Let n be a positive integer.Consider a square S of side 2n units.

Divide S into 4n^2 unit squares by drawing 2n-1 horizontal and 2n-1 verical lines one unit apart.A circle of diameter 2n-1 is drawn with its centre at the intersection of the two diagonals of the square S.How many of these unit squares contain a portion of the circumference of the circle? opt.-- A. 4n-2 B. 4n C. 8n-4 D. 8n-2 Criteria for a nucleophilic catalyst: 1. The catalyst Nu– has to react faster with the substrate R-X than the nucleophilic particle Y–; 2. The intermediate R-Nu has to react faster with Y– than the starting material R-X. This means that the catalyst has to be both a very effective nucleophile and a good leaving group! Or, to say the latter in other words, the intermediate complex has to be very susceptible to nucleophilic attack. There is no simple correlation between chemical structure and nucleophilic power. Nucleophilicity, among others, depends on: - the solvation energy of the nucleophile (which is influenced by - the strength of the chemical bond to the electrophile (the C-Nu - the size (steric hindrance); - the electronegativity and the polarisability of the nucleophilic The effects of the latter factors have been quantified by Edwards: atom in the nucleophile the solvent); bond);

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.