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Prof. Dr. Padma Bahadur Shahi

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**Geometric Design of Railway Track
**

Geometric design should be such as to provide maximum efficiency in the traffic operation with maximum safety at reasonable cost. Gradient Any departure of track from the level is known as grade or gradient. Purpose of providing gradient: • To provide uniform rate of rise or fall, • To reduce cost of earth work. • To reach different stations at different level 2

Types of gradient

• Ruling gradient: The steepest gradient allowed on the track section. It determines the max load that the locomotive can haul that section. The steep gradient needs more powerful locomotives, smaller train loads, lower speed, resulting in costly hauling.

– In plains: – In hilly regions: 1 in 150 to 1 in 200 1 in 100 to 1 in 150

• Momentum Gradient: The gradient on a section which are steeper than the ruling gradient acquire sufficient momentum to negotiate them are known as momentum gradient. • Pusher gradient: As stated above a ruling gradient limits the maximum weight of a train which can be hauled over the section by a locomotive. If the ruling gradient is so severe on a section that it needs the help of extra engine to pull the same load than this gradient is known as pusher of helper gradient. In Darjeeling Railways 1 in 37 pusher gradient is used on Western Ghat BG Track. • Gradient at stations: at stations gradient are provided sufficient low due to following reason:

– To prevent movement of standing vehicle – To prevent additional resistance due to grade.

**On Indian railways, maximum gradient permitted is 1 in 400 in station yards.
**

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**Grade compensation on curves
**

• If a curve is provided on a track with ruling gradient, the resistance of the track will be increased this curve. In order to avoid resistance beyond the allowable limits, the gradients are reduced on curves. The reduction in gradient is known as grade compensation for curves. BG track: 0.04% per degree of curve MG track: 0.03 % per degree of curve NG track: 0.02 % per degree of curve

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• • •

Degree of curve:

• A curve is defined by its degree or radius. The degree of a curve is the angle subtended at the center by a chord of 100 feet or 30.48m. • R is the radius of curve; • Circumference of the curve= 2 ∏ R • Angle subtended at the center by the circle = 360 degree • Angle subtended by the arc of 30.48m =

360 1747.26 1750 X 30.48 = ≈ 2∏ R R R

• Thus, a 1 degree curve has a radius of 1750 m.

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Grade compensation

• Numerical example: The ruling gradient on a BG track section has been fixed as 1 in 200. What should be the compensated gradient when a 4 degree horizontal curve is to be provided on this ruling gradient? • Solution: As per IS recommendation the grade compensation on BG track is 0.04 % per degree of the curve. • Then compensation for 4 degree curve = 0.04 X 4= 0.16% • Ruling gradient is 1 in 200 = 0.5 % • Allowable gradient to be provided = 0.5 – 0.16 = 0.34 = 1 in 249

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Elements of Circular Curve

Refer Transportation I for this topic.

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**Superelevation on Curves (Cant)
**

• Cant: It is defined as the difference in height between the inner and outer rails on the curve. It is provided by gradually raising the outer rail above the inner rail level. The inner rail is considered as the reference rail and normally is maintained at its original level. The inner rail is known as the gradient rail. Function of superelevation:

– – – – Neutralizes the effect of lateral force It provides better load distribution on the two rails. It reduces wear and tear of rails and rolling stock. It provides smooth running of trains and comforts to the passengers

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•

Speeds

• Equilibrium speed: It is the speed at which the effect of centrifugal force is exactly balanced by the superelevation provided. It can also be said that when the speed of a vehicle running on a curved track is such that the resultant weight of the vehicle and the effect of radical acceleration is perpendicular to the plane of rails and the vehicle is not subjected to an unbalanced radical acceleration, is in equilibrium then its particular speed is called equilibrium speed. • Maximum permissible speed: This is the highest speed which may be allowed or permitted on a curved track taking into consideration of the radius of curvature, actual cant, cant deficiency, cant excess and the length of the transition curve. When, the maximum permissible speed on the curve is less than the maximum sanctioned speed of the section of a line, permanent speed restriction become necessary on such curves.

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Cant……

• Cant deficiency: Cant deficiency is the difference between the equilibrium cant (theoritical) necessary for the maximum permissible speed on a curve and the actual cant provided there. As per Indian Railways, Cant deficiency is recommended as follow:

– BG Track: – MG track: – NG track: 75 mm 50 mm 40 mm

• Cant Excess: When a train travels on a curved rack at a speed lower than the equilibrium speed, then the cant excess occurs. It is the difference between the actual cant provided and the theoretical cant required for such lower speeds. Maximum value for cant excess is

BG track: MG Track: 75 mm 65 mm

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Centrifugal Force:

• When a body moves on a circular curve, it has a tendency to move in a straight direction tangential to the curve. This tendency of the body is due to the fact that the body is subjected to a constant radial acceleration.

v2 Radial acceleration = R

This radial acceleration produces a force known as centrifugal force whose value is given by the following relation:

Wv F = gR

2

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e P = G W

e P = G W P e = *G W

GV e= gR

2

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Superelevation

GV e= 127 R

• Where, e is super elevation in mm; G is the gauge in mm + width of the rail head in mm; V speed of the train in kmph; R radius of the curve in m.

– For BG track: – For MG track: – For NG track: G = 1676 mm+ 74 mm=1.75 m G = 1.058 m G= 0.772 m

2

G for: BG track-1.676+0.074=1.750 m MG :1.058m NG: 0.772m

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**Maximum value of superlevation:
**

• the maximum value of superlelevation has been decided on the basis of experiments carried out by many researchers. The maximum value of superelevation generally on many railways of the world has been adopted about 1/10th to 1/12th of the gauge. As per Indian railways:

– BG Track: – MG track: – NG track:

165mm (normal condition); 185 (special permission) 90 mm (normal condition), 100 (special permission) 65 mm (normal condition), 75 (special permission)

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**Maximum degree of Curve:
**

• It depends on various factors such as gauge, wheel base of vehicle, maximum superelevation and other such factors. As per Indian railways:

Gauge

On plain track Max degree Min radius, m 175 109 44

**On turn out Max degree 8 15 17 Min radius, m 218 116 103
**

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BG MG NG

10 16 40

**Safe speed on curves
**

On the curves the safe speed can be calculated empirically by the following formula: a) For BG and MG on transition curve:

V = 4 . 4 R − 70

For non-transition curve (80% of the speed on the transition curve):

V = 0 . 8 * 4 . 4 R − 70

b) For High speed track:

V = 4 . 58 R

R is the radius in m, V is speed in Kmph:

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Rational formula

• Rational formula considering superelevation:

a) BG track: V = 0 . 27 ( Ca + Cd ) R

Ca is actual cant provided in mm; Cd is the cant deficiency permitted in mm; R is radius in m; V is maximum speed in kmph.

b) On MG track:

V = 0 . 347 ( Ca + Cd ) R

C) On NG track:

V = 3 . 65 R − 6

R is the radius in m, V is speed in Kmph:

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**Maximum permissible speed on curves
**

a) Maximum sanctioned speed of the section: this is the maximum permissible speed authorized by the commissioner of rail safety. b) Safe speed on curves:

• For BG and MG on transition curve:

V = 4 . 4 R − 70

• On high speed track

V = 4 . 58 R

• For non-transition curve (80% of the speed on the transition curve):

V = 0 . 8 * 4 . 4 R − 70

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**Maximum permissible speed……
**

c)

Maximum speed of section taking into account the super elevation and cant deficiency cant deficiency: (use of rational formula)

– BG Track:

V = 0 . 27 ( Ca + Cd ) R

MG Track:

V = 0 . 347

( Ca + Cd ) R

NG track:

V = 3 . 65 R − 6

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**Maximum permissible speed……
**

• Speed corresponding to the length of transition curve: CaVm for speed up to 100 kmph. L= 125

L is the desirable length of transition curve; Ca is actual cant in mm; Vm is the maximum permissible speed, in Kmph

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Numerical Examples

a) On a BG route involving high speed, A 100 m transition curve has been provided and a superelevation of 80mm has been managed. The degree of curve is 10 and the maximum sanctioned speed for the curved section is 170 kmph. Determine maximum permissible speed on the curve.

(Hint: assume cant deficiency as 100 mm)

b)

Find out the superelevation to be provided and the maximum permissible speed for 20 BG transition curve on a high speed route having a maximum sanctioned speed of the section as 100 kmph. For calculating the equilibrium superelevation the speed given as 75 kmph and the booked speed for goods traffic is 50 kmph.

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Numerical Examples

c) Calculate the superelevation and maximum permissible speed for a 30 curve on a high speed BG track with the following data:

– maximum sanctioned speed = 130 kmph – equilibrium speed = 85 kmph – booked speed for goods train = 50 kmph Solution hints: – Calculate R – Equilibrium superelevation (with V = 85kmph): – Equilibrium superelevation for sanctioned speed(130kmph): – Cant deficiency: which is more than permissible value of 100mm – Actual cant then to be provided = should be maximum value of 165mm. – Equilibrium superelevation for goods train for 50kmph (e=59mm) 22 – Cant access= 165-59=106mm but (limited to the 75mm.)

)

**Calculate the maximum permissible on a curve of high speed BG route with the following data:
**

– – – – Degree of curve = Superelevation = Length of transition curve = Sanctioned speed of the section = 10 85 mm 125m 170 kmph

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Transition Curves

Objectives of providing transition curves: – To attain gradual rise of the outer rail; – To decrease the radius of the curve gradually from infinite at the straight end of the rack to that of the circular curve at the junction with the circular curve of the selected radius. – To provide smooth running of vehicles and provide comfort to the passengers – To reduce chance of derailment.

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Types of Transition Curve

This is adopted in Indian railways. Rate of decrease of the radius of curvature increases rapidly 3 X Equation of the cubic parabola is Y=

6 RL

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**Length of transition curve:
**

• The distance along the center line of the track between the starting point on the straight portion of the track and the meeting point on the junction with the circular curve is called the transition curve length. • For Indian railways it can be calculated with the help of following equation and the greatest of all should be adopted.

– Based on the arbitrary gradient (1 in 720): L = 7.2 x e – Based on the rate of change of cant deficiency: L = 0.073D x Vmax – Based on the change of superelevation: L = 0.073 x e x Vmax

• L is the length of transition curve in m; e is the actual cant in cm; D is the cant deficiency in cm; V is the maximum speed in kmph.

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**Length of transition curve
**

• Length of the transition curve should be taken as the maximum value given by the following formula:

– Railway code: L = 4.4 √R; where R is the radius of the curve (L and R in meter) – At the rate of change of superelevation of 1 in 360; i.e, 1 cm for every 3.6 m length of track.

• Based on the rate of change of radial acceleration: • Based on the maximum permissible speed:

CaVm L= 134

0 . 066 V L= R

2

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Numerical example:

Find out the length of transition curve for a four degree BG circular curved track having a cant of 15 cm. the maximum permissible speed on the curve is 90 kmph. Find out the shift and offset at every 15 m interval of the curve. Draw the transition curve also. Assume maximum permissible cant deficiency is 75 mm.

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• Solution hints:

– Length of transition curve: – L = 7.2 x e =7.2 x 15 = 108 m – L= 0.073D x Vmax.

=0.073 x 7.5 x 90 = 49.28

– L = 0.073 x e Vmax

= 0.073 x 15 x 90 = 98.55

Hence the length of Curve will be the greatest of three values i.e 108 m. 29

• Shift = L2/24R = (108 x 108)/(24 x 1750/4) = 11664/10500 = 1.11m • Offset at every 15 m interval is calculated by the cubic parabola equation as follows

• At 15 m;

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• • •

At 30 m; Y2 = 9.52cm At 45m; Y3 = 32.2 cm At 105m Y7 = 408 cm

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Vertical curves

•

– –

**Types of vertical curves:
**

Summit curve Valley curve

•

As per existing provision the vertical curves are provided only at the junctions of the grades where algebraic difference between the grades is equal to or more than 4 mm per meter or 0.4% the minimum radius of the vertical curve should be as follows:

BG Track: MG track:

A: 4000m; B: 3000m; C, D & E: minimum 2500m 2500m

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**Length of vertical curve
**

• Length of vertical curve: L=Rθ

– L is the length of vertical curve – R is the radius of vertical curve as per given table – Θ is the difference in percentage of gradients (expressed in radian)

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Numerical Example

• A rising gradient of 1 in 150 m meets a falling gradient of 1 in 250 on a group A route. The intersection point has a chainage of 1000m and its RL is 100 m Calculate following:

– i) Length of the vertical curve – ii) RL of vertical length and chainage of various points

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Solution Hints:

• • • • First gradient = +0.67 % Second gradient = -0.4 % Difference in gradient = +0.67-(-0.4) = 1.07 % Radius of the curve as per given value R = 4000m

– – – – – Then L = Rxθ = 4000x(1.07/100)= 42.8 m. Chainage of point A = 1000-21.4 = 978.6m Chainage of point B 1000+21.4 = 1021.4 m RL of point A = 100-(21.4/150) = 99.860m RL of point B = 100 – (21.4/250) = 99.914m

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- जग्गा-प्राप्ति-ऐन-२०३४
- safer vehicle guidelines
- Railway 1
- RA IMS Flyer
- Visio-poster.pdf
- photos.pdf
- Pavement Design Guidelines (Flexible), Nepal
- Lecture notes in Airport Engineering
- Road Safety Inspection Kohalpur_Harre_Ratna Highway
- Multi-criteria evaluation of rural road projects
- Road Accident Information Management System
- Road Transport Safety and Axle Load Control Study in Nepal
- Vehicle overloading
- Vehicle overloading
- Public Awareness Campaign Manual
- Transportation Engineering I (chapter II/III
- Transportation Engineering I
- Overloading Control in Nepal
- Pavement Design guidelines (flexible) for Nepal
- Road Safety Audit Photos
- Butwal topo sheet
- Pavement Design Guidelines (flexible pavement)
- Railway Engineering Model Questions.pdf
- Points & Crossings and Station, Platforms & Yards

lecture notes

lecture notes

- Railway Engineering
- geometric design
- Railway Engineering Model Questions.pdf
- Points & Crossings and Station, Platforms & Yards
- Introduction to Railway Engineering
- earth work in railway
- V8.9Bentley Rail Track Tutorial
- Airport Geometric Standard
- Geometric Design
- The Railway Track
- railway engineering.pdf
- Infrastructure-Failures of Rigid Pavements
- Airport Engineering
- Lecture notes in Airport Engineering
- Airport Engineering
- Iit Rigid -Stresses
- Bentley Rail Track Design Tips
- pavement evaluation.ppt
- Railway
- chap6-10 - Khosla
- Well Foundation
- Railway Engineering
- Tunnel Engineering
- Introduction of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) System in Kathmandu Ring Road.
- Railway Track Design
- Runway PPT
- Airport Engineering, 0471527556
- Transportation Engineering Good reference
- Classification of Roads in India
- superelevation dl.pdf
- Geometric design of Railways

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