P. 1
Czech Grammar

Czech Grammar

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Published by melitenes
Czech language grammar
Czech language grammar

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Published by: melitenes on Apr 04, 2009
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08/04/2013

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Some more drastic morphophonemic alternations exhibiting vowel-zero or consonant
alternations or both involve small classes of words or single lexical items; these are much more
frequent among verbs than nouns.
£vec vs. £evce ÔcobblerÕ Nsg vs. Gsg

ªest vs. ctiÊÔhonorÕÊNAsg vs. GDLsg

ps‡t ÔwriteÕ vs. p’£u ÔI writeÕ

hn‡t ÔchaseÕ vs. ¢enu ÔI chaseÕ

vz’t ÔtakeÕ vs. vezmu ÔI takeÕ
vs. vzal ÔtookÕ

kr´t ÔcoverÕ vs. kryji ÔI coverÕ
vs. kryl ÔcoveredÕ

¢’t ÔliveÕ vs. ¢ijiÊÔI liveÕ vs. ¢il ÔlivedÕ

zaª’t ÔbeginÕ vs. zaªnuÊÔI beginÕ vs. zaªal
ÔbeganÕ

moci ÊÔbe ableÕ vs. mohl ÔcouldÕ vs.
m¬¢ Ôyou canÕ

pŽci ÔbakeÕ vs. pekl ÔbakedÕ vs.
peª Ôyou bakeÕ

mŽst ÔsweepÕ vs. metu ÔI sweepÕ

j’st ÔeatÕ vs. j’m ÔI eatÕ vs. jedl ÔateÕ

2.1.1 Noun morphology
All nouns have grammatical gender (masculine, feminine, or neuter), and with very few
exceptions (a handful of undeclinable borrowed words) all are declined for both number
(singular, plural; though some words occur only in one of the numbers, e.g., n¬¢ky ÔscissorsÕ,
which is plural only) and case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, locative, and
instrumental). Each gender has its own set of characteristic paradigms, including hard-stem
types, soft-stem types, and special types. Masculine paradigms in addition regularly signal
animacy. The vocative is formally distinct only in the singular. Below we discuss the paradigms
for masculine, neuter, and feminine adding notes on case/number endings which require
commentary. The paradigms below are intended to be representative, but there is considerable
variation in many paradigms, and it is often hard to establish a definitive norm.

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