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WATER

a medium in which biochemical reactions can go on for transporting substances in and out of cells for maintaining temperature for producing digestive fluids and secretions solvent for excreted waste products

Properties

geometry bent polar high heat capacity and heat of vaporization for maintaining body high dielectric constant supports existence of an ionic environment
in the cell electrical conductivity for transmission of nerve impulses temperature

solvent properties forms H bonds interactions with solutes also involve ion dipole and dipole dipole
bonds

self dissociation
BUFFERS

Major intercellular buffer: H2PO4 - - HPO42Major extracellular buffer: H2CO3 HCO3 Importance of buffers in biology

ability to prevent large changes in pH (important property of most cytoplasmic fluids containing dissolved proteins, organic substances
intact biological organisms) and inorganic salts excessive changes in pH blood plasma is a highly effective buffer solution (ideally designed to keep the pH of blood at 7.2 to 7.3; values outside this range are not compatible with life) many of the metabolites being constantly produced and utilized in the cell are weak Bronsted acids enzymes responsible for the catalysis of reactions in which these metabolites participate exhibit their maximum catalytic action at some definite pH