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Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamics

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5.2 Let the symbols Q and Work represent rates in kJ/s. Then by Eq. (5.8) η= TC Work = 1− QH TH TH := 798.15⋅ K TC ⎞ TH ⎠ or By Eq. (5.1), Work = 148.78 kJ s QH := 250⋅ kJ s

TC := 323.15⋅ K Work := QH⋅ ⎜ 1 −

⎛ ⎝

Work = 148.78 kW which is the power. Ans. QC = 101.22 kJ s Ans.

QC := QH − Work

5.3 (a) Let symbols Q and Work represent rates in kJ/s TH := 750⋅ K By Eq. (5.8): η= Work QH TC := 300⋅ K η := 1 − TC TH QH := Work := −95000⋅ kW η = 0.6 Work η

But

Whence

5 QH = 1.583 × 10 kW Ans.

QC := QH − Work (b) η := 0.35 QH := Work η

4 QC = 6.333 × 10 kW Ans. 5 QH = 2.714 × 10 kW Ans. 5 QC = 1.764 × 10 kW Ans.

QC := QH − Work

5.4 (a) TC := 303.15⋅ K η Carnot := 1 − TC TH

**TH := 623.15⋅ K η := 0.55⋅ η Carnot
**

123

η = 0.282

Ans.

(b)

η := 0.35

η Carnot := TH :=

η 0.55 TC

η Carnot = 0.636 TH = 833.66 K Ans.

By Eq. (5.8),

1 − η Carnot

5.7

**Let the symbols represent rates where appropriate. Calculate mass rate of LNG evaporation: V := 9000⋅ m s
**

3

P := 1.0133⋅ bar mLNG := P⋅ V ⋅ molwt R⋅ T

T := 298.15⋅ K mLNG = 6254 kg s

molwt := 17

gm mol

Maximum power is generated by a Carnot engine, for which QH − QC QH TH Work = = −1= −1 QC QC QC TC TH := 303.15⋅ K QC := 512⋅ kJ ⋅ mLNG kg TC := 113.7⋅ K QC = 3.202 × 10 kW

6

Work := QC⋅ ⎜

⎛ TH ⎝ TC

−1

⎞ ⎠

**Work = 5.336 × 10 kW QH = 8.538 × 10 kW
**

6

6

Ans. Ans.

QH := QC + Work

5.8

Take the heat capacity of water to be constant at the valueCP := 4.184⋅ (a) T1 := 273.15⋅ K T2 := 373.15⋅ K Q := CP⋅ ( T2 − T1) kJ kg⋅ K kJ kg⋅ K Ans.

kJ kg⋅ K kJ Q = 418.4 kg

∆SH2O := CP⋅ ln ⎜ ∆Sres := −Q T2

⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎝ T1 ⎠

**∆SH2O = 1.305 ∆Sres = −1.121
**

124

9 Q := 15000⋅ J (a) Const.06⋅ m CV := 5 ⋅R 2 3 5. P2 P1 T2 T1 Q n⋅ CV ∆U = Q + W = Q = n⋅ CV⋅ ( T2 − T1) T2 = 1 × 10 K ∆S = n⋅ ⎜ CP⋅ ln ⎜ 3 ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎝ T1 ⎠ − R⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎞ ⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎠ ∆S = 20. 125 .794⋅ J K Ans. each one exchanging an infinitesimal quantity of heat with the water and raising its temperature by a differential increment. T2 := T1 + By Eq. The entropy change of the surroundings is zero. P1 := 1⋅ bar n := P 1⋅ V R⋅ T1 T1 := 500⋅ K n = 1. but divided into two halves. (c) The reversible heating of the water requires an infinite number of heat reservoirs covering the range of temperatures from 273. (b) The entropy change of the water is the same as in (a).208 kJ kg⋅ K ∆Stotal := ∆Sres + ∆SH2O kJ kg⋅ K Ans.794 J K Ans. and the total heat transfer is the same.184 kJ kg⋅ K Ans.18). The stirring process is irreversible.15⋅ K ⎠ ∆Stotal = 0.15 to 373. ∆Sres := −Q ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⋅⎜ + 2 ⎝ 323.097 ∆Sres = −1.-V heating. (5.15 K. But = Whence ∆S := n⋅ CV⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎝ T1 ⎠ (b) The entropy change of the gas is the same as in (a).15⋅ K 373.∆Stotal := ∆SH2O + ∆Sres ∆Stotal = 0. Whence ∆Stotal = 10.443 mol V := 0.

Now ∆SA := CP⋅ ln ⎛ ⎜ ∆SA = 8. 120 degC.726 463. there is a 10-degC driving force for heat transfer throughout the exchanger.15 ⎠ J mol⋅ K ∆SB := CP⋅ ln ⎛ ⎜ ∆SB = −6.15 ⎞ ⎝ 473.15 ⎞ ⎝ 593.8). In both cases we therefore have: ∆SA := CP⋅ ln ⎛ ⎜ ∆SA = 8..10 (a) The temperature drop of the second stream (B) in either 7 case is the same as the temperature rise of the first stream CP := R 2 (A).16 By Eq.15 ⎞ ⎝ 343. The exit temperature of the second stream is therefore 200 degC. Integration gives the required result.214 Ans.15 ⎠ J mol⋅ K J mol⋅ K Ans.82 × 10 3 J Tσ := 300⋅ K mol 126 . 5. (5. i.15 ⎞ ⎝ 343. Tσ dW = 1− dQ T dW = dQ − Tσ ⋅ dS dW = dQ − Tσ ⋅ dQ T Since dQ/T = dS.e.512 353. i. (b) For both cases: ∆Stotal := ∆SA + ∆SB ∆Stotal = 2. ∆Stotal := ∆SA + ∆SB ∆Stotal = 0.5.15 ⎠ J mol⋅ K ∆SB := CP⋅ ln ⎛ ⎜ ∆SB = −8. (c) In this case the final temperature of steam B is 80 degC.15 ⎠ J mol⋅ K Ans.e.577 473. T1 := 600⋅ K Q := CP⋅ ( T2 − T1) T2 := 400⋅ K Q = −5.149 J mol⋅ K Ans.726 463..

∆S := CP⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎝ T1 ⎠ ∆S = −11. ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎝ T1 ⎠ − R⋅ ln ⎜ 3 J ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎝ P1 ⎠ ∆S = −1.18 (a) T1 := 300K ∆H := Cp⋅ ( T2 − T1) ∆S := Cp⋅ ln ⎜ P1 := 1. use Eq.8 ∆S + ∆Sreservoir = 0 Process is reversible.8): TH1 − TC1 W = TH1 QH1 The Carnot refrigerator is a reverse Carnot engine.8) & (5. (5.7) to get: TC2 QC2 Equate the two work quantities and solve for the required ratio of the heat quantities: TC2 ⎛ TH1 − TC1 ⎞ Ans. (b) ∆H = 5. ∆Sreservoir = 11. Work := Q − Tσ ⋅ ∆S Qσ := Q − Work ∆Sreservoir := Qσ Tσ J mol⋅ K Work = −2280 Qσ = 3540 J mol J mol⋅ K Ans.82⋅ 10 mol ∆S = 1. 5. W TH2 − TC2 = Combine Eqs.2bar T2 := 450K P2 := 6bar 3 J Cp := ∆H = 4.5 TH1 ⎝ TH2 − TC2 ⎠ 7 R 2 5.582 J mol⋅ K Ans.17 TH1 := 600⋅ K TC1 := 300⋅ K TH2 := 300⋅ K TC2 := 250⋅ K For the Carnot engine.484 J mol⋅ K 127 .799 J mol⋅ K J mol Ans. r := ⋅⎜ r = 2. Ans. (5.365 × 10 mol Ans.

15)K T1 := ( 200 + 273.607 5. (A) on p.953 ∆S = 2.651⋅ 10 3 J mol 3 J ∆S = 4. 305. 128 . Temperature T4 is not given and must be calaculated. 8. The efficiency is given by Eq. 306 −γ η := 1 − 1 ⎛ T4 − T1 ⎞ ⋅⎜ γ ⎝ T3 − T2 ⎠ η = 0.(c) ∆H = −3. C=1. (A) p.15)K T4 = 873.10 on p. The following equations are used to derive and expression for T4.741⋅ 10 ∆H = −6. and D=2.19 This cycle is the same as is shown in Fig.15)K T2 := ( 1000 + 273.759 K ⎛ T2 ⎞ T4 := T1⋅ ⎜ ⎝ T3 ⎠ Eq. B=4.118⋅ 10 ∆H = −3. 305. The equivalent states are A=3. For adiabatic steps 1 to 2 and 3 to 4: T1⋅ V1 γ −1 = T2⋅ V2 γ −1 T3⋅ V3 γ −1 = T4⋅ V4 γ −1 For constant-volume step 4 to 1: For isobaric step 2 to 3: V1 = V4 P2 T2 = P3 T3 −γ ⎛ T2 ⎞ Solving these 4 equations for T4 yields: T4 = T1⋅ ⎜ ⎝ T3 ⎠ Cp := 7 R 2 Cv := 5 R 2 γ := Cp Cv γ = 1.591 Ans.4 T3 := ( 1700 + 273.618 J mol⋅ K J mol⋅ K J mol⋅ K (d) mol 3 J (e) mol ∆S = −3.

we get for the actual W: γ −1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ ⎥ γ R⋅ T1 ⎢⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎥ Work := 1.35⋅ ⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ γ − 1 ⎣⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎦ Work = 3. P⋅ dT + T⋅ dP = 0 P⋅ V = R ⋅ T T⋅ dP = −dT P (A) P⋅ dV + V⋅ dP = R⋅ dT dP P P⋅ dV = R⋅ dT − V⋅ dP = R⋅ dT − R⋅ T⋅ 129 . 5.34).15⋅ K With the reversible work given by Eq.25 P := 4 T := 800 Step 1-2: Volume decreases at constant P. Heat flows into the system.4 P2 := 7⋅ bar T1 := 298. Heat flows out of the system.6 × 10 3 J mol Work CV But Q = 0. W12 = −⎡ ⎣P⋅ ( V2 − V1)⎤ ⎦ = −⎡ ⎣R⋅ ( T2 − T1)⎤ ⎦ Step 2-3: Isothermal compression. Work is done on the system.374 K ∆S := CP⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎝ T1 ⎠ − R⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎝ P1 ⎠ ∆S = 2. Since the PT product is constant. W23 = R⋅ T2⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ P3 ⎞ ⎝ P2 ⎠ = R⋅ T2⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ P3 ⎞ ⎝ P1 ⎠ Step 3-1: Expansion process that produces work. Work is done on the system. (3.914 J mol⋅ K Ans. and W = ∆U = CV⋅ ( T2 − T1) Whence T2 := T1 + T2 = 471.5. Heat flows out of the system.21 CV := CP − R γ := CP CV P1 := 2⋅ bar γ = 1.

068 mol 4 J mol Ans.In combination with (A) this becomes P⋅ dV = R⋅ dT + R⋅ dT = 2⋅ R⋅ dT Moreover.309 × 10 η = 0.017 × 10 mol 3 J W31 := −2⋅ R⋅ ( T1 − T2) Q31 := ( CP + R) ⋅ ( T1 − T2) η := W12 + W23 + W31 Q31 W31 = −5. 130 .91 × 10 T1 T2 3 J mol 3 J ⎛ P3 ⎞ ⎝ P1 ⎠ W23 = 2.5⋅ bar W12 := −⎡ ⎣R⋅ ( T2 − T1)⎤ ⎦ W23 := R⋅ T2⋅ ln ⎜ T2 := 350⋅ K P3 := P1⋅ W12 = 2. P3 = P1⋅ T1 T3 = P 1⋅ T1 T2 ⌠ 1 W31 = −⎮ P dV = −2⋅ R⋅ ( T1 − T3) = −2⋅ R⋅ ( T1 − T2) ⌡V 3 V Q31 = ∆U31 − W31 = CV⋅ ( T1 − T3) + 2⋅ R⋅ ( T1 − T3) Q31 = ( CV + 2⋅ R) ⋅ ( T1 − T3) = ( CP + R) ⋅ ( T1 − T2) η= CP := Wnet Qin 7 ⋅R 2 = W12 + W23 + W31 Q31 T1 := 700⋅ K P1 := 1.82 × 10 Q31 = 1.

824⋅ 10 −6 .213 .015⋅ 10 5 ) (b) By Eq.785⋅ 10 ∆S = 2018.1 J K Ans. So for the heat reservoir. ∆Stotal := ∆S + ∆Sres Ans.96 ∆Stotal = 6. we get for the actual W: Work := 1. (3. we get for the entropy change of 10 moles n := 10⋅ mol ∆S := n⋅ R⋅ ICPS 473.640⋅ 10 ∆S = 536. 0. −1.26 T := 403.5⋅ bar Tres := 298.163 × 103 J mol Q here is with respect to the system. ( −3 . (5.18).5.5⋅ bar P2 := 6. −8. (5.27).02 J mol⋅ K J mol⋅ K Ans.15K .3⋅ R⋅ T⋅ ln ⎜ Q := −Work ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎝ P1 ⎠ (Isothermal compresion) Work = 4.14) with P = const. ( −3 .14) with P = const.944 Ans. 1473. 1373.15K .0 . 28. 0.15). 5. we have ∆Sres := −Q Tres ∆Sres = 13. (5.699 .27 (a) By Eq. 5.15K . and Eq.15). ∆S := −R⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎝ P1 ⎠ ∆S = −7.7 J K Ans. (5. we get for the entropy change of 12 moles n := 12⋅ mol ∆S := n⋅ R⋅ ICPS 523.15⋅ K P1 := 2. (5. and Eq. 0. With the reversible work given by Eq.15K .15⋅ K J mol⋅ K By Eq. 1.0 ) 131 .

−9.392⋅ 10 −6 . 1413.2a to be 1374.873⋅ 10 −6 .2c to be 1202. and let x = moles of chilled air. 5.15K . 1.9 K.424 . 0.5K .2b to be 1413.15⋅ K T2 := 348. 1.5 K. 14. −4.967 .x = the moles of warm air. 14. the enthalpy changes of the two streams must cancel.14 kg moles is then found as follows n := 18140⋅ mol ∆S := n⋅ R⋅ ICPS 533.392⋅ 10 −6 .0 ) (b) The final temperature for this process was found in Pb.2436 × 10 6 J ( −3 . 1202.15⋅ K Temperature of entering air Temperature of chilled air Temperature of warm air x⋅ CP⋅ ( T1 − T0) + ( 1 − x) ⋅ CP⋅ ( T2 − T0) = 0 x := 0.15K . 4.15K . Take a basis of 1 mole of air entering.8 K.0 ) (c) The final temperature for this process was found in Pb. The entropy change for 10 moles is then found as follows n := 10⋅ mol ∆S := n⋅ R⋅ ICPS 473. ( −3 .5 J K Ans.8K . 0.424 . ( −3 . 1.28 (a) The final temperature for this process was found in Pb. The entropy change for 18. T0 := 298.0 ) K Ans.3 (guess) 132 . 31.15⋅ K T1 := 248. Then 1 .9K .394⋅ 10 ∆S = 900.86 J K Ans.5. 4.630⋅ 10 ∆S = 2657. The entropy change for 15 moles is then found as follows: n := 15⋅ mol ∆S := n⋅ R⋅ ICPS 533. −4. 4. 1374.394⋅ 10 ∆S = 1.29 The relative amounts of the two streams are determined by an energy balance. 0. Since Q = W = 0.

30 T1 := 523. On the basis of 1 mole of entering air.15⋅ K CV := CP − R ∆Sres := −Q Tres T2 := 353. The only remaining question is whether the process violates the second law.5 Thus x = 0.15⋅ K Work := −1800⋅ J mol P1 := 3⋅ bar CP := 7 ⋅R 2 P2 := 1⋅ bar Q = ∆U − Work ∆Sres = 5. 5.301 J mol⋅ K ∆Stotal := ∆S + ∆Sres J PROCESS IS POSSIBLE.718 J mol⋅ K Q := CV⋅ ( T2 − T1) − Work Q = −1. and the process produces equal amounts of chilled and warmed air.15⋅ K Tres := 303. there is no violation of the second law.Given x ⎛ T2 − T0 ⎞ = −⎜ 1−x ⎝ T1 − T0 ⎠ x := Find ( x) x = 0.5.97 J mol⋅ K Ans.42 ∆S = −2. CP := 7 ⋅R 2 P0 := 5⋅ bar P := 1⋅ bar ∆Stotal := x⋅ CP⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ T1 ⎞ ⎝ T0 ⎠ + ( 1 − x) ⋅ CP⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎝ T0 ⎠ − R⋅ ln ⎛ ⎜ P⎞ ⎝ P0 ⎠ ∆Stotal = 12. Since this is positive.733 × 10 3 J mol ∆S := CP⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎝ T1 ⎠ − R⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎝ P1 ⎠ ∆Stotal = 3. the total entropy change is as follows. mol⋅ K 133 .

15 + 25) ⋅ K T2 := ( 273.504 Wdotideal := mdot⋅ ∆H − Tσ ⋅ ∆S Wdotideal = 256.34 E := 110⋅ volt Wdotmech := −1.067 × 10 W 3 At steady state: Qdot + Wdotelect + Wdotmech = d Ut = 0 dt Qdot d t + SdotG = S = 0 Tσ dt Qdot := −Wdotelect − Wdotmech SdotG := −Qdot Tσ Qdot = −134.15 K T2 = 258.875 W SdotG = 0.28): ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎝ T1 ⎠ ∆S = −0. ( ) 5.5⋅ kJ kg⋅ K ∆T := −40⋅ K T1 = 298.7⋅ amp Wdotelect := i⋅ E Wdot = 951.26): By Eq.938 kW Wdot := Wdotideal ηt i := 9.15 K Tσ = 303.5.15 K ∆H = −140 kJ kg kJ kg⋅ K mdot := 20⋅ kg sec η t := 0. 134 .15 − 15) ⋅ K Tσ := ( 273.25⋅ hp Tσ := 300⋅ K Wdotelect = 1. (5. (5.15 + 30) ⋅ K ∆H := CP⋅ ∆T ∆S := CP⋅ ln ⎜ Eq.45 W K Ans.27 T1 := ( 273.33 For the process of cooling the brine: CP := 3.6 kW Ans.

5 × 10 watt 3 SdotG = 8.15)K Cv := Cp − R γ := P2 := 1.5 × 10 W Qdot + Wdotelect = d t U = 0 dt Qdot := −Wdotelect SdotG := Ans.333 watt K P1 := 10bar Cp Cv 5.14) ∆S := 7 ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎛ P2 ⎞ R⋅ ln ⎜ − R⋅ ln ⎜ 2 ⎝ T1 ⎠ ⎝ P1 ⎠ SdotG = 48.966 Wlost := Tσ ⋅ ∆S ∆S = 17. 7 R 2 5.8 J Ans.38 mdot := 10 Cp := 7 R 2 kmol hr T1 := ( 25 + 273. (5.39 (a) T1 := 500K Tσ := 300K P1 := 6bar Basis: 1 mol T2 := 371K n := 1mol Ws := ∆H 135 P2 := 1.35 Ω := 25⋅ ohm Wdotelect := i ⋅ Ω At steady state: 2 i := 10⋅ amp Tσ := 300⋅ K 3 Wdotelect = 2.2bar ∆H := n⋅ Cp⋅ ( T2 − T1) Ws = −3753. (a) Assuming an isenthalpic process: 2 Cp 1 ∆S ⌠ ⎛ P2 ⎞ (b) = ⎮ dT − ln ⎜ ⎮ R R T ⎝ P1 ⎠ ⌡T 1 T2 := T1 T2 = 298.2bar γ = 7 5 Ans.15)K Ans.168 × 10 mol Cp := Ans. (c) SdotG := mdot⋅ ∆S (d) Tσ := ( 20 + 273.628 W K J mol⋅ K Ans. −Qdot Tσ Qdot d t + SdotG = S = 0 Tσ dt Qdot = −2. .15 K T Eq. 3 J Wlost = 5.5.

3J 493J 1130J (d) −3853. TH = 523.023 kJ mol⋅ K mdot := 20 ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎝ P1 ⎠ mol sec SdotG := mdot⋅ ∆S Wdotlost := Tσ ⋅ SdotG 5.344 kW W := 0.8J 5.15 K TC = 298.15 K Wdotlost = 140. (5. Ans.546 K 3.15)K η actual := W QH η actual = 0. Ans.42 QH := 1kJ SdotG = 0.468 kJ sec⋅ K Ans.15)K TC := ( 25 + 273.7J Wideal := ∆H − Tσ ⋅ ∆S Wlost := Wideal − Ws SG := Wlost Tσ Wideal −5163J −2953.7J −4952.4J 1098.8J (b) −2460.3 J SG = 4. (5.767 K 4. Eq.5J (e) −3055.∆S := n⋅ ⎜ Cp⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎝ T1 ⎠ − R⋅ ln ⎜ ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎞ ⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎠ ∆S = 4.8J 1063.45 136 .27) Eq.698 Wlost SG J K J 1. Ans.45kJ TH := ( 250 + 273.4J −4119.698 J K Ans.643 K J 3.41 P1 := 2500kPa ∆S := −R⋅ ln ⎜ P2 := 150kPa ∆S = 0.698 J K J 3.30) Eq.9J −4193.9J (c) −3063.39) Ws (a) −3753.663 Tσ := 300K J K 1409. (5.2J ( ) Wideal = −5163 J Wlost = 1409.

522 K Ans. the process is impossible.492 × 10 W 3 9 (b) η := 0.15) ⋅ K TC = 293.039 kJ 5.6⋅ η max QdotC := QdotH − Wdot QdotH := Wdot η QdotC = 1.43 QH := −150⋅ kJ TH := 550⋅ K (a) (b) SG := QH TH + Q1 := 50⋅ kJ T1 := 350⋅ K Q1 T1 + Q2 T2 Q2 := 100⋅ kJ T2 := 250⋅ K SG = 0.43 Since ηactual>ηmax. Ans.15 K TC := ( 20 + 273.44 Wdot := −750⋅ MW TH := ( 315 + 273.27 kJ K Tσ := 300⋅ K Ans.502 Ans. 137 .742 × 10 MW m s 3 (actual value) gm cm 3 River temperature rise: Vdot := 165⋅ Cp := 1⋅ cal gm⋅ K ∆T := ρ := 1⋅ QdotC Vdot⋅ ρ ⋅ Cp ∆T = 2. Wlost := Tσ ⋅ SG Wlost = 81.15 K (a) η max := 1 − QdotH := TC TH η max = 0.15) ⋅ K TH = 588. Wdot η max QdotC := QdotH − Wdot QdotC = 745. 5.297 MW (minimum value) QdotH = 2.η max := 1 − TC TH η max = 0.

26) Wideal := ndot⋅ ⎡ ⎢ R⋅ ICPH T1 . 0.016⋅ 10 . this process is possible.23) SG := 6 −3 5 ⋅ R⋅ ICPS T1 .67)rankine Tσ := ( 70 + 459.016⋅ 10 − R⋅ ln ⎜ 7 ⎝ P1 ⎠ ( ) ( ) SG = 0. 0 . ∆H = 8.575⋅ 10 . 0 .776 hp 138 ..15)K First check the First Law using Eqn. −0..67)rankine Assume air is an Ideal Gas ndot := P⋅ Vdot R⋅ T1 ndot = 258.47 3 ft a) Vdot := 100000 hr P := 1atm T1 := ( 70 + 459.575⋅ 10 . 7 1 ⎛ P2 ⎞ −3 5 + ⋅ R⋅ ICPS T1 . 3. 3.67)rankine T2 := ( 20 + 459.016⋅ 105 ⎣ −3 5 ( ( ( ) )) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Wideal = 1. 6 −3 5 ⋅ R⋅ ICPH T1 .15)K P1 := 5bar T2 := ( 27 + 273. 7 1 −3 5 + ICPH T1 .575⋅ 10− 3 . 0.355 .016⋅ 10 .797 × 10 mol ∆H := ( ) ( ) Calculate the rate of entropy generation using Eqn. −0. T3 .. 0 . 0 .016⋅ 10 ⋅ R 7 − 4 kJ ∆H is essentially zero so the first law is satisfied. (5. 3.. 0.575⋅ 10 .016⋅ 10 .575⋅ 10 .555 lbmol hr Calculate ideal work using Eqn. −0. ⎢ + −Tσ⋅ R⋅ ICPS T1 .355 . 3. 0 .355 .355 .. −0.355 . −0.013 kJ mol⋅ K Since SG ≥ 0. (5. 5. −0.. 3. 0. T2 .15) ⋅ K P2 := 1atm T3 := ( −22 + 273.355 .5. T2 . 0. T2 .575⋅ 10 . T2 . 0. (2.33) neglect changes in kinetic and potential energy. 3.46 T1 := ( 20 + 273. 0 . T3 .

952 kW 5.67)rankine ∆Hv := 970 BTU lbm M := 29 gm mol ⎝ T ⎞ ⋅R rankine ⎠ Tσ := ( 70 + 459.575⋅ 10− 3 . 0. (5.043 lb lbmol Calculate the rate of entropy generation in the boiler.67)rankine Cp ( T) := ⎛ ⎜ 3. 0 .67)rankine a) First apply an energy balance on the boiler to get the ratio of steam flow rate to gas flow rate.: ⌠ 2 ndotgas⋅ ⎮ Cp ( T) dT + mdotsteam⋅ ∆Hv = 0 ⌡T 1 T mdotndot := ⌠ 2 −⎮ Cp ( T) dT ⌡T 1 T ∆H v mdotndot = 15. −0.000306⋅ T2 := ( 300 + 459.. SdotG = SdotGsteam + SdotGgas 139 .83 + 0.15)K Assume air is an Ideal Gas ndot := P⋅ Vdot R⋅ T1 ndot = 34. 0 . −0. 0. 3. This is the sum of the entropy generation of the steam and the gas.15)K T2 := ( −8 + 273.016⋅ 10 .355 . T2 .b) Vdot := 3000 P := 1atm m hr 3 T1 := ( 25 + 273.67)rankine Tsteam := ( 212 + 459.48 T1 := ( 2000 + 459..26) Wideal := ndot⋅ ⎡ ⎢ R⋅ ICPH T1 .575⋅ 10 . 3. T2 .064 mol s Calculate ideal work using Eqn.15)K Tσ := ( 25 + 273.355 .016⋅ 105 ⎣ −3 5 ( ( ( ) )) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Wideal = 1. ⎢ + −Tσ⋅ R⋅ ICPS T1 .

⌠ 2 ⎮ Cp ( T) dT ⌡T 1 T mn := −∆H v mn = 15. lbmol BTU lb⋅ rankine BTU lb b) ∆Hsteam := −∆Hv ∆Ssteam := Tsteam ∆Ssteam = −1.043 lb lbmol Use ratio to calculate ideal work of steam per lbmol of gas Wideal⋅ mn = −3.969 × 10 SdotG = 11.085 × 10 T 3 BTU lbmol Ans.34) Wlost := SdotG⋅ Tσ −∆H v BTU lbmol⋅ rankine Wlost = 6227 BTU Ans.444 ⌠ 2 C p ( T) ∆Sgas := ⎮ dT ⎮ T ⌡T 1 ∆Sgas = −9. ⌠ 2 c) ∆Hgas := ⎮ Cp ( T) dT ⌡T 1 Wideal := ∆Hgas − Tσ ⋅ ∆Sgas Wideal = −9.312 × 10 3 BTU lbmol Ans. (5.Calculate entropy generation per lbmol of gas: SdotG ndotgas = mdotsteam ndotgas ∆H v Tsteam T ⋅ ∆Ssteam + ∆Sgas BTU lb⋅ rankine − 3 kg ∆Ssteam := ∆Ssteam = 1. 140 .444 Wideal := ∆Hsteam − Tσ ⋅ ∆Ssteam ( ) Wideal = −205.071 Calculate lbs of steam generated per lbmol of gas cooled.756 BTU mol lb⋅ rankine SdotG := mdotndot⋅ ∆Ssteam + ∆Sgas Calculate lost work by Eq.

048 × 10 J kg⋅ K ⌠ 2 C p ( T) ∆Sgas := ⎮ dT ⎮ T ⌡T 1 ∆Sgas = −41.000551⋅ ⋅ R K⎠ ⎝ Tσ := ( 25 + 273.15)K T⎞ Cp ( T) := ⎛ ⎜ 3.135 gm mol Calculate the rate of entropy generation in the boiler.15)K ∆Hv := 2256.49 T1 := ( 1100 + 273.34) Wlost := SdotG⋅ Tσ J mol⋅ K Ans.15)K a) First apply an energy balance on the boiler to get the ratio of steam flow rate to gas flow rate.8 kJ mol 141 .835 SdotG = 49. (5.15)K T2 := ( 150 + 273. SdotG = SdotGsteam + SdotGgas Calculate entropy generation per lbmol of gas: SdotG ndotgas = mdotsteam ndotgas ∆H v Tsteam T ⋅ ∆Ssteam + ∆Sgas 3 ∆Ssteam := ∆Ssteam = 6.708 J mol⋅ K SdotG := mdotndot⋅ ∆Ssteam + ∆Sgas Calculate lost work by Eq.: ⌠ 2 ndotgas⋅ ⎮ Cp ( T) dT + mdotsteam⋅ ∆Hv = 0 ⌡T 1 T mdotndot := ⌠ 2 −⎮ Cp ( T) dT ⌡T 1 T ∆H v mdotndot = 15.5. Wlost = 14.9 kJ kg M := 29 gm mol Tsteam := ( 100 + 273.83 + 0. This is the sum of the entropy generation of the steam and the gas.

5. T2 .424 .135 gm mol Use ratio to calculate ideal work of steam per lbmol of gas Wideal⋅ mn = −6.424 .394⋅ 10 Qethylene = −60.09 kJ mol⋅ K ( ) Qethylene := R⋅ ICPH T1 .15)K T2 := ( 35 + 273. −4.563 kJ mol ( −3 .618 Calculate lbs of steam generated per lbmol of gas cooled. ⌠ 2 ⎮ Cp ( T) dT ⌡T 1 T mn := −∆H v mn = 15.803 Now place a heat engine between the ethylene and the surroundings. the total entropy generated must be zero. This would constitute a reversible process. ⌠ 2 c) ∆Hgas := ⎮ Cp ( T) dT ⌡T 1 Wideal := ∆Hgas − Tσ ⋅ ∆Sgas Wideal = −21.392⋅ 10 −6 . 1. 142 .15)K a) ∆Sethylene := R⋅ ICPS T1 .15)K Tσ := ( 25 + 273.50 T1 := ( 830 + 273.b) ∆Hsteam := −∆Hv ∆Ssteam := −∆H v Tsteam ∆Ssteam = −6. 1.686 kJ mol Ans.392⋅ 10− 6 . 14. 0 ∆Sethylene = −0. calculate the heat released to the surroundings for ∆Stotal = 0.048 × 10 kJ kg 3 J kg⋅ K Wideal := ∆Hsteam − Tσ ⋅ ∆Ssteam ( ) Wideal = −453. T2 . 14.394⋅ 10− 3 .866 T kJ mol Ans. −4.0 ) kJ mol Wlost := Tσ ⋅ ∆Sethylene − Qethylene Wlost = 33. therefore.

803 kJ mol The lost work is exactly equal to the work that could be produced by the heat engine 143 .∆Sethylene − QC Tσ = 0 Solving for QC gives: QC := Tσ ⋅ ∆Sethylene QC = −26.76 kJ mol Now apply an energy balance around the heat engine to find the work produced. Note that the heat gained by the heat engine is the heat lost by the ethylene. QH := −Qethylene WHE := QH + QC WHE = 33.

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