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# Chapter 4 - Section A - Mathcad Solutions

4.1 (a) T0 := 473.15⋅ K

T := 1373.15⋅ K

For SO2: A := 5.699

−3

B := 0.801⋅ 10

n := 10⋅ mol
5

C := 0.0

D := −1.015⋅ 10

∆H := R⋅ ICPH ( T0 , T , A , B , C , D)
∆H = 47.007

kJ
mol

Q := n⋅ ∆H
Q = 470.073 kJ

(b) T0 := 523.15⋅ K

T := 1473.15⋅ K

For propane:A := 1.213

Ans.

n := 12⋅ mol
−3

−6

B := 28.785⋅ 10

C := −8.824⋅ 10

D := 0

∆H := R⋅ ICPH ( T0 , T , A , B , C , 0.0)
∆H = 161.834

kJ
mol

4.2 (a) T0 := 473.15⋅ K

Q := n⋅ ∆H
3
Q = 1.942 × 10 kJ Ans.

n := 10⋅ mol

Q := 800⋅ kJ
−3

For ethylene:
τ := 2 (guess)

A := 1.424

⎣⎣

(b) T0 := 533.15⋅ K

K

−6

C :=

K

2

τ = 2.905

(

)

(

T := τ ⋅ T0

n := 15⋅ mol
A := 1.967

)

B
2 2
⎤ C 3 3

⋅ T0 ⋅ τ − 1 ⎥ + ⋅ T0 ⋅ τ − 1 ⎥
2
⎦ 3

T = 1374.5 K

31.630⋅ 10
B :=
K
76

Ans.

Q := 2500⋅ kJ
−3

For 1-butene:

−4.392⋅ 10

Given

Q = n⋅ R⋅ ⎡⎢ ⎡⎢ A⋅ T0⋅ ( τ − 1) +
τ := Find ( τ )

B :=

14.394⋅ 10

−6

C :=

−9.873⋅ 10
K

2

τ := 3

(guess)

Given

Q = n⋅ R⋅ ⎡⎢ ⎡⎢ A⋅ T0⋅ ( τ − 1) +

⎣⎣

τ := Find ( τ )

(

)

(

)

B
2 2
⎤ C 3 3

⋅ T0 ⋅ τ − 1 ⎥ + ⋅ T0 ⋅ τ − 1 ⎥
2
⎦ 3

τ = 2.652

(c) T0 := 500⋅ degF

T := τ ⋅ T0

T = 1413.8 K

Ans.
6

n := 40⋅ lbmol

Q := 10 ⋅ BTU

Values converted to SI units
4

T0 := 533.15K

6

n = 1.814 × 10 mol

Q = 1.055 × 10 kJ
−3

For ethylene:

A := 1.424

τ := 2 (guess)

C :=

K

−4.392⋅ 10
K

Given

Q = n⋅ R⋅ ⎡⎢ ⎡⎢ A⋅ T0⋅ ( τ − 1) +

⎣⎣

τ := Find ( τ )

B :=

−6

14.394⋅ 10

(

)

(

2

)

B
2 2
⎤ C 3 3

⋅ T0 ⋅ τ − 1 ⎥ + ⋅ T0 ⋅ τ − 1 ⎥
2
⎦ 3

τ = 2.256

T := τ ⋅ T0

T = 1202.8 K
Ans.
T = 1705.4degF

4.3 Assume air at the given conditions an ideal gas. Basis of calculation is 1 second.
P := 1⋅ atm

T0 := 122⋅ degF

V := 250⋅ ft

3

T := 932⋅ degF
3

V = 7.079 m

Convert given values to SI units
T := ( T − 32degF) + 273.15K

T0 := ( T0 − 32degF) + 273.15K

T = 773.15 K

T0 = 323.15 K

n :=

P⋅ V
R⋅ T0

For air:

n = 266.985 mol
A := 3.355

−3

B := 0.575⋅ 10

∆H := R⋅ ICPH ( T0 , T , A , B , C , D)
77

C := 0.0

5

D := −0.016⋅ 10

∆H = 13.707

kJ
mol

4.4 molwt := 100.1⋅
n :=

Q := n⋅ ∆H
3
Q = 3.469 × 10 BTU Ans.

gm
mol

T0 := 323.15⋅ K

10000⋅ kg
molwt

T := 1153.15⋅ K

4

n = 9.99 × 10 mol
−3

For CaCO3: A := 12.572

B := 2.637⋅ 10

C := 0.0

5

D := −3.120⋅ 10

∆H := R⋅ ICPH ( T0 , T , A , B , C , D)
∆H = 9.441 × 10

4 J

Q := n⋅ ∆H

mol

6

Q = 9.4315 × 10 kJ

Ans.

4.7 Let step 12 represent the initial reversible adiabatic expansion, and step 23
the final constant-volume heating.
T1 := 298.15⋅ K

T3 := 298.15⋅ K

P1 := 121.3⋅ kPa

P2 := 101.3⋅ kPa

P3 := 104.0⋅ kPa

T2 := T3⋅

CP := 30⋅

Given

J
mol⋅ K

⎛ P2 ⎞

T2 = T1⋅ ⎜

⎝ P1 ⎠

4.9 a) Acetone: Tc := 508.2K
∆Hn := 29.10

CP := Find ( CP)
Pc := 47.01bar

kJ
mol

P3

T2 = 290.41 K

(guess)
R
CP

P2

Trn :=

Tn
Tc

CP = 56.95

J
Ans.
mol⋅ K

Tn := 329.4K
Trn = 0.648

Use Eq. (4.12) to calculate ∆H at Tn (∆Hncalc)

⎛ ⎛ Pc ⎞

− 1.013
⎝ ⎝ bar ⎠

1.092⋅ ⎜ ln ⎜
∆Hncalc := R⋅ Tn⋅

0.930 − Trn

78

∆Hncalc = 30.108

kJ
mol

Ans.

To compare with the value listed in Table B.2, calculate the % error.
%error :=

∆Hncalc − ∆Hn

%error = 3.464 %

∆Hn

Values for other components in Table B.2 are given below. Except for
acetic acid, acetonitrile. methanol and nitromethane, agreement is within
5% of the reported value.
Acetone
Acetic Acid
Acetonitrile
Benzene
iso-Butane
n-Butane
1-Butanol
Carbon tetrachloride
Chlorobenzene
Chloroform
Cyclohexane
Cyclopentane
n-Decane
Dichloromethane
Diethyl ether
Ethanol
Ethylbenzene
Ethylene glycol
n-Heptane
n-Hexane
Methanol
Methyl acetate
Methyl ethyl ketone
Nitromethane
n-Nonane
iso-Octane
n-Octane
n-Pentane
Phenol
1-Propanol
2-Propanol
Toluene
Water
o-Xylene
m-Xylene
p-Xylene

∆Hn (kJ/mol)
30.1
40.1
33.0
30.6
21.1
22.5
41.7
29.6
35.5
29.6
29.7
27.2
40.1
27.8
26.6
40.2
35.8
51.5
32.0
29.0
38.3
30.6
32.0
36.3
37.2
30.7
34.8
25.9
46.6
41.1
39.8
33.4
42.0
36.9
36.5
36.3

79

% error
3.4%
69.4%
9.3%
-0.5%
-0.7%
0.3%
-3.6%
-0.8%
0.8%
1.1%
-0.9%
-0.2%
3.6%
-1.0%
0.3%
4.3%
0.7%
1.5%
0.7%
0.5%
8.7%
1.1%
2.3%
6.7%
0.8%
-0.2%
1.2%
0.3%
1.0%
-0.9%
-0.1%
0.8%
3.3%
1.9%
2.3%
1.6%

and enthalpies in Btu/lbm.13) are within 2% of the handbook values. pressures in psia.628 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0. 80 .429 ⎞ ⎛ 0. Our procedure is therefore to take 5 points. (4.0 ⎞ ⎢⎜ ⎥ 68.177 ⎟ gm M := ⎜ ⎜ 78.150 ⎞ ⎜ 86.b) ⎛ 469.79 ⎞ ⎜ 28.7 ⎟ Tn := ⎢⎜ + 273.814 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 32.145 ⎠ Eq.98 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 43.549 ⎟ kJ −0.847 ⎟ mol ⎜ ⎝ 32.7 ⎞ ⎜ 507. and to do a linear least-squares fit.242 ⎠ ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → 0. 4. Temperatures are in rankines.4 ⎠ ⎤ ⎡⎛ 36.15)K Tc ⎛ 0.10 The ln P vs.658 ⎞ ⎜ 0.549 ⎟ kJ ∆H2 = ⎜ ⎜ 33.04.072 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ 31.25 ⎟ Pc := ⎜ bar ⎜ 48.052 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ Ans.0 ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎜ ⎥ ⎣⎝ 80.242 ⎠ ⎝ 1.1 ⎟ J ∆H25 := ⎜ ⎜ 433.781 ⎠ The values calculated with Eq.50 ⎠ ⎛ 366.70 ⎞ ⎜ 30.571 ⎟ mol ⎜ 33.3 ⎞ ⎜ 366.97 ⎠ ⎛ 72.2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 560. (4. The factor 5. 1/T relation over a short range is very nearly linear.11) can be found.3 ⎟ gm ⎜ ⎝ 392.72 ⎟ mol ⎜ ⎝ 29. (4. volumes in cu ft/lbm.429 ⎞ ⎜ 31.7 ⎠ ⎦ Tr1 := ⎯ → Tn Tc Tr2 := ⎛ 33.6 ⎟ Tc := ⎜ K ⎜ 562.816 ⎠ ⎝ 32.4039 converts energy units from (psia)(cu ft) to Btu.631 ⎠ ⎯⎯⎯⎯ → ∆H2 := ∆H25⋅ M ( ) ∆H1 := ∆Hn ⎛ 26.448 ⎞ ⎛ 26. The molar mass M of tetrafluoroethane is 102.847 ⎟ mol ⎜ −0. including the point at the temperature of interest and two points on either side. ∆H2 = = %error = ⎜ % ⎜ 33.533 ⎟ kJ 31.13) %error := ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → ∆H2calc − ∆H2 ∆H2 ⎛ 26.114 ⎟ mol ⎜ ⎝ 82.673 ⎟ Tr1 = ⎜ ⎜ 0.5 ⎠ ( 25 + 273.85 ⎟ kJ ∆Hn := ⎜ ⎜ 30.15⎥ K ⎢⎜ 80.38 ⎡⎢ ⎛ 1 − Tr2 ⎞ ⎤⎥ ∆H2calc := ∆H1⋅ ⎜ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ 1 − Tr1 ⎠ ⎦ ∆H2calc ⎛ 25. from which the required derivative in Eq.

617 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 29.67 + 5 ∆V := 1.3 ⎞ ⎜ 337.67 i := 1 .767 ⎟ ⎜ 26.902) (e) ∆H = 69.726 ⎠ Data: xi := 1 ti + 459.15K Tr1 := Tc ⎛⎜ 334.078 5. All answers are as follows.162 ⎜ ⎟ P := ⎜ 23. with the Table 9.012 ⎛ −5 ⎞ ⎜0 ⎜ ⎟ t := ⎜ 5 ⎟ ⎜ 10 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 15 ⎠ ⎛ 18.034 ( 81.9 ⎟ ⋅ K ⎜ 349.60 ⎠ ⎝ ⎯⎯⎯→ 273.007 ( 75.4 ⎠ ⎝ ∆Hexp is the given value at the normal boiling point.834) (c) ∆H = 81.817 ( 85.6 ⎟ ⋅ K Pc := ⎜ 556.078 ( 90..934 − 0.111) (b) ∆H = 85.969) ⎛⎜ 119.377 ⎞ gm M := ⎜ 32.1 value in ( ): 4. The remaining parts of the problem are worked in exactly the same way.97 ⎟ ⋅ bar Tn := ⎜ 45.8 ⎠ ⎝ Tr2 := ⎯ → Tn Tc . 81 ⎛⎜ 54.863 ( 69.042 ⎟ ⋅ Tc := mol ⎜ 153.4 ⎞ ⎜ 512.11 (a) ∆H = 90.136) (d) ∆H = 76.72 ⎞ ⎜ 80.4039 Ans.545 T⋅ ∆V⋅ dPdT ∆H = 90. y) slope = −4952 dPdT := ( − P) 3 T ∆H := 2 ⋅ slopedPdT = 0.(a) T := 459. ⎛⎜ 536. 5 yi := ln ( Pi) slope := slope ( x .822 ⎠ ⎝ ∆H is the value at 0 degC.787 ⎞ ⎜ 21.

9 ⎞ ⎛⎜ 0.623 ⎞ Tr2 = ⎜ 0.022 .307 Tc := 508.12 Acetone ω := 0.72 ⎟ % ⎜ −0.77 ⎞ PCE = ⎜ −4.2 ⎜ 0.5 ⎟ ⋅ gm ⎜ 194.4K P := 1atm Tr = 0.092⋅ ⎜ ln ⎜ bar − 1.930 − Tr2 ⎣ M ⎣ ⎦⎦ (b) By Eq.509 ⎞ J Tr1 = ⎜ 0.2 gm ⎠ ⎝ ⎛⎜ 0.629 ⎠ ⎝ This is the % error ⎛⎜ −0.659 ⎟ ⎜ 0.2K Pc := 47.34 ⎞ PCE = ⎜ 8.233 3 cm Vc := 209⋅ mol Tn Tr := Tc 82 P Pc ∆Hn := 29.533 ⎟ ⎜ 1099.38 ⎡⎢ ⎛ 1 − Tr2 ⎞ ⎤⎥ ∆Hn := ∆H⋅ ⎜ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ 1 − Tr1 ⎠ ⎦ (a) By Eq.5 ⎟ ⋅ ∆Hexp := gm ⎜ 217.13) ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → ⎞ ⎛ ∆Hn − ∆Hexp PCE := ⎜ ⋅ 100% ⎝ ∆Hexp ⎠ ⎛⎜ 245 ⎞ J ∆Hn = ⎜ 1055.013 ⎥ ⎥ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎥ ∆Hn := ⎢ ⋅⎢ 0.8 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛⎜ 246. (4.12): ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → ∆H − ∆H ⎞ ⎛ n exp PCE := ⎜ ⋅ 100% ⎝ ∆Hexp ⎠ ⎛⎜ 247.01bar Tn := 329.2 ⎟ ⎜ 193.3 gm ⎠ ⎝ ⎛⎜ 0.96 ⎠ ⎝ 4.7 ⎞ J ∆Hn = ⎜ 1195.1 kJ mol Pr = 0.⎛⎜ 270. (4.52 ⎠ ⎝ ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → P ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ ⎛ c⎞ ⎞⎤ ⎤ ⎢ R⋅ Tn ⎢ 1.9 ⎞ J ∆H := ⎜ 1189.491 ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ 0.3 ⎟ ⎜ 192.03 ⎟ % ⎜ −0.648 Pr := Zc := 0.

2 + ω ⋅ B1⋅ Pr Tr Z⋅ R ⋅ Tn B0 = −0.66) Z = 0. (3.060 83 .139 − Tr Z := 1 + B0⋅ V := 1. (3.602 × 10 A := 14.965 (Pg.11) ∆H = T⋅ ∆V⋅ d Psat dT A− with Antoine's Equation gives Psat = e B T +C B ∆H = T⋅ ∆V⋅ ( T + C) ∆V := V − Vsat ∆V = 2.762 Eq.917 Eq.6 Pr Tr 4.083 − Tr 0.Generalized Correlations to estimate volumes Vapor Volume 0.609 × 10 P 3 4 cm mol Liquid Volume 2 (1−Tr) 7 Vsat := Vc⋅ Zc 3 Vsat = 70.22 2 ⎡A− B ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ( T +C) ⎦ ⎣ ⋅e 3 4 cm mol C := 228.924 Eq.422 B0 := 0.72) cm mol Combining the Clapyeron equation (4.65) B1 = −0. (3.3145 B := 2756.172 B1 := 0. 102) V = 2.

6% 1.9 29.2% 0.6% 0.2% -0.9% 58.15K ⎞ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ +C ⎢ ⎜ ⎥ B K ⎠ ⎦ kPa ⎥ ∆Hcalc := Tn⋅ ∆V⋅ ⎢ ⋅ e⎣ ⎝ 2 K ⎥ ⎢ ⎛ Tn − 273.6 35.2.2 22.5% 4.662 kJ Ans.3 29.5 29.8 34.9 27.15K ⎞ +C ⎢⎜ ⎥ K ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ∆Hcalc = 29.2% -0.7% 0.3% 0.4 31.4 43.B ⎡A− ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎛ Tn −273.9 % The table below shows the values for other components in Table B.7 53.3 29.8% 0.7% 3.0 36.4% 3.8 21. mol %error := ∆Hcalc − ∆Hn ∆Hn %error = 1.1% .6 28.9% 2.2 31.3% 0.7% -0.4% 2.5 30.9 41.9 84 % error 1.4% 0.6 25.5% 0.9 45.1% -0.7 37.4 39.2% 1.8 39.1% 0.1 26.9 35. Acetone Acetic Acid Acetonitrile Benzene iso-Butane n-Butane 1-Butanol Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclopentane n-Decane Dichloromethane Diethyl ether Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylene glycol n-Heptane n-Hexane Methanol Methyl acetate Methyl ethyl ketone Nitromethane n-Nonane iso-Octane n-Octane n-Pentane Phenol 1-Propanol ∆Hn (kJ/mol) 29.6 31.3% 2.3 30.6% 0. Values agree within 5% except for acetic acid.9 37.1% 0.6% 0.6% 0.2 30.0% 0.9% 0.7 34.2% 0.

V := Vliq + Eq.70504 ⎞ T ⎠ P = 87.5 36.216⋅ 10 85 −6 CV := −3.9K −3 BL := −51.5 33.14 (a) Methanol: Tc := 512. T := 348.97bar Ans.49⋅ mol ∆H T⋅ dPdT ⎛ P⋅ V − 1⎞ B := V⋅ ⎜ ⎝ R⋅ T ⎠ 4.13 Let P represent the vapor pressure.8% 4.7% 0.39) dPdT = 0.431 3 cm Vliq := 96.28⋅ 10 −6 CL := 131. Tn := 337.7⋅ K T⎞ = 48.15⋅ K P := 100⋅ kPa (guess) P ⎞ 5622.450⋅ 10 .p 2-Propanol Toluene Water o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene 40.0% 1.4% 0.3 41. (3.70504⋅ ln ⎛⎜ T ⎝ kPa ⎠ ⎝K⎠ Given ln ⎛⎜ P := Find ( P) dPdT := P⋅ ⎛⎜ ⎝ 5622.211 −3 BV := 12.029 3 cm B = −1369.5 mol Pc := 80.7 36.9 1.6K bar K ∆H T⋅ ( V − Vliq) V = vapor molar volume.157543 − − 4.7⋅ K T 2 − 4.396 kPa joule ∆H := 31600⋅ mol Clapeyron equation: dPdT = AL := 13.5% 2.2% 1.13⋅ 10 BL CL 2⎞ ⎛ CPL ( T) := ⎜ AL + ⋅T + ⋅T ⋅R 2 K K ⎝ ⎠ AV := 2.2 35.

536⋅ 10 kW (c) Toluene ∆Hv = 30.15 Benzene Tc := 562.372 × 10 kW kJ mol Ans.296 kJ mol Q = 1.092⋅ ⎜ ln ⎜ ∆Hn := 0.822⋅ 10 kW 4.301 ∆H = 49.13) Trn := Tn Trn = 0.0K T1 := 300K T2 := 500K Estimate ∆Hv using Riedel equation (4.7K Pc := 48. (b) Benzene: ∆Hv = 28.12) and Watson correction (4.2K T1sat := 451.930 − Trn ⎛ 1 − Trsat ⎞ ∆Hv := ∆Hn⋅ ⎜ ⎝ 1 − Trn ⎠ n kJ mol ∆Hv = 35.98bar T2sat := 358.013 ⎝ ⎝ bar ⎠ ⎠ ⋅ R⋅ T Tsat Tc Trsat = 0.2K Cp := 162⋅ J mol⋅ K .38 T T ⌠ sat ⌠ 2 ∆H := ⎮ CPL ( T) dT + ∆Hv + ⎮ CPV ( T) dT ⌡T ⌡T 1 n := 100 ∆Hn = 38.718 1.38 sat kmol hr 3 Q := n⋅ ∆H Q = 1.273 kJ mol ∆H = 55.625 kJ mol ∆H = 65.586 kJ mol Q = 1.BV CV 2⎞ ⎛ CPV ( T) := ⎜ AV + ⋅T + ⋅T ⋅R 2 K K ⎝ ⎠ P := 3bar Tsat := 368.645 kJ mol 0.7K 86 3 3 Tn := 353.659 Tc Trsat := ⎛ ⎛ Pc ⎞ ⎞ − 1.

15⋅ K Trn := Tn Tc Trn = 0.5 Given Cp⋅ ( T1sat − T2sat) = x⋅ ∆Hv 4.588 n 0.628 Tc Tr2sat := ⎛ ⎛ Pc ⎞ ⎞ − 1.3⋅ K x := Find ( x) x = 0.092⋅ T Tc ln ⎜ 0.638 1.38 ∆Hv = 30. Tn := 189. .16 (a) For acetylene: Tc := 308.Estimate ∆Hv using Riedel equation (4.967 ∆H298 = 220.39⋅ bar Ans.8 kJ mol Ans.12) and Watson correction (4.092⋅ ⎜ ln ⎜ ∆Hn := 0.4⋅ K T := 298.638 kJ mol 0.930 − Trn ⎛ 1 − Tr2sat ⎞ ∆Hv := ∆Hn⋅ ⎜ ⎝ 1 − Trn ⎠ kJ mol ∆Hn = 30.930 − Trn ⎛ 1 − Tr ⎞ ∆Hv := ∆Hn⋅ ⎜ ⎝ 1 − Trn ⎠ ∆Hf := 227480⋅ J mol ∆Hn = 16.614 Tr := ⎛ Pc ⎞ − 1.013 bar ⎠ ⎝ ∆Hn := R⋅ Tn⋅ 1.28 kJ mol Assume the throttling process is adiabatic and isenthalpic.38 ∆H298 := ∆Hf − ∆Hv 87 Tr = 0.13) Trn := Tn Trn = 0.013 ⎝ ⎝ bar ⎠ ⎠ ⋅ R⋅ T T2sat Tc Tr2sat = 0.498 Pc := 61.91 kJ mol ∆Hv = 6. Guess vapor fraction (x): x := 0.

(b) For 1. the mean heat capacity is the value of CP at the arithmetic mean temperature.5 4. Thus Tam := 675 88 .17 kJ mol kJ mol (c) For ethylbenzene: ∆H298 = −12.3⋅ (d) For n-hexane: ∆H298 = −198.6⋅ (e) For styrene: ∆H298 = 103.3-butadiene: ∆H298 = 88.9⋅ kJ mol dQ = dU − dW = CV⋅ dT + P⋅ dV 1st law: P⋅ V = R ⋅ T Ideal gas: and δ P⋅ V = const P⋅ dV + V⋅ dP = R⋅ dT then P⋅ δ ⋅ V δ −1 δ ⋅ dV = −V ⋅ dP P⋅ dV = Combines with (B) to yield: dQ = CP⋅ dT − R⋅ dT + which reduces to R⋅ dT 1−δ dQ = CV⋅ dT + Combines with (A) to give: or (B) V⋅ dP = −P⋅ δ ⋅ dV from which or (A) V⋅ dP = R⋅ dT − P⋅ dV Whence Since kJ mol R⋅ dT 1−δ R⋅ dT 1−δ dQ = CP⋅ dT + ⎛ CP δ ⎞ + ⋅ R⋅ dT ⎝ R 1 − δ⎠ dQ = ⎜ δ 1−δ ⋅ R⋅ dT (C) Since CP is linear in T.

19 C2H4 + 3O2 = 2CO2 + 2H2O(g) ∆H298 := [ 2⋅ ( −241818) + 2⋅ ( −393509) − 52510] ⋅ J mol Parts (a) . 770 . with Mathcad capable of doing the iteration.55 J mol Ans.85 + 0. 89 . For the combustion of 1-hexene: C6H12(g) + 9O2(g) = 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(g) ∆H298 := 6⋅ ( −393509) + 6⋅ ( −241818) − ( −41950) ∆H298 = −3770012 ∆H298 = −3 . 910⋅ J Ans. 012⋅ J Ans.5 δ := 1. However. δ P1 := 1⋅ bar 4. Comparison is on the basis of equal numbers of C atoms.18 ⎛ T2 ⎞ P2 := P1⋅ ⎜ ⎝ T1 ⎠ δ −1 P2 = 11. it is simpler to proceed differently. 058 .(d) can be worked exactly as Example 4.7. For the combustion of methanol: CH3OH(g) + (3/2)O2(g) = CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) ∆H298 := −393509 + 2⋅ ( −241818) − ( −200660) ∆H298 = −676485 For 6 MeOH: ∆H298 = −4 .57⋅ 10 ) ⋅ Tam T2 := 950⋅ K Integrate (C): T1 := 400⋅ K ⎛ CPm δ ⎞ + ⋅ R⋅ ( T2 − T1) 1 − δ⎠ ⎝ R Q := ⎜ Q = 6477. 4.( −3 CPm := R⋅ 3.45 bar Ans.

571 T = 1609.5 nn = 16.457 ⎟ B := ⎜ 3. by an energy balance. Parts (b). (b) nO = 0. the only change being in the numbers of moles of products.470 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3.Index the product species with the numbers: 1 = oxygen 2 = carbon dioxide 3 = water (g) 4 = nitrogen (a) For the product species. no excess air: ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎟ n := ⎜ A := ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 11.15K 0 The integral is given by Eq.497 ( ) B D ⎛ τ − 1⎞ ⎤ 2 2 ⋅ T0 ⋅ τ − 1 + ⋅⎜ ⎥ 2 T0 ⎝ τ ⎠ ⎦ T := T0⋅ τ T = 2533. 2 2 2 2 2 2 90 . (c) nO = 1. (d) nO = 3..929 T = 1950.75 nn = 14. T0 := 298. Moreover.2⋅ K Ans.121 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0. and (d) are worked the same way.593 ⎠ D := ⎛ −0.227 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ −1.157 ⎟ ⋅ 105K2 ⎜ 0.286 ⎠ ⎛ 3.0 nn = 22.506 ⎞ ⎜ −3 ⎜ 1. 4 ∑ ( ni⋅Ai)B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) A := i ⎛ 0.9⋅ K Ans.639 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 5.280 ⎠ i := 1 .012 1 K 5 2 D = −1. ∆H298 + ∆HP = 0 τ := 2 (guess) Given −∆H298 = R⋅ ⎢ A⋅ T0⋅ ( τ − 1) + ⎡ ⎣ τ := Find ( τ ) τ = 8. (c).6⋅ K Ans.7).450 ⎟ K ⎜ ⎝ 0. (4.045 ⎟ ⋅ 10 D := ⎜ 1.621 × 10 K T ⌠ CP ∆HP = R⋅ ⎮ dT ⎮ R ⌡T For the products.872 i B = 0.040 ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i A = 54.5 K Ans.107 T = 2198.

575⋅ 10 ) = 3.016⋅ 10 For 4. For this process. 0. 3.15 − 773.450 ⎟ K ⎜ ⎝ 0.429⋅ 8.5 ⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎟ n := ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 16..593 ⎠ B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i i A = 78.280 ⎠ A := J mol ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) ⎛ 0.929 ⎠ ⎛ 3.84 ⎛ −0.457 ⎟ A := ⎜ ⎜ 3.5/0. ∆Hair + ∆H298 + ∆HP = 0 ∆Hair = MCPH⋅ ( 298.227 ⎞ ⎜ −1.016 K 5 2 D = −1. ⎤⎥ 2 ⎢ D ⎛ τ − 1⎞ ⎥ ⎢ + ⋅⎜ ⎥ T τ 0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ τ = 7.65606 5 .15 − 773.65606⋅ ( 298. −0.15 .355 .15) For one mole of air: ( −3 MCPH 773.470 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3.15) ⋅ ∆Hair = −309399 J mol ∆H298 + ∆Hair + ∆HP = 0 The energy balance here gives: ⎛ 1.(e) 50% xs air preheated to 500 degC..121 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0. 0.0 .656 T := T0⋅ K⋅ τ 91 T = 2282.21 = 21.429 moles of air: ∆Hair = n⋅ R⋅ MCPH⋅ ∆T ∆Hair := 21.506 ⎞ ⎜ 1.5 K K Ans.735 × 10 K τ := 2 (guess) Given τ := Find ( τ ) ( ) B 2 2 −∆H298 − ∆Hair = R⋅ ⎡⎢ A⋅ T0⋅ ( τ − 1) + ⋅ T0 ⋅ τ − 1 .157 ⎟ 5 2 D := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⋅ K ⎜ 0.314⋅ 3. .040 ⎠ D := ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i 1 B = 0.045 ⎟ 10− 3 ⎜ B := ⋅ ⎜ 1. 298.639 ⎞ ⎜ 5.15 .

728 J (x) 42.15) with data from Table C.370 J (e) -367.20 n-C5H12 + 8O2 = 5CO2 + 6H2O(l) By Eq.036.969 J (w) -1.15) with data from Table C.980 J (q) -44.292 J (u) 235.468 J (o) 178.720 J (l) -1.968 J (k) -149. (a) -92. 765⋅ J 4.910 J (f) -2.436 J (z) 175.440 J (m) 207.4: ∆H298 := 5⋅ ( −393509) + 6⋅ ( −285830) − ( −146760) ∆H298 = −3 .030 J (i) 164. (4. 535 .732.647 J (v) -132.4.780 J (h) -38. (4. The following answers are found by application of Eq.4.016 J (s) -492.321 J (c) -71.140 J (t) 109.500 J (b) -905.21 Ans.439 J (d) -61.660 J (p) -132.036 J (y) 117.220 J (n) 180.038 J (j) -48.807.640 J (g) -105.305 J 92 .582 J (r) -68.

520 0.743 -2.188 ∆HoT/J -109. and (z) in the preceding table.573 0.916 -0.042 0.15 683. Those missing are as follows: Part No.215 0.811 -9.661 7.22 The solution to each of these problems is exactly like that shown in Example 4.048 9.15 733.175 103 ∆B 4.504 -1.795 -900.997 1.704 -3.918 -1.441 4.00 1350.181 -3.778 0. T/K (a) (b) (f) (i) (j) (l) (m) (n) (o) (r) (t) (u) (v) (w) (x) (y) 4.647 -4.00 1073.15 923.643 -0.586 -0.394 -9.803.416 13.987 20.861 6.575 4.000 1.235 1.15 750.016 7.845 129.106 -3.871 1.180 0.189 0.635 25.15 723.766 106 ∆C 0.15 1083.629 8.159 -1.779 -9.000 0.083 IDCPH/J -17.904 0.061 -9.424 12.029 -0. 4.15 ∆A -5.575 -0.000 0.323 0.601 -4.038. ∆B.083 0.19) with evaluated parameters.15 773.191 0.355 0.067 1.000 0.202 -128.991 2.000 0.6.000 2.586 0.000 0.149 1. Results are given in the following table.628 This is a simple application of a combination of Eqs.145 -1.011 -1.816 -4.060 4.234 (z) -3.381 189.534 4.422 -9.000 0.716.578 -71.737 (g) -3. In the first column the letter in ( ) indicates the part of problem 4.467 345 -9.452 220. (k).037 117.729 15.18) & (4.739 -2.784 42.000 3.285 -3.776 0.166 0.661 2.972 -1.919 93 .21 appropriate to the ∆Ho298 value.523 -0.173 -4. ∆A 103 ∆B 106 ∆C 10-5 ∆D (e) -7.949 -2.172 3.418 2.4. ∆C and ∆D are given for all cases except for Parts (e). (4.004 -2.876 -59. (g).229 -10.991 0. The values of ∆A.296 1. In each case the value of ∆Ho298 is calculated in Pb.127 7.21.00 673.156 0.450 0.814 10-5 ∆D -0.178 (k) 1.23 873.000 0. (h).248 11.858 -1.15 850. In each case the value of ∆Ho298 is calculated in Problem 4.083 0.184 125 12.15 648.204 247.00 900.424 4.425 20.15 973.845 168.903 180.297 2.21.114 (h) -9.15 583.

71 K P := 1atm The higher heating value is the negative of the heat of combustion with water as liquid product. Calculate methane standard heat of combustion with water as liquid product Standard Heats of Formation: CH4 + 2O2 --> CO2 +2H2O J mol J ∆HfCO2 := −393509 mol ∆HfCH4 := −74520 ∆HfO2 := 0 J mol ∆HfH2Oliq := −285830 J mol ∆HcCH4 := ∆HfCO2 + 2⋅ ∆HfH2Oliq − ∆HfCH4 − 2⋅ ∆HfO2 ∆HcCH4 = −890649 J mol 94 . Calculate methane standard heat of combustion with water as liquid product: CH4 + 2O2 --> CO2 +2H2O Standard Heats of Formation: ∆HfCH4 := −74520 J mol ∆HfCO2 := −393509 ∆HfO2 := 0 J mol J mol ∆HfH2Oliq := −285830 J mol ∆Hc := ∆HfCO2 + 2⋅ ∆HfH2Oliq − ∆HfCH4 − 2⋅ ∆HfO2 5 J HigherHeatingValue := −∆Hc ∆Hc = −8.985 × 10 GJ day Ans.4.15K 9 T = 288.793 × 10 day 5dollar 5 dollar = 7.24 q := 150⋅ 106 3 ft day 5 T := ( 60 − 32) ⋅ K + 273.25 8 mol n = 1.906 × 10 mol Assuming methane is an ideal gas at standard conditions: n := q⋅ P R⋅ T n⋅ HigherHeatingValue⋅ 4.

03⋅ ∆HcC3H8 = −932.714 mol kJ b) 0.875 mol Gas b) has the highest standard heat of combustion.03⋅ ∆HcC3H8 = −946. . N2(g)+2H2(g)+C(s)+1/2O2(g)=(NH2)2CO(s) ∆H298 := ∆Hf1 + ∆Hf2 + ∆H ∆H298 = −333509 J 95 Ans.Calculate ethane standard heat of combustion with water as liquid product: Standard Heats of Formation:C2H6 + 7/2O2 --> 2CO2 +3H2O ∆HfC2H6 := −83820 J mol ∆HcC2H6 := 2∆HfCO2 + 3⋅ ∆HfH2Oliq − ∆HfC2H6 − ∆HcC2H6 = −1560688 7 ⋅ ∆HfO2 2 J mol Calculate propane standard heat of combustion with water as liquid product Standard Heats of Formation:C3H8 + 5O2 --> 3CO2 +4H2O ∆HfC3H8 := −104680 J mol ∆HcC3H8 := 3∆HfCO2 + 4⋅ ∆HfH2Oliq − ∆HfC3H8 − 5⋅ ∆HfO2 ∆HcC3H8 = −2219.02⋅ ∆HcC2H6 + 0.95⋅ ∆HcCH4 + 0.02⋅ ∆HcC3H8 = −921. 4.85⋅ ∆HcCH4 + 0.194 mol kJ c) 0.05⋅ ∆HcC2H6 + 0.90⋅ ∆HcCH4 + 0. 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O(l) ∆Hf1 := 2⋅ ( −285830) ⋅ J C + O2 = CO2(g) ∆Hf2 := −393509⋅ J N2(g)+2H2O(l)+CO2(g)=(NH2)2CO(s)+3/2O2 ∆H := 631660⋅ J − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −.167 kJ mol Calculate the standard heat of combustion for the mixtures kJ a) 0.26 Ans.07⋅ ∆HcC2H6 + 0.

29 ∆H298 = −6748436 J Ans.27) 6 Q := −43960⋅ 162. Q = ∆U = ∆H − ∆ ( PV) = ∆H − R⋅ T⋅ ∆ngas T := 298.5O2(g) = 10CO2(g) + 9H2O(g) ∆H298 := ∆H + ∆Hvap 4.5) ⋅ mol ∆H := Q + R⋅ T⋅ ∆ngas ∆H = −7.6 n3 = 9. for ideal gases H = f(T). and for liquids H is a very weak function of P.However. and for the specified reaction: ∆H C10H18(l) + 14.28 On the basis of 1 mole of C10H18 (molar mass = 162. FURNACE: Basis is 1 mole of methane burned with 30% excess air.5O2(g) = 10CO2(g) + 9H2O(l) Assuming ideal gases and with symbols representing total properties.4.781 . P.133 × 10 J This value is for the constant-volume reaction: C10H18(l) + 14. whereas the STANDARD reaction is at const.145 × 10 J 6 This value is for the constant-V reaction. CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O(g) Entering: Moles methane n1 := 1 Moles oxygen n2 := 2⋅ 1.5O2(g) = 10CO2(g) + 9H2O(l) 9H2O(l) = 9H2O(g) ∆Hvap := 9⋅ 44012⋅ J ___________________________________________________ C10H18(l) + 14.15⋅ K ∆ngas := ( 10 − 14. We therefore take the above value as the standard value.3 Moles nitrogen n3 := 2.6⋅ 96 79 21 n2 = 2.27⋅ J Q = −7.

7: ∆H298 := −802625 Q := ∆HP + ∆H298 Q = −70 . C .9.241 ⋅ 13.2 = 0.6 mol N2 -.639 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3. D) ⋅ ( 1773. ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ 2.n := n1 + n2 + n3 Total moles of dry gases entering n = 13.2.6 . A .6 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 9.241 kPa.013 kJ mol From Example 4.381 101.457 ⎞ ⎜ 3.121 ⎟ 5 D := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⎜ −0.15)K ∆HP = 732.585 mol O2 -.585 ⎟ n := ⎜ ⎜ 0. 612⋅ J 97 J mol Ans.15K .157 ⎞ ⎜ 0.15K .896983 10 D := ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i 4 C := 0 D = −5.325 − 4. . Moles of water vapor entering: n4 := Leaving: 4.2..045 ⎞ ⎜ 1.280 ⎠ i := 1 . 1773. 4 R = 8.241 n4 = 0.593 ⎠ J mol⋅ K ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i A = 48.470 ⎟ A := ⎜ ⎜ 3.585 CO2 -.040 ⎠ i −3 B = 10.1 mol H2O -.450 ⎟ − 3 B := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.15 − 303.781 ⎠ ⎛ 5.781 mol (1) (2) (3) (4) By an energy balance on the furnace: Q = ∆H = ∆H298 + ∆HP For evaluation of ∆HP we number species as above.381 At 30 degC the vapor pressure of water is 4.227 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.892 × 10 The TOTAL value for MCPH of the product stream: ∆HP := R⋅ MCPH ( 303.692 ⎛ −1.314 A := ⎛ 1. B .506 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.

325 − 12.15)K − ∆n⋅ ∆H50 Q = −766 . D) ⋅ ( 323.15⋅ K .5)(79/21) = 24.8) = 4. The partial pressure of the water in the flue gases leaving the furnace (in kPa) is pp := n2 n1 + n2 + n3 + n4 ⋅ 101.381 Moles of water vapor leaving the heat exchanger: n2 := 12.15 − 1773.8) = 4. .325 pp = 18. B .HEAT EXCHANGER: Flue gases cool from 1500 degC to 50 degC. 1773. n := n1 + n3 + n4 Moles of dry flue gases: n = 11.0 Moles water formed = (6)(0.578 Moles water condensing: Latent heat of water at 50 degC in J/mol: ∆H50 := 2382.754 The vapor pressure of water at 50 degC (exit of heat exchanger) is 12.45 Moles NH3 reacting = moles NO formed = (4)(0.578 ∆n := 2.34 ⋅n 101. and water must condense to lower its partial pressure to this value.8 98 Ans.585 − 1.30 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) = 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g) BASIS: 4 moles ammonia entering reactor Moles O2 entering = (5)(1. A .5 Moles N2 entering = (6.15⋅ K .9⋅ 18. C .2 Moles O2 reacting = (5)(0. 677⋅ J 4.34 n2 = 1.8) = 3.3) = 6.34 kPa.015 J mol Sensible heat of cooling the flue gases to 50 degC with all the water as vapor (we assumed condensation at 50 degC): Q := R⋅ MCPH ( 323.

8⋅ ( −905468) mol PRODUCTS:1=NH3.186 ⎞ ⎜ −0.15K τ := 2 99 D := ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i 4 D = 8. A .8 ⎞ ⎜ 2..639 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 3.040 ⎝ ⎠ D := i B = 0. 3=NO.65 ⎛ −0.027 K By the energy balance and Eq.15K .02987 ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i 5 C := 0.0 D = −1.629 ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 1.8 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 24.15K .578 ⎞ A := ⎜ 3.020 ⎞ ⎜ 0.5 ⎜ ⎟ n := ⎜ 3.635 kJ mol The result of Pb.639 ⎟ ⎜ 3.2 ⎟ A := ⎜ 4.020 ⎞ −3 B := ⎜ 0.5 ⎟ ⎜ 24.227 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.387 ⎟ B := ⎜ 3.280 ⎠ ⎛ 3.ENERGY BALANCE: ∆H = ∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP = 0 REACTANTS: 1=NH3. 3=N2 ⎛⎜ 4 ⎞ n := ⎜ 6. 3 A := ⎛⎜ 3. D) ⋅ ( 298.280 ⎝ ⎠ i := 1 .161 ⎛⎜ −0. 4=H2O.578 ⎞ ⎜ 3. we can write: (guess) T0 := 298.227 ⎜ ⎟ 5 2 D := ⎜ 0.873 × 10 K 2 . 4.040 ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i 1 B = 0. (4.45 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛⎜ 3.470 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3. 2=O2.186 ⎞ 5 D := ⎜ −0.21(b) is used to get J ∆H298 := 0.45 ⎠ i := 1 . 5 A := ⎛ 3.593 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i A = 118. B . 5=N2 ⎛ 0.506 ⎜ ⎟ 10− 3 ⎜ 0. C .242 × 10 TOTAL mean heat capacity of reactant stream: ∆HR := R⋅ MCPH ( 348.014 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⋅ K ⎜ 0.121 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.7). 298.593 ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) B := i A = 119.506 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0..450 ⎟ K ⎜ ⎝ 0.15K) ∆HR = −52. 2=O2.15K − 348.

121 ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅ Ci) ∑ ( ni⋅Di) D := i i −6 B = 0.21 × 10 ∆HR := R⋅ MCPH ( 298.450 ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai)B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i C := i A = 4.15K) 4 J ∆HR = −2.15K − 593. B ..394 ⎞ − 3 ⋅ 10 C := ⎜ ⎝ 1.01584 C = −4.424 ⎞ B := ⎝ 3. 593. ⎛1 ⎞ ⎝1 ⎠ i := 1 .283 T := T0⋅ τ T = 978.0 ⎠ ⎛ 0.( τ := Find ( τ ) 4. D) ⋅ ( 298.. C .838 × 10 mol Reactant stream consists of 1 mole each of C2H4 and H2O.0 ⎞ 5 ⋅ 10 ⎜ ⎝ 0. A .9 K Ans. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) = C2H5OH(l) n := 1mol BASIS: 1 mole ethanol produced Energy balance: ∆H = Q = ∆HR + ∆H298 ∆H298 := [ −277690 − ( 52510 − 241818) ] ⋅ J mol 4 J ∆H298 = −8. .894 ⎛ −4.15K . 2 n := ⎜ ⎛ 1.470 ⎠ A := ⎜ A := ⎛ 14.392 ⎞ − 6 ⋅ 10 D := ⎜ ⎝ 0.727 × 10 ( mol ) Q := ∆HR + ∆H298 ⋅ 1mol Q = −115653 J 100 Ans.15K .31 ) B 2 2 −∆H298 − ∆HR = R⋅ ⎡⎢ A⋅ T0⋅ ( τ − 1) + ⋅ T0 ⋅ τ − 1 .392 × 10 4 D = 1. ⎤⎥ 2 ⎢ D ⎛ τ − 1⎞ ⎥ ⎢ + ⋅⎜ ⎥ T τ 0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ Given τ = 3..

157 ⎞ ⎜ −0. 298.249 ⎠ ⎛ 1.1725 = 0.0275 mol CO2.470 ⎠ A := ⎜ A := ⎛ 9.0275) = 0.1725 + 2(0..728 C := i ⎛ 0.045 ⎞ ⎜ 0. 2=CO.4.1725 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.396 × 10 C = −4.4000 mol H2O J ∆H298 := 0.1725 + 0. D) 4 J ∆HR = −1.84 × 10 ∆HR := R⋅ ICPH ( 773.081 ⎞ − 3 ⋅ 10 C := ⎜ ⎝ 1. 2 REACTANTS: 1=CH4.031 ⎟ 5 D := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.470 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3.32 One way to proceed is as in Example 4. C .557 ⎟ − 3 B := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 1.2000 mol CH4 0.1725 ⎟ n := ⎜ A := ⎜ 0.4 ⎠ n := ⎜ ⎛ −2.083 ⎠ .0 ⎠ ⎛ 0.15K .457 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 3. 4=H2 ⎛ 0. B .0275 + 0. 2=H2O ⎛ 1.376 ⎟ ⎜ 3.6275 ⎠ ⎛ 5. A .1725 mol CO.0275⋅ ∆H298b ⋅ mol The energy balance is written ( ) 4 J ∆H298 = 4.450 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.0275 ⎞ ⎜ 0.8 with the alternative pair of reactions: CH4 + H2O = CO + 3H2 ∆H298a := 205813 CH4 + 2H2O = CO2 + 4H2 ∆H298b := 164647 BASIS: 1 mole of product gases containing 0.0 ⎞ 5 ⋅ 10 ⎜ ⎝ 0.328 × 10 3 D = 4. 3=H2O.121 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.003 × 10 mol Q = ∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP i := 1 .121 ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅ Ci) ∑ ( ni⋅Di) D := i −3 i −7 B = 2.6275 mol H2 Entering gas. & H2O 0.145 × 10 mol PRODUCTS: 1=CO2. by carbon & oxygen balances: 0.164 ⎞ − 6 ⋅ 10 D := ⎜ ⎝ 0.2 ⎞ ⎝ 0.702 ⎞ B := ⎝ 3.15K .422 ⎠ 101 ⎛ −1.1725⋅ ∆H298a + 0.450 ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai)B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i A = 1. 0.

157 ⎞ ⎜ 0.040 ⎠ D := ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i 1 K C := 0.457 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 3.25) = 1.506 ⎟ K ⎜ ⎝ 0. 3=O2. air.8[(0.25 ⎞ ⎜ 2.593 ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i A = 74. 4 A := ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i −4 A = 3.25)(3.9 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 16.15K .015 102 J mol ⎛ −1. 4=N2 ⎛ 1. 0.227 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.25 ⎟ n := ⎜ A := ⎜ 1.5O2 = 2CO2 + 3H2O(g) ∆H298b := −1428652 BASIS: 1 mole fuel (0.397 × 10 i 3 C := 0.275) = 1.045 ⎞ ⎜ −3 ⎜ 1.25) = 2.292 i B = 0.5)] = 4.9 mol N2 = 16.082 ⎠ i := 1 .121 ⎟ 5 2 D := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⋅ K ⎜ −0..275 mol N2 in = 4.25 mol O2 = (0. ∆H298a := −802625 4.082 mol Product gases: CO2 = 0.75)(2) + (0.25 mol C2H6) burned completely with 80% xs. D) 4 J ∆HP = 2.082 mol ( ) ∆H298 := 0. 2=H2O.0 4 2 D = −9.8/1.275(79/21) = 16. 1123.75 mol CH4.75) + 3(0.470 ⎟ B := ⎜ 3.280 ⎠ ∆HP = Q − ∆H298 ⎛ 1.i := 1 .25 mol H2O = 2(0. 4 A := ⎛ 5. O2 in = 1.75 + 2(0.579 × 10 ∆HP := R⋅ ICPH ( 298. A .0 D = 3.75⋅ ∆H298a + 0. C ..62 × 10 K .63 × 10 mol ( ) Q := ∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP ⋅ mol Q = 54881 J Ans.15K .25⋅ ∆H298b ⋅ J mol 5 Q := −8⋅ 10 ⋅ Energy balance: Q = ∆H = ∆H298 + ∆HP PRODUCTS: 1=CO2. B .33 CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O(g) C2H6 + 3.8)(4.639 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3.37 D := B = 6.450 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.

.5)(0. and can therefore be considered together.15K Given τ := 2 ( ) B 2 2 Q − ∆H298 = R⋅ ⎡⎢ A⋅ T0⋅ ( τ − 1) + ⋅ T0 ⋅ τ − 1 .0645 ⎟ ⎜ 0.129 mol O2 reacted = (0..056 ⎠ ⎝ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i i A = 0.65 mol N2 SO2 + 0.129) = 0.028 ⎠ ⎝ C := 0 4 D = −1.788 4.129 ⎠ ⎝ i := 1 .0645 mol Energy balance: ∆H773 = ∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP Since ∆HR and ∆HP cancel for the gas that passes through the converter unreacted. we can write: T0 := 303.86) = 0.. BASIS: 1 mole of entering gases containing 0.227 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ −2. We simply take the number of moles of reactants as being negative.15)(0.5O2 = SO3 Conversion = 86% SO2 reacted = SO3 formed = (0. The energy balance is then written: ∆H773 = ∆H298 + ∆Hnet ∆H298 := [ −395720 − ( −296830) ] ⋅ 0. (4.06985 B = 2.2 K Ans.16 × 10 . 0.015 ⎞ 5 ⎜ −0.58 × 10 ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i −7 103 D := ⎛⎜ −1.15 mol SO2.By the energy balance and Eq.129 ⎞ n := ⎜ −0. the reactants and products experience the same temperature change. 3: SO3 ⎛⎜ −0.20 mol O2. 3 A := ⎛⎜ 5.060 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛⎜ 0.7). Moreover. 2: O2.34 (guess) T := T0⋅ τ T = 542. 0.506 ⎟ ⋅ 10 D := ⎜ 1.129⋅ J mol 1: SO2.639 ⎟ ⎜ 8. we need consider only those species that react or are formed. ⎤⎥ τ := Find ( τ ) 2 ⎢ D ⎛ τ − 1⎞ ⎥ ⎢ + ⋅⎜ ⎥ T τ 0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ τ = 1.801 ⎞ −3 B := ⎜ 0.699 ⎞ A := ⎜ 3.

15K) ∆Hnet = 77.376 ⎞ ⎜ 3. B .5 ⎞ ⎝ 0.3 ⎠ mol 1: CO 2: H2O 3: CO2 4: H2 ⎛ 3.557 ⎞ ⎜ 1.5 mol H2O.6)(0.045 × 10 mol mol Reactants: 1: CO 2: H2O ⎛ 0. 2 A := ⎛ −0.5 ⎠ ⎛ 3.15K − 298.35 CO(g) + H2O(g) = CO2(g) + H2(g) BASIS: 1 mole of feed consisting of 0.470 ⎠ n := ⎜ A := ⎜ i := 1 .450 ⎟ − 3 B := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 1.15K − 398. D) ⋅ ( 298.2 moles CO2 = moles H2 = 0.15K) 3 J ∆HR = −3.157 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0. A .5) = 0.15K .15K .3 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.422 ⎠ 104 ⎛ −0.. C .2 ⎞ ⎜ 0.168 × 10 Products: ⎛ 0.470 ⎟ A := ⎜ ⎜ 5.423 D := i ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i −3 B = 1.5 × 10 ∆HR := R⋅ MCPH ( 298.457 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3.3 Product stream: moles CO = moles H2O = 0.031 ⎞ 5 ⋅ 10 ⎝ 0.004 × 10 3 C := 0 D = 4. 773. D) ⋅ ( 773. 398.450 ⎠ B := ⎜ D := ⎜ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i A = 3.15K . C .15K .083 ⎠ .∆Hnet := R⋅ MCPH ( 298.3 Energy balance: Q = ∆H = ∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP ∆H298 := 0.031 ⎞ ⎜ 0.5 mol CO and 0.376 ⎞ ⎝ 3.045 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.3⋅ [ −393509 − ( −110525 − 214818) ] J 4 J ∆H298 = −2.617 J mol ( ) ∆H773 := ∆H298 + ∆Hnet ∆H773 = −12679 J mol Ans. Moles CO reacted = moles H2O reacted = moles CO2 formed = moles H2 formed = (0. A .2 ⎟ n := ⎜ ⎜ 0.249 ⎠ ⎛ 0. B .121 ⎠ ⎛ 0.121 ⎟ 5 D := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⎜ −1.557 ⎞ − 3 ⋅ 10 ⎝ 1. 4.

2-x lbmol N2.051-x lbmol O2 in flue gas entering with dry air = 3.133 lbm 0.133⋅ 0.02 ⋅ lbmol = 0.15K . 4 A := ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) B := i ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) D := i i −4 A = 3.12 ⋅ lbmol = 12.i := 1 .448/2 = 15.042 × 10 ∆HP := R⋅ MCPH ( 298. N2 entering in oil: 209.011 ⋅ lbm = 209.448 lbmol 2.116 lbmol 18.2-x)-0. The oil therefore contains 14.80 lbmol CO x lbmol O2 and 100-(14. D) ⋅ ( 698.133⋅ 0..981 ∑ ( ni⋅Di) B = 8.00 + 11.a carbon balance gives the mass of oil burned: 14.124 + x = 100.85 The oil also contains H2O: 209.016 Find amount of air entering by N2 & O2 balances. C .133⋅ 0. 4.415 × 10 ( mol ) Q := ∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP ⋅ mol Q = −9470 J Ans. A .124 + x lbmol (CO2) (CO) (O2) (H2O from combustion) Total dry air = N2 in air + O2 in air = 85.15K .15K − 298.051 .149 lbmol 28.013 lbmol N2 entering in the air=(85.415 × 10 4 C := 0 D = −3. B .x + 15.8-x)= 85. 698.15K) 4 J ∆HP = 1.8⋅ 12.015 Also H2O is formed by combustion of H2 in the oil in the amount 209.149 =85.01 ⋅ lbmol = 0.00 lbmol CO2 and 11.175 lbmol 105 .36 BASIS: 100 lbmol DRY flue gases containing 3.80 lbmol carbon.8/2 + x + 12.

448+3.696 − 0.233 lbmol If y = lbmol H2O evaporated in the drier. moist air.138 lbmoles N2 in flue gas = 79.192 × 10 BTU .03227⋅ 100.00 lbmol] Humidity of entering air.287 = 100.00 + 11.116+12.149 = 79.21⋅ 100.124 + x = 21. P(sat)=0.03227 14. The "products" at 400 degF consist of: 3.3⋅ 19000⋅ BTU ⋅ 209.80 + 5.21 = 15.80 lbmol CO 5.124 + x 100.797 + y) lbmol H2O(g) Energy balance: Q = ∆H = ∆H298 + ∆HP where Q = 30% of net heating value of the oil: Q := −0.x = 79.287 lbmols [CHECK: Total dry flue gas = 3. sat. and the wet material to be dried.175 x := ( 0.4594 lbmol H2O entering in air: 0. all at 77 degF.124) ⋅ lbmol x = 5.051 .913 + 79.913 lbmol O2 in air = 15.00 lbmol CO2 11.913 lbmol O2 79. at 77 degF in lbmol H2O/lbmol dry air.175⋅ lbmol = 3.797 + y Entering the process are oil. 0.233+y = 15. then lbmol H2O in flue gas = 0.4594(psia) 0.175 − 15.138 + 0.13⋅ lbm lbm Reaction upon which net heating value is based: 106 6 Q = −1.287 lbmol N2 (15.Since air is 21 mol % O2.037 lbmols N2 in air = 85.4594 = 0.

227 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.031 ⎜ ⎟ 5 D := ⎜ −0. N2.470 ⎠ T := ⎛ 1.42993⋅ BTU (y)H2O(l) = (y)H2O(g) Guess: y := 50 ∆H298c ( y) := 44012⋅ 0. except for some O2.8)CO + (5..13⋅ BTU ∆H298a = −3.278 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 15.121 ⎠ ∑ ( n (y)i⋅Ai) B (y) := ∑ ( n(y)i⋅ Bi) D (y) := ∑ ( n (y)i⋅Di) i τ := 400 + 459.15 3 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 11.040 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.42993 converts from joules on the basis of moles to Btu on the basis of lbmol.8⋅ ( −110525 + 393509) ⋅ 0.67 1.797 + y ⎠ i := 1 .9)O2 ∆H298b := 11.OIL + (21.913 ⎟ ⎜ 79.594 ⎛ −1.024)O2 = (14.8 τ = 1.8)CO2 + (12.045 ⎞ ⎜ 0. 5 A ( y) := r := 1.42993⋅ y⋅ BTU [The factor 0.457 ⎞ ⎜ 3.593 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 1.] Addition of these three reactions gives the "reaction" in the drier.557 ⎜ ⎟ −3 B := ⎜ 0.973 × 10 BTU To get the "reaction" in the drier.376 ⎜ ⎟ A := ⎜ 3.8)CO2 = (11. and H2O that pass through unchanged.639 ⎟ ⎜ 3.149)N2 6 ∆H298a := −19000⋅ 209. Addition of the corresponding delta H values gives the standard heat of reaction at 298 K: ∆H298 ( y) := ∆H298a + ∆H298b + ∆H298c ( y) For the product stream we need MCPH: 1: CO2 2: CO 3:O2 4: N2 5: H2O T0 := 298.986 ⎛ 5.602 i CP ( y) := r⋅ ⎡⎢A ( y) + ⎣ 107 i B ( y) D ( y) ⎤ ⋅ T0⋅ ( τ + 1) + 2⎥ 2 τ ⋅ T0 ⎦ .506 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.280 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3.448 + 0.116)H2O(g) + (0. we add to this the following: (11.157 ⎞ ⎜ −0.450 ⎠ T T0 T = 477.8 ⎜ ⎟ n ( y) := ⎜ 5.

242 ⎞ n := ⎜ 0.359 ⎞ −3 B := ⎜ 0.593 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 1.15K .15K .132 ⎠ ⎝ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) i B := ⎛⎜ 1.7133 ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i −3 B = 1.379 mol each of N2 and C2H2.736 ⎞ A := ⎜ 3. containing 0.45 mol 4HCl(g) + O2(g) = 2H2O(g) + 2Cl2(g) 108 .75) = 0.6 mol HCl.379 ⎠ ⎝ i := 1 .280 ⎟ ⎜ 6.015 = 4.37 BASIS: One mole of product gas containing 0. and 0. B . 0.242 ⋅J 2 3 ∆H298 = 5.15K − 298.CP ( y) ⋅ ( 400 − 77) ⋅ BTU = Q − ∆H298 ( y) Given y = 49.15K) ⋅ mol 4 ∆HP = 2. 4. The energy balance is Q = ∆H = ∆H298 + ∆HP ∆H298 := ( 2⋅ 135100 − 227480) ⋅ 0. HCl reacted = (0.526 × 10 ∆HP := R⋅ MCPH ( 298. A .169 × 10 J Products: ⎛⎜ 0. and (1-0. C .725 ⎞ 5 D := ⎜ 0.299 ⎠ ⎝ D := i A = 4.38 BASIS: 1 mole gas entering reactor.040 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ −1.495 × 10 J Q := ∆H298 + ∆HP Q = 30124 J Ans. 4. 873. per lb oil burned) Ans.288 209.2934 × 10 4 C := 0 D = −6.6)(0. D) ⋅ ( 873.04 mol N2.242 mol HCN.952 ⎠ ⎝ ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) ⎛⎜ −0.379 ⎟ ⎜ 0.782 (lbmol H2O evaporated) y⋅ 18.242)/2 = 0.495 × 10 J 4 ∆HP = 2.36 mol O2.13 Whence y := Find ( y) (lb H2O evap.. 3 A := ⎛⎜ 4.

144 × 10 mol by Eq.439 ∆B = 8 × 10 ( 4 ∆C := 0 ∆D = −8.15K J mol 5 J ∆H298 = −1.23 × 10 ) ∆H823 := ∆H298 + MCPH T0 .376 ⎞ A := ⎜ 1.344 ⎟ 5 D := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.470 ⎞ ⎜ 4.For this reaction. 4 ∆A := ⎛ 1.031 ⎞ 5 D := ⎜ −0. (4.151 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ −0.15K 1: H2O 2: Cl2 3: HCl 4=O2 ⎛2 ⎞ ⎜ 2 n := ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ −4 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ −1 ⎠ ⎛ 3. ∆D ⋅ R⋅ ( T − T0) ∆H823 = −117592 J mol Heat transferred per mol of entering gas mixture: Q := ∆H823 4 ⋅ 0.867 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ −1.45 ⎞ ⎜ 0.045 ⎠ ⎝ 109 ⎛⎜ −0.21) with T := 823.21) applies to each reaction: For (a): ⎛⎜ 2 ⎞ n := ⎜ −1 ⎟ ⎜ −1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛⎜ 3.623 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.089 ⎟ − 3 B := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.771 ⎟ ⎜ 5.156 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3.557 ⎞ −3 B := ⎜ 0. ∆B .157 ⎠ ⎝ . J (a) mol J (b) ∆H298b := −221050 mol ∆H298a := 172459 4. ∆C .506 ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) ∆B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i ⎛ 0.121 ⎞ ⎜ −0..457 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛⎜ 0.771 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 1.39 CO2 + C = 2CO 2C + O2 = 2CO Eq.227 ⎠ ∆D := ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i i −5 ∆A = −0. (4. ∆H298 := [ 2⋅ ( −241818) − 4⋅ ( −92307) ] ⋅ ∆H823 Evaluate T0 := 298.639 ⎠ i := 1 .45⋅ mol Q = −13229 J Ans. T . ∆A .442 ⎟ A := ⎜ ⎜ 3.

. 1148. ∆A ..962 × 10 ∆H1148a := ∆H298a .476 ∆B = −7.. + R⋅ MCPH ( 298.696 × 10 mol For (b): ⎛⎜ 2 ⎞ n := ⎜ −1 ⎟ ⎜ −2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛⎜ 3. ∆D) ⋅ ( 1148. ∆B .227 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ −0.15K − 298. 1148.429 i −4 ∆B = −9. 3 ∆A := ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) ∆B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i ∆D := ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i i −4 ∆A = −0.34 × 10 ⎛⎜ −0.i := 1 . ∆D) ⋅ ( 1148.031 ⎞ 5 D := ⎜ −0..15K .15K − 298. 3 ∆A := ⎛⎜ 0.327 .15K .506 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.639 ⎟ ⎜ 1.557 ⎞ −3 B := ⎜ 0.15K) 5 J ∆H1148a = 1.02 × 10 ∆C := 0 5 ∆D = 1. ∆C . + R⋅ MCPH ( 298.15K) 5 J ∆H1148b = −2..771 ⎠ ⎝ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) ∆B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i ∆A = −0.899 × 10 ∆H1148b := ∆H298b . ∆B .376 ⎞ A := ⎜ 3. ∆A . ∆C .249 × 10 mol The combined heats of reaction must be zero: nCO ⋅ ∆H1148a + nO ⋅ ∆H1148b = 0 2 Define: 2 nCO r= 2 nO r := 2 110 −∆H1148b ∆H1148a r = 1.867 ⎠ ⎝ ∆D := ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i ∆C := 0 5 ∆D = 1..771 ⎠ ⎝ i := 1 .15K .15K .

94 mol CH4 and 0.4 + 0.21x 5.79x Whence in the feed mix: r= 12.4 r x := ⋅ mol 0.21 12.232 2 Mole % CO = 2 nCO nCO + nN ⋅ 100 = 34.538⋅ 79 = 9.79⋅ 19.1 0.155 mol 100 = 5.06 mol N2 Air entering contains: 1.94 = 2.054 = 65.For 100 mol flue gas and x mol air.7 0 3.7 + 2⋅ ( 12.221 19.145 nN := 78. moles are: Flue gas Air Feed mix CO2 12.8 CO 3.35⋅ 2⋅ 0.40 CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O(g) CH4 + (3/2)O2 = CO + 2H2O(g) ∆H298a := −802625 J mol ∆H298b := −519641 J mol BASIS: 1 mole of fuel gas consisting of 0. 2 Mole % N2 = 100 − 34.548 21 mol O2 mol N2 111 .79x 78.054 Ans.4 0.1 + 0. nCO := 3.5 − 5.1 + 0.155 Flue gas to air ratio = Product composition: Ans.4 + 0.8 5.155) nCO = 48.155 nN = 93.4 + 0.8 0 12.8 + 5.538 2.21⋅ 19.21x N2 78.946 4.21⋅ x x = 19.7 O2 5.

1.0⋅ sec ∆Hrx = −599.282⋅ ∆H298b ∆H298 = −6. C .280 ⎠ ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) ⎛ 1.608 ⎛ 0.880 ⎟ A := ⎜ 0.658 + mol 3 ⋅ 0.593 ⎠ B := i ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i A = 45. 483.7 = 0.157 ⎞ ⎜ −0.3 = 0.747 × 10 Moles H2O formed by reaction = 0.639 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3.94⋅ 0.282 = 1.4881 ⎛ −1.060 = 9.457 ⎞ ⎜ 3.227 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.548 + 0.282 ( ) 5 J ∆H298 := 0.031 ⎜ ⎟ 5 D := ⎜ 0.15K .608 ⎠ i := 1 .658 Moles CO formed by reaction = 0.282 H2O: 1.045 ⎞ ⎜ 0.799 N2: 9.538 .450 ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0. B .121 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ −0.282 ⎜ ⎟ n := ⎜ 1.658⋅ ∆H298a + 0.94⋅ 0. D) ⋅ ( 483.396 × 10 ∆HP := R⋅ MCPH ( 298.15K) 4 J ∆HP = 7.94⋅ 2. A .739 = 0.799 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 9.15K − 298.506 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.470 ⎜ ⎟ B := ⎜ 3.541 × 10 Energy balance: mol ∆Hrx := ∆H298 + ∆HP ∆HH2O⋅ mdotH2O + ∆Hrx⋅ ndotfuel = 0 112 kJ mol kg mdotH2O := 34.88 Moles O2 consumed by reaction = 2⋅ 0.040 ⎠ D := ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i −3 B = 9.376 ⎜ ⎟ 3. 5 A := ⎛ 5..6725 × 10 4 C := 0 D = −3.658 CO: 0.739 2 Product gases contain the following numbers of moles: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) CO2: 0.252 .557 ⎜ ⎟ −3 1.15K .658 ⎞ ⎜ 0.Moles CO2 formed by reaction = 0.0 = 1.880 O2: 2.

630 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛⎜ −8.016 ∆C := i ∑ ( ni⋅ Ci) i −3 ∆B = −4. ∆H298 := 109780⋅ 4. ∆A .21): ∆H798 1: C4H6 2: H2 3: C4H8 ⎛⎜ 2. Thus T0 := 298.15K ..422 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 31.91 × 10 ∆H798 := ∆H298 + MCPH ( 298.∆HH2O := ( 398. 3 ∆D = 8.882 ⎞ −6 D := ⎜ 0. ∆B .15⋅ K Evaluate by Eq. assuming ideal gas: V := ndotfuel⋅ R⋅ 298. 798.422 × 10 ∆D := ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i −7 ∆C = 9.0 − 104.41 C4H8(g) = C4H6(g) + H2(g) BASIS: 1 mole C4H8 entering. ∆D) ⋅ R⋅ ( T − T0) 5 J ∆H798 = 1.15K .083 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.8) ⋅ From Table C.734 ⎞ A := ⎜ 3.0 ⎠ ⎝ i := 1 . (4.15⋅ K ⎛⎜ 1 ⎞ n := ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ −1 ⎝ ⎠ J mol T := 798.15⋅ K 3 m V = 0.635 ∆Hrx mol sec Volumetric flow rate of fuel.1: −∆HH2O⋅ mdotH2O ndotfuel := kJ kg ndotfuel = 16. The unreacted C4H8 and the diluent H2O pass throught the reactor unchanged.0 ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⎜ −9.249 ⎟ B := ⎜ 1.3 × 10 .786 ⎞ −3 C := ⎜ 0.33⋅ mol⋅ ∆H798 mol Q = 38896 J 113 Ans.873 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛⎜ 0.967 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛⎜ 26.0 ⎞ 5 ⎜ 0. 3 ∆A := ∑ ( ni⋅A∆Bi) := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i ∆A = 4.179 × 10 Q := 0.407 sec 101325⋅ Pa Ans. and need not be included in the energy balance. ∆C . of which 33% reacts.

314 × 10 ( kJ mol⋅ K 5 . 3.943 b) T0 := ( 24 + 273.67)rankine T := T0 + 20rankine T0 = 294.995 K 5 R⋅ ICPH T0 . T .43 Assume Ideal Gas and P = 1 atm a) T0 := ( 94 + 459. 0.355 .016⋅ 10 ndot⋅ R⋅ T0 P m s −3 R = 8.097 mol s Ans. 3. −0. 3. T . 0. T .016⋅ 10 ndot := Q ( −3 R⋅ ICPH T0 . 0 . T .67)rankine 3 atm⋅ ft mol⋅ rankine 3 ft Vdot := 50⋅ sec Vdot = 33.659 K 5 . 0 . 0 . −0.575⋅ 10 .261 K ( −3 5 . 0 . −0. 3.016⋅ 10 ) ndot = 31.575⋅ 10 Vdot := Q := 12 ndot := P⋅ Vdot R⋅ T0 114 ndot = 56.42 Assume Ideal Gas and P = 1 atm − 3 BTU P := 1atm R = 7. .355 . 0.7707 s P := 1atm 4.575⋅ 10 −3 ) ndot = 39.355 .15)K R = 1.88 × 10 mol⋅ K a) T0 := ( 70 + 459.298 T := T0 + 13K −3 mol s 3 ICPH T0 .611 mol s 3 ndot⋅ R⋅ T0 Vdot := P m Vdot = 0.575⋅ 10 ft sec Q := 12 kJ s Ans.355 .016⋅ 10 ndot := Q ( −3 ) = 38.61 × 10 BTU sec T = 305.372 K ICPH T0 . ) = 45. 0.051 3 Vdot = 0. −0.67)rankine T := ( 68 + 459.4.

sec T := ( 25 + 273. T . 3.7 K − 3 BTU R = 7. T . 3.3216 4. 0. −0.016⋅ 10 ) = −35.15)K BTU Ans.4121 b) T0 := ( 35 + 273.575⋅ 10 5 .44 First calculate the standard heat of combustion of propane C3H8 + 5O2 = 3CO2(g) + 4H2O (g) ∆H298 := 3⋅ ⎛⎜ −393509⋅ ⎝ J ⎞ J ⎞ ⎛ J ⎞ + 4⋅ ⎛⎜ −241818 − ⎜ −104680 mol ⎠ mol ⎠ ⎝ mol ⎠ ⎝ 6 J ∆H298 = −2.575⋅ 10 −3 R = 8. 0. −0. 0 . T .575⋅ 10 ) .594 K T = 293.043 × 10 Cost := 2. −0. T . 0.355 .5⋅ sec ndot := ( −3 ICPH T0 . −0.20 dollars gal mol η := 80% 115 mol s kJ Ans.355 .016⋅ 10 ⋅ ndot Q = −22. 0 .355 . 0 .325 .119 K −3 5 5 kJ mol⋅ K Q := R⋅ ICPH T0 .355 .88 × 10 mol⋅ K ( −3 Q := R⋅ ICPH T0 .314 × 10 ( P⋅ Vdot R⋅ T0 ndot = 59. 0 . 3.016⋅ 10 ⋅ ndot Q = −17.15)K 3 − 5 atm⋅ m R = 8.575⋅ 10 5 ) . s .15 K ( −3 ICPH T0 .T0 = 307. 0. 3.205 × 10 mol⋅ K 3 m Vdot := 1.016⋅ 10 ) = −50.

1.276 l) Nitrogen dioxide 20.528 6 10 BTU Heating_cost = 0.8K Zc := 0.846 m) Nitrous oxide 22.276 T := ( 25 + 273.420 g) Hydrogen 13.15)K cm mol T := ( 500 + 273.Estimate the density of propane using the Rackett equation 3 Tc := 369.612 × 10 mol The calculations are repeated and the answers are in the following table: J/mol a) Acetylene 26.200 c) n-butane 71.019 n) Oxygen 15.866 h) Hydrogen chloride 14. 6. T .964 d) Carbon dioxide 21.0 T Tc Tr = 0.779 e) Carbon monoxide 14. dollars Heating_cost = 33.806 (1−Tr)0. −1.120 b) Ammonia 20.132 .040 i) Methane 23.373 Vsat⋅ Cost cm mol dollars MJ Ans.052 o) Propylene 46.15)K ( −3 Q := R⋅ ICPH T0 .730 k) Nitrogen 14. 0 .457 f) Ethane 38.952⋅ 10 5 .15)K Tr := Vc := 200.147 116 .2857 3 Vsat := Vc⋅ Zc Heating_cost := a) Acetylene Vsat = 89.299⋅ 10 ) 4 J Q = 2.45 T0 := ( 25 + 273.318 j) Nitric oxide 14.032 η ⋅ ∆H298 4.

225⋅ 10 y := Find ( y) y = 0.164⋅ 10 Ans.637 Q := 11500 y := 0.46 T0 := ( 25 + 273.9 417. 0 ⋅ R .3 a) Guess mole fraction of methane: Given ( −3 y⋅ ICPH T0 .1 936.6 686.15)K T (K) 835. 0 .1 1025.2 1298.2 T := ( 250 + 273. −6 .15)K J mol ( −3 Given Q = R⋅ ICPH T0 .3 1230.2 957.081⋅ 10 ( T ( C) 562.8 363.561⋅ 10 ) .9 604.3 690. T . 9.4 932.0 877.3 1003.2 degC The calculations are repeated and the answers are in the following table: a) Acetylene b) Ammonia c) n-butane d) Carbon dioxide e) Carbon monoxide f) Ethane g) Hydrogen h) Hydrogen chloride i) Methane j) Nitric oxide k) Nitrogen l) Nitrogen dioxide m) Nitrous oxide n) Oxygen o) Propylene 4.952⋅ 10 a) Acetylene T := Find ( T) T = 835.702 .7 959.9 636.15)K Q := 30000 T := ( 500 + 273. −5. 1.8 974.4.5 .0 690. 0 ⋅R ) 5 .4 927.3 654. T .2 1209.369 K T − 273.9 261.4 964. 1.1 986. −1. −2.132 . T .131 .47 T0 := ( 25 + 273.15K = 562.4 1277.3 659.299⋅ 10 = Q J mol .. 19.2 1259.9 1248. 117 ) .0 534.15) ⋅ K −6 −3 + ( 1 − y) ⋅ ICPH T0 . 1. 6..

T . or "pinch" point occurs at an intermediate location in the exchanger. T . 0 ⋅ R . −18. the pinch occurs at one end of the exchanger. 1. 39. There are two possible situations.124 .052⋅ 10 ( ) . 0 ⋅R Q := 17500 y := 0. −15. There is no way to know a priori which case applies. Guess mole fraction of toluene Given J mol y := 0. −13. In the second case.. −0.245 c) T0 := ( 150 + 273.876 .5 −6 .15)K T := ( 400 + 273.. 63. 0 ⋅R Ans.249⋅ 10 y := Find ( y) y = 0.206 ..380⋅ 10 y := Find ( y) −6 T := ( 250 + 273. Intermediate Pinch Section I TH1 Pinch at End Section II TH1 Section I THi Section II THi TC1 ∆T TCi TH2 TC1 TCi TC2 118 TH2 ∆T TC2 .15) ⋅ K y⋅ ICPH T0 . 55.064⋅ 10 ( −6 . Ans.b) T0 := ( 100 + 273. T .301⋅ 10 −3 + ( 1 − y) ⋅ ICPH T0 .15) ⋅ K ( −3 y⋅ ICPH T0 ..928⋅ 10 = Q ) . In the first case the minimum temperature difference.48 Temperature profiles for the air and water are shown in the figures below.15)K ( −3 y = 0. −3.290 .512 . 4. 47.476⋅ 10 ) J mol = Q . 0. −20. 0 ⋅ R . −6 .716⋅ 10 −3 + ( 1 − y) ⋅ ICPH T0 . T .5 Guess mole fraction of benzene Given Q := 54000 ) .

355 B := 0.8 kJ kg For air from Table C.0 kJ kg TCi := 100degC HCi := 419. THi . D)II ⎛ mdotC ⎞ kg := Find ( mdotC .261 degC Ans. B . A .1:A := 3. THi) THi = 170.261 degC mdotC = 11. TH2 − TC2 = 10 degC 119 .011 kg mol THi − TCi = 70. T ⌠ H1 mdotC⋅ ( HC1 − HCi) = ndotH⋅ ⎮ CP dT ⌡T Section I balance: Hi T ⌠ Hi mdotC⋅ ( HCi − HC2) = ndotH⋅ ⎮ CP dT ⌡T Section II balance: H2 If the pinch is intermediate.575⋅ 10− 3 C := 0 D := −0. ndotH := 1 Assume pinch at end: TH2 := TC2 + ∆T Guess: mdotC := 1 kg s THi := 110degC Given mdotC⋅ ( HC1 − HCi) = ndotH⋅ R⋅ ICPH ( THi . a) TH1 := 1000degC ∆T := 10degC TC1 := 100degC HC1 := 2676.255 ⎜ s ⎝ THi ⎠ mdotC ndotH = 0. C . apply an energy balance around each section of the exchanger. TH1 . then THi = TCi + ∆T.1 kJ kg TC2 := 25degC HC2 := 104.To solve the problem. If the pinch is at the end. then TH2 = TC2 + ∆T. C . A . B .016⋅ 105 kmol s Assume as a basis ndot = 1 mol/s. D)Energy balances on Section I and mdotC⋅ ( HCi − HC2) = ndotH⋅ R⋅ ICPH ( TH2 .

TCi is less than the temperature difference at the end point. C . b) TH1 := 500degC TC1 := 100degC ∆T := 10degC HC1 := 2676. A .8 kJ kg kmol s Assume as a basis ndot = 1 mol/s.TCi is greater than the temperature difference at the end point.TC2. TH2 . TH2 .50 a) C6H12O6(s) + 6 O2(g)= 6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l) 1 = C6H12O6 .03 ⎜ s ⎝ TH2 ⎠ mdotC ndotH − 3 kg = 5.0 kJ kg TCi := 100degC HCi := 419. TH1 . D)II ⎛ mdotC ⎞ kg := Find ( mdotC . THi .Since the intermediate temperature difference. THi . 4 = H2O ∆H0f1 := −1274.TC2. B . A . C .695 degC mdotC = 5. 2 = O2 . TH2 − TC2 = 23. 3 = CO2 .1 ndotH := 1 Assume pinch is intermediate: THi := TCi + ∆T mdotC := 1 kg s HC2 := 104. D)Energy balances on Section I and mdotC⋅ ( HCi − HC2) = ndotH⋅ R⋅ ICPH ( TH2 .695 degC Since the intermediate temperature difference. TH2) TH2 = 48. the assumption of an intermediate pinch is correct. Guess: kJ kg TC2 := 25degC TH2 := 110degC Given mdotC⋅ ( HC1 − HCi) = ndotH⋅ R⋅ ICPH ( THi . the assumption of a pinch at the end is correct. B .03 × 10 THi − TCi = 10 degC mol Ans.4 kJ mol ∆H0f2 := 0 120 kJ mol M1 := 180 gm mol . THi . 4.

520 kJ mol ∆H0f4 := −393.05mol n3 = 1.025 mol 121 Excess O2 .∆H0f3 := −393.85 CH4(g) + 0.216 × 10 kg Ans. the exit gas will contain the following numbers of moles: n3 := 0. c) 6 moles of CO2 are produced for every mole of glucose consumed. 4.818 ∆H0f3 := 0 kJ mol kJ mol a) ∆H0c := 1.830 kJ mol M3 := 44 ∆H0r := 6⋅ ∆H0f3 + 6⋅ ∆H0f4 − ∆H0f1 − 6⋅ ∆H0f2 ∆H0r = −2801.549 kg Ans.096 kJ mol Ans.05 O2(g) = 1.05⋅ ∆H0f3 ∆H0c = −825. 2 = C2H6. 0. 5 = H2O 6 = N2 ∆H0f1 := −74. mass_person := 57kg mass_person⋅ energy_per_kg −∆H0r ⋅ M1 mass_glucose = 0.10⋅ ∆H0f2 − 1.05 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) 1 = CH4.05⋅ ∆H0f4 + 2⋅ ∆H0f5 − 0.51 Assume as a basis.10(C2H6 (g) + 3.85⋅ ∆H0f1 − 0.5⋅ 2. b) For complete combustion of 1 mole of fuel and 50% excess air. 6 275⋅ 10 ⋅ mass_glucose⋅ 6⋅ M3 M1 8 = 2.10 C2H6(g) + 2. 4 = CO2. Use molecular mass to get ratio of mass CO2 produced per mass of glucose.634 b) energy_per_kg := 150 mass_glucose := kJ kg gm mol kJ mol Ans.85 (CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) = CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g)) 0.5 O2(g) = 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(g)) -----------------------------------------------------------------0.509 ∆H0f2 := −83.820 kJ mol kJ mol ∆H0f5 := −241.509 kJ mol ∆H0f4 := −285. 3 = O2. 1 mole of fuel.

470 + n6⋅ 3.05mol 21 n6 = 11. A .618 mol Total N2 Air and fuel enter at 25 C and combustion products leave at 600 C.227) + n4⋅ ( −0.805 + n5⋅ 1.05mol + 79 ⋅ 1.280) mol ( n3⋅ 0.5⋅ 2.906) + n5⋅ 0.15)K ( n3⋅ 3. .n4 := 1.15)K A := B := C := T2 := ( 600 + 273.506 + n4⋅ 0.05mol n5 := 2mol n6 := 0. B .639 + n4⋅ 6.040⎤⎦ ⋅ 10 D := ⎣ mol Q := ∆H0c + ICPH ( T1 .450 + n6⋅ 0.311 + n5⋅ 3. D) ⋅ R 122 Q = −529.121 + n6⋅ 0. T2 . T1 := ( 25 + 273.593) ⋅ 10− 3 mol ( n3⋅ 0 + n4⋅ 0 + n5⋅ 0 + n6⋅ 0) ⋅ 10− 6 mol 5 ⎡n3⋅ ( −0.889 kJ mol Ans. C .