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## SI Units Used in Mechanics

Quantity Unit SI Symbol
m kg s m/s2 rad/s2 m2 kg/m3 N ( kg m/s2) Hz ( 1/s) Ns Nms Nm m4 kg m2 kg m/s ( N s) kg m2/s ( N m s) W ( J/s N m/s) Pa ( N/m2) m4 kg m2 N/m m/s rad/s m3 J ( N m) ( 1,852 km) t ( 1000 kg) (1.852 km/h) d h min

(Base Units) Length meter* Mass kilogram Time second (Derived Units) Acceleration, linear meter/second2 Acceleration, angular radian/second2 Area meter2 Density kilogram/meter3 Force newton Frequency hertz Impulse, linear newton-second Impulse, angular newton-meter-second Moment of force newton-meter Moment of inertia, area meter4 Moment of inertia, mass kilogram-meter2 Momentum, linear kilogram-meter/second Momentum, angular kilogram-meter2/second Power watt Pressure, stress pascal Product of inertia, area meter4 Product of inertia, mass kilogram-meter2 Spring constant newton/meter Velocity, linear meter/second Velocity, angular radian/second Volume meter3 Work, energy joule (Supplementary and Other Acceptable Units) Distance (navigation) nautical mile Mass ton (metric) Plane angle degrees (decimal) Plane angle radian Speed knot Time day Time hour Time minute *Also spelled metre.

## Selected Rules for Writing Metric Quantities SI Unit Prexes

Multiplication Factor 1 000 000 000 000 1012 1 000 000 000 109 1 000 000 106 1 000 103 100 102 10 10 0.1 101 0.01 102 0.001 103 0.000 001 106 0.000 000 001 109 0.000 000 000 001 1012 Prex tera giga mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro nano pico Symbol T G M k h da d c m n p
1. (a) Use prexes to keep numerical values generally between 0.1 and 1000. (b) Use of the prexes hecto, deka, deci, and centi should generally be avoided except for certain areas or volumes where the numbers would be awkward otherwise. (c) Use prexes only in the numerator of unit combinations. The one exception is the base unit kilogram. (Example: write kN/m not N/mm; J/kg not mJ/g) (d) Avoid double prexes. (Example: write GN not kMN) 2. Unit designations (a) Use a dot for multiplication of units. (Example: write N m not Nm) (b) Avoid ambiguous double solidus. (Example: write N/m2 not N/m/m) (c) Exponents refer to entire unit. (Example: mm2 means (mm)2) 3. Number grouping Use a space rather than a comma to separate numbers in groups of three, counting from the decimal point in both directions. Example: 4 607 321.048 72) Space may be omitted for numbers of four digits. (Example: 4296 or 0.0476)

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E NGINEERING M ECHANICS
V O L U M E 1

STATICS
SIXTH EDITION SI VERSION

J. L. MERIAM L. G. KRAIGE
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

## John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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On the Cover: The Gateway Arch in St. Louis was first conceived by architect Eero Saarinen in the late 1940s. Later, a team of engineers led by John Dinkeloo devised further design details, and construction was completed in 1965. The shape of the 630-ft-high arch is that of a weighted catenary . This configuration could be formed by suspending a nonuniform flexible cable (symmetrically heavier near its ends) from two points on a horizontal line, freezing that shape, and inverting. Associate Publisher Senior Production Editor Daniel Sayre Sujin Hong; Production Management Services provided by Camelot Editorial Services, LLC Executive Marketing Manager Christopher Ruel Senior Designer Kevin Murphy Cover Design David Levy Cover Photo Medioimages/Media Bakery Senior Illustration Editor Sigmund Malinowski Electronic Illustrations Precision Graphics Senior Photo Editor Lisa Gee New Media Editor Stephanie Liebman This book was set in 10.5/12 ITC Century Schoolbook by GGS Book Services, and printed and bound by VonHoffman, Inc. The cover was printed by VonHoffman, Inc. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, website www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, website http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. To order books or for customer service, please call 1-800-CALL WILEY (225-5945). Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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F OREWORD

This series of textbooks was begun in 1951 by the late Dr. James L. Meriam. At that time, the books represented a revolutionary transformation in undergraduate mechanics education. They became the denitive textbooks for the decades that followed as well as models for other engineering mechanics texts that have subsequently appeared. Published under slightly different titles prior to the 1978 First Editions, this textbook series has always been characterized by logical organization, clear and rigorous presentation of the theory, instructive sample problems, and a rich collection of real-life problems, all with a high standard of illustration. In addition to the U.S. versions, the books have appeared in SI versions and have been translated into many foreign languages. These texts collectively represent an international standard for undergraduate texts in mechanics. The innovations and contributions of Dr. Meriam (19172000) to the eld of engineering mechanics cannot be overstated. He was one of the premier engineering educators of the second half of the twentieth century. Dr. Meriam earned his B.E., M. Eng., and Ph.D. degrees from Yale University. He had early industrial experience with Pratt and Whitney Aircraft and the General Electric Company. During the Second World War he served in the U.S. Coast Guard. He was a member of the faculty of the University of CaliforniaBerkeley, Dean of Engineering at Duke University, a faculty member at the California Polytechnic State UniversitySan Luis Obispo, and visiting professor at the University of California Santa Barbara, nally retiring in 1990. Professor Meriam always placed great emphasis on teaching, and this trait was recognized by his students wherever he taught. At Berkeley in 1963, he was the rst recipient of the Outstanding Faculty Award of Tau Beta Pi, given primarily for excellence in teaching. In 1978, he received the Distinguished Educator Award for Outstanding Service to Engineering Mechanics Education from the American Society for Engineering Education, and in 1992 was the Societys recipient of the Benjamin Garver Lamme Award, which is ASEEs highest annual national award. Dr. L. Glenn Kraige, coauthor of the Engineering Mechanics series since the early 1980s, has also made signicant contributions to mechanics education. Dr. Kraige earned his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees at the University of Virginia, principally in aerospace engi-

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Foreword