n 1891 he marrie! Nir/inie e$ine' McDo!"all, Daniel 'l(ear. (187=-188A) Daniel was *orn at esser Slave a6e in +ovem*er of 187=. the son of ?ohn %eor/e McDo-/all an! %enevieve “?ane" ?as$ar! (%as$ar!)' ,is father. a Scottsman. was the first 1hief Factor of the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any for the C!monton District' ,is mother. %enevieve. was a MGtisse' %eor/e McDo-/all !ie! in 1879 an! after his !eath ?ane (%enevieve) move! her family of seven chil!ren to Fort C!monton' 2t was there that the chil!ren *e/an to receive reli/io-s instr-ction from the 1atholic Missionaries' 2n 185=. ?ane move! the family to &e! &iver an! her !a-/hter Mary ?ane (*' 1877) entere! the 1atholic 4oar!in/ School' Pn Decem*er 2=. 18>2. Mary ?ane *ecame a novice in the Pr!er of the %rey +-ns an! too6 her vows on May =. 18>5' 2n 1857. Daniel McDo-/all alon/ with o-is &iel an! o-is ( afertG) Schmi!t were atten!in/ school at St' 4oniface with the FrTres !es Ucoles 1hrGtiennes when their mentor M/r' :achG !eci!e! to sen! the *oys to 4as-1ana!a to com$lete their st-!ies in L-G*ec in 1858' o-is &iel went to the 1ollT/e !e MontrGal. Daniel McDo-/all to the 1ollT/e !e +icolet an! o-is Schmi!t to the 1ollT/e !e Saint-,yacinthe' Pn ?-ne 18. 18>> at St' 4oniface. Daniel marrie! Mar/-erite 4r-nea- (*' 18=9) the !a-/hter of Fran9ois 4r-nea- an! Mar/-erite ,arrison' :he co-$le were amon/ a n-m*er of Metis families who move! from St' 4oniface to areas f-rther so-th s-ch as orette after the tro-*les of the 18>9-7A &esistance' Daniel first esta*lishe! a homestea! on the so-th si!e of the Seine &iver near orette in 18>9-71 an! then o*taine! lan! on the north *an6 of the Seine $rior to his !eath in 188A' ,e !ie! as the res-lt of a train acci!ent in St' 4oniface in which he lost a le/' ,e left his wife an! two sons. Fran9ois Daniel an! 0le;an!re to s-rvive him' Mc!o-/all)s sister Mary ?ane wor6e! for the %rey +-ns at St' +or*ert to esta*lish St' Mary)s 0ca!emy an! Sister McDo-/all oversaw their *oar!in/ school' <hen she a$$lie! for her Metis lan! in 1875 she liste! herself as a +-n at the %eneral ,os$ital of St' 4oniface' 2n 189A she was name! s-$erior of the *oar!in/ school' :hereafter she wor6e! at Ste' 0nnes !es 1hVnes an! L-)0$$elle' She ret-rne! to r-n @rovencher 0ca!emy' 2n 1895. she travelle! to the Pr!er)s mother ho-se in Montreal an! *ecame ill while there an! !ie! in Montreal on +ovem*er =. 189>' McDo!"all, D!ncan )r.. (18=7-192>) 4y ?im ?erome an! awrence 4ar6well D-ncan McDo-/all was *orn at &e! &iver on May 25. 18=7. the son of D-ncan McDo-/all an! Mar/-erite McDonell (McDonal!). the !a-/hter of 0le;an!re McDonell an! S-sanne a-rin (Metisse)' :he McDo-/all family (D-ncan Sr' an! sons) live! near the 3-nction of the &e! an! 0ssini*oine rivers. o$$osite the For6s where they o$erate! the ferry'72 D-ncan Sr' !rowne! in the &e! &iver near <inni$e/ in 187A'
72

:he ferries o$erate! from “So-th @oint" *etween the rivers an! crosse! the &e! an! the 0ssini*oine'

>=

D-ncan ha! a ferry service at the for6s. crossin/ *oth the &e! &iver an! the 0ssini*oine &iver' ,e may have fallen off the ferry or sli$$e! into the river *y acci!ent' D-ncan ?r' marrie! &osalie es$erance. the !a-/hter of 0le;is 4onami es$erance an! Mar/-erite %renon' ,er father was a lea!er of the a oche 4oat 4ri/a!es an! later retire! to St' Francois Wavier' D-ncan an! &osalie were marrie! at St' Francois Wavier in 1858' D-ncan ?r' was em$loye! as a sa!!ler for the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any as was his father' :hey move! to Ste' 0/athe an! live! there for 2A years. then move! to orette where he farme! -ntil his !eath on May 1=. 192>' ,is *rother 1harles McDo-/all. marrie! to MoniM-e Klyne. live! in 4-tte. Montana' ,is *rother 0le;an!re McDo-/all o$erate! the ferry at St' o-is. Sas6atchewan' D-ncan an! &osalie ha! 12 chil!ren' :he family live! in the $arish of Ste' 0/athe for 2A years *efore movin/ to orette' ,e !ie! there in 192>' :he McDo-/all family was amon/ many MGtis who relocate! from St' 4oniface-St' Nital to orette an! other areas in :achG !-rin/ the tro-*le! years of 18>8-7A' Daniel McDo-/all. 27. fo-n! $ro$erty to his li6in/ so-th of the Seine &iver in 18>9. sta6e! his claim (8-5C-11). an! *e/an $lo-/hin/ his fiel!'

McDo-/all Family home 1hil!ren of D-ncan McDo-/all an! &osalie es$eranceI

>7

• • • • • • • • • • • •

0ma!ee. *orn circa 1858. marrie! ?ose$hte 4erar!' Cmelie. *orn circa 1859. marrie! 0le;an!re arocM-e. then Mo!este a/imo!iere' Marie Mar/-erite. *orn Se$tem*er 12. 18>1 at St' Francois Wavier. !ie! 19A7 at <inni$e/' 0le;an!re. *orn Decem*er 22. 18>2 at St' Francois Wavier. marrie! 0!ele @oitras' &osalie. *orn May 21. 18>7 at St' 4oniface. !ie! Pcto*er >. 18>5' <illiam. *orn +ovem*er 8. 18>5 at St' 4oniface' o-is 0le;. *orn March 2>. 18>7 at St' 4oniface' 0lfre!. *orn March 21. 18>9 at St' 4oniface' &osalie. *orn 0-/-st 2>. 187A at St' Francois Wavier' Pctave. *orn +ovem*er 7. 1871 at St' Francois Wavier. marrie! Melanie arocM-e' ?ose$h al*ert. *orn March =. 187= at St' 4oniface. marrie! Marie NeroniM-e ?ose$hine Delorme. the !a-/hter of @ierre Delorme an! 0!elai!e 4ea-chemin' Marie 0!ele. *orn Se$tem*er =A. 1877 at St' 4oniface'

McDo-/all ,o-se. now at St' +or*ert' 4y 1871. McDo-/all an! his family ha! *-ilt a >'1 ; 7'> m (2AS ; 25S) lo/ ho-se an! ta6en -$ $ermanent resi!ency' ,owever. McDo-/all !ie! on May 28. 188A. shortly after a train acci!ent in St' 4oniface in which he lost a le/' ,e left his wife an! two sons with lot 11 (1=>'8 ha' or ==8 ac'). two *-il!in/s an! some c-ltivate! lan!' ,e also ha! *o-/ht lot 59 from another sM-atter in 187A (8A'9 ha'. 2AA ac') an! claime! $art of lot >A (1='A
>5

ha'. =2 ac'). *oth on the north *an6 of the Seine' :hree years after her h-s*an!Ss !eath. Mrs' McDo-/all an! her teena/e sons move! across the river an! *-ilt a st-r!y lo/ ho-se 5'8 m ; >'7 m (19S ; 21S) on lot 59'9' :his ho-se now stan!s on a new site in St' +or*ert' Fran9ois-Daniel. the el!est chil! of Daniel McDo-/all. event-ally too6 over the 188= ho-se' ,is mother move! into the near*y villa/e of orette an! o$ene! a /eneral store that laste! several years' 0le;an!re. the secon! son. also move! o-t to esta*lish his own farm' etters $atent for lot 59 were /iven to the three McDo-/alls in 1885B two years later. the westerly two chains of lot >A were a!!e!' Pf these 9='9 ha' (2=2 ac') 1A'1 ha' (25 ac') were -n!er c-ltivation an! the family owne! assorte! livestoc6' 4y 1889 the family also hel! letters $atent for the westerly 97'7 ha' (2=7 ac') of lot 11' Mrs' McDo-/all an! her two sons ha! receive! lot 11 thro-/h the $roce!-re lai! o-t in the 1881 Pr!er-2n-1o-ncil. incl-!in/ a /rant of >7'8 hectares an! $-rchase of the remain!er at X1JA'7 hectares' 2n total. the entire 1=>'8 ha' (==8 ac') cost the family X21A'1>' Fran9ois-Daniel marrie! Nir/inie Flaman! (*orn 18>9)' :hey ha! two sons an! fo-r !a-/hters (altho-/h one of the sons !ie! soon after *irth)' 2n 19A2. Fran9ois-Daniel !ie! at the a/e of =5 of small$o;. *-t his !escen!ants contin-e! to -se the 188= lo/ home' 0 !a-/hter. 0le;ina. live! in the ho-se -ntil 19>5 (two years after her motherSs !eath). then move! to St' +or*ert (only to have the ho-se follow her thereY)' Scri$ affi!avit for McDo-/all. D-ncanB *ornI May 25. 18=7B fatherI D-ncan McDo-/all (Scot)B motherI Mar/-erite McDonal! (MGtis)B claim noI 7>1B scri$ noI 5929 to 59=>B !ate of iss-eI ?-ne 2>. 187>B amo-ntI X1>A' Scri$ affi!avit for McDo-/all. Mar/-erite (his mother) *ornI +ovem*er 2. 182AB wi!ow of D-ncan McDo-/allB fatherI 0le;an!re McDonal! (Scot)B motherI S-Oette a-rin (MGtis)B claim noI 7>AB scri$ noI 5921 to 5928B !ate of iss-eI ?-ne 2>. 187>B amo-ntI X1>A' Scri$ affi!avit for McDo-/all. &osalie (his wife)B *ornI 0-/-st 1=. 18=8B wife of D-ncan McDo-/allB fatherI 0le;is es$erance (French 1ana!ianB motherI Mar/-erite %-ernon (MGtis)B claim noI 7>2B scri$ noI 59=7 to 5977B !ate of iss-eI ?-ne 2>. 187> D-ncan Sr' an! sons o$erate! the ferry at #$$er Fort %arry' ?' ?' ,ar/rave has m-ch to say a*o-t the o$eration of the ferry in 18>1I7= 1,0@:C& W2N' 18>1' @a/e 18= - 185

7=

?ose$h ?ames ,ar/rave. .e .i/er' MontrealI ?ohn ovell. 1871I 18=-185'

>>

:he Q@ioneerQ !rew -$ *y the river *an6 at St' 4oniface. an! the $assen/ers $re$are! to /o on shore' 0s the !estination of Mr' Mor/an an! myself lay on the o$$osite si!e of the river an! no *ri!/e e;iste!. we. alon/ with a consi!era*le n-m*er of o-r fellow travellers. too6 $assa/e in the local ferry *oat. which was rea!y to ta6e -s across' 2 have not yet mentione! this ferry. which is the only one e;istin/. -n!er the $atrona/e of the %overnment of the colony. to which its mana/ement ha! ever *een a so-rce of ve;ation' :he $osition of the ferry is at the confl-ence of the &e! &iver an! 0ssini*oine' 2ts $-r$ose is to trans$ort foot $assen/ers an! vehicles across either or *oth of these rivers' :he means *y which this is effecte! consists of two scows wor6e! on ro$es. a canoe an! $assen/er s6iff' 4y or!er of co-ncil. no other ferry *oat is $ermitte! to $ly for hire within a ra!i-s of several miles from the site of the ferry' :he name of the ferryman is D-ncan Mac!o-/all' ,e is a lin/-ist. *ein/ com$etent to s$ea6 Cn/lish. French. 1ree an! %aelic. an! in conseM-ence of his a*ilities an! -sef-lness as an inter$reter. o-/ht lon/ *efore his $resent time of life to have occ-$ie! a /oo! $osition' ,e is. however. incline! to conviviality. which circ-mstance has interfere! as m-ch with the $ro/ress of his fort-nes as with the !is$atch of his *-siness' ,is ho-se is sit-ate! close to th e scene of his la*o-rs. on the so-th si!e of the 0ssini*oine. at the $oint where *oats to-ch in ma6in/ the crossin/ of the &e! &iver' Pn this $oint. in conseM-ence of its *ein/ the centre of traffic. several $-*lic ho-ses have flo-rishe!' 2n the latter the ferryman has s$ent a /oo! !eal of his time. while some of the i!le men aro-n! were statione! in the *oats' :he eye of the master not *ein/ on the s-*or!inates. m-ch la;ity $revaile! in wor6in/ the scows. while the canoe an! s6iff were freM-ently a$$ro$riate! *y i!le *oys !esiro-s of en3oyin/ aM-atic s$orts *y stealth' :he res-lt was that often !-rin/ the !ay $assen/ers were o*li/e! to wait for a shamef-lly $rotracte! $erio! *efore /ettin/ across. an! after si; oScloc6 in the evenin/. the silence was *ro6en *y the sho-ts of an/ry Cn/lishmen. callin/ across the rivers for the means of trans$ort. min/le! with the entreaties of *elate! Frenchmen that QMac Do-/.Q as the latter $rono-nce the ferrymanSs name. wo-l! come to their assistance' 2n a!!ition to these evils the craft were in a very !ila$i!ate! con!ition' :he floorin/ of the scows ha! *een re!-ce! to s-ch a state of !isre$air. that every ste$ of the horses. or motion of the carts. !eran/e! the *oar!in/. sometimes to s-ch an e;tent that. owin/ to the intervention of a tolera*ly central f-lcr-m -n!er neath. one en! of the *oar! went !own -n!er $ress-re of a foot. while the other flew -$ with a certain !e/ree of violence a/ainst the face of some nei/h*o-rin/ *east of *-r!en' <hile the animal. whose le/ ha! s-n6 thro-/h the floorin/. was on his 6nees tryin/ to recover himself. the other. who ha! receive! the stro6e on his $ro*oscis. mi/ht *e on his ha-nches. the $assen/ers sho-tin/ for mercy an! assistance. the *oatmen contem$latin/ a lea$ into the water. an! the scow floatin/ in mi!-channel of the river' :he s6iff. or canoe. when it was to *e fo-n! on !-ty. was /enerally $retty heavily la!en with m-!!y water. the res-lt of $rotracte! lea6a/e or heavy rains' :he amo-nt of o*loM-y inc-rre! *y this instit-tion may *e ima/ine!' P-t*rea6s of $-*lic in!i/nation constantly occ-rre! on the s$ot. when cram$e! foot $assen/ers. wet to the 6nees. iss-e! from the inconvenient s6iffs. or *reathless carters -r/e! their sorely trie! horses or o;en to st-m*le at a trot over the -nstea!y floorin/ of the scows. in or!er

>7

to /ain a little im$et-s $revio-s to ma6in/ the stiff ascent of a*o-t two in three. forme! *y the lan!in/ trac6 lea!in/ from the water level to the s-mmit of the riverSs *an6' :hen the si;$enny tr-m$et of the Q +orS <esterQ *lew. at fortni/htly intervals. in!i/nant $eals em*o!yin/ the lon/est terms of e;ecration in the e!itorial voca*-lary. an! levele! at Qthe ferry n-isance'Q From time to time $etitions. n-mero-sly si/ne! *y the QcitiOens of 0ssini*oia.Q $rayin/ for the !ismissal of D-ncan MacDo-/all from the office of ferryman. were $resente! to the co-ncil' 0/ain an! a/ain the res$onsi*le committee of this *o!y. in answer to the $rayer of the $etitioners. !ismisse! the o*no;io-s $-*lic servant. an!. after m-ch tro-*le an! $ers-asion. $revaile! on some eli/i*le $erson to acce$t the sit-ation' :he new man. after re$airin/ the !ila$i!ate! $lant an! en/a/in/ tr-stworthy s-*or!inates. a!!resse! himself to the /iant !iffic-lty of the -n!erta6in/ *efore him. that of sec-rin/ from each foot-$assen/er $atroniOin/ his craft the small s-m of one half$enny. an! from the owner of each horse an! cart the s-m of fo-r $ence $er tri$' :he storm which ha! *lown in the time of his $re!ecessor was as nothin/ to the tem$est which wo-l! *-rst forth in the canoe of the new official on the *are intimation of so -nwonte! a $rocee!in/. an! new $etitions. /ivin/ the lie to the ol! ones. were instantly set on foot. an! n-mero-sly si/ne! *y the 1ana!ian French $o$-lation. $rayin/ for the re-instatement of the /enero-s QMacDo-/.Q who scorne! to to-ch the half$ennies of the $oor an! never ref-se! cre!it to a frien!' :he -$shot /enerally was that the *ol! interlo$er vol-ntarily resi/ne!. after a short ten-re of office. leavin/ the way clear for the tri-m$hant ret-rn of the inevita*le D-ncan' :he s6iff in -se on the !ay. when. for the first time. 2 traverse! the &e! &iver. was of the 6in! calle! in the co-ntry a QD-/o-t'Q 2t is forme! from the tr-n6 of a lar/e tree. the centre of which is scoo$e! o-t. an! the e;terior sha$e! into the sem*lance of a canoe' 2t ha! no seats. an! we were o*li/e! to 6neel !own. one *ehin! the other. on some !am$ straw hastily scattere! over the wet interior. while a *oy. seate! in the stern of the !ocile s6iff. with a sin/le oar. wor6e! alternately on either si!e of the canoe. $a!!le! -s M-ic6ly across' McDo!"all, Sister Mary )ane. (1877-189>) Mary ?ane was *orn at esser Slave a6e in ?an-ary of 1877. the !a-/hter of ?ohn %eor/e McDo-/all an! %enevieve “?ane" ?as$ar! (%as$ar!)' ,er father. a Scottsman. was the first 1hief Factor of the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any for the C!monton District' ,er mother. %enevieve. was a MGtisse from the :Vtes @lates Salish tri*e' %eor/e McDo-/all !ie! in 1879 an! after his !eath ?ane (%enevieve) move! her family of seven chil!ren to Fort C!monton' 2t was there that the chil!ren *e/an to receive reli/io-s instr-ction from the 1atholic Missionaries' 2n 185=. ?ane move! the family to &e! &iver an! her !a-/hter Mary ?ane (*' 1877) entere! the 1atholic 4oar!in/ School' Pn Decem*er 2=. 18>2. Mary ?ane *ecame a novice in the Pr!er of the %rey +-ns an! too6 her vows on May =. 18>5' Mary ?ane wor6e! for the %rey +-ns at St' +or*ert to esta*lish St' Mary)s 0ca!emy an! Sister McDo-/all oversaw their *oar!in/ school' <hen she a$$lie! for her Metis lan! in 1875 she liste! herself as a +-n at the %eneral ,os$ital of St' 4oniface' 2n 189A she was name! s-$erior of the *oar!in/ school' :hereafter she wor6e! at Ste' 0nnes !es 1hVnes an! L-)0$$elle' She ret-rne! to r-n @rovencher 0ca!emy' 2n 1895. she travelle!

>8

to the Pr!er)s mother ho-se in Montreal an! *ecame ill while there an! !ie! in Montreal on +ovem*er =. 189>' 2n 1857. Mary ?ane)s *rother. Daniel McDo-/all. alon/ with o-is &iel an! o-is ( afertG) Schmi!t were atten!in/ school at St' 4oniface with the FrTres !es Ucoles 1hrGtiennes when their mentor M/r' :achG !eci!e! to sen! the *oys to 4as-1ana!a to com$lete their st-!ies in L-G*ec in 1858' o-is &iel went to the 1ollT/e !e MontrGal. Daniel McDo-/all to the 1ollT/e !e +icolet an! o-is Schmi!t to the 1ollT/e !e Saint,yacinthe' Pn ?-ne 18. 18>> at St' 4oniface. Daniel marrie! Mar/-erite 4r-nea- (*' 18=9) the !a-/hter of Fran9ois 4r-nea- an! Mar/-erite ,arrison' :he co-$le were amon/ a n-m*er of Metis families who move! from St' 4oniface to areas f-rther so-th s-ch as orette after the tro-*les of the 18>9-7A &esistance' Daniel first esta*lishe! a homestea! on the so-th si!e of the Seine &iver near orette in 18>9-71 an! then o*taine! lan! on the north *an6 of the Seine $rior to his !eath in 188A' ,e !ie! as the res-lt of a train acci!ent in St' 4oniface in which he lost a le/' ,e left his wife an! two sons. Fran9ois Daniel an! 0le;an!re to s-rvive him' McDo!"all, M*d*ric +*,hirin -.M. “Me!ric" McDo-/all was a fo-n!er of the Metis Society of Sas6atchewan an! receive! the Pr!er of 1ana!a in 198>' ,e was *orn on Decem*er 29. 19A= at St' o-is. Sas6atchewan the son of 0le;an!re @eter McDo-/all an! Nir/inie G$ine' Pn Fe*r-ary 2. 19==. Me!ric marrie! 0nne Marie 1' e$ine. the !a-/hter of @atrice :o*ie e$ine an! -cie +olin (!a-/hter of 1harles +olin)' MG!Gric was the /ran!son of 0le;an!re McDo-/all an! Ma;ime e$ine. two men who were active in the 1885 Metis &esistance at 4atoche' MG!Gric was a$$ointe! as a Mem*er of the Pr!er of 1ana!a on Decem*er 2=. 1985 an! his investit-re too6 $lace on 0$ril 9. 198>' :he citation rea!sI 0 former em$loyee of the m-nici$ality of St- o-is. Sas6atchewan. school tr-stee an! mem*er of the villa/e co-ncil. he has wor6e! for the a!vancement of his $eo$le' 0 fo-n!in/ mem*er an! !ele/ate of the MGtis 0ssociation an! $resi!ent of the local cha$ter of the 0ssociation c-lt-relle franco-cana!ienne. he has *een faithf-l all his life to his $eo$le an! the French lan/-a/e' 0ltho-/h retire!. he is actively involve! in im$rovin/ con!itions for senior citiOens an! in $re$arations for the centennial cele*rations of o-is &ielSs i*eration Movement Me!ric was involve! with the Metis Society of Sas6atchewan from its earliest !ays' 2n the 19=As he wor6e! to or/aniOe the Metis comm-nities of St' o-is. 4atoche an! St' a-rent' ,e was a fo-n!in/ mem*er an! also serve! on the *oar! of the St' o-is 1re!it #nion for 25 years' ,e was a s-$$orter of the Metis se$aration from the former 0ssociation of Metis an! +on-Stat-s 2n!ians of Sas6atchewan (0M+S2S)' ,e was also a s-$$orter of the wor6 of ,owar! 0!ams. his ne$hew' Me!ric)s $aternal /ran!father. 0le;an!re McDo-/all (1871-1927) was the son of D-ncan McDo-/all an! Mar/-erite McDonal!' 0le;an!re marrie! Maria 2rwin at St' 4oniface in 18>2' :he family move! to St' o-is Sas6atchewan in 1882' ,e was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4a$tiste 4o-cher)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel

>9

D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' 0le;an!re a$$ears on @hili$$e %arnot)s list of &esistance $artici$ants as Z177' ,is son. 0le;an!re marrie! Ma;ime G$ine)s !a-/hter Nir/inie' Me!ric)s maternal /ran!father Ma;ime G$ine (18=>-1897) was *orn in St' 4oniface. the son of ?ean-4a$tiste 4Grar! it G$ine77 an! ?-lia ,enry' Ma;ime marrie! ?ose$hte avallGe. also of St' 4oniface. in 1857' :hey ha! si; chil!ren who live! to a!-lthoo!' ,e live! at St' Fran9ois-Wavier in the 187As ran a frei/htin/ com$any that -se! &e! &iver carts to trans$ort /oo!s as far west as 1arlton an! 2sle-8-la 1rosse an! so-th to @em*ina an! St' @a-l' Ma;ime was a *rother-in-law *y marria/e an! a close frien! of o-is &iel' 4oth Ma;ime an! his *rother 0m*roise-Di!yme were mem*ers of &iel)s first $rovisional /overnment in 18>9' 0fter Manito*a entere! 1onfe!eration in 187A. Ma;ime mana/e! to esca$e re$risals from the Pntario Pran/emen (-nli6e %o-let an! his *rother)' ,e was a fo-n!in/ mem*er of the Metis or/aniOation #nion Saint-0le;an!er in 1871' Ma;ime was electe! to the Manito*a e/islat-re on Decem*er 2=. 1877 as M 0 from St' Fran9ois-Wavier an! serve! -ntil 1878' Disill-sione! *y the infl-; of settlers an! erosion of Metis lan! ri/hts. he left the $rovince in 1882. an! move! to St' o-is !e an/evin. on the So-th Sas6atchewan ( ot 5. :75-28-2)' :here he o$erate! a ferry from his river lot an! farme!' Pn +ovem*er 19. 188= he ha! si/ne! a $etition $rotestin/ the 188= Pr!er in 1o-ncil transferrin/ the Metis lan!s at St' o-is to the @rince 0l*ert 1oloniOation 1om$any' ,e was a mem*er of &iel)s 1o-ncil (C;ove!ate) at 4atoche !-rin/ the 1885 &esistance' 0lon/ with his two sons. he fo-/ht at :o-ron!)s 1o-lee in 0$ril 1885 an! at 4atoche in May' .eferences: New 3ree ' “Me!ric McDo-/allI Metis Cl!er an! Pr/aniOer'" New 3ree Ma!a2ine. Decem*er 1988I 8-9' @ayment. Diane' “Ma;ime G$ine'" 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy. Nol' W22 (189119AA)' :orontoI #niversity of :oronto @ress. 199AI 557-555' McDo!"all, Air"inie ;e,ine. Nir/inie was the !a-/hter of Ma;ime e$ine an! ?ose$hte avallGe' She marrie! &esistance activist 0le;an!re McDo-/all (*' 18>9) on Fe*r-ary 9. 1891 at St' 4oniface' ,e was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4a$tiste 4o-cher)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' 0le;an!re a$$ears on @hili$$e %arnot)s list of &esistance $artici$ants as Z177' :heir son. 0le;an!re ?r' marrie! Ma;ime G$ine)s !a-/hter Nir/inie' ,er father an! father-in-law were *oth &esistance lea!ers' ,er /ran!son. MG!Gric ^G$hirin McDo-/all. 1'M'. was a fo-n!er of the Metis Society of Sas6atchewan an! receive! the Pr!er of 1ana!a in 198>' Mc.illis, Ale&andre (*' 187A) 0le;an!er Mc%illis. *orn at St' Francois Wavier was the son of 0le;an!re Mc%illis Sr' an! Marie 4ottinea-' ,e marrie! Marie ?eanotte. the !a-/hter of Francois ?eanotte an! Ma!eleine Falcon on 0-/-st 25. 18>5 at St' Francois Wavier' :heir chil!ren were *orn at <illow 4-nch an! 1y$ress ,ills' 0le;an!re was as mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills
77

4a$tiste e$ine hel! ,41 lots 272 an! 785 at &e! &iver'

7A

Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' Mc.illis, Ale&andre “-atcho!.” (18>=-19>8) 0le;an!re was *orn to 0n/-s Mc%illis an! 2sa*elle Fa/nant at St' Fran9ois Wavier. 3-st west of St' 4oniface' ,e was *orn in +ovem*er of 18>= an! *a$tiOe! on Decem*er 2=r! of the same year' :he family live! at St' Fran9ois Wavier -ntil he was a*o-t seven years ol!' 0fter the &esistance of 18>9-7A. the hostility towar!s Metis $eo$le *ecame almost -n*eara*le an! the Mc%illis family $ac6e! their *elon/in/s into a &e! &iver cart an! went so-th ($ro*a*ly alon/ the 1row <in/ :rail) they then hea!e! west followin/ the trails into Montana. an! finally t-rne! north into $resent !ay Sas6atchewan' 0n/-s first went into the <oo! Mo-ntain area to an e;istin/ Metis settlement' :hey soon hear! of more fertile lan! to the east an! move! to the area. which was later 6nown as St' Nictor' 2n 18>2. the Mc%illis family settle! $ermanently on the site that 1atcho- was to call home for 91 years' ,e /rew -$ $artici$atin/ in the *-ffalo h-nt. *-t each year they ha! to /o f-rther an! f-rther to h-nt the monarchs of the $lains. -ntil it was im$ossi*le to fin! a her! of any reasona*le siOe' 2n a!!ition. the her!s were har!er to locate' 4y 1881. when 1atcho- was 18. the h-nt was a thin/ of the $ast' ,owever. he !oes have the !istinction of 6illin/ the last wil! *-ffalo on the $lains of so-thern Sas6atchewan' ,e then t-rne! his s6ills as a horseman to ranchin/' First. he wor6e! for @ascal 4onnea- an! later for ?ean o-is e/are. a French 1ana!ian who ha! immi-/rate! to <oo! Mo-ntain from L-e*ec' 1atcho- *ecame 6nown as one of the *est horsemen of the area' &o$in/ from the *ac6 of a horse is not easy. *-t 1atcho- ma!e it loo6 sim$le. almost nat-ral' 4y 1888. 1atcho- ha! his own s$rea! an! move! into cattle ranchin/ in a *i/ way' 4y then. he ha! fo-r sections of lan!' ,e was only 25. *-t he ha! men many years his senior wor6in/ for him' ,e was res$ecte! *y one an! all' ,e was honest. har! wor6in/. an! wor6e! alon/ si!e his men' :he name “1atcho-" is Michif 1ree for “ ittle Man'" 1atcho- was sai! to *e fl-ent in several lan/-a/esB Michif. the lan/-a/e of the Metis. 1ree. Sa-ltea-; an! French' ,e was not a lar/e man. some say he stoo! 5) 7" on his *est !ay. some say he was even shorter in stat-re. *-t he was a /iant at heart' +o tas6 was too lar/e an! no challen/e too *i/' ,e too6 everythin/ in stri!e an! resolve! most $ro*lems in time' 2n the winter of 19A7-A5. there was severe weather. an! a/ain in 19A>-A7 it t-rne! *itterly col!' 1attle !ie! !-rin/ *oth winters. 6illin/ most of 1atcho-)s her!' ,e never recovere! from those winters an! instea! t-rne! to raisin/ horses an! hirin/ o-t to other ranchers in the area' ,e ha! to sell some of his lan! to remain o-t of !e*t' 1atcho- never marrie!' ,e is sai! to have never ta6en white man)s me!icine. *-t !i! smo6e a $i$e well into his twili/ht years' ,is father !ie! in 1881. an! his mother !ie! in 19== at a/e 9>' 1atcho- s$ent his final years at St' 0nthony)s ,ome in Moose ?aw' St' Nictor)s @arish owes m-ch to this manB he !onate! a lar/e $arcel of lan! to the $arish at its fo-n!in/ in 1917' ,is /reatest /ift was tellin/ stories to whoever wo-l! listen. an! he ha! many stories' 0ltho-/h not wealthy in a material sense. his $assin/ !own of 6nowle!/e of the ol! ways to the followin/ /enerations was the /reatest /ift any $erson co-l! receive' (1ontri*-te! *y Melvin 4ea-!ry. arry ,aa/ an! the Metis &eso-rce 1entre')

71

Mc.illis (Ma"dalis), An"!s “)*rome”. (*' 18=7) ?erome was *orn on +ovem*er 27. 18=7. son of 0le;an!er “?erome" Mc%illis an! Mar/-erite 4ottinea-. he marrie! 2sa*elle Fa/nant the !a-/hter of ?ean 4a$tiste Fa/nant an! ?ose$hte Monet !it 4elh-me-r. in 1858 at SFW' ,is co-sins. 2sa*elle an! 1-th*ert Mc%illis were also $art of the h-ntin/ *ri/a!e that fo-/ht the Sio-; at the 4attle of the %ran! 1otea-' ?erome was one of the Metis sco-ts !-rin/ the 1851 4attle with the Sio-; at the %ran! 1otea-' Pn ?-ly 1=. 1851 he an! two other sco-ts were ta6en $risoner *y the 2n!ians' ,e an! one other sco-t were a*le to esca$e than6s to their swift horses' ?ean

< 72

4a$tiste Malaterre. the remainin/ $risoner. was 6ille! *y the Sio-;'75 Mc.illis, -!th#ert. (*' 1822) 1-th*ert fo-/ht at the 4attle of the %ran! 1otea-' :his *attle too6 $lace *etween a Metis *-ffalo h-ntin/ $arty from St' Fran9ois Wavier. le! *y ?ean 4a$tiste Falcon an! the 1-t ,ea! (@a*a6sa) 5an6tonai (2han6tonwanna). Da6ota. le! *y 1hief Me!icine (Sacre!) 4ear. on ?-ly 15 to 1>. 1851 ,is sister 2sa*elle was marrie! to C!o-ar! <ills who was also $art of this h-ntin/ *ri/a!e' 1-th*ert was *orn on Decem*er 22. 1822. the son of 0n/-s Mc%illis an! Mar/-erite +otini6a*on 4ottinea-' Marrie! Mar/-erite Delorme' Mc.illis, Bsa#elle. (18=8-19==) See 2sa*elle Fayant' Mc.illis, Mary ose Davis. (188>-198A) Mary &ose was the Metis !a-/hter of Michel Davis 7> “+-*-n-ay-/ar-*on" an! Flavett 0llery (,enry)' ,er mother was Flavie ,enry !it 0llary. the !a-/hter of @ierre ,enry !it 0llary an! 0n/eliM-e @arisien' ,er h-s*an! was @ierre Mc%illis. *orn Pcto*er 2>. 1877 near 4ran!on. the son of “Star" +estor Mc%illis77 an! Clise 4-rston'78 Mary live! *oth in 1ana!a an! on a tract of lan! north of St' ?ohn. +orth Da6ota an! many other locations since her family were tr-ly noma!s of the $lains' :hey rove! from the *an6s of the &e! &iver to those of the Misso-ri &iver. from h-ntin/ encam$ments on the $lains to those of their frien!s. the 1rees 1hi$$ewas an! sometimes Sio-;' She was $assionate a*o-t the treaty $rocess in the #S0 an! how it affecte! the Michifs !own thro-/h the years' ,ow it was so lon/ a time to wait' “<ith tears in her eyes she mentione! how her family. $arents. relatives. frien!s. waite! an! waite! for somethin/ that never came'" :he lan! she says. “<as ma!e for all $eo$le an! was not to *e fence! off for one)s own -se' :o the Metis - to share an! share ali6e was a val-e well res$ecte!'" 1ontrary to what historians say a*o-t the namin/ of the :-rtle Mo-ntains. Mary &ose sai! that the Michifs were then to call those hills the :-rtle Mo-ntains' 0s a chil! she recalle! the stories an! t-rtle h-ntin/ tri$s the Metis ma!e followin/ the Mo-se &iver thro-/h its co-rse to the Misso-ri' :here was an a*-n!ance of t-rtles - t-rtles two an! three feet in !iameter' She recalle! how they were 6ille! for foo!. how the t-rtle e//s were fo-n! in m-! holes alon/ the river *an6s - how the meat an! e//s were !rie! o-t for f-t-re -se - she sai! that she ha! always 6nown that $art of the co-ntry to *e calle! es Monta/nes :ort-e (Mo-ntains of the :-rtles) *y the Michif *eca-se of their a*-n!ance' .eference &ev' 0'%' Morice. translate! *y @eter ?' %a/ne' French Cana ians of the 5est' 1D &PM version' St' 4onifaceI PM2. 19A8I =29'
75 7>

Michel was *orn +ovem*er 2. 1852. the son of “K-/-6ay-!way-wash-6-n/". <illiam Davis Sr' an! Marie Cnno' 77 Star was *orn c' 1879. the son of 0le;an!re Mc%illis an! Mar/-erite 4ottinea-. the !a-/hter of 1harles ?ose$h 4ottinea- an! “:echomeh/oo!" (0ssini*oine)' 78 Clise 4-rston was the !a-/hter of <illiam %a!!y 4-rston an! Ma!eleine %onneville'

7=

St' 0nn)s 1entennial 1ommittee. St( 1nnAs Centennial "BBH-"%BH' 4elco-rt. +orth Da6otaI St' 0nn)s 1entennial 1ommittee. 1985I 7>=-7>7' Mc.illis, Modeste. (187>-19A2) Mo!este was *orn at St' Fran9ois Wavier in 187>. the son of 0le;an!re Mc%illis an! Mar/-erite 4ottinea-' ,e marrie! 2sa*elle @oitras' :his was a h-ntin/ family that move! *etween St' Fran9ois Wavier. <oo! Mo-ntain. e*ret. 4atoche an! <illow 4-nch' :he family)s claim for losses at 4atoche in 1885 were t-rne! !own on the *asis that they were “re*els'" Mc.illis, /.). /illiam. (*' 1817) <illiam fo-/ht at the 4attle of the %ran! 1otea-' :his *attle too6 $lace *etween a Metis *-ffalo h-ntin/ $arty from St' Fran9ois Wavier. le! *y ?ean 4a$tiste Falcon an! the 1-t ,ea! (@a*a6sa) 5an6tonai (2han6tonwanna). Da6ota. le! *y 1hief Me!icine (Sacre!) 4ear. on ?-ly 15 to 1>. 1851 <illiam was *orn in 1817. *rother of 1-th*ert Mc%illis. son of 0n/-s Mc%illis an! Mar/-erite +otini6a*on 4ottinea-' ,e marrie! Marie 1am$*ell. the !a-/hter of ?ohn D-ncan 1am$*ell an! 1atherine Monti/nais in 18=> at SFW' <illiam was em$loye! as a $lains h-nter *y the ,41' Mc.illivray, )ose,h. (1791-18=2) ?ose$h was *orn March 1. 1791 at 2le 8 a 1rosse. the Metis son of +<1 $artner <illiam Mc%illivray an! his wife S-san. a Metisse' ie-tenant ?ose$h Mc%illivray. whose mother resi!e! at Fort <illiam. was on active !-ty with the 1or$s of 1ana!ian Noya/ers (his father hel! the ran6 of ie-tenant-1olonel)' Pcto*er 2=. 1812. saw a =1man !etachment of the 1ana!ian Noya/e-rs encam$e! at the 06wesasne villa/e of St' &e/is alon/ the ower 1ana!a (L-e*ec) an! +ew 5or6 *or!ers' :he 06wesasne. li6e the other 2roM-ois $eo$les. ha! remaine! ne-tral -ntil then. an! it fell to 7=-year-ol! ie-tenant @ierre &ottote to !etermine where their alle/iances lay' Servin/ alon/si!e him was ?ose$h Mc%illivray. the 22-year-ol! son of cor$s 1omman!ant <illiam Mc%illivray' ?ose$h)s father was a +orth <est 1om$any $artner. ?ose$h was chief tra!er for the ,41 at +orway ,o-se' ?ose$h marrie! Fanny 4o-cher. also Metis' Simon Mc%illivray liste! *elow is his twin *rother' Mc.illivray, Simon. (1791-187A) Simon was *orn on March 1. 1791. the son of <illiam Mc%illivray an! S-san (a Metisse)' Simon marrie! :herese &oy79 circa 181> at 2sle-a-la-1rosse' :hey ha! eleven chil!ren' :heresa was the !a-/hter of “Freeman Nincent &oyI one-time inter$reter in the +orth <est 1om$any)s Fon! !- ac De$artment'8A
79

:herese &oy was *orn circa 18AA in Minnesota an! !ie! +ovem*er 18>9. at Pttertail' She was the !a-/hter of Nincent &oy an! ?ose$hte “P/iwens'" 8A 0 istin/ of the +orth <est 1om$any Staff at its @osts. 18A5. <ith +otations of Financial Stan!in/ an! other &emar6s. Masson 1ollection. M% 19-11. Nol-me 55. @a/e 1=. 01' Delafiel!. Ma3or ?ose$h' 6he 7nfortifie 3oun ary: 1 4iary of the First Sur/ey of the Cana ian 3oun ary *ine From St( .e!is to the *ake of the 5oo s ' C!ite! *y &o*ert McClroy an! :homas &i//s' +ew 5or6I &o*ert ' 1heney. 197=I 72=B &' ,arvey Flemin/. e!'. Min-tes of 1o-ncil +orthern

77

0 contem$orary !escri*es SimonI Mr' Mc%illivray is a half *ree!. an! the most accom$lishe! a intelli/ent of any that 2 have met' ,is travels in C-ro$e. an! C-ro$ean fashions are ill assorte!. 2 mean the relation of the first. an! !is$lay of the latter. with the sM-aw wife an! sava/e inmates that s-rro-n! him' ,is wife tho) a native is a half *ree!. -$on recollection'81 Simon was name! after his -ncle. Simon Mc%illivray' ,e was the first *orn an! ol!est of the twins' ,e was the twin *rother of ?ose$hB they were *orn at 2le a la 1rosse at the +orth <est 1om$any $ost in the 1h-rchill &iver *asin. where their father was statione!' ,e was *a$tiOe! at 1hrist 1h-rch (later 1athe!ral) in Montreal' :he ch-rch re/ister recor!sI Simon an! ?ose$h. twins. sons of <illiam Mc%illivray. in the 2n!ian co-ntry' 4orn on March 1. 1791' 4a$tise! Pcto*er =. 179>' %o!fathers ?ose$h Fro*isher an! 0le;an!er Mac6enOie' Simon serve! on the 4ritish si!e with the Cana ian Chasseurs in the <ar of 181282 an! entere! the service of the +orth <est 1om$any as a cler6 in 181=' ,e was statione! in the 1ol-m*ia !istrict for some years an! then serve! for a n-m*er of years in the 0tha*asca !e$artment an! was still there in 182A-1821' ,e was ma!e a $artner of the +orth <est 1om$any *efore the -nion of 1821' D-rin/ 1821-1822 he was /rante! a leave of a*sence on acco-nt of in!ifferent health' 0fter s$en!in/ the s-mmer of 1822 at Fort <illiam. he was a$$ointe! to the ac la @l-ie (&ainy a6e) !istrict. where he remaine! !-rin/ the ne;t three years' ,e is mentione! in Mor/anSs !iary of 1822 as *ein/ in the &ainy a6e !istrict' ,e tol! Mor/anSs men not to tra!e there *-t when they ran o-t of $rovisions in mi! Decem*er Simon sol! them some flo-r. corn flo-r an! rice flo-r' From 1825 to 1827 he was in char/e of the Severn !istrict an! was then transferre! to Fort &esol-tion. %reat Slave a6e. where he remaine! -ntil 18=A' D-rin/ 18=1 an! 18=2 he too6 char/e at Fort +eO @erces. an! later he was statione! in the +ew 1ale!onia !istrict -ntil his retirement in 18=7' 2n ?-ne 18== he -n!ertoo6 a voya/e *y lan! from Fort St' ?ames in a north-west !irection to Sim$sonSs &iver' Simon re-entere! the ,-!son 4ay 1om$anySs service in the ca$acity of a cler6 in 18=>. when he was a$$ointe! to esta*lish the CsM-ima-; 4ay !istrict at ,amilton 2nlet. on the a*ra!or coast. where he remaine! -ntil 18=8' ,e a/ain *ecame a 1hief :ra!er in 18=7 an! was later in char/e of 1hico-timi on the Sa/-enay &iver' 2n 18=9. however. he was or!ere! to ret-rn to the 0tha*asca !istrictB an! he !ie!. on his way there. in the s-mmer of 187A' 1harles DenneySs $a$ers say he !ie! one !ay from 4ois !e la &iviTre
De$artment of &-$ert an!. 1821-18=1. :orontoI 197AI 71' 81 Delafiel!. 7nfortifie 3oun ary. 7=2 (entry of 5 0-/-st 182=)' 82 :he Fifth 4attalion attracte! was reor/aniOe! an! reforme! as a li/ht infantry -nit. the Cana ian Chasseurs after 1817' Several of the flan6 com$anies which ha! alrea!y seen m-ch service with the i/ht 4attalions were consoli!ate! into the 1hasse-rs. while the e;istin/ $ersonnel of the fifth *attalion were !is$erse! amon/ the other *attalions' :he 1hasse-rs wore s-*stantially the same -niform as the Nolti/e-rs an! were *ri/a!e! with them in the cam$ai/n in 1817 which en!e! with the 4attle of @latts*-r/h'

75

an! was *-rie! at the &e! &iver' Mc.illivray, /illiam' (18AA-18=2) <illiam is *elieve! to have *een the ,alf-4ree! son of D-ncan Mc%illivray a +orth <est 1om$any em$loyee' <illiam entere! the service of the +orth <est 1om$any in 1817 an! after the amal/amation with the ,41. he was a cler6 in the 0tha*asca !e$artment from 1821 to 1828' 2n 1828. he was transferre! to +ew 1ale!onia where he !rowne! on ?an-ary =1. 18=2' Mc.!ire, .eor"e' (*'1925) %eor/e was *orn at +i$i/on. the son of 0/nes (0/olo) Ka!3ish (*' 1885) an! @atric6 Sylvester Mc%-ire (*' 1875)' %eor/e is $art of the Mc%-ire family who trace their roots to ?ohn +atawassan/ an! Marie @i6i/o6we on the P3i*way si!e an! to ,-/h Mc%-ire an! ?ane %o-/herty on the 2rish si!e' :heir !escen!ants live! in the a6e +i$i/on. :h-n!er 4ay an! s-rro-n!in/ areas of northwest Pntario' :he Mc%-ire family has lon/ *een active in the lea!ershi$ an! !evelo$ment of MGtis or/aniOations' @atric6 (@a!!y) Mc%-ire ?r' an! %eor/e Mc%-ire forme! the a6e +i$i/on MGtis 0ssociation in 19>5' 2n 197A. they. alon/ with two others fo-n!e! the Pntario MGtis an! +on Stat-s 2n!ian 0ssociation (PM+S20)' 2n 1987. it was their feelin/ that the or/aniOation was concentratin/ too m-ch on non-Metis iss-es an! attem$te! to have two !ivisions within the or/aniOation' 0t that time %eor/e was $resi!ent an! @atric6 was hono-rary $resi!ent' <hen they realiOe! that this was not $ossi*le they s$lit with the 0ssociation an! forme! a se$arate one. the +orthwestern Pntario Metis Fe!eration' Mc.!ire, 7atric% (7addy)' (1917-1987) @a!!y was *orn at +i$i/on. the son of 0/nes (0/olo) Ka!3ish (*' 1885) an! @atric6

7>

Sylvester Mc%-ire8= (*' 1875)' ,e is $art of the 0nishina*e6-Metis Mc%-ire family who trace their roots to ?ohn +atawassan/ an! Marie @i6i/o6we on the P3i*way si!e an! to ,-/h Mc%-ire an! ?ane %o-/herty on the 2rish si!e' :heir !escen!ants live! in the a6e +i$i/on. :h-n!er 4ay an! s-rro-n!in/ areas of northwest Pntario' Pn his maternal si!e. @atric6)s /ran!mother. Ki/ish. $artici$ate! in the ne/otiations of the &o*inson :reaty of 185A *y inter$retin/ the $rocee!in/s for her father. +aitawasan/' ,is !a-/hter @atricia relates @atric6)s acco-nt of this in her M'0' thesis. see the attache! en!note (2AA=I 1A>)'

@a!!y Mc%-ire. Pcto*er 18. 198A. s$ea6in/ to the Metis an! +on-Stat-s 2n!ian 1onstit-tional &eview 1ommission in Sa-lt Ste' Marie. Pntario' @atric6 /aine! his tra!itional 6nowle!/e as a res-lt of *ein/ raise! *y his /reat -ncle Michel Kin/ an! his wife S-san' @atric6)s home was at MacDiarmi!. Pntario on a6e +i$i/on' ,e atten!e! St' ?ose$h)s &esi!ential School in Fort <illiam from a/e ei/ht to twelve' ,e starte! wor6in/ for the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any at a/e 17. *-t soon starte! wor6in/ on the fishin/ *oats of a6e +i$i/on an! occ-$ation he $-rs-e! for close to fo-r !eca!es' @atric6 an! 0nne Mc%-ire raise! 1> chil!ren an! one tra!itionally a!o$te! son' :he Mc%-ire family has lon/ *een active in the lea!ershi$ an! !evelo$ment of MGtis or/aniOations' @atric6 (@a!!y) Mc%-ire ?r' an! %eor/e Mc%-ire (*' 1925) forme! the a6e +i$i/on MGtis 0ssociation in 19>5' 2n 197A. they. alon/ with two others fo-n!e! the Pntario MGtis an! +on Stat-s 2n!ian 0ssociation (PM+S20)' 2n 1987. it was their feelin/ that the or/aniOation was concentratin/ too m-ch on non-Metis iss-es an! attem$te! to have two !ivisions within the or/aniOation' 0t that time %eor/e was $resi!ent an! @atric6 was hono-rary $resi!ent' <hen they realiOe! that this was not $ossi*le they s$lit with the 0ssociation an! forme! a se$arate one. the +orthwestern Pntario Metis Fe!eration' @a!!y Mc%-ire ?r' was active in the +ative 1o-ncil of 1ana!a an! was /iven awar!s for his contri*-tions' &eferenceI @atricia D' Mc%-ire. “<orl!views in :ransitionI :he 1han/in/ +at-re of the
8=

a6e

@atric6 Mc%-ire Sr' (1875-187>) was the ,'4'1' @ost Mana/er at +i$i/on ,o-se. see !ata sheet *elow'

77

+i$i/on 0nishina*e6 Metis'" :h-n!er 4ay. 2AA=' 'ndnotes@

a6ehea! #niversity. M'0' :hesis.

From @atricia D' Mc%-ire. “<orl!views in :ransitionI :he 1han/in/ +at-re of the a6e +i$i/on 0nishina*e6 Metis'" :h-n!er 4ay. a6ehea! #niversity. M'0' :hesis. 2AA=I $$' 1A5-1A7' 0ccor!in/ to the oral recor! of the $eo$le livin/ aro-n! a6e +i$i/on an! a6e S-$erior. the 0nishina*e6 Metis were incl-!e! in the ne/otiations of the treaty of 185A' <itnesses to the si/nin/ came *ac6 to their comm-nities. statin/ that the half-*ree! $o$-lations ha! *een incl-!e! in the treaty an! that they wo-l! *e treate! in the same way as the 2n!ians were' My /ran!mother sai! all the Metis. also calle! ,alf-*ree!s. were ma!e 2n!ians that !ay an! two <hite men who were there with their 2n!ian women were also ma!e treaty 2n!ians with the 2n!ian stat-s' :here are oral recor!s that the ,alf-*ree!s were certainly !isc-sse! in the ne/otiations lea!in/ -$ to the si/nin/ of the treaty' My father E@atric6 Mc%-ireF wrote stories that he was tol! *y his /ran!mother a*o-t the si/nin/ an! &o*insonSs treatment of the Metis' Pn my motherSs si!e. my /ran!motherSs father. was one of the chiefs who left %-ll 4ay on a6e +i$i/on to atten! the si/nin/ of the 2n!ian treaty' She sai! she was ta6en *eca-se she was a*le to s$ea6 FrenchB she was only ei/ht years ol! at the time' ,er father -se! her to tell him what the French were sayin/ an! he in t-rn -se! her for when the 2n!ians wo-l! /et to/ether *efore the main ne/otiations starte!' 0ltho-/h the army ha! inter$reters. the 2n!ians !i! not tr-st them' 2n!ians co-l! not s$ea6 French. *-t some chil!ren co-l!' Pn a6e +i$i/on. the French /ot there *efore the Cn/lish !i!' My /ran!mother sai! no*o!y co-l! s$ea6 Cn/lish an! very few co-l! s$ea6 French' She learne! to s$ea6 French *eca-se her mother was a ho-se6ee$er for a French store6ee$er' :he &o*inson S-$erior 2n!ian :reaty was si/ne! at Sa-lt Ste' Marie. Pntario in 185A' My /ran!mother sai! they travelle! across a6e +i$i/on to +i$i/on an! then to Sa-lt Ste' Marie' <hat she remem*ere! a*o-t the tri$ was *y a *i/ *oat' 2 s-$$ose *y sail*oat' 2 !onSt 6now if steam*oats were in service in 185A. *-t my /ran!mother sai! it was a lon/ tri$ an! many 2n!ians ma!e the tri$' 2n!ians. in those !ays. in *i/ canoes. co-l! travel lon/ !istances in one !ay' Si; men $a!!in/ with the hel$ of a sail co-l! cover a h-n!re! miles in a !ay. weather $ermittin/' My /ran!mother sai! there was a /reat /atherin/ of Metis' My /ran!mother was one of the many Metis who *ecame treaty 2n!ians at the si/nin/ of the &o*inson S-$erior treaty' 2n fact. my /ran!mother fi/-re! every Metis who came from the treaty area *ecame a treaty 2n!ian that !ay' +ames that were French so-n!in/. Cn/lish. 2rish. an! some other names were now treaty 2n!ian names' My
78 1A>

/ran!mother sai! *efore the si/nin/ of the treaty. the 2n!ians as6e! a*o-t their half*ree!s. they ha! *een livin/ with them an! they tra$$e! an! h-nte! with them. what was to ha$$en to them' Q+othin/. sai! the <hite 1hief. QKee$ yo-r half*ree!s an! they can live with yo- an! they can *e $ai! treaty money' 0ll yo-r half-*ree!s are now 2n!ians'Q :hen the 1hief as6e!. Q,ow a*o-t the half-*ree!s that will come later\Q :he <hite answere!. QPnly if the 1hief an! yo-r 1o-ncil a!o$te! them' 2f 2 let all half-*ree!s live on the reserve as 2n!ians. in the f-t-re. yo- may have a $ro*lem' +o' 2 will have my men st-!y the Metis an! what to !o with them later'Q From this !ay on. the Metis can h-nt an! fish for foo!. *-t for now only the 2n!ian $eo$le can *rin/ them on the reserve an! ma6e 2n!ians. they were tol!' My /ran!mother sai! all the Metis. also calle! half-*ree!s. were ma!e 2n!ians that !ay an! two <hitemen who were there with their 2n!ian women were also ma!e treaty 2n!ians with the 2n!ian stat-s' Some 2n!ians. after they /ot home. won!ere! what wo-l! now ha$$en to them. *-t. my /ran!mother sai! all the 2n!ians that si/ne! the treaty sai! they were in a no win sit-ation' :hey fi/-re! it was either si/n or *e ta6en an! force! to live in a stoc6a!e' 0t least. this way. they co-l! live in $eace an! may*e not *e shot if they ha$$ene! to meet <hitemen while tra$$in/ or h-ntin/' 0t the time. when the treaties were si/ne!. it was !an/ero-s if 2n!ians met <hitemen. es$ecially if 2n!ians ha! a /oo! catch of f-rs' My /ran!mother sai! it wasnSt too *a! after the ,-!son 4ay 1om$any came' :he ,'4'1' *ecame !e$en!e! on. *y the 2n!ians. for their tra!e an! wor6' 2 am 0nishina*e6 Metis' 2 have learne! a*o-t the si/nin/ of the &o*inson treaties since 2 was a chil!' :he family history of the si/nin/ has $asse! the stories on to my /eneration' :his is the val-e of storytellin/ in o-r comm-nity' 2t is a way to convey o-r -niM-e history an! to ens-re that f-t-re /enerations remem*er it' 2t is also a way to transmit o-r worl!view into another /eneration' 2 am co/niOant of the nee! to ens-re that my res$onsi*ility to my comm-nity is met *y tellin/ these stories. in $artic-lar stories $ertainin/ to $romises an! o*li/ations ma!e' :he si/nin/ of this treaty was an im$ortant an! si/nificant event in 1ana!ian history' 2t set the sta/e in many ways for 2n!i/eno-s an! 1ana!ian le/al an! social relationshi$s for a lon/ time' McBntosh, Archie. (18=7-19A2) 0rchie Mc2ntosh was *orn at Fort <illiam in 18=7. the son of ?ohn Mc2ntosh (a ,41 em$loyee) an! his P3i*way wife' 0rchie came with his $arents to Fort Nanco-ver where he wor6e! for the ,41 from 1877 to 185A' 2n 1852. he was in the Sna6e co-ntry an! was wor6in/ for the 0rmy *y the mi!-185As as an inter$reter an! sco-t' ,e contin-e! with the #S 0rmy as *oth an enliste! man an! as a civilian into the 188As' ,e wor6e! for the ,ac6er an! &aines C;$e!itions at the *e/innin/ of the 5a6ima 2n!ian <ar in 1855 an! was with the Pre/on Nol-nteer 1alvary in 18>7' ,e was a /-i!e for %eneral 1roo6 in 18>>->7 an! was so val-a*le 1roo6 em$loye! him in 0riOona in the war a/ainst the 0$aches' ,e live! for a while on a ranch at %lo*e with his secon! wife. S-san %rant of Fort 1olville' :hey ha! marrie! in May of 18>1 at Kamloo$s' :hey then live! at the San 1arlos 2n!ian &eserve. where 0rchie !ie! in 19A2'

1A7 79

Ferinc SOasO in Scots in the North 1merican 5est, "#%&-"%"# (+ormanI #niversity of P6lahoma @ress. 2AAAI 75-77) /ives the followin/ acco-ntI 0rmy sco-t 0rchie Mc2ntosh serve! as a c-lt-ral *ro6er in M-ite another manner. *oth in the @acific +orthwest an! in the !esert So-thwest' 4orn at Fort <illiam. Michi/an. of ScotsJ1hi$$ewa ancestry. 0rchie)s father move! to the Fraser &iver with the ,41' D-rin/ their stay there. the senior Mc2ntosh ta-/ht 0rchie to s$ell an! !o elementary mathematics while the two of them canoe! the la6es to chec6 their tra$s' 0fter his father)s m-r!er *y an -n6nown assailant (at the time *elieve! to *e a +ative 3ealo-s of white tra$$ers). 0rchie was sent to Nanco-ver for two years of school' 0t a/e twelve he was $-t on a shi$ to C!in*-r/h to live with relatives. an! he receive! two more years of Scottish e!-cation' #$on his ret-rn to Nanco-ver he wor6e! as a cler6 with the ,41 for a*o-t a year' 2n 1855 0rchie Mc2ntosh entere! the service of the #'S' 0rmy as a sco-t' <or6in/ with another Scots-2n!ian. Donal! McKay. he save! a *an! of #'S' sol!iers from a n-m*er of 1ol-m*ia &iver +ative attac6s' 0s one contem$orary re$orter o*serve!. (:he whole *o!y of troo$ers wo-l! have *een massacre! ha! it not *een for the strate/y of those two c-nnin/ half *ree!s'Q Mc2ntosh)s re$-tation /rew stea!ily. an! he soon *ecame %eneral %eor/e 1roo6)s favorite sco-t' 1roo6 tr-ste! him im$licitly. an! Mc2ntosh $laye! a ma3or role in the cam$ai/n a/ainst the @itt &iver 2n!ians an! the @i-tes of +orthern 1alifornia' :he common sol!iers also res$ecte! his s6ills' :his res$ect /rew to semi-mythical $ro$ortions in ?an-ary 18>7. when 0rchie Mc2ntosh le! %eneral 1roo6 an! his men thro-/h a *lin!in/ *liOOar! to safety at 1am$ <arner in Pre/on' 2n 189> Mc2ntosh confesse! to a re$orter how he !i! itI 2 6new there was /oin/ to *e a *liOOar! an! watche! the co-rse of the win!' <hen it Ethe *liOOar!F was -$on -s. %eneral 1roo6 as6e! if we ha! not *etter /o into cam$ -ntil it $asse! over. *-t 2 sai! Qfollow me an! 2 will $-t yo- into 1am$ <arner *y 7 o)cloc6 $'m'Q So the %eneral sai! no more *-t 6e$t close *ehin! me. an! yo*et 2 6e$t the win! on my ri/ht chee6 for nine lon/ ho-rs. *-t ha! it chan/e! its !irection ten !e/rees my /oose wo-l! have *een coo6e!' Mc2ntosh *attle! a !rin6in/ $ro*lem all thro-/h his military career. *-t his s6ills were so a!mire! that his comman!ers -s-ally overloo6e! it' 2n 1871 he was a/ain assi/ne! to %eneral 1roo6. who ha! recently *een sent to 0riOona :erritory to *attle the San 1arlos an! :onto 0$aches' :here he fo-/ht in the 1877 clashes near Florence an! %lo*e an! $artici$ate! in 1roo6)s last cam$ai/n a/ainst %eronimo' Mc2ntosh was $resent in %eronimo)s cam$ in the Sierra Ma!re Mo-ntains of Me;ico when 1roo6 ha! his famo-s interview with the 0$ache chief' :he sit-ation was so tense. Mc2ntosh recalle! later. that if a /-n ha! acci!entally !ischar/e!. all the whites wo-l! have *een 6ille!'

8A

0fter the close of the 0$ache cam$ai/n Mc2ntosh marrie! a San 1arlos woman (he seems to have ha! an earlier @acific +orthwest family as well) an! settle! on the San 1arlos reservation in 0riOona' :here he /aine! a re$-tation as a /reat teller of stories' ,e later sent his son to 1arlisle 2n!ian School in @ennsylvania. an! Mc2ntosh !escen!ants hel! im$ortant roles in San 1arlos affairs well into the twentieth cent-ry' @raise! at the time for his Q/allant an! inval-a*le serviceQ as a sco-t. 0rchie Mc2ntosh $laye! an im$ortant *ro6er)s role in *oth Pre/on an! 0riOona' McBntosh, )ohn. (1798-1877) ?ohn was the Metis son of 1hief :ra!er Donal! Mc2ntosh an! his 1hi$$ewa wife. 1harlotte' ?ohn was e!-cate! at 1ornwall. #$$er 1ana!a an! entere! the ,41 em$loy in 1818 at the S-$erior District' ,e was transferre! to the +orthern De$artment in 182= an! to the 1ol-m*ia in 18=5' ?ohn was shot an! 6ille! *y a Se6ani 2n!ian on ?-ly 8. 1877' Mc0ay, Ale&ander' (*' 182>) 0le;an!er was the son of ?ohn &ichar!s McKay an! ,arriet 4allen!en' ,e an! his wife 1atherine (Mc1orrester) homestea!e! near @rince 0l*ert' ,e an! 1harles %eor/e 4ir! Sr' where Metis lea!ers who corres$on!e! with &iel in March of 1885 in!icatin/ that altho-/h they a/ree! with the Metis /rievances their /ro-$ was remainin/ ne-tral an! wo-l! not resort to arms' Mc0ay, An"!s, M.;.A., M.7. (18=>-c' 1897) 0n/-s was the *rother of the famo-s ?ames McKay' ,e was *orn on +ovem*er 1. 18=> at C!monton ,o-seB the son of ?ames McKay Sr' an! Mar/-erite %la!-' ,e marrie! Nir/inie &olette (*' 1879) at St' 4oniface' they live! in St' 1harles @arish an! later at St' Fran9ois Wavier @arish' i6e his *rother ?ames. 0n/-s was fl-ent in French. Cn/lish. an! several 2n!ian lan/-a/es' 0n/-s o$$ose! o-is &iel in 18>9 an! was electe! to the Manito*a e/islative 0ssem*ly in 187A to re$resent the a6e Manito*a ri!in/' :he followin/ year he atten!e! several meetin/s of the MGtis. incl-!in/ one at &iel)s home in St' Nital on Pcto*er >th' 0t that /atherin/ he was amon/ those who felt the MGtis sho-l! res$on! $ositively to the $roclamation of ie-tenant-%overnor 0!ams %eor/e 0rchi*al! callin/ on all men to 3oin forces with the /overnment a/ainst a $ossi*le Fenian invasion' 2n March 1871. 0n/-s ran for MarM-ette in a s$ecial election to !etermine Manito*a)s first re$resentatives to the ,o-se of 1ommons' :he election res-lte! in a tie *etween McKay an! Dr ?ames S$encer ynch. a $rominent s-$$orter of ?ohn 1hristian Sch-ltO' 0ltho-/h *oth men were !eclare! “ret-rne! as electe!" to the sin/le mem*er constit-ency *y the ho-se in 0$ril 1872 an! too6 their seats (on !ifferent !ays). they s-*seM-ently with!rew while the ho-se committee on elections st-!ie! the $ro*lem' @arliament was !issolve! *efore the committee re$orte!' McKay was not a can!i!ate in the fe!eral /eneral election later that year' ,e was re-electe! *y acclamation on Decem*er 2=. 1877 an! resi/ne! in Decem*er 187> to ma6e way for his *rother ?ames who then won a6e Manito*a ri!in/ *y acclamation' ' ate in 187>. 0n/-s acce$te! the $osition of 2n!ian a/ent for $ortions of the so-thern $rairies an! the L-)0$$elle valley covere! in :reaty +o'7' Pfficials of the !e$artment *elieve! that he enco-ra/e! the 2n!ians to e;$ress !issatisfaction with

81

/overnment actions. th-s in 1879 he was $oste! to northern Manito*a. first at %ran! &a$i!s. an! then. in 188=. at 4erens &iver. where it was ho$e! he co-l! !o “little or no harm'" ,e then serve! as 2n!ian 0/ent at +orway ,o-se in 1897' Des$ite his n-mero-s reM-ests for transfer he remaine! 2n!ian a/ent in the area covere! *y :reaty +o'5 -ntil 1897' .eference: 1arter. Sarah' “0n/-s McKay'" 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy. Nol' W22 (189119AA)' :orontoI #niversity of :oronto @ress. 199AI >7A->71' Mc0ay, An"!s' (1858-1952) 0n/-s was *orn at Fort @elly. the son of <illiam McKay an! Mary 1oo6' 0fter 3oinin/ the ,41 in 1878. he wor6e! at Fort 1arlton. Fort @itt. @rince al*ert. %reen a6e. Fort la 1orne. 2le a-la-1rosse an! ac la &on/e' ,e marrie! 0nne Fortesc-e' D-rin/ the Metis &esistance of 1885. McKay serve! as a sco-t on the 1ana!ian si!e an! was active in the $-rs-it of 4i/ 4ear' Mc0ay, Annie Ma!de B.A. (*' 1892) Metis li*rarian +an McKay was recently memorialiOe! as “:he first 0*ori/inal woman to /ra!-ate from the # of S" (#niversity of Sas6atchewan). *y $rofessor D-ff S$affor! in an article of the same name in 9reen C 5hite: 7ni/ersity of Saskatchewan 1lumni Ma!a2ine (Fall. 2A1=I 7)' +an was *orn on Pcto*er 1A. 1892. at Fort 8 la 1orne.

82

the !a-/hter of 0n/-s McKay54 an! 0nnie Ma-!e Mary Fortesc-e (18>7-19A7)' +an)s -ncle. ?ames McKay5C (18>2-19=1). assiste! with her e!-cation an! enrolle! +an an! her sister Marian at St' 0l*an)s a!ies 1olle/e in @rince 0l*ert' “:he 6irst A#ori"inal $oman to "rad!ate 6rom the D o6 S.” Ee!ite!F 4y D-ff S$affor! 0nnie Ma-!e (+an) McKay was a /ra!-ate of the #niversity of Sas6atchewan (40 )15) an! wor6e! at the #niversity i*rary for 77 years. from 1915 -ntil 1959' 2n 2AA7 she was chosen one of the #niversity of Sas6atchewan)s “1AA 0l-mni of 2nfl-ence" an! was sai! to *e the “first MGtis an! first 0*ori/inal woman" to /ra!-ate from the #niversity' +an was *orn on 1A Pcto*er 1892 at Fort 8 la 1orne. +orth-<est :erritories' ,er father. 0n/-s McKay. wor6e! for the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any (,41). an! Fort 8 la 1orne. a*o-t 8A 6ilometers east of @rince 0l*ert. was an ,41 tra!in/ $ost' ,er mother was the former 0nnie Ma-! Mary Fortesc-e. whose father wor6e! for the ,41' +an ha! two *rothers. ?oes$h Fortesc-e (*' 189A) an! 1harles 0n/-s @ercy (*' 19A>). an! two sisters. %ertr-!e Cleanor (*' 1891) an! Clsie Marian (*' 1895)' :heir mother !ie! in 19A7 followin/ an o$eration for a$$en!icitis. an! in 191A 0n/-s EthenF marrie! Mar/aret 1roall Dryh-rst' 0n/-s was reassi/ne! *y ,41 from Fort 8 la 1orne to %reen a6e in 1899. an! there followe! f-rther moves to 2le-8-la-1rosse. in 19A7. an! to a &on/e. in 19A9' ,e was mana/er of the a &on/e $ost from 191= -ntil his retirement in 1921' +an *e/an her e!-cation at home. t-tore! *y a co-sin. Mary :raill. who came to live with the 0n/-s McKay family as a mother)s hel$ when the family move! to %reen a6e' Mary :raill was a /ran!-!a-/hter of 1atharine @arr :raill. a-thor of 6he 3ackwoo s of Cana a an! other *oo6s' <hen her mother !ie!. !ecisions a*o-t +an)s e!-cation came to rest in the han!s of an -ncle. ?ames McKay. a lawyer in $ractice in @rince 0l*ert who was to *e a$$ointe! shortly to the 4oar! of %overnors of the new #niversity of Sas6atchewan' ?ames McKay enrolle! +an an! her sister Marian at St' 0l*an)s a!ies
87

0n/-s (1858-1952) was *orn at Fort @elly. the son of <illiam McKay an! Mary 1oo6' 0fter 3oinin/ the ,41 in 1878. he wor6e! at Fort 1arlton. Fort @itt. @rince 0l*ert. %reen a6e. Fort la 1orne. 2le a-la1rosse an! ac la &on/e' ,e marrie! 0nne Fortesc-e on ?-ly 7. 1899 at @rince 0l*ert' 0n/-s was the /ran!son of ?ohn &ichar!s McKay an! ,arriet 4allen!en' D-rin/ the Metis &esistance of 1885. 0n/-s McKay serve! as a sco-t on the 1ana!ian si!e an! was active in the $-rs-it of 4i/ 4ear' 85 ?ames (18>2-19=1was e!-cate! at St' ?ohn)s 1olle/e an! the #niversity of Manito*a' 2n 1882. he 3oine! a law firm in <inni$e/ an! was calle! to the Manito*a 4ar fo-r years later' D-rin/ the 1885 +orth <est &e*ellion. he serve! as a $rivate in the 9Ath &e/iment' ,e $ractice! law for a *rief time at <inni$e/ then move! to @rince 0l*ert' ,e serve! as a 1rown @rosec-tor of Sas6atchewan from 1888 to 1897 an! was a$$ointe! a L-een)s 1o-nsel in 1891' 2n 1917. he *ecame a 3-!/e of the S-$reme 1o-rt of Sas6atchewan an!. when it was a*olishe! in 1918. he move! to the 1o-rt of Kin/)s 4ench' 2n Pcto*er 1921. he 3oine! the Sas6atchewan 1o-rt of 0$$eal' <hen the #niversity of Sas6atchewan was forme! he serve! on the 4oar! of %overnors'

8=

1olle/e. @rince 0l*ert' :he 1olle/e was a ch-rch school. *oth !ay an! resi!ential. maintaine! *y the efforts of &t' &ev' ?'0' +ewnham. 4isho$ of the 0n/lican Diocese of Sas6atchewan. who raise! f-n!s an! recr-ite! teachers for the 1olle/e in tri$s to Cn/lan!' 2n 1912. St' 0l*an)s a!ies 1olle/e nominate! +an McKay as a can!i!ate for a X2AA entrance scholarshi$ to the #niversity of Sas6atchewan. an! the nomination was s-ccessf-l' Money left *y her mother in a *eM-est for her chil!ren)s e!-cation ma!e -$ the rest of what she nee!e! to atten! the #niversity' She was staff artist of the Sheaf. the st-!ent news$a$er. in her first year' 2n later years she serve! as a mem*er of the St-!ents &e$resentative 1o-ncil)s e;ec-tive committee. vice$resi!ent of @ente Kai De6a. the #niversity)s sole an! thoro-/hly incl-sive sorority. secretary of the cam$-s 5<10. an! corres$on!in/ secretary of the iterary Society' 2n the winter months she was a fi/-re s6ater. an! she $laye! ice hoc6ey in her st-!ent !ays an! well into the 192As for #niversity teams. which in those !ays acce$te! al-mni $layers' 2n an acco-nt of a victory of the women)s hoc6ey team over that of the #niversity of 0l*erta in 192A. the Sheaf re$orte! the “Miss McKay" ha! score! a /oal on “one of the nicest an! neatest shots seen this season'" Some years. after e;ams. she !i! s-*stit-te teachin/ in co-ntry schools' She /ra!-ate! in 1915 with a 40 !e/ree with ,ono-rs in Cn/lish an! French. an! was hire! shortly afterwar!s *y the #niversity i*rary to fill a $osition D a “tem$orary" one. accor!in/ to the Sheaf D as 0ssistant i*rarian' :he i*rarian. 0rth-r Silver Morton. who was also a $rofessor of ,istory. /ave her a /lowin/ re$ort in his ne;t ann-al re$ort. referrin/ to her “-nfailin/ly $laci! tem$er an! her intelli/ence'" :he “tem$orary" $osition. if that)s what it starte! o-t to *e. t-rne! into em$loyment at the #niversity i*rary -ntil 1959' 2n the early !ays of the i*rary. +an McKay 6e$t or!er in the rea!in/ room an! carrie! o-t the first catalo/-in/ o the collection' She atten!e! two short co-rses in the #nite! States on catalo/-in/ li*rary collections *-t otherwise learne! li*rarianshi$ on the 3o*' 2n corres$on!ence in 19==. @resi!ent M-rray !escri*e! her as “a very ca$a*le woman" who was “first assistant" at the i*rary' 0ccor!in/ to the #niversity 1alen!ar. she was 0ssistant i*rarian -ntil the 1975-7> aca!emic year D that is. for =1 years' 0 notice of her retirement which a$$eare! in the Saskatchewan *i+rary 1ssociation 3ulletin in 1959 says of her that '''for many years she was almost the whole i*rary' +an was “ri/ht-han! man" to a s-ccession of #niversity i*rarians. each of whom co-nte! heavily an! freM-ently on her wi!e 6nowle!/e of *oo6s an! *oo6sellers. st-!ents an! fac-lty. an! the many other *its of wis!om store! -$ *y her retentive memory' 0t one time or another. every 3o* in the i*rary was hers. an! she !i! them all well' So-rceI htt$IJJli*rary'-sas6'caJin!i/eno-sJhistory]essaysJnan]mc6ay'$h$

87

Mc0ay, -atherine (-lar%e). (*' 1851) 1atherine McKay 1lar6e was one of the Metis “First a!ies" of the f-r tra!e' She was the wife of awrence 1lar6e when he was 1hief Factor ,41 at Fort 1arlton then chief Factor for the Sas6atchewan !istrict at @rince 0l*ert' 1atherine McKay was *orn on Se$tem*er 2A. 1851 at Fort @elly' She was the !a-/hter of <illiam McKay (*I 1> Fe*r-ary. 1818 in 4eaver 1ree6 an! Mary 1oo6 (*' 1827 in 1-m*erlan! ,o-se)' She was the /ran!!a-/hter of ?ohn &ichar!s McKay (*I 1792 in Moose Factory) an! ,arriet 4allen!en (*' 18A2 in 5or6 Factory) an! on her mother)s si!e /ran!!a-/hter of ?ose$h 1oo6 (*'c' 1792 in &-$ertSs an!) an! 1atherine Sinclair' 1atherine was a sister of :homas an! ?ohn McKay of @rince 0l*ert' 1atherine marrie! awrence 1lar6e on 0$ril 25. 1877 in @rince 0l*ert' awrence 1lar6e was a ,41 f-r-tra!er an! office-hol!er' ,e was *orn 2> ?-ne 18=2 in Fermoy (&e$-*lic of 2relan!)' ,e first marrie! in 1859 ?ane (!' 187A). !a-/hter of ?ohn 4ell an! they ha! five chil!renB secon!ly in 1877 1atherine (Katherine) McKay. an! they ha! nine chil!ren' awrence 1lar6e 3oine! the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any in Montreal in 1851. after s$en!in/ several years in the <est 2n!ies' ,e was imme!iately sent to Fort Mc@herson (+' <' :') on the @eel &iver. an! there was $romote! to cler6' 2n 18>= 1lar6e was transferre! to Fort-8-la-1orne. then ,41 hea!M-arters on the lower Sas6atchewan &iver' Fo-r years later he went to Fort 1arlton as chief tra!erB he was ma!e factor in 18>8 an! chief factor in 1875' :hree years later. as chief factor of the Sas6atchewan District. he move! to @rince 0l*ert where he serve! -ntil his !eath on 5 Pcto*er 189A' 1hil!ren of awrence 1lar6e an! 1atherine McKayI • Mary 1lar6e. *orn March 1. 1875 at Fort 1arlton. she marrie! Fre!eric6 < 0rmita/e' • :homas. *orn ?an-ary 7. 1877 at Fort 1arlton. he marrie! 0-rora McKenOie *I 0*t' 188A mI 0*t' 191A. then marrie! Mary Maria 4ea!s *I 4et' 187A - 189A mI 0ft' 19=2 FatherI :homas 4ea!s MotherI ,arriet <ills' • Se!ley. *orn ?an-ary 27. 1879 at Fort 1arlton' • %eor/e. *orn 1881' • Do-/las. *orn Pcto*er 2A. 1882 in @rince 0l*ert' • 0le; S'. *orn Fe*r-ary 11. 1887 at @rince 0l*ert. !ie! on Se$tem*er 7. 1887' awrence 1lar6e was first marrie! to ?ane 4ell (Metis)' ?ane 4ell 1lar6e was *orn on 17 May 185> Fort &ae' She !ie! *efore 1877 in St ?ohnSs. &e! &iver Settlement' ,er father. ?ohn 4ell. 3oine! the +orth <est 1om$any in 1818 as an a$$rentice cler6' ,is early years with that com$any. an!. followin/ the coalition of 1821. with the ,-!sonSs 4ay 1om$any. were s$ent in the <inni$e/ &iver area' 2n 1827 4ell was transferre! to the com$anySs Mac6enOie &iver District0 whi(e there he 1arried 2anc), dau3hter of 4eter -arren 5ease, an 6+C chief factor. 7n the winter of 182*!26, +e(( was a88ointed c(erk at the co18an)9s 1ost norther() 8ost, :ort ;ood 6o8e. :heir chil!ren wereI

85

• • •

?ane 4ell 1lar6e *I May 17. 185> in Fort &ae. +orthwest :erritories' She marrie! Se!ley 4lanchar! on 0-/-st A1. 187>' 0ileen Flora 1lar6e *I Decem*er 17. 1857' she marrie! Francis D' <ilson' awrence ?ohn McKenOie 1lar6e *I Decem*er 2A. 1859 !I ?an-ary A=. 1971
in 1al/ary' 1hristiana 1lar6e *I ?an-ary 22. 18>2' Florence 0nne 1lar6e *I ?an-ary 22. 18>2. she marrie! ,-/h 4ain' &-$ert ,enry Finlayson 1lar6e *I Decem*er 2A. 18>7 in Fort a la 1orne' 0-/-st-s @eter <arren 1lar6e *I 0-/-st A1. 18>7 in Fort a la 1orne. !ie! 1977' ,e marrie! iOa iOotte *I 0-/-st 18>8 in Fort Nermillion. on Se$tem*er A1. 1891. in :ort a (a Corne.She was the dau3hter of /iche( Li<otte and So8hie ,ouran3eau.

• • • •

Scri$ &ecor!sI 1lar6e. :homas McKayB a!!ressI Fort McM-rrayB claim no' 5A=B *ornI 7 ?an-ary. 1877 at Fort 1arltonB fatherI awrence 1lar6e (2rish)B motherI 1atherine McKay (MGtis)B scri$ cert' no' 1A>7 0 1lar6e. 1atherineB for her son. Do-/las 1lar6eB claim no' 7>7B a!!ressI @rince 0l*ert' Sas6atchewanB fatherI awrence 1lar6e (!ecease! 2rish)B motherI 1atherine McKay (MGtis an! !e$onent)B *ornI 2A Pcto*er. 1882 at @rince 0l*ertB scri$ cert'I form C. no' =15 for 27A acres 1lar6e. MaryB a!!ressI @rince 0l*ert. Sas6atchewanB claim no' 7A=B *ornI 1 March. 1875 at 1arlton. Sas6atchewanB fatherI awrence 1lar6e (2rish)B motherI 1atherine McKay (MGtis)B scri$ cert'I form C. no' 295 for 27A acres of lan! 1lar6e. Se!ley 4lanchar!B a!!ressI 1-m*erlan! DistrictB claim no' 9AAB *ornI 27 ?an-ary. 1879 at 1arlton. Sas6atchewanB fatherI awrence 1lar6e (2rish)B motherI 1atherine McKay (MGtis)B scri$ cert'I form C. no' 51= for 27A acres of lan!' Mc0ay, -harles. (18A8-187=) McKay was *orn at 4ran!on ,o-se on the 0ssini*oine &iver' ,is notorio-s -ncle. “Ma! Donal!." ha! fo-n!e! 4ran!on ,o-se' McKay)s father ?ohn s$ent most of his career there' ,is mother. Mary Favel. was the !a-/hter of an 0l*any &iver Cn/lish tra!er an! a Swam$y 1ree wife' ,is mother !ie! when he was 3-st two years ol! an! the res$onsi*ility for his -$*rin/in/ fell to his ol!er *rother. ?ohn &ichar!s McKay. who was then ei/hteen' 0fter *ein/ release! *y the ,41o' ?ohn 3oine! 0merican tra!ers on the -$$er Misso-ri &iver. *-t within one year the ,41 was force! to re-hire him' 1harles an! his family ret-rne! to &e! &iver where 1harles was a$$rentice! to a harness ma6er' 2n 1827. he marrie! etitia 4ir!. the !a-/hter of chief Factor ?ames 4ir!' 2n t-rn. etitia)s *rother ?ohn marrie! 1harles) sister Mary' 2n 1871. 1harles. etitia an! their fo-r chil!ren. 3oine! *y another two of 4ir!)s !a-/hters an! their h-s*an!s an! an -nmarrie! *rother 3oine! the Sinclair $arty an! travele! overlan! to the @-/et So-n! area of <ashin/ton' D-rin/ the winter of 1872187=. 1harles McKay. alon/ with nei/h*o-rs. hel$e! lay o-t the roa! to the <illamette
8>

&iver an! a *ri!/e which crosse! Dairy 1ree6' McKay later si!e! with those in the @acific +orthwest who favo-re! affiliation with the #nite! States' ,e *ecame an 0merican citiOen in 1851' 1harles !ie! at %lencoe. <ashin/ton 1o-nty. Pre/on in May of 187=' Mc0ay, 'd$ard' (*' 1797) C!war! was the Metis son of ?ohn McKay an! Mary Favell' ,e 3oine! the ,41 in 1815. move! to the +orth <est 1om$any an! re3oine! the ,41 in 1822' ,e was a$$arently wante! as an em$loyee *eca-se %overnor Sim$son !i! not want him wor6in/ for the o$$osition' Mc0ay, 'd$ard. (1827-1887) C!war! McKay was *orn on May 11. 1827. at 4ran!on ,o-se. the son of ?ohn &ichar!s McKay an! ,arriet 4allen!en' 2n 1875 he marrie! 1aroline 1oo6 (*' 1827). the !a-/hter of ?ose$h 1oo6 Sr' an! 1atherine Sinclair' ,is father ?ohn &ichar!s McKay (1792-1877) was *orn at 0l*any Factory on 0-/-st 1A. 1792. the son of ?ohn McKay Sr'. a Scottish f-r tra!er an! Mary Favel a Metis' ,e was e!-cate! in Cn/lan! *efore 3oinin/ the ,41 in 18A8' ,e wor6e! initially at 4ran!on ,o-se -n!er his father then at @em*ina &iver. an! at L-)0$$elle ,o-se where he s-$ervise! its) reconstr-ction' 2n 1875 C!war! marrie! 1aroline 1oo6. the !a-/hter of ?ose$h 1oo6 Sr' an! 1atherine Sinclair' 2n her scri$ a$$lication 1aroline says she live! fo-r years at Kil!onan. then 21 years at Fort Cllice winterin/ on the $lains an! /oin/ to Manito*a in the s-mmer' :hen live! three years at Fort L-)0$$elle then seven years at Fort <alsh. an! ha! *een at Me!icine ,at for three years when she ma!e the a$$lication' C!war! McKay an! his wife. 1aroline 1oo6. esta*lishe! a tra!in/ $ost an! farm on 4attle 1ree6 in the 1y$ress ,ills on May 19. 1872' :hey ha! horses an! cows an! /rew $otatoes an! *arley' C!war! was the inter$reter for the a!hesion to :reaty > at Fort <alsh on ?-ly 2. 1879' :he family also h-nte! for *-ffalo an! tra!e! for ro*es with the @ei/an. +eO @ercG. an! 1row in the Sweet %rass ,ills an! with the 1ree. 0ssini*oine an! Metis at 1y$ress ,ills' <hen the +orth <est Mo-nte! @olice arrive! they *ecame contractors for *-ffalo meat an! small tra!ers with the newly esta*lishe! Fort <alsh' C!war! was also the mail carrier from Fort <alsh to Fort 4enton' :wo of their !a-/hters marrie! +<M@ officersI ?emima marrie! ?ohn ,enry 4ray. an! Cmma marrie! @eter P),are' :heir !a-/hter Maria (*' 1855) marrie! Metis entre$rene-r ?ames Francis San!erson (*' 1878) in 1872' :hat year the McKay clan settle! in the 1y$ress ,ills *-t they contin-e! their *-ffalo h-ntin/. an! with them San!erson travelle! the western $rairies. learnin/ m-ch from his father-in-law as they went' 2n 1875 a +orth-<est Mo-nte! @olice !etachment -n!er 2ns$ector ?ames Morrow <alsh esta*lishe! a $ost. Fort <alsh (Sas6'). near the McKays) hea!M-arters' San!erson serve! the $olice as sco-t. meat an! hay $roc-rer. an! inter$reter. *ein/ a*le to s$ea6 French an! 1ree' 2n 1877. he *ro-/ht in a small her! of cattle from Montana' :hey were essential to his meat-s-$$ly contract with the $olice since the *-ffalo were ra$i!ly !isa$$earin/' C!war! McKay !ie! on +ovem*er 29. 1887 at Me!icine ,at' 2n the 1ana!a 1ens-s of 1881 C!war! McKay an! family are recor!e! as ho-sehol! Z 8 near Fort <alsh' :he chil!ren with them areI 1aroline (1=). <illiam C!war! (11).

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0rth-r (11)' 0lso in the home is their son Sam-el (29) an! his wife 1atherine afram*oise (19)' ivin/ in ho-sehol! Z 27 is their !a-/hter &achel (21) an! h-s*an! ?-les L-esnell. an! their *a*y of 11 months. C!war!' 2n ho-sehol! Z => is their !a-/hter Maria San!erson (28) her h-s*an! ?ames San!erson (=5) an! chil!ren 1lara (8). Pwen (>). D-ncan (7) an! Marie (2)' 0lso at fort <alsh in ho-sehol! Z 2> is their son 0le; ((=5). his wife vir/inie arocM-e (27) an! their chil!ren 0lfre! (1A). ?ose$h (8). CliOa*eth (>). Cmma (7). Maria (2) an! Sarah. 11 months' 1hil!ren • 0le;an!er 187>-19A2' 0le;an!er marrie! Nir/inia arocM-e they ha! 8 chil!ren' ,e $asse! away on 19A2 in Me!icine ,at' • CliOa. 1877 She $asse! away in ,-m*olt. Sas6atchewan • 1olin 1851-1887' 1olin was *orn at St' ?ohn)s $arish. he marrie! @hilomene 4irston an! ha! 2 chil!ren' ,e $asse! away on 1 March 1887 in Me!icine ,at. 0l*erta' • Sam-el 185=-19=2' Sam-el *orn at ,ea!in/ly. marrie! Ma!eleine 4irston an! ha! 11 chil!ren' Sam-el marrie! 1atherine afram*oise an! ha! a chil!' ,e was em$loye! with the ,41 at L-)0$$elle then wor6e! on the $lains as a frei/hter' ,e $asse! away on 19=2 in <il! ,orse 1ree6' • Maria 1855-1952' Maria marrie! ?ames Francis San!erson an! ha! 7 chil!ren' She $asse! away on 25 0-/ 1952 in Me!icine ,at. 0l*erta. 1ana!a' • ?emima 1859-192>' ?emima was *orn at Fort Cllice. she marrie! ?ohn ,enry 4ray an! ha! 11 chil!ren' She $asse! away on 192> in Me!icine ,at' • &achel. 1859-197A' &achel was *orn at L-)0$$elle. she marrie! ?-les L-esnelle an! ha! 7 chil!ren' She $asse! away on 19 Pct 197A in @ia$ot. Sas6atchewan. 1ana!a' • 1lara. 18>1-188A' She $asse! away in 188A in Ft <alsh' • Cmma. 18>=-18>5' Cmma marrie! @eter P),are an! ha! = chil!ren' She $asse! away on 1A 0-/ 1975 in Ma$le 1ree6. Sas6atchewan. • C!win. 18>5-18>5' ,e !ie! as an infant' • <illiam C!war!. 18>>-19=8' <illiam C!war! was *orn at Fort @em*ina. he marrie! ?-stine 1hristina 4o-!rea- an! ha! a chil!' <illiam C!war! marrie! Clise afram*oise' <illiam C!war! marrie! ?-stine 1ayan 4o-!rea- an! ha! a chil!' ,e $asse! away on 17 0$r 19=8 in Kamloo$s' • 0rth-r. 18>9-189A' 0rth-r was *orn at L-)0$$elle' ,e $asse! away on ?-ne 1. 189A in Me!icine ,at' Scri$ &ecor!sI McKay. 1aroline - 1oncernin/ her claim as a hea! of family - 0!!ress. Me!icine ,at 4orn. 1827 at <inni$e/ - Father. ?ose$h 1oo6. (MGtis) - Mother. 1atherine Sinclair. (MGtis) - Marrie!. 1875 at Ma$leton @arish. Manito*a to C!war! McKay - 1hil!ren livin/. ei/ht (names on !eclaration) - 1hil!ren !ecease!. fo-r - Scri$ for X1>A - 1laim =>A'

88

McKay. 0rth-rB a!!ressI Me!icine ,atB *ornI Se$tem*er. 18>9 at L-S0$$elleB fatherI C!war! McKay (MGtis)B motherI 1aroline 1oo6 (MGtis)B scri$ for X27A'AAB claim no' =8' McKay. &achelB a!!ressI Ma$le 1ree6B *ornI Dec'. 1859 at L-S0$$elleB fatherI C!war! McKay (MGtis)B motherI 1aroline 1oo6 (MGtis)B marrie!I 1877 at Fort <alsh to ?-les L-esnelleB chil!ren livin/I C!win an! <illiamB chil!ren !ecease!I 1 -nname! an! ?ose$hineB scri$ for X27A'AAB claim no' =>' McKay. <illiam C!war!B a!!ressI Me!icine ,atB *ornI 25 ?an-ary. 18>8 at ,-!son 4ay. Fort @em*inaB fatherI C!war! McKay (MGtis)B motherI 1aroline 1oo6 (MGtis)B scri$ for X27A'AAB claim no' =7' McKay. Sam-el - 1oncernin/ his claim as a chil! - 0!!ress. Me!icine ,at - 4orn. Decem*er. 185= at ,ea!in/ly - Father. C!war! McKay. (MGtis) - Mother. 1aroline 1oo6. (MGtis) - Marrie!. 1877 to Ma!eleine 4irston an! 1881 to 1atherine afram*oise 1hil!ren livin/. two (names on !eclaration) - 1hil!ren !ecease!. two - Scri$ for X27A 1laim =58' Mc0ay, everend .eor"e' (1857-1979) %eor/e was *orn at Fort Cllice on 25 May 1857. one of eleven chil!ren of an ,41 1hief Factor <illiam “4illy" McKay (*' 1818) an! Mary 1oo6 (*' 1827). *oth Metis' ,is $aternal /ran!$arents were ?ohn &ichar!s McKay an! ,arriet 4alen!ine' %eor/e)s sister Mary was marrie! to ,41 tra!er <alter :raill' ,is *rother :homas was a @rince 0l*ert *-sinessman an! mem*er of the +orth <est :erritories e/islat-re' ,is *rother ?ames was a law /ra!-ate. $ractise! at @rince 0l*ert. was s-*seM-ently electe! to $arliament an! later a$$ointe! as a ?-stice of the Sas6atchewan 1o-rt of 0$$eal' 4rother <illiam ?r' (222) (1852-19=1). was also a f-r tra!er an! too6 $art (on the Dominion si!e) in the 1885 &esistance as a sco-t. com*atant an! inter$reter'

2n 1871 %eor/e receive! a 1h-rch Missionary Society st-!entshi$ to atten! St'
89

?ohn)s 1olle/e' :hree years later. he 3oine! &ev' ?ohn ,ines at Fort Cllice with intentions to serve as an inter$reter an! $ros$ective schoolmaster' 2nstea!. in 1875 he too6 char/e of St' Mary)s 1h-rch at @rince 0l*ert. Sas6atchewan' ,e later ret-rne! to St' ?ohn)s an!. in 1877. went to Cn/lan! an! atten!e! Si!ney S-sse; 1olle/e' Pr!aine! a !eacon an! $riest in ?-ne 1878. he was assi/ne! missionary wor6 amon/ the 0*ori/inal $eo$le of so-thern 0l*erta' D-rin/ the 1885 +orth <est &e*ellion. he serve! as a sco-t for %eneral :' 4' Stran/e)s troo$s then en/a/e! in missionary wor6 aro-n! @rince 0l*ert for three years. later ta6in/ char/e of St' 0l*an)s 1h-rch' 2n 1888 he marrie! <ilhelmina Mc ean (18>5-1977). !a-/hter of ?ohn Mc ean on Pcto*er 1. 1888 at @rince 0l*ert' :hey ha! three sonsI awrence Do-/las (1889-195=). 0rth-r @em*roo6e Stanley McKay (1891-1952). an! +orris ,-me McKay (189=-1977)' 2n 189=. *eca-se of $oor health. McKay move! to a mil!er climate an! acce$te! a ministry at Nanco-ver. 4ritish 1ol-m*ia' Fin!in/ the weather there !isa/reea*le. he reM-este! a transfer to the heart of the &oc6ies at Donal!. 41 where he remaine! for fo-r years' ,e too6 an e;ten!e! leave of a*sence from clerical !-ties in 1897. to 3oin a $arty of men from Manito*a hea!in/ to the Klon!i6e %ol! &-sh' 0rrivin/ at Dawson 1ity. he sta6e! a claim on 4onanOa 1ree6 *-t ma!e little from it' 0fter some time in the 5-6on. he ret-rne! to his family at Donal!' 2n 19AA. he acce$te! a ministry in So-th Da6ota' ,e move! to <yomin/ in 1917 where he wor6e! for another 1A years' ,e retire! to the 4lac6 ,ills an! !ie! at St-r/is. So-th Da6ota on 12 Decem*er 1979' Mc0ay, .eor"e 'dm!nd. (*' 19A>) %eor/e was a $ioneer from 4erens &iver. a*o-t 2AA air miles northeast on a6e <inni$e/' ,e was a lifelon/ fisherman an! at a/e 7= (in 1979). he wo-l! still wan!er !own to the river every now an! then to fish' Mr' McKay initiate! the Manito*a Metis Fe!eration ocal in the area an! remaine! an active mem*er' 2n March of 1978 at the &e/ional 1onference. he was awar!e! an hono-rary $laM-e an! a Metis Sash sym*oliOin/ an a$$reciation for his many years of service an! !e!ication to local resi!ents' ,e s$ea6s fl-ent Sa-ltea-; an! Cn/lish an! -n!erstan!s a little 1ree' 2n 1979. he relate! the followin/ storiesI “,alf-4ree! was the most commonly -se! wor! for -s in the early !ays *eca-se in the history of the Metis $eo$le. after the &iel &e*ellion. they /ave the “half-*ree!s" the lan! settlement' 0t that time they calle! it the ,alf-4ree! an! 0ct' +ow they call it the Scri$ an! 0ct' 2 !on)t fancy the wor! “Metis" *eca-se it !oesn)t really /ive -s an i!entityB to me. Metis means to *e halfFrench only' :o *e a half-*ree! means yo- can *e $art anythin/'" “My /ran!-ncle was the ,ono-ra*le ?ames McKay. on of the early $ioneers of <inni$e/' For some reason or other. he learne! fo-r or five lan/-a/es' 0t one time. he owne! all of the area where Silver ,ei/hts is now' ,e was the first to her! (!omestic) *-ffalo in that area' ,e *-ilt a lo!/e where Deer o!/e now stan!s' :hat)s how it /ot its name'" “?ames McKay was ta6en on as an inter$reter for the /overnment *eca-se he 6new all these lan/-a/es' ,e to-re! thro-/h all of the a6e <inni$e/ area an! hel$e! ma6e treaties with the 2n!ians' 2n the meantime. my /ran!father. 0n/-s McKay. too6 a homestea! at <hite ,orse @lains an! starte! a ma$le farm' ,is ho-se later *-rne! an!

9A

his *rother. ?ames McKay. /ave him the $osition of the first 2n!ian 0/ent' ,e starte! his wor6 at Fort %arry an! travele! thro-/h s-rro-n!in/ areas where he)! *e away all s-mmer'" “D-rin/ his travels. %ran!father McKay went to 4erens &iver an! !eci!e! to stay' ,e as6e! to transfer his family there' :his was /rante!. so he raise! his family there' My father. who was raise! in 4erens &iver. met an! marrie! my 2n!ian mother there' 2)m very $ro-! to *e a ,alf-4ree! *eca-se now it)s har! to fin! a real ,alf-4ree!' 4loo! has *een all mi;e! -$ as the cent-ries $asse!' My /ran!chil!ren have si; or seven races of *loo! in them'" “:o!ay at 7= years of a/e. 2 am the ol!est non-treaty resi!ent in 4erens &iver' <e live alon/si!e treaty $eo$le who call -s o-tsi!ers. meanin/ we)re li6e <hite $eo$le *eca-se we)ve always ha! $rivile/es s-ch as votin/' <e)re non-treaty' <e)re o-tsi!ers' 2f yo- live amon/ <hite society. the <hite man calls yo- an 2n!ian. so we)re ri/ht in the mi!!le' <e)re neither <hite nor 2n!ian' 2 am very $ro-! to *e a ,alf-4ree! *eca-se 2 have the instincts an! 6nowle!/e of an 2n!ian an! the c-nnin/ an! 6nowle!/e of a <hite man'" “2f the <hite society calls yo- !own as an 2n!ian. 3-st tell them yo-)re a ,alf-4ree! an! $ro-! of it' :here)s a lot of !iscrimination. *-t may*e not so m-ch with the yo-n/er /eneration as *efore' 2t)s too *a! that chil!ren /rowin/ -$ in the city !on)t learn their +ative lan/-a/e'" (&e$rinte! from .eflections Dester ay an 6o ay. <inni$e/I Manito*a Metis Fe!eration @ress. 1979I 8A-81') Mc0ay, .!illa!me' (*' 1855) %-illa-me was the son of 2/nace McKay an! ?ose$hte 4ercier' ,e marrie! Marie St' Denis an! they live! first at 4aie St' @a-l then at D-c6 a6e. Sas6atchewan' %-illa-me involve! in the 1885 &esistance at D-c6 a6e with %a*riel D-mont' ,e was liste! as a mem*er of 1a$tain 4a$tiste @rimea-)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' ,e is re$orte! to have 6ille! ie-tenant ?ohn Morton of the +'<'M'@' Z1 1om$any Nol-nteers !-rin/ the fi/htin/ at D-c6 a6e' McKay. ,enry' (185>-19=>) ,enry was *orn at Fort Cllice. the son of chief Factor <illiam McKay an! Mary 1oo6' ,e was e!-cate! atSt' ?ohn)s 1olle/e' ,enry marrie! Cllen 0ra*ella 2n6ster the !a-/hterof <illiam 2n6ster an! Mary :o!! on a-/-st 29. 1881 at Fort Cllice' She was also the neice of sheriff 1ollin 2n6ster' :hey ha! 11 chil!ren' ,enry was em$loye! *y the ,41 as an a$$rentice $ostmaster an! cler6 -ntil 1898' while at the @as he was also Fe!eral @ostmaster' 0fter leavin/ ,41 he move! to %ran! &a$i!s where he as $ostmaster. ?-stice of the @eace an! a store6ee$er' ,e !ie! at %ran! &a$i!s on Fe*r-ary 22.19=>. a/e 79' McKay. ?ames. M' '0' (1825-1879) ?ames McKay. *orn at Fort C!monton. was the son of ?ames McKay Sr' an! Mar/-erite %la!- (an immi/rant f-r tra!er an! a Metis)' ,e s$ent most of his life in what is now Manito*a' ,e was the /ran!son of 1harles %la!-' McKay was an e;$ert /-i!e. woo!sman an! h-nter' ?ames McKay *e/an wor6in/ for the ,-!sonSs 4ay 1om$any in 185= an! ha! $ostin/s in the Swan &iver !istrict. L-S0$$elle a6es. Fort Cllice. Fort @elly an! the Shayenne &iver re/ion' ,e marrie! Mar/aret &owan! in ?-ne of 1859 an! as a res-lt of

91

his wife)s inheritance. the family esta*lishe! itself at Deer o!/e an! McKay ha! an active *-siness career at &e! &iver' ,e *-ilt the famo-s Deer o!/e Mansion as his home on the *an6s of the 0ssini*oine &iver' ,e owne! tho-san!s of acres of lan! an! at one time ha! a sta*le of horses val-e! at more than X1AA.AAA' 0 h-/e man of =7A $o-n!s. McKay was im$ressive in every way' ,is stren/th was le/en!ary' Pnce while ri!in/ on the $lains he was attac6e! *y a $rairie /iOOley *ear. a s$ecies. which $reye! on the *-ffalo her!s an! is now e;tinct' ,e res$on!e! *y lassoin/ the *ear an! s-*!-in/ it' Pn another occasion. he came across a co-$le in a horse !rawn cart st-c6 in the m-!' McKay -nhitche! the horse. $-t himself *etween the shafts an! $-lle! the vehicle o-t' 0s a mem*er of the @alliser e;$e!ition. he is sai! to have ri!!en a *-ffalo' ,e was so $hysically a/ile that he was a*le to lea$ over the *ac6 of his horse' ,e was also consi!ere! a cham$ion !ancer of the &e! &iver ?i/. a !ance reM-irin/ *oth /race an! a/ility' :he Carl of So-thes6. s-$$lies a f-ll !escri$tion of ?ames McKay as he a$$eare! on their tri$ from 1row <in/ (Minnesota :erritory) to #$$er Fort %arryI E,e wasF immensely *roa! cheste! an! m-sc-lar. tho-/h not tall. he wei/he! ei/hteen stoneB yet in s$ite of his sto-tness he was e;cee!in/ly har!y an! active. an! a won!erf-l horseman' ,is faceHsomewhat 0ssyrian in ty$eHis very han!someI short !elicate aM-iline noseB $iercin/ !ar6 /rey eyesB lon/ !ar6-*rown hair. *ear!. mo-stachesB white small. re/-lar teethB s6in tanne! to re! *ronOe from e;$os-re to weather' ,e was !resse! in &e! &iver styleHa *l-e cloth “1a$ot" (hoo!e! froc6-coat) with *rass *-ttonsB re! an! *lac6 flannel shirt. which serve! also as a waistcoatB *lac6 *elt aro-n! the waistB *-ff leather moccasins on his feetB tro-sers of *rown an! white stri$e! home-ma!e woollen st-ff' (Saskatchewan an the .ocky Mountains: 1 4iary ' C!in*-r/hI C!monton an! Do-/las. 1875) McKay !eserves a s$ecial $lace in history for $reservin/ the *-ffalo' ,e realiOe! they were *ecomin/ scarce an! after ca$t-rin/ some calves *e/an raisin/ a her! at Deer o!/e' ,e later s$lit this her! an! sol! some to Donal! 0' Smith' @ortions of his her! were -se! to stoc6 0ssini*oine @ar6 an! 4anff +ational @ar6' 4eca-se of his facility with the French. Cn/lish. 1ree. P3i*way an! Sio-; lan/-a/es. McKay $laye! an active role in the western treaty ma6in/ $rocess an! was involve! in the ne/otiations of :reaties 2 to 2N' ,e was $resi!ent of the C;ec-tive 1o-ncil of the Manito*a /overnment an! later *ecame S$ea6er of the #$$er 1ham*er of the Manito*a $rovincial le/islat-re' 2n 1877 he was a$$ointe! to the +orth <est 1o-ncil' McKay o$$ose! o-is &iel an! the other Metis resisters in 18>9-7A' ,e was electe! to the Manito*a le/islat-re in a *y-election in the a6e Manito*a ri!in/ in 1877' .eferences :-rner. 0llen &' “?ames McKay'" 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy. Nol' W (1871188A)' :orontoI #niversity of :oronto @ress. 1972I 77=-777' D' 4r-ce Sealey an! 0ntoine S' -ssier' 6he Métis: Cana a;s For!otten Peo'le' <inni$e/I @emmican @-*lications. 1975I 1A1-1A2' Mc0ay, ?arriet (:raill). (1877-192A) ,arriet. the el!est !a-/hter of the well-6nown ,41 man. <illiam McKay. was

92

marrie! to <illiam :raill (1877-1917)' 8> ,arriet)s $arents <illiam McKay E1818-188=F who was *orn Fe*r-ary 1>. 1818 in 4eaver 1ree6 an! Mary ?ane 1oo6 E1827-1917F who was *orn in 1827 at 1-m*erlan! ,o-se' <illiam McKay was a son of ?ohn &ichar!s McKay E1792-1877F an! ,arriet 0nn 4allen!en E1797-1857F' Pn her mother)s si!e ,arriet was the /ran!!a-/hter of ?ose$h 1oo6 (*'c' 1792 in &-$ertSs an!) an! 1atherine Sinclair' ,arriet was the sister of :homas an! ?ohn McKay of @rince 0l*ert' ,arriet an! her sister Kate were e!-cate! at Miss Matil!a Davis) “School for 5o-n/ a!ies" at &e! &iver from 1858 to 18>=' KateH1atherine McKay 1lar6e li6e her sister ,arriet also *ecame one of the Metis “First a!ies" of the f-r tra!e' She was the wife of awrence 1lar6e when he was 1hief Factor ,41 at Fort 1arlton then 1hief Factor for the Sas6atchewan !istrict at @rince 0l*ert' ,arriet marrie! <illiam C!war! :raill (1877-1817) at Fort Cllice on ?-ne 1. 18>9' 1hil!renI • <alter (187A-19=2)B marrie! ,arriet 0nn McKay (1872-1978)' • Mary (Mollie) (187=-1877) • <illiam McKay (1875-19>9)B marrie! Cleanor Frances Fortesc-e' • ,enry (1877-1878)B • Cthel (1879-1919)B marrie! Fre!eric6 ?ohnstone 4i//' • ?essie (1881-197A)B marrie! <illiam &othney Drever' • Mary (188=-1987)B • Maria “5-mmie" (*' 188>-19>9)B marrie! ?ohn Mc1loy' • ,arriet “,attie" (1888-19=A)' • 0nnie (1889-1977) (see 1harlotte %ray. Sisters in the <il!ernessI :he ives of S-sanna Moo!ie an! 1atharine @arr :raill. Ni6in/. 1999)' • 1atherine 4ar*ara (1892-199A)B marrie! ,arol! Kells Morrow' :raill ha! $ostin/s at Fort Cllice (18>7-18>7). :o-chwoo! ,ills (18>7->9). the Sas6atchewan &iver $osts (18>9-77). ac a 4iche (1877-81). esser Slave a6e (188185). Nermilion (18>9-89). an! finally Fort St' ?ames (1889-9=). where :raill serve! as 1hief Factor' 2n 189=. :raill left the ,41 an! the family farme! farm near @rince 0l*ert. Sas6atchewan at the town that was name! for <illiam :raill. Mes6anaw (Mes6anaw is the 1ree wor! for trail)' :he near*y hamlet of Cthelton was name! for their !a-/hter Cthel'
8>

<illiam C!war! :raill. 1877-1917. was *orn in Pntario. the son of :homas an! 1atherine @arr :raill' ,e 3oine! the ,-!sonSs 4ay 1om$any in 18>7. *ecame a 3-nior tra!er in 1878. an! chief tra!er in 188=' 2n 18>9. he marrie! ,arriet McKay. 1877-192A. el!est !a-/hter of 1hief :ra!er <illiam McKay' ,e serve! with the ,41 at Fort Cllice. C// a6e. Fort @itt. 1arlton ,o-se. ac a 4iche. esser Slave a6e. Fort Nermilion an! Fort St' ?ames' 2n 189=. he left the ,41 to farm near @rince 0l*ert. Sas6atchewan' ,is *rother. <alter ?'S' :raill. 1877-19=2. 3oine! the ,41 in 18>>' ,e serve! in the Swan &iver !istrict an! at vario-s #S0 $osts *efore resi/nin/ in 1878' 2n 1881. he marrie! Mary %il*ert. a wi!ow with two chil!ren' ,e s-*seM-ently farme! near @em*ina. then in Kalis$ell. Montana an! finally in the P6ana/an. 4ritish 1ol-m*ia' Mary :raill. 188=-1987. the !a-/hter of <illiam C' :raill. was *orn in esser Slave a6e' She was a re/istere! n-rse. an! ran a n-rsin/ home in Mes6anaw. Sas6atchewan for many years'

9=

Mc0ay, )ames' (18>1-19=1) ?ames McKay was *orn at Fort Cllice on ?-ly 12. 18>1. the son of <illiam McKay (1819-1887) an! Mary 1oo6. an! the /ran!son of ?ohn &ichar!s McKay an! ,arriett 4allen!ine' ,e was e!-cate! at St' ?ohn)s 1olle/e an! the #niversity of Manito*a' ,is father was <illiam McKay 22 was *orn 1819 in the &e! &iver Settlement. an! his mother Mary 1oo6 was *orn at 1-m*erlan! ,o-se' ?ames. a lawyer. *ecame the first Metis L-een)s 1o-nsel in the +orthwest :erritory' ,e was create! a L-een)s 1o-nsel in 1891 when Sas6atchewan was still the District of 0ssini*oia in the +orthwest :erritories' 2n 19A>. the @rovince of Sas6atchewan ma!e him a Kin/)s 1o-nsel' ,is *rother. :homas McKay. *ecame the first mayor of @rince 0l*ert in 188> an! for 12 years was an M' '0' in the territorial /overnment of the +orthwest :erritories' ?ames McKay ha! an accom$lishe! career in the le/al arena' ,e com$lete! his colle/e e!-cation in <inni$e/ at St' ?ohn)s 1olle/e. an! later /ra!-ate! from the Manito*a #niversity with hi/h hono-rs in 1882' ,e st-!ie! law in the offices of 4ain. 4lanchar!. M-loc6 a Mor$hy of <inni$e/. an! was calle! to the *ar at Manito*a in 188>' ,e then move! to Sas6atchewan an! was calle! to the *ar of the +orth <est :erritories in 1887' ?ames $ractice! in $artnershi$ with Ste$hen 4rewster for three years. *efore ta6in/ over the *-siness of the firm an! o$eratin/ it for over twenty years' :he firm event-ally *ecame McKay. 0!am. 4eattie a Feary' ,e serve! as a 1rown @rosec-tor. an! then as the re$resentative of @rince 0l*ert in the Dominion @arliament' 2t sho-l! *e note! that ?ames) career also incl-!e! military achievement' D-rin/ the 1885 +orth <est &esistance. he serve! on the 1ana!ian si!e as a $rivate in the 9Ath &e/iment' 0s a yo-n/ law st-!ent. he was a mem*er of the 1 1om$any of <inni$e/ &ifles !-rin/ the +orthwest &esistance of 1885' ,e was attache! to French)s Sco-ts for a $erio! of time. where he was en/a/e! in carryin/ !is$atches' ?ames acte! as a !is$atch*earer when 1olonel 4e!son an! 1a$tain MacDowell went to @rince 0l*ert to investi/ate the con!itions in that vicinity' ?ames was also involve! in the en/a/ements at Fish 1ree6 an! 4atoche' :hro-/ho-t his career. ?ames McKay was involve! with a n-m*er of associations' ,e was a mem*er of the Manito*a #niversity 1o-ncilB the 0l!erman in @rince 0l*ertB a mem*er of the 4oar! of %overnors of the Sas6atchewan #niversityB the chancellor of the !iocese of Sas6atchewan of the 1h-rch of Cn/lan!B the $resi!ent of the Nictoria ,os$ital 4oar! at @rince 0l*ertB a mem*er of the Masonic Pr!erB an! a mem*er of the 2n!e$en!ent Pr!er of Foresters' ?ames marrie! Florence &ei! in 19AA at @rince 0l*ert' Mc0ay, )emima, (Bray). (1859-19=>) ?emima was *orn ?an-ary 1. 1855 at Fort Cllice. the !a-/hter of C!war! McKay an! 1aroline 1oo6. a *-ffalo h-ntin/ family from the L-)0$$elle Nalley who move! to the Fort <alsh area in 18>A' ?emima)s /ran!father was the famo-s ,41 Factor. ?ohn &ichar!s McKay' ?emima marrie! ?ohn ,enry %resham 4ray a +orth <est Mo-nte! @olice

97

Pfficer at Fort <alsh in 187>' :hey then live! at Fort Mc eo! an! @incher 1ree6. where Ser/eant 4ray too6 his !ischar/e in 188=' :hey then retire! to Me!icine ,at where ?emima !ie! on March =1. 19=> at a/e 77' She was reco/niOe! as one of the first +<M@ “wives" in the $rovince an! the *irth of their !a-/hter Flora was consi!ere! a first for the force' Mc0ay, everend )ohn' (18=2-1891) ?ohn McKay was the son of ?ames McKay. a Scot (*' 1797) an! Ma/-erite %la!- the Metis !a-/hter of 1harles %la!- an! Mar/-erite &oss' ,e marrie! 1hristina Mc4eath. the !a-/hter of &o*ert Mc4eath an! Mary Mc ean in 18>2 at Kil!onan' :hey ha! ei/ht chil!ren' ,e an! his *rother-in-law. &everen! ?ames +is*it were early settlers in @rince 0l*ert in 18>>' McKay re$resente! the /overnment at the si/nin/ of :reaty 5 at 4erens &iver in 1875. an! the si/nin/ of :reaty > in 187> at Fort 1arlton an! Fort @itt' ,is *rother. the ,ono-ra*le ?ames McKay also $laye! an im$ortant role in ne/otiatin/ :reaty Si;' ,e *ecame a @res*yterian minister on Mistawasis &eserve' ?ohn marrie! 1hristiana Mc4eath. the !a-/hter of &o*ert Mc4eath an! Mary Mc ean on 0$ril 1A. 18>2 at Kil!onan' ?ohn *ecame a @re*yterian Minister an! serve! on the Mistawasis &eserve for 12 years. *efore retirin/' 1hil!ren of ?ohn McKay an! 1hristiana Mc4eathI • Mary Mar/aret. *orn ?-ne 1>. 18>= at Kil!onan. marrie! <illiam S-therlan!' • 1hristiana 2sa*elle. *orn ?an-ary 19. 18>5 at Kil!onan' • 1assie. *orn 18>>' • ?ohn &o*ert. *orn Se$tem*er 5. 187A' • :homas ,-/h. *orn 1877' • 0n/-s. *orn Fe*r-ary =. 1877 at @rince 0l*ert' ,e marrie! 0/nes afon!' • 1atherine. *orn ?an-ary 2. 1877 at @rince 0l*ert' • 0nnie Mills. *orn Pcto*er >. 1879 at @rince 0l*ert'

95

?ohn was the ,ea! /-i!e for the 1859 So-thes6 C;$e!ition 87 an! oversaw all as$ects of the tri$' ,e set each !aySs travel sche!-le. ne/otiate! the $-rchase of horses an! s-$$lies. an! han!le! !i$lomatic !isc-ssions with First +ations $eo$le' “?ohn McKay 2 li6e ''' he is my hea! man (/-i!e. as we -n!erstan! the term. 2 can scarcely call him. for he 6nows *-t little of the roa!. an! !i! not $rofess to)-a stea!y /oo! man. clever with horses. carts. or anythin/B he mana/es the other men a!mira*ly. an! s-its me e;cee!in/ly well''' ,e was *orn an! *re! in the Sas6atchewan co-ntry. *-t afterwar!s *ecame a resi!ent at Fort %arry an! entere! the 1om$anySs em$loy' <hether as /-i!e or h-nter. he was -niversally rec6one! one of their *est men'"88 :he Carl comments on his menI “0ll of them carrie! /-ns. all. e;ce$t three. were !resse! in frin/e! leather h-ntin/ shirtsH of every colo-r. from the yellow of newness. an! the white of new washe!ness. to the *loo!-staine! *rown of e;treme antiM-ity. as !is$laye! in 0ntoine)s venera*le /arment'"89 So-thes6 !escri*es ?ohn McKayI “McKay. $owerf-l in form an! stron/ of m-scle. *roa!-cheste!. !ar6. an! heavily *ear!e! with a wi!e-*rimme! *lac6 hat an! -nfrin/e! *-ff coat. an! *estri!in/ a lar/e *rown horse. resem*le! some S$anish 1avalier of ol!'" 9A <hen they /ot $ast Fort @itt McKay starte! wearin/ a ro-n! otter-s6in f-r ca$'91 Scri$ affi!avit for $c%a&, )ohnB *ornI 18=2B father: James $c%a&? mother: Mar/aret 'ladu (MGtis)B claim noI 28>8B !ate of iss-eI Se$t' 5. 1878B scri$ noI 12299'

87

0t the a/e of =2. ?ames 1arne/ie. the 9th Carl of So-thes6. travelle! to 1ana!a from his native Scotlan! in 1859. after *ein/ a!vise! that it wo-l! im$rove his health that ha! !eteriorate! followin/ the !eath of his wife' ,e wrote that the reason for his 3o-rney was to. Qtravel in some $art of the worl! where /oo! s$ort co-l! *e met with amon/ the lar/er animals. an! where. at the same time. 2 mi/ht recr-it my health *y an active o$en-air life in a healthy climate'Q :he Carl travelle! tho-/h the #nite! States to St' @a-l. Minnesota an! crosse! the $rairies. h-ntin/ *-ffalo alon/ the way' 88 So-thes6. ?ames 1arnei/ie' Saskatchewan an the .ocky Mountains: 1 iary an narrati/e of tra/el, s'ort, an a /enture urin! a >ourney throu!h the -u son;s 3ay Com'any;s territories, in "BH% an "B$&( C!in*-r/hI C!monston an! Do-/las. 1877I $' 77'
89

So-thes6. ?ames 1arnei/ie' Saskatchewan an the .ocky Mountains: 1 iary an narrati/e of tra/el, s'ort, an a /enture urin! a >ourney throu!h the -u son;s 3ay Com'any;s territories, in "BH% an "B$&( C!in*-r/hI C!monston an! Do-/las. 1877I $' 2A2'
9A

2*i!. 2A2' 2*i!. 292'

91

9>

?ohn McKay' 1858' @hoto *y ,' ' ,ime' 1o-rtesy 0rchives an! i*rary 1ana!a 12A25A' Mc0ay, )ohn Ale&ander, Archdeacon' (18=8- 192=) ?ohn was *orn 0-/-st 17. 18=8 at Moose Factory. Pntario' ,e was the son of <illiam McKay an! Mary 4-nn' ,is father was in char/e of the ,-!son)s 4ay $ost an! was the *rother of ?ohn &ichar!s McKay' Carly on. ?ohn was infl-ence! *y the 0n/lican cler/y an! went into the $riesthoo!' ,e was or!aine! in the 0n/lican 1h-rch at <inni$e/ in 18>2' ,e was marrie! to Mar/aret Drever an! they ha! fo-r !a-/hters' ,is first $ostin/ was to the mission at :he @as' 2n 18>7. he was transferre! to Stanley Mission in +orthern Sas6atchewan' ,e e;celle! in his activities there an! -n!er his /-i!ance the comm-nity c-ltivate! wheat an! /ar!en $ro!-ce an! raise! cattle as well' <hile at Stanley Mission he *e/an his wor6 as a scholar. $rintin/ translations of the scri$t-res on a small $rintin/ $ress' ,e was later 6nown as the most a*le 1ree scholar in 1ana!a. the a-thor of a 1ree !ictionary an! several other *oo6s an! translations' ,e was at Stanley Mission -ntil 1879 when he was $oste! to +orth 4attlefor!' ,e was also a$$ointe! 1ree t-tor an! @rofessor at Cmman-el 1olle/e in @rince 0l*ert when it was

97

fo-n!e! in 1879' From 188> to 1887. he serve! as an 2n!ian 0/ent at 4attle-for!. then ret-rne! to Cmman-el 1olle/e' ,e was a$$ointe! s-$erinten!ent of 2n!ian Missions for the 0n/lican 1h-rch in 19AA' So-rceI 0/nes &-est. 1 Pictorial -istory of the Metis an Non-Status :n ians in Saskatchewan. &e/inaI Sas6atchewan ,-man &i/hts 1ommission. 197>I 28' Mc0ay, )ohn Mc9a# Ballendin. (*' 18=1) ?ohn McKay was always 6nown as “?erry'" ,e was *orn at Fort Cllice. the son of the famo-s f-r tra!er ?ohn &ichar!s McKay (*elow) an! ,arriet 4allen!in ,is maternal /ran!father was chief Factor ?ohn 4allen!in whose father an! /ran!father ran the ,41 o$erations at Forts Severn an! 5or6 on ,-!son 4ay' ?ohn was 6nown for his $rowess in foot an! snowshoe races an! s$ee! with !o/ teams' ,e was a fine ,i/hlan! !ancer an! /reat horseman. 6nown for his a*ility to *alance himself on one foot stan!in/ on his sa!!le while ri!in/ at either a trot or a /allo$' ,e co-l! $l-c6 small o*3ects from the /ro-n! or shoot -n!er his horse)s nec6 while ri!!in/ at f-ll s$ee!' ,e was one of the *est *-ffalo h-nters on the $lains' ,is services as an inter$reter an! me!iator were -se! e;tensively since he s$o6e. 1ree. Sa-ltea-;. 0ssini*oine. an! Michif (French-1ree) Mc0ay, )ohn ichards' (1792-1877) ?ohn was *orn at 0l*any Factory on 0-/-st 1A. 1792. the son of ?ohn McKay Sr'. a Scottish f-r tra!er an! Mary Favel a Metis' ,e was e!-cate! in Cn/lan! *efore 3oinin/ the ,41 in 18A8' ,e wor6e! initially at 4ran!on ,o-se -n!er his father then at @em*ina &iver. an! at L-)0$$elle ,o-se where he s-$ervise! its) reconstr-ction' ?ames S-therlan! has left a written re$ort of this time in the Sel6ir6 @a$ersI 2n the fall of 1815. 2 sent ?ohn &ichar!s McKay to the L-)0$$elle with 15 men an! an assortment of /oo!s. they arrive! there sometime in the *e/innin/ of Pcto*er. $revio-s to their arrival all the ho-ses they ha! occ-$ie! the $rece!in/ year were *-rnt to the /ro-n! an! otherwise !estroye!' :his act was s-$$ose! to have *een !one *y the servants of the +<1o'. *-t no $roof co-l! ever *e /ot to confirm this s-$$osition (however)''' the +<1o')s inter$reter name! M-rray. who ha! $asse! the s-mmer there. informe! McKay that he himself ha! c-t !own the stoc6a!es as they interce$te! his view from the +< ,o-se' Mr' McKay an! his men imme!iately commence! *-il!in/ ho-ses an! erectin/ stoc6a!es on the ol! fo-n!ation' :hey /ot -$ a tem$orary store when 0le;an!er McDonnell. $artner of the +<1 arrive! with a /reat $ara!e of 7A or 5A 1ana!ians. Freemen an! ,alf-4ree!s formin/ two !istinct com$anies' McDonnell le! one of these consistin/ of 1ana!ians with colo-rs flyin/' :he other com$any were ,alf-4ree!s hea!e! *y 1-th*ert %rant''' this tri*e ha! another fla/ hoiste!''' it is re! with a fi/-re 8 $lace! horiOontally in the mi!!le of it an! is sai! to *e $resent from the +<1 alon/ with some swor!s an! a few $airs of $istols'''' McDonnell sent a messa/e to McKay tellin/ him to !esist from *-il!in/ as he was !etermine! no ho-se sho-l! *e erecte! on that s$ot. it *ein/ in front of his fort' :his threat ha! not the !esire! effect. 0le;an!er Fraser a ,alf-4ree! an! cler6 to the +<1. came to McKay an! or!ere! him to !e$art from the $lace imme!iately with all his men an! $ro$erty. a!!in/ that the co-ntry ro-n! the &e! &iver *elon/e! to the ,alf-4ree!s

98

an! they were !etermine! none of the ,41)s servants sho-l! remain on it as they only came to $roc-re $rovisions for the s-$$ort of the colony' McKay /ave evasive answers an! sai! he co-l! not remove. as he ha! neither carts nor horses to remove the $ro$erty' Fraser re$lie! that the carts an! horses wo-l! *e f-rnishe! *y the +<1 if they wo-l! remove off M-ietly' McKay then sai! he wo-l! not com$ly with s-ch an or!er -ntil he ha! cons-lte! his men' Fraser on hearin/ this /ot in a violent $assion an! tol! McKay that he wo-l! /ive them that ni/ht to $re$are themselves for the 3o-rney an! that if they were not off early ne;t mornin/ he an! his co-ntrymen wo-l! 6ill every one of them an! swee$ the earth with their !ea! *o!ies an! leave their carcasses for the wolves to eat' '''*efore the s-n a$$eare! a messa/e was sent to McKay to 6now whether he inten!e! to remove or not' 0ll o-r men sai! they were !etermine! to remain whatever mi/ht *e the res-lt' 0s soon as this was 6nown to the +<1 ,o-se. the ,alf-4ree! fla/ was hoiste!. a /reat n-m*er of men assem*le! in arms *efore the /ate of the +<1 ,o-se. one of the colony)s fiel! $ieces was $-t in the *loc6ho-se. the other in the /ates an! *oth $ointe! at o-r $eo$le''' *y this time the s-n ha! risen an! o*3ects *ecame !istinct. an! the +<1 $eo$le to their /reat !isa$$ointment o*serve! that several 2n!ians were intermi;e! amon/ o-r $eo$le' <hen 0' McDonnell saw this. he tho-/ht it !an/ero-s to commence hostilities. as it wo-l! *e the means of *rin/in/ on an 2n!ian war' ,e therefore sent for McKay to meet him *etween the ho-ses. which he !i!' ,e then wishe! to ma6e McKay $romise that none of the $rovisions $roc-re! at that $lace wo-l! *e /iven to the 1oloniOers' :his McKay co-l! not a/ree to' :hey however arran/e! matters so that o-r $eo$le were $ermitte! to /o on with their *-il!in/s -ntil 2 arrive!. then all !ifferences were to *e settle!''' :his was the state of affairs as 2 fo-n! it on the 8th of Decem*er' Sometime in 181>. at 4ran!on ,o-se ?ohn marrie! ,arriet 4allen!en. the !a-/hter of 1hief Factor ?ohn 4allen!en' :hey were marrie! “accor!in/ to the c-stom of the co-ntry" an! later. on ?an-ary 21. 1821 they were officially marrie! *y &everen! ?ohn <est the 1om$any)s cha$lain' :hey ha! eleven chil!ren' McKay s-*seM-ently wor6e! at Fort ,e*ria in the Swan &iver !istrict' ?ohn lost his 3o* as a res-lt of the 1821 amal/amation of the +<1 an! ,41. *riefly o$ene! a school at &e! &iver. went *ac6 into the f-r tra!e on the -$$er Misso-ri. then was rehire! *y ,41 in 18=1' ,e too6 char/e of Fort Cllice in the s-mmer of 18== an! was cler6 then $ostmaster -ntil 187=' ,is !ismissal *y the com$any in 187= is somewhat of a mysteryB however. he was rehire! in 187> as $ostmaster at @artri!/e 1ro$ (Fairfor!). then from 1878 to 1857. he serve! at Shoal &iver' ,e retire! in 1859' :he 1ree an! Sa-ltea-; of the #$$er &e! &iver an! Swan &iver !istricts referre! to McKay as Ma-ak-!y!an-naise or “:he 4ear S6in." a sym*ol of their res$ect for him' :his nic6name was han!e! !own to his sons an! /ran!sons' ,e was renowne! for his s6ill with the swor! an! /-n an! was an e;cellent horseman' ,e re$orte!ly ha! 2n!ian *oys shoot *l-nt arrows in his !irection an! he wo-l! $ractice !eflectin/ them with his swor!' Mc0ay, )ose,h /illiam. (1829-19AA) ?ose$h was *orn on ?an' =1. 1829 at &-$ert)s ,o-se (<as6a/anish. L-e'). the son of <illiam McKay an ,41 1ler6. an! Mary 4-nn. *oth Metis' ?ose$h <illiam McKay was the /ran!son of f-r tra!er ?ohn McKay. his -ncles ?ohn 4-nn an! ?ohn &ichar!s

99

McKay. an! his father were all active in the f-r tra!e' Pn ?-ne 1>. 18>A he marrie! ,elen ,olmes in Nictoria (4'1'). an! they ha! fo-r !a-/hters an! two sonsB McKay !ie! in Nictoria on Dec' 21. 19AA' 0t a/e nine. he was sent to the &e! &iver 0ca!emy for five years of e!-cation' <hile there. he *oar!e! with his maternal /ran!father. :homas 4-nn' ,e then 3oine! the ,41 at a/e fifteen' %overnor Sim$son sent him to serve as an a$$rentice seaman on a @acific coast vessel in 1877' ,e serve! at Fort Nanco-ver. <ashin/ton an! was involve! in the reco/niOance of the Pre/on :erritory' 2n 187>. he was transferre! to Fort Nictoria shortly after its esta*lishment an! remaine! there -ntil the !iscovery of coal at +anaimo' :here he hel$e! 1hief Factor ?ames Do-/las to ne/otiate the Fort Nictoria :reaties' 2n the 185As. Do-/las sent McKay to e;$lore the 1oition an! 1omo; valleys an! esta*lish a salmon fishery an! shee$ station on San ?-an 2slan!' 2n 1879. he move! to +anaimo when coal was !iscovere!' McKay. who was an amate-r /eolo/ist. was instr-mental in this !iscovery an! was sent there to s-$erinten! o$erations' 1852. he too6 $ossession of the +animo coalfiel!s on *ehalf of the ,41' 2n 1857. he M-it the ,41 an! o$ene! a sawmill' ,e ret-rne! to them in 1855 an! wor6e! at Fort Nictoria' ater he was electe! to the ho-se of assem*ly of Nanco-ver 2slan!' 2n 18>A. he was ma!e chief tra!er of the :hom$son !istrict. havin/ $revio-sly sco-te! a ro-te to the /ol!fiel!s in that !istrict' 2n 18>5. he s-rveye! the area *etween <illiams 1ree6 an! :Vte ?a-ne 1ache in antici$ation of the $ro$ose! tele/ra$h line from Fort %arry' 4etween 18>> an! 1878. McKay was in char/e of o$erations at Fort 5ale in the Kootenay !istrict' D-rin/ this time he /aine! $romotion to factor in 1872 an! *ecame ?-stice of the @eace in 187>' 2n 1878. the com$any !ismisse! him. lar/ely *eca-se of his consi!era*le o-tsi!e *-siness !ealin/s (/ol! mines. salmon canneries an! tim*er leases)' D-rin/ the twenty years McKay wor6e! for the !ominion /overnment. *ein/ a$$ointe! cens-s commissioner for 4ritish 1ol-m*ia in 1881 an! 2n!ian a/ent two years later. first for the northwest coast an! then for the Kamloo$s an! P6ana/an a/encies' <hile a/ent he -r/e! 2n!ians to ta6e -$ stoc6-raisin/ an! to /row western cro$s. attem$te! to $revent the tres$ass of 1ana!ian @acific &ailway crews an! C-ro$ean settlers on 2n!ian lan!. an! esta*lishe! an 2n!ian in!-strial school near Kamloo$s' ,e $ersonally inoc-late! more than 1.=AA 2n!ians with small$o; vaccine *etween 188> an! 1888' 2n 189= he was a$$ointe! assistant to 0rth-r <ellesley Nowell. the s-$erinten!ent of 2n!ian affairs for 4ritish 1ol-m*ia' :hro-/ho-t this $erio! McKay contin-e! to $-rs-e his *-siness interests' :he year *efore his !eath he a$$lie! for a /rant of 7A.AAA acres on L-een 1harlotte Strait. on which he $lanne! to esta*lish a $-l$-mill. *-t he !ie! *efore he co-l! see it in o$eration' McKay was one of the few $eo$le who s$o6e the 1hinoo6 (:shin-6) ?ar/on fl-ently an! was tr-ste! *y the +ative $eo$le /enerally as one who co-l! -n!erstan! them an! re!ress their /rievances'

1AA

)ose,h /. Mc0ay ( oyal B.-. M!se!m, BA- D404C41)

.eference Mac6ie. &ichar!' “?ose$h <illiam McKay'" 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy. Nol' W22 (1891-19AA)' :orontoI #niversity of :oronto @ress. 199AI >71->7=' Mc0ay, )ose,h' (*' 1877) ?ose$h was the son of ?ohn &ichar!s McKay an! ,arriet 4allen!en' ,e marrie! Mar/e-rite @oitras' :hey live! at @rince 0l*ert *-t move! to *ecome farmin/ instr-ctor at Stri6e-,im-Pn-:he-4ac6 &eserve near 4attlefor!' 0fter the &esistance of 1885. the family ret-rne! to @rince 0l*ert' ,e later wor6e! as a sco-t an! inter$retor for the +'<'M'@' in the Ma$le 1ree6 area' Mc0ay, “.entleman” )oe. (*' 185>-19=8) ?oe McKay was *orn at ,ea!in/ly. Manito*a. the son of ?ohn Do-/al McKay an! ,arriet McKay' ,is wife. Flora 0nn. was the !a-/hter of ?ose$h McKay ?r' an! Mar/e-rite @oitras' McKay 3oine! the +'<'M'@' as an inter$retor in ?an-ary of 1885'

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McKay shot an! 6ille! 2sa!ore D-mont at the *e/innin/ of the &esistance *attle at D-c6 a6e' Mc0ay, ;*onore' (*' 1877) eonar! McKay was *orn on Se$tem*er 2A. 1877. the son of <illiam McKay an! S-Oanne Nersailles' ,e marrie! S-san am*ert. the !a-/hter of ?ose$h am*ert an! o-is @lo-f !it Nille*r-n in 1877' :hey ha! at least ten chil!ren *orn across the $rairies at St' +or*ert. Moose ?aw. 1y$ress ,ills. an! Fort L-)0$$elle' eonar! was a mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' Mc0ay, ;etitia' See etitia 4ir!' Mc0ay, ao!l. 7h.D. &ao-l McKay was awar!e! an 0*ori/inal achievement 2ns$ire a-reate in 2A1A for e!-cation' :hey !escri*e his contri*-tions in this wayI Dr' McKay !e!icate! his life as a *i-lin/-al e!-cator infl-encin/ tho-san!s of 0*ori/inal an! non-0*ori/inal hi/h school an! -niversity st-!ents an! earne! fo-r -niversity !e/rees incl-!in/ a @h'D' in history from the #niversity of :oronto' ,e !evelo$e! 2n!i/eno-s $ro/rams an! co-rses at :rent #niversity. a6ehea! #niversity. an! McMaster #niversity an! was the fo-n!in/ hea! of the De$artment of +ative St-!ies at the #niversity of Manito*a' 2n cons-ltation with 2n!i/eno-s comm-nities. he esta*lishe! $ro/rams s-ch as the @re-Me!icine @ro/ram for +ative @eo$le an! social st-!ies $ro/rams for $-*lic schools' Dr' McKay has assiste! First +ations an! MGtis comm-nities in their as$irations *y $romotin/ soverei/nty. ena*lin/ them to narrate their own history an! creatin/ e!-cational. $olitical an! economic systems for the *etterment of their citiOens' 2n a!!ition. Dr' McKay is an infl-ential !oc-mentary film $ro!-cer' ,is wor6 incl-!es two 1=-$art series) entitle! a Noi; !es Mechif 2 an! 22 (aire! on 0@:+)'

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&ao-l com$lete! his @h'D' thesis entitle!. “Fi/htin/ for s-rvival I the Swam$y 1ree of :reaty +o' 5 in an era of transition. 1875-19=A." at the #niversity of :oronto in 1991' &ao-l McKay an! his wife 2ris incor$orate! First Noice M-ltime!ia in 1997' ,e -ses his 6nowle!/e on the history an! life of +ative $eo$le from *oth the written an! oral tra!ition of the Metis an! First +ations $eo$le' ,e has !one a n-m*er of television an! ra!io shows as well as interviews on a variety of themes re/ar!in/ +ative $eo$le' ,is other wor6s incl-!e 6he *ife an 5orks of the 5oo lan 1rtists. 6he *ife an 5orks of 4a'hne O >i!. St( *aurent 9oes to 5ashin!ton (the story of a Metis comm-nitySs $artici$ation at the +ational M-se-m of the 0merican 2n!ian). an! Stan in! 6all (a $ro!-ction !e$ictin/ the history an! comm-nity involvement of the o-is &iel 2nstit-te)s Stan!in/ :all $ro/ram in two <inni$e/ inner city schools)' Mc0ay, :homas' (*'1798) :homas McKay was the ,alf-4ree! son of 0le;an!er McKay an! Mar/-erite <a!in' ,is father was a +<1 em$loyee who accom$anie! 0le;an!er Mac6enOie on the overlan! 3o-rney to the @acific Pcean in 179=' :homas entere! the service of the @acific F-r 1om$any in 181A an! accom$anie! his father to 0storia' <hen Fort 0storia was ca$t-re! in 181=. he too6 service as a cler6 with the +<1. then with the ,41. after 1821' ,e was em$loye! in this ca$acity for over 25 years' Sometime after 18=>. he retire! to settle on a farm in Pre/on' ,e *ecame a citiOen of the #nite! States an! $artici$ate! in the 1ay-se <ar of 1878' McKay. :homas. M' '0' (1879-1927) :homas was *orn on ?-ne 7. 1879 at Fort @elly. the son of <illiam McKay 22 (*orn 1819 in the &e! &iver Settlement) an! Mary 1oo6 (*orn at 1-m*erlan! ,o-se)' ,e

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marrie! Kate Mc4eth' ,e an! his wife *oth si/ne! the 187> :reaty > at Fort 1arlton as witnesses' :homas was *orn into a lon/ line of ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any em$loyees' ,is *ranch of the McKay)s ha! *een involve! with the com$any as far *ac6 as the ei/hteenth cent-ry' :homas) /reat-/ran!father. ?ohn McKay. was a native Scot who entere! the services of the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any an! came to 1ana!a aro-n! 179A' :homas *ecame a lea!in/ citiOen of @rince 0l*ert' ,e was the *rother-in-law of ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any factor awrence 1lar6e' :homas owne! a farm an! a mill an! *ecame the first mayor of @rince 0l*ert in 188>' ,e was a mem*er of the +orth <est :erritories e/islative 0ssem*ly from 1891 to 1897 an! from 1898 to 19A7' :homas McKay was sent to the St' ?ohn)s school at <inni$e/ for his early e!-cation' ,e *e/an wor6in/ for the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any when he was fifteen years ol!' :homas hel! the $osition of cler6 for the com$any -ntil 187=' 0t that time he marrie! 1atherine Mc4eth. who he wo-l! event-ally have ten chil!ren with' 1atherine was *orn at Fort %oo! ,o$e on the Mac6enOie &iver' ,er father. 0!am Mc4eth. was $art of or! Sel6ir6)s ori/inal settlement' 0!am ha! come to &-$ert)s an! with his $arents when he was si; years ol!' 0fter their marria/e. the McKay)s move! to the @rince 0l*ert !istrict (187=) where :homas *e/an a $ros$ero-s in!e$en!ent career *y en/a/in/ in millin/. frei/htin/ an! farmin/' ,e later *ecame involve! in the events lea!in/ -$ to the +orthwest &esistance' Pn March 21. 1885. :homas an! ,illyar! Mitchell went from fort 1arlton to meet with &iel at 4atoche to reM-est that he not ta6e -$ arms' D-rin/ the *e/innin/ of the resistance at D-c6 a6e. :homas was the first of forty men from @rince 0l*ert to vol-nteer to ai! the +orthwest Mo-nte! @olice statione! at 1arlton -n!er Ma3or 1roOier' Pn 3oinin/ Ma3or 1roOier. he offere! to /o as an envoy of $eace to cons-lt with the ,alf-4ree!s at D-c6 a6e' ,e was seiOe! as a traitor *y o-is &iel while at their cam$. however his stron/ $ersonality an! ne/otiatin/ a*ility ena*le! him to ret-rn to 1arlton' :homas was a $lainsman an! sco-t who s$o6e *oth 1ree an! Sa-ltea-;' Pn one occasion. he was sent as a sco-t with messa/es from Ma3or 1roOier to 1olonel 2rvine' ,e was later sent with si;teen men an! ei/ht slei/hs -n!er Ser/eant Stewart to sec-re an! trans$ort the amm-nition from D-c6 a6e *ac6 to 1arlton' :his event le! to the first *attle of the 1885 &esistance. fort-nately :homas s-ccee!e! in with!rawin/ from !an/er' 0fter the &esistance. :homas was a$$ointe! to a commission of three to inM-ire into the con!itions an! losses *ro-/ht a*o-t *y the war. an! to ar*itrate matters for the /overnment' 2t was later his !istinction to *ecome the first mayor of the town of @rince 0l*ert in 188>' :homas serve! twelve years re$resentin/ his constit-ency in the +orthwest :erritories 0ssem*ly. retirin/ when the :erritories receive! $rovincial a-tonomy' ,e remaine! active in the $olitical arena as the $resi!ent of the @rince 0l*ert 0/ric-lt-ral 0ssociation (the orne 0/ric-lt-ral Society). an! the $resi!ent of the ocal %rain %rowers) 0ssociation' :homas event-ally retire! an! s$ent the remain!er of his !ays on the homestea! he ha! esta*lishe! forty years earlier' (1ontri*-te! *y 0man!a &oOy6') .eference 4lac6. +orman F' -istory of Saskatchewan an 6he North 5est 6erritories ' &e/inaI Sas6atchewan historical 1o'. 191=I =17-=2A'

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Mc0ay, /illiam BB. (1818-1882) <illiam was ?ohn &ichar!s McKay)s secon! son' ,e 3oine! the ,41 in 18=7 an! saw most of his service in the Swan &iver DistrictB this incl-!e! 12 years at Fort Cllice' ,e starte! with the ,41 as a “coo$ers" a$$rentice an! rose thro-/h merit to $ostmaster then cler6 an! was commissione! as a 1hief :ra!er in 18>5' ,e wor6e! at :o-chwoo! ,ills an! C// a6e *efore his a$$ointment at Fort Cllice' 2n the late 185As McKay was renowne! as a horse tra!er. 2saac 1owie relate! that “4illy" was a*le to reco/niOe any horse he ha! ever seen. no matter how altere! *y a/e' :he animals were tra!e! to 2n!ians. other tra!ers an! frei/hters $assin/ thro-/h Fort Cllice on the 1arlton :rail from Fort %arry' :he $ost was also a centre for the re$air of &e! &iver carts' :he Sa-ltea-; an! 1ree calle! McKay 4ear S6in. a name inherite! from his fatherB the Sio-; name! him 5atanaak or “:ra!er of #sef-l :hin/s'" McKay was $romote! to 1hief :ra!er in 18>5 an! was $lace! in char/e of the Fort @elly District in 187A' 2n 187A. McKay was transferre! to Fort @elly to s-ccee! chief Factor &o*ert 1am$*ell. however. he was transferre! *ac6 to Fort Cllice in 1872 an! ha! a final transfer to Fort @itt in 187=' 2n 187=. he *ecame factor for the Sas6atchewan District at Fort @itt' ,e !ie! in C!monton on Decem*er 27. 1882 ,e an! his wife. Mary 1oo6. ha! ten chil!ren' Mary. *orn in 1827. was the !a-/hter of ?ose$h 1oo6 an! 1atherine Sinclair' :heir !a-/hter. also name! Mary. marrie! <alter :raill also of ,41' :heir son :homas was a well-6nown *-sinessman of @rince 0l*ert an! a mem*er of the +orth <est :erritories e/islat-re' :heir !a-/hter Katherine marrie! 1hief Factor awrence 1lar6e' :heir son. ,enry. *orn in 185> at Fort Cllice. went on to *ecome the ,41 $ostmaster at %ran! &a$i!s where he marrie! 0na*ella 2n6ster' 0nother son. %eor/e. st-!ie! for the cler/y an! *ecame an 0rch!eacon in the 0n/lican 1h-rch' :heir son 0n/-s. s$ent all of his wor6in/ life with the ,41 in the Sas6atchewan District an! was in char/e of n-mero-s tra!in/ $osts' ,is last assi/nment was at a &on/e in 192A after which he retire! to homestea! near @rince 0l*ert' :he McKay)s son ?ames was a law /ra!-ate $ractise! at @rince 0l*ert was s-*seM-ently electe! to $arliament an! later a$$ointe! as a ?-stice of the Sas6atchewan 1o-rt of 0$$eal' :heir son <illiam ?r' (222) (1852-19=1). was also a f-r tra!er an! too6 $art (on the Dominion si!e) in the 1885 &esistance as a sco-t. com*atant an! inter$reter' ,e is most famo-s for hea!in/ off @o-n!-ma6er an! war chief Fine!ay at 4attlefor! in 1885' ,e !ie! on his farm at @rince 0l*ert in 19=1' Mc0ay, /illiam -ameron. (1827-189=) Dr' “4illy" McKay was *orn at Fort %eor/e. the son of famo-s Metis tra$$er an! /-i!e :homas McKay an! his wife. the !a-/hter of :shin-6 (1hinoo6) chief 1oncomly' ,e was also the /ran!son of 0le;an!er McKay who !ie! on the 6onFuin when it san6 off the west coast' 4illy)s first wife was 1atherine who !ie! on May =A. 1878. followe!. seven months later *y the !eath of their son :homas 0rchi*al! McKay on Pcto*er 25. 1878 at Fort Nanco-ver' 4illy then marrie! Mar/aret 1am$*ell on Pcto*er =. 185>' She was the !a-/hter of a 1hief Factor of the +orth <est 1om$any. 1ollin 1am$*ell. an! a sister-inlaw of ?ames Sinclair who was famo-s for lea!in/ a /ro-$ of &e! &iver Metis to the lower 1ol-m*ia in 1871'

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0fter his /ran!father !ie! his /ran!mother. Mar/aret <a!ine McKay. remarrie! to Dr' ?ohn Mc o-/hlin 6nown as “the father of Pre/on'" 4illy)s father sent him. alon/ with *rothers. ?ohn an! 0le;an!er. to *e e!-cate! in the eastern #nite! States in 19=8' ,e first atten!e! Fairfiel! an! <il*raham. Massach-setts. an! then com$lete! his me!ical st-!ies at %eneva. +ew 5or6 an! <illow*y. Phio' 0t 19 he was too yo-n/ to receive his !i$loma *-t was /rante! a license to $ractice me!icine' 2n May of 187=. he ret-rne! to the west coast via the ann-al ,-!son)s 4ay e;$ress that came thro-/h Manito*a from Montreal' ,e s-*seM-ently wor6e! as o$erator of a frontier tra!in/ $ost. a /overnment a/ent in treaty ne/otiations with several +orthwest 2n!ian tri*es an! then as a comman!in/ officer of the <arm S$rin/s 2n!ian Sco-ts !-rin/ the 0merican 0rmy)s cam$ai/ns a/ainst the @ai-tes in 188> an! 1887' ,e was then assi/ne! as a /overnment $hysician attache! to 2n!ian 0/encies (<arm S$rin/s. Kalamath an! finally the #matilla &eservation)' ,e !ie! on the #matilla &eserve of a heart attac6 on ?an-ary 2. 189=' Dr' McKay was a :shin-6 (1hinoo6 ?ar/on) s$ea6er an! at the 1ommemoration of the First 1ol-m*ia &iver 1entennial at 0storia on May 1A an! 11. 1892. he a!!resse! the cele*rants in the :shis-6 lan/-a/e on May 11th' 0 $ortion of the a!!ress is /iven *elowI +esica olman tilicoms. elea$ chaco M-a$a ocoEaF6 E2Flihi P-r ol!er $eo$le first arrive! at this $lace' :halsca wawa M-a$a nesica' @oos chaco yaM-a 0storia' :hey)ve as6e! -s to come here to 0storia' L-a$a ococ6 +ica ilihi' :o that which is my own $lace' @oEoFs nesica mEoFmoo6 yoE Ftilth M-a$a nesica tomtom' So that we may ma6e merry (for we ma6e /la! o-r heart)' 5aM-a conE F we tilcom thlasca lowlow' ,ere all the $eo$le are /athere!' :hlasa chaco yaM-a' L-a$a 1hinoo6 thlasca' Mamoo6 s6E F6-m yoatolth''' ,ere at 1hinoo6 they)re havin/ a really fine time''' 0ncate 1AA tacomonoc cool eecht shi$ yacha chaco M-a$a ocoac choc6' 5aM-a M-a$a 1hinoo6 2lihi' on/ a/o. 1AA years Ea/oF. a certain shi$ came to this river' ,ere at 1hinoo6 co-ntry' 5acha mash yacha 1hecimin M-a$a EyachaF meatwhiot' L-a$a ococ6 nica ilihi' 2t !ro$$e! its “metal." over there it stoo!' 2n that which is my own $lace' PcocE F shi$ yacha nim 1ol-m*ia' :hat shi$)s name was EtheF 1ol-m*ia' @e alta M-aM-a ococ6 nesica hi/has choEoF6 yacha escem' Pcoc6 nim 1ol-m*ia'

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0n! now that)s the way this river of o-rs /ot EitF. the name “1ol-m*ia'" 92 Mc0ay, /illiam. (185=-19=2) <illiam was *orn at Fort Cllice on Se$tem*er 17. 185=. the son of <illiam McKay Sr' an! Mary 1oo6' 0t an early a/e he was em$loye! with the ,41. then frei/hte! *etween fort @itt an %reen a6e' ,e went *ac6 to ,41 in 1877 an! wor6e! for them for the ne;t =A years' ,e was involve! in the :reaty 7 ne/otiations at Fort L-)0$$elle an! the :reaty > ne/otiations at Fort 1arlton 1n 187>' 2n 1879 he was a$$ointe! as a 2 n! ie-tenant in the 4attlefor! i/ht 2nfantry 1om$any' D-rin/ the 1885 &esistance he enrolle! in the 4attlefor! ,ome %-ar! +o' 2 1om$any' ,e was a sco-t for the 1ana!ian tro-$s'9= Mc0ensie, Sam. (!' 1887) D-rin/ the 188As ran/e wars in Montana. a cattlemen)s vi/ilante /ro-$ 6nown as “St-art)s Stran/lers" (after rancher %ranville St-art) or the “?-!ith 4asin Ni/ilantes" han/e! this $o$-lar Metis fi!!ler' 0t the time. St-art was the $resi!ent of the Montana :erritorial 1o-ncil' ,e was constantly acc-sin/ the 2n!ians an! Metis of stealin/ cattle an! horses' 2sa*elle arocM-e relates the storyI Cli %-ar!e$ie tol! me that Sam McKensie a half-*ree! in 1887 was /oin/ to a !ance. he ha! his violin with him as he was e;$ecte! to f-rnish the m-sic' ,e was 6e$t $layin/ all ni/ht' :he so-calle! vi/ilantes were $retty well !r-n6''' Ean!F they too6 him in the mornin/ an! h-n/ him to a cotton woo! tree *y the roa!way <est of the D-S (D,S) &anch' (:his inci!ent ha$$ene! in the vicinity of Fort Mc/innis. a few miles from ewistown' E1ite! in Foster $' =79F') 2t is estimate! that this /ro-$ h-n/ as many as >A men witho-t trial' (1ontri*-te! *y Marty Foster') Mc0en(ie, Ale&ander Blac%. (1828-187=) 0le;an!er was a @rotestant ,alf-4ree! who was a !ele/ate re$resentin/ St' 1lements at the 187A 1onvention of Forty' ,e was *orn at Fort <illiam. the son of 1a$tain &o!eric6 McKenOie (Scott) an! 0n/GliM-e Mallette (Metis)' i6e his father he was em$loye! in the f-r tra!e' ,e marrie! 1hristina 4ell. the !a-/hter of ?ohn 4ell an! 0nn Dease' ,e !ie! on Decem*er >. 187= at 75 years of a/e at St' 1lements' Mc0ee, :homas “/ah#emesha$a” M.7. (177A-1817) :homas was *orn on the Scioto &iver. Phio an! !ie! on Pcto*er 2A. 1817 at Rle !es 1asca!es. ower 1ana!a' ,e was the MetisJShawneeJ1hao-anon son of 1ol' 0le;an!er :ranslation *y ,enry ^en6. an anthro$olo/ist who has *een st-!yin/ the lan/-a/e for over 2A years' ,e wrote his !octoral thesis on how 1hinoo6 ?ar/on was -se! at the %ran! &on!e &eserve area !-rin/ the 185> to 19A7 $erio!' 9= Do-/las <' i/ht. Foot'rints in the 4ust( +orth 4attle-for!I :-rner-<arwic6 @-*lications 2nc'. 1987I 97'
92

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McKee (Metis) an! “Sewatha" D Sarah P$essa (Shawnee) who were a-nt an! -ncle to :ec-mseh' :homas marrie! :heresG 0s6in (Metis). the !a-/hter of ?ohn 0s6in' McKee lea! a lar/e $arty of <arriors in the ca$t-re of Detroit in 0-/-st of 1812' 2n 1797 he lease! @elee 2slan! from the P3i*wa an! Pttawa for 999 years in 1788B fo-/ht at Fort &ecovery in 1797B atten!e! a co-ncil with Mohaw6 1hief :haye!ane/ea an! the P!awa an! P3i*wa +ations at Detroit in 0-/-st 179>B later that year his father was a$$ointe! s-$erinten!ent of 2n!ian 0ffairs of the +orth <est !istrict' :homas was ma!e a ca$tain of the >Ath &e/iment of Foot of the 4ritish 0rmy in Detroit on Fe*r-ary 2A. 179>' ,e was electe! to the #$$er 1ana!a ho-se of assem*ly in 1797 re$resentin/ KentB in 18AA he was reelecte! to re$resent Csse;' ,e *ecame a ma3or in 18A7B serve! as a ca$tain in the 2n!ian De$artment an! in the <ar of 1812 he hel! the ran6 of ma3or' D-rin/ the <ar of 1812 he retaine! this ran6. *ein/ attache! to the 2n! Csse; De$artment' ,e was con/rat-late! *y the @rince &e/ent for the restraine! *ehavio-r of the 2n!ians !-rin/ the ca$t-re of Detroit from the 0mericans in 0-/-st 1812 an! was mentione! in !is$atches for his service in other actions early in the war. altho-/h his M-alities as a fiel! comman!er were M-estione!' 2n March 1817 he was acc-se! of “/rave miscon!-ct" amon/ the 2n!ians on the *each at 4-rlin/ton 4ay' ,e ha! allowe! his followers alcohol so that they *ecame “o-tra/eo-s"B he himself /ot “shamef-lly !r-n6" an! ver*ally a*-se! them' Ste$s were ta6en to remove him from the theatre of war *eca-se of his alcoholism' 2n the a-t-mn. while on his way to Montreal. he !ie!' &eferenceI ?ohn 1lar6e. “:homas McKee." the 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy Online. htt$IJJwww'*io/ra$hi'caJAA9AA7-119'A1-e'$h$\ai!]n*re2572 Mc0en(ie, Ale&ander Blac%' (1828-187=) 0le;an!er was a @rotestant ,alf-4ree! who was a !ele/ate re$resentin/ St' 1lements at the 187A 1onvention of Forty' ,e was *orn at Fort <illiam. on 0-/-st =A. 1828 the son of 1a$tain &o!eric6 McKenOie (*' 1772. Scottish) an! 0n/GliM-e Mallette (Metis)' Shortly after 0le; was *orn. the family move! to 2le a la 1rosse' &o!eric6 was a 1hief :ra!er with the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any' i6e his father 0le;an!er was em$loye! in the f-r tra!e' ,e marrie! 1hristina 4ell. the !a-/hter of ?ohn 4ell an! 0nn Dease' 1hristina was *orn on +ovem*er 7. 1829 at Fort %oo! ,o$e' She too was a !escen!ant of famo-s e;$lorers an! early f-r tra!ers' She was the !a-/hter of 0nn Dease an! ?ohn 4ell (179>-18>8) from Scotlan!. a famo-s 0rctic e;$lorer' ,er maternal /ran!father was @eter <arren Dease (11554153<), also a 6amo!s Arctic

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e&,lorer. 2n 187>. 0le;. 18 years ol!. *e/an his career with the ,41 as an 0$$rentice 1ler6 in the McKenOie &iver District' From 185> to 1859 0le; was at "ort #iard wor6in/ -n!er ?ohn 4ell' 2t was !-rin/ this $ostin/ that 0le; *e/an a life-lon/ relationshi$ with the (*oss)s !a-/hter). wi!ow 1hristina 4ell-@eers' 4etween 18>A an! 18>7 0le; was $oste! to Fort &esol-tion alon/ the so-th si!e of %reat Slave a6e not far from the mo-th of the 0tha*asca &iver' 2t was here that 1hristina /ave *irth to their first two chil!ren to/ether. daughters -hristina (0-/ =. 18>A) and Alice (May 12. 18>2' 2n 18>7. 0le; was move! to %reen a6e in the Cn/lish &iver District where he wo-l! remain -ntil his retirement fo-r years later' :he rest of 0le;)s chil!ren were *orn hereB @eter awrence (aro-n! 18>7). 0nna*ella 1atherine (circa 18>>) an! 0le; %eor/e (circa 18>7)' 0le;an!er McKenOie !ie! on Decem*er >. 187= at 75 years of a/e at St' 1lements' Mc0en(ie, Andre$' (!' 18A9) 0n!rew was the ,alf-4ree! son of Sir 0le;an!er Mac6enOie' 0n!rew was em$loye! as a cler6 with the +orth <est 1om$any in the 0tha*asca !istrict in the early 18AAs an! !ie! at Fort Nermilion on March 1st. 18A9' Mc0en(ie, Ben8amin ( everend). (18=7-1928) 4en3amin McKenOie was *orn on Decem*er 15. 18=7 at Fort Nanco-ver. <ashin/ton. #'S'0' ,is father was 4en3amin McKenOie. 1hief 0cco-ntant for the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any. an! his mother was 1atherine 1am$*ell. the !a-/hter of 1olin 1am$*ell an! CliOa*eth Mc%illivray' ,is $aternal /ran!$arents were &o!eric6 McKenOie an! 0n/eliM-e Mallotte' &o!eric6 was *orn at 2nverassynt. Scotlan!. an! 0n/eliM-e was an P3i*wa 2n!ian from the +i$i/on !istrict of Pntario' 4en3amin was sent to St' ?ohn)s 0ca!emy in <inni$e/ at the a/e of seven. where he event-ally *ecame a teacher' ,e was livin/ an! teachin/ at @orta/e la @rairie at the time of his marria/e to ,arriet Fi!ler (*orn 18=7) in 1859' 4en3amin an! ,arriet wo-l! /o on to have twelve chil!ren to/ether' :he McKenOies move! to the Settlement of Nictoria Mission (east of $resent !ay C!monton) in 18>7' 4en3amin was em$loye! to teach at the <esleyan Metho!ist School -n!er the &everan! %eor/e McDo-/all' :his school was one of the first $rotestant schools west of Manito*a' :he family live! there for nine years. -ntil 4en3amin was as6e! to move *ac6 to Manito*a to st-!y for the Ministry at St' ?ohn)s 1olle/e' 4y this time. 4en3amin was an accom$lishe! scholar an! co-l! teach ,e*rew. %ree6. atin. an! French' :he family live! in &e! &iver -ntil 187>. when they move! to 1-m*erlan! ,o-se some time after 4en3amin)s or!ination as an 0n/lican Minister' :he family wor6e! as missionaries to the 2n!ians' 0fter five years. they were transferre! to minister to the 2n!ians at St' @eter)s &eserve 3-st north of $resent !ay <inni$e/' 2n 189A. 4en3amin retire! to the @arish of St' 1lement)s' :he family live! there for fifteen years' D-rin/ that time. 4en3amin was in char/e of the Mission at a6e Manito*a. St' 0n!rew)s @arish. an! the 4lac6 &iver Mission' ,e then move! to &o*inson S$-r in 19A5. an! to <hytewol! in 1927'

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4en3amin ha! s$ent over fifty years in the 0n/lican Ministry' ,e !ie! at a/e ninetyone on May 1A. 1928. an! was *-rie! at St' 1lement)s 0n/lican 1h-rch' ,arriet $re!ecease! 4en3amin on Se$tem*er 21. 1927' (1ontri*-te! *y ,eather ,allett') Mc0en(ie, Bill. (*' 19A1) “Steam*oat 4ill" was a Metis *orn at 1-m*erlan! ,o-se. Sas6atchewan' ,e comes from a family of river*oat men' ,is father Do-/al McKenOie was thir! mate on the Saskatchewan an! his /reat -ncle %eor!ie 1o; wor6e! on the ,41 Northcote' 4ill !escri*es his linea/e as 2n!ian. French an! Scottish' For many years 4ill wor6e! on the Ni'awin. one of the sternwheelers on the Sas6atchewan &iver which travele! *etween :he @as. 1-m*erlan! ,o-se an! St-r/eon an!in/' ,e *e/an wor6in/ on the Ni'awin at a/e fo-rteen -ntil her last r-n in 0-/-st 1927' <hen the Ni'awin cease! o$eration in 1927. he wor6e! on the 6o+in' .eferenceI Deanna 1hristensen. “Steam*oat 4ill of 1-m*erlan! ,o-se'" 6he 3ea/er. P-tfit =A5 (=). 1977I 28-=1' Mc0en(ie, ?ector Aeneas. ,ector was the son of ,41 cler6 1harles McKenOie an! Mary McKay. a MGtisse' ,ector entere! the 1om$any)s service in 18=9 an! rose to a$$rentice $ostmaster *efore leavin/' ,e ret-rne! to ,41 in 1877 as a $ostmaster' 2n 185A. Dr' ?ohn &ae hire! him to *e secon! in comman! for the 0rctic C;$e!ition' McKenOie was s-*seM-ently fire! for what &ae !escri*e! as “carelessness an! inattention'" McKenOie was then em$loye! at @eels &iver an! a @ierre ,o-se as $ostmaster' i6e many Metis em$loyees he was never a*le to rise a*ove this ran6 in the com$any' Mc0en(ie, 0enneth. (*' 1871) Kenneth McKenOie was the son of ?ohn McKenOie an! ?ose$hte Mar/aret (Sa-ltea-;)' ,e marrie! Clise Sayer. the !a-/hter of C!o-ar! Sayer an! Ma!eleine Delorme. on Se$tem*er 7. 18>5 at SFW' :heir chil!ren wereI %eor/e *orn 18>9 at SFW. CliOa*eth *orn 187A. ClOear *orn 1871 at Fort L-)0$$elle an! ?ose$h *orn 187= at <oo! Mo-ntain' Ken si/ne! the Metis @etition of 0-/-st 29. 1882 that was sent to C!/ar Dew!ney. the ie-tenant %overnor of the +orth-<est :erritories statin/ that the Pntario an! L-)0$$elle an! com$any was !is$ossessin/ the Metis of their lan!s *eca-se the s-rveys that ha! *een !one showe! some of them to *e on railway lan!' Mc0en(ie, M!rray (1927-2AA7) M-rray McKenOie is an accom$lishe! $hoto/ra$her. havin/ his art !is$laye! an! $-*lishe! in local. national an! international ven-es' &emar6a*ly. he has ta6en more than 5AAA $hoto/ra$hs thro-/ho-t his career' M-rray)s love of $hoto/ra$hy *e/an at the a/e of seventeen' ,e was !ia/nose! with t-*erc-losis an! was a!mitte! to a sanatori-m' D-rin/ this time. his mother /ave him his first camera an! he $asse! the lon/ ho-rs in the hos$ital *y ta6in/ $ict-res of the other $atients for twenty-five cents a $ict-re' :his s$ar6e! a !esire in M-rray to contin-e ta6in/ $ict-res of +ative $eo$le. ca$t-rin/ their s$irit. talents an! nat-ral !i/nity'

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M-rray too6 a two-year corres$on!ence co-rse from the +ew 5or6 School of @hoto/ra$hy. however he was $rimarily self-ta-/ht' ,e wor6e! as a re/-lar freelance $hoto/ra$her for the 5inni'e! Free Press an! has more $hoto/ra$hs $-*lishe! in that news$a$er than any other $hoto/ra$her' ,e was also the first news $hoto/ra$her to ta6e $ict-res more than 1.1AA 6ilometres north of <inni$e/' M-rray cre!its his $hiloso$hy of $hoto/ra$hy to his /ran!mother an! her tra!itional teachin/s' <hen ta6in/ $hoto/ra$hs of +ative $eo$le. he cele*rates their $ro-! an! honest manner an! $ortrays the $ositive si!e of +ative c-lt-re' M-rray)s wor6 has *een !is$laye! in $resti/io-s /alleries in :hom$son. :he @as. +orth 4ay. <hitehorse. ,amilton. on!on. :oronto an! +ew 5or6' 0n invitation to !is$lay his art to an international a-!ience occ-rre! in 1997. when he was as6e! to e;hi*it his $hoto/ra$hs in M-nster)s <est$halian M-se-m in %ermany' M-rray was the first +ative $hoto/ra$her to hol! a C-ro$ean e;hi*ition' M-rray)s wor6 has *een $-*lishe! in the 6oronto Star. Photo *ife. 7S Camera an! 6ime Ma!a2ine' Pne of his most famo-s $hoto/ra$hs was also selecte! as a national $oster *y the 1ana!ian 1ancer Society. an! as a selection in the For! Motor 1om$any)s “Faces of 1ana!a C;hi*ition'" M-rray has wor6e! in a variety of other fiel!s as well. incl-!in/ tra$$in/. commercial fishin/ at &ein!eer a6e. $-l$ woo!c-ttin/. mill sol-tion o$eratin/. careta6er at a cam$ site. an! minin/' ,e was also an instr-mental force in $ro!-cin/ the first 1ree lan/-a/e ra!io $ro/ram ever offere! in +orthern Manito*a. an! was the voice *ehin! many ra!io *roa!casts' 2t sho-l! also *e note! that M-rray $laye! a very im$ortant $art in the !evelo$ment of the 0*ori/inal Frien!shi$ 1entres in :he @as an! :hom$son. Manito*a' @hoto/ra$hy remaine! M-rray)s tr-e $assion however. an! one of his $ro-!est achievements incl-!e! teachin/ st-!ents thro-/ho-t the +orth a*o-t the art of $hoto/ra$hy an! ins$irin/ them to ca$t-re their s-rro-n!in/s' M-rray McKenOie is of Scots-Metis an! 1ree !escent' ,e was *orn on March 1>. 1927 in 1-m*erlan! ,o-se. Sas6atchewan' ,e move! to Sherri!on. Manito*a where he was raise! from the a/e of three. an! later move! to :he @as. Manito*a to live with his /ran!mother at the a/e of seven' M-rray is father to seven chil!ren. an! c-rrently lives with his wife in :hom$son. Manito*a' (1ontri*-te! *y 0man!a &oOy6') Mc0en(ie, 9ancy (Mc:avishE ;e Blanc). (179A- 1851) +ancy. also 6nown *y the 2n!ian name Matoos6ie. was the !a-/hter of &o!eric6 McKenOie. a +<1 f-r tra!er. an! an -ni!entifie! 2n!ian woman' +ancy McKenOie was one of three chil!ren fathere! *y &o!eric6 McKenOie !-rin/ his service in the 0tha*asca co-ntry *etween 1789 an! 18A1' 0s was c-stomary amon/ +or)<esters. McKenOie !i! not ta6e his two !a-/hters with him when he retire! to ower 1ana!a in 18A1. *-t entr-ste! them to the /-ar!ianshi$ of fellow +or)<ester ?ohn St-art' +ancy was with St-art when he went to +ew 1ale!onia (4'1') to ta6e char/e of the !e$artment for the +orth <est 1om$any in 18A9' 2n 181= +ancy was marrie! to %eor/e Mc:avish. *y the c-stom of the co-ntry' 0fter the -nion of the +<1 an! the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any in 1821. Mc:avish was a$$ointe! chief factor in char/e of 5or6 Factory' D-rin/ the 182As they ha! seven chil!ren. all of whom were !a-/hters' 4y the c-stoms of f-r-tra!e society. +ancy McKenOie was ac6nowle!/e! as Mc:avish)s le/itimate wife' 2n 18=A. however. while on f-rlo-/h in %reat 4ritain.

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Mc:avish. with the enco-ra/ement of ,41 /overnor %eor/e Sim$son. a*r-$tly marrie! a Scottish woman' 0fter travellin/ *ac6 to +orth 0merica in com$any with Sim$son Mc:avish !i! not ret-rn to 5or6 Factory *-t went !irectly with his new wife to his $ost at Moose Factory. leavin/ his collea/-es to *rea6 the news to +ancy' “:he first *low was !rea!f-l to witness." re$orte! ,41 cler6 ?ames ,ar/rave". *-t “the $oor /irl is fast acM-irin/ resi/nation'" +ancy an! several of her chil!ren were ta6en in tem$orarily at the ,41 $ost Fort 0le;an!er *y ?ohn St-art. who. with her -ncle 1hief Factor Donal! McKenOie. who !eman!e! s-*stantial com$ensation for +ancy' %overnor Sim$son. however. ha! !eci!e! that remarria/e was the *est means of $rovi!in/ for cast-off co-ntry wives an! he ha! *een !ele/ate! to settle Mc:avish)s affairs' Des$ite +ancy)s e;$resse! wish that she not *e force! to marry a/ain. the !owry of [2AA offere! *y Mc:avish soon ena*le! Sim$son to arran/e for her marria/e to a res$ecta*le com$any em$loyee. @ierre e 4lanc. then in char/e of *-il!in/ ower Fort %arry' +ancy McKenOie was *a$tiOe! an! the co-$le were marrie! in the &oman 1atholic ch-rch at the &e! &iver settlement on Fe*r-ary 7. 18=1' +ancy McKenOie)s sit-ation is an e;am$le of how the con!-ct of ,41 officers s-ch as Mc:avish an! Sim$son serio-sly -n!ermine! the le/itimacy of marria/e à la faKon u 'ays. re!-cin/ the stat-s of co-ntry wife to that of mistress' +ancy McKenOie)s secon! marria/e *ro-/ht her f-rther sorrow' :hree chil!ren were *orn of this -nion. *-t e 4lanc *ecame increasin/ly resentf-l of his role as ste$father to his wife)s yo-n/er chil!ren *y Mc:avish' 2n 18=8 he was $oste! to the 1ol-m*ia !istrict on the @acific northwest coast' :he family crosse! the &oc6ies with a $arty that incl-!e! 1atholic $riests Mo!este Demers an! Fran9ois-+or*ert 4lanchet' +ancy McKenOie)s name freM-ently i!entifies her as witness or /o!mother for the n-mero-s *a$tisms they $erforme! on the tri$' 2n Se$tem*er. !-rin/ the 3o-rney west. the e 4lancs) el!est !a-/hter !ie!' :hen on Pcto*er 22n! a serio-s acci!ent in the ra$i!s at the Dalles on the 1ol-m*ia &iver res-lte! in the !rownin/ of +ancy)s h-s*an! an! their two other chil!ren' +ancy an! her yo-n/est !a-/hter *y Mc:avish. %race. were /iven a home at Fort Nanco-ver. <ashin/ton' 2n 1872 %race marrie! 1harles Do!!. ca$tain of the steamshi$ 3ea/er. an! +ancy McKenOie live! with the Do!!s for the rest of her life' 0fter her !eath at Fort Nictoria in 1851. her small estate was !ivi!e! amon/ her three s-rvivin/ !a-/hters *y Mc:avish' .eference Sylvia Nan Kir6 “+ancy McKenOie'" 2n 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy. Nol' N222 (1851-18>A)' :orontoI #niversity of :oronto @ress. 1985' Mc0en(ie, oderic% )r. (!' 18=A) &o!eric6. 6nown as &o!eric6 McKenOie “0" in the f-r tra!e recor!s. was $ro*a*ly the ,alf-4ree! son of 1a$tain &o!eric6 McKenOie a +<1 em$loyee an! 1hief :ra!er' &o!eric6 ?r' entere! +<1 service an! was a cler6 at a6e +i$i/on' ,e was !ischar/e! in 1827. re-entere! in 1829. *-t !ie! in 18=A' Mc0en(ie, oderic% )r. &o!eric6. 6nown as &o!eric6 McKenOie “4" in the f-r tra!e recor!s. was the ,alf-

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4ree! son of &o!eric6 McKenOie Sr' an! his +ative wife 0n/GliM-e' &o!eric6 “4" entere! the service of the +<1 an! wor6e! for the ,41 after the 1821 amal/amation' ,e was !ischar/e! from service in 1875. *-t reentere! in 1877' ,e remaine! a cler6 -$ to 18>A' Mc;a!"hlin, Bernice /elsh. (1891-1985) 2n 1977. 4ernice <elsh Mc a-/hlin *ecame the first Metis woman in!-cte! into the Cow!irl -all of Fame' 4ernice was *orn in 1ana!a an! was raise! on a wor6in/ ranch' She an! her h-s*an! homestea!e! in +ew Me;ico' 2n 1911 4ernice won the 1ana!ian &o!eo 1ham$ion ,i/h ?-m$ contest. settin/ a new recor!' :he fact that she !i! this on a *orrowe! cow$ony is a tri*-te to her s6ills as a horsewoman' Mc;ellan, )oe. (*' 1975) Metis e!-cator an! storyteller. ?oe Mc ellan. is of +eO @ercT ancestry' ,e was *orn on Se$tem*er 27. 1975 at Monterey. 1alifornia. his family then move! to Ma!ras. Pre/on. near the <arm S$rin/s &eserve' ,is father was ori/inally from <estern Pre/on. the area aro-n! e %ran!. @en!elton an! the #matilla &eserve' :hro-/h s$en!in/ time with his /ran!$arents. ?oe acc-lt-rate! into the +eO @ercT way' 0fter his /ran!mother !ie! they move! to <yomin/ an! then to +orth Da6ota where his !a! was a $rofessor at +orth Da6ota State #niversity' ?oe too6 an Cn/lish an! Drama !e/ree at the same -niversity' 0 war resister. ?oe came to 1ana!a in 19>7 an! wor6e! teachin/ at Melita. Manito*a then for 1hil!ren)s ,ome in <inni$e/' ,e then went *ac6 to -niversity an! o*taine! his 4'C!' at the #niversity of Manito*a' 0fter /ra!-ation. he *e/an teachin/ in core area schools for <inni$e/ Z1 School !ivision' 2n 1992. ?oe was awar!e! the ,ilroy Fellowshi$ 0war! *y the 1ana!ian :eacher)s Fe!eration for his e;cellence in teachin/' 4ecomin/ an a-thor was not ?oe)s i!ea' :he Manito*a De$artment of C!-cation a$$roache! him to wor6 with @emmican @-*lications on *oo6s a$$ro$riate for 0*ori/inal chil!ren' ?oe then em*ar6e! on a series of twelve +ana*osho *oo6s' ,is wife. Matrine :herria-lt Mc ellan (P3i*way-1ree). co-a-thors with ?oe' She was *orn in +orthern Pntario an! s$ent her early years on the tra$line with her maternal /ran!mother 1harlotte 1at6ins' Mc;eod, -harlie. (*' 19A=) 1harlie was the son of ,enry 1harles Mc eo! the ,-!son)s 4ay @ost Mana/er at 1ross a6e' :he Mc eo! ancestry in 1ross a6e /oes *ac6 to the 18AAs' 1harlie)s /ran!father. ,ector. was *orn in 1817' 0s a teena/er he left his native Scotlan! to see6 his fort-ne in &-$ert)s an!' ,e stowe! away in a ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any shi$ to /et to 5or6 Factory an! s$ent the rest of his life in the f-r tra!e' ,e was a steersman on the 5or6 *oats travellin/ the inlan! riversB he also went overlan! with Sir ?ohn &ichar!son)s e;$e!ition an! was on one of the e;$e!itions to loo6 for the lost e;$lorer. Sir ?ohn Fran6lin' 2n 1852. ,ector marrie! Mary 0nn Scott. a 1ree woman. (accor!in/ to the c-stom of the co-ntry'" :hey ha! seven chil!ren an! their !escen!ants can *e fo-n! thro-/ho-t the 1ross a6e. +orway ,o-se area' Mary 0nn !ie! in 18>7 an! ,ector remarrie! to a 1ree woman calle! S6wao6an or Mar/aret'

11=

2n 19=1. 1harlie marrie! Cthel 2s*ister' For co-ntless years they tra$$e!. s-rveye! an! canoe! in the 1ross a6e area' Cthel 6e$t her own tra$line at <al6er a6e. east of the 1ross a6e comm-nity' Cthel an! 1harlie ha! ei/ht chil!ren. five *oys an! three /irls' 1harlie notes that 191> was the first time s-rveyors came to the north' 2n the years after that he was hire! to ta6e them with his !o/ team to s-rvey the Pntario-Manito*a *o-n!ary line $ast Shamatawa' :he s-rvey $arty ha! thirty men with ten teams of !o/s' 1harlie also wor6e! as a canoe manB he co-l! carry an ei/hteen-foot canoe *y himself over the $orta/es' 2n the 195As he too6 en/ineers -$ the Sas6atchewan &iver at %ran! &a$i!s to so-n! the river an! $ic6 the s$ot for the constr-ction of the hy!ro !am' 2n the 19>As he !i! the same 3o* for the en/ineers on the +elson &iver. $ic6in/ the s$ot for the Kettle &a$i!s !am' .eference: KrotO. arry' Metis NoicesJMetis ife' <inni$e/I Frontier School Division +o' 78. 1995I 17-17' Mc;eod, 'thel' (*' 1911) See Cthel 2s*ister' Mc;eod , )enny (Meyer). (#. 12<5) 4y ?ennine Kra-chi an! awrence 4ar6well' ?enny is a Metis woman of P3i*wa ancestry who comes from the farmin/ an! tra$$in/ area of -n!ar. Manito*a' ,er $arents live! close to the lan! an! she learne! “to wal6 in a /oo! way" from her father 0le;an!er Mc eo! who was a tra!itional healer' ,er /ran!$arents. @ierre Mc eo! (*' 1859) an! ?ane Mon6man (*' 1857) were ori/inal resi!ents of the Metis comm-nity of Pa6 @oint. Manito*a' :heir names a$$ear on the 187As $-*lic notice *roa!si!e listin/ the “chil!ren of ,alf 4ree! hea!s of families" a!mitte! for scri$ !istri*-tion in the @arish of St' a-rent' ?enny an! her late h-s*an! “&e!" Meyer. an! her !a-/hter ?ennine Kra-chi have *een !rivin/ forces in the $reservation. $romotion an! teachin/ of the 0*ori/inal Decorative 0rts in /eneral an! Metis *ea!wor6in/ an! clothin/ !esi/n in $artic-lar' :he $resentation *ea!e! Metis coats that ?enny an! ?ennine ma6e are hi/hly so-/ht
Keith %o-let. ?enny Meyer. Sherry Farrell &acette. ?ennine Kra-chi. 0lison 4rown. an! Kevin 4rownlee. at the #niversity of 0*er!een. Marischal M-se-m. 0$ril. 2AA7' @hoto/ra$h *y +eil 1-rtis'

after an! these have *een $resente! to @rime

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Minister @a-l Martin (at the Kelowna 0ccor! meetin/). M+0 @resi!ent 0-!rey @oitras. MMF)s Davi! 1hartran! an! to 1ana!ian Senator St' %ermain'

?enny has s$ent more than two !eca!es assistin/ the Manito*a M-se-m in these c-lt-ral areas as a vol-nteer' :he *ea!e! moosehi!e 3ac6et she ma!e for her late h-s*an! is on !is$lay at the Manito*a M-se-m an! a $hoto/ra$h of this 3ac6et is feat-re! on $a/e 215 in Metis *e!acy <olume : (@emmican @-*lications an! %a*riel D-mont 2nstit-te. 2AA1)' She was commissione! *y the Manito*a M-se-m to man-fact-re tra!itional 0*ori/inal clothin/ for the 4oreal Forrest %allery an! she contri*-te! many of her family)s ho-sehol! treas-res for the Metis Kitchen !is$lay'97 She has $revio-sly *een honore! *y $resentation of the 9ol en 8a!le 1war *y the 2n!i/eno-s <omen)s 1ollective an! the D5C1 5omen of 4istinction 1war (4-siness Mana/ement) in 1988' She has wor6e! with the 4ran!on School !ivision to esta*lish hi/h school cre!it co-rses on 0*ori/inal c-lt-res an! serve! on the *oar!s of the 4ran!on 5<101omm-nity <omen)s Shelter an! the Downtown 4-siness 2m$rovement 1entre' She wor6e! as a vol-nteer 1o-rt 1omm-nicator with the 2n!ian an! Metis Frien!shi$ 1entre' ,er *-siness in 4ran!on. the 4ran!on ,an!icraft Sho$ (19>9-1982) was instr-mental in $rovi!in/ wor6 e;$erience o$$ort-nities for 0*ori/inal st-!ents' 2n <inni$e/ she has *een a stron/ s-$$orter of the Metis &eso-rce 1entre' ?enny has *een a co-nselor at *oth the Manito*a ,ome for %irls an! Manito*a ,ome for 4oys' From 1982-1997 she was the @ro!-ction Mana/er for Fleece ine 2n!-stries in 4ran!on an! ha! m-ch to !o with this firm)s s-ccess as an 0*ori/inal-*ase! *-siness' Pn ?-ne 1>. 2A11 La Ni Lanichihk $resente! a Kee$in/ the Fires 4-rnin/ 0war! to ?enny' :his awar! hono-rs Okii>i a :kwe or “4i/ ,earte! <omen'" 4i/ ,earte! <omen e;em$lify the seven sacre! laws of honesty. co-ra/e. res$ect. h-mility. sharin/. carin/ an! love *y sharin/ their 6nowle!/e. talents an! e;$erience to hel$ 6ee$ their families an! comm-nities stron/' Mc;eod, Sarah (Ballenden), (1818-185=) Sarah Mc eo! was *orn in Decem*er 1818 in &-$ert)s an!' She was the !a-/hter of +<1 f-r tra!er 0le;an!er &o!eric6 Mc eo! an! a Metis woman' Sarah marrie! ?ohn 4allen!enB on Decem*er 1A. 18=>' Sarah Mc eo! was one of ei/ht chil!ren' She was raise! at $osts in the Mac6enOie &iver an! 1ol-m*ia !istricts. *-t was sent to the &e! &iver Settlement for her e!-cation in the 18=As' 1hief Factor ?ohn St-art acte! as her /-ar!ian an! /ave his consent to her marria/e. at the a/e of 18. to ,41 cler6 ?ohn 4allen!en' :he *ri!e receive! a !owry of [=5A from her father' :he we!!in/ was officiate! *y the &everen! <illiam 1oc6ran. an! was a social hi/hli/ht at &e! &iver in 18=>' :he family move! to Sa-lt Ste Marie in 187A. when ?ohn 4allen!en was transferre!'
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0n article a*o-t Meyer an! her wor6 with :he Manito*a M-se-m can *e fo-n! in First Pers'ecti/e at www'first$ers$ective'caJ$rint]story'$h$\$athe2AA>A727meyer'

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<hile at Sa-lt St' Marie they ha! fo-r chil!ren. a !a-/hter who !ie! in infancy an! three *oys' 2n 1878 Sarah 4allen!en)s h-s*an!)s was transfere! *ac6 to &e! &iver as chief factor. however. he s-ffere! a stro6e on the voya/e west' 2n 185A. Sarah 4allen!en fo-n! herself at the centre of a scan!al which ha! serio-s racial an! social re$erc-ssions' <hat a$$ears to have *een an in!iscreet flirtation on the $art of Mrs 4allen!en with 1a$tain 1hristo$her Na-/han Foss. an officer with the $ensioners from the &oyal ,os$ital. 1helsea ( on!on). *ecame f-el for /ossi$' 4y mi! 1879 r-mo-rs were circ-latin/ that the relationshi$ *etween Sarah an! Foss was s-ch that her h-s*an! wo-l! have /ro-n!s for !ivorce' 0nne 1lo-ston circ-late! /ossi$ to !iscre!it Sarah an! !eman!e! that the /overnor of 0ssini*oia. Ma3or <illiam 4letterman 1al!well. cens-re her immoral con!-ct' <hen ?ohn 4allen!en left the settlement *riefly in ?-ne of 185A to atten! the ann-al meetin/ of the 1o-ncil of the +orthern De$artment. Mrs 4allen!en was s-*3ecte! to a concerte! effort to e;cl-!e her from res$ecta*le society. le! *y 1al!well. the 0n!ersons. the 1oc6rans. as well as 1hief :ra!er ?ohn 4lac6 an! his wife' Sarah 4allen!en then so-/ht the ai! of the recor!er. 0!am :hom. an!. when @elly an! 4lac6 $ersiste! in $-*lic acc-sations. 1a$tain Foss a$$eale! to the co-rts “to clear the re$-tation of a a!y'" ,e *ro-/ht a s-it for !efamatory cons$iracy a/ainst the @ellys an! ,41 mess stewar! ?ohn Davi!son an! his Cn/lish wife. who ha! *een at the ori/in of m-ch of the /ossi$' :he three-!ay trial. which *e/an in ?-ly of 185A. *ro-/ht into the o$en the racial tensions that ha! *een /rowin/ in the colony)s social Glite *etween incomin/ whites an! the acc-lt-rate! mi;e!-*loo! comm-nity' 2n the wor!s of 1hief :ra!er &o*ert 1lo-ston. 0nne)s *rother. it seeme! “a strife of *loo!'" +-mero-s witnesses were calle!. *-t no tr-th co-l! *e !iscovere! in the acc-sations of an a!-ltero-s relationshi$ *etween Mrs 4allen!en an! 1a$tain Foss' :he 3-ry !eci!e! in Foss)s favo-r an! the !efen!ants were assesse! heavy !ama/es' ,er health !eteriorate! so *a!ly after the *irth of her ei/hth chil! in 1851 that she was -na*le to accom$any her h-s*an! to his new $ostin/ at Fort Nanco-ver (Nanco-ver. <ashin/ton)' 0fter a winter at &e! &iver Sarah so-/ht ref-/e in 1852 at +orway ,o-se with the family of 1hief Factor %eor/e 4arnston' :he followin/ s-mmer 4allen!en /ave instr-ctions to his ne$hew 0n!rew %raham 4allen!en 4annatyne to ta6e his family to C!in*-r/h where he was $rocee!in/ from the 1ol-m*ia on f-rlo-/h' :heir re-nion was *rief. for Sarah 4allen!en !ie! on Decem*er 2=. 185=' .eference Sylvia Nan Kir6. “Sarah Mc eo!'" 2n 4ictionary of Cana ian 3io!ra'hy. Nol' N222 (1851-18>A)' :orontoI #niversity of :oronto @ress. 1985' McM!rray, /illiam. (c' 182A - 1877) <illiam was the 1o-ntry-4orn son of ,41 1hief :ra!er :homas McM-rray' <illiam receive! his e!-cation at the &e! &iver 0ca!emy. then 3oine! the ,41 as an a$$rentice $ostmaster in 18=8. was $romote! to 1hief :ra!er in 185> an! to 1hief Factor in 18>>' Fort McM-rray. 0l*erta is name! after ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any 1hief Factor <illiam McM-rray' :he former +orth <est 1om$any $ost at the 3-nction of the

11>

0tha*asca an! 1learwater &ivers a*o-t 25A miles !ownstream from 0tha*asca an!in/. was re*-ilt *y the ,41)s ,enry “?ohn" Mo*erly in 187A an! name! after <illiam McM-rray' 2t f-nctione! as a f-r tra!in/ $ost an! trans$ortation centre connectin/ C!monton with the 0tha*asca co-ntry' <illiam was *orn a*o-t 182A in the +orth-<est. the Metis son of :homas McM-rray (*' 177>). a 1hief :ra!er of the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any an! his wife ?ane 1ar!inal (*' 178A)' <illiam receive! his e!-cation at the &e! &iver 0ca!emy' :he ,41 a$$rentice! him as @ostmaster aro-n! 18=7. an! in 18>> he was a$$ointe! 1hief Factor. s-*seM-ently *ecomin/ 1hief Factor for the northern !istrict' McM-rray !ie! s-!!enly at <inni$e/ on 7 March 1877'

<illiam was first marrie! to 0nnie 1hristie +ancy 4allen!en (*'18=7). the Metis !a-/hter of ?ohn 4allen!en95 an! Sarah Mc eo!' 0nnie !ie! in 18>2' 2n 18>5. at +orway ho-se. he then marrie! ,arriet 2n6ster (*' 187>). the Metis !a-/hter of ?ohn 2n6ster an! Mary Sinclair' ,arriet !ie! on Fe*r-ary 5. 1891 at owes Fort' :hey ha! one son. ?ohn Donal! McM-rray *orn on Pcto*er 17. 187A at Fort 1hi$ewyan' Scri$I McM-rray. ,arrietB for her livin/ son. ?ohn Donal! McM-rrayB *ornI 17 Pcto*er. 187A at Fort 1hi$ewyanB a!!ressI Kil!onanB fatherI <illiam McM-rrayB motherI ,arriet 2n6ster (MGtis an! !e$onent)B file ref' 775977B claim no' 1>1A'
95

Known as “Pr6ney ?ohnny" he was a 0 1hief Factor of the ,-!son 4ay 1om$any'

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Mc9ic%le, DFArcy. (19A7-1977) Metis writer an! anthro$olo/ist D)0rcy Mc+ic6le was *orn on a Flathea! reservation in western Montana in 19A7' ,e was the son of @hilomene @arentea- an! <illiam Mc+ic6le an 2rish farmer' ,is maternal /ran!$arents. ?-!ith an! 2si!ore @arentea-. ha! fle! 1ana!a for Montana after the Metis &esistance of 1885' @hilomene an! her three chil!ren were a!o$te! into the Flathea! :ri*e in 19A5 an! liste! on the tri*al rolls as *ein/ one-fo-rth 1ree' D)0rcy was e!-cate! at the 1atholic mission school at St' 2/nati-s. Montana an! the 1hemawa 2n!ian School in Pre/on' ,e then atten!e! Montana State #niversity an! then sol! his lan! allotment on the reserve in or!er to atten! P;for! #niversity' ,e sai!. however. that his first e!-cation came thro-/h Metis an! Salish ver*al arts an! this c-lt-ral fo-n!ation $ermeates his *oo6s' D)0rcy Mc+ic6le wrote three novelsI 6he Surroun (19=>)B .unner in the Sun: 1 Story of :n ian Mai2e (1957)B an! 5in from an 8nemy (1978)' 6he Surroun e is consi!ere! to *e the first novel of the +ative 0merican &esistance in literat-re' 6he Surroun e . reflects e;$lores the interrelationshi$s *etween 2n!ians an! whites. an! *etween f-ll-*loo!s an! mi;e!-*loo!s. an! -ltimately self-!iscovery an! self-acce$tance' D)0rcy Mc+ic6le *ecame a %-//enheim Fellow in 19>=. the first Metis to receive this hono-r' From 19>> to 1971 Mc+ic6le wor6e! at the #niversity of Sas6atchewan. &e/ina cam$-s. where he esta*lishe! a small anthro$olo/y !e$artment' ater. D)0rcy wor6e! for the 1ommission on 2n!ian 0ffairs an! !irecte! the +ew*erry i*rary)s 1enter for the ,istory of the 0merican 2n!ian' :he 1enter was rename! in his hono-r in 198= as is the D)0rcy Mc+ic6le 1enter an! the D)0rcy Mc+ic6le i*rary at the Salish Kootenai 1olle/e on the Flathea! reservation in Montana' Mc7herson, osemarie. See &osemarie avallee' Mc:avish, ;orraine (=reeman). (1957-2AA5) 0 Metis c-lt-re conservationist. orraine was *orn ?an-ary 2. 1957 in Minne!osa. Manito*a. the !a-/hter of Delmer Kenneth Mc:avish an! &ita Marie a&ose' orraine. alon/ with :heresa 4relan!. Doreen 4relan! an! Shirley Mein;ner. was a fo-n!in/ *oar! mem*er of the Metis &eso-rce 1entre (M&1). now calle! the Metis 1-lt-re an! ,erita/e &eso-rce 1entre. in <inni$e/ in 1995' She then serve! as e;ec-tive !irector -ntil illness force! her to ste$ !own from this $osition' :he M&1 esta*lishe! the first western Metis s$ecific we*site in 199>' 2t is one of the first Metis reso-rces that $eo$le -se in !oin/ 2nternet searches' M&1 starte! a Metis /enealo/ical service in 1997 an! o$ene! a store. Metis :ra!ers. in 1998' For many years orraine ma!e $resentations on Metis 1-lt-re to the schoolchil!ren of Manito*a an! other intereste! /ro-$s' She literally s$o6e to h-n!re!s of tho-san!s of school chil!ren over the years' :he e;tensive li*rary an! other materials that she collecte! ma!e the M&1 an essential sto$ for researchers from across 1ana!a an! the #nite! States' :he M&1 we*-site is the only reso-rce. which $rovi!es Michif lan/-a/e lessons an! $rovi!es streamin/ a-!io so that one can hear the lan/-a/e s$o6en' :he M&1 has also !evelo$e! a *roch-re Sur le Sentier es Métis. which /-i!es $eo$le to 2A of the most im$ortant Metis historical sites in Manito*a'

118

orraine cre!ite! her mother with instillin/ Metis $ri!e in all her chil!ren' ,er mother always sai! that orraine. *ein/ one of the li/hter com$le;ione! family mem*ers always wore who she was “on her sleeve'" orraine was $resente! with the “Pr!er of the Shawl" on +ovem*er 19. 2AA5' Many of the testimonials at this event cre!ite! orraine with /ivin/ in!ivi!-als $ri!e in their Metis herita/e thro-/h $ro3ects s-ch as “1laimin/ P-rselves. %enealo/ical @ro3ect'" Cveryone s$o6e of her -nass-min/ 6in!ness an! her $romotion of Metis m-sic. !ance. *ea!wor6 an! history' orraine)s recent c-lt-ral $ro3ects wereI $-*lication of *a *awn!: Michif Peekishkwewin M6he Cana ian Michif *an!ua!e 4ictionaryN. *y +orman Fle-ry (2AAA). $ro!-ction of vi!eo. 6he 4ances of the Metis: *i awns i Michif (<inni$e/I Metis &eso-rce 1entre. 2AA1) an! Michif Con/ersational *erssons for 3e!inners (<inni$e/I Metis &eso-rce 1entre. 2AA2). *y &ita Flaman!' Mec%moire, /illiam <illiam was liste! as a mem*er of 1a$tain 4a$tiste @rimea-)s com$any. one of the 19 !iOaines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' Meille!r, Marcel ;o!is' (*'19=A) Marcel was *orn in Fort Francis. Pntario on ?-ly 8. 19=A. the son of <il*ro! Meille-r an! ^Glia Dan!enea-' :he family then too6 a homestea! at Fisher 4ranch. Manito*a when Marcel was one year ol!' Marcel was *orn with a s6in con!ition calle! e$i!ermalytic hy$er6eritosis. which ca-ses a har!enin/ of the s6in' D-e to this he was -na*le to atten! shool for lon/ streatches of time' ,owever. he overcame this to *ecome one of Manito*a)s *est *est 6nown Metis fi!!lers' 2n 195> he *e/an to-rin/ with the &e! &iver Nalley 4oys from ra!io station 1K&1' 2n 19>1 he *e/an his assocition with 0ny Des3arlis $layin/ secon! violin' :his was a m-sical $artnershi$ an! frien!shi$ that was to last -ntil 0n!y)s !eath in 1975' 2n 19>1->2 they travelle! to Montreal to c-t recor!s with on!on &ecor!s. s-*seM-ently they *ecame the lea! /ro-$ for a :N show on 1hnnel 1A' 2n 19>5 they 3oine! the Don Messer Show o-t of ,alifa;' 2n 0-/-st of 1977 he was chosen to re$resent 1ana!a at the 2nternational M-sic Festival hel! in France' 0fter the !eath of 0n!y Des3arlis in 1975. Marcel ass-me! lea!ershi$ of his ensem*le' From 197> to 198A Marcel starre! in the televise! variety show *es echoes e la .i/iEre .ou!e. *roa!cast on the 141 French networ6' :o !ate he has c-t si; solo @s an! he $artici$ate! on =5 recor!s with 0n!y Des3arlis' ,e recently a-thore! his first *oo6 8choes of .e .i/er: 6he *ife an Music of Marcel Meilleur (e!ite! *y Davi! Dan!enea-. <inni$e/I @emmican @-*lications. 2AA7)' :his *oo6 contains a tri*-te to 0n!y Des3arlis an! has the sheet m-sic for >A of Marcel)s ori/inal m-sic com$ositions' Menard, Andrea. (*' 1971) 0n!rea is a Metis woman ori/inally from Flin Flon. *-t now lives in Sas6atoon. Sas6atchewan' She has *een a $rofessional actor an! sin/er for over a !eca!e' 0n!rea claims that when she first *e/an her actin/ career. her Metis herita/e o$ene! many !oors *eca-se at that time there were many emer/in/ 0*ori/inal $laywri/hts *-t very few 0*ori/inal actors' She recently wrote an! starre! in her first $lay. “:he Nelvet Devil." which $remiere! in the %lo*e :heatre)s 2AAA-2AA1 season' :his one-woman show a*o-t

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a Metis 3aOO sin/er from the 197As will *e *roa!cast on 141 ra!io an! to-r across 1ana!a' 0n!rea has also a$$eare! in Floy! Favel Starr)s “%overnor of the Dew." an! “ a!y of Silences." ?oe <elsh)s “Sacre! @laces." an! %re/ Daniel)s “Fo-r ,orses'" She was recently feat-re! on 141)s s$ecial of 6he 4ea 4o! Café Come y -our an! $erforme! for :he @rince of <ales !-rin/ his recent visit to 1ana!a' Mercredi, )ose,h. ?ose$h accom$anie! :achG from &e! &iver to Fort 1hi$ewyan in 1877 an! acte! as his alter assistant' ,e was then assi/ne! as $ostmaster at Fon! !- ac (0tha*asca)' ,e also went *y the name Mc1arthy. it may have *een chan/e! to Mercre!i *y the $riests' ?ose$h)s sons sometimes wor6e! for the ,41 *-t more often. they tra!e! on their own acco-nt' :heir !a-/hter 0nne entere! the %rey +-ns' Source Mc1arthy. Martha' From the 9reat .i/er to the 8n s of the 8arth ' C!montonI #niversity of 0l*erta @ress. 1995' Mercredi, ;o!is. (*' 1889) o-is Mercre!i was *orn in Fort Smith. +<:. the el!est son of ?ose$h Mercre!i an! 1hristine G$ine' ,e marrie! Marie @ow!er of Fort 1hi$ewyan in 1921' :hey ha! 18 chil!ren' 2n 1915. o-is *e/an his career as a f-r tra!er for am*s an! 0-*ar! of Montreal' ,e later wor6e! for the +orth <est :ra!in/ 1o' (:he 4ay) in Fort FitO/eral! for five years as their in!e$en!ent *-yer -ntil he 3oine! the +orthwest Mo-nte! @olice (+<M@) as a S$ecial 1onsta*le' ,is $rinci$le 3o* with the +<M@ was to $rotect tra$$ers in the *-sh' ,e left the $olice to $-rchase a tra$line in 1928 an! retire! from tra$$in/ 52 years later. at a/e 81' ,e was the last livin/ $erson to carry frei/ht *y scow (*ar/e) from Fort FitO/eral! to Fort Smith' Mercredi, Madeline (Bird). (*' 1899) 2n the *oo6. *i/in! Lin ness: 6he 4ream of My *ife: 6he Memoirs of a Métis 8l er ' (5ellow6nife. +orthwest :erritoriesI P-tcro$. 1991). Ma!eline 4ir!. nGe Mercre!i. a res$ecte! Metis Cl!er *orn at Fort 1hi$ewyan in 1899. tells the story of her life in this affectionate *io/ra$hy assem*le! with the hel$ of Sister 0/nes S-therlan!' Pne of nine chil!ren. Ma!eline was the !a-/hter of Metis $arents whose ancestors came ori/inally from Manito*a' Mrs' 4ir! relates the har!shi$s an! 3oys of her life an! has $artic-larly 6in! wor!s for the Sisters an! their assistance an! small 6in!nesses' She $artic-larly notes the har! life an! $overty which was the lot of the Sisters who were their teachers an! the role of the ch-rch in carin/ for MGtis or$hans' :he a-thors incl-!e many $hoto/ra$hs !e$ictin/ life in northern 0l*erta an! the +orthwest :erritories as well as a $eo$le an! $laces in!e;' Mercredi, Gvide. (*' 197>) Pvi!e was *orn on ?an-ary =A. 197>. at %ran! &a$i!s. Manito*a' Pvi!e is the son of o-isa :-rner an! %eor/e Mercre!i' o-isa :-rner)s *rother ?ohn :-rner is a former 1hief of %ran! &a$i!s' Pvi!e is a former national chief of the 0ssem*ly of First +ations'

12A

0 MichifJ1ree. Pvi!e Mercre!i live! o-tsi!e the reservation *eca-se his mother was stri$$e! of her 2n!ian stat-s when she marrie! a MGtis' 4efore re/ainin/ his :reaty Stat-s Pvi!e hel! mem*ershi$ in the Manito*a Metis Fe!eration an! as an electe! Metis $olitical lea!er serve! on the MMF 4oar! of Directors from 1979 to 1981'

0fter receivin/ a law !e/ree in 1977 from the #niversity of Manito*a. Mercre!i $ractice! criminal law' ,e was a$$ointe! a mem*er of the Manito*a ,-man &i/hts 1ommission. an! in 1989 he *ecame the 0ssem*ly of First +ationsS vice-chief for Manito*a' D-rin/ his first term as 1hief of 0F+. Mercre!i $laye! a ma3or role in the 1harlottetown 0ccor! constit-tional !isc-ssions' ,e was re-electe! as +ational 1hief in 1997. an! serve! -ntil 1997' 0s +ational 1hief. Mercre!i a!!resse! the #nite! +ations in *oth %eneva an! +ew 5or6' ,e also le! a 1ana!ian !ele/ation to the tro-*le! area of the Me;ican state of 1hia$as' Mercre!i *ecame a lea!in/ a!vocate for native $eo$lesS ri/hts' ,e was involve! with the 1ree of +orthern L-e*ec in their efforts to sto$ the %reat <hale hy!roelectric $ro3ect. which wo-l! have !amme! the %reat <hale &iver. in northwestern L-e*ec. an! !iverte! two smaller rivers into it' 2n ?-ne 199A he was one of the tacticians who hel$e! Manito*a le/islator Cli3ah ,ar$er !efeat the Meech a6e 0ccor! *eca-se it !i! not a!!ress the ri/hts of native $eo$le' Pn ?-ne 12. 1991. Mercre!i was electe! national chief of the 0ssem*ly of First +ations' <hile actin/ as a me!iator in confrontations *etween the /overnment an! 2n!ians at P6a in L-e*ec (199A) an! at %-stafsen a6e in 4ritish 1ol-m*ia (1995). he ar/-e! a/ainst the -se of violence' 2n 199=. he co-wrote. with ?-stice Mary Cllen :-r$el afon!. the *oo6 :n 6he .a'i s: Na/i!atin! the Future of First Nations' Pn Fri!ay ?-ne 12. 2AA9. Pvi!e Mercre!i receive! an honorary Doctor of etters !e/ree from 0tha*asca #niversity' Pvi!e Mercre!i. 1hief of the Misi$awisti6 1ree +ation in Manito*a. was installe! as the first chancellor of the #niversity 1olle/e of the +orth. in +ovem*er 2AA7' Mercredi, 7atrice, G.M.B' (*' 19A7) @atrice was *orn in Fort 1hi$ewyan. 0l*erta on 0-/-st 17. 19A7' ,e was the secon! Metis &oman 1atholic @riest to *e or!aine! in the Diocese of Mac6enOie. the ceremony too6 $lace in Fort 1hi$ewyan on 0-/-st 15. 19=7' Father @atrice was first co-sin to Ma!eline 4ir! (a*ove). his father was Nital Mercre!i an! his mother was Sarah McDonal!' Ma!eline 4ir! reco-nts that yo-n/ @atrice ha! the *est !o/ team in town an! he was very fon! of his !o/s' :h-s. he ma!e a h-/e sacrifice when he left his !o/s to /o away an! *ecome a $riest' ,e contin-o-sly wor6e! with his $eo$le either in 0l*erta or at Fort Smith -ntil his retirement in 1977' <hen he !ie! he was *-rie! at C!monton' .eference Pvervol!. ?oanne' (C!itor). Our Metis -erita!e: 1 Portrayal (5ellow6nifeI Metis 0ssociation of the +orthwest :erritories) 197>I 82'

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Mercredi, 7ierre. (18>2-1977) @ierre was *orn at Fort 1hi$ewyan where 1hief Factor of the 0tha*asca District. &o!eric6 McFarlane. *ecame his mentor' ,e atten!e! school at Fort @rovi!ence -ntil he was 17 after which he was sent to <inni$e/ for fo-r more years of e!-cation' M-ch of his *oyhoo! was s$ent in the com$any of the 1ree an! 1hi$ewyan 2n!ians' 2t was not s-r$riOin/ then that when he 3oine! the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any at a/e 18' ,e *ecame one of their most com$etent f-r *-yers. as most of the tra$$ers were his frien!s' ,e marrie! Marie 4ea-lie- the /reat /ran!!a-/hter of “Pl! Man 4ea-lie-'" 4etween 19A= an! 191=. @ierre was the mana/er of the ,41 store at Fort 1hi$ewyan' 2n 191=. after *riefly consi!erin/ retirement. he went on to serve as mana/er at Fort Smith. then Fort &ae an! then on to Fort &esol-tion' 2n 192A. on the ,41)s 25A 0nniversary at Fort &esol-tion. @ierre was $resente! with a /ol! me!al an! three /ol! *ars for his over =A years of service' 0 h-/e comm-nity *anM-et was also $-t on for the occasion' :he Mercre!i family always maintaine! a very close relationshi$ with the ch-rch missions an! in the $oor h-ntin/ seasons. @ierre wo-l! always $rovi!e eno-/h for not only his own family *-t also !onate! eno-/h to the missions so the chil!ren wo-l! not /o h-n/ry' .eference Pvervol!. ?oanne' (C!itor). Our Metis -erita!e: 1 Portrayal (5ellow6nifeI Metis 0ssociation of the +orthwest :erritories) 197>I 71' Mes%e%e4a4$ahsis (Medicine -hild). (*' 1852) See entry -n!er %a-!ry. %a*riel' Meyer, )enny (Mc;eod). (*' 19=8) 4y ?ennine Kra-chi an! awrence 4ar6well' ?enny is a Metis woman of P3i*wa ancestry who comes from the farmin/ an! tra$$in/ area of -n!ar. Manito*a' ,er $arents live! close to the lan! an! she learne! “to wal6 in a /oo! way" from her father 0le;an!er Mc eo! who was a tra!itional healer' ,er /ran!$arents. @ierre Mc eo! (*' 1859) an! ?ane Mon6man (*' 1857) were ori/inal resi!ents of the Metis comm-nity of Pa6 @oint. Manito*a' :heir names a$$ear on the 187As $-*lic notice *roa!si!e listin/ the “chil!ren of ,alf 4ree! hea!s of families" a!mitte! for scri$ !istri*-tion in the @arish of St' a-rent' ?enny an! her late h-s*an! “&e!" Meyer. an! her !a-/hter ?ennine Kra-chi have *een !rivin/ forces in the $reservation. $romotion an! teachin/ of the 0*ori/inal Decorative 0rts in /eneral an! Metis *ea!wor6in/ an! clothin/ !esi/n in $artic-lar' :he $resentation *ea!e! Metis coats that ?enny an! ?ennine ma6e are hi/hly so-/ht after an! these have *een $resente! to @rime Minister @a-l Martin (at the Kelowna 0ccor! meetin/). M+0 @resi!ent 0-!rey @oitras. MMF)s Davi! 1hartran! an! to 1ana!ian Senator St' %ermain'

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Keith %o-let. ?enny Meyer. Sherry Farrell &acette. ?ennine Kra-chi. 0lison 4rown. an! Kevin 4rownlee. at the #niversity of 0*er!een. Marischal M-se-m. 0$ril. 2AA7' @hoto/ra$h *y +eil 1-rtis'

?enny has s$ent more than two !eca!es assistin/ the Manito*a M-se-m in these c-lt-ral areas as a vol-nteer' :he *ea!e! moosehi!e 3ac6et she ma!e for her late h-s*an! is on !is$lay at the Manito*a M-se-m an! a $hoto/ra$h of this 3ac6et is feat-re! on $a/e 215 in Metis *e!acy <olume : (@emmican @-*lications an! %a*riel D-mont 2nstit-te. 2AA1)' She was commissione! *y the Manito*a M-se-m to man-fact-re tra!itional 0*ori/inal clothin/ for the 4oreal Forrest %allery an! she contri*-te! many of her family)s ho-sehol! treas-res for the Metis Kitchen !is$lay'9> She has $revio-sly *een honore! *y $resentation of the 9ol en 8a!le 1war *y the 2n!i/eno-s <omen)s 1ollective an! the D5C1 5omen of 4istinction 1war (4-siness Mana/ement) in 1988' She has wor6e! with the 4ran!on School !ivision to esta*lish hi/h school cre!it co-rses on 0*ori/inal c-lt-res an! serve! on the *oar!s of the 4ran!on 5<101omm-nity <omen)s Shelter an! the Downtown 4-siness 2m$rovement 1entre' She wor6e! as a vol-nteer 1o-rt 1omm-nicator with the 2n!ian an! Metis Frien!shi$ 1entre' ,er *-siness in 4ran!on. the 4ran!on ,an!icraft Sho$ (19>9-1982) was instr-mental in $rovi!in/ wor6 e;$erience o$$ort-nities for 0*ori/inal st-!ents' 2n <inni$e/ she has *een a stron/ s-$$orter of the Metis &eso-rce 1entre' ?enny has *een a co-nselor at *oth the Manito*a ,ome for %irls an! Manito*a ,ome for 4oys' From 1982-1997 she was the @ro!-ction Mana/er for Fleece ine 2n!-stries in 4ran!on an! ha! m-ch to !o with this firm)s s-ccess as an 0*ori/inal-*ase! *-siness' Pn ?-ne 1>. 2A11 La Ni Lanichihk $resente! a Kee$in/ the Fires 4-rnin/ 0war! to ?enny' :his awar! hono-rs Okii>i a :kwe or “4i/ ,earte! <omen'" 4i/ ,earte! <omen e;em$lify the seven sacre! laws of honesty. co-ra/e. res$ect. h-mility. sharin/. carin/ an! love *y sharin/ their 6nowle!/e. talents an! e;$erience to hel$ 6ee$ their families an! comm-nities stron/' Miette, )ean4Ba,tiste. &oche Miette. a 2=1> metre $ea6 in the 0tha*asca Nalley of the 1ana!ian &oc6ies. is first recor!e! in a 3o-rnal written *y %a*riel Franchere' ,istorians s$ec-late that the mo-ntain was li6ely name! after a voya/e-r name! 4a$tiste Millette. who wor6e! in the 0n article a*o-t Meyer an! her wor6 with :he Manito*a M-se-m can *e fo-n! in First Pers'ecti/e at www'first$ers$ective'caJ$rint]story'$h$\$athe2AA>A727meyer'
9>

12=

f-r tra!e in the 0tha*asca &iver area !-rin/ 1812 an! 181=' e/en! has it that 4onhomme Miette was a Metis voya/e-r who ma!e the first ascent. clim*in/ it from its so-th si!e' ,e *ecame a well-6nown fi/-re in French 1ana!ian fol6lore an! was sai! to have *een a /ifte! fi!!ler an! storyteller' <hen he reache! the to$. the story /oes. he sat !own. !an/lin/ his feet over the $reci$ice an!. smo6e! his $i$e' D-rin/ the 18=ASs it is 6nown that a man name! Miette !i! live in the 0tha-*asca Nalley where he was a. Qcom$any servantQ who ha-le! coal from the area of &oche Miette to ?as$er ,o-se as well as to ,enry ,o-se at the mo-th of the Miette &iver' ,owever. others *elieve that 4onhomme Miette was a “le/en!ary" voya/e-r as no one *y that name wor6e! for either the ,-!son 4ay 1om$any or the +orthwest 1om$any !-rin/ the years $rior to 1817' Miles. %eor/e S' %eor/e was the mi;e!-*loo! son of ,41 1hief Factor &o*ert Miles' %eor/e entere! ,41 service in 1877 as an a$$rentice $ostmaster an! was $romote! to a 1hief :ra!er $osition in 18>1' Millet dit Bea!chemin, Andr* Sr' (178A-18>5) 0n!rG Millet it 4ea-chemin an! Ma!eleine D-charme were the $arents of Manito*a M 0 0n!rG 4ea-chemin who was *orn on +ovem*er >. 1827 at &e! &iver' 0n!rG Sr' was *orn at St' Michel !)5amas6a. L-e*ec' ,e was first marrie! to 1harlotte @elletier. then to Ma!eleine D-charme *oth MGtisse' ,e was a mem*er of 0le;an!er ,enry the 5o-n/er)s &e! &iver 4ri/a!e which arrive! in the &e! &iver area in 18AA' ,e was a *lac6smith an! is re$-te! to have *-ilt the first &e! &iver cart while the $arty wintere! at the 3-nction of the &e! an! @ar6 &ivers !-rin/ 18AA- 18A1' :his first cart. similar to the ones -se! in L-e*ec. ha! wheels ma!e from ro-n! sla*s of oa6' ,enry)s Metis em$loyees later mo!ifie! this to a fo-r s$o6e! wheel an! later. to twelve s$o6e! !ishe! wheels' Millet dit Bea!chemin, Madeleine (Klyne)' Ma!eleine. the Metis !a-/hter of 0n!re Millet !it 4ea-chemin an! 1harlotte @elletier. was *orn at St' Fran9ois Wavier' She marrie! Michel Klyne on ?an-ary 9. 18=8 at St' Fran9ois Wavier' :he family was en-merate! in the 185A cens-s at @em*ina' :his was a *-ffalo h-ntin/ family who were often o-t on the $lains' :hey ha! move! $ermanently to Fort L-)0$$elle *y 1871' :heir son 4en3amin was to *ecome a Metis lea!er in Montana an! one of the fo-n!ers of S$rin/ 1ree6 ( ewistown). Montana' Mitchell. Davi! ?r' (!' 18A9) Davi! Mitchell ?r' was the son of Dr' Davi! Mitchell of the 2n!ian De$artment an! his P3i*wa wife' 2n 18A>. Davi! ?r' was an a/ent an! attorney of the Michilimac6inac co' ,e was also a mem*er of the 4eaver 1l-* in Montreal. accor!in/ to their min-tes he !ie! in Montreal on 0$ril 11. 18A9' Mitchell, 'li(a#eth Bertrand (17>1-1827) CliOa*eth was the !a-/hter of ?ose$h a-rent 4ertran!. a French tra!er. an! Marie ?ose$h amaire. a 1hi$$ewa mother' She /rew -$ with Pttawa relatives at )0r*re 1roche (1ross Nilla/e) near Fort Michilmac6inac' ,er father was a f-r tra!er at Michelima6inac. $ossi*ly as early as 17>A. certainly *y 17>7-17>5' ,is wife was a 1hi$$ewa

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native of Mac6inac' 2n 177>. CliOa*eth marrie! 4ritish 0rmy s-r/eon Davi! Mitchell' She ran retail tra!in/ *-siness from 181>-1828 while her *rothers were active in the f-r tra!e in So-thern Michi/an' D-rin/ the <ar of 1812. her a*ility to recr-it native military assistance won her a commen!ation an! a me!al from the 4ritish (awar!e! in 1817)' Followin/ the onset in 1815 of the 0merican r-le on Mac6inac 2slan!. the 0merican comman!er. Ma3or ,enry @-th-ff. $oste! a notice for her to sto$ hol!in/ conferences with her Pttawa 6in'>5 <hen her 6infol6 contin-e! to visit. he threatene! to arrest her. *-t she esca$e! at ni/ht to Dr-mmon! 2slan!' She ret-rne! to her tra!e on Mac6inac 2slan! once 0merican fears ha! s-*si!e! an! her salon *ecame a social h-* of the $alisa!e comm-nity' 2n fact. in 181>. she hoste! the we!!in/ of ?osette afram*oise. !a-/hter of her frien! Ma!eleine afram*oise (also a tra!er) to 1a$tain 4en3amin @ierce *rother to the f-t-re @resi!ent' ,er son 0n!rew *-ilt the first store in @enetan/-ishene. an! son %eor/e was the first S-$erinten!ent of Schools there' ,er !a-/hter ?essie was the wife of the $ros$ero-s tra!er ewis 1rawfor!' 1rawfor! was !ee$ly involve! in recr-itin/ 2n!ians for the 4ritish ca-se an! Mitchell hel$e! f-rnish s-$$lies' <hen war was !eclare!. Mitchell accom$anie! the 4ritish an! 2n!ian force -n!er 1a$tain 1harles &o*erts that s-r$rise! an! ca$t-re! the /arrison at Fort Michilimac6inac in the first action of the war. on ?-ly 17th. 1812' D-rin/ the winter of 181=D17 Davi! Mitchell accom$anie! &o*ert Dic6son)s e;$e!ition to what is now <isconsin' 2n the s-mmer of 1817. when the 0mericans -ns-ccessf-lly attac6e! Mac6inac 2slan!. CliOa*eth Mitchell actively recr-ite! 2n!ian allies for the 4ritish from her Pttawa relatives at )0r*re 1roche' 0s a to6en of a$$reciation. the a-thorities /rante! her an allowance of [5A a year for two years' :he P3i*way also res$ecte! her hi/hly' 2n +ovem*er of 1817. they $resente! her with a !ee! to &o-n! 2slan!. their tra!itional *-ryin/ /ro-n! locate! half a mile so-theast of Mac6inac' So-rceI Michi!an Pioneer Collections' Nol 1>' 19A8I $$ 252. =89-7A1' ansin/I <yn6oo$ ,allen*ec6 1rawfor! 1o'.

Monette, Marie AdeleE Sister .as,ard. (1881-19>2) 0!ele Monet was *orn on ?-ne 12. 1881. at St' ?ose$h. the !a-/hter of Mo!este Monet an! Nir/inie &itchot (the !a-/hter of ?ose$h &ichot an! Mar/-erite Martel)' 0!ele)s $aternal /ran!$arents were Michel Monet it 4elh-me-r (*' 18A2) an! ?ose$hte 4r-yere' 0!ele)s si*lin/s were ?-lie *orn 1878 an! ?aco* Ste$hen *orn 188=' Mo!este Monet !ie! s-!!enly on Decem*er 9. 188= at a/e == !-e to an acci!ent' ,is !a-/hters Marie 0!ele an! her sister. ?-lie. were then $lace! in an or$hana/e at %raceville. Minnesota where they also atten!e! school' Cvent-ally 0!ele went to live with a relative in <inni$e/' <hen the St' 4oniface $astor notice! that 0!ele no lon/er atten!e! 1atechism classes an! ha! not yet ma!e her first 1omm-nion. he insiste! that her /-ar!ians $lace her -n!er the care of the %rey +-ns when 0!ele was 1= years ol!' Mother ,amel. the s-$erior at that time $lace! her as an ai!e in the 6itchen' She ha! an ol!er sister teach her classes at ni/ht' 0!ele was receive! into the novitiate of the ittle 0-;iliary Sisters on the =A th

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+ovem*er 1899' She ma!e her @rofession of Nows on ?-ly =1. 19A2' She is consi!ere! to *e the first Metis from the :-rtle Mo-ntainJ St' ?ose$h area to *ecome a reli/io-s Sister' She was then assi/ne! to wor6 for several months in the fo-n!lin/ Section of the :ache ,os$ital' :hen in 19A= she was assi/ne! to wor6 at the very $oor Mission of P-r a!y of the Seven Sorrows. at Fort :otten. +orth Da6ota' ,ere she was $-t in char/e of the la-n!ry' Pn Decem*er 192> the ch-rch. school an! other *-il!in/s of the Mission were *-rne! !own e;ce$t for the la-n!ry room of Sister 0!ele Monet' She was then recalle! to St' 4oniface to the :ache ,os$ice (1927-19=1). the hos$ital in St' 4oniface an! then Fort Frances. ta6in/ care of la-n!ry an! sometimes coo6in/' S-*seM-ently she was nominate! to /o to the St' Nital Sanatori-m. her last assi/nment. where she s$ent 22 years' Pn 0$ril 1=. 195=. she retire! to the infirmary of the @rovincial ,o-se an! on ?-ly =1. 19>2 she cele*rate! her Diamon! ?-*ilee' She !ie! on +ovem*er 1. 19>2' .eference: St( 1nn;s Centennial -istory 3ook. 4elco-rt +orth Da6otaI :-rtle Mo-ntain 2n!ian ,istorical Society. 1entennial 4oo6 1ommittee. Stella Davis - 1oor!inator. 1985I 7=' Monet dit Bellh!me!r, Mar"!erite ( iel). (18>1-188>) >5 “<hereas a certain CliO)th Mitchell -n!er a $retense of tra!in/ with the sava/es is an! for many years has *een. as it has *een re$resente! to me. in the ha*it of hol!in/ her $rivate co-ncils with those -nfort-nate !el-!e! @eo$le an! of a!visin/ with an! $ers-a!in/ them to the a!o$tion of meas-res in3-rio-s to their real interests an! that of the 0merican /overnment D 2 therefore feel it to *e my D-ty here*y to for*i! the sai! CliOa*eth Mitchell to hol! any f-rther interco-rse with the 2n!ians that may visit this islan! either !irectly or in!irectly'''" ,er faith so !ee$ an! her ri/hteo-sness are a *ea-ty to *e hel!' 0h''' she is a ten!er creat-re. 0lways attentive to her !-ty' 2 have the $rivile/e of 6nowin/ that her love is -nfailin/' <hen she loves. she loves thro-/h an! thro-/h' ,er /aOe *ec6ons on me' o-is &iel Mar/-erite was *orn ?an-ary 15. 18>1 at <hite ,orse @lains. St' Fran9ois Wavier to Marie Malaterre an! ?ean 4a$tiste Monet !it 4ellh-me-r' ,er father was a L-e*ecer who marrie! Mar/-erite Malaterre' ,er mother was a 1ree woman from the Fort Cllice area' Mar/-erite s$ent her chil!hoo! at Fort Cllice. near $resent !ay St' aOare. Manito*a' ?ean 4ellh-me-r an! his family move! to Montana to earn a livin/ h-ntin/ *-ffalo' Pne of the men who accom$anie! him on h-ntin/ $arties was a han!some yo-n/ man name! Davi! o-is &iel. who ca-/ht the eye of the twenty year ol! Mar/-erite (1881)' o-is. who was M-ite ta6en with the yo-n/ la!y. as6e! for her han! in marria/e later that

12>

year' From his *asic !escri$tion. she was soft-s$o6en. !ar6 s6inne!. tall an! M-ite /oo! loo6in/' 4-t. his attraction to her lay in her stren/th of character' :hey were marrie! *y “c-stom of the co-ntry'" :he $rairie marria/e was $reforme! in 1881. an! Father Damiani D a ?es-it from St' @eter)s Mission. Montana. formally marrie! them in March of 1882. at 1arroll. Montana' Mar/-erite ha! her first chil!. a han!some son name! ?ean &iel. who ha! the eyes of his mother. on May 9. 1882' :heir secon! chil!. Marie 0n/GliM-e. a $retty *lon!e little /irl. was *orn Se$tem*er 17. 188=' Mar/-erite was 6nown to *e soft s$o6en. M-iet. $atient an! is also sai! to have *een $etite an! M-ite attractive' She too6 on the all res$onsi*ility of a $lains wifeI /atherin/ fire woo!. coo6in/. cleanin/ an! str-//lin/ on very little money an! foo!' She was alone most of the time with her chil!ren. while o-is was fi/htin/ for ri/hts of their $eo$le' o-is ha! a most !evote! wife who worshi$$e! him *-t feare! the harm that co-l! *efall their family at the han!s of his enemies' 2n ?-ne 1887. Mar/-erite. ?ean an! 0n/GliM-e accom$anie! o-is to 4atoche. Sas6atchewan. in s$ite of the loomin/ conflict' She was at her h-s*an!Ss si!e !-rin/ the *attle of 1885 -ntil &iel s-rren!ere! May 15. to Mi!!leton)s sco-ts' 1ol! an! h-n/ry. Mar/-erite an! her chil!ren hi! in caves near 4atoche while awaitin/ wor! from o-is' 2nstea! o-is) *rother ?ose$h a$$eare! an! too6 Mar/-erite an! her chil!ren to live with &iel)s mother in St' 4oniface. Manito*a' <ea6ene! *y the events of 4atoche an! her h-s*an!)s im$risonment. the $remat-re *irth an! !eath of her thir! chil! a!!e! to her /rief' Mar/-erite)s s-fferin/ contin-e! with o-is) e;ec-tion for his involvement in the &esistance of 1885' 0fter his e;ec-tion she staye! with his family in St' Nital' She !ie! of t-*erc-losis in May of 188>. the final *low !ealt to a /reatly !iminishe! e;istence' She was *-rie! *esi!e her *elove! o-is &iel in St' 4oniface' :heir !a-/hter. Marie 0n/GliM-e !ie! of !i$htheria in 1897 3-st *efore she was to t-rn fo-rteen years ol!' :heir son. ?ean marrie! a-ra 1asa-lt. a !a-/hter of a L-G*ec family' ?ean !ie! ?-ly =1. 19A8. at the a/e of twenty-si; from in3-ries res-ltin/ from a *-//y acci!ent' ?ean an! a-ra ha! no chil!ren' (1ontri*-te! *y orraine Freeman an! 0-!reen ,o-rie') Monette, .re"oire. (1855-19=1) %re/oire was *orn at St' ?ose$h in 1855 in the +e*ras6a :erritory (Minnesota was not yet a state)' :his !istrict was 6nown as the @a-*ian District for many years afterwar!s. an! St' ?ose$h later *ecame e&oy. +orth Da6ota' %re/oire was the secon! yo-n/est son of Michael an! S-san 4riere Monette' ,is father was *orn at <hite ,orse @lains' ,is father)s first wife was a 1hi$$ewa 2n!ian. the sister of 1hief ittle Shell' 2n 18=5. they went *y &e! &iver cart to Misso-ri. Montana where Michael o*taine! a /overnment $osition' :hey live! there -ntil 187=. when the Sio-; 6ille! his wife (whose $eo$le were at war with them)' ,e then too6 his five chil!ren an! hea!e! *ac6 to re3oin the 1hi$$ewa an! ,alf-4ree! h-nters of the $lains' :hey were s-ccessf-l in meetin/ -$ with a mi;e! *an! of several h-n!re! 1hi$$ewa an! Metis h-nters at Devil)s a6e' Michael ret-rne! with the northern /ro-$ to <hite ,orse @lains where he chose a 1hi$$ewa-French wife. S-san 4riere' ,e ret-rne! after the h-ntin/ season to St' ?ose$h with the five chil!ren from his first marria/e an! 4a$tiste the first chil! of his marria/e to

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S-san' (4a$tiste was the ol!est *rother of %re/oire who was one of seven chil!ren *orn to S-san)' %re/oire)s wife. @hilomene <el6ie (<il6ie). was *orn at St' ?ose$h in 18>=' She was the /ran! !a-/hter of the !istin/-ishe! 1hief ?ean 4a$tiste <el6ie. who for many years was 1hief of all the 1hi$$ewa an! Metis h-nters of the @a-*ian an! :-rtle Mo-ntain re/ions' ,er mother was 2sa*elle @atena-!e (also 1hi$$ewa-Metis)' ,er a-nt. Ma!eleine. was the !a-/hter of ?ean 4a$tiste <il6ie an! marrie! %a*riel D-mont' .eference St' 0nn)s 1entennial 1ommittee' St( 1nnAs Centennial "BBH- "%BH' 4elco-rt. +orth Da6otaI St' 0nn)s 1entennial 1ommittee. 1985I 228-2=9' Mon%man, Al#ert. (1857-1911) 0l*ert was *orn at St' 1lements. &e! &iver. the son of ?ose$h “Pl! ?oe" Mon6man an! 2sa*ella Setter' ,e marrie! Mary 0nn Morwic6' :hey ha! a claim at D-c6 a6e' ,e was a mem*er of &iel)s 1> man 1o-ncil (C;ove!ate) at 4atoche !-rin/ the 1885 &esistance' D-rin/ the *attle >A men -n!er 0l*ert Mon6man an! @atrice Fle-ry /-ar!e! the west *an6 of the Sas6atchewan &iver' &iel s-s$ecte! Mon6man of !isloyalty an! ha! him im$risone!' Pn 0-/-st 17. 1885. at &e/ina 0l*ert was sentence! to 7 years im$risonment for his $art in the &esistance' 0fter his release. he move! to the #nite! States an! a*an!one! his lan! at D-c6 a6e' 2n his testimony of 0-/-st 1=.1885 at the &e/ina trial Father 0le;is 0n!re saysI “0l*ert Mon6man 2 have 6nown for two years $ast' ,e is a man who has *een very m-ch. an! 2 thin6 -nfairly. a*-se! an! misre$resente!' 2 always fo-n! him 6in! an! /oo!. an! he always too6 the $art of the wea6 an! !efenceless a/ainst &iel. to his own very /reat !an/er an! ris6' :he o$inion 2 /ot of him from my *rother $riests is most favora*le' ,e $revente! the *-rnin/ at D-c6 a6e an! St' a-rent of the 1atholic ch-rches. altho-/h not a 1atholic himself. an! was im$risone! *y &iel *eca-se he o$$ose! him in every way he co-l! an! wante! to esca$e from the re*el cam$' 2 sincerely *elieve that Mon6man was a /oo!. tr-e an! loyal man. who was $lace! in most !iffic-lt circ-mstances. an! acte! ami! !an/er an! !iffic-lty as few men wo-l! !are to !o for the *est interests of the co-ntry. even at imminent ris6 of his life'" 1S@. 188>. Nol' 1=. $' =8=) Pn March 17. 1911. 0l*ert ?' Mon6man. co-ncillor to o-is &iel in the &esistance !ie! in C!monton. 0l*erta' ,e was also a /reat frien! of 1hief @o-n! Ma6er' Most of his family live! in &ossea-. Minnesota' Mon%man, )ose,h' (18=>-19A8) ?ose$h was *orn at Salt S$rin/s on the shore of a6e <inni$e/osis' ,is father was “Pl! ?oe" Mon6-man. the saltma6er' ?ose$h contin-e! his father)s saltma6in/ o$eration with the hel$ of his *rother ?ohn (*' 187A)' ,e marrie! Mary elan!' 2n his 3o-rnal ,'5' ,in! (18>A) mentions that Pl! ?oe Mon6man)s sons were ma6in/ salt for the ,41 in the Fort @elly area' :he salt wor6s were a$$arently at a salt s$rin/ a*o-t fifty miles -$ the Swan &iver from the fort'

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Mon%man, )ose,h' (*' c' 18=A) Mon6man was a @rotestant ,alf-4ree! St' @eter)s farmer who was *orn at &e! &iver' 2n Decem*er of 18>9 he was commissione! *y 1olonel ?ohn Dennis to recr-it the 2n!ians to 3oin in the war a/ainst the Metis of &e! &iver' ,e also serve! as a sco-t for 1olonel <olesley in 0-/-st of 187A' ?ose$h was the son of ?ames Mon6man an! +ancy 1ha*oyer' ,e marrie! CliOa*eth ,en!erson' Mon%man, ose Anne ( amsay). (1888-1955) &ose 0nne &amsay marrie! <illiam Mon6man in 19A> an! they ha! twelve chil!ren' &ose 0nne was the !a-/hter of ?ohn &amsay an! ?-lia D)0rcis' ?ohn &amsay has *ecome famo-s in Manito*a history as the 2n!ian h-nter who save! the newly forme! 2celan!ic 1olony !-rin/ the small$o; e$i!emic of the 187As' 4y !istri*-tin/ free moose meat an! other foo! to the M-arantine! settlers he is cre!ite! with savin/ 75 lives' :he Mon6mans were the first to settle an! farm an! fish at Mon6man)s 2slan! at oon Straits. Manito*a' 2n 1917. <illiam)s *rother :homas !ie! an! his wife !ie! nine months later leavin/ five or$han chil!ren' &ose 0nne an! <illiam too6 on the tas6 of raisin/ these chil!ren' :hey alrea!y ha! seven chil!ren of their own at this time an! then ha! five more' :hey also care! for &osie. the !a-/hter from <illiam)s first marria/e. alon/ with two more /ran!chil!ren care! for after the !eath of <illiam)s son <illiam ?r' :he co-$le care! for twenty chil!ren in total' .eference: Monkman, 1nne( *oon Straits: *ookin! 3ack' oon StraitsI 0-thor. 1999' Mon%man, /illiam' (1878-1958) <illiam Mon6man was *orn on 0-/-st >. 1878 at 1lan!e*oye. Manito*a. the son of 0n!rew Mon6-man an! +ancy 1hastellaine' <illiam)s $aternal /ran!$arents were ?ose$h Mon6man an! 2sa*elle Setter' ?ose$h was *orn in the St' 0n!rews District an! *a$tiOe! at St' @eter)s 1h-rch' ,is father came to 1ana!a in 1812 an! marrie! Mary. a 1ree woman' 2sa*elle was the !a-/hter of an Pr6neyman. 0n!rew Setter' ,istorically these Mon6mans were farmers *-t they also *ecame fishermen when <illiam)s father move! the family to Mon6man)s 2slan! at oon Straits in 189>' <illiam)s -ncle. 0l*ert Mon6man. fo-/ht for the Metis at 4atoche !-rin/ the 1885 &esistance' <illiam)s first wife was 0!eline Favell (188A- 19A=)B they marrie! in 19A1 an! ha! two chil!ren' ,e then marrie! &ose 0nne &amsay in 19A> an! they ha! twelve chil!ren' &ose 0nne was the !a-/hter of ?ohn &amsay an! ?-lia D)0rcis' ?ohn &amsay has *ecome famo-s in Manito*a history as the 2n!ian h-nter who save! the newly forme! 2celan!ic 1olony !-rin/ the small$o; e$i!emic of the 187As' 4y !istri*-tin/ free moose meat an! other foo! to the M-arantine! settlers he is cre!ite! with savin/ 75 lives' D-rin/ his life. <illiam wor6e! as a fisherman. farmer. *oat *-il!er an! ran the fish station for 7A years' :he Mon6man home was also 6nown as a sto$$in/ $lace for travelers' Source Mon6man. 0nne' *oon Straits: *ookin! 3ack' oon StraitsI 0-thor. 1999'

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Monta"nais, ;o!ison. o-ison was the Metis 1hief of the *-ffalo h-nts ran/in/ o-t of 4-ffalo a6e. 0l*erta' ,e was marrie! to 0n/Tle D-mont' 2n the small $o; e$i!emic of 187A he lost his wife an! fo-r of their chil!ren within a few months time' Father Fo-rmon! recor!s the followin/ story of the Metis h-ntin/ cam$ at ?olie 4-tteI Pn S-n!ay the fo-rth of Se$tem*er E187AF. in the evenin/. 2 s-mmone! all the h-nters to elect the !ran -chef. ei/ht co-ncilors an! ei/ht ca'itaines' o-ison Monta/nais is his name' ,e is a man remar6a*le for his /reat hei/htB a lon/ an! ra!iant hea! of hair. *lac6 as e*ony. fallin/ in a /racef-l casca!e over his lar/e sho-l!ers an! encasin/ a *ronOe! face in which the $rinci$al characteristic wo-l! a$$ear to *e health' 0t the same time the mo-stache that he s$orts an! which !istin/-ishes him from the other h-nters /ives him a certain martial air which !enotes vitality' (1ite! in &'F' 4eal. ?'C' Foster an! o-ise ^-6. “:he Metis ,ivernant Settlement at 4-ffalo a6e. 18721877'" C!montonI 0l*erta De$artment of 1-lt-re. 1987I 11') Monti"ny, -harles. (*' 1875) 1harles Demonti/ny altho-/h *orn at St' Francois Wavier was a :-rtle Mo-ntain 4an! mem*er. the son of 1harles Demonti/ny Sr' an! Marie Des3arlais' ,e first was marrie! to +ancy :horne then to Maria 4ranconnier' ,is father. 1harles Sr' ha! wor6e! for 0ntoine Des3arlais at Fort Des3arlais in the So-ris &iver Nalley in the 187A-5As' 1harles was $art of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' Monti"ny, 7atric%' (*' 185>) @atrice Demonti/ny was the son of 1harles Demonti/ny an! Marie Des3arlais' 0ltho-/h *orn at 4aie St' @a-l. he was a :-rtle Mo-ntain 4an! mem*er' @atric6 was $art of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' Monto!r, A#raham' (*' 18=2) 0*raham was *orn on March 18. 18=2. at &e! &iver' ,e was the son of 4onhomme “&o*ert" Monto-r an! ?osette S$ence' 2n 1857. he marrie! Marie @a/e at @em*ina' 2n the 185A @em*ina cens-s he is liste! as a h-nter' 2n the early 187As they move! to D-c6 a6e' 0*raham was electe! as a St' a-rent !e %ran!in (So-th Sas6atchewan) 1o-ncil mem*er in 187= an! 1877' Monto-r. 0*raham Sr' (*' 18=2) 0*raham was *orn at @em*ina. the son of &o*ert 4onhomme Monto-r an! ?ose$hte S$ence' ,e marrie! Marie @a/e' :hey s$ent many years on the $lains as *-ffalo h-nters' Pne of the early meetin/s (March 22. 1887) to $lan the Metis &esistance too6 $lace at his home' 0n!re +a-lt ?r' an! 0*raham Monto-r were char/e! with treason-felony for their $art in events at Fro/ a6e an! Frenchman)s 4-tte. however. their hearin/ was $ost$one! for lac6 of witnesses an! the case was later !ro$$e!' 0*raham live! at the St' a-rent Settlement &iver ot 2A. on the west si!e of the river' ,is sons. 0*raham ?r' an! ?ean 4a$tiste were also active in the &esistance at the *attle of 4atoche an! his two ne$hews were 6ille! !-rin/ the fi/ht-in/ at D-c6 a6e' 0fter 1885. he move! to Sel*y ?-nction. Montana'

1=A

Monto!r, A#raham )r. (*' 1855) 0*raham ?r' was the son of 0*raham Monto-r Sr' an! Marie @a/e' ,e marrie! -cie @arentea-' Monto!r, Ale&andre. 0le;an!re ,e was a mem*er of 1a$tain 0ntoine afontaine)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' Monto-r. 4ernar! 4ien' (*' 1855) 4ien was *orn at @em*ina. the son of @ascal Monto-r Sr' an! Ma!eleine &ichar!' ,e was a mem*er of 1a$tain 4ernar! @a-l)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' 2n 188A he marrie! Mar/-erite Smith. they live! at the St' a-rent Settlement (Section =1 +< M-arter. :7=-1-=). on the west si!e of the river' Monto!r, )ean4Ba,tiste. (1857-1885) ?ean-4a$tiste was *orn at @em*ina. the son of @ascal Monto-r Sr' an! Ma!eleine &ichar!' ,e marrie! 1aroline D-mont. the !a-/hter of 2si!ore D-mont an! ?-!ith @arentea-' :hey live! at D-c6 a6e' ,e was a mem*er of 1a$tain 2si!ore D-mont)s com$any. one of the 19 i2ianes le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' ,e was involve! in the 1885 &esistance at D-c6 a6e with %a*riel D-mont an! was 6ille! o March 2>. 1885 *y 1roOier)s troo$s' ,e was s-rvive! *y his wife an! two chil!ren' Monto!r, )ean Ba,tiste' (*' 18>A) ?ean 4a$tiste was the son of 0*raham Monto-r Sr' an! Marie @a/e' ,e marrie! 1hristine @arentea-. the !a-/hter of ?ean 4a$tiste @arentea- an! @Gla/ie D-mont' Monto!r, )ose,h. ?ose$h was a mem*er of 1a$tain ?onas Morea-)s com$any. one of the 19 i2ianes le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' Monto!r, )ose,h' (*' 18>5) ?ose$h was the son of @ascal Monto-r Sr' an! Ma!eleine &ichar!' ,is /reat /ran!father. +icholas Monto-r was active7 in the Sas6atchewan f-r tra!e. 3oine! the 4eaver 1l-* in 179A an! was electe! to the e/islative 0ssem*ly of ower 1ana!a from 179> to 18AA' ?ose$h was a mem*er of 1a$tain ?ames Short)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' 4oth ?ose$h. his *rother @ascal were 6ille! in the D-c6 a6e fi/ht !-rin/ the &esistance of 1885' Monto-r. +icholas' (175>-18A8) F-r tra!er +icholas Monto-r was the Metis son of 0n!rew Monto-r an! Sarah 0inse' +icholas was an Cn/lish s$ea6in/ @rotestant' ,is $arents se$arate! *efore his *irth an! their chil!ren were $lace! in @hila!el$hia' ,is mother ha! $ro*a*ly /one to 3oin her 2n!ian relatives in the Pnie!a comm-nity on Mohaw6 &iver. +ew 5or6' 2n 178A. she acM-ire! lan!s on the *an6s of the :hames &iver (Pntario)B she /ave $art of these to +icholas' 2n March of 1779 +icholas was livin/ at 1-m*erlan! a6e an! wor6in/ as an a/ent

1=1

for 4lon!ea-' 4y 1782. he was in Montreal cler6in/ for the Fro*isher *rothers' 2n 1787. Monto-r was wor6in/ as a cler6 for the Fro*isher *rothers on the 1h-rchill &iver. three years later he was $oster to St-r/eon &iver Fort in Sas6atchewan' #n!er the +orth <est 1om$any a/reement of 178=-87. Monto-r receive! two shares of the com$any' 0t that time he was wor6in/ $rimarily on the Sas6atchewan &iver' <hen the +orth <est 1om$any mer/e! with %re/ory. Mac eo! an! 1om$any his two shares were transferre! -n!er the new a/reement' 2n 179A. he was winterin/ with @an/man at Fort 8 la 1orne in Sas6atchewan then for some reason !eci!e! to retire in 1792' ,e live! in Montreal an! 3oine! the 4eaver 1l-* an! ma!e two tri$s to Cn/lan! in the mi! 179As' ,e then *ecame a $artner in the Montreal Distillery 1om$any an! ma!e n-mero-s investments in $ro$erty' Pn Fe*r-ary 17. 1798 he marrie! %eneviTve <ills. a twenty-one year ol!' :heir son. ,enry was *orn in 1799' Monto-r a$$arently ha! another son. calle! +icholas. while he was in the <est. nothin/ is 6nown of the *oy)s mother' +icholas ?r' was wor6in/ for the +<1 in 18A7 an! *ecame an ,41 em$loyee after the 1821 amal/amation' 2n ?-ly of 179> +icholas was electe! to the L-e*ec e/islat-re as the mem*er for Saint-Ma-rice. a seat he hel! -ntil 18AA' ,e was also a ?-stice of the @eace for the District of :hree &ivers' 2n 1799. the Monto-r)s move! to @ointe-!-- ac. *-ilt a lar/e ho-se an! Monto-r set -$ a sawmill. flo-r mill an! ha! a race trac6 *-ilt for horse racin/' Monto!r, 7ascal Sr. (*' 1822) @ascal Sr' was the son of &o*ert 4onhomme Monto-r an! ?osette S$ence' ,e marrie! Ma!eleine &ichar!' :heir sons. 4ernar! an! @ascal ?r' were also active in the &esistance' Monto!r, 7ascal )r. (1852-1885) @ascal Monto-r ?r' was the son of @ascal Monto-r Sr' an! Ma!eleine &ichar!' ,e was marrie! to ?-!ith D-mont in 187> at St' a-rent !e %ran!in' :hey live! on the west si!e of the river so-th of 4atoche 1rossin/' @ascal was a mem*er of 1a$tain ?ames Short)s com$any. one of the 19 i2aines le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' @ascal was one of the fi/hters on the west si!e of the river who were res$onsi*le for ta6in/ the +orthcote o-t of action' ,e an! 0le; Fisher lowere! the ferry ca*le th-s !estroyin/ the shi$s smo6estac6s an! si/nalin/ whistle' @ascal)s *rother ?ose$h an! his father-in-law 2si!ore D-mont were 6ille! in the D-c6 a6e fi/ht !-rin/ the &esistance of 1885' Monto-r. &o*ert “4onhomme'" (1787-1857) &o*ert marrie! ?osette S$ence in 1818' ,e was one of the first lea!ers of the Metis +ation' Pn ?-ne 15. 1815 he. 1-th*ert %rant. 4ostonais @an/man an! <illiam shaw si/ne! a !ecree or!erin/ the ,41 to remove all traces of coloniOation at the For6s' :his *ison h-ntin/ family live! at &e! &iver. white ,orse @lain an! @em*ina' 2n 1857. he !ie! at @em*ina an! was *-rie! there' 2n 1885 three of his /ran! vsons were active in the &esistance at 4atoche' Mo!rea!, )onas' (*' 1871) ?onas was *orn at St' +or*ert. the son of ?ean 4a$tiste Morea- an! Fran9oise

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4ea-cham$' ,e marrie! 1ecile Des3arlais' :he family live! at St' +or*ert. C!monton. D-c6 a6e an! 4attlefor!' ?onas was a 1a$tain of one of the 19 com$anies le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' Morin, Adelaide (:homas). (1877-1957) 0!elai!e Morin. the !a-/hter of Metis $arents %enevieve &o-i; (&oy) an! @ierre Morin. was *orn at 2le 8 la 1rosse in 1877' :he family move! to 4rochet an! there 0!elai!e met !ashin/ %eor/e (%eor!ie) :homas. *orn to a Metis family at 4rochet in 187A' ,e *ecame ,-!sonSs 4ay Factor at Moose Factory' :hey were marrie! at 4rochet in 18>7. at a time when the 1ivil <ar was still ra/in/ *etween the northern an! so-thern #nite! States' <ith the e;ce$tion of a few tri$s to Sel6ir6 *y 5or6 4oat. 0!elai!e s$ent most of her life in the har! north' 0!elai!e live! to *e 11A years ol!' “She ma!e history D then o-tlive! it'" %eor!ie :homas !ie! in 1927. at the a/e of 87 years ol! an! is *-rie! in the St' -6eSs 0n/lican cemetery at 4alsam 4ay. Manito*a' #ntil a*o-t 1952. 0!elai!e live! alone in a tiny home at :raverse 4ay. Manito*a' :here she snare! ra**its an! tra$$e! m-s6rats to sell for $rovisions' 0s she !i! almost one h-n!re! years a/o. 0!elai!e contin-e! to live off the lan!' She nette! fish when the water was o$en. an! in winter !rille! holes in the ice for her catch' 1lose at han! was a /rove of Ma$le trees that 0!elai!e ta$$e! an! *oile! !own the sa$' +ow almost a for/otten art in Manito*a. ma$le syr-$ was a vital $art of her e;istenceB a few M-arts to her !iet !-rin/ the year' “:he taste of @emmicanB the life of the northB" 0!elai!e wo-l! sayB “is still fresh in my mo-th'''"' 2le a la 1rosse was a !e$ot for @emmican stora/e an! 0!elai!e *ecame an e;$ert at ma6in/ the “con!ense!" foo! that was often the only rations for northern e;$lorers an! tra$$ers' 0!elai!e often share! her reci$e for @emmican' She wo-l! !ry the lean $arts of the meat in the s-n. then $o-n!e! it into a $aste with a mi;t-re of fat' :he res-lt was a flavore! with aci!-ty$e *erries s-ch as sas6atoons' @emmican was tr-ly the life*loo! of the north' 0!elai!e live! near her sister-in-law So$hia in6later-:homas (Daniel) at :raverse 4ay' :he two women share! a lifestyle an! ma!e lon/ leather Metis coats' :he coats were !esi/ne! with frin/es an! intricate *ea!wor6' 0 mi;t-re of cornmeal an! 6erosene was -se! to clean the leather coats' So$hia also ma!e ra**it ro*es (*lan6ets) which she sol! to the ,-!son)s 4ay 1om$any alon/ with the Metis coats' :he fleshin/ tools of the two Metis women were $art of the ,-!sonSs 4ay 1om$any 1ollections an! are now in the m-se-m collections at the Manito*a M-se-m of Man an! +at-re in <inni$e/' 2n her later years. 0!elai!e live! with her !a-/hter ?ose$hine Prvis at :raverse 4ay' &etirin/ early at family *irth!ay cele*rations to the t-ne of the &e! &iver ?i/ an! over a cent-ry of memories. 0!elai!e !ie! at 11A years of a/ein in 1957' She is *-rie! at St' Mar/aretSs &oman 1atholic 1h-rch cemetery at :raverse 4ay' (1ontri*-te! *y %reat %ran!!a-/hter 0-!reen ,o-rie of %ran! Marais from her recollections. those of ,elen ,o-rie of Stony @oint. the history of the &'M' of St' 1lements. an! memories of the women in the family' &e$rinte! co-rtesy of the Metis &eso-rce 1entre') (Morin) Morrad, Ale&ander' (*' 1877) 0le;an!re was the son of 0ntoine Morin (*' 18A8) an! :herese arocM-e (*' 181=)' ,e marrie! 0n/eliM-e 4r-nea- !it 1hatelain in 18>8' :hey ha! thirteen chil!ren

< < 1==

*orn at <illow 4-nch. <oo! Mo-ntain. 1y$ress ,ills. St' ?ohn an! :-rtle Mo-ntain ,e !ie! at Me!icine a6e. Montana in 19A8' 0le;an!er was a mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' Morin, -harles )ose,h. (*' 187>) 1harles was nic6name! 1allio- or 1ayo-' ,e was *orn in St' 4oniface $arish in &e! &iver. in 187>' ,is $arents were 0ntoine 1omtios it Morin an! :herese arocM-e' ,is mother sol! her lan! in St' +or*ert to a &oman 1atholic @riest. an! this is where the St' +or*ert &oman 1atholic 1h-rch was later *-ilt' 1harles was $art Sio-;. a “ a6e @e$in ,alf-4ree!"' a6e @e$in. so-th of St' @a-l was the site of the Metis reserve in Minnesota' ,e wor6e! for the #nite! States %overnment as an inter$reter for many years' 2ncre!i*ly. he s$o6e nine lan/-a/es incl-!in/ Cn/lish. French. an! seven 2n!ian lan/-a/es' ,e also wor6e! for the 1ana!ian %overnment !-rin/ the 1885 &esistance' 1harles marrie! ,elene (Cllen) @elletier (*orn 18>1) in e*ret Sas6atchewan in 1877' :hey ha! fo-r chil!ren to/ether' Scri$ a$$licationI Morin. ?ose$h - 1oncernin/ his claim as a chil! - 0!!ress. 1lare @'P' E@ost PfficeF. Moose Mo-ntain - 4orn. 187> at St' 4oniface - Father. 0ntoine Morin. (MGtis) - Mother. :hGrTse &ocM-e. (MGtis) - Marrie!. 1875 at 1y$ress ,ills to ,GlTne @elletier - 1hil!ren livin/. three. 0lfre!. Fre!eric an! ?ose$h - Scri$ for X27A - 1laim 1>2=

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Morin, Don, M.;.A. (*' 1957) Don Morin was *orn in ,ay &iver. +orthwest :erritories (+<:). $art of a family of nine chil!ren' ,is father came from 4-ffalo +arrows. Sas6atchewan an! his mother from Fort Nermilion. 0l*erta' ,e left school at a/e 1=. wor6e! the !rill ri/s in the 4ea-fort area. an! then move! to Fort &esol-tion where he *-ilt a lo//in/ *-siness. Morin an! Sons' ,e was a mem*er of the local h-nters an! tra$$ers or/aniOation then electe! to the Deninoo 1omm-nity 1o-ncil' 2n 1987 he was electe! as an M 0 an! then re-electe! twice. in 1995 he *ecame @remier of the +<:' Morin, 'd$ard. C!war! is liste! as a Metis who was a mem*er of the &iel troo$s who sto$$e! the s-rveys on Pcto*er 11. 18>9' Morin, .erald' (*' 19>1) %eral!. a Swam$y 1ree an! Michif s$ea6er. was *orn at %reen a6e. Sas6atchewanB a tra!itional Metis comm-nity locate! 1>A miles north of Sas6atoon' ,e receive! his 4achelor of aw !e/ree from the #niversity of Sas6atchewan in 1987. article! in &e/ina. an! was calle! to the Sas6atchewan 4ar in 1988' ,e has serve! as the @resi!ent of the +ative aw St-!ent)s 0ssociation of 1ana!a. @rovincial Secretary of the Metis +ation of Sas6atchewan (1989-92) an! was electe! @resi!ent in 1992. servin/ -ntil 1995' D-rin/ this time he was also electe! as @resi!ent of the Metis +ational 1o-ncil in 199= an! was re-electe! in 199>. 1999 an! 2AA1' :he $resi!ent)s $osition at M+1 was ma!e f-ll time

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in 1997' Morin, Bda ose (Allard). 2!a &ose is the !a-/hter of :o*y F' Morin an! Sarah Ke$lin' She was *orn an! raise! on the :-rtle Mo-ntain &eservation in +orth Da6ota' 0 fl-ent s$ea6er of the Michif lan/-a/e. for many years she was an instr-ctor at the :-rtle Mo-ntain 1omm-nity 1olle/e' 0lon/ with @atline aver!-re she !evelo$e! an! $-*lishe! 6he Michif 4ictionary (<inni$e/I @emmican @-*lications. 198=)' ater. she $ro!-ce! *earnin! Michif a series of Michif lessons to *e -se! at the comm-nity colle/e level (4elco-rt. +orth Da6otaI :-rtle Mo-ntain 1omm-nity 1olle/e 0ca!emic @-*lications. 1992)' 2n 2AA1 she a$$eare! on the film 9ettin! :nto Michif which was $art of the 1ana!ian 0*ori/inal @eo$les :elevision +etwor6 series Fin in! Our 6alk (M-sh6e/. Me!ia. Montreal. 2AA1)' Morin dit -omtois, )ean Ba,tiste. (18=7-1875) ?ean 4a$tiste was *orn on +ovem*er 21. 18=7 at St' 4oniface. the son of 0ntoine Morin (*' 18A9) an! :herese arocM-e' 97 4a$tiste marrie! +ancy Delorme (*' 1871). the !a-/hter of ?ose$h “066way" Delorme 98 an! 2sa*elle %o-rnea- on ?-ne 1>. 18>2 at @em*ina' 2sa*elle)s father was a co-nselor to 1hiefs ittle Shell 22 an! 222 an! her *rother “Kar-yence" (?ose$h ?r') in t-rn was a co-nselor to 1hief ittle Shell 222'99 ?ean 4a$tiste an! +ancy were a *-ffalo h-ntin/ family' :hey ha! fo-r chil!ren *etween 18>5 an! 1872. *orn at &e! &iver. St' ?ose$h. an! <oo! Mo-ntain' ?ean 4a$tiste was 6ille! *y the Sio-; at St' ?ose$h Mo-ntain on ?-ly 5. 1875' Morin, ;o!is' (*' 18=7) o-is was *orn in March. 18=7 at St' 4oniface. the son of 0ntoine Morin (*' 18A8) an! :herese arocM-e (*' 181=)' ,e marrie! Mar/-erite %osselin (*' 1872). the !a-/hter of Franciois %osseline an! S-Oanne afo-rnaise' :hey ha! nine chil!ren *orn at St' +or*ert an! <oo! Mo-ntain' o-is was a mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' Morin, ;o!is' (*' 1871) o-is was *orn on 0$ril 29. 1871 at St' 0/athe. the son of o-is Morin an! Marie 0nn 4ea-chemin' o-is was a :-rtle Mo-ntain 4an! mem*er' o-is was a &e! &iver
97 98

:herese was the !a-/hter of ?ose$h arocM-e an! :herese (0ssini*oine) ?ose$h “0-/h-h6-M-ay" Delorme. (1815-1877) ?ose$h !it “066way" was a /ran! son-in-law of chief <il! &ice' Sometime *efore 18=> he marrie! <il! &ice)s /ran!-!a-/hter 2sa*elle %o-rnea-' 2sa*elle was the !a-/hter of ?ose$h %renon (%o-rnea-) an! 0n/eliM-e Folle-0voine' :heir family was en-merate! in the 185A cens-s at @em*ina as family Z 9>' ?ose$h 0-/h-h6-M-ay Delorme Sr' receive! ann-ities an! scri$ (,alf 4ree! Scri$ Z 218) -n!er the 18>= &e! a6e an! @em*ina :reaties of 18>=' 2n 18>8 he too6 ann-ities for himself. two women an! si; chil!ren -n!er ittle Shell)s 4an! an! in 18>7 too6 ann-ities for himself. one woman an! si; chil!ren -n!er <ay-6e-/e-6e-Ohic6)s 4an!' 99 1o-nselors for ittle Shell 222 in the 189As E:hese men also serve! as co-nselors for ittle Shell 22I 0ysesenseF' Sas Swaine @oitras (>7)B K-/-6ay-!way-wash-6-n/. <illiam Davis (7A). @ay!way-walsh-6-m. o-is enoirB 4oin-ence Davis (7=)B Kar-yence Delorme (5A). a son of 0-/-h6-M-ayB Sharlo 4ottinea(>8)B Pssaotit. Francois Desmarais (55)B :chee-6ee-tarn @arisien (>8)B 4atees-shish Nalley (58). son of +or*ace NalleyB 0h6ee-win-nini. 0le; ?annott (58)B :cheer-6-h6. ?ose$h Desmarais (5>)B 4ayriss. 1or*et %rant (55)B Karn-nar-!ah. 0ntoine ,ene-lt (59)B an! ?ean 4atees %orin (1ham$a/ne. 57)'

1=7

MGtis *orn on 0$ril 29. 1871 at Saint-4oniface. the son of o-is Morin an! Marie-0nne 4ea-chemin' Pn 27 Fe*r-ary 18>2. he marrie! 1atherine ,o-le (*orn =1 ?-ly 1872 at Saint4oniface). !a-/hter of 1harles ,o-le an! 1atherine Falar!ea-' :his marria/e too6 $lace either at 0ss-m$tion ch-rch in @em*ina (+orth Da6ota) or in the $arish of Saint+or*ert (Manito*a)' :he co-$le ha! five chil!ren' 2n the 187A cens-s of the &e! &iver. o-is Morin an! his family can *e fo-n! in the $arish of Sainte-0/athe (Manito*a)' ,e was electe! as a ca$tain of the troo$s raise! at Sainte-0/athe on Pcto*er 7. 1871 to re$-lse the Fenian invasion' o-is Morin a$$lie! for Metis Scri$ on 18 0-/-st 1875 at Sainte-0/athe. where he was livin/ as a farmer' o-is was a mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' ,e !ie! in Se$tem*er 1925 at Me!icine a6e Montana' Morin, 7ela"ie Bo!cher. (18A=-19A2) 4y eah Dorion' @ela/ie 4o-cher was the Metis !a-/hter of ?ose$h 4o-cher a French-1ana!ian an! an -nname! Dene woman she was *orn aro-n! 18A= at @eace &iver' ,er father ?ose$h was a voya/e-r from Machiche who came o-t west into the 0tha*asca District -n!er voya/e-r contract as a canoe man. fisherman. mi!!leman ori/inally with Mactavish. Fro*isher an! 1om$any aro-n! 1795' ,er father ?ose$h 4o-cher event-ally wor6e! e;tensively with the +orth <est 1om$any in the 0tha*asca re/ion at $laces s-ch as Fort 1hi$ewyan. Slave a6e. an! @eace &iver' @ela/ie starte! raisin/ her family with Metis voy/e-r 0ntoine Morin in the early 182As accor!in/ to the c-stom of the co-ntry in the 2le a 1rosse area. 6nown locally as Sa6itawa6. *eca-se it was a $rimarily 1ree-Dene-Metis tra!in/ system' ,er Dene-Metis *ac6/ro-n! an! m-ltilin/-alism wo-l! have *een -sef-l in the 2le a la 1rosse tra!e system' @ela/ie *ecame the matriarchal lea!er of a lar/e Metis tra!in/ family' Most of her chil!ren marrie! into other $rominent Metis tra!in/ families resi!in/ in the 2le a la 1rosse territory s-ch as the ?o-r!ain. ali*erte. Ma-rice. &oy. an! Delaron!e families' 0ntoine an! @ela/ie eventally /ot marrie! *y the 1atholic 1h-rch at 2le a la 1rosse in 1875' :o/ether they ha! fo-rteen chil!ren (SaraOine. 0ntoine. &a$hael. ?a!-le. @ierre. 1y$rien. ^e$hrin !it 1atholiM-e. ?ames. Marie. Ma/loire. So$hie. o-is. 4a$tiste. an! ?aco*)' @ela/ie *irthe! three !a-/hters. seven sons. an! fo-r chil!ren who !ie! in chil!*irth' ,er h-s*an! 0ntoine Morin was *orn in 18A7 at Mas6inon/e. ower 1ana!a to :homas Morin an! Marie-:herese 0-*ry-Francoe-r' 0ntoine came o-t west as a voya/e-r' 2n 1855 0ntoine !ie! at the a/e of fifty five leavin/ @ela/ie as a wi!ow' 2n her ol! a/e @ela/ie was care! for *y many of her own chil!ren an! /ran!chil!ren' :he 1881 cens-s at %reen a6e. Sas6atchewan showe! @ela/ie livin/ in the home of @ierreMarie Morin. her /ran!son' 2n 1891 she was still livin/ in %reen a6e *-t in the home of her secon! yo-n/est son. o-is. who was marrie! to Mar/-erite ?o-r!ain' :he 19A11ens-s showe! her livin/ the home of @a-l De aron!e Sr' an! So$hie Morin. one of her !a-/hters' She event-ally $asse! away at Devil)s a6e near 0l!ina in Sas6atchewan at a$$ro;imately ninety nine years of a/e' So-rcesI

1=8

Mac!o-/all' 4' (2A1A)' One of the Family : Metis Culture in Nineteenth-Century Northwestern Saskatchewan' #41 @ressI Nanco-ver. 4'1' 0rna-lt. ' (2AA9)' Cy'rien Morin an his 4escen ants' %a*riel D-mont 2nstit-teI Sas6atoon. SK' St' Pn/e. +' (2AA7)' “Carly forefathers to the 0tha*asca MetisI on/-term +orth <est 1om$any Cm$loyees'" 2n. 6he *on! ,ourney of a For!otten Peo'le: Metis : entities an Family -istories( (C!s') #te a6sch6e a Davi! :' Mc+a**' <il!re! a-rier @ressI <aterloo. Pntario' 1A9-1>1' Morin, 7ierre. (*' 18=A) @ierre was *orn at St' Francois Wavier in ?-ne 18=A. the son of ?ean 4a$tiste Morin an! Marie Morin' @ierre was a :-rtle Mo-ntain 4an! mem*er' @ierre was a mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878' Morin. @riscilla' Metis recor!in/ artist. @riscilla Morin. lives on the Ki6ino Metis Settlement in 0l*erta' ,er al*-m. 5aitin! For Dou( (C!montonI Sa6astew &ecor!s. 2AAA). won 4est 1o-ntry 0l*-m at the 2AAA 1ana!ian 0*ori/inal M-sic 0war!s' Morin, St. 7ierre. (*' 187>) @ierre 6nown as “Kihtchee +or*ay" was the son of 0ntoine Morin (*' 18A8) an! :herese arocM-e (*' 181=)' ,e marrie! CliOa*eth %onville (*' 1877)' :hey ha! nine chil!ren. *orn at e*ret. <oo! Mo-ntain. 1y$ress ,ills. an! :-rtle Mo-ntain' @ierre was a mem*er of the 1y$ress ,ills Metis h-ntin/ *an! that $etitione! for a reserve in 1878 Morrissea!, )ohn' (*' 19=9) ?ohn Morrissea- is a resi!ential school s-rvivor an! esteeme! MGtis lea!er from %ran! &a$i!s. Manito*a' ,e c-rrently serves as a mem*er of the 2n!ian &esi!ential Schools S-rvivor 1ommittee ,e was an 0ssistant De$-ty Minister with the Manito*a De$artment of +orthern 0ffairs an! then De$-ty Minister for ei/ht an! one half years' ,e was the Director of @-*lic @artici$ation for the &oyal 1ommission on 0*ori/inal @eo$les' ,e has serve! the Manito*a %overnment in the ca$acity of 0ssistant De$-ty Minister an! De$-ty Minister an! the Manito*a MGtis Fe!eration as @resi!ent from 197> to 1981' Mr' Morrissea- is consi!ere! a MGtis historian an! is a reci$ient of the Pr!er of the MGtis +ation in reco/nition of his !e!icate! service to his $eo$le an! +ation' Mr' ?ohn Morrissea- serve! as @resi!ent of the Manito*a MGtis Fe!eration from 197> to 1981' ?ohn was *orn on 0-/-st 18. 19=9 at St' &ose !- ac. Manito*a. the son of 4ella Moar an! Crnest Morrissea-' ,is mother. *orn at Kinosota. was the Michif-P3i*wa !a-/hter of ?ohn Moar an! o-isa 0sham' ,is father. *orn at S$ence a6e. was the P3i*wa-Michif son of ?ean 4a$tiste Morrissea- (St' Francois Wavier) an! 1ecile +a-lt (St' &ose !- ac)' ?ohn too6 /ra!e ei/ht then was a fisher an! tra$$er at 1rane &iver' ,e also wor6e! on an e;tra /an/ an! a s-rface !riller at :hom$son' 2n 19>A. ?ohn marrie! +ellie Sinclair

1=9

from %ran! &a$i!s' ?ohn entere! the 1ana!ian Forces at a/e 18 an! serve! for si; years. leavin/ in 19>7' ,e wor6e! for 2n!ian 0ffairs at Fort McM-rray' ,e then *e/an wor6in/ as a tr-c6 !river. came *ac6 to Manito*a an! also wor6e! for Manito*a ,i/hways as a /ra!er o$erator' 2n 19>> ?ohn *ecame $olitically active' Since ?ohn was tr-c6 !rivin/ he wor6e! at this from Mon!ays to :h-rs!ays. then for the rest of the wee6 wor6e! as a $olitical or/aniOer with ,owar! 0sham an! <illie D-mont. /oin/ to or/aniOin/ meetin/s' 2n 19>7. 0!am 1-than! as6e! him to or/aniOe a Metis local at %ran! &a$i!s' Mr' Morrissea- recalls in 197>. the i*eral /overnment -n!er @ierre :r-!ea- was willin/ to $rovi!e fe!eral !ollars to f-n! m-t-al claims research on lan! claim iss-es s-ch as o-tline! -n!er the Manito*a 0ct' ,is team incl-!in/ ,arry Daniels an! Sam Sinclair *e/an the tas6 to $-t to/ether a $ro$osal' :he $ro$osal wo-l! reM-ire $eo$le to /o thro-/h the archives to search for material to s-$$ort the claim *-t the iss-e was there were no MGtis with the s6ills to !o the 3o*' Do-/ S$ra/-e who ha! the s6ills an! is a well 6nown historian. was hire! to train Metis' 0fter wor6in/ with !ifferent /overnment !e$artments in !raftin/ the $ro$osal. it was $resente! to the :r-!ea- /overnment for consi!eration' :hro-/h intense ne/otiation. they were a*le to sec-re research f-n!in/ thro-/h 1981 which allowe! for intensive e;amination of ch-rch. an! ,-!son 4ay 1om$any recor!s' Mr' Morrissea- says :r-!ea- staff clearly saw the lan! claim li6e a treaty *elievin/ an o$$ort-nity e;iste! to re$atriate the 1onstit-tion' 2n 1981. MMF @resi!ent ?ohn Morrissea- tol! the Metis an! +on-Stat-s 2n!ian 1onstit-tional review 1ommissionI “<e can)t !raw -$ the ri/hts of a new constit-tion when o-r ri/hts entrenche! in the Manito*a 0ct of 187A are still o-tstan!in/' <e)re only $-ttin/ o-rselves *ac6 an! /ivin/ them another way o-t' First of 0ll. let)s settle the iss-e that)s there. that)s the iss-e of lan! claims'"

?ohn Morrissea-. March =-7. 1981. s$ea6in/ to the Metis an! +on-Stat-s 2n!ian 1onstit-tional &eview 1ommission in <inni$e/. Manito*a' Moreover. the a*sence within the $atriation resol-tion of a reM-irement for MGtis consent to constit-tional amen!ments affectin/ them raise! the real $ossi*ility of /overnment removin/ the MGtis lan! ri/hts sections of the Manito*a 0ct that the MMF
17A

inten!e! to ma6e the s-*3ect of ma3or liti/ation' Mr' Morrissea- sai! “2f the %overnment of 1ana!a was to re$eal section =1 an! =2 of the Manito*a 0ct thro-/h an amen!in/ $rocess. we wo-l! consi!er s-ch a mane-ver to *e the /reatest *reach of faith in 1ana!ian history'" Pn 0$ril 15th. 1981. the +ative 1o-ncil of 1ana!a 3oine! the Manito*a MGtis Fe!eration in a ma3or lan! claims s-it a/ainst the fe!eral /overnment an! the %overnment of Manito*a' :he Statement of 1laim MMF /( Cana a challen/e! the -nf-lfille! treaty $romises ma!e to the Metis $eo$le $romisin/ 1'7 million acres of lan! -n!er the Manito*a 0ct. 187A' 0fter leavin/ the MMF in 1981. Mr' Morrissea3oine! the ,owar! @owley +D@ /overnment as an 0ssistant De$-ty Minister ho$in/ *y wor6in/ insi!e /overnment. he co-l! contin-e his val-a*le wor6 for the MGtis' Mr' Morrissea- says “:he wor6 to file the lan! claim hel$e! to re-6in!le $ri!e in MGtis' 2t was time to lift o-r hea!s a/ain to feel /oo! a*o-t o-rselves an! it hel$e! -s to *-il! stron/ MGtis comm-nities'" +ow retire!. ?ohn Morrissea- c-rrently lives in %ran! &a$i!s. Manito*a an! c-rrently serves as mayor of that town' ,e an! his wife +elly are cele*ratin/ 75 years to/ether' :hey have two !a-/hters an! 7 sons. an! 7 /ran!chil!ren' Morrissea!, )ose,h dit A%i$e,i dit Mo!ssea!. (*' c' 18A2) ?ose$h was the son of 0ntoine Morrissea- *orn ?-ly 18. 17>7 in &e$enti/ny. L-e*ec an! 1harlotte e Sa-lte-se' ?ose$h marrie! ?ose$hte 1atherine acerte (1812-1852) the !a-/hter of o-is aserte !it acerte an! Marie ?ose$hte Martin (*' 1797)' 0fter ?ose$hte !ie! in 1852. ?ose$h remarrie! to Marie Des3arlais. *orn 18A5. the !a-/hter of Francois Des3arlais an! Ma!eleine &oy' 1hil!renI • • • • • • • ?ose$hte. *orn 18=> at SFW !ie! as an infant' 0n!re. *orn 187=. he marrie! 1ecile Monette !it 4elhe-me-r the !a-/hter of 0n!re Monet !it 4elhe-me-r an! Mar/-erite Morin' ?ose$h *orn ?-l 1871 in St 4oniface' ,e marrie! Marie Des3arlais *orn 1872. the !a-/hter of Francois Wavier Des3arlais (*' 1795 at Sa-ltea-; Nilla/e) an! Marie Ps6ene6eh6wa 4ottinea-' o-ise. *orn 1872. marrie! Francois Monet !it 4elhe-me-r (*' 1878) the son of 0n!re Monet !it 4elhe-me-r an! Mar/-erite Morin' &a$hael. *orn 1877 at SFW. !ie! as an infant' 2sa*elle. *orn 187> at SFW. marrie! Simon Marron. *orn 187A at 4aie St' @a-l' o-is. *orn 187> an! !ie! March 1>. 1877 at St' e-stache'

%ran!chil!renI 1hil!ren of ?ose$h Morrissea- an! Marie Des3arlaisI • @atrice *orn > +ov 18>= in St Francois Wavier' ,e marrie! Marie @atena-!e'

171

• • • • • • •

Mary. *'cI 1 May 18>5 in St' @eters' ?ose$hte. *'c' =1 ?an 18>8 in St' Francois Wavier' She marrie! 0ntoine %osselin ?ose$h. *orn 11 Se$ 187A in St Francois Wavier' ,e marrie! Marie ,enrietta ,owse. *I 15 0$r 1878 in Pa6 @oint. the !a-/hter of ?ohn ,owse an! Marie &ose ,owse' 1ecile. *orn 18 ?an 1872 in St Francois Wavier' She marrie! ?ose$h 4rossea- or 4raOea-' &o/er. *orn 1= Fe* 1878 in &oc6 a6e' ,e marrie! Marie &ose %osselin. *orn 1878. the !a-/hter of 0-/-stin %osselin an! Marie Morea-' arose. *orn 1879' @eter. *orn *I 9 ?an 1881. in <oo! Mo-ntain'

1hil!ren of 0n!re Morrissea- an! 1ecile Monette !it 4ellhe-me-rI • • • Marie o-ise. *orn 1882 in Fort Cllice' @atrice. *orn 188A in Fort Cllice' &osine. *orn 1881 in Fort Cllice' Marie Nitaline. *orn ?-n 22. 187> in ac L-S0$$elle'

1hil! of o-ise Morrissea- an! Francois Monet !it 4ellhe-me-rI • Marie o-ise Monette !it 4ellh-me-r. *orn 18>5' She marrie! ?onas ?ohn &ainville. *orn ?-ne 1>. 185> in 0ss-m$tion. @em*ina' 1hil!ren of 2sa*elle Morrissea- an! Simon MarronI • • • • • • • 1ecile 1onstance Marron. *orn18>9 in 4aie St @a-l' She marrie! ?ames % 0t6inson' o-isa Marron. *orn 188A in Fort @itt' 2sa*elle Marron' Simon Marron. *orn 1877 in 1y$ress ,ills' 0!ele Marron' ?ean 4a$tiste Marron' ?ose$h Marron'

Scri$ &ecor!sI Morrissea-. 2sa*elleB a!!ressI 4attlefor!B *ornI 187> at St' Francois WavierB fatherI ?ose$h Morrissea- (MGtis)B motherI 1atherine acerte (MGtis)B marrie!I 18>= at St' Francois Wavier to Simon MarronB chil!ren livin/I 8B chil!ren !ecease!I 1B scri$ for X1>A'AAB claim no' 9A=' %osselin. ?ose$hte %osselinB 1Gcile 4rassea-B &ose Morrisea-B @atrice Morrisea-B &o/er Morrissea-B ?ose$h Morrissea-B St' @ierre Morrissea-B for her !ecease! sister. Marie :hGrTseB claim no' 1>==B Morrissea-B *ornI 1872 at &oc6 a6eB !ie!I 1888 at &oc6 a6eB a!!ressI &oc6 a6eB fatherI ?ose$h Morrissea- (MGtis)B motherI Marie Des3arlais (MGtis)B

172

heirsI ?ose$hte %osselinB 1Gcile 4rassea-B &ose Morrisea-B @atrice Morrisea-B &o/er Morrissea-B ?ose$h Morrissea-B St' @ierre Morrissea-' %osselin. ?ose$hteB a!!ressI &oc6 a6eB claim no' 1>=5B for her !ecease! *rother. o-is Morrissea-B *ornI 187> at &oc6 a6eB fatherI ?ose$h Morrissea- (MGtis)B motherI Marie Des3arlais (MGtis)B heirsI ?ose$hte %osselinB 1Gcile 4rassea-B &ose Morrissea-B @atrice Morrissea-B &o/er Morrissea-B ?ose$h Morrissea-B St' @ierre Morrissea-' 4raOea-. 1GcileB a!!ressI 1armanB claim no' 95=B *ornI 29 March. 1872 at @elican a6eB fatherI ?ose$h Morrissea- (MGtis)B motherI Marie Des3arlais (MGtis)B marrie!I 1887 to ?ose$h 4raOea-B scri$ cert'I form C. no' =1=A Morrissea-. &o/erB a!!ressI 1armanB *ornI = ?an-ary. 1878 at &oc6 a6eB fatherI ?ose$h Morrissea- (MGtis)B motherI Mary Des3arlais (MGtis)B marrie!I 5 Fe*r-ary. 1899 to @a-l %osselinB scri$ cert'I form C. no' =12>B claim no' 977' Morrissea-. @eterB a!!ressI <illiston. MontanaB *ornI 9 ?an-ary. 1881 at <oo! Mo-ntainB fatherI ?ose$h Morrissea- (MGtis)B motherI Marie Des3arlais (MGtis)B file ref' 7>>87AB claim no' 978' Morrissea-. a&oseB a!!ressI @orta/e la @rairieB *ornI 1879 at 1y$ress ,illsB fatherI ?ose$h Morrissea- (MGtis)B motherI Marie Des3arlais (MGtis)B scri$ cert'I form C. no' =77=B claim no' 15>=' Morrissea-. 2sa*elleB a!!ressI 4attlefor!B *ornI 187> at St' Francois WavierB fatherI ?ose$h Morrissea- (MGtis)B motherI 1atherine acerte (MGtis)B marrie!I 18>= at St' Francois Wavier to Simon MarronB chil!ren livin/I 8B chil!ren !ecease!I 1B scri$ for X1>A'AAB claim no' 9A=' %osselin. ?ose$hteB a!!ressI &oc6 a6eB claim no' 1>27B *ornI 1877 at &oc6 a6eB fatherI ?ose$h Morrissea- (MGtis)B motherI Marie Des3arlais (MGtis)B marrie!I 1891 at St' 0l$honse to 0ntoine %osselinB scri$ cert'I form C. no' =7>9' Morrissette, Adelaide -aroline ' (18=2-1919) See 0!elai!e 1aroline 4ranconnier' Morrissette, .eor"e' (*' 19=8) Metis $oet %eor/e Morrissette lives in St' 4oniface. Manito*a' %eor/e)s /ran!father. ?ean-4a$tiste Morrissette. ha! a stri$ farm alon/ the 0ssini*oine &iver in the 19th cent-ry' :his farm staye! within the family -ntil 195A' %eor/e)s /reat /reat /reat /ran!father was 0rson Morrissette. who came from L-e*ec to Manito*a in the early 18AAs an! marrie! :herese. an P3i*wa woman' %eor/e has two $oems “Michif :o-ne 4-ffalo" an! “ e @iM-e-niM-e !es @-rs" recently $-*lishe! in Manitowa$owI 0*ori/inal <ritin/s from the an! of <ater (?ames Sinclair an! <arren 1ario- EC!s'F <inni$e/I ,i/hwater @ress. 2A12I 1>7-17A) Morrisette, Marie Ann ;edo!& (1859-19>=)

17=

Marie 0nn was the !a-/hter of ?ose$h e!o-; an! 2sa*elle 4elan/er' She marrie! %eor/e Morrissette“@i-6a-ties"(*' 1858). the son of +or*ert ?ean Morrissette an! 4etsy 4ranconnier. in 1888' ,is *rother +or*ert was marrie! to ?-!ith Star*lan6et. !a-/hter of 1hief Star*lan6et (0ntoine 1hatelain)' Marie-0nne)s -ncles +or*ert an! 0*raham 4elan/er fo-/ht in the &esistance ,er co-sin @ierre was also active in the 1885 &esistance' ,er co-sin o-ise was marrie! to 0-/-stin afram*oise. a mem*er of M-s6e/ a6e *an!' ,e was 6ille! !-rin/ the fi/htin/ at D-c6 a6e' ,er co-sin ,elene was marrie! to Nital D-mont it 1ayole a &esistance activist from Pne 0rrow)s *an!' :he e!o-; women were marrie! to &esistance fi/hters an! ha! relatives in the Mistawasis. Star*lan6et. Pne 0rrow an! M-s6e/ a6e (@eteM-a6ey) 4an!s' %eor/e an! Marie-0nn live! on 4ea!y)s
@hoto contri*-te! *y ?ohn 0rcan! co$yri/ht to the %a*riel D-mont 2nstit-te. Nirt-al M-se-m'

&eserve an! he is *-rie! there' Marie0nn was 25 years ol! !-rin/ the 1885 &esistance at 4atoche. when she was a

coo6 for the Metis troo$s' Morrisette, 9ancy (Arcand). (191A-1987) 4y eah Dorion an! 4lanche %ehri/er nGe Morrisette +ancy 0rcan! was *orn to 1ecile Monto-r an! ?ean 4a$tiste (Pl! St' @ierre) 0rcan!' ,er $arents were *oth ori/inally from the 4atoche an! St' o-is area' +ancy ha! a very !iffic-lt life an! !i! not have m-ch formal e!-cation or any money to s$ea6 of' She was 3-st less than five feet tall an! wal6e! with a sli/ht lim$' She ha! an air a*o-t her that /ave the im$ression of !i/nity that comman!e! the res$ect of anyone who met her' She was very serio-s in her manner of s$ea6in/ an! wo-l!n)t hesitate to let yo6now if she !i!n)t a/ree with what yo- ha! to say' Some $eo$le !escri*e! her as a female %a*riel D-mont' +ancy s$o6e the Michif lan/-a/e an! was *orn near St' o-is. Sas6atchewan in a$$ro;imately 191A' ,er mother. 1ecile. !ie! at a$$ro;imately a/e thirty when +ancy was five years ol!' Many women !ie! yo-n/ at that time. -s-ally from har! wor6 an! the scarcity of !octors' +ancy tol! her !a-/hter 4lanche that she was allowe! to /o to school when she was nine years ol!' ,owever. *eca-se it was so har! to /et cloth an! *eca-se +ancy ha!n)t learne! to sew yet. she still wore the coat her mother ha! ma!e for her when she was five an! she was em*arrasse! to /o to school' <ithin a month of startin/. however. she was move! -$ to the secon! /ra!e' :hen her father ma!e her M-it. sayin/ she was nee!e! to ta6e care of the ho-se' She later ta-/ht herself to rea!' 2n 1928. at the a/e of ei/hteen +ancy 0rcan! marrie! ?eremy Morrisette at De*!en. Sas6atchewan' ?eremy Morrisette was *orn on March 2>. 19A> at M-s6e/ a6e &eserve' ,e event-ally lost his 2n!ian stat-s in or!er to move off the reserve an! fin! wor6' +ancy an! ?eremy settle! an! raise! their family in the Metis roa! allowance comm-nity of S$rin/ Nalley' :hey /rew -$ livin/ near other Metis families s-ch as the 1am$*ell)s.

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0rcan!)s. an! emire)s' :o/ether they ha! fo-rteen chil!renI 4erna!ette. Clci!e. 1ecile. &oseanne. %eor/e. @a-l. ?oey. @hilli$. eo. 5vonne. 4lanche. an! three chil!ren that $asse! away' +ancy hi/hly val-e! e!-cation an! was very $ro-! to see her sons an! !a-/hters have access to e!-cation' +ancy an! ?eremy ma!e a livin/ off the lan! an! its reso-rces' +ancy an! ?eremy were very eM-al in sharin/ this wor6loa! an! !i! thin/s as a team' :hey h-nte!. tra$$e!. an! fishe! to $rovi!e for the family' ?eremy sometimes wor6e! $ic6in/ $otatoes for local farmers to o*tain e;tra income for the family' 2t was often necessary for ?eremy to leave the family in or!er to fin! wor6 on the railroa! or at local farms' D-rin/ the time he was away +ancy s-rvive! *y h-ntin/ an! tra$$in/' @eo$le in the comm-nity res$ecte! her s6ill in loo6in/ after the animals they ha!' @eo$le that 6new her s$o6e of how fearless she was when it came to *rea6in/ in horses' She was also 6nown as a mi!wife an! $ossesse! a lar/e amo-nt of 6nowle!/e a*o-t tra!itional healin/ $lants' Pne of +ancy)s favorite ho**ies was ma6in/ *lan6ets' :he reason for this was she !i!n)t have a *lan6et when she was little' She -se! an ol! coat to wra$ herself in an! sle$t on the floor' +ancy sewe! clothin/ an! *lan6etsB her ra**it f-r *lan6ets were e;M-isite' +ancy an! other Metis women from the area -se! to have lar/e M-iltin/ *ees to ma6e *lan6ets' :he chil!ren recall that she always wore lon/ !resses an! moccasins' +ancy Morrisette was a har!wor6in/ Metis woman' :he chil!ren remem*er her $-shin/ a $low to *rea6 the lan! an! s$en!in/ lon/ ho-rs ten!in/ the /ar!en' ,er chil!ren also remem*er how $eo$le in the comm-nity collectively wor6e! the fiel!s !-rin/ harvest time so the families wo-l! /et all the wor6 !one' @overty is relativeB the family !i! not have many l-;-ry items. *-t always ha! the *asics' +ancy maintaine! stron/ &oman 1atholic reli/io-s *eliefs all her life an! never smo6e! or !ran6' She *ro-/ht -$ a lar/e family an! ha! many /ran!chil!ren' :he nei/h*o-r)s chil!ren an! co-sin)s chil!ren were always $resent at the ho-se' <hen the chil!ren were /rown -$ an! /one an! when her h-s*an! $asse! away she was $lace! in a rest home in D-c6 a6e. Sas6atchewan' :he reason she !i!n)t min! stayin/ there was that the $erson that ran the $lace was her co-sin' :his is where she $asse! away. a few miles from where she was *orn' (1ontri*-te! *y eah Dorion an! 4lanche %ehri/er nGe Morrisette. an! the Metis &eso-rce 1entre') Mosioner, Beatrice (-!lleton). (*' 1979) 4eatrice 1-lleton. a Manito*a Metis a-thor was *orn in St' 4oniface. Manito*a. to o-is an! Mary 1lara Mosioner' 4eatrice was the yo-n/est of fo-r chil!ren in a !ysf-nctional an! *ro6en home' 0t a/e three she was ta6en away from her $arents an! raise! in a series of foster homes. away from her family an! Metis herita/e' :a-nte! an! increasin/ly a*-se!. she *e/an to !eny her 0*ori/inal herita/e an! em*race! C-ro1ana!ian val-es' ,er $ersonal i!entity was *a!ly !ama/e! as she move! from foster home to foster home' S-ch e;$eriences !estroye! two of her sisters who en!e! their lives in s-ici!e' She event-ally settle! in :oronto. an! traine! as an acco-ntant. she never tho-/ht that she wo-l! *ecome a writer' ,owever. the $ain of her sister)s s-ici!e motivate! her to *e/in writin/' ,er first novel. :n Search of 1'ril .aintree was $-*lishe! in 198=' 1-lleton !i! not write the *oo6 from an a-to*io/ra$hical $ers$ective' “2ts what most $eo$le thin6" she says. “2 wrote this *oo6 for myselfB for answers after a secon! s-ici!e in my

175

family' 2 !i!n)t want to write a*o-t the real $eo$le aro-n! me'" (“0-thor 1-lleton a ,ero." 6he 4rum. Nol' = (2). 2AAAI 1=)' 1-lleton)s novel ill-strates the way in which a li/ht-s6inne! MGtis /irl. for whom assimilation into white society seems a $ossi*ility. is convince! *y her teachers. foster family. an! social wor6ers that +ative $eo$le are res$onsi*le for their own !isem$owerment an! that their social $ositionin/ is -naltera*le' :his *oo6 has *een -se! e;tensively in 1ana!ian hi/h schools in 1ana!ian iterat-re St-!ies' 1-lleton also wrote S'irit of the 5hite 3ison (a chil!ren)s *oo6) an! a film scri$t calle! 5alker. an! Ni!ht of the 6rickster. a $lay for the +ational Film 4oar! that was $ro!-ce! *y the +ative Carth @erform in/ 0rts in the s$rin/ of 1992' 1-lleton wor6e! as mana/in/ e!itor of @emmican @-*lications at one time an! was a reci$ient of Manito*a)s Pr!er of the 4-ffalo ,-nt in 1985' She has acte! as $laywri/ht-inresi!ence for +ative @erformin/ 0rts' (<ritten with contri*-tions from the %a*riel D-mont 2nstit-te') Mo!rea!, )onas' (*' 1871) ?onas was *orn at St' +or*ert. the son of ?ean 4a$tiste Morea- an! Francoise 4ea-cham$' ,e marrie! 1ecile Des3arlais' :he family live! at St' +or*ert. C!monton. D-c6 a6e an! 4attlefor!' ?onas was a 1a$tain of one of the 19 com$anies le! *y %a*riel D-mont !-rin/ the 1885 Metis &esistance' M-rray. 0le;an!er. M' '0' (18=9-191=) 0le;an!er. a ,-!son)s 4ay Scottish (@rotestant) ,alf-4ree!. was *orn at Kil!onan on 0$ril 18. 18=9 an! e!-cate! at St' ?ohn)s 1olle/e' ,e was the son of ?ames (Scot) M-rray an! CliOa*eth ,olmes' ,e was marrie! to etitia Flett the !a-/hter of &ev' %eor/e Flett an! Francis 1oo6' 0le;an!er was electe! to the Manito*a le/islat-re in 1877. re-electe! in 1878. 1879 an! 188= from the St' 1harles ri!in/' ,e was S$ea6er of the ,o-se from 188=-188>' ,e !i! not $-*licly associate with the French Metis as !i! fellow Metis le/islator o-is Schmi!t' M!nro, )ohn /illiam “7iscon”. (*' 18=1)

17>

?ohn M-nro was the son of ,-/h M-nro1AA an! Sino-ahaha (1ree)' 2n 1857 at ac Ste' 0nne. ?ohn marrie! 2sa*elle Francois -ssier *orn 1828. the !a-/hter of Francois -ssier an! CliOa*eth 4r-nea-' ,is secon! marria/e in 1887 was to 1hristina Des3arlais. the !a-/hter of Francois @eyasis Des3arlais an! C-$hrosine 0-/er' ?ohn <illiam M-nro was em$loye! with the ,41 (1857-1877) on the Sas6atchewan &iver an! was a 4lac6foot inter$reter (187A-1877) at &oc6y Mo-ntain ,o-se' ,e was then a free tra!er (1857-187A) li6ely on the Sas6atchewan &iver' ?ohn M-nroe acte! as a /-i!e for ?ohn ,ealy of the tra!in/ firm ,amilton an! ,ealy' ,ealy ha! ret-rne! to Montana in 18>=. 3-st as r-mo-rs were circ-latin/ a*o-t ma3or /ol! !iscoveries on the +orth Sas6atchewan &iver' Men ret-rnin/ from Fort C!monton an! &oc6y Mo-ntain ,o-se re$orte! /oo! colo-rs *ein/ fo-n! in the river an! $re!icte! that a stri6e wo-l! *e ma!e' 0 n-m*er of $ros$ectors. incl-!in/ ,ealy. /ot to/ether an! en/a/e! ?ohn Q@iscanQ M-nro to /-i!e them thro-/h 4lac6foot co-ntry to the northern river' @iscan was a son of the famo-s @lainsman. ,-/h M-nro. an! was well 6nown to *oth the 4ritish an! 0mericans' 2n 18>9. the tra!in/ firm of ,amilton an! ,ealy move! north from Montana into “4ritish $ossessions" to esta*lish a fort which was *eyon! the 3-ris!iction of 0merican a-thorities' ocate! at the confl-ence of the 4elly an! St' Mary rivers. near the $resent city of eth*ri!/e. the $ost was ori/inally name! Fort ,amilton *-t soon *ecame notorio-s as Fort <hoo$-#$' Pn Se$tem*er 22. 1877 ?ohn M-nro an! other Metis at 4lac6foot 1rossin/ $resente! a $etition ($re$are! on Se$tem*er 19) to ie-tenant-%overnor Davi! air! ie-tenant %overnor. +'<':' concernin/ Metis lan! claims' M-nro was em$loye! as an inter$reter for :reaty Seven. ne/otiate! 3-st !ays $rior to this $etitionI Pn Mon!ay afternoon. Se$tem*er 17. 1877. 1ommissioners air! an! Macleo! met with the chiefs who were in atten!ance at the treaty /ro-n!s' ?ames 4ir!. assiste! *y ?ohn M-nro an! 2si!ore St' D-val. han!le! the inter$retin/ for the /overnment' ?ean S,e-re-;. who live! in 1rowfootSs cam$. acte! for the 2n!ians altho-/h his services were $ai! for *y the /overnment' Si*lin/sI • 0ntoine M-nroe. *-1822. 0l*erta a son of ,-/h M-nroe an! Srano$a Pto6an 4lac6footB ,e marrie! in 1855 at ac Ste 0nne. 0nne %enevieve 1am$ion. Metis. *-18=5 esser Slave a6e. !a-/hter ?ose$h Sa$in !it 1am$ion. *-1797 an! Marie +i$issin/. *-181A'' ,-/h Monroe. *orn 1825 &oc6y Mo-ntain ,o-se. +orth <est !ie! 1875 &e! Deer &iver' 2n 1875 he marrie! a @ie/an woman'

1AA

,-/h Monroe (1) also 6nown as Pl! Man M-nroe was *orn in 1787 at Montreal' ,e arrive! at Fort C!monton18A2' ,e 1st marrie! Srano$a Pto6an (4lac6foot) in 1821B 2n! marrie! 18=A Sino-ahaha (1ree)' ,is thir! marria/e in 1878 was to Mary (@ie/an)' M-nro 3oine! the ,41 (1815-1877) at Fort C!monton. was a free man at Fort C!monton (182=-18=2). an inter$reter (18=2-1877) Fort C!monton. retire! 1877 on the Sas6atchewan &iver. !ie! on the 4lac6foot &eservation. at 4rownin/. Montana in 189>'

177

• • • • •

Feli; Monroe. *orn 1825. !ie! *efore 1885 ,e officially marrie! in 1855 at ac Ste0nne. to o-ise Se/-in !it a!ero-te. *orn 1825. 1-m*erlan!. Sas6atchewan' Cmilie M-nro. *orn 1829 marrie! ?an-ary 2A. 1852 St' Mary)s 0n/lican 1h-rch. &e! &iver 1linton ?ac6son *orn 181A son Francois ?ac6son. the co-$le live! at @orta/e a@rairie' Mary Monroe. *orn 1875. !ie! *efore 1885 an! marrie! 18>1 C!mon! ,o-sinea-' Francois Monroe. *orn 1879. Pl! Man &iver (0l*erta). Francois is the half*rother of ?ohn M-nro. the son of ,-/h M-roe an! Mary (@ie/an) *orn on the Pl! Man &iver' ,e marrie! Marie Sol!at. the !a-/hter of ?ose$h Sol!at an! Marie Moi/nant in 18>5 at C!monton' :hey ha! fo-r chil!ren' ,e s-*seM-ently marrie! Mar/-erite Stan!s-0lone in 1879 at S-n &iver. Montana. they ha! three chil!ren' iOOie M-nroe. marrie! 18>8 ?oe Dechiel' M-nro' Francois' (*' 1879)'

• •

M!nro, =rancois. (*' 1879) Francois is the half-*riother of ?ohn M-nro. the son of ,-/h M-roe1A1 an! Mary (@ie/an) *orn on the Pl! Man &iver' ,e marrie! Marie Sol!at. the !a-/hter of ?ose$h Sol!at an! Marie Moi/nant in 18>5 at C!monton' :hey ha! fo-r chil!ren' ,e s-*seM-ently marrie! Mar/-erite Stan!s-0lone in 1879 at S-n &iver. Montana. they ha! three chil!ren' Francois si/ne! a Se$tem*er 19. 1877 @etition from ?ohn M-nro an! other Metis at 4lac6foot 1rossin/ that was $resente! to ie-tenant-%overnor Davi! air! ie-tenant %overnor. +'<':' 2n this $etition they as6e! for farmin/ im$lements an! see! to *e/in to settle an! till the lan!' :hey also reM-este! h-ntin/ ri/hts' M!rray, Ale&ander “Sandy”, M.;.A. (18=9-191=) 0le;an!er was *orn in Kil!onan on 0$ril 18. 18=9. the son of ?ames M-rray (Scott) an! CliOa*eth ,olmes (Metis)' ,e was e!-cate! at St' ?ohn)s 1olle/e -n!er 4isho$ 0n!erson an! won a scholarshi$ in 1857' 2n 18>1 he marrie! etitia Flett (also Metis). the !a-/hter of the &everen! %eor/e Flett an! Frances Fanny 1oo6' :hey ha! seven chil!ren' 0le;an!er was one of the fo-n!ers of the <inni$e/ 4oar! of :ra!e. in 187=' ,e was
101

,-/h Monroe (1) also 6nown as Pl! Man M-nroe was *orn in 1787 at Montreal' ,e arrive! at Fort C!monton 18A2' ,e 1st marrie! Srano$a Pto6an (4lac6foot) in 1821B 2n! marrie! 18=A Sino-ahaha (1ree)' ,is thir! marria/e in 1878 was to Mary (@ie/an)' M-nro 3oine! the ,41 (1815-1877) at Fort C!monton. was a free man at Fort C!monton (182=-18=2). an inter$reter (18=2-1877) Fort C!monton. retire! 1877 on the Sas6atchewan &iver. !ie! on the 4lac6foot &eservation. at 4rownin/. Montana in 189>'

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electe! to the Manito*a e/islat-re in 1877 an! re-electe! in 1878 for the constit-ency of St' 1harles' ,e vacate! his seat to serve as @olice Ma/istrate in Cast MarM-ette. *-t remaine! in the $osition *riefly' 2n 1879. he was electe! to the le/islat-re for 0ssini*oia. an! re-electe! in 188= as a i*eral-1onservative' 2n 0$ril he was a$$ointe! S$ea6er of the ,o-se in which ca$acity he serve! -ntil Decem*er 188>' ,e was a$$ointe! Minister of M-nici$al 0ffairs on ?-ly 7. 1887. an! remaine! in office -ntil 0$ril =A. 1888' ,e then acce$te! a $ost in the M-nici$al 1ommissioner)s office which he hel! for many years' ,e was twice a !ele/ate to Pttawa as a $romoter of “4etter :erms'" ,e !ie! at the family resi!ence in St' 1harles on May 12. 191=. an! was *-rie! in ,ea!in/ley 1emetery'

179