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Miocene

Pliocene
Homo; archaic humans Homo Paranthropus Austalopithecus A. afarensis has derived traits: foramen magnum, lumbar curve, angled femur, big to line (biped complex); ancestral traits: small brain, ape like ribcage (trunk); 1st faculty biped (speculated orrorin is 1st)

Pielostocene
H. habilis: first major increase in brain capacity (600 - 775 cc) Definite tool use (oldowan flake tools) Post orbital contriction (lack dev. of temporal lobe) H. ergaster/ erectus and everyone before lacks it. Low slopping forehead (lack dev. of frontal lobe) Neandertals and everyone before lack it Chewing complex: robust hominin

H. ergaster A. africanus H. rudolfensis / H. habilis A. afarensis A. anamensis A. garhi P. boisei P. aethiopicus

H. erectus

P. robustus

H. heidelbergensis H. neanderalensis
300,000 30,000 kya

H. antecessor

5 mya

4 mya

3 mya

2 mya

1 mya

.5 mya .25 mya

0 mya

Bipedal complex: toes, foot arch, knee, pelvis. Fossil: Australopithecus afarensis. (lucy)

Elongated femur; part of bipedal complex Fossil: Australopithecus garhi (surprise) #1: transitional limb proportions # 2 tool users (same small brain)

Shortened forearm Fossil: Homo ergaster (Turkana boy) Obligate biped 1st campsite; fire 1st altricial babies

The modern human face ,200 kya; H. sapiens sapiens Precision grip: 92 kya H. sapien sapien

Holocene, 12kya -