THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS

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THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS

BY

DAYTON CLARENCE MILLEE,
PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS

D.Sc.

CASE SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE

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THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

COPYRIGHT 1916

By
Set

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
Printed.

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Published March, 1916.

Keissued November, 192(5.

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION ADVANTAGE has been taken of the necessity for a second "The Science of Musical Sounds" to make a few typographical corrections and several minor changes in the phraseology. The latter work seems to require separate treatment. OHIO. The author greatly appreciates the cordial reception which the book has received. Though the book relates largely to researches edition of which are still in progress. and for this reason it has been decided not to modify nor to add to the subject matter of the present work. which is evidenced by the necessity for a second edition as well as by the many kind expressions of appreciation which have been made. C. . May 23. MILLER. 1922. yet the study of musical sounds was interrupted while the methods of recording and analyzing sounds here described were applied to acoustic problems growing out of the war. DAYTON CLEVELAND.

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under the general title A "Sound Analysis. 1914. and to . though some slight additions have been made and much explanatory detail regarding the experiments and illustrations has been omitted. while two quotations are added in the concluding section of Lecture VIII. and "The Science of Musical Sounds" has been chosen for the title as giving a better idea of for presentation in of the contents. It is further expected that such lectures will be accom- panied by experiments and illustrations to the greatest pos- . The important additions relate to the tuning fork in Lecture II and harmonic analysis in Lecture IV. citations being made by numbers in the text corresponding to the numbers in the appendix. lected in further this end they are supplemented by references to The references are col- an appendix. They appear substantially as delivered." These lectures have been rewritten book form. sources of additional information. will present the most recent progress of the science.PREFACE SERIES of eight lectures was given at the Lowell Institute in January and February. It is expected that lectures under the auspices of the Lowell Institute. selected and arranged to develop the principal line of thought. however elementary their foundation. The explanations of general principles and the ac- counts of recent researches must be brief and often incomplete nevertheless it is hoped that the lectures in book form will furnish a useful basis for more extended study. A course of scientific lectures designed for the general public well must necessarily consist in large part of elementary and known material.

and many of the results of such work. Eckstein Case and Professor John M. The methods and instruments used in sound analysis by the author. C. 1915. July. and much care has been taken to make them as expressive as possible of the original demonstrations and explanations. were described in the lectures in advance of other publication and the intention to supplement the brief accounts here given by more detailed reports in scientific journals.terial is shown as well as may be by the aid of diagrams and pictures. Telleen of Case School of Applied Science. OHIO. nearly all of which have been especially prepared. Whitman of Western Reserve University. DAYTON CLEVELAND. . for many helpful suggestions received while the manuscript was in it is . and to Mr. MILLER. The author is greatly indebted to many friends for the kindly interest shown during the progress of the experimental work here described and he is especially under obligation to Professor Frank P. preparation.

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION.... and 1 LECTURE Pitch Tlie tuning' fork II CHARACTERISTICS OF TONES Determination of pitch by the method of beats The clock-fork Optical comparison of pitches Pitch limits Standard pitches Intensity and loudness Law Acoustic properties of auditoriums Tone quality Analysis by the ear 26 of tone quality LECTURE III METHODS OF RECORDING AND PHOTOGRAPHING SOUND WAVES The manometric flame The diaphragm The phonautograph The phonodeik The oscillograph The phonograph The demonstration phonodeik Determination of pitch with the phonodeik Photographs of compression waves .CONTENTS LECTURE I SOUND WAVES. NOISE AND TONE FACIE Introduction curve Sound defined Simple harmonic motion Wave motion The ear Noise and toue .. 70 LECTURE IV ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF HARMONIC CURVES Harmonic Mechanical harmonic analysis Amplitude analysis and phase calculator Axis of a curve Enlarging the The complete proccurves Synthesis of harmonic curves ix .

a Arithmetical and graphical methods of harmonic analysis Periodic and non-periodic curves Analysis by inspection .uucoi/.various types uj.cj. 92 LECTURE V Actual reIdeal response to sound Errors in sound records Chladni's Response of the diaphragm sponse to sound Influence of Free periods of the diaphragm sand figures Influence of the vibrator the mounting of the diaphragm Influence of the horn Correcting analyses of sound sound of Verificawaves analyses Graphical presentation tion of the method of correction Quantitative analysis of 142 tone quality LECTURE VI TONE QUALITIES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Generators and resonators Resonance Effects of material on sound waves tones Beat-tones Identification of instrumental clarinet The flute The violin The tuning fork The piano and the oboe The horn The voice The ideal musical tone DemonSextette and orchestra The 175 stration LECTURE The VII PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VOWELS voAvels Standard vowel tones and words Photographing. Vowels of various analyzing.aijz.cis turn oj'ij. utirniumu uiJ. and plotting vowel curves voices and pitches Definitive investigation of one voice Classification of vowels Translation of vowels with the phonograpii "Whispered vowels Theory of vowel quality 215 X .

SYNTHETIC VOWELS AND WORDS. KELATIONS OF THE ART AND SCIENCE OF MUSIC PAGE Artificial and synthetic vowels Word formation Vocal and " " tones Relations of Opera in English the art and science of music instrumental 244 271 APPENDIX INDEX References 281 .

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SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION. which is but making sounds according to formula. human and the art of music is older than tradition. NOISE AND TONE INTRODUCTION WE are beings with several senses through which we come into direct relation with the world outside of ourselves. every one enjoys music in some degree. we are able to and through these only appeal to us. Sound being comparatively a tangible . sight receive impressions from a distance fine arts and hearing. and probably this enjoyment is of a more subtle and pervading nature.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS LECTURE I SOUND WAVES. is also of the greatest practical importance . and through talking. Sound arts of painting. but the science of music is quite as modern as the other so-called modern sciences. we rely upon it continually for the protection of our lives. the arts of poetry and music. The study of sounds in language is as old as the race. Through two do the of these. through sight we receive the and architecture. and through hearing. the material out of which music and speech are made. Undoubtedly music gives greater pleasure to more people than does any other art. These facts give ample justification for studying the nature of sound. sculpture. we receive information and entertainment. and many enjoy it supremely.

a large number of now. which is itself always in vibration. and distinct from any other sensation. Atmospheric vibration is the normal and usual means of excitement for the ear. it is a species of reaction to this external stimulus. SOUND DEFINED Sound may be defined as the sensation resulting from the action of an external stimulus on the sensitive nerve apparatus of the ear.phenomenon. as there of enthusiastic workers in the field of acoustics complished much. one there are any unknown facts relating to would expect that if it. in the. as illustrated by the squeak and rumble of machinery. this vibration originates in a source called the sounding body.r to hear. The vibration often origiis nates in bodies not designed for producing sounds. and existence of every so intimately associated with the very human being. excitable only through the ear.flute and other wind instruments the motion directly by the breath. but it is no doubt true that this science has received less attention than it deserves. in the air or other medium and which are capable of directly affecting the ear even though there . a small number who have ac- investigators would be at work trying to discover them. is There has been in the past. to designate the vibra- tions of the sounding body or those which are set up is by the sounding body no* ea. source may be constructed especially to produce sound. The physicist uses the word sound itself. The and in this in turn impresses the motion upon a larger mass of air is set air. and especially may this be said of the relation of acoustics to music. in a stringed instrument the string is plucked or bowed and its vibration is transferred to the soundboard.

thrown powerful viFIG. it gives forth a continuous sound. \. 1. If a piece of rosined leather is is drawn along the rod a loud tone emitted. when the fork is sounding. Fig. is struck with a soft felt hammer. The fork vibrates transversely several hundred times a second. The b r'a t i longitudinal o n s of a Tuning fork and pith ball for demonstra- tion of vibration. which are too minute and rapid to be appreciated by the eye. ments. and the ivory ball resting . be exhibited in a like manner with apparatus arranged as shown in Fig. the ball is vi- olently aside. though the distance through which These moveit moves is only a few thousandths of an inch.THE NATURE OF SOUND There are numerous experiments which demonstrate that a sounding body vibrates vigorously. may be made means ad - evident by of a pith-ball pendulum justed lightly to rest against the prong. metal rod may 2. When a tuning fork.

ing across the edge. 2. Longitudinally vibrating rud. into many to cause the tube to separate as vigorous bowbe set into transverse vibration by forces. The circumference must vibrate in at least four segments. The vibrations cause periodic deformacircle to from a an ellipse. with the formation Balls.shown in may rest against the surface of the bell and may bo . 3. Fig. enormous tons are oil cm so the longitudinal vibrations piece of wet cloth. as . tions of the shape.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS second. of loops and nodes. suspended from a revolving support. and buck to the circle. is If a glass tube. and the comparatively by feeble movements of sniffle molecules. equivalent at its middle. held in the mass develop their cumulative effects several to a tensile force ot rubbed with a pinm A glass bell may FIG.

propagated outward from the source in These disturbances of all kinds.The vibrations ects in the surrounding of the source produce various physical air. at the freezing temperature.. such as displacements. ives. Glass bell. a temperare common in auditoriums. veloci- s. pressure. d temperature. constitute sound The velocity of sound is about 1132 feet per secel when the temperature of the air is 70 F. and accelerations.. and changes of density. as they ist in the air around a sounding body. these splacements and other phenomena occur periodically and 3 transmitted from particle to particle in such a manner FIG. it is about 1090 feet per second. at the effects are :lial directions. 3. Musical sounds of . F. because of the elasticity of the air.

repeating its . when the particle is displaced from this position. and the explanations are limited for the most part to certain features of waves in air. if the bob is considered as swinging in a straight line. the dis- placed particle is now freely released. but our present study relates mainly to what may be heard. movements regularly. elasticity Other forces than those of may act in the man- ner described. which force is directly proif amount of the displacement. the middle of which is the position of rest of the particle. Explosive sounds and sounds confined. it takes place in a straight line. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION AND CURVE simplest possible type of vibration which a particle of elastic matter of any kind may have is called simple har- The monic motion. and particularly to the nature of the movements of the air particles when transmitting musical sounds. takes place in a straight line fro. are Wave propagated with different velocities. The name originated in the fact that musical sounds in general are produced by complex vibrations which can be resolved into component motions of this type.same velocity. it is Simple harmonic motion has several evident features: it it is vibratory moving to and . it which is also called pendular has simple harmonic momotion. elasticity develops a force tending to restore portional to the it. disturbances may be transmitted by solid and liquid as well as gaseous matter. as 1 in tubes. there are instants of rest at the two extremes of the movement. as for instance the action of the force of gravity on the bob of a pendulum. it will vibrate to and fro with simple harmonic motion. tion. periodic.

XXXA%. 4.i. when the crank is turned with .M. but for our purpose we need give only a few simple tions. and other features are very important in a complete study of simple harmonic motion. after which it slackens in reverse order. W JU JL. therefore it is half the extreme range of vi- bration.JLJXJ J. The speed of the particle so moving. transformation of uniform motion in a circle into rectilinear motion.TJLVyi^l JL\_/ U. the pin p of the moves in the slot. Simple harmonic motion from mechanical movement. is the period the time re- quired for one complete vibration. the phase at any instant is the fraction of a pe- which has elapsed since the point last passed through its middle position in the diriod FIG. has a slotted frame which c crank movable up and down only. Fig. while a few simple machines reproduce 2 this reproduction is always accomplished by a exactly. s. 4. till it conies to rest at the other extreme. the amplitude is the range" on one side or the other from the middle point of the motion. till it reaches its central point. rection chosen as positive. Simple harmonic motion it is approximated in various me- chanical movements. the rate at which the speed changes. defini- The frequency harmonic of a simple is motion the number tions to of complete vibra- and fro per second. The is pin-and-slot device.

is the time re- vibration. vibration is produced when the crank makes one revolution and the point its P moves from mid-posi- tion to the extreme upper position. and back to period The mid-position.IJtlli bUJLUJNUJU MUblUAJL parts. FIG. 5. that to pin. move with simple harmonic moThe usual starting point for this motion is the mid- dle position of is. defined as the projection of uniform In treatises on mechanics simple harmonic motion is often motion in a circle upon . passed the starting is and often ex- Relation of simple harmonic and circular motion. the phase at any instant is the fraction of a period last which has elapsed since the point through point. that when the crank is horizontal with the pin at the extreme One complete right and about to turn counterclockwise. the amplitude is measured by half the extreme movement. as is further illustrated in Fig. by the length is of the crank from center This device used in several of the harmonic synthesizers described in Lecture IV. is. for one revolution of the crank. tion. such as point P. down to the lower extreme. P when it is about to move upward. 6. pressed by the number which of degrees through the crank has turned in the interval. that quired for the complete is.

or the point in the diameter is always the projection of the one in the circle. 315 Phases of simple harmonic motion. Fig. 5. . Fig. groove. monic The dis- placement of either slider from its central position is always twice the displace- ment point of the projection of the p on the corresponding FIG. . 90 %P/iase 225 % Phase. line. 7.form of the pin-and-slot apparatus shown in Fig. (5. motion when the point p in the circle revolves with uniform speed the two points are always in the same horizontal . both of the points and A B move with simple harmotion. is when the turned with uniform speed. Turning the crank on the back of the apparatus causes the point P in the diameter to move up and down with a true harmonic Phase V+Phase FIG. A crank pin p is pivoted in the center of a rod AB. Simple harmonic motion from mechanical movement. 6 illustrates the motion in various phases. 7. pivoted move crank in straight grooves. the ends of the rod are sliders to which two perpendicular.

A simple harmonic motion can be obtained without the friction of sliders in grooves by employing a pantograph to give the arithmetical mean of two equal and opposite circular motions. simple harmonic motion is given to any point P on the circumference of a wheel. when the wheels with uniform speed. Fig.When the crank c. as suggested by Everett. the point P moves up and down in a straight line. necting the points rotate A A and B. the radius of which is is equal to the diameter of the wheel. FIG. 8. is turned. so that it is always in the horizontal line con- FlG. Simple harmonic motion. Fig. it has simple harmonic motion. Simple harmonic motion from mechanical movement. 9. from mechanical movement. when the wheel rolls with uniform speed on the inside of an annulus a. The point P always in the horizontal line passing through the point of contact a of the wheel and annulus.. . 8. 9. and therefore.

Fig. the errors of which may be cor- by suitable mechanism. as the crosshead of an engine. Simple harmonic motion from compensated crosshead movement. errors are equalized by a system of levers acting on the FIG. and symmetrical in mathematical tion of translation traces a simple is condition . regular. and leaving a trace on a sheet of paper movThe simple harmonic curve. 12. 10 shows a device due having two crossheads. which receives simple tion when the crank revolves uniformly. 3 . 10. harmonic mo- A simple harmonic motion combined with a uniform moillustrated harmonic curve. and the rected to Smedley.The movement of a sliding block connected to a crank by a pitman rod. Fig. or it is . central sliding block P. a curve of the same form but differing in phase by a quarter period. 11. this by a pendulum swinging from a fixed point. c l and c 2 on opposite sides of the crank pin. has a distorted simple harmonic motion. Fig. perfectly simple. is ing underneath. during the motion these are oppositely displaced from the true harmonic positions. study frequently referred to as a sine curve .

is the period the to time trace required one wave . passing through a complete cycle in one K- wave length . length consisting of a crest and trough. the velocity is the rate of translation and is equal to the wave length multiplied by the number of waves per second. Tracing. Sine curves may differ considerably in aDDearance. Various terms used with regard to simple harmonic to motion the the crest are also applicable the curve. a simple harmonic curve. axis.a curve is an instantaneous representation of the condition of motion in a simple wave. Fig. 12. per second . 11. Sine and cosine curves. the frequency is the number or wave lengths traced. de- . the phase varies along the axis. is amplitude height 12 of a above the . wave length FIG. of periods.

WAVE MOTION The essential characteristic of wave motion is the continu- ous passing onward from point to point in an elastic 13 medium . the relative values of these quantities being shown in the figure.tnougn an must nave me same general propand be equally regular and simple. 13 are simple harmonic.1 4=35 4=2 /vwvwww\ 4=0. 4=35 n=30 4=0. and erties differ only in amplitude A and frequency n. Sine curves of various dimensions. or sine curves.5 n=3 4=20 4=4 n=10 4=40 Fits. All the curves shown in Fig.

agation depending upon the elastic properties of the medium. are given similar periodic transverse vibrations in successive times by a slider s which is moved from left to right by turn. Machine for illustrating transverse waves. of any type. A wave machine shown simple transverse wave motion is represented by the in Fig. The source of a wave motion may be a disturbance FIG. ing the handle h. the velocity of 14 wave propaga- . There are two distinct motions involved the vibra: tion of the individual particles about their positions of rest and the progressive outward movement of the wave form. 14. 14 the successive pendulums . being followed periodically by other crests . The slider produces a wave crest which moves along the row of balls and disappears. but movements which for sound waves it consists of vibratory are either simple harmonic or compounds of such.

and frequency are illustrated in the vibrations of the pendulums. Fig.hf> is the disvn.tion is length the velocity with which the slider is moved. and moving forward with the velocity of wave propagation illustrate a longitudinal wave motion. exactly the same as before except that they are in the direction of propagation. duces. 15. amplitude. period. simple harmonic motions. from nnp In this case the wave length tr> f. Machine for illustrating longitudinal waves. 15. One bifilar of the bars to which is attached one string of each suspension of a pendulum may be shifted lengthwise and away from the other bar so that the pendulums can vibrate only in a longitudinal direction . are given to the series of pendulums this proof a second . by moving a slider h FIG. the wave is the actual distance I from crest to crest of the wave. condensations and rarefactions in the spacing of the particles which follow each other periodically.rinns prnirlprisfrHrm nfV5ft nnH tVip . form s. instead of the crests and troughs of the former wave.

. 17. as applied to surfaces. 1G. and the nature of the pressure changes. there corresponding results a longitudinal wave of condensation and is rarefaction. series of particles In Fig. it shows by its the displacements shape the nature of the periodic vibration and exhibits and conditions of motion of a continuous transmitting the wave. and vice versa. In fact. this the type of sound waves in Sound waves usually pass outward from the source in the form of expanding surfaces of disturbance. may be illus- trated by the spacing of the lines in B. A FIG. one type of wave can be trans- formed into the other and back again by merely shifting one of the suspending bars while the pendulums are vibrating. or of air. Transverse and longitudinal displacements. upward displacements in B to forward displacements in C. forming a harmonic curve.transverse wave. this turns the direction of vibration of each without disturbing. the particles at some instant will be displaced as shown in B. pressure changes. Fig. 10 The rela- . If the displacements are of the same amounts but occur in a longitudinal direction. a transverse wave is being transmitted. if represents a row of particles at rest . 16. pendulum The simple harmonic curve may be considered an instantaneous representation of a transverse wave.the character of the motion.

Wave of compression. often producing wave motions which are represented by in solids curves of very complex shapes. and trough 16 and 17. quencies. JB FIG. Fig. but they will be represented by curves of transverse displacement. the amplitudes. and velocities of propagation are defined in exactly the same way in the of displacement differ. in the same or different directions. correctly represented 16. the displacements of the successive particles are of exactly the same amount in both instances. wave are shown fre- The amounts of displacement. Nearly all of the waves to be studied in these lectures are of the longitudinal type. may be either transverse or longitu- but the properties of liquids and gases are such that . Sound waves dinal. 17. As will be more fully developed in later lectures. by the much conveys to the eye a clearer idea of the displacements than does C. several simple harmonic motions of various amplitudes. frequencies.tions of condensation and rarefaction of the longitudinal of the transverse wave in to crest both Figs. wave motion are adequately and harmonic curve. and phases. moving coexist. though The curve B. periods. two types of waves only the directions It can be shown that both kinds of .

is of compression given to one it end of the spring.The nal transmission of a longitudi- wave through a Fig. the method is is of propagation better Fig. IS . solid or liquid body is illustrated by the collision balls. man- ner to be easily followed by the An angles illustration of is two simple harmonic motions at right given by the compound pendulum apparatus shown in Fig. When the sible. 18. shown which by the apparatus. Apparatus for illustrating a wave of compression. consists flexible spring essentially of a long. medium very compressuch as a gas. a push will suspended so as if to move horizontally. 18. the bob of which is a weight carrying a glass vessel FIG. Collision balls. 20. be transmitted as a wave in a FIG. 19. 19.

swings the sand flows from a small aperture in the bottom of the vessel and leaves a trace on the paper underneath. . periods of the different the bob swings in a peculiar curve compounded of two simple move- FIG. Compound pendulum. its length for sidewise moveand ment is 2 hence the two movements are l< . The and the l pendulum may and from side to its first swing side. to fro for is movement length i} but on account of the arrangement of the two suspending strings. 20.

Compound harmonic motion of this kind is made use of in accurate tuning. and gives a backward-ancl-forward motion to the diaphragm. .ments. the curve shown in the figure results from periods of the exact ratio of 2:3. as may . is transmitted by the air The telephone is another demonstration of the same fact. and the definition has been extended to include the external cause of the sensation. as described in Lecture II. in the All that the ear perceives complex music of a grand opera or of a symphony orchestra is contained in the wave motion of the air consisting of periodic changes in pressure and completely represented by motion of one dimension. in the cylinder type of machine the tracing point moves up and down. THE EAR Sound has been defined as the sensation received through the ear. may be transmitted by a loaded wire. by motion confined to a straight line or as Lord Kelvin has expressed it. other ratios give characteristic 1* figures. each point of which moves in a straight line. that is. 21. into an equivalent longitudinal motion at the diaphragm of . through the needle and connecting levers. but also demonstrate that a transverse vibration on the record is transformed. shown in Fig. Various other types of motion besides simple harmonic generate waves a torsional wave. sound is "a function of one variable." That motion of one dimension is capable of producing these sounds is amply proved by the talking machine. the resulting wave of compression to the eardrum. Some of the disk types of talking machines not only illustrate the movement in one direction. consisting of angular harmonic motion. . these curves are known as Lissajous's figures.

means. that is. The functioning which is a wonderfully com- plex organ. 22. Model of the car. and psychologists are investigating the manner of the reception and perception of the sensation of sound the study of these most interesting . to sound waves as they exist in the air and to their sources. a musical . A simple tone is absolutely simple mechanically. is but imperfectly understood. which are received with pleasure or indifference. and tones. NOISE AND TONE Noise and tone are merely terms of contrast. questions which is quite outside of the province of these lectures. which are disagreeable or irritating.suits can be produced by such seemingly simple mechanical of the ear. Fig. physiologists are studying its structure. the difference between noise and tone is one of degree. confined to the physics of that which may be heard. dissected. The ear divides sounds roughly into two classes: noises. 22. but in other instances blending. in extreme cases clearly distinct. is FIG.

is The resulting sound is of short duration and thought of only as a popping sound. pro- number ducing the effect of non-periodicity. the air. the only. more or The ear. while it is in reality a musical tone. but by far the greater of noises which are continuous are merely complex irregular. the resulting sound is a mixture of If several of these sticks noise and simple musical tones. classifies them as noises. while if the sticks are sound gives the effect of noise dropped one at a time in proper melody in accompanying noise. The drawing of a cork from a bottle expands the contained air. their analysis being and only apparently less difficult. vibrates with a frequency dependent upon the size and shape of the bottle.ponent tones. are appreciated by the ear. are dropped together. the ear clearly distinguishes a musical wholly withdrawn. analysis clearly shows that many so-called musical tones are non-periodic in the sense of the definition. The musical characteristic is made evident . because of its elasticity. because of lack of training or from the absence of suitable standards for comparison or perhaps on account sounds of fatigue. and of one musical sound to another. Fig. is not sufficent. Small sticks of resonant wood such that when dropped. and it is equally certain that noises are as periodic as are some tones. when the cork is spite of the order. 23. noise is a sound of too short duration or too complex in structure to be analyzed or under- stood by the ear. The distinction sometimes made. may be prepared. often fails to appreciate the character of and. In some instances noises are due to a changing period. relaxing the attention. that noise is due to a non-periodic vibration while tone is periodic.

(1846). pronounced in construction. long "quite atrocious.23. A distinguishable it. Sticks find bottles which produce musical noises. It Hauptmann awkward says. cized in the London Times as "at best but a commonplace display of noise and extravagance." many) public It critic said in is 1853 that " Frankfort (Ger'Tannhauser/ so far as the effects. sol." he . mi." was called The eminent "shrill noise and broken crockery Moritz musical it pedagogue. A conspicuous instance of the change in classification of a musical composition from noise to music is provided by Wagner's "Tannhauser Overture. incredibly and seems to me." A concerned. do. 23." After this overture had been known to the musical public for ten years it was criti- FIG. tedious. do. on a flute without blowing into tune can be played the air in the tube being against the set in vibration by snapping the keys sharply proper holes to give the tune. the tones of which are in the relations of the common chord. may be considered a thing of the past.

Sidney Lanier. the poet-musician. Many of the early listeners may have given their attention to this accompaniment and so have lost the impressiveness of the melody to them it was a confused mass of tone producing the effect of noise. chorus of pure aspirations. and especially of speech. quite plicated construction. If with the vowel tone a (mat) we combine a final noise represented by t. . Words are multiple tones of great complexity. deeds' were not deeds of war and statesmanship. mixed with essential noises. would I might lead so magnificent a of glories into heaven!" As compared with the usual composition of its time "Tannhauser Overture" must be considered as having a comThere is an accompaniment. if to this simple combina- . as if all the great and noble deeds of time had formed a procession and marched in review before These 'great and noble one's ears. who better understood wrote in a letter to his wife/ "Ah. one after another. blended and flowing.1 is produced 24 . but majestic victories of inner struggles of a man. upon which the noble melody is projected. how they 1 have belied Wagner! I heard Thomas' orchestra play his overture to 'Tannhauser. The sequences flowed along. which forms a beautiful background of tone. This unbroken march of beautiful-bodied Triumphs irresistibly invites the soul of I man to create other processions like file it. The study of noises is essential to the understanding of the qualities of musical instruments. independent of the main theme. instead of one's eyes.this composition. the word a -f.' The 'Music of the Future' is Each harmony was a surely thy music and my music.

c -j- as s : + at. thus rendering them useful for musical purposes. m + at.tion we add b various initial noises. these characteristics are pitch or frequency. several words are formed. loudness or intensity. p -f at. v at. However. t -|- at. . + at. interesting musical tones. / -j- + %k. that their characteristics Tones are sounds having such continuity and definiteness may be appreciated by the ear. the study of noises may well be passed until we understand the simpler and more at. and quality or tone color. r -(- at. h -\- at.

is adjusted until the resulting sound in unison .LECTURE II CHARACTERISTICS OF TONES PITCH THE pitch of a sound is acute or grave which determines that tone characteristic of being its position in the musical scale . an is acute of sound high pitch. Exproves periment that pitch depends upon a very simple condition. a grave is sound of low pitch. the num- ber of complete vibrations per sec- ond . 24. this number is called the frequen- cy of the vibration. One of the simplest Serrated disk for demonstrating the FIG. methods of determining pitch is mechanicallv J to Cre- ate a rate which rate is is vibrations at known and which can be varied as desired. dependence of pitch upon frequency of vibration.

If a card disk. which the vibrations are The siren. is is having a recognizable pitch which ber of taps given to the card per second. then the number of vibrations generated by the machine is the same as that of the sound. the sound is much softer and more musical than that from the serrated disk. 25. For several tones simulsecuring greater range or for sounding . 24.with the one to be measured. in the air. which enables one in a few minutes of time to determine to one part in a hundred the number of vibrations of common musical sounds. disks measured by the num- The four shown in the illustration have of numbers of teeth in the ratios 4:5:6:8. Fig. 25. the pitch of which is dependent upon the rate of rotation of the disk. The siren has been developed into an instru- ment suitable for research. sounding the common chord. held against the serrated edge of a revolving the pulsations of the card produce vibrations and give rise to an unpleasant semi-musical sound. produced jet of by interrupting a compressed air by means of a revolv- ing disk with holes. The siren is an i instrument n FIG. 26. Fig. as illustrated in Fig.

which are described in the references.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS is usually provided with two disks. between the two F. each producing its own 5 The disks may be rotated by compressed air pitch. For the present purpose it will be sufficient to explain those used for the more precise . There are various other methods for determining and comparing the number of vibrations of sounding bodies. -0. and the number of vibrations is c determined with the aid of the revolution counter disks. in either case the speed can be controlled. taneously. the siren di on the principle of the turbine.2) each having four rows of holes.IG. or by an electric motor. Siren for the determination of pitch. as shown in the illustration. one or more rows may be used at the same time. and d.

of very high pitches . 435. giving loud tones are shown in Fig. of ordinary musical pitches and those . A tuning fork for scientific purposes should be made of one piece of cast steel. Tuning forks of various types. of acoustical instruments the tuning fork invented in 1711 by John Shore. When properly constructed and mounted. it gives tones of great purity and . while Fig. 28 a fork for A of the first shape. constancy of pitch it is of very great value in experimental Fia. is 129 millimeters long. 27 shows various forms of tuning forks. research of exquisite workmanship and painstaking Rudolph Koenig of Paris. 27. and many special forms are shown in other illustrations. not hardened the shapes developed by Koenig have not been excelled.is Perhaps the most important. the patterns for forks . Fig. not including the : = 29 . work and provides the almost universal method of indicat7 ing and preserving standard pitches for all purposes. 42 represents a larger collection. Handel's fork reached an almost perfect develop- The ment under the trumpeter.

79 millimeters long. Therefore the should stop while the fork is yet two or three tenths of flat. the prongs are already too short. by filing on the the pitch is raised if the fork is filed near the . i . the heating lowers the pitch of the fork. The number mass the yoke. suitable for high pitches. a fork of the second shape. 28. if of vibrations of a fork is dependent upon the of the prongs and the elastic forces clue principally to ends or sides. has a yoke which hence it is is very thick in proportion to the prongs. yoke. the prongs are made lighter.. has the pitch 3328. it must be done with extreme care. that is. secured. J very carefully by I shortening both prongs together till the desired f requency jg FIG. and the fork should be allowed to remain at filing a vibration a uniform temperature for a day or two before a comparison is made. A standard fork. Shapes of Koenig's tuning forks. and a comparison again made after another interval of rest. . and if tuned while thus heated. flat in pitch. Filing or grinding a fork will heat as will also the touch of it is the fingers. hav- ing been accurately machined and finished. it will later be found too sharp. should be left with the prongs a trifle too long. Vigorous filing will produce molecular disturbances which subside only after long periods of rest. the elastic restoring force is diminished and the pitch The second shape of fork shown in the figure is lowered. that is. it. the final tuning should be . carried out .handle. if further tuning is necessary. The methods of comparison are described in the succeeding articles.

the final adjustment of pitch is made by careful grinding on the ends of the prongs. the temperature coefficient was found to be nearly constant for forks of all pitches and have the value 0. For instance. in which case care is with vaseline required to prevent rust. Koenig proved that change of temperature alters the number to of vibrations of a fork. if the tuning is perfect. or an injury. a few thousandths of a vibration per second. it draws the fork its natural frequency by a small amount. it more rapidly produces a louder sound and is it also purifies the tone by reinforcing only the fundamental. smearing a convenient rust preventive. a fork this coefficient giving 435 vibrations per second at 15 31 C. which are thus made bright. These effects are considered at greater length under Resonance in Lecture VI. machine work has been tuning.0001 1.i unmg IOFKS are 01 ien imisnea wrin a Dngm steei sunace. The boxes on which the were first forks are commonly mounted used by Marloye. will disfigure it and will be easily detected. will have its fre- . and the surfaces are final but before the then very lightly etched with a seal. A blued is steel finish is excellent. standard forks are sometimes blued all over the entire surface after finished. they are of such dimensions that they form resonance chambers not quite in tune with the fork tone. the negative sign means that the frequency is diminished by increased temperature. When the resonance box out of not exactly in tune with the fork. the sound is louder but of short duration. because the energy of the vibration is 8 The box serves a double purpose: dissipated. Any further alteration of the fork. 9 The change in the number of vibrations of a fork by is found by multiplying its frequency and by the number of degrees of temperature change.

they are likely to b6 injured.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS quency diminished by 0. a fork itself. interrupted. the purpose. for being of soft steel. Tuning may be by bowing one prong with a violin or a bass bow. For extreme changes in amplitude. once started. the number of vibrations may vary as much as one in three hundred. the true pitch forks is that corresponding to a small intenexcited across the end of 10 sity. with the loudness of the tone which the fork is giv- ing. an ivory hammer is best. For sounding the thick high- pitched forks. the less the frequency. 50. current produced from some other source. If a fork is sounded loudly. page 65. for ten degrees increase The that is. this is perhaps the best method for obtaining the loudest possible response. Forks should never be struck with metal or other hard substances. For usual experimental work the most convenient method is to strike the fork with a soft hammer a felt piano hammer head with a flexible spring handle is an excellent tool for . its may be own vibrations. Often' a fork is driven by an by an alternating. serving to produce the interrupted current required. a solid rubber ball or a rubber stopper is often used for the hammer head. 179 are all driven by one interrupter fork at the back of the apparatus. the ten forks shown in Fig.48 vibration in temperature. or . the pitch will rise slightly as the tone subsides . Forks are often driven by made to sound continuously by means of an electro-magnetic driving arrangement. pitch of a fork changes slightly with the amplitude. the greater the amplitude. such a fork is shown in Fig.

and this causes the pitch fifty. . it lags more or less . An account of the tone quality of the tuning fork is given in Lecture VI. DETERMINATION OF PITCH BY THE METHOD OF BEATS simple comparison by the ear will enable one who is musically trained to tune certain intervals. then. rarely exceeding one vibration in two hundred and careless handling causes the change usually flattens the pitch. while many illustrations of its usefulness will be found throughout the lectures. produces but slight effect.' J. and under other conditions which need not be considered Comparison by ear. is the principal means employed in tuning pianos and organs and such stringed instruments as the violin and the guitar. rust and wear. to sharpen. since rust near the yoke affects the fork more than that near the end of the prong. Beats often occur between the overtones of sounds which are not simple. A unison produce beats. and even rust. that is. Two tones nearly in octaves. thirds. such as unisons. JLJJ. in some degree produce opposite effects and tend to maintain the original pitch. here. as it slowly proceeds over a period of years. The prong itself is always a very little behind the pull. and fifths.VJLO J. based on the method of beats. A fork retains its pitch with great constancy. fourths. ordinary little change. this forcing of the vibration causes the period to be slightly different 11 from that of the same fork vibrating freely. The ordinary wear on a fork is usually greater at the ends which are unprotected. the prong is inter- mittently urged forward by the magnetic pull.JLV^/O \_/JL When a fork is driven by this method. the number of which per second is equal to the difference in pitch (see page 183).

the required pitch is then that of the standard increased or diminished by the number of beats per second. the interval between beats becomes longer. When the two sounds approach unison. when it is. found that one can count beats with accuracy at the rate of from two to five per second. making it flatter puts it further out of tune. the fork being tested is then adjusted till it is four beats per second flatter than the auxiliary. Sets of forks are scale of equal made for setting or testing the chromatic temperament. as already explained. for one is not It is sure of the instant of minimum or maximum sound. it is difficult to measure the time between them. as in tuning pianos and organs. When the sound is from a tuning fork. the number of beats per second is determined by counting the number occurring in five or ten sec- unknown sound and onds. which will slightly lower its pitch if there are now more beats per second.that of the standard fork being heard simultaneously. which is tuned four beats per second sharper than the standard. and The fork may be adjusted to equality with the standard by filing. Usually the ear will decide whether the sound is flatter or sharper than the standard in other cases it may be possible to make an easy adjustment to assist in this determination. since fewer and finally cease. the count being carried over five or ten seconds. the fork is . fork more. when the beats are slow. or the most convenient number. 34 . . vice versa. four beats per second is perhaps For these reasons an auxiliary is often used. of course. one prong may be loaded with a small piece of wax. exactly in unison with the standard. till the beats become flat.

435.65 and 517. for making the but it is tests the auxiliary forks only are actually required. for A = . a correctly tuned octave must have its successive tones four beats per second flatter than those of the auxiliary 20. give 258. of the scale set.3 vibra- and are not a true octave apart for a true octave the higher fork would be eight vibrations sharp and give 525. The first and last forks which are an octave apart.in thirteen forks which the comparisons are made by beats.65 tions. an auxiliary is set of then tuned so that each exactly four beats per second sharper than the corresponding fork of the first series.3 vibrations. Such forks are shown in Fig. 29.3 vibrations. Sets of forks for testing the accuracy of tuning the chromatic scale. the auxiliary forks being four vibrations sharp give 262. none of the auxiliary forks gives true musical . and 521. respectively. A series of is accurately tuned to the chromatic scale from middle thirteen forks C is to C an octave higher. desirable to have the others also. forks.

.

13 The largest fork is about five feet and has a cylindrical resonator eight feet in length and twenty inches in diameter. This method. which is very laborious. 30. the successive forks differing by four vibrations per second.Scheibler's tonometer consisted of fifty-six forks having pitches from about 220 to 440. The shape of this figure is characteristic for certain of the ratio of the frequencies of the two forks. . the ray is deflected in two directions.3 vibrations per second.The absolute number of vibrations may be determined by counting the number of beats between the successive forks of a series of fifty or ing to the more ranging over one octave. accordmethod devised by Scheibler in 1834. It is possible to find in this series a fork which shall differ from any given musical tone by not more than four beats per second. of the sound with great ease and precision. as shown in Fig. The motions may be provided by precise One of the most methods for the 14 frequencies is Lissajous's optical method. 1 . OPTICAL COMPARISON OF PITCHES comparison of which depends upon the geometrical figures traced by two simple harmonic motions at right angles. so that the figure on the screen corresponds to the com- pounded motion. and tuned with the greatest care and skill it Ellis . When the forks are vibrating. has been used by and by Koenig. tuning forks which carry mirrors on the prongs. A ray of light is reflected from one fork to the other and then to a screen or an observing telescope. Koenig's masterpiece is perhaps a tonometer consisting of a hundred and fifty forks of exquisite workmanship.845. a comparison with which by the method of beats will determine the pitch long. covers the entire range of audible sounds from 16 to 21.

it . change is that required for one fork to gain or lose one com- number corresponding to the application of this method is explained in connection with the clock-fork. and second hands but instead of the escapement operating on the .. The THE CLOCK-FORK The most precise determinations of those made by Koenig. makes 128 swings per second. The clock has the usual hour. passing through a cycle. because of progressive phase difference. and. plete vibration on the exact indicated ratio. that is. 32. on page 40.THE SCIENCE Cvb' MUSICAL SUUJNDS simple ratios. If the ratio of frequencies is not exact. 31 is reproduced from an autographed photograph of the original instrument^ in the author's possession. as scientifically defined. and because of the per- appears continuous and stationary. Fig. such as 1:2. returns to the original form the time for this cyclic . the figure exactly retraces sistence of vision it itself. 2:3. 15 By combining the clock-fork of Niaudet with a vibration microscope for observing Lissajous's fig10 he developed the beautiful instrument shown in Fig. etc. 1:3. 31. ures. essentially a pendulum clock in which Fig. while the instrument which recent construction was exhibited and is shown in in the lecture is of more The apparatus is the ordinary pendulum is replaced by a tuning fork the fork has a frequency of 64. and when the ratio is exact. the figure changes. counting both to and fro movements. who investigated absolute pitch are the influence of the resonance box and of temperature on the frequency of a standard fork. He also determined the frequency of the forks used by the Conservatory of Music and the Grand Opera in Paris. minute. . the figures are easily recognized by the eye.

200 single vibrations in a day. when the clock loses one second a day. escapement mechanism arranged that it is A very small attached to this hand and is so it is operated by one prong of the tuning fork swings to and fro. as and the clock "runs. common the escapement not only releases the wheelwork. 128 times a second. which goes round once in a second. making 11. but it also imparts a small to the fork so as to its impulse maintain vibration as long as the is.provided. for instance. If the clock is regutill it lated FIG." over. by moving small weights up or down on threaded supports. to adjust the fork to exactly 63 complete vibrations 39 . as in the Moreclock.059. change in the rate of the clock of one second per day means a change in the fre- A quency of the fork of one part in eighty-six thousand four hundred that is. the fork thus releases the wheels regularly. as does an ordinary pendulum. fork has a frequency of 63. clock runs. If it is desired. The justed rate of the fork is ad- much as is a pendulum. Photograph of Kocnig's clock-fork hearing his autograph. the vibrations. for days if Thus we have a tun- ing fork which will vibrate and a clockwork which accurately counts continuously. the . that desired.99926. 31. the fork must vibrate exactly 128 times a second. keeps correct time.

it must lose one part in sixty-four. multiples of its frequency. The range of the fork is a musical semi-tone by using various . Clock-fork arranged for verifying another fork. vibration by the rate at which the clock gains or loses. that must lose 22y 2 minutes a day. it is possible to determine almost any desired musical pitch with precision.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS per' second. By means of the weights the actual fork can be adjusted to have any desired frequency between 62 and 68. 32. the clock is. of using the clock-fork -may be illustrated The method by . this fre- quency being determined to a ten-thousandth part of a FIG.

if the two forks are vibrating. 33.CHARACTERISTICS OF TONES integral divisor of 435 which will give a quotient within the limits of frequency of the clock-fork is is 7.143. if the change occurs in less time.8. Sup- pose now the figure goes through its cyclic change once in 5 seconds. or 435. the slight lowering of pitch has improved the tuning. then the fork has a frequency of either 434. The A-fork is supported so that its line of vibration is at right angles to that of the lens. the lowering of the pitch has made it further from the true value and the fork had a frequency of 434. or 1 minute 44. the tuning-fork pendulum will make 62. If the cyclic change requires a longer time than before. 32. near the ends of the prongs to make it sharper or near the voke to make it flatter. Fig. and so that some brightly illuminated on the end is point.143 vibrations per second. this ^ Lissa j olls 8 . To determine whether the fork is sharp or flat a very small piece of wax is attached to one prong.2. a numerical calculation shows that the clock loses 41 minutes 46 seconds per day. fast. speck is seen to describe the Lissajous curve for the ratio of 1:7. if the A-fork vibrates exactly 7 times as frequency must be 435. which condition indicates that the frequency of the fork was 435. The A-fork may be adjusted by filing or grinding. as de- .4 seconds per hour. which will make it vibrate more slowly. Fig. its The clock-fork carries the objective lens of a microscope. visible through the microPlQ 3 scope . the exact ratio of the frequencies is to be determined by Lissajous's figures with the vibration microscope. and the quotient if 62.2. as a speck of chalk dust of the prong.8. the body of which is attached to the frame.

2 to 4138. for instance. PITCH LIMITS The range 60 for a of pitch for the human voice in singing for a is from low bass voice to about 1300 very high soprano. The piano has a range of pitch from 27. though its actual length is greater. that is. Organ pipe over 82 feet long giving 1G vibrations per second. FIG. The clock-fork is provided with a mirror on the side of one prong so that it may be used to produce Lissajous's figures by the light-ray method or to record the vibrations directly on a photographic film. 34. an organ pipe giving 16 vibrations per second. 34. one which gives the sensation of a continuous tone. Neither speech nor music makes direct use of all the sounds which the ear can hear. yet the piano descends to 27 and the organ TVi n ^-n-ni-nn-P^v-U to 16 or even to 8 . the frequency 4138 is given by a pipe l 1/^ inches long. there are a few organs in the world hav- ing pipes 64 feet long which give only 8 vibrations per second. the cyclic change occurs in 10 seconds. The pipe organ usually has 16 for the lowest pitch and 4138 for the highest. Helmholtz considered 32 vibrations per second as the lowest limit for a musical sound. but such a sound is hardly to be classed as a musical tone. the error of tuning 1 / 10 vibration per second.4. is somewhat nominally 32 feet long. Fig.till if is any required accuracy has been obtained.

per second. course. The persistence of vision is about one tenth of a sec- FIG. but they are heard as separated or continuous sounds. for moving . Large fork giving from 16 32 vibrations per second. dis- It is interesting to notice that the frequency of repetition of an impression to produce continuity of sensation for sound is practically the same as for light. that is. according to the position of the weights on the prongs. an intermit- tent visual sensation occurring ten times or more a second produces the effect of a continuous sensation. with a general consensus of opinion that the lower limit of audibility for a musical tone is 16 vibrations per second. Experimenters differ widely as to the lower limit. 35. to ond. though oe made nearly all most trustworthy values consider Helmholtz's value too high perhaps the are between 12 and 20 vibrations . Of are the ear can hear 16 vibrations fewer in when they number than per second.CHARACTERISTICS OF TONES may to give from 16 to 32 vibrations per second.

according to the intensity of the light. This pipe sounds B 8 and gives 15. the length of the pipe which is effective in producin what ing the tone is indicated by I in the figure and measures 0. Perhaps Helmholtz's value of 32 for the lower limit of a tone is the flicker limit for the ear. Experiments to . a sound listeners. Fig. and even Fig.000. and much too small to be used in an organ. 3(i. This value varies from ten to fifty or more per second.25 inch. unless the number of light 17 flashes per second exceeds a certain value. 36 shows more is in cases of extreme sensitiveness.in the general illumination when the intermittent shutter of the machine is in operation. or 30. 000 vibrations per second. Small organ pipe giving IT). 37. one of the smallest ever made. While the upper pitch limit for the musical scale is about 4138. which is clearly audible to most determine the upper limit of audibility are often made with a Galton's whistle. form a regular organ pipe. the ear can hear sounds having frequencies of 20.000 FIG.600 complete vibrations per second.

38. sound. Adjustable whistle for determining the frequency of the highest audible. and bars. giving graduated quency. are struck on the ends with a is steel is hammer. 18 extending over a lifetime of investigation. FIG. in which obser- vations were made with tuning 45 forks. high-pitched sounds of known fre- Another experimental method of producing sounds of high pitch is by the longitudinal vibration of short steel The bars are suspended by silk cords. which pitch of the sound determined by the length of the bar. producing a the tone desired. Perhaps the most conclusive experiments on audible and inaudible tones of the highest pitch are those of Koenig. 37. the clear metallic ringing sound. Fig.5 millimeters (2 X / 10 inches) long giving 32.768 vibrations per second.The dimensions. transverse vibrations . indicated by the scales. a bar 52. whistle can be set to various lengths. blown by means of a rubber pressure bulb.

organ pipes. A set of Koenig forks for tones of high pitch is shown in Fig. when properly constructed and used.432. frequency of 90.000 motions Sounds which are inaudible are evident by cork-dust figures in a tube. the made stationary air waves produced by the vibration of the fork at the end of the tube cause the cork dust to accumulate in . . 38. proved to be the most suitable source of Koenig made his first experiments in 1874 when he was forty-one years old and at that time was able to hear tones up to F # 23. longitudinal vibrations of rods. which he exhibited at the Centennial Expo^ (These forks and sition in Philadelphia in 1876. membranes. to F = 21. and strings. Tuning forks. by Koenig are now Toronto University.000. 39 Koenig has made a complete series of such forks extending more than two octaves above the limit of audibility to a interesting acoustic apparatus exhibited in the laboratory of s) = = . to and fro) per second.) In his fiftyseventh year the limit of audibility for Koenig was E 20. and in his sixty-seventh year it was D 9 J 18. Fig.of rods.845. 39. which he considered the highest directly audible simple tone he constructed a set of forks up high tones. plates. much other FIG. Steel bars for testing the highest audible frequency of vibration.480.000 complete vibrations (180.

however. overtones with frequencies of 10. very high pitch should not be neglected however. While it would be interesting to students of music to con- sider the reasons for the selection of tones of certain pitches to form scales and chords. be useful to notice the location on the musical staff of the octave points of the sounds used in music and to explain the notation which designates a given tone. it would lead us far from our present purpose. or more. 39.music of pitch of the highest note commonly used in 4138. the ana- FIG.000. it will. Forks for testing the highest audible frequency of vibration. lytical work discussed in these lectures is limited to pitches of from about 100 to 5000. The musical staff may be considered as composed of eleven lines . The investigation of these tones of . to assist in identifying 47 . probably enter into the composition of some of the sounds is Though the music and speech.

the lines. As = 435 for a note. C 7 -0-4138 Ce. Middle C and the several octaves of the musical scale.2069 EE C 3 -e>-259 Fio.TABLE OF EQUALLY TEMPERED SCALE. Fig. the middle one is omitted except when required 40 additional lines of short length are used .Q. . 40.

" J I though sometimes it is given by "Middle C. A . and nated by C . The table opposite gives the pitch numbers for all the tones of the equally tempered musical scale. even within the history of modern music. is.6. . when of it was A A = 461. 19 from D of the modern musical The condi- tions of use and cause of changes in pitch are described in the references. The standard of musical pitch has from the varied greatly. all C. . that scale. classical pitch of the time of Handel and Mozart. in 1826. etc. vibrations of the note called "Violin A. STANDARD PITCHES Musical pitch is usually specified by giving the \)L number of | . the various octaves the tones of an octave between two C's are designated by the subscript of the lower C that is. was A 433. to the modern American Concert pitch tones. in International Pitch this tone has 258. Especially interesting are the accounts of the changes in Philharmonic Pitch. the musical compass four octaves upward and downward from middle bearing subscripts as shown. UJP lUJNJiS The tone called "middle C" is is placed desig- on the line between the bass and :i treble staffs. which under Sir George Smart. and under Sir Michael Costa.65 is vibrations per second." II i(jj> .{ and G! is on the lowest line of the bass staff.UJtlAltAU JL J&JtU& 11U& to extend the compass. or by the C an octave higher. that of the London Philharmonic Orchestra.J 435. a change of more than one and a half semiEllis gives a table of two hundred and forty-two showing values Fft to for A ranging from 370 to 567. pitches. = . based on International Pitch. 422. G is on the second line of the treble staff. in 1845.

Cross of Massachusetts Institute of made an Technology. now referred to as High Pitch. A = 435 was established in 1859. As a result of Koenig's researches with the clock-fork. in 1891. the French "Diapason Normal. The committee fundamental standard the type of fork made by Koenig. and instrument strings frequently break under the but the lack of uniformity also causes great confusion and trouble. which has been much used in = Germany. Not only has reached the high limit of A has the rise in pitch been so great that artists have refused and = to sing strain. extensive investigation of musical pitch. Fuller was chairman. (68 "International Pitch. this After consultation with many authorities in country and Europe. A Scheibler's pitch of convention of physicists in Stuttgart in 1834 adopted A 440." at F.. this is perhaps the first standard pitch.6. Orchestra adopted this pitch upon A organization in 1883. at the temperaThis was adopted by its several of the leading the Boston Symphony symphony and opera orchestras.this Philharmonic Pitch it is often referred to as Concert Pitch. of which General Levi K. committee of the Piano Manufacturers' Association of America. been proposed that A = 438 be nv. 41. This is often called Low = Pitch in distinction from Concert or Philharmonic Pitch. 461. assisted by Professor Charles R. which is provided with an adjustable cylindrical resonator and gives a tone of great selected as its strength It has and purity. the Committee." ture of 20 C.-*- made a A AA H standard. A 435. shown in Fig. adopted as the standard the Diapason Normal as determined by Koenig and named a temperature of 20 which is it C. ^A .).

Diapason Normal A 435 . 43: should be only one nominal standard. arguments favor the unr insist The musician should )ther instruments be tuned to this pitch. in which middle C 256. and as tuning forks of his make are widely used in scientific institutions. Koenig adopted one for his own work. International Pitch. for prac ittle difference in the pitches 435. FIG. Standard fork. this pitch. strongest i = 435. 41. A = 435. Before any standard had been generally established for musical purposes. The author urges the use of one pitch only for both scien- . is often referred to as Scientific or Philosophical Pitch.

THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS .

there is a reasonable correspondence between loudness and energy. and we are dependent on the subjective compari- there Not only are the ears of different son of our sensations. impossible to state simply the factors determining loudness.musical scale this gives for middle C 258. therefore. it varies as the square of the frequency. varies as the square of the amplitude. For the corresponding characteristic of light (illumination) is a moderately definite standard. hearers of different sensitiveness. there being over two hundred forks in the picture. commonly called the candle power. School of Applied Science the scale forks based on C have been duplicated with new forks based on A Fig.65 vibrations per second. when . the frequency remaining constant. the amplitude remaining constant. INTENSITY AND LOUDNESS The loudness of a sound is a comparative statement of It is the strength of the sensation received through the ear. In the laboratory of Case 256 = = 435 . but each individual ear has a varying sensitiveness to sounds of different pitches and. or what we will call the intensity of a simple vibratory motion. physicist calls the energy of the vibration. In a first study of the physical characteristics of sounds 21 we are compelled to consider the intensity not as the loud- ness perceived by the ear. This pitch is used exclusively in discussing the results of our sound analysis. but as determined by what the Fortunately. but for sound there is no available unit of loudness. to sounds of various tone colors. under simple conditions and within the range of pitch of the more common sounds of speech and music. 42 shows the larger part of this collection. The energy.

and it represents a loudness but its .3.3 . plitude b has a frequency the same as that of curve a. FIG. intensity by /. hence it represents a sound four . 43. and again its loudness is four times that of a the curve d has a frequency of 3. 43 the curve Since curves or we are wave to study sounds lines. we may n=l 1=1 i =l A=2 1=4 n=2 A=\ 1=4 n =3.3 /= 1 d \AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA/W Curves representing simple sounds of various degrees of loudiiess.3 and an amplitude of 0. equal to that of a. but its amis twice as great. times as loud of a. the curve c has an amplitude the same as that frequency is twice as great. Then the sounds represented by a and . In Fig. representing by A.4 = 0. or to express it by a formula. am- plitude by means of representative give attention to the features of the curves which indicate intensity.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS the square of the product of amplitude and frequency. and frequency by n.

compute the inand then to take the sum of these intensities. practically all sounds are such. to tensity due to each component singly. 44. and n=l A=\ 1= 10 PIG.. Curves representing two simple sounds and their combination. 55 If it were assumed that the . 44 illustrates this condition. Curves a and b have loudnesses represented by 1 and 9.LVJL V a change of film speed may give an apparent change of frequency when none really exists. the wave into its simple components. OW UJ. When we are studying the records of complex sounds. as explained above.\JJ. a simple measurement of the amplitude of the curve and of the frequency is not sufficient for a determination of the loudness it is necessary to analyze . Fig. curve c contains both a and 6 and its true loudness is therefore 10.

The curves differ only in the relation of the phases of the components. A further illustration of the necessity for analysis of a wave before judging of the loudness is shown in Fig. a fundamental and respectively.with a. Curves representing the combination of two simple sounds in different phases though the curves are of different widths. 56 . and there- FIG. composed of the same 1 and 4. . but also upon the peculiarities of the surroundings. and the position of the source. including the audience. of loudness partials. 45. fore has the same loudness. the materials of which furnishings. The curve a is composed of two partials. they represent sounds of the same loudness. Among the The loudness features of size its an auditorium which must be considered are it its and shape. 45. in which a and b are of exactly the same loudness though of different widths. which is only one sixth of its real loudness. is constructed. b is its second overtone. ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF AUDITORIUMS of a sound as perceived by the ear depends not only upon the characteristics of the source.

No auditorium. This method. all of which can-j f~have been \ considered. this reverberation.U JL of the acoustic properties of audiof the very greatest practical importance. most trace. the transmission. There are other effects. and it is also one of the most elusive of problems the sounds which The determination is toriums 1 . has been described in archi22 and scientific journals. Sabine of Harvard University. which felt is less difficulty. and even with satisfaction. and no music room. The difficulties of the work are such as to discourage any but the most skillful and determined investiIndeed. interferences. page 88. due to echoes. and In reflection in general. a confusion and diffusion of sound throughout the room which obscures portions of speech. Sabine's experiments have shown that the most common defect of auditoriums is due to reverberation. with more or already constructed. many is cases these troubles be remedied. which is of scientific remarkable practical tectural utility. should be constructed which is not designed in accordance with these principles. large or small. and the perception of sound are extremely complicated. in auditoriums/ especially true in regard to\ \ / reduced by the proper use of thick 'v^jibsorbing A in placed on the side walls and ceiling. . method for photographing the progress of sound waves is an auditorium referred to in Lecture III. the problem has been almost universally considered impossible of solution and this opinion has been gator. that it still persists in spite of the fact that a method of determining the acoustic properties of auditoriums has been developed by Professor Wallace C. interest us are of short duration accepted with so much complacence./ JL JLJJLVJ. public or private. and they leave no and the conditions affecting the production. .

when they produce There tones of the infinite same loudness and pitch. Watson. distribute the in some in- sound in such a way as to remedy certain defects. stances. have character- but individual instruments of the same fam- delicate shades of tone quality. and even notes same pitch can be sounded on a single instrument with qualitative variations. and was It later made altogether satisfactory for public speaking of reverberation 24 by Sabine's method. Whitman. This characteristic may be called tone color. by which they are distinguished from sounds of the same loudness and pitch. as has been shown by the elaborate experiments of Professor Floyd R. tone quality. or simply quality. that characteristic of sounds.is of great value in designing rooms which shall be free from defects. An auditorium has been described by Professor Frank P. A soundboard placed behind the speaker may. produced by some par- ticular instrument or voice. which was practically unimproved by the use of a soundboard. The it is third property of tone TONE QUALITY is much the most complicated . produced by other instruments or voices. The bowed instruments of the violin family possess this property in a marked degree. an almost variety of tone quality. not only do different instruments istic qualities. 23 but the more common faults are not removed by this method. ily show of the . With comparatively ability to recognize little practice one can acquire the series of with ease any one of a is musical instruments. upon the removal may be added 24 that the stringing of wires or cords across an auditorium can in no degree whatever remove acoustical defects.

of the or if mowe represent the vibration curve line. The simplest FIG. . harmonic motion. 46. of such a tone is absolutely simple and pure. A gives to the air a single simple tuning fork. being propagated.ability to produce sounds of varied qualities. and loudness upon amplitude (and frequency). The of investigation of tone quality therefore leads to a study vocal as well as instrumental sounds. each of a distinct musical quality. the peculiar kind or form tion. which. the sine curve. the different vowels are tones. or by a wave is quality dependent upon the peculiarities represented by the shape of the curve. Models of three simple waves. when properly mounted on a resonance box. Since pitch depends upon frequency. develops a simple wave. having quencies in the ratios of 1:2 3. were described in the preceding lecture. we conclude that quality must depend upon the only other property of a periodic vibration. 46. : fre- possible type of vibration. and its representative curve. simple harmonic motion. The sensation The nature of tone quality may be explained with the aid 25 of tuning forks and the wave models shown in Fig.

as represented by the model B a third fork. are and the motion of a single particle at any instant must rately. which now exhibits the form of the mo- tion due to the two simple sounds. which may be represented by the model A. generating simple waves of just half the wave length.Let one of the forks having the pitch C 3 be sounded. 47. by the frequency or number of waves in a given length. send out twice as many vibrations per second. one octave higher. vibrating three times as . where the wave B form has been lowered to rest on the top of A. and loudness. will. when sounding alone. fast as the first. two forks " sounded at the same time. 47. the two corresponding simple motions must exist simultaneously in the air. When the three forks . These sim- ple models illustrate two charof acteristics tone: pitch. impressing the of A upon B. by the FIG. height or Wave form amplitude If of resulting from the composition of two simple waves. it will produce a simple wave in the air. be the algebraic sum of the motions due to each fork sepaThis condition is shown in Fig. produces waves one third as long. a second fork. shown by model C.

CHARACTERISTICS OF TONES
sounding, the form of the composite motion is shown by Bering the wave form C upon that of A and B, as shown
i

Fig. 48.

Fhe relative phase of a wave may be shifted by changing position of one of the forks in relation to the others;
j

s

effect is

demonstrated by shifting the corresponding

ve form side3e(in.thedirec-

n of the length the wave) bee the

forms are

shed together; shape of the
;

ulting

wave

is

us

changed
comporemains the

ile its

ion
ae.

rhis

argument

y be extended
iefinitely to hi-

de any
r

num.

01
r

icb

01

Simple F IG 4$. "\V;ive form resulting from the c-oinposition of three simple Arrives, corresponding to a any Secomposite sound containing three partials.

ted
s,
3

frequenamplitudes, and phases. There are therefore peculiariin the motion of a single particle of air which differ for a
of

gie tone
id

and for a combination of tones and motion during any one period may be
;

in fact the

of infinite

iety,

corresponding to

all

possible tone qualities.

These

by

was first definitely stated in 1843 Munich, in Ohm's Law of Acoustics, and much of Helmholtz's work of thirty years later was devoted to the 20 elaboration and justification of this law. The law states All musical tones are periodic the human

The law

of tone quality

Ohm

of

:

;

ear perceives pendular vibrations alone as simple tones;
all

varieties of tone quality are

due

to particular

combina-

a larger or smaller number of simple tones; every motion of the air which corresponds to a complex musical
tions of

tone or to a composite mass of musical tones is capable of being analyzed into a sum of simple pendular vibrations, and to each simple vibration corresponds a simple tone which

may hear. From this principle it follows that nearly all the sounds which we study are composites. The separate component
the ear

tones are called partial tones, or simply partials ; the partia] having the lowest frequency is the fundamental, while the others are overtones. It sometimes happens that a partial

not the lowest in frequency is so predominant that it may be mistaken for the fundamental, as with bells; and sometimes the pitch is characterized by a subjective beat-tone

fundamental when no physical tone of this pitch exists. If the overtones have frequencies which are exact multiples of
that of the fundamental they are often called harmonics, otherwise they may be designated as inharmonic partials. As the result of elaborate investigation, Helmholtz added

solely

the following law: the quality of a musical tone depends on the number and relative strength of its partial

27 simple tones, and in no respect on their differences of phase. Koenig. after experimenting with the wave siren (Fig. 178,

62

UJD

page 245) argued that phase relations do
,

affect tone quality

in

Lindig has used a "telephone-siren" and concludes that the phases of the components influence
degree.
20 quality of tone only through interference effects.

some

28

Lloyd

and Agnew, using

special alternating

current generators

in connection with a telephone receiver,

have found that

the phase differences of the components do not affect the 30 The question has been extensively inquality of tone.
vestigated

by many

others, with a consensus of opinion that
is justified.
31

Helmholtz's statement

In the analysis of sound waves from instruments and

VI and VII, the phases of all component tones have been determined. While systematic study of the phases has not yet been made, no evidence has appeared which indicates that the phase relation of the
voices, described in Lectures

partials has

any effect upon the quality of the tone. If tone quality varies with phase relations, the variations certainly are very small in comparison with those due to other influences.

The

analyses which have been

made

give abundant eviis

dence that tone quality as perceived by the ear
influenced

much

by subjective

beat-tones.

While these tones

may

be considered as having no physical existence, yet their effects upon the ear are those of real partials, and the laws
already stated include them.
is

An explanation of beat-tones given in Lecture VI, page 183. Fig. 49 shows on the musical staff the relations of a funda-

mental tone,
tones.

C2

= 129,

The numerals

in the line

and nineteen of its harmonic overbelow the staff indicate
In the next lower line

the orders of the several partials.

are given the frequencies of the partials

when they

are

wave form must have harmonic
described as musical.

overtones, as will be

more

fully explained in Lecture IV; such sounds are generally

The

partial tones of sounds such as

the clang of a bell are inharmonic and would not correspond to the scheme shown in the figure. The tones of the musical

chromatic scale are determined according to the scheme of equal temperament developed by Bach. The various har-

monic overtones

of a given sound are not in tune with any notes of the musical scale, except such as are one or more

I

2

3

4
517

5

6

7

8

9

10

II

12

13

14
1611

15
1940

16

17

18

19

20

129259388

647 776 90S 1035
b

1164 1293 1423 1552 1681

2069 2199 23282457 2S86

C C G C E G B C D
129 259 388 SIT 652 775 922
1035
1161

E'

G G G B B C C # D D# E
b
its

b

#

1304 1463 1550 16421843 1953 2059 2192 23232461 2607

FIG.

-1!).

A

fnncUunimtnl and

harmonic ovurtonps.

exact octaves from the fundamental.
staff in Fig.

The notes on

the

49 represent the scale tones which are nearest to the overtones the lower lines in the figure give the desig;

nations of the notes and their frequencies in the tempered
scale.

a

way

Overtones can be illustrated by vibrating strings in such as to make their nature directly visible. A silk cord
to vibrate

may be made
shown

by a

large electrically driven fork, as

in Fig. 50, with the formation of a single loop due to vibration in the fundamental mode. By changing the ten-

sion of the string,

it

can be

made

to vibrate in various sub-

FIG

51.

correspondSimple vibrations of a string in various subdivisions, ing to harmonic overtones or partials.

FIG. 52.

Complex vibrations

of a string,

showing the coexistence of several

A string may be made to vibrate in complex modes. . second. with FIG. three-loop. A tune iu liarmouics. the three loops to = . Fig. The multiplicity of tones from one air column. 52 shows the vibrations with two and four loops. = = G 3 Fig. 51 shows two-loop. r\ -f/-\ The bugle can sound in tyn V>T/-MT c? 4-s\Y\ r\c* r\Tt -fr^ri inr^yn-fi/Mi r\-r -f n d o TV* ^*^ In w^ri . each set of loops corresponding to a partial tone. and at the top a much more complex combination. the two loops correspond to the tone C 3 259. three and six loops. 03. representing the first. corresponding to the several loop formations in a vibrating string.divisions corresponding to its harmonic overtones. these forms represent composite sounds. are illustrated by wind instruments. if the would 387 and the five loops to E 4 645. and five-loop formations. A string vibrating in these forms would emit simple tones only pitch for the single loop is C 2 129. with the simultaneous existence of several loop formations. many of which use harmonic tones s\-r\~\tr in their regular scales. and fourth overtones.

* " who depended mainly upon * " the ear for the analysis of composite sounds. A tune can be played on a by using the harmonic tones of only three fundamentwo keys which are manipulated by one finger.1^ 4*1 rt *-1 4- 4- -P 4- 1 4- 32 for TT . abundant experimen- evidence in support of the statement. while those at the top are the harmonic tones sounded. the small numerals indicate the orders of the requiring partials used for the several tones. it tones of the harmonic series without holes or shown in Fig. 54. Fig. ANALYSIS BY THE EAR arguments presented.subdivisions of its fundamental length. shows at the bottom the notes fingered. however. By listening attentively. Fro. Helmholtz. the illustration. keys may be made to sound produces the A flute tube ten or more tones of the harmonic series. flute tals. Helmholtn resonators. one can often distinguish several component tones in the sound from a flute or violin or other instrument. developed several " methods r\ 4- 4. 53. it may seem strange that a single source of sound can emit several distinct tones after the Even simultaneously. 49. tal There is.

this particular simple tone affects the ear powerfully. there is a conical protuberance ending in a small aperture. 54 shows a series of Helmholtz first nineteen overtones of a fundamental having a frequency of 64 vibrations per second. opposite this aperture is an opening. excluded. which is The to be inserted in the ear. resonators for the devised the tuned spherical resonator which he used with Fig. in effect. through which the sound waves influence the air in the resonator. while .remarkable success. If one ear is stopped while a resonator is applied to the other. or. most of the tones existing in the surrounding air will if be damped a component sound exists which is of the same pitch as that of the resonator. its first nine over- resonator consists of a spherical shell of metal or glass. The tuning depends upon the volume of air in the resonator and the size of the opening. the ten odd-numbered resonators in the series correspond to a fun- damental of 128 vibrations per second and tones.

the recording talking machine. facility to tones of a wide range of pitch and to a great variety of tone combina- The telephone transmitter. tone quality. Nearly all the methods which have been developed for recording sound make use of a diaphragm as the sensitive receiver. rubber. and the eardrum illustrate the diaphragm set in vibration by the direct action of air waves. usually circular in shape. requires consideration of the form of the sound wave. while the soundboard of a piano is a wooden diaphragm. at the is material.METHODS OF RECORDING AND PHOTOGRAPHING SOUND WAVES THE DIAPHRAGM AN adequate investigation of the most interesting char- acteristic of sound. soap film. many other materials may serve special purposes. such as paper. one readily thinks of the diaphragm as being affected by the variations . less a thin sheet or plate of elastic and supported more or firmly circumference. metals. and glass. Diaphragms respond with remarkable tions. A diaphragm. parchment. . for this purpose it is desirable to have visible records of the sounds from various sources which can be quantitatively examined and preserved for comparative study. The telephone has a diaphragm of sheet iron in the talking machine sheets of mica are often used. gelatin. for animal tissue.

for both scientific and practical purposes. certain peculiarities in its action related to what are called its natural periods of vibraton. will be de j scribed in the succeeding articles. at least to the degree of perfection attained by these instru- ments. THE PHO N AUTOGRAPH The Scott-Koenig phonautograph. a diaphragm excited by percussion. the reproductions of the telephone and talking machine are convincing evidence that the diaphragm does so respond. which have been useful in research on sound waves. However. this Not only may sound waves is but what is shown in the receiving magnetism being the exciting cause. the diaphragm of which is mechanically pulled and pushed by the record. The head of a drum is reverse action of the diaphragm telephone. 33 was perfected in 1859. but the it is difficult how movements can accurately correspond to the composite harmonic motion which represents the particular tone color of a given voice or instrument. the soundboard of a piano is caused to vibrate by the action of the strings. and the vocal chords may be considered as a diaphragm set in vibration by a current of air. by which sound waves are directly recorded. is The by usefulness of the diaphragm limited. and some- times annulled. even more wonderful. these effects of the diaphragm are considered in Lecture V. Various instruments employing the diaphragm.in air pressure to realize which constitute the wave. a diaphragm vibrating in any manner may set up sound waves in the air. The instru- . cause a diaphragm to vibrate. and in the machine which talks.

Phcnautograph its records.bolic receiver or to the sound reflector. recorded. A tuning fork with prongs between the mem- . a sound produced in front of the causes movements of the membrane which are FIG. 55. 55 . receiver on a rotating cylinder. Fig. 50. Koenig's phonautograph for recording sounds. a stylus attached carried membrane makes a trace on smoked paper FIG.

while the upper trace of each pair is from the tuning fork. 57. divided into two compartments by a partition . 34 Fig. obliterated by friction and by the momentum THE MANOMETRIC FLAME In 1862 Koenig devised the manometric capsule in which the flame of a burning gas jet vibrates in response to the variations in pressure in a sound wave. . the lower in one of each pair of traces is that of the sound being studied. enabling the determination of the frequencies of the recorded tones. but the essential characteristics are distorted or of the stylus. combinations of organ pipes in this instance. is The capsule c. Phonautograph records obtained by Koenig are shown Fig. 56. These records are not only small in size.ment a stylus attached to one prong of the fork marks a simple wave line by the side of the trace from the membrane.

The vibrations of the flame may be observed in a revolving mirror m. 58 and interesting vowels and spoken words. by the use of acetylene gas. the next 74 . The top line is the sylFig. A Merritt method has been devised by Professors Nichols and in which. Manoinctrie ilame records of speech by Nichols and Merritt. the second line the syllables ter-ous. valuable results the the lable pre. 58. the flame may be photographed. 35 they in have study obtained of shows a portion of a flame record of the vibrations from the spoken words preposterous and Raritan River.t to one side of the partition. P re P er ar i v FIG. the movements of the diaphragm produce changes in the pressure of the gas which cause the height of the flame to vary accordingly. while the gas supply for the jet j is burning on the other side.

These waves may be received by the oscillo- graph. being the wave form. developed by Blondel (1893) and by Dud37 dell. DuddelFs oscillograph. the boundary between the light dark portions FIG. generates electromagneticwaves from the soundwaves impressed upon the diaphragm of the transmitter. The method the graphing flame has been of recording sound vibrations by photoacetylene still further developed by Professor J. Vibrating flame records of sounds by Brown. 59. CO. 36 Fig. Fig. THE OSCILLOGRAPH The telephone invented by Bell in 1876.rar-i-t. as well as the mi- crophone transmitter of Hughes (1878). The . corded 75 photographically. Brown. a specialized type of gal- vanometer. while the bottom line represents ri-v. G. 60. The electric waves set a minute mirror into corresponding vibrations which may be reFIG. 59 shows ords made by and method. whereby an outline of the wave form this is obrec- tained.

Fig. 38 THE PHONOGRAPH The phonograph. early form. a FIG. invented by Edison in 1877. Records of vowels obtained with the oscillograph. (!1. In later (>'2.but it is known that mechanical and electromagnetic factors produce appreciable alterations of the wave forms. 61 shows a telephone-oscillograph record of the vowel sounds a and o. originally recorded the movements of a diaphragm by indentations in foil a sheet of tin- supported over groove in cylinder. of much value. 76 . (j. machines the movements of the diaphragm are recorded by minute cuttings on the surface of a wax cylinder or disk. The method and is is being continually developed and improved Fig. Phonograph. a spiral a metal 62. especially in telephone research.

63 shows records of vowel sounds obtained bv Bevier. A delFlG> G3 .RECORDING AND PHOTOGRAPHING SOUND WAVES A modification of the phonograph was invented by Bell and Tainter and called the graphophone. 64. Rally for Rot. 04. a beam of light reflected upon a moving photographic paper or film and registered the wave form.tUnf FIG. producing the 30 gramophone. Berliner introduced the method of etching the original record on a zinc disk. in 1900. as it passed slowly over the record.E ies of phonograph records on an enlarged scale. each in 40 and Bevier A 250 made VVWWWWWVVVVV /VWy\/i/l/\/\/V^^ sis photographic cop. a top view of which is shown in Fig. was so mounted from the mirror fell that. Fig. Scripture's apparatus for tracing talking-machine records. By means of a tracing apparatus. Scripture has copied talking machine emlayrrorl 3HH timoa maQ n . icate tracing point carrying a mirror Vowel curves enlarged from a phonographic record. Hermann 1890.

nevertheless these methods have been of great value in many researches in acoustics. shows tracing such a from a of or- record ^ MA/IK chestral music. is ticable for a few turns only of the disk.in 5 hours. 65 Fig. with the nification magemprac- ployed. by means of a system of delicate compound levers. which operation. 65. may be left to continue the tracing to the end. as which here is reproduced magnified about 150 times laterally FIG. of a record of or- chestral music. Both the process of making the original record in wax and the subsequent enlarging introduce imperfections into the curves. while a tracing point rides smoothly in the groove . The whole apparatus is operated by an electric motor. and 21/0 A tracing. by Scripture. times in length. and when started. the lateral movements of the tracer are registered on a moving strip of smoked paper. the author required records of sound waves . These copies are probably the best that have been obtained from phonographic records. THE PHONODEIK For the investigation of certain tone qualities referred to in Lecture VI.

pulley.showing greater detail than had heretofore been obtained. 67. The result of many experiments was the development of an instrument which photographically records sound waves. the usual displacement of the diaphragm for sounds of ordinary m^h voen Hii . 66. Fig. in 12. this instru- ment has been named the "Phonodeik. a string of silk fibers. or a platinum wire 0. Fig. for public demonstration. sound wave on the in Fig." meaning to show The sensitive receiver of the ph'onodeik is a diaphragm. and which in a modified form may be used to project such waves on a screen 412 or exhibit sound. the mirror is rotated by an amount proporreflected camera. OG. the manner of the pendu- lum shown page In the instrument made for photography. is attached to the center of the diaphragm and being wrapped once around the pulley is fastened to a spring tension piece. Principle of the phonocleik. 11. If the tional to the motion. of thin glass placed at the end of a resonator is horn h. light from a pinhole I is focused by a lens and by the mirror to a moving film / in a special diaphragm moves under the action of a sound wave. to .0005 inch in diameter. d. which is a minute steel spindle is attached a tiny m one part of the spindle fashioned into a small FIG. of the and the spot of light traces the record film. behind the diaphragm mounted mirror in jeweled bearings.

JG UJb 1 MUSICAL SOUNDS FIG. The phonodeik used for photographing sounds. G7. .

RECORDING AND PHOTOGRAPHING SOUND WAVES an extreme motion of one thousandth of an inch.000 complete vibrations (20. . about millimeter (0. the glass diaphragm is 0. its mass is 1 less than 0. there must be no friction in the bearings. there must be no lost motion. sometimes wider than the diaphragm of all the small variations of motion corresponding to the fine details of wave form which represent musical quality. the steel designed to have a minimum of inertia. but also these minute shown in the photographs. accurately than those of a watch. is held in the axis of rotation the pivots must fit the jeweled bearings more 1 . 110 and 169. and the record this. which is magnified 2500 times on the photograph by the mirror and light ray.04 inch) square.000 movements) per second. the phonodeik must faithfully reproduce not only the larger and slower components. which must make an staff is air-tight joint with the sound box. The phonodeik responds to 10. The fulfillment of these requirements necessitates unusual mechanical delicacy. and is held lightly between soft rubber rings. which when magnified would be perceptible in the photograph.003 inch thick. though it in the analytical work so far undertaken has not been found necessary to . as this would produce kinks in the wave.002 gram (less than /32 grain) the small mirror. such produced by component motions than one hundred-thousandth of vibrations which have a frequency of perhaps several thousand per second. is the film is commonly employed 5 inches wide. giving a record 2^ inches wide. The extreme movement of a thousandth of an inch must include Many of the smaller kinks as Figs. are of the diaphragm of less an inch.

for the latter pur* pose a short record 1 or 2 feet long. The winding the film from one to the single drums are turned by 1 to an electric motor. 2. and automatic electric release. there are three separate revolving drums having circumferences is of 1. and for any desired time of exposure. is sufficient. A rheostat for controlling the speed of the motor where it is placed can be reached by the experimenter when he stands near the horn. foot. and a commutator on the revolving drum may be used its to open and close the shutter at desired points in revolution. with film speeds varying from 50 feet per second. while for records to be analyzed 40 feet per second is suitable. and there is visible a tachometer which indicates the film speed. 96 and in many others. and 5 feet respectively. made in %o or %o of a second. arranged for other during exposure. it in perfect The camera is arranged for moving films of 5 inches in width and of lengths to 100 feet. and time signals from a stroboscopic Moo second apart. The axis and time signals are shown in Fig. Besides the record of the wave there are photographed on the film simultaneously a zero line to give the axis of the curve for analysis. there also a pair of drums. each holding 100 feet of film. to enable the exact determination from measurements of the film. of pitch 82 . is The camera provided with several shutters of various types for hand. fork. For general display pictures a speed is of 5 feet per second convenient.structed the steel staff in accordance with designs which seemed almost impracticable and then mounted jeweled bearings.

fusion of the records is on the roof of a building for instance. an inclined stationary mirror above the ground the glass makes is wave visible to the experimenter while the sound produced. since it. 68 such as padding the walls with thick felt. right to and that a positive ordinate giving the time scale in a positive direction. the phonodeik with the receiving horn stands on a pier. The speed of the motor be adjusted till the wave appears satisfactory and the film speed will be automatically varied to correspond. The tuning fork which flashes the time signal is shown at the right. factors of the laboratory not convenient to work in such a place. shows the room in which the photographs are made. all wave appears on the ground taken under such conditions that the film moves from left. Fig. these records are sometimes omitted. For visual observations the camera is provided with a horizontal revolving mirror which reflects the vibrating light spot upward on a ground glass in the form of a wave.when the photograph is intended for display only. room are minimized by various precautions. while the light and moving-film camera are behind the screen. A sound-recording instrument might best be used out of doors. to avoid conby reflection from the walls. The photographs are suitable glass. when a the closing of an electric key or the pressure of the foot on a floor trigger makes the photographic exposure. The speed of the revolving mirror and the dimensions in general are so proportioned that the wave appears on the ground glass in the same size and position may photographically recorded. . the as when sound is altered in loudness or quality as desired. of the curve corresponds to the compression part of the air wave. the disturbing.

THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS .

THE DEMONSTRATION PHONODEIK vibrator of the phonodeik employed in research is very minute and delicate. The sound produced in front of the horn. a tuning fork the simplicity of the sine curve is exhibited. For purposes of demonstration. the relations of loudness to amplitude and of pitch to wave length may be strated illustrated.000 times or more. the movements of the diaphragm with its vibrating is from a voice or an instrument mirror cause a vertical line of light which. hand. which will clearly exhibit the 43 principal features of "living" sound waves. Fig. 69. and its small mirror reflects too little light The to make the waves visible to a large audience. falling upon a motor-driven revolving mirror. mirror is When the revolving kept stationary. this phonodeik a number of experiments may be made in further explanation of the principles of simple With harmonic motion and wave forms. The projection phonodeik is especially suitable for exhibit- . the imperfect tuning of two forks is demontion of vibratory by a slowly changing wave form. producing a wave which . the spot of light on the screen moves in a vertical line as the diaphragm vibrates though these movements are superposed. is thrown to the screen in the form of a long wave the movements of the diaphragm are magnified 40. shown since the turning points are made evident by If the mirror is slowly turned by bright spots of light. with two tuning forks the combination of sine curves is shown. may be 10 feet wide and 40 feet long. a phonodeik has been especially constructed. their extreme complexity . the production of the harmonic curve by the combinais With and translator/ motions is demonstrated.

86 .

A be standard clock with a break-circuit attachment to record signals simultaneously may made with the sound waves. the turning points of which are visible as circles of 87 . The greater number of the photographs so used are reproduced in various parts of this book. it is only necessary to The photographs obtained with compare the wave length and the time intervals the frequency. if the spot of light observed without the re. by counting and measuring.) DETERMINATION OF PITCH WITH THE PHONODEIK the phonodeik permit a very convenient and accurate determination of pitch. while the characteristics of the sources of sound are described in Lecture VI. When two sounds are being compared by the method of beats. to obtain Various photographs. as Fig. 96. its movements take place in a straight line two tones sounding simultaneously give a composite wave form. The phonodeik permits monic accurate tuning of all the haris ratios . the number of waves per second may be determined with precision. volving mirror. show the time signals.(As delivered orally. this Lecture was illustrated with many photographs of sound jection of the sound waves and also by the prowaves from various sources upon the screen. the exact number (including fractions) of beats per second may be determined by photographing the beats together with the time signals. the time signals are given by a standard tuning fork. recording one hundred flashes per second.

Wood. by which instantaneous photographs can be obtained of the snapping sound of an electric spark from a Leyden jar. It would be very useful indeed if photographs could be obtained of ordinary sound waves in air. for the tone middle C the distance from one compression to the next is about four feet. that is. Foley and Souder. passing over a photographic plate in the dark. This sound consists of a single wave containing one condensation and one rarefaction. A method due to Toepler 4>1 has been successively devel- oped by Mach. When the ratio of the component tones is inexact. like beads on a string. There must be one miniature flash of lightning to the sound. the wave length may be Mo inch or less. the light from the spark will be refracted by the sound wave which will then act as a lens and register itself on the plate. and Sabine. PHOTOGRAPHS OF COMPRESSION WAVES diaphragm produced by the varying Sound waves consist of air pressure of the sound wave. but no practicable means has yet been devised for photographing waves of this size. the wave is instantaneously illuminated by a single distant electric spark. the change in If while such a sound wave is density is considerable. and a second distant flash a small fraction of a second later to make . a sort of minute clap of thunder. stant change of . there is a con- wave form which causes the beads to creep along the line when the ratio is exact. the wave form is constant and the beads are stationary. alternate condensations and rarefactions which are propof a The methods the movements for recording sound so far described show agated through space with a velocity of 1132 feet per second. and the sound is relatively a loud one. signifying perfect tuning.extra brightness on the line.

beautiful photographs of this kind have been recently obtained by Professor Sabine and applied by him to the practical The most problem of auditorium acoustics. The wave length experiment is about 1 /o inch. and the resulting wave proceeds on its journey into the auditorium. A small cross-sectional model of the auditorium is prepared. to which Cross-sectional model of a theater. and the photographic plate is placed behind it.illuminate the thunder wave as it passes outwards. as shown in Fig. the sound is produced on the stage. This method not suitable for recording the peculiarities of ordinary sounds due to various tone qualities. 70. but it is very is useful in studying some features of wave propagation. . with the photograph of a sound wave entering the auditorium. reference was made in Lecture II. at x. moving at the rate in the of 1132 feet per second.

THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL Fia. . Position of a sound wave in a theater %QO second after its production on the stage. 72. Echoes in a theater developed from a single sound imrmlea in 14/^n sppnnrl. 71. FIG.

until the sound is diffused throughout the auditorium. Fig. just before the main wave reaches the balcony. 71 14 the waves / 10 o second after the production of the original sound. will 3 / 100 second. producing the condition called reverberation. 72 shows floor.i shows the waves about 5 / 100 second later. and Fig. The multiple echoes continue to de- velop with increasing confusion. have reached the position shown in the figure in about Various reflected waves or echoes are begin- ning to appear: o x is produced by the screen of the orchestra pit. and a is from the orchestra pit . a 2 is from the main floor. when the main wave has reached the back of the The large number of echo waves which seem to gallery.corresponding to the musical tone one octave above middle C. come from many directions are actually generated by the one original impulse. . The wave in the real auditorium tual auditorium.

it is based upon the imporas Fourier's tant mathematical principle known Theorem. they are in general too complicated for interpretation in their original forms. the harmonic method of analysis is the suitable most and convenient. as will be explained later.LECTURE ANALYSIS IV AND SYNTHESIS OF HARMONIC CURVES HARMONIC ANALYSIS CURVES and wave forms such as those obtained with the phonodeik are representative not only of sound. but each of which is of a simple definite type. the is directed to the speed and direction of propaga- medium and to their combined method consideration is given primarily to the vibratory character of the movements of the medium. and their study is many of general importance in science. which may be infinite in number. urement will often give While inspection and simple meassome information concerning these curves. but of other physical phenomena. in the harmonic a series of motions. often used in optics. these vibrations being regarded as compounded of tion of the waves in the effects. and several methods of analysis have been developed which greatly assist in our understanding of them. of music For the investigation of the complex curves of the sounds and speech. . attention In the wave method of analysis.

4-nx = ir / udx + i dxjan-p ycos IJo 2-nx. and I is the fundamental wave length. having a wave length I. for sound waves the number of components required in is often more than ten. and having wave lengths of I. Zrrx F2 f . I. including any number of straight portions. while an exact reproduction requires the infinite series of components. . having the same axis. and rarely as many as thirty some arbitrary mathematical curves. and succesarbi- sive aliquot parts of the given curve may have any form whatever. Many of the curves studied by this method can be exactly repro- duced by compounding a limited number of the simple curves. sentation. Fourier's theorem in the Fourier may be stated in mathematical form 4(i Equation as follows: 2Trx_. in general infinite in number.purpose Fourier's theorem may be stated as follows: If any curve be given.~ ~ QTTX 2 Cl ATTX In this equation y is the ordinate of the original complex curve at any specified point x on the base line. tion is The principal part of this equaa trigonometric series of sines and cosines and this (or the whole equation) is often referred to as Fourier's Series. provided that the ordinate of the curve is always trary finite ing the curve and that the projection on the axis of a point describmoves always in the same direction. the same curve can always be reproduced and in one particular way only. 4rrx . . a finite number of components gives only a more or less approximate repre. $. I . by compounding simple harmonic curves of suitable amplitudes and phases. $1.

. and each.. is a number or factor indicating how much of the corresponding simple harmonic curve enters into the composite. and the corresponding coefficients then have the value zero and their terms do not appear in the Fourier equation of the curve. For the re- production of a given curve it may happen that certain of the simple curves are not required. as a^ sin 0. however. b l cos G etc. .. Each of the coefficients a a . The other terms of the equation occur in pairs. that is. etc. n . -|. is not required in sound analysis . cos O + + a* " sin 2 -f a. it shows the amplitude. Since this term has no relation to the shape of the curve. if the base line coincides with the axis. -. such as the pairs of curves in the Fourier equation..} sin 3 -j- . they have wave lengths in the proportions of 1. 2. etc. A sine and a cosine curve of the same frequency but with independent amplitudes. 3. is } curves of the sine series evidently repeat themselves with 1. 0. cos 3 + = The term a is a constant and is equal to the distance between the chosen base line and the true axis of the curve. . whether a sine or cosine term. and this term does not appear in the equation of the curve... . of the simple wave. b 1} o 2 b 2 ..The ance by writing Fourier equation may be given a simpler appearit in a second symbolic form : y = GO + f <! di sin ( bj. and the same is true of the frequencies of cosine series. b 2 cos 2 -f &. etc. can be compounded into a single sine (or cosine) curve of like frequency which starts on the axis at a .. or height. its value the method for evaluating described on page 107. repreThe successive simple sents a simple harmonic curve. it. a. that is.

of a right triangle. symbols as follows. b' 2 a If the amplitudes a and 6 are made the base and altitude. . Fig. and P the phase of the new curve a sin : -f- b cos = A P == when and tan A sin Voa . then the hypothe- nuse is the amplitude A of the resultant A curve and the angle which the hypothe- nuse makes with the base the phase. Fourier Amplitude ami phase relations of componcnt aad resultant simple harmonic motious 73. If each pair of sine is ** ^^ : \ p '"37 and COSine terms the general Of FIG. respectively. and A that of the resultant. and which has an amplitude dependent upon the amplitudes of the components. and if the origin is on the axis of the curve. (0 -f -f- P). a and b being the amplitudes of the given curves. The relation of the starting point of the new curve to that of its components is called its phase. - equation is reduced in this manner.point different from that of the component curves.. 73. Ill In this equation A^ is the amplitude of the first component . the equation may be put into the following equivalent form. consisting of a single series of sines : 2/=^ 1 sin(e+P 1 )+A 2 sin(20H-P 2 )+A 8 sin(3e+P 3 )+ .. as This principle may be stated in is explained on page 126.

llf'-fc .

MECHANICAL HARMONIC ANALYSIS process of analyzing a curve consists of finding the particular numerical values of the coefficients of the Fourier The equation so that it will represent the given curve. Fourier showed how but as it is this may be done by calculation (see page 133). j Jo y " sin ax. m-ii-v-i/iT'irtnl -trolilQC! r\f f Vl o .F 2 determine the second component (first overtone or oc- tave). several days' a long and tedious process.-. '-. Form III of the Fourier equation is most suitable for representing the results of the physical analysis of a sound. have the following form. The coefficients of the various terms. requiring perhaps work for a single curve. in equation II. divided by I.-^ . the quantities in square brackets in equation being the order of the term: 2 I l . various mechanical devices have been constructed to lessen the labor. though the actual numerical analysis is obtained in the first form. 4-^ A \nn4-n ^^ 4-l^n ^inlr. this area. gives the mean height of the auxiliary curve. etc. I. I. fV.. There are various area-integrating machines. giving the amplitude of the corresponding component. of the equation. n ( . and amplitudes of the component simple harmonic Each definite integral is the area of a certain auxI. known in their simple forms as planimeters. These are represented by a lt b i} are the curves. curve on the base 47 the nature of which need not be described here.1-./-. which is then multiplied by 2. which can be adapted to the determination of the areas of a given curve under such consJ^stf. iliary etc.

is shown in Fig. each sphere. The curve to be analyzed. 74. made of glass rests on a roller so that when the curve is 3 traced. based on the rolling sphere integrator. in the direction of the amplitude of the curve. The analyzer devised by Professor Henrici. is placed underneath the machine. and the stylus s is caused to trace the curve. of London.nrl r>n<aino . the handles h are grasped with the fingers. as movements on rollers in two directions. 75. the sphere is rotated on a horizontal axis by an amplitude of the curve.l t. instrument of this type used by the author in the study of sound waves. and the stylus curve.hp sinp n. in 1894. two integrating cylinders with dial indexes rest against each sphere at points 90 apart. which requires specified scale. which is must be drawn to a explained later. Such machines are called harmonic to Several types of harmonic analyzers are briefly referred on page 128. in others the dial readings require further slight reduction. in some machines the dial readings are the coefficients.irm wViifVh PTP nrrmnrt.inrifl. the cylinders sliding around the sphere take up components of the amn li til rip mnt. The machine as a whole rests which permit it to be moved to and from the operator.Fourier coefficients.n t. and. w While each sphere rolls only in amplitude. and its operation will be is described. analyzers. Fig. by means of a wire to the amount proportional are given rotation about a vertical axis proand pulley portional to the movement along the axis of the curve. is a transverse track attached to a carriage which rolls along t in the direction of the length of the The instrument shown has five integrators. 48 An perhaps the most precise and convenient yet made.

of the phase The first integrator change. The rolling-sphere integrator of the harmonic analyzer. tracing gives the ten coefficients. while the stylus is being moved the length of the track t. 75. and five times in the same interval. In this manner one FIG. without reduction ( except for the dial readings. respectively. turns once around its sphere while the tracer moves over one wave length of the fundamental curve. the next integrator turns twice. that is. . and the others three. four. complete Fourier equation of the curve. so proportioned that the effects of the In the Henrici analyzer the sizes of the various parts are of the constant factors amplitude terms are mechanically incorporated in the which are. five sines of the first ten terms of the and five cosines.

49 The analysis of the sound wave from the tone B 4 995.factor n. the actual amplitudes in millimeters of the components of the curve traced. 76. then the integrator for the second component has integrated two waves. = . eight. the operation of the instrument has been extended from ten to thirty for the larger components with precision. seven. six tracings being required number. By a reconstruction of the analyzer (in 1910) which was necessary to carry out in our own instrument shop. is and ten times while tracing the wave. the loudness of 2 - any component proportional to (nAn) By changing the wire to the smaller pulleys v on the integrators. Photograph of the sound from a violin. as explained on page 167. and. it must have moved over two wave lengths of the second component. nents. they are na n and nbn In the study of sound waves the presence of the factor n is a convenience. for the . When the stylus has been moved over one wave length of the fundamental. the readings of the nth integrator are n times too large. and so on. mentioned below). and the dial readings are twice the required coefficients. quantities finally desired are the intensities of the compo- FIG. three of the third. nine. . and the the sine dials indicate and cosine coefficients for the components from it six to ten. the spheres are turned six. in general.

27 sin 3 + 5 cos 3 which has five integrators. Curve of a violin tone and its sine ami cosine components. but the mechanical integrators give the and the actual equation read from the dials is as follows: y = 151 sin 67 cos -f 24 sin 2 0. 8 -f 55 cos 2 + The analyzer. 77. gives at the same time with the above the coefficients of the terms involving V FIG. In other words 101 . form II. and 50. 4 small.nun Fourier equation result in I. in this instance the latter coefficients are very and for simplicity they are omitted.

the form of equation usually desired in physical investigations. The resultant of siue and cosine curves. each of which is represented by a pair 01 sine and cosine terms. graphical interpretation 102 shown .{ . in Fig. from the same initial line ab. or made into a com. in form III. the sine curves by s 1? s 2 and s and the cosines by c c. . a sine and a cosine curve for each of the three frequencies. giving the curves for the first and second overtones. In practical work. in The which r t is the resultant is of Sj_ and cx and the true representation of the fundamental of the violin curve. 78. but for the sake of illustration the graphic interpretation of the equation in its present form is given in Fig. are similarly reduced. each pair of these curves can be reduced to a single equivalent curve. As explained on page 95. . and the final Fourier equation for the violin curve. of terms gives the equation 151 sin The : reduction for the first pair 6-67 cos = 165 sin (0 -f 336). graphic interpretation of this reduction is shown in Fig. posite.2) and These six curves added together. 77 there are six simple curves. : . and the six components thus become three. will accurately reproduce the violin curve V. is: y=165 This sin is (0+336) +60 its sin (20+66) +27 is sin (30+11). each pair of sine and cosine terms is at once reduced to a single term. The second and third pairs of curves FIG. all starting are indicated c3 .p onents only. 78.

which shows the original violin curve at the top. with its three true components. drawn separately to points) show the amplitudes and phases distinctly. 79. The complete analysis and synthesis of a more compli- .ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF HARMONIC CURVES 79. Curve of u violin tone and its three harmonic components. (starting more FIG. representing partial tones.

method. in harmouic phase calculator triangles. provided with linear graduations. 80. in the grooves are movable sliders which carry the graduated hypothenuse bar. 80. Machine for calculating amplitudes and phases analysis. one end of the hypothenuse is attached to a special angle measurer. is essentially a machine for solving right The machine has two grooves at right angles to each other. which accomplishes the 40 This amplitude-andpurpose in a satisfactory manner.phases is usually carried out by numerical calculation. where a large number of curves are being analyzed. as The need for a more expeditious has been indicated. Fig. has resulted in the design and construction in our own laboratory of a machine. while the other end slides through a sup- .

which are given by the analyzer. b since a and may have eith- er the positive or the negative sign. of the triangle. 81. in four The phase the equation. 82. different of the phase . the length of the hypothenuse is the amplitude A of the resultant. may be four values Scheme for measuring phases in one quadrant. which is determined by tanP b may have any value from to 360. therefore for the same value there Flo. when Fid. are set off as the base and altitude. and of A. respectively.ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF HARMONIC CURVES port which also bears an in- dex for reading the length of the bar. Phase angles quadrants. The pair of coefficients a and b of the general Fourier equation. of the resultant curve. For the same numerical values of a and b.

or a quadrant eacn nilgai ue useu lor uue juui combinations of algebraic signs Fig. graduated arc may be provided with two sets on either side. two quadrant graduations are sufficient. this has four apertures so shaped that any one. To prevent confusion a movable cover is single As a of numbers. 83. according to the position of a spring catch attached to the cover. Finding the axis of a curve. 82 illustrates a scheme uons . and one only. of the four sets of numbers is visible at one time. There are four posi- 106 . for such graduations. FIG. one provided for the graduations.

84. forms I and II.ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF HARMONIC CURVES tions for this catch marked with the possible combinations set. T-iavf nf fVia of the curve. when the cover is reads the true phase angle without any reduction. of algebraic signs of a one Axis OF A CURVE If the axis of a curve is unknown and first is required. Finding the true axis of a curve with the planimeter. will be the true aroa rid+iTroo . and therefore it represents the mean height of the curve from the base. A line drawn through the curve parallel to the base and distant from QVIO it /~VT by the mean height fn o mimro cmino + n a +. Fourier equation. and 6. it is necessary to determine the or constant term of the FIG. divided by the base. this term consists of the area included between the arbitrarily assumed base line and the curve.

is between the assumed base and the curve measured with a planimeter of any type. about 16 inches. that is. The constant term gives no information regarding the nature or shape of the curve. 83. placed in an adjustable holder /.Let it Fig. must be 400 millimeters. 84 shows a precision planimeter with a rolling sphere integrator. such as a line touching the crests or troughs of two waves. The photographic film negative of the wave is . the integrator for the rolling sphere term shall make exactly one revolution around the in the instrument illustrated the wave length . in position for the axis determination of a curve. the curve being projected on a movable . ENLARGING THE CURVES For use with the Henrici analyzer it is necessary that the wave length of the curve which is traced shall be such that when first the tracing point distance equal to the moves along its guiding tracks a wave length. be required to find the axis of the curve shown in When no base line is given. 85. or in on two waves which are any other line through points The area the same phase. on an optical-bench projection lantern. The photographs of sound waves obtained with the phonodeik have wave lengths varying from 25 to 100 millimeters these waves are enlarged with the apparatus shown in Fig. this area divided by the wave length is the distance h from the base AB to the true axis Fig. AB. Ordinarily this term is not re- quired in sound analysis. for finding the first or constant term of the A'B'. it merely gives its position with regard to the base line incidentally employed in drawing or tracing the curve. Fourier equation. any line parallel to the axis may be used.

85.easel e] of the proper size. and has its axis horizontal. is less than Thus all curves as analyzed are of the same wave length. The harmonic synthesizer. Apparatus for enlarging curves by projection. regardless of their original size are and frequency. as a. The time 96. adjustments are made until the projected wave is is well defined. later. is chosen merely with reference to con- venience in determining the length of one wave. 400 milli- meters. FIG. where the curve crosses the axis. which permits a direct comparison of the analyzed and synthesized curves. but the results read from the machine require further reduction for each individual curve and component: as . is the curve The initial point then traced with a pencil on a sheet of paper. 19 by 24 inches. Fig. draws curves of this same wave length. and as they drawn on a standard sheet of paper. required for the operation of enlarging a curve five minutes. Some of the simpler analyzers mentioned later may be used with a curve of any size such as the original photograph. described filing is facilitated. page 122.

the machine readings are final. machines called harmonic synthesizers have been designed to facili- tate the work. since component curves and plotting the re- both of these methods are laborious. studied by analysis and synthesis. if the chart moves continuously. A cord fixed at one end. and will combine these into one composite motion which is recorded graphically. 86. and phases. the trace is a simple harmonic curve of a frequency depending upon the . SYNTHESIS OF HAKMONIC CURVES It is often required to lytical process perform the converse of the anawhich has been described. requiring no reduction. this is harmonic synthesis. and always by graphic methods by adding the measured ordinates of the sults. A harmonic synthesizer is a machine which will generate separate simple harmonic motions of various specified frequencies. to recom- bine several simple curves to find their resultant or composite curve. with the Henrici analyzer. doubled in amount. The pulley a is attached to a pin-and-slot device. the enlargement to stand- ard wave length is not a disadvantage. which makes a trace on a moving chart. so far as analysis is Where many curves are being exhaustively concerned. amplitudes. to be used as a tide-predicting machine. which moves up and down with a simple harmonic motion the cord will transmit this motion to the pencil. around several pulleys and at the other end attached to a pencil.already stated. The synthesis of curves can be accomplished by calculation in some instances. that is. it is based upon the pin-and-slot device described in Lecture Fig. in One of the earliest synthesizers was made London about 1876 by Lord Kelvin (see page 129). . passes is I.

have been designed and constructed in the laboratory of Case School of Applied Science. around the system of pulleys that if the two devices operate simultaneously. the pencil will have a composite motion which is the sum of the two components. it will give the pencil a simple harmonic motion of twice the frequency of the first. especially for the study of sound waves. SO. the speed with which the chart moves. phases. the wave length of the curve depends upon. It is evident from the manner in which the cord passes Flu. If another pulley b is attached to a second pin-and-slot device rotating twice as fast as the first. and the trace will be the synthetic curve. desired frequencies. include any number of simple The scheme may be extended to harmonic motions of any and amplitudes. Two harmonic synthesizers. one having 111 .plitude depending on the distance of the pin from the center of its crank. Apparatus illustrating the method of harmonic synthesis.

.

was soon found inadequate for the study of musical sounds and was dismounted upon the completion of the thirty-two-component shown in Fig.. 2. 30. been constructed. 4. All the motions which affect the separate components as they are being com. but by shifting the paper and pen a curve of almost any size may be drawn. about 16 inches. the highest component may be 4 inches wide. or for the series 1. the drawing board is 24 by 34 inches in size. The machine can be quickly set to give the frequencies 1..ten components and the other thirty-two. and all multiples of 3 to 90. to eliminate friction and lost motion the motion is so accurately transmitted to the pen that a wave can be . 87. it draws curves with great accuracy and on a very large scale in 1914. The mechanical arrangements permit the amplitude and phase of any component to be set readily to any value all the graduated circles and scales are on the upper surface of the machine and are of white There are special scales showing the phase and celluloid. the same as that The used with the analyzer. . synthesizer . Thirty of the elements are provided with gears giving the relative frequencies 1. The latter machine is perhaps more convenient for the study of harmonic curves in general than any other which has. . 3. 9. which permits their easy setting for higher or lower frequencies or for inharmonic frequencies. like a lathe head. 6. The wave length commonly used is 400 millimeters. largest single component curve may be 28 inches wide and have a wave length of 32 inches. 2. but larger or smaller wave lengths are easily arranged.The ten-com- ponent machine. and all even terms to 60. amplitude of the synthesized curve. 6. finished in 1910. the other two elements are arranged with change-gears. 3 . pounded and synthetically drawn are provided with ball bearings.

THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS .

e mathematician finds the harmonic synthesizer useful investigation tie nany ss. respectively. as shown sin 2 x - represented by the infinite series -| + i sin 4 x + rave length being equal to 2 n = 6. These curves are graphic illustrations of the jrgence of this series. a. are Fig. These relations are further explained in action with the analysis of the curve shown in Fig. though the in general this will not be where the curve js axis. + . 90 is the curve obtained when thirty terms are ied. is represented in The first term only. or.28 2 [sin x -f -f:\- sin 3 x ] . ~ two. and / represent the curves obtained i. without cal- the relative phases. b. . the tracing point will be at what may be considered the initial point of the ion. c. the the result approximates the given form. as sometimes called. and ten terms. d. 96. the is. ige 122. an infinite Der of terms would be required to reproduce the figure ly. three. of the several components. The equation form made up of two straight lines.le circles for the other components show. . the * more terms employed. is - shown graphically. y 39. rhe manner in which such an angular geometrical figure be built up from smooth curves is shown by drawing s representing different numbers of terms of the 2 sin x. five. four. if kinds of the properperiodic funcFu! " and the converT <SSl A e eomctrical *>* of in of series can be rave >8. e.

89. 3.a 1 b 2 terms term 27T c 3 d 4 terms terms e 5 terms 10 f terms FIG. and 10 terms of the a? sin 3 + .]. 4. Forms obtained by compounding series if =2 [sin # +% 1... 5. . sin 2 <c + % 2.

enter into the curve shown in Fig. sin se + % (3a? cos 3 + 90) + . + . [sin ao + % % series that the phase of each component has been changed by 90 that is. ..]. . 90 . the sines become cosines. 91. 90..]. V=:2 Curve obtained by compounding 80 term's of the sin 2 x + sift 3 a? + . o> = 2 [sin which 117 . the only difference is 27T FIG.]. A 1 further interesting variation is obtained by using the FIG... (a? + 90) + % Curve obtained by compounding 30 terms sin is equivalent to y 90) + % = 2(2[cos+ x + % cos 2 x of the series y .

odd-numbered terms only form shown in Fig. y =2 Curve obtained by compounding lf> terms of the sin 3 x + % siu 5 a. producing the phases of the alternate terms of the odd-term series 7T 27T FIG. .- % % by the Fourier method is further illustrated by the and synthesis of a portrait profile.. ^ sin 7 x + . % a. The arbitrary nature of the curves that may be studied FIG. + . [sin x + series % are changed by 180. 93 is obtained.. 92.]. 92. 93. 2 [sin x + .]. The original analysis portrait . the curved form shown in Fig. If the of the first series. .. Curve obtained by compounding 15 terms of the series y sin (3 x + 180) + Vs sin 5 + + Vi sin (7 a> + 180) 2 [sin a? or y sin 3 x + siu 5 a..].

4 sin (180+ 64). The curve was analyzed to thirty terms. 94. The equation of the curve 5 FIG. 94. and the portrait.6 sin + 302) -f 17. but the coefficients of the terms above the eighteenth were negligibly small.profile is given at the left.3 sin (140 + 305) + 0. is as follows.1 sin 40 + 215) 4. .7 sin (130 + 103) + 0.4 sin (20 + 298) + 13.5 sin (170 + 207) + 0. is shown at the right.3 sin (110+ 89)+ 0. S.3 sin (10 + 208) + 0.5 sin (120 + 229) + 0. the numerical values corresponding to a : wave length of 400 y = 49. Reproduction of a portrait profile by harmonic analysis and synthesis.6 sin 90 + 331) + 1.7 sin (70+ 34)+ 0. 0.4 sin (150 + 169) + 0.5 sin + 50+ 80)+ 0. Fig. as drawn by the machine.5 sin (16 + 230) + 0.8 sin (30 + 195) + 7.6 sin 60 + 171) + 2.6 sin 8 + 242) + 1. ( ( ( ( ( ( This equation was set up on the synthesizer.

an electric oscillogram. In beauty of form may be likened to beauty of tone that is. Wave form obtained by repeating a portrait profile.If mentality. The reproduction of vowel wave forms. 95. one : Fourier equation of the curve. shown FIG. . The curve is traced with the analyzer. beauty. 181. and other characteristics can be considered as represented in a profile portrait. to the beauty of a certain harmonious blending of sounds. Since the profile is reproducible by compounding a number of simple curves. THE COMPLETE PROCESS OF HARMONIC ANALYSIS curve having been provided. then it may be said that they are also expressed in the equation of the profile. or a chart of temperatures. page 250. a diagram of barometric pressures. 95 is periodic repetition of the profile. this sense color. determining five components. so that the wave length is 400 millimeters. a drawing of such a wave. it is possible to compound the simple tones represented by these curves in such a way that the resulting wave motion of the combined sounds shall be the Fig. such as the photograph of a sound wave. its complete analysis by the Fourier harmonic method may be conveniently carried out in accordance with the following A scheme : (a) The curve is redrawn to the standard scale required by the Henrici analyzer. in Fig. (6) tracing giving five sine and five cosine coefficients of the complete Time required five minutes. is a similar synthetic experiment.

. Time retwenty. for thirty components. five minutes. the synthetic curve isdrawn. twelve minutes. : Each including making the record. including making the record.ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF HARMONIC CURVES By changing the wire attached to the tracer from one set of pulleys on the integrators to another set. to determine the true amplitude of the corresponding component. twenty-five. Time required for ten pairs of terms. a second tracing ponents of the curve. pair of sine and cosine terms as given by the analyzer is reduced by the triangle machine. draw each component Time required : components. (c). comContinued tracings will give fifteen. five minutes. determining ten more minutes (c) quired: for each tracing. together with its phase. five for ten components. (d). (/) The synthesizer may be used to separately. ten minutes. superposed on the original curve. (e) The numerical quantities of the analysis are preserved on cards suitable for filing. in its true for ten amplitude and phase. . and thirty components. gives five pairs of coefficients. (d) The correctness and completeness of the analysis are verified by setting the synthesizer for the values of the amplitudes and phases of the several components and then Time required: for ten reproducing the original curve. Time required: included in the time given for the operations (6). forming a perma- nent record of the degree of approximation secured. components. twenty minutes.

the made between the . Fig. buff for values of 71 n from 21 to n = 30. One card conas required in the study of sound waves. tains the data for ten components. 96. n 1 to n 10. shown FIG. Photograph of the sound wave from an organ pipe. The data relating to any component are given in the vertical column under the value of n corre- sponding to the order of the component. are white in color. and salmon for blue cards are used for additional infor- mation. cards of different colors are used. in Fig. for a larger number of components. Card forms. 5 by 8 inches in size. The analysis of a curve as ordinarily (c). ' EXAMPLE or HARMONIC ANALYSIS As a further illustration of harmonic analysis. averages. re- understood involves only the operations (6) and quiring about fifteen minutes for ten components. 90.will be consumed. 11 to 20. The curve is necessary change in the wire being traced twice with the analyzer. etc. 97. have been ar- ranged for preserving the data of analysis and reduction. The cards for the first ten components. let it be required to analyze the curve of an organ-pipe tone.

na n and nb n are . the coefficients (each multiplied by n. nA. Card form for the record of the analysis of a sound wave. (The actual analysis of this curve was extended to was found size. 97 is a reproduction of the card containing the com- FIG. nA n and P n each of the multiple amplidivided bv the corresnondinff value of n. . including the recording of the results on the analysis card. but it components of appreciable Fig. plete records of the analysis of the above curve (for the first ten components) The first two lines.) to contain only twelve twenty components. . for the reduced with the triangle machine for finding the The actual time required complete determination of the ten amplitudes and ten phases.. giving tudes.. form II. as pair of numbers is read from the dials of the analyzer. 97. was thirteen minutes.terms is resultant amplitudes and phases. Each is reduced with the amplitude-and-phase ] calculator. the order of the component) of the sine and cosine terms of the Fourier equation.

to any other scale...0 sin 20 + 319) + 337) + 19.3 sin (10 + 252) (110 + 230) + 1. this quantity. 124 if the curve .4 sin + 4. The curve was traced with the planimeter.3 sin + 6. showing that the area of that matical axis of the curve. lengthwise.) The true axis is found..) are the actual amplitudes.9 sin (80 + 290) 90 + 252) + 2. the coefficients is If the curve is drawn in the must be changed the wave length. as described on page 107. 98. ab.2 sin (40 + 354) (50 + 330) + 8.5 sin (12 + 211) ( 30 Fig. 12. etc. etc. 2. 66. ai.5 sin + 10. of the component curves. 400.3 sin + 2. true axis is The is the dotted line a'b' in Fig. The numerical values of the several coefficients (96. The graphic interpretation of this equation is given in The equation as a whole is represented by the original curve at the top.4 sin (60 + 347) (70 + 354) + 8. A ly A f etc.75 millimeters as the distance of the true axis below the assumed axis. . divided by the wave length. 98. part of the curve which lies below the horizontal line exceeds that above by 2704 square millimeters.0.being equal to 400 : y = A + 96. expressed in millimeters. of 400 millimeters. with respect to the initial line. same proportion as of the several components express the positions of the curves. for a wave length. gives 6.5 sin + 36.5. The phases . each of the twelve sine terms corresponds to one of the simple curves 1. The line photographed as the axis often is not the mathe- (76 319.2 sin ( ( ( + 76) + 66. with the planimeter.

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF HARMONIC CURVES .

positive and equal to xy. for first component for the point component it is -j. then the composite tone of all would produce a composite motion principles illustrated in the models of three Lecture II. For the point u. If the axes of the twelve components all coincided with the axis a' b'.from the assumed coefficient line. which may or may not be the true axis. the point a. the sum . etc. ai. ordinate of the for the second x is + third is it is zero. that is. it may be. . xu .6. of the several line 2/2) twelve ordinates of the curves at any point x (along the would be equal to the ordinate xy of the original curve. for instance. The meaning of the phases (or epochs) of the several components may be further explained by reference to the The starting point for tracing with the analyzer is figure. then the algebraic sum of the to the simultaneous sum. the curve crosses the axis at this point.x>2 y for the the fourth it is . is the numerical value of the A Q of the equation of the curve. represented arbitrarily selected. In the example here shown.75. If the separate simple by the original curve. . the sum of the ordinates of the components on the line uw is zero. page 59. The Xii/i . The phases obtained by analysis then give the relations of the several component curves to the assumed initial line Figs. the phase of the 126 first com- . or composite. sentation of the analysis of a curve is This graphic repre- in accordance with the waves shown in sounds from twelve tuning forks (or other source) produce motions in the air represented by the twelve component curves.x^y^. The analysis means that the original curve is equivalent component curves. 96 and 98. where the photographed curve crosses the photographed axis.

at c in Fig. It is sometimes desirable to consider the beginning of a curve as the point where the phase of the first component is zero. this means that where the curve crosses the initial line. The phases of the other components have similar interpre- tations. is the wave length would be de. 98. Proof of the analysis of a curve by synthesis. . the initial line would then be at the point d. FIG. 99. each being measured in terms of its own wave length. the first component has already progressed 76 (one wave length equals 360) from its own zero point.ponent is 76. not where the curve crosses the axis and there is no way of determining it in advance of analysis. The zero point for the first component is then 7 %c.o of the wave length to the left of the initial line. and This point. in general.

Kelvin's tidal harmonic analyzer. 97. as obtained by analysis. the original photograph has been enlarged and the synthetic curve has actually been drawn by machine on the photograph. all of which have very small amplitudes. The likeness is sufficiently close for general purposes. The equation of the curve is set up on the synthesizer. For illustration in this instance. VARIOUS TYPES OF HARMONIC ANALYZERS AND SYNTHESIZERS . line labelled "Phase" as shown in The verification of an analysis is made by synthesis. these are obtained by subtracting from each phase. 100. and they are recorded on the card in the Fig. superposed on the enlarged drawing of the curve which was used with the analyzer. 99 is a reproduction of the original and synthetic curves. n times the phase of the first component. FIG. These relative phases are determined without calculation with the synthesizer as explained on page 114.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS point where that of the first component is zero are convenient for the comparison of phases. Fig. and the curve is drawn by machine. a more exact reproduction would probably require the inclusion of a very large number of higher components.

is represented is then analyzed. 101. it is possible to synthesize these for future dates. 50 Kelvin's analyzer is shown in Fig. harmonic analysis and predicting machines by Lord The rise and fall of the tides. However. Brief mention will be made of several other types of instruments. Kelvin's tide predictor. having been useful application of FIG. in 1876. machine of remarkable completeness .ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OP HARMONIC CURVES are applicable to all kinds of investigations requiring such treatment. The tidal components being known. variations of the mechanical devices are sometimes desired to obtain special results. that is. A tide-predicting and the predictor in Fig. 100. Probably the first was to tidal analyzing Kelvin. 101. by a curve which observed at a given port for a year or more. to predict the tides.

.

for twenty compois nents. Miclielson's harmonic analyzer and synthesizer for twenty components. of recent construction. for eighty components. The given wave form is cut on the edge of a sheet of card or metal. which he has applied most effectively to the study waves.102 is Professor a general view of this instrument. A. Harmonic analyzers are in electrical engineer- . 103. 51 A. 5 " of light A Michel- son synthesizer. shown in the ma- chine also serves as an analyzer. manner described employed 131 in the references. Michelson has devised a very ingenious harmonic synthesizer and ana- lyzer. quired components may be determined in a 103. Fig. which is then applied to set the machine. a curve is drawn by means which tudes the of of amplithe re- FIG.

and so on. 104. These be used Howe's harmonic analyzer. 100. Matter's harmonic analyzer." 54 These books also describe subsidiary instruments and processes which are help- . FIG. 105. Figures 104. Chubb.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS ing for the study of alternating-current waves and other periodic curves. by changing one or more another component is found. FIG. giving one component gear . with a wave of any size. and 106 show instruments of this kind designed Mader. by and 53 Rowe. may such as the original oscillogram the stylus. machines respectively. The curves being investigated often have few components. in such cases simpler forms of analyzers may be used in which the integrating is performed of the by a planimeter ordinary type. wheels and again tracing. Several other types of harmonic analyzers are described in Horsburgh's "Instruments of Calculation" and in Morin's many "Les Appariels d'Integration. the curve is traced with . or the interest is centered in a few components.

valve motions and other mechanical movements may be investigated.." 4 *i siffl?f * S/3 FIG. Clmbb's harmonic analyzer. analysis.^flfW^'' 1 . In astronomy the periodicity of sun spots. the tides. and mathematics. and study of the When especially number of curves to be analyzed is small and when the number of components is limited. ARITHMETICAL AND GRAPHICAL METHODS OP HARMONIC ANALYSIS Mention has already been made of the application of harmonic analysis to the study of acoustics. 57 The is method in the also used in geophysics. 55 etc. etc. magnetic nomena. : /._':'*i*liiSig . 50 may be treated by harmonic In mechanical engineering.. variable stars. barometric changes. 100. optics. it inav not seem necessary to provide a machine for perform- . In meteorology storms. elecThe method is also usetricity. in statistics. 58 naval architecture. ful in the investigation of other more or less periodic phe- it is applied to the study of hourly or daily temperature changes.

n. schedules according to Runge's method with examples for the calculation of the odd components from 6. Runge. scheme with numerical examples for odd and even com5* F. yet the labor ining the analyses. and give Runge gives schemes for 12. 1822). and In general a set of coordinates of the curve is measured.h nHH a. while first another is the determination of the seven components of a diagram of mean daily temperatures. whole wave. of grouping the terms so as to facilitate the numerical work. Steinmetz gives general formulae systematically arranged any number of components. Steinmetz.n fnrn-. and these measures are reduced in accordance with the scheme selected to give the amplitudes and phases of the components. others. Rosa. 18. 12. and 36 ordinates. Bedell and Pierce give a scheme and an example for determining the odd com01 Carse and Urquhart give the ponents from 18 ordinates. P. of odd or even order. S. W. and 18 - nrHina. Grover gives six ponents from 24 ordinates. Thompson. components the ordinates are evenly distributed over the n 1 components.While the general solution of the problem was given by Fourier in his original work "La Theorie 45 Analytique de la Chaleur" (Paris. Grover. . Perry. the ordinates are evenly distributed over a half wave and give n components for odd and even -J . are measured. volved in the numerical reduction is very great. Kintner. Clifford.tfis: anH also sr.hfiHnlf'K fnr hnt. Many arithmetical and graphical schemes for facilitating the work have been developed by Wedmore. (m A number Runge's method depends upon a scheme of ordinates of the curve.nrl pvp. 9 Several numerical examples are given. for the calculation of 1"' selected from electrical engineering. For odd com- ponents only.

large A number of graphical methods sis have been devised. and a special schedule suit- able for tidal analysis. a special multiplication table for all the sine and cosine products required. which are very expeditious. 12. the method as described by Grover is probably the 62 most expeditious available for numerical analysis. their values is The method may cases. - Thompson has provided several schedules also based on Runge's method. cosines is dispensed with. P. H. . for harmonic analyThese are suitable for curves having only a few components. if higher components are present. and one for the odd components to the ninth. A convenient 04 Numerous graphical method is that devised by Perry. 03 re- applicable only to periodic curves in which the components higher than those being calculated are absent. other methods are described in "Modern Instruments of Calculation" and in the volumes of the Electrician. and usually they are not so precise. Taylor has developed a convenient method for constructing complete schedules adapted to general or special conditions. and 18 ordinates. but it is doubtful whether they are any more expeditious than the equivalent arithmetical methods. and only a few additions and subis tractions of the numerical values of the ordinates quired. 0.ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF HARMONIC CURVES There is also given ponents from 6. be added to those of the lower components in certain Thompson gives schedules for the first three com- ponents. When one of these schedules is applicable. More recently he has developed an approximate method of harmonic analysis in which all multiplication by sines and S. suitable for the analysis of valve motions. a schedule for the first seven components.

(Grover mentions that by his method eight odd components can be largest determined in process. ANALYSIS BY INSPECTION A familiarity with the effects produced by various harto monics on the shape of a wave will often enable one judge by inspection what harmonics are present. was analyzed by Steinmetz's method. page 100. 107. was analyzed by Thompson's short method. and by Grover's method the time was about 3 hours for eight components odd and even (the number for which a scheme is arranged). Symmetrical wave form of an electric alternating current. which was known to have but three components.) less The curve shown than an hour by one familiar with the in Fig. requiring about 10 hours to obtain ten components. . as described on page 122.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS in 13 minutes. the three amplitudes and phases being evaluated in fifteen minutes. 76. The analysis of the same curve (for five components) by machine required less than seven minutes. FIG.

and the sixth partial is prominent. FIG. that of the sixth partial is 954. except that of a tuning fork which has only one component and is a simple sine curve. . intoned upon the pitch n=:159. 108.SlSi UJP it must contain some evennumbered components. but there are six distinct sub-peaks on one wave. no instance having been observed of a symmetrical sound wave. Since the frequency of the fundamental is known to be 159. Sound waves belong to the latter class. this curve is evidently complex. Photograph of the vowel a in father.-A1MJ XiMJHLL. 108 shows a wave for the vowel a in father. and it may contain both odd and even. distinct wavelets or ripples though at once this is itself irregular. containing only odd-numbered components. Fig. In some instances a particular high partial may be prominent and so impress its effect on the wave as to produce a wave is not symmetrical. such a wave is shown in Fig. Electric alternating-current waves are usually of the first kind. on the main wave form even the order of such a partial is determined by merely counting the number of such wavelets occurring in one fundamental wave length. Analysis shows that the first ten components of this curve have the following amplitudes. 107.

If there is one beat per wave length. FIG. then the orders of the partials differ by two. the partial has a frequency about 6. While this the wave . from which it is then usually possible to specifv their exact orders. Clarinet wave showing beuts produced by the higher partials.16 IV 12 IX 2 o o An instance where analysis by inspection is sufficient is given in Fig. it is found that there are about twenty-five wavelets to four large waves. gives the average order of the prominent partials. this indicates that there are beats between certain partials. if there are two beats. on page 187. when compared with length. which shows the wave from a tuning fork having but one overtone. it is produced by two adjacent partials.25 times that of the fundamental and is inharmonic.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS 1= VI 4 11 -60 VII = 15 = 21 III VIII = 18 . 109. 136. The partial is prominent and produces very definite sub-peaks. In some instances the peaks due to the partials are very pronounced in portions of a wave and almost disappear in other parts. that is. The average distance between sub-peaks is found by measurement and.

wave

complex as that of the tone of a clarinet, Fig. 109. is one beat per wave, there are two prominent adjacent overtones. Actual measurement of these wavelets
as

Since there

shows an average length of 3 J millimeters the fundamental
;

measures 38 millimeters, about 11^ times the length of the sub-wave; the conclusion is that the eleventh and twelfth
producing the beat. The correctness of this proved by the actual analysis which gives the following values for the first twelve components of the curve, corresponding to a wave length of 400 :
partials are

conclusion

is

I

VII

= 29 II = 7 III = 20 IV = 1 = 6 VIII = 8 IX = 16 X = 9

V=2
XI

= 30

VI XII

=6 = 35

A

photograph of the sound of the explosion of a skyis

rocket in a Fourth of July celebration

shown

in Fig. 110.

llilllll^^
FIG. 110.

Photograph of the sound of the explosion

of a skyrocket.

The

rocket was about a quarter of a mile from the recording apparatus, the sound entering the laboratory through two

open windows.

While

this curve as a

whole

is

not periodic,

yet two or more periodicities are clearly shown. The time signals are Moo second apart, and comparison shows one frequency of about 130 per second producing the principal
feature of the curve
;

superposed upon this
r>er

is

a

much

higher

frecmencv of about 2000

second.

PERIODIC AND NON-PERIODIC CURVES
analysis is suitable and complete for anv curve whatever within the distance called one wave length,

The Fourier

even though there
tion analyzed
if is

is

no repetition of

this

form

;

if

the por-

the curve

is

successively and exactly repeated, that is, periodic, it represents a wave motion and the

analysis represents the entire wave.

A

periodic

wave

is

shown
mat.
If a

in Fig. Ill,

which

is

a photograph of the vowel a in

periodic,

curve representing some physical phenomenon is then each separate term of the Fourier equation

FIG. 111.

A

periodic curve; & photograph of the vowel

in mat.

of the curve

may

be presumed

to correspond to
it is

something

which has a physical existence;
to

the belief in this state-

ment, amply supported by investigation, which leads one

under Ohm's Law, page

analyze sound waves by this method; as explained 62, each term is presumed to coris

respond to a simple partial tone which actually exists. If the curve representing the physical phenomenon
non-periodic,

any portion

of the curve

may

be analyzed,

and

it will be completely represented as to form by the Fourier equation, within the limits analyzed, but not beyond these limits. In this case, the separate terms of the Fourier

series

may

not correspond to anything having a separate
in f a ir(- flia
Q/-OI o
f \r\-n

riVnrcipal

ovicf on r>e>

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF HARMONIC CURVES
to

be merely an

artificial

mathematical formula for the

short irregular line which has been analyzed.
of the profile portrait, described

The

analysis

on page

119, illustrates

this application of Fourier analysis; there is

no periodicity

of the

wave form, and the separate terms
is

of the equation

can have no real significance.

There

no general method
is,

for analyzing non-periodic

curves, that

for curves containing

incommensurable

(in-

harmonic) or variable components; such a method is very much desired for the study of noises and of sounds from
such
sources
as
bells,

whispered words,

the

consonant

FIG. 112.

A

non-periodic curve

;

a photograph of the sound from a

bell.

sounds of speech, and in fact
simple vowels; this need
is

all speech sounds except the probably the greatest of those

unprovided for. of the sound from a
portion of

15

"-

5S

A

bell, is

non-periodic curve, a photograph shown in Fig. 112; there is no

apparent wave length in this curve, and an analysis of any it would probably give an equation containing

an

infinite

number

of terms, though the real sound

is

un-

doubtedly compounded from a finite number of partials which are inharmonic and therefore indeterminate. Much

LECTURE V
INFLUENCE OF HORN AND DIAPHRAGM ON SOUND CORRECTING AND INTERPRETING WAVES, SOUND ANALYSES
ERRORS IN SOUND RECORDS

THE photographs and analyses of sound waves obtained by the complicated mechanical and numerical processes
described in Lectures III and IV, are, unfortunately, not yet in suitable form for determining the tone characteristics of the sounds which they represent. Before these analyses can furnish accurate information they must be corrected for

the effects of the horn and the diaphragm of the recording instrument, a correction involving fully as much labor as

was expended on the original work of photography and For the sake of greater emphasis, it may be dianalysis.
rectly stated that the neglect of the corrections for horn
to wholly false conclusions regarding the characteristics of sounds, since horns and diaphragms of different types give widely differing curves for

and diaphragm often leads

precisely the

same sound.

For research upon complex sound waves, a recording instrument using a diaphragm should possess the following
characteristics:

(a)

the diaphragm as actually mounted

should respond to all the frequencies of tone being investigated; (6) it should respond to any combination of simple
frequencies; (c) it should not introduce any fictitious frequencies; (eQ the recording attachment should faithfully

transmit the movements of the diaphragm; and (e] there must be a determinate, though not necessarily simple,
relation

between the response to a sound of any pitch and the loudness of that sound.
It
is

well

known

waves of various frequencies
of vibration, and
cies
its

that the response of a diaphragm to is not proportional to the ampliits

tude of the wave; the diaphragm has

own

natural periods

response to impressed waves of frequen-

near

its

the damping.

own is exaggerated in degrees depending upon The resonating horn also greatly modifies

waves passing through it. Therefore, it follows that the resultant motion of the diaphragm is quite different from
that of the original sound

wave

in the

open

air.

The theory
complete, but

of

these

what

disturbances for simple cases is actually happens in a given practical
conditions which are

apparatus

is

made indeterminate by

and frequently unknown. There being no available solution of this problem, it was necessary to make an experimental study of these effects as they occur in the
complicated
phonodeik. It has been proved that the phonodeik possesses several of the characteristic's mentioned; (a) it has been shown by
actual trial that
it
00

responds to

all

frequencies to 12,400;

(6) various combinations of simple tones

up

to ten in

num-

ber have been actually produced with tuning forks, and the photographic records have been analyzed; (c) in each
case the analysis

no others.

We

shows the presence of all tones used, and have then only to determine the accuracy

with which the response represents the original tones, the
qualifications (d]

and
all

(e}

the investigation of

mentioned above; this requires the factors of resonance, interfer-

ill

JUCULUIC

JL-L

ii/

iiao uocij.

UAJJJ.CI.I.IICU

nio/u

me

iiiucio.oxt y
%

ui

loudness of a simple sound is proportional to the square of the amplitude multiplied by the square of the frequency, A recording apparatus having ideal that is, to (?iA} 2
,

response must
so-,

fulfill

the following conditions:

let all

the

x=

A-,

log n

y=A

C,

D

EF
l

A

,lf.,l,.,l

l,,,V T

V

BC, D
T
J
r

EF G A

BQ,
,,

D

EF

A BC
1.1.1. ,.1.1

5
,.
1

D
1,.
1

EF C A DCn D EF C A
1,

l?.|l,.,l,l,,|l,..l,.,l.l

I,,, 1,1.,,

1,. ,1,, ,!,.,! ,l".

,l,,,l,l

,.

,1,,,

I,

129

259

517

4138

12
lot?

2'

n
for a sound of varying pitch but of

FIG. 113.

Curve showing the amplitudes

constant louduess.

tones of the musical scale (simple tones) from the lowest to the highest, and all exactly of the same loudness, be sounded one after the other and be separately recorded; let the amplitudes of the various responses be measured, and each

amplitude be multiplied by the frequency of the tone producing it; then the squares of the products of amplitude and
frequency must be constant throughout the entire series. A curve of ideal amplitudes is given in Fig. 113, the vertical scale of

which

is

one of linear measure, centimeters for
144

= is is correctly represented by a record the amplitude of which the ordinate b . A became interested in the manufacturer of organ pipes who problem provided two complete sets of pipes. . but one octave lower in pitch. then a sound of exactly the same loudness.n mnst methods. 129 to C 7 4138. The stopped diapason pipes. the sound A 4 having 870 vibra. and the horizontal scale is a logarithmic scale of frequencies. should produce an amplitude measured by the much shorter ordinate. sixty-one in number. and of the same loudness as either of the others. and similarly for any note of the tions per second. 114. c. While precision. it is . as is explained later in this lecture. The divisions represented by the light verti- cal lines correspond to the successive tones of the musical scale. the scale is range in pitch from C 2 extended by nineteen specially voiced metal pipes to a pitch The adjustment of these pipes for uniform loud12.instance. ACTUAL RESPONSE TO SOUNDof the actual response of a recording apparatus requires a set of standards of tone intensity for The determination the entire scale of frequencies under investigation.400. especially voiced and regulated to uniform loudness throughout. = = ness has been improved and verified by two experimental this scale is arbitrary and of moderate the only available method by which progress hae ViPPn -nnssiKIp cmrl if nap VIQ. further. according to his skilled judgment. The practical fulfillment of this requirement for a time seemed an impossibility. Fig. an open diapason of metal and a stopped diapason of wood. The properties of this curve are as follows: if a simple sound having the : 259 produces a record which has an amplitude pitch C represented by the ordinate a of the curve.S IpH t. scale.

114. giving an exposure of about %o second. 146 The process sounding. A set of organ pipes of uniform londness. The film is moved lengthwise about a quarter of an inch. the latter are used exclusively in obtaining the correction factors as explained later. the vibration. the first pipe. one FIG. These pipes are sounded in front of the phonodeik. The analyses show that the open diapason pipes have a strong octave accompanying the fundamental. . and while the second is pipe. The film is stationary. is ing amplitude photographed. while the stopped pipes give practically simple tones. and records the amplitude of at a time. making several excursions within the time of exposure. and the resulting amplitudes of vibration of the diaphragm are recorded photographically. the shutter is released. 115. the spot of light which is vibrating back and forth in a straight line falls on the film. C 2 is sounded steadily. C 2 #. the resultis continued .been photographed and analyzed. the record for the first pipe is C in Fig.

it shows an almost startling departure from the ideal response represented by the smooth curve. (5) the horn. A curve may amplitude be drawn through the upper ends of these records. while the interpretation of the responses is given on page 163. What produces the range of mountains. showing the "responsivity" of the apparatus under the conditions of the experiment. 115 shows the responses used in correcting the analysis of the organ-pipe curve shown on page 122. The irregular curve of Fig. FIG. 1113. 116 is the response obtained with one of the earliest forms of phonodeik. why is it excessive for frequencies from 2000 to 3000? causes: (3) the There were five (1) unequal loudness of the pipes. Photographic record of the amplitudes of vibration for the organ pipes of uniform louclness. with sharp peaks and valleys? Why is there no response for the frequency 1460. mounting and housing of the dia- (4) the vibrator attached to the diaphragm. (2) suspected the dia- phragm phragm. 147 . effects. Fig.scale of frequencies which is described on page 168.

4 i .s a. and albumen. the investigation of these peculiarities was most tantalizpeaks acted like imps.nrl fif. mica... a practical method of correction for the departures from ideal response. i . such as iron.. i A .ing.. glass... paper. RESPONSE OF THE DIAPHRAGM Experiments have been made with diaphragms of several sizes and thicknesses.-. i D EF .i ... i G i A BC .pp. either firmly clamped between hard P. 1 4138 FIG.. ments described copper. 1 T i . ..slcfit. . Perhaps two months' continuous search was required to find the causes of "1460" and "2190" alone. and chasing The and pushing one another in a very exasperating manner. EC. . i G .08 millimeter. A response carve obtained with an early form of ylionodoik. and of various materials.... i . The experiin this section concern circular glass dia- phragms having a thickness of 0. and held around the circumference.l ririrrs nr Innsplv . D . .fl. i . jumping about from place to place with every attempt to catch them..1 . The investigations led to many improvements in the phonodeik and to BQ. i i D i EF .. . 110. BC. i .1 EF G A T i i . i .rdboarrl O'a.. .

Resonance peaks for diaphragms of its different diameters. 129 259 517 1035 2069 4138 FIG. The pipes already described were sounded in succession in front of the diaphragm. 117. The silk fiber of the phonodeik vibrator is attached to the diaphragm a = 3. soft rubber gaskets.21D. to record movements. the diaphragm is entirely there being no horn or housing of any kind. and .between free.

pathy or in resonance with the tone. 117.!.!. D EF .!.!. ...C. the diaphragm in sym- 177 78 C .1- ..!.1... the response curve shows a peak for such a resonance condition.!.!...!. in the lower curve of the figure.!. 22. m..!.. A BC3 D EF G A BC. The responses of three g]ass diaphragms of respectively.!.I.. as shown Two other peaks repre- sent the natural overtones of the diaphragm.!.28 and 6. .. Effects of clamping and distance cm the response of a diaphragm.. corresponding to which there was a large response.!.!...!.!. D EF C A BC5 1035 D EF C A BC 2 ? * D ..!..!. EF I C .If... these over- tones have frequencies 3.!. and c. Tl 7 129 259 517 2009 4138 FIG...X . the latter moves is and responds vigorously. mm m w\ w wwmwi EC.!..!.. IJ..72 times that of the fundai i i i .I. ~1 -4.. The natural period of the largest diaphragm had a frequency of 366... and 50 millimeters diameter.!.conditions.!... 118. are in a. A .... Fig......... shown When natural easily the pitch of the pipe being sounded is near the frequency of the diaphragm.1.. 31.T I I I . . b..

118. response is is When the as shown in the clamping is tightened. the vibrator being attached to the under side . CHLADNI'S SAND FIGURES Chladni's method of sand figures has been employed in 67 studying the conditions of vibration of the diaphragm. the same diaphragm as for the middle curve. It is thus shown that a diaphragm vibrates in various subdivisions. reduced for from 228 The upper curve shows the response . the middle curve. sand was then sprinkled over the diaphragm which was made to respond in succession to each one of the eighty pipes of frequencies from 129 to 12. but differ for each change of pitch or quality. but with the pipes at a greater ditsance the curve is of the same general shape. is the response of a glass diaphragm 31 millimeters in diameter. When air. while the response is of diminished amplitude. held lightly in the clamping rings. clamped at the edge or at an interior point. and form patterns or figures which are always the same for the same note. while the amplitude to 160. Fig. the lines on which the sand accumulates are called nodal lines. A plate or diaphragm. strewn on the plate it is observed that portions are moving up and down. the natural period is increased from 640 to 916.400. The lower curve. indicating that these parts are relatively at rest. diaphragm of glass held in circular rings was placed horizontally.less. 151 A The characteristic nodal . may be made sand is to vibrate in many different modes. throwing the sand into the There are certain lines toward which the sand gathers. c.

there are no nodal i lines.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS lines produced in each instance were either sketched or photographed. 119. Different modes of vibration of a diaphragm. When the test sound has a pitch equal to the natural frequency of the diaphragm. /-\4-* except the TTTK\ r\Y\ 4- lvrtl wi T rtVOVk nf\ n -v\ r~] r*iiTS\-v^ 4* r\ t r* t r*i -V-VM^X V\ r t-\l -r-r TV^ -w\ f\-r\ n f\ . the diaphragm vibrates FIG. figures. shown by sand as a / whole vigorously. 366.

ujiJ. 119. ui a. As the pitch rises still higher. and other designs.. WIUJ. greatly diminished. 119. ij. and upon release is allowed to vibrate freely. of a frequency of 2460.o.AU v t. the figures again become irregular and of smaller area. smaller peak of the curve. FREE PERIODS OP THE DIAPHRAGM Besides the two methods already described. and five concentric circles.L uic jLUJiiici>u. Fig. as shown re- 117. this is represented by the second. or by attaching a fine thread to the diaphragm which 153 . The diaphragm is given a single displacement. The nodal figure on the diaphragm is a circle of medium size. a. Fig. that of photographing the free-period effects.28 times that of the fundamental.tti of more or less irregular shape. characteristics a third method of determining the diaphragm has been used. and the response in the response curve.uu. 6.po/i i/ JU. b. Fig. This displacement may be produced by the noise of a handclap. one by direct measure of the response. corresponding to the second overtone. As the pitch of the test stiund rises. the second by means of the Chladni sand figures. is uuiuiutuy the photograph of the pattern for the plate are now frequency 977.400. The photographs c and d show the nodal lines for frequencies of 2600 and 10. no part can vibrate through a large is amplitude. Since parts of the at rest. about 3. with the formation of three.72 times that of the fundamental. and two concentric nodal circles appear. A second maximum sponse is obtained from a sound corresponding to the first overtone of the diaphragm having a frequency of 1200. the areas become smaller. four.

but with no horn. nine vibrations now. Fig. Curve b was obtained when the diaphragm was inclosed in a housing forming a front and back cavity. When a horn is . while before there were twenty. Free-period vibrations of a. and there is a higher frequency of 2190 due probably to the natural period of the air in the chambers. two distinct frequencies are shown at the beginning of the motion.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS is gently pulled aside and the thread then burned. was obtained with a free. the latter persists for %oo second. uncov- ered diaphragm. 120. while the former lasts about %oo second. the frequency of the diaphragm has been reduced to 400. there being FIG. diaphragm. 120. the air cushions damp the vibrations. 1000 and 3100.two. The curve a. The frequency is given by comparison with the time signals.

which may have a diameter about one fourth is of that of the diaphragm. may be . various shapes and sizes of front and back coverings. be covered on the back of the diaphragm. of front. annulled by inef- at other times cavities these produce ' Fiu. and the cover and the diaphragm.INFLUENCE OF THE MOUNTING OF THE DIAPHRAGM it was thought desirable. shown in Fig. to inclose it in a housing. The best results were obtained by using a shallow cup-shaped front cover with an opening ordinarily of no influence The for the horn. 121. must be air-tight. diaphragm. The diaphragm is in effect between two cavities. and it was found that each produces its own complete and independent resonance effects. and the connections between the cover and the horn. are in certain ratios. and hack coverings for :i exaggerated responses. were tried. since the effect of a Experiment indicated that the back should be uncovered. 121. When the frequencies of these cavities the of re- sponse the is diaphragm terference fects. in diaphragm from indirect sounds. the damping effect of the air cushion too great. sound produced in front of the horn is front must. of course. and that these influence each other through In the early experiments order to protect the the diaphragm. If the front cover close to the diaphragm.

material and length of material and length of the tension piece and its hysteresis and damping effects. of the various parts. ferences for frequencies tions of up to 10. the two sets are practically identical except for a shifting of the modal lines for high frequencies. It is quite out of place to explain the details of this work here. besides the set of figures described previously. enter it. amount of tension. a second complete set of figures was obtained without the vibrator. flue tn the resonance nroTiertieK'nf the hnrlv . . size the fiber. INFLUENCE OF THE HORN A horn as used with instruments for recording is and repro- usually a conical or pyramidal tube. solved. and temperature computations also have been made of the inertias. This conclusion is verified by the results of a further study with the Chladni sand figures. while the larger end opens to the free The effect of the horn is to reinforce the vibrations air.INFLUENCE OF THE VIBRATOR Elaborate studies have been made of the influence of the vibrator on the response of the apparatus. moduli of elasticity. the final practical result is the demonstration that for frequencies less than 5000 the vibrator produces no appreciable effect on the record. and natural periods. with the vibrator attached to the diaphragm. among the factors investigated are the mass and shape of the vibra- and shape of the mirror. the smaller end of which is attached to the soundbox contain- ducing sound ing the diaphragm. forces. and their resonances and intertor. accelerations.000 the differential equamotion of the actual system have been formed and .

122. they are may absorb or rapidly dissipate the energy of vibrations of FIG. and hence cannot add any- . Experimental horns of various materials. they produce no appreciable effect upon the tone.INFLUENCE OF THE HORN ON SOUND RECORDS of air inclosed resonance depends mainly air by the horn. the air of certain frequencies and thus by subtraction have an influence upon tone quality. If the walls of the horn smooth and rigid. and shapes. The quantity and quality of upon the volume of the inclosed and somewhat upon its shape. sizes. The horn of itself cannot originate any component tone. But if the walls are rough or flexible.

In the upper curve.rci T/-\* -f n ti T 1 1 vi r\ Q TV* Y\ *f o1 Q vt r\ -rr\ f^ /^/rf OTTO r\T . but it also adds its own natvariety ural-period effects. A horn such as is used in these experiments has its own natural tones. the octave. and artificial stone. t~\i'f TXTQQTI -fh/^ T-inol.the soundboard as a source. and the space between was with water. these tones are a fundamental with its complete series of overtones. of horns. by tapping the small opening with the is When a horn is added to the diaphragm. however. the response greatly altered. this material satisfactory. and the other overtones up to the seventh. such as stone or thick metal. 123 shows the response curves for three horns of different lengths. Because the horn operates through the inclosed air. A horn used in connection with the diaphragm very greatly increases the response. sheet zinc is and so long as conditions. These peaks are indicated in the figure by H l} H 2 etc. it is a very sensitive resonator. and hence its usefulness when its action is understood and properly applied. thick and thin wood. while the diaphragm peak is marked D. Fig. the horn is which are involved is used with the phonodeik. sheet zinc. one horn was made with filled double walls of thin metal. supported under constant in the "correction curve" described later. Probably the most rigid material. 122. were used in the experiments. A these are of various materials. are distinct. shown in Fig. For con- venience. which can be brought out by blowing with a mouthpiece as in a bugle. gives the best results. which are quite complex. The fundamental pitch can be heard palm of the hand. copper. the peak due to the diaphragm comes . In each curve the peaks corresponding to the fundamental of the horn..

the diaphragm peak now comes between the peaks of the second and third partials. the response below the is long horn seems to respond nearly as well to high tones low tones is much fundamental of the horn a very feeble. while the response to greater.peak for the third partial is in its proper position. and both these and that of the fourth are displaced. causing it to have a period different from that which it had before the horn was applied. The lower curve represents the re- sponse for a still longer horn. The horn reacts upon the diaphragm. The horn selected should be of such 159 . Resonance peaks for horns of various lengths. a _ FIG. The middle curve shows the response with a longer horn. A as does a short one. 123.

1. '....1. 124 shows the responses obtained with three horns of the same length.1. giving a fundamental frequency of about It is 125. important that there are no holes.'.!.I. one millimeter in diameter sufficient to alter the response.. the horn employed has a length of about 48 inches.. .1.... Fig. Resonance peaks is for horns of various flares.is the response for a narrow conical horn. A hole A a A C2 .'. the horn has a great influence upon the response.1.I.. . the middle curve of the is for open end being one half of the length a wide cone. but of different flares. G A I BC 3 D EF I G I A BC .1. because tones with a node in the position of a hole will be absent. or leaks of any kind in the walls of the horn. I. D '. L! 120_ 250 517 1035 2009 4188 FIG.I. -.. open joints. '. 1 DC.'.!.'.1. '. .. the large end of which has a diameter equal to one fifth of the length. -I. EF C A BC5 D E F C A . For the study of vowel sounds. The upper flare of The curve .length that its fundamental is lower than the lowest tone under investigation. ?'.. the diameter the lower curve . 4 D EF G A BC5 I.1. I. D EF I.'.II.. I... .. I.1.. '. .. '. 124.if.. I.

Widening the mouth way. while c and d are the ideal curves previously. Fig. explained. Resonance effect of the horn. of medium flare . definite. but not too sharp to allow is an actual response curve conand diaphragm effects. good distribution of response.is for a horn of flaring. 125. The effect of the natural period of the diaphragm The curve a. increases the effect in a general the natural periods indefinite. this gives a and the resonances are of correction. 125. the bell flare makes and heaps up the response near the fundamental. taining both horn .4 s a 7 a e 10 is 20 Cj D EF G A BC3 258 D EF G A BC 4 D EP G A BC5 1035 D EF G A BC(j D EF G A BC 7 517 2069 4138 FIG. The shape selected for use with the phonodeik is a cone 2 3 --D-. b is the diaphragm response. diminishing that for the higher tones. bell shape.

it is estimated that the time required was equivalent to that of one investigator working eight hours for every working day in three and a half years. and. The line / indicates the location of the natural harmonic overtones of the horn. the curve e shows by its peaks that the horn strongly reinforces the tones near its own fundamental. the amount of this displacement is shown by the gap in the line / near the fourth point. and the results are plotted in e. involved an unexpected amount of labor. those near all of its harmonics. in the manner explained later in this lecture. The difference between the curve e and the ideal d is the effect due to the horn.is responded out represented by the sharp peak D. vmfVi fV>QiT airl anrl f Vi a f +Vio H!IC<_ . The ordinates of the curve a have been multiplied by such factors as will reduce the diaphragm curve to the ideal. corrected for the peculiarities of the diaphragm. If the diaphragm ideally. a few details of which The have been described. CORRECTING ANALYSES OF SOUND WAVES investigation of the effects of the horn and diaphragm of a sound-recording apparatus. and it in effect divides the partials into two groups which are pushed apart in pitch. It has been shown that the horn and diaphragm introduce many distortions irrfn fVid fmr>iTCta nrcf dinar!. the curve b would coincide with c through- its length. in a diminishing degree. The resonance of the horn increases the effects of all tones corresponding to the complete series of har- monics which the horn itself would give if it were blown as a bugle or hunting horn. The diaphragm peak third D comes between the peaks for the and fourth partials of the horn. and a would then indicate the effects due to the horn alone.

fr c A . ( .f^. sensitiveness of the recording apparatus is increased several thousand-fold by its use.?. by of a set of sixty-one organ pipes of standard intensity. the usually determined. A .9. 126. covering a range of frequencies from 129 to 4138. The actual response of the phonodeik in the form for research is for analytical purposes. A . E f. A . 120.^.?-.uecause me incurred anu ituse curves can leau LU 110 rational conclusions whatever.fr9.fr?.?. Whenever records are condition of the phonodeik viously explained.?.?. Fig. if the horn pro- scientific research. as prephotographing its response to each is made shown by the irregular curve a. while b 163 is the . Curves used in correcting analyses of sound waves.? r.^. why it is not dispensed with in the horn has been retained because the ^. A . E 4138 J29 w =r^=.s- ' 258 517 1035 2069 FIG.?.?^?. duces such disturbances.?^. One may wonder.

in general produces a response either too large or too small as compared with the response due to other pitches. sixty-one ordinates of the ideal curve 6 corresponding to semitones of the scale are divided by the corresponding ordinates of the response curve a. with the tight- ness of clamping of the diaphragm. . period of the diaphragm. The ordinates of this curve give the amplitudes of the D phonodeik records for sounds of various pitches. The factor for a tone of These correction factors are obtained from a correction The c. and a correction curve drawn through the points as shown at c. where one has a Deak the other has a corresDondins: valley. it is necessary to correct each individual amplitude by multiit plying by a factor corresponding to its particular pitch. The curve shows that the tone of any particular pitch. any pitch is the number by which the ordinate of the actual response curve for the given pitch must be multiplied to give the ordinate of the ideal curve. with temperature changes. with the nature of the room in which the apparatus is used. and the amplitudes of all the components of the complex tone have been determined by analysis. 126. Fig. and with other condiis due to the free The sharp resonance peak tions. The shape of the curve will vary with every change in the size or condition of the horn or diaphragm. all being of the same intensity. the quotients are the curve. whether a single simple tone or a single component of a complex sound.desired or ideal response. tors are is These fac- then plotted on the chart. determined in the following manner. When any sound has been photographed with the phonodeik in the conditions here represented. The correction curve is an inverse of the response curve. correction factors for these particular pitches.

127. ordinates are measured with a millimeter scale. The ordinates of the correction curve opposite the several harmonic points are the the in- correction factors for the corresponding components. and are as explained on The FIG. the For fundamental tone had the pitch 260. since a correction curve showing the number of photographs of sounds are often dition. recorded on the line below the multiple amplitudes Fig. as shown by the high . for which the phonodeik responded too much. page 123. The harmonic scale (described on page 169) is placed on the chart with its first line on the pitch of the fundamental of the tone analyzed. nA n . stance. having been recorded on a card. made with and the analyses of analysis of a curve all are the phonodeik in the same concorrected from the same response curve.It is convenient to make a factors for all pitches. k. Card form for the record of the analysis of a sound wave. the correction factors. are measured from the chart of the correction curve. 127.

A correction factor is obtained in this manner for each indithe factor 1040. which is the factor by which the amplitude of a tone of pitch 260. 3. must be multipled to reduce For the it to the ideal amplitude.hr fnr . are of the it presumed to be proportional to the actual amplitudes components of the original sound wave in air before entered the horn of the recording apparatus. For com- parison the corrected amplitudes are expressed as percentages of the sum of all the amplitudes. The analyses give directly the amplitudes and phases of the various components of a sound. the sum of all the component amplitudes is equal to 100. these corrected amplitudes . in fact. nA k n are found and each is divided by the order of its respective component.. e. that is.nrl 1 miriness vn. etc.1.6. the relation between amnlitiiHfi a. fourth component. must be multiplied to make it equal to the ideal. The products. at point 4 on the scale. the response / is too small. Tone quality seems to depend only upon the relative intensities of the component tones. 2. The phases of the com- ponents which presumably have little effect upon the tone quality are not considered at the present time.peak at d. equal to 0. A simple comparison of the amplitudes of the various components gives an inadequate idea of the effects perceived by the ear. giving the corrected amplitudes.rips slio-Vif. A n k n . as recorded by the phonodeik. for this point the correction curve has an ordinate. vidual component. by which the response for this particular pitch. GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION or SOUND ANALYSES The object of the analysis of sound waves is the quanti- tative determination of the causes of tone quality. 1. the ordinate g of the correction curve is 2.

while not corresponding exactly to the intensities as perceived by the ear. the squares of these numbers are proportional to the energies of the several components. afford a close approximation.different ears and for different frequencies. that of each the intensity component on the supposition that the loudness of the original complex sound as a whole is reoresented bv 100. 128. as was exAs has been mentioned in this Lec- The record is completed by computing the percentage is. ries. the numbers nA k n are found in the process of deriving the corrected amplitudes. Card form for the record of the analysis of a sound wave. intensity of each component. then to its (nA n k n y is a number proportional t plained in Lecture II. . 128. The relative energies of the components. n kn its corrected amplitude. Fig. and these energies will be used in the present discussion to represent loudness. energy or intensity. and A. which may be derived from the observed and corrected amplitudes. If n is the order of a component tone in the natural se- FIG. ture.

and tables of squares and of which are in the form of The final results of the analysis the relative intensities of the several partial tones. and is independent of the pitch of the fundamental. Equidistant vertical lines are drawn through points corresponding . etc. are most clearly presented when these intensities are plotted against a logarithmic scale of frequencies. at the bottom to the a logarithmic scale of frequencies. while many of the curves studied have twenty or more components. slide rules. products. was proved by its synthetic reproduction. A logarithmic scale of frequencies is one in which the spaces are proportional to the ratios of the frequencies. For instance. The same is true of any other ratio. and hence the distance between any two specified partial tones is constant throughout the logarithmic scale. and also on the piano keyboard. adding machines. of which is shown in Fig.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS tion of the as The organ-pipe curve which has been used for the explanamethod of analysis contains twelve components. 129.. or whether it is in the upper part of the scale having several thousand vibrations per second. In the investigation of several thousand such curves there are hundreds of thousands of numerical operation^ most of which are performed with the aid of calculating machines. For graphically presenting the analyses. is the same whether the note is in the lower part of the scale where the number of vibrations is small. the successive octave points represent tones having frequencies in the ratio of 1:2:4:8:16. the ratio is the same throughout. it is represented in actual sounds by the successive tones of a pianoforte. a standard form of chart has been prepared. and the actual distance in inches from any note to its octave on the scale.

This scale. so spaced as to correspond to the intervals of the natural series of partial tones. with special rulings.1 A BC 3 i. D i i . in the larger the semitone interval is one centimeter and an . of charts. 120. i i . r. . D EF i . D EF G A BC D E T -i T . these be compared to the strings of a piano from one octave below middle C to the highest note. from 1 to 30.1 11. = = may In addition to the prepared charts a bevel-edged harmonic is provided.1. i . while in the other the intervals are half this size. A BC i*.i EF G A BC5 D EF G A BO. i_. i i . 7 i . D EF i . of course. . i i . G i i . i . are used. Methods of diagraming the analyses of sound waves. The diagram monic scale of an analysis is made by placing the har- on the chart so that the first line corresponds to the actual pitch of the fundamental of the original sound : . i i . 4 i . and octave measures 12 centimeters. scale or harmonic tones. fit only a particular spacing in the practical work two sizes two sizes of harmonic scales. i i i i i lilsl^ 129 ssr?JOTU 259 517 1035 ' 2009 4138 FIG. !.CORRECTING ANALYSES OP SOUND WAVES in International Pitch lines from C 2 129 to C 7 4138..1. will s 4 5 B 7 8 9 10 IS 20 25 30 1 6 7 8 9 ID C.

it is helpful to draw curves through the upper ends of the ordinates. a photograph of which 160. or percentage of intensity. is the diagram of the analysis of the organpipe curve (Fig. to the relative intensity. Fig. b. The slender black triangles have no significance except to make loudest. in millimeters. equal in length. A single analysis . In studying the analysis of sounds from certain sources. a.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS the frequencies of the true harmonic overtones of this fundamental. the circle fundamental being larger than the others and having a black center. The pitch of C 259. Fig. 129.J = line. of the corresponding partial. 96) the data for which are given in the bottom line of the card shown in Fig. An ordinate is measured through each harmonic point. The ordinates of these diagrams show the distribution of the energy in the sound with reference to its own harmonic partial tones which have definite pitches. the for any Since the total intensity of all the components is sum of all the ordinates on the diagram is sound 100 millimeters. given in Fig. in this instance the third and fourth partials are the pitch of each partial is shown by its position with respect to the scale at the bottom of the chart. page 219. ordinates are sometimes represented for the The upper ends of the by circles. The loudness of each partial tone is the height of the corresponding circle above the base this tone is . and the harmonic scale is placed on the chart to correspond. The the lengths of the ordinates more conspicuous. 129. is such a diagram of the analysis of is the vowel a in father. 128. 100 per cent.

will have its partials at pitches intermediate be- A tween those already found. intoned at a different pitch from that of the first. 130. These diagrams and curves showing the distribution of the energy in a sound. I I V6ICB I 1 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 II 15 I 2 3 t 5 6 7 8 9 10 FIG. of energy in connection from the source. By comparing many analyses a curve can be drawn which shows the general distribution TUNINO FORK. are not unlike the spectrum charts . The usefulness of such curves with the study of vowel tones is more fully explained on pages 220 and 228. Distribution of energy in sounds from various sources. as in voice analysis.second analysis of a sound from a given source.

the components for each curve were corrected for horn and diaphragm effects and then recompounded with the synthesizer. one hundred and thirty photographs of tones from nine different instruments were made with four distinctly different combinations of horn and diaphragm. The horn gives the most uniformly distributed emission of sound energy. be called the "mono-pitched" sounds of the tuning This sound is simple. among the several par- as shown. 130. these would hardly be taken for records of the same sound. Response and correction curves were made for each combination. After analysis. the energy being variously distributed tials." as shown in Fig. containing but a single component. Other sources emit complex sounds. giving for each tone four sets of curves which are wholly unlike. and also a short horn with each diaphragm. 131 shows the photographs of the tone from an organ pipe made with three horn-and-diaphragm combinations. in the figure. Fig. and its diagram consists of one "strong line. Corresponding to a monochromatic light we have what may fork. The characteristics of instrumental and vocal tones are more fully discussed in the succeeding lectures. and its tone may be said to correspond acoustically to white light. the responses were such that the peaks in one instance corresponded in pitch with the valleys in another. for particular instances. the three corrected curves . After correction the various analyses of any one tone were identical. A long horn was used with a large and a small diaphragm. VERIFICATION OF THE METHOD OF CORRECTION As a test of the sufficiency of the method which has been developed for correcting analyses.and emission curves obtained in the study of light sources.

inside under different: conditions.CORRECTING ANALYSES OF SOUND WAVES FIG. . Three curves for the same tone. being shown in Fig. ful the These curves show how success- method is in reducing unlike curves for the same sound to practical identity. 131. 132.

IV. or five intensities may two be studied.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF TONE QUALITY In Lectures III. more combinations of horn and diaphragm may be used. perhaps four per octave. and /. to eliminate errors. is desirable In the definitive study of a musical instrument or voice it that a large number of tones be photographed. the tones should be sounded in three different intensities as p. response and correction curves must be taken before and after each change in the recording apparatus. filing includes the arrangement of the working appafor computing. three semitones apart. mf. A determination of the relative loud- ness of the sounds of one instrument as compared with another is no doubt of much interest. and quantitative V there has been described a method for the analytical study of tone quality. reducing. The method ratus. throughout the whole compass. but this is not included in the present discussion. the source of sound may be placed at various disor tances from the horn. and The results so obtained are expressed in terms of the relative loudness of the various partial tones of an instrument. . by adding pp and jj. such a study of one instrument may require a year's time for its completion.. presenting and schemes the results. Any scheme less com- prehensive than this will not give an adequate idea of the tone quality of a musical instrument.

parts of a musical instrument. Other parts of the tions instrument receive these vibrations. because they do not set up waves in the air. in general. or the vibra- may produce a very undesirable tone quality because they are not properly controlled. as is illustrated violin without the by the vibrations of the string of a body of the instrument. in perform two distinct functions. Certain parts are designed for the production of musical vibrations. The vibrations in their original form may be almost inaudible^ though vigorous. that is. A scientific definition of the quality of a musical tone requires a statement of particular partial tones enter into its composition what and of the intensities and phase relations of these partials.LECTURE VI TONE QUALITIES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS GENERATORS AND RESONATORS PREVIOUS lectures have demonstrated that. and by operation on a 175 . its tones are generated and controlled by the The sound producing general. we need to know how performer. In order to understand a musical instrument. as in the case of the reed of a clarinet without the body tube. all are made up those which can be said to have characteristic quality of a larger or smaller number of partial tones of various degrees of loudness. the sounds from musical instruments are composite.

in the flute the body tube is adjusted to various different conditions by means of holes and keys. the reed and body tube of a clarinet.larger quantity of air and by selective control. the strings and soundboard of a piano. and it may not give out all of The generator must therefore be capable of producing the components which we wish to hear. which may be referred to as generator and resonator. are illustrated by the following combinations: a tuning-fork generator and its box resonator. the vocal cords and mouth cavities of the voice. each condition serv- ing for several tones. These parts. The generator. in the organ each pipe constitutes its own separate resonator. and these must in turn be emitted in the desired proportion by the If the generator produces partial tones which resonator. these. we do not hear them. the resonator should be designed so that will not reproduce them if the generator produces tones . also reproduced quality of of sympathy. and it is as though they were not produced at all. The resonator cannot give out any tones except those received from the generator. hence it may be that the most important part of an instrument is its resonator. In the piano the soundboard acts as a universal resonator for all the tones emitted by the instrument. which exists tor any tone depends largely upon the kind and degree between the genera- and the resonator. cause the instrument to send out into the air the sounds which we ordinarily hear. It follows that we can hear from a given instrument nothing except what is produced by the and further we can hear nothing except what is by the resonator. . or resonance. which are of musical value but which the resonator does not reproduce. the mouth and body tube of an organ pipe. it are undesirable.

the two bodies have different natural frequencies. to tune a sounding body is to adjust its ble of vibration natural period to a specified frequency. tor is much less influenced In musical instruments usually the generathan is the resonator. Koenig found that the for a fork of its 256 vibrations per second maximum ing effect frequency due to the drawof the resonance box is produced when the box alteration of 177 . there will be very little from that natural to the other resonance.ItESONANCE Every vibrating body has one or more natural periods in which it vibrates easily. and the resulting common forced frequency is in general not that natural to either body. the response will be small'. the body will usually vibrate freely with its free period. under these conditions the response of the body receiving the vibration is a maximum. and the is exciting cause in its natural frequency. it is often made to vibrate with the generator. or removed. These conditions are well illustrated by the response curves described in the previous lecture. If a body capais excited by any means whatever. a tuning fork in connection with a resonance box not exactly in tune. and while the second body may still be made to vibrate. When the resonator is out of tune with the generator. the resonance is not so sharp. for in- stance. and it is then said to have forced vibration. the two are they are in tune. draws the air in the box to its own frequency much more easily than the air draws the fork. there will still be response but in a lesser degree. that is. 8 When the two bodies are quite out of tune. If the exciting cause operates in this in resonance. that is. slightly If the exciting cause differs in frequency but body. In forced vibration. same frequency.

the other fork is set in audible vibration. The fork in causing forced vibration of the air in the box draws the air from a frequency of 248 to 256. the fork its is forced out of natural frequency by 0. a body it is when in resonance. is representative of this kind of resonator. of resonator is by the cylindrical brass ing fork described on page box of the standard tunThis box has a very definite . The second type of resonator possesses a more or selective control. exactly in tune with the generator. that it may take up the vibrations with great ease and vigor. or by the buzz of some part of the action of a piano or of a machine.025 vibra- When is.has a natural frequency of either 248 or 264. frequency and. This is often disagreeably illustrated by the rattle of bric-a-brac in a music room. if one fork is sounded loudly for a the only few seconds. such a response is often called sympathetic vibration. because of reproduces sounds of particular quality only. it can reproduce all gradations of tone quality.036 in the first case. the box being out of tune by 8 vibrations. medium of communication being the air. responds to tones of any frequency and to combinations of these. such as the soundboard of a piano.036 vibration in the opposite direction. Such a resonator will respond not only to tones corresponding to its fundamental. and from 264 to 255. A plate. being about 0. the effect tion. but also to tones in uniless definite natural it son with typified its overtones. One kind having no definite vibration frequency of its own.964 in the second. The second kind 51. Sympathetic vibration is demonstrated by means of two forks which are exactly in tune. that is. 00 on the fork is is less. There are two distinct kinds of resonators. When the box is out of tune by a musical semitone.

therefore only the result is fundamental of the fork is reinforced. damped and the vibraThese effects must be con- sidered with resonance and consonance in the complete study of musical instruments.fundamental frequency and overtones which are high in pitch and not in tune with any overtone of the fork. It follows that for a given blow to a fork or a string. the louder will be the sound and the shorter will be its If the strings of two different pianos are struck with the same force of blow. the amplitude of vibration decreases rapidly. some being absorbed and transformed into heat through friction and ing not the viscosity of the body. and the a pure simple tone. usually all of the energy of vibration is transferred. while the one which begins the sound with moderate loudness will continue to sound longer or will "sing" better. as well as those absorbed or damped. EFFECTS OF MATERIAL ON SOUND WAVES Both the tones generated by a musical instrument and those reproduced. The loudness and the duration of the sound from an in- strument are dependent upon the damping or absorption of the vibration in the instrument and its surroundings. While . that piano which gives the loudest sound will probably have the shortest duration of duration. it can only take up the energy of vibration of the generator and give it out in a different loudness. depend in a considerable degree upon the material of which the various Darts of the instrument are constructed. the more perfect the tuning of the resonator. The energy of the waves which travel outward from a soundbody is derived from the vibration of the body. tone. tions are said to be When the loss of energy is rapid. A resonator does not create any sound.

truthfulness often denied by the devotees of other instruments. suggested by those Schafhautl of (Munich. experi- The following ments. having passed much beyond the original inquiry. 133.this fact is well known and commonly made use its of in connecis tion with certain classes of instruments. is made of wood and sounds the tone G 2 192. Organ pipes for demonstrating the influence of the walls on the tone. first pipe. of the ordinary type used in physical experiments. 133. duced by as 72 ing through the walls. from a gold or silver flute differ How does the tone a wooden flute? from that of It was this question specific that suggested the in- vestigations which. The question of the influence of the material of which the body tube of a flute is made has not been settled after more than seventy years of widespread discussion. have furnished material the upon lec- which this course of tures is based. in the 71 indi- cate the great changes pipe which tone of an organ may be proeffects pass- FIG. 1879). The = internal dimensions as the wooden one are made of sheet zinc . Three organ pipes are provided. Two pipes having exactly the same shown in Fig.

After the demonstration of these effects. and just above the upper lip-plate on the front side.. one will surely admit that the quality of a wind-instrument may be affected by the material of its body tube to the comparatively small . the While the space is fillrising then falling. Using the single-walled zinc pipe one can produce the remarkable effect of choking the pipe till it actually squeals.. These two pipes have exactly the same pitch.66. and when the walls are .walled pipe are perhaps While the pipe is sounding continuously. Experiments with the double.06:2. its sound has the usual tone quality. more convincing. pipe of the same dimensions. The result- ing unmusical sound is so unexpected that it is almost startling.TONE QUALITIES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS placed inside a zinc casing to form a double-walled pipe. is the space between the walls slowly filled with water at room temperature. F. ing. When the pipe is blown in the ordinary manner. it speaks a mixture of ratios of three clearly distinguished inharmonic partial tones. The pipe. If the pipe is firmly grasped in both hands just above the mouth. the which are approximately 1:2. the tone quality having changed from that of a flute to that of a tin horn. giving a tone a little flatter than F 2 which is more than two musical semitones lower than that of the wooden . filled is Eo during the first filling the pitch varies with water the pitch more than a semi- tone. the outer wall is attached to the inner one only at the extreme bottom on three sides. with the dimensions of a wooden pipe giving the tone G 2 when empty has the pitch . tone quality changes conspicuously thirty or forty times. with spaces two centimeters wide between the walls.

tone. The gold flute tube and the organ pipe surrounded pianoforte. The much greater softness and density of gold adds still more to the soft massiveness of the walls. a string unequally loaded. and have but little influence upon the column. air stiff. while the flexibility The organ pipe partly unimpaired.3 millimeter thick. Mere massiveness condition. having a longer and louder of the walls does series of partials. Silver is denser and softer. and thick. Elab- orate analyses of the tones from flutes of wood. The traditional influence of different metals on the flute tone are consistent with the experimental results obtained from the organ pipe. and flexible. not fulfill the desired a heavy tube. the walls must be thin. giving an effect like the organ pipe surrounded with water. silver. soft. similar to the long strings of the which have a rich quality. obtained from thick walls of brass. than flutes of other materials. and gold prove that the tone from the gold flute is mellower and richer. has such increased rigidity as to produce an undesirable result. or put a harmonic partial slightly out of tune.cially susceptible to this influence because its metal tube is usually only 0. are. and adds to the mellowness of the tone. these strings are or loaded. It is conceivable that the presence or absence of a ferrule or of a support for a key might cause the appearance or disappearance of a partial tone. glass. no doubt. with water. is with water is like its partials are out of tune and produce a grotesque A /-I flute tube 4- having no tone holes or keys r\T influenced o T-Q n r\\ r\ iri n* niv4-o m /-\-crav*'f r\i~\ Cic? or^wi rvf i by the manner rv\ m il /-\n iflfi 4-/- . Brass and German silver are usually hard. and the tone is said to be hard and trumpetlike. is wound or filled "softness" making them massive. and must be made massive by increasing the density of the material.

When two When the beats are many. . beat-tone. the separate pulsations are easily detected. as at b. frequencies of C = = which are in the ratio of 8:9. in general. which is . 134. and which has a frequency equal to the difference in the frequencies of the two generators that its frequency is equal to the number of beats if is. Photograph of beats produced by two tuning effect of a third tone. 134 is This tone is called a forks having respectively. and instead the sensation is that of a FIG. called a beat-tone. as at a. of support of the tube in the hands BEAT-TONES simple tones are sounding simultaneously. giving the third tone. beats are produced. This condition is repeated at signifying a loud sound. such rapid beats could be heard. the ear does not perceive the separate pulses. 73 Fig.produce until the points have been altered. forks. they combine and produce a curve of large amplitude. a photograph of the waves from two tuning 2048 and D G 2304. which is as distinct and as musical as the two generating tones. When the beats are few per second. equal in number to the difference of the frequencies. If the two sets waves are in like phase at a certain point. of regular intervals along the wave train.

This influence has never ence on the tone quality of been fully appreciated.i 256. listening to a 184 full orchestra. C (i = 2048 and D = 2304. When the number of fluctuations is less than 16 per second the ear hears the separate pulsations as when the number of pulsations is large. showing only the two components due as do real tones. the number of beats per second this effect There are 256 beats per second in the instance described. waves of the other from a. and the two neutralize each other. midway between a and b. there is no vibrating component of motion corto the beat-tone.is 4 waves 01 one tone c. and the ear hears not only the two real quency equal to . producing the effect shown in the curve and which corresponds to a A point and 4 minimum larly of sound. is the beat-tone. fork-tones. but has no physical existence responding as a tone. but also a third beat(i tone. This neutralizing effect occurs regu- between each two reinforcements. are able to distinguish the tones of a single instrument even .tones are purely subjective. the effect upon the ear is that of a continuous simple tone of a fre- beats. yet they affect the ear These subjective partials have great influmany instrumental and vocal sounds as perceived by the ear. The resultant sound of the two forks waxes and wanes as does the outline of the curve. While beat. that due to the other is downward. of the pitch C . When the motion at this point due to one wave is upward. IDENTIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTAL TONES There are many who. The it latter sounds just as real as the other two tones. an analysis of the wave form to the forks.

both being simple.* seat in a is concert hall which allows no view of the musicians sidered It is con- most undesirable. are identical. such as the scratching of the bow. and. Certain tones of the flute are also simple. Every one attending a concert desires to see the musicians as well as to hear them a .when We usually all the instruments are being played. which condition will help to differentiate it and assist the hearer in the identification. and the snapping of the plucked strings. only one of several perhaps equally important Other aids in the differentiation are the attendant and characteristic noises of the instru- ment. The imperfections of tuning prevent the harmonious blending of the sounds of the various instruments. the hissing of the breath. think this possibility is dependent on the characteristic quality of the instrument. is the visual observation of the motions the synchronism of these movements with the changes of the melody calls attention to the particular instrument. Helmholtz says 74 that the proper musical qualities of the tone from a fork and of that produced by blowing across may not be conmany persons are the mouth of a bottle. not over-critical in this respect. very difficult to keep the many it is instruments of an orchestra in perfect tune. The hearer scious of the lack of tuning. Experi- mental demonstration has proved that when the auditor . especially if he is not a trained musician. indeed. of the performer. and therefore of the same quality as those of the tuning fork. and an individual instrument may be separated from the mass of sound by its particular pitch. but investigation indicates that tone quality is factors of identification. A further very important help to the observer. indeed perfect tuning almost certain that is unattainable.

It is a fact that certain tones can be produced on the flute. the bottle. A photograph of the tone The musical instrument which from a fork sounding middle C = 256 is shown in Fig. this steady sound is usually free from the Systematic analyses covering the entire scale in various degrees of loudness have been made generation. and voice. any instrument can probably produce certain peculiar tones which are impossible of imitation by any other instrument. of horn.is removed from the sounding bodies so that he is unable that either to see them or to hear the attendant noises. in the lower register. 135. or the flute. violin. THE TUNING FORK gives the simplest and purest tone. and like similarities are possible with pairs of Of course. as mentioned in Lecture. analyses have been made made of the entire tonal facilities of instrumental music. The musician and the scientist are interested in the dis- tinguishing features of the tone qualities of the various orchestral instruments and of other sources of musical sounds. he can- not tell whether it is the fork. The true characteristic tone of an instrument is and continuable sound produced after the sound has been started and has reached what may be called the sustained the steady state noises . other instruments. and less complete for other instruments. is a tuning fork in connection with a resonator. . II. The analyses which have been completed make it possible to describe the distinguishing characteristics of the tones of the several instruments. produces the tone. these studies are to be continued until a general survey has been for the flute. which cannot be distinguished by the trained musician from certain tones' of the violin.

Photograph of the simple tone from a tuning fork. For comparison the analysis of such a simple tone is shown on the diagram of various tones in Fig.TUJNJi ^UA. This wave form will be recognized as that produced by the simplest possible vibratory motion. FIG.Jl. since the tone has but one component the diagram consists of one line only. simple harmonic motion. page 171 .LljL.& UJP IVlUSlUAJj IPS O JttUM. it sharp blow with a wooden mallet or can be made to give a ringing sound in . 136. FIG. If a fork is struck a other hard body.LJtL. 130. 135.lN 1O such a tone needs no other description than the statement that it is simple. Photograph of the clang-tone from a tuning fork.

in addition to the fundamental heard Fig. are twenty-five kinks due to the small one. Inspection shows that the relation of the small wave to the large one occurring at the point a does not recur till the Fia. When a tuning fork mounted on a resonance box is sounded by vigorous bowing. it sometimes produces a strong octave overtone such a tone is not natural to either the fork . Photograph of the tone of n tuning fork having the octave overtone.25 times that of the funnot an integral is number of the smaller waves to one of the larger. 137. natural overtone of the fork. in the four large waves there is. 75 or the box. and hence the sound is clanging or metallic rather than musical. the kinks the tone from a fork struck with a in the wooden wave form being due to the overtone thus produced. probably clue to some peculiar condition of the combination which has not yet been fully explained. fourth succeeding wave. Since there is about 6. this clang-tone is the first a photograph of mallet. 136 when is the fork is sounded with a soft hammer. that the fre- quency of the overtone damental. the partial is inharmonic or out of tune. and is . at b .

that is. The Choralcelo produces tones which are very clear and vibrant and of great carrying . bars of wood. direct. and such devices have not survived the experimen76 tal stages. renders the music monotonous and uninteresting. the pulsations of which are of the same periods as those of the bodies to be set in motion. The tones so obtained are nearly simple in quality. Tuning forks have been used as musical instruments in connection with keyboards like those of the piano or organ. which are set in vibration by the direct action sound may of the magnets. or diaphragms of special construction are fastened to the ends of resonant tubes. having the same general characteristics as that of the tuning fork. naturally absent. 137. an instrument of recent design. through which flow interrupted. soft iron armatures are attached to the bars and diaphragms. which are set in vibration by the pulsations of the magnets. In other instances. produces a sustained tone. consisting mainly of a fundamental. The Choralcelo. alumi- num. electric currents. are provided by sounding corresponding generators in accordance with a scheme of tone combinations which can be carried iently out conven- by means of stops or controllers operating switches in the electrical apparatus. or steel are used in connection with resonators. The overtones.A photograph of this unusual tone from a fork is shown in Fig. but the very fact of purity. The sources of be piano strings or ribbons of steel drawn over a soundboard. the absence of higher partial tones. The tones are remarkably sweet and of greater purity than those obtainable from any other instrument. The vibrations are produced by electromagnets. and thus the air in the resonators is moved and the tones are produced.

The holes in the body of the flute. perhaps. 138. to the fundamental compoof The combinations sounds produce unique tonal effects. strong nent. due. a cylindrical air con- column a few inches in length. Fig. serve only to length control of the effective air the vibrating column. with the keys and mechanism. While the flute is simple manipulation of the instrument in accordance with the requirements of music of the present time. the key-mechanism of considerable complexity and of the finest workmanship. of remarkable musuch sical quality. The flute has been developed to an acous- . set into longitudinal vibration by blow- ing across a hole near the end of the air tube which incloses the column. requires a acoustically. THE FLUTE The sists of flute in principle is of it the utmost simplicity. ties of and the possibili- synthetic tone develop- ment are great.power.

tone quality. in 1847. himself an accomplished tone in "The " describes this Symphony": But presently 78 A velvet flute-note fell clown pleasantly Upon the bosom of that harmony. as well as because of is is acter. because of and ability to play detached and extended pas- sages. with large covered finger holes." its agility The flute. the flute has an expression itself. and invented the cylindrical-bore. arpeggios. metal bald Boehm. and an aptitude for rendering certain sentiments not possessed by any other instrument. As if n petal from a wild-rose blown Had fluttered down upon that pool of tone And hoatwise dropped o' the convex side And floated down the glassy tide And clarified and ylorified . and prevents the poignant expressiveness of the stringed and reed instruments.tical other orchestral instrument. tic and mechanical perfection perhaps not attained by any This is largely due to the artisscientific studies of the and instrument made by Theo- Munich. of 77 tube. who devised the modern system of fingering in 1832. flutist. nevertheless. its light and iterated notes. The flute gives the simplest sound of any orchestral instrument. Berlioz says: "If it were required to give a sad air an accent of peculiar to desolation and of humility and resignation at the same time. And sailed and sailed incessantly. Sidney Lanier. the feeble sounds of the flute's medium register would certainly produce the desired effect. The flute tone suited to music of the gayest char- often described as sweet and tender. The paucity of overtones causes its sound to blend more readily with that of other instruments or the voice. and this is especially true when it is played softly.

and / .j for the same G 388. gold. when played softly the first tone is nearly simple. Three photographs of the tone of a liute. and /.Sound waves from the which are three curves p. The average composition ister of of all the tones of the low reg- simo. when played pianisshown by the lower line of Fig. containing about 95 per cent of fundamental. including every note in the scale of the instru- ment. as wood. in . one octave in range. and glass. played mf. nearly simple. 140 these tones are . mf. each in several degrees of loudness. 139. flute are shown tone. still an increase in loudness adds the octave. silver. and the effects of different sized holes have been investigated. flutes made of various materials have been studied. with a very weak octave and just a trace of some of . Some of the results of the analyses of the . and then higher partials. in Fig. About a thousand photographs of flute tones have been analyzed. played p. 130. Fin. is the flute. tones of the gold flute will be described terials flutes of other ma- have the same general characteristics. except that the overtones are fewer and weaker.

the higher partials. as shown on the third line. without overtones. shown on the second line of the figure. The pianissimo tones of the middle register. Analyses of flute tones. are simple. have as many as six or eight partials. and at times these sounds surest the string. When the lower register is played forte. The player is often conscious of the skill required to prevent the total disappearance of the fundamental and the passing of the tone into the octave. . the fundamental is weak. being just loud enough to characterize the pitch. and the first it is in effect over- overtone becomes the most prominent partial. AVERAGE OF Al-l I I L I I JL i \ I \ i in 7 8 i n 10 I i 1 1 I 2 3 4 5 6 9 15 FIG. when played loudly. 140. blown.niialitv of tone. The tones of the low register.

partials. but the chamber. Davis has investigated the lonmotion. is leads to the conclusion that the tone of the flute ized character- by few overtones. Barton and his upon the subject. shown in the upper line of the figure. Edwards and 194 . and has developed the mathematical equations denning the 79 Professor H. THE The the action of the VIOLIN strings of a violin. as compared with its length. This result is to be expected from the conditions of tone production for the higher tones the air column is of a diameter relatively large . interior space acts as a resonance Helmholtz has made a study of the vibrating violin string. not only does the body affect the air by its surface movements. Fig. are caused to vibrate by bow. The tones of the highest register have been analyzed and found to be practically simple tones. and these vibrations are transmitted through the bridge and body of the instrument to the air. a fact which is made use of in the duet of the Mad Scene in the opera "Lucia di Lammermoor. S1 and P." The average of all of the tones of the lower and middle registers of the flute. H. colleagues have photographed the movements of the string and body of the instrument. H. with the octave partial predom- inating. N. In this respect these flute tones are very similar to those of the soprano voice of like pitch. and air it is difficult to produce loud overtones in such an column. 141. light gitudinal vibrations of strings in a manner to throw much so Professor E.

FIG. common form this particular shape depends upon a critical relation between the pressure. and produce a continually changing wave form. A photograph of a sound wave from a violin Fig. while the diagram the movements represents of the string. able when membered it is re- that is the the photograph wave in air. 141.the vibrations of the string and plotted the form of its movements. This is an 195 . grip. The photograph sidered shows typical violin is what may be conthe of form the a it wave. from the body of the instrument. point by point. but not . as shown in Fig. is. 142. The violin. tical with the Helm- holtz identity diagram this is remark. and upon the place of bowing tions in and the pitch of the tone. is 143. The usual variabowing disturb the regularity of the vibrations. and speed of the bow. given in the form iden- in general.

Photograph of the tone of a violin. Berlioz. 142. and FIG.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS indication of the fact that a great variety of tone quality can be produced by the usual changes in bowing. and an incontestable variety of qualities of tone. passion. FIG. says: "From them is evolved the greatest power of expression. 134. The only point is to know how to make them . grace. accents both gloomy and gay. Helmholtz's diagram of the vibrations of a violin string. They possess as a whole force. Violins particularly are capable of a host of apparently inconsistent shades of expression. in describing the orchestral usefulness of the violin. lightness. thought.

since these tones are lower than the fundamental resonance of the body of the violin. reversal of phases. the curve is symmetrically turned over with every change in the direction of bowing. and this fact supports the statement that tone quality independent of phase. the turning over of the curve means that the phases of all the components are reversed. . Photograph of the toue of a violin at the time of reversal of the bowing. results of the analysis of loud tones The average strings from the four are shown in Fig. The from the three higher strings have strong ear perceives a fundamental in the n. 145. the first part of the curve is for an up-bow while .r\c\ lower tones of thp violin this must. while the confusion caused by the change the other part is produces a noise which lasts about two hundredths of a second. For the lower sounds the funda- mental is weak.TONE QUALITIES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS reversed without changing the tone quality. 144 is a photograph of the wave form when a change of bowing occurs. the tones fundamentals. r RSI lit. produced by the down-bow. 144. the ear does not detect any change in tone quality due to the Fio. Photographs were taken of a series of tones on each string is of the violin. of three degrees of loudness. Fig. Analytically. as indeed it must be. from a.

and while the violin generates a larger series of partials than does the flute. 146. all to other orchestral instruments in expressiveness is clue the control which the performer has over the tone production. and fifth by the prominence of partials. The clarinet.while the of E string gives a strong third. Fig. THE The study CLARINET AND THE OBOE of reed instruments has not been completed. but the analyses of many individual tones show interesting characteristics. is In general the tone the violin characterized the third. generates sound by .1 . The great advantage of the violin over E StHrvj 1 j I A Str!ng'_jl_ . i O Strin _i i I I 2 3456789 I I I I ] I I I I I I I I 10 (5 FIG. 145. yet' it is not equal to the brass and reed instruments in this respect. Analyses of violin tones.. fourth.i .

147. which a short. The keys vary the resonance of the interior column of air and thus control is . The clarinet. The body has a uniform cylindrical bore. 146. these vibrations are controlled and imparted to the air by the body tube. bell-shaped enlargement. FIG.TONE QUALITIES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS the opening in the mouthpiece. at the lower end of FIG. The oboe.

148. Photograph of the tone of an oboe. FICJ. 149. 148. 149. no doubt. and that from a clarinet. both show deep kinks in the wave form. Fig. very loud higher partials which. The photograph of the tone from an oboe. these kinks indicate the presence of relatively FIG. produce the .keys forms a resonance chamber of various pitches. Fig. but it differs from the clarinet in that the bore is conical throughout. Photograph of the tone of a clarinet.

ninth. while the eighth. I I I I I I I 1 T 9 I I I I I I I 2 IfiO.11. I . The average of several analyses. it is the seventh or ninth in the series any partial whose frequency is an exact multiple of that of the fundamental is truly harmonic. shows that the oboe tone has twelve or more partials. the seventh partial contains 8 per cent of CLARINET J . The statement is often made that the seventh and ninth and that their presence renders The seventh and ninth a musical sound disagreeable. dominating. ninth. 150. 15. 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 15 FIG. partials are just as natural as any others. the recurrence in each wave length of por- tions where the kinks are neutralized. and tenth predominating. and tenth contain 18. a partial is inharmonic when it is not an exact multiule of . with the seventh. more the average of several analyses shows twelve of importance. and 18 per cent respectively. > . shows that there are two adjacent high partials of nearly equal strength. Analyses of the tou. OBOE . the fourth and fifth pretotal loudness. the total loudness. as was explained under Analysis by Inspection in Lecture IV. i I I i t i .es of the oboe ami the clarinet. Fig. eighth. that is.TONE QUALITIES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS of beats. with 30 and 36 per cent respectively of the The clarinet tone may have twenty or partials . a partial is not partials are "inharmonic" inharmonic because of natural tones.

with a conical cup-shaped mouthIn its typical form there piece. clarinet tone has a very beautiful Lanier in "The Symphony" says: 78 The silence breeds A little breeze among. . Then from the gentle stir and fret Sings out the melting clarionet. and a large flaring bell. containing the largest number of partials yet found in any musical tone. consisting of are the no apertures in the walls of the tube. as shown in the figure. for the horn produces tones of widely differing composition tific from one as "split" partials. soft and smooth as a is delicate flute tone to a tone that The tonally disrupted by strong higher low sounds of the horn are rich in overtones. and no valves but modern horn usually has valves. is a brass instrument of extreme sim- a slender conical tube." The adjective "melting" seems to the author not merely a poetic term. and the " musical quality. but a real description of the clarinet as heard in the orchestra.the reeds That seems to blow by sea-mavsli weeds. 151. The tone of the horn is described by Lavignac as "by turns heroic or rustic. and it is perhaps in the expression of tenderness and emotion that it best develops its mysterious qualities. sometimes more than eighteen feet long. plicity." The scien- analysis shows causes for the variety of musical effects. The analysis of the wave for the tone 202 .are harmonic. savage or exquisitely poetic. Fig. THE HORN The horn.

average composition of loud. The horn. and soft tones ranging over the entire compass. 152. Fig. The results of analyses of various other tones from the horn are also given in Fig. indicating a strong fundamental followed by a complete series of partials. 151. 153. shows the presence of the entire series with those from the second to the FIG. lull Photograph of the tone of a horn. sixteenth about equally loud. 153. The second line shows the FIG. a diagram of this analysis is given on the lower line of Fig. medium. more than twenty . of partials up to thirty.D! = 75.

sol. has the fourth. the analysis. "smooth" tone is produced when the player muffles his the tone more or less by putting hand in the bell of the analysis of such a tone. Analyses of tones of l. and 204 weak third partial. .he horn. mi. A horn. 153. and sixth partials the most prominent. line five. shown in the third line of the figure.A "chord tone" which seems to be made by humming with the vocal chords while playing. shown in the fourth line. SPLIT _JL do. which give the common chord. fifth. The "rough" tone is played more loudly and without muffling by the hand. shows an octhe lower tones of the flute tave overtone which a is louder than the fundamental. indicates that it is nearly simple and is very much like The when played softly. J-JL I 1 I J_ i i r 3 i I i i i MI 9 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Z 4 5 6 7 8 15 20 25 30 FIG.

155. Photograph of a bass voice. many large kinks in one wave length. 156. since FIG. j o g> II . . seventh. Fig. is called this tone is literally split into many partials and distributed uniformly from the fundamental to the THE VOICE The sounds of the voice originate in the vibrations of the vocal cords in the larynx. . producing the curve shown is in Fig. the pitch being controlled largely by muscular tension. and eleventh there are partials are the strongest. J The loud partials in this tone are evidently of a high order. it shows that the. A diagram of the analysis of the curve is given in the lower line 'of Fig. the results of which are described at length in Lectures VII and VIII. the analysis of which given in the upper line of Fig. shown on the top a "split tone" twelfth. ninth.Another quality of tone. 154. eighth. The voice EE o I M intoned the same vowel on the soprano ^ pitch of B 3 b. 154 shows the curve for a bass voice (EC) F?' a intoning the II. line. The tones of the singing voice have not been analyzed except in connection with the vowels. = 92. vowel a in father on the note F^. while the quality is dependent mostly upon the resonance effects of the vocal cavities.

yet the ear recognizes the same vowel from both. the second overtone or octave. and their corresponding curves. mines the pitch while the others give the bass quality of the The vowel characteristic for the other individual voice. . These two voices. the first of which deter- Fiu. and is seen at a glance to contain but one strong partial. Photograph of a soprano voice. while a series of five or more higher partials produce the individuality of the soprano tone. the pitch is determined by the or fundamental. represented by the seventh. are very FIG. ninth. unlike.156. Analyses of tones of bfiss and soprano voices. are accompanied by six lower partials. 155. 150. and eleventh partials. The vowel characteristics of the bass voice. voice first is the second partial. This curve is simple. eighth.

and its music is full. have few partials. The piano can produce wonderful varieties of tone color in chords and groups of notes. The while the sound comes mostly from the soundboard. perhaps the most expressive instrument. partials as high as the forty-second partials are loud having been identified. rich. some- . become which So skillful does the accomplished performer producing variety of tone quality in piano music. The more tones from the middle portion of the scale contain ten or partials of well distributed intensity. but to have many overtones. with the nature of the source. upon which one person can play. and most musical. expresses his musical moods. tones of the piano. which is a slender metal string struck with a hammer. and varied. The lower tones of the piano are found to be very weak in fundamental. The relations of strings and soundboard have been considered under Resonators and Resonance in the beginning of this lecture. The sounds from any one key are also susceptible of much variation through the nature of the stroke on is The piano therefore the the key. that it is often in is said that something of the personality of the player transmitted bv the "touch" to the tone produced. and hence it is rightly the most popular instrument. and the loudcomponent is often the second partial or octave. These high enough to be heard by the unaided ear after attention has been directed to them. originating in The higher strings est much shorter under high tension. These characteristics are entirely consistent.THE PIANO vibrations in a piano originate in the strings which are struck with the felt-covered hammers of the key action.

if we are compelled say that. 157. and be struck in the same time relation to one another. tones of the by the definite same loudness are pro- duced by striking a touches. Having investigated this question with results to ample facilities. being of the note one octave above middle C . and doubtless honestly so. Two Fig. but they are primarily conscious of their personal feelings and efforts. single key of a piano with a variety of the tones are always and necessarily of identical quality or. These musicians do in truth produce marvelous tone qualities among under the direction of their artistic emotions. From any tone quality which can be produced by hand playing can be identically reproduced by machine playing. cannot produce a variation in tone quality from one key. if the resulting tones are all of the this principle it follows that same loudness. This opinion produce sounds almost universal artistic musicians. ties is quite independent of the loudness of the It is also claimed that a variety of tone quali- may artistic be obtained from one key. it being necessary only that the various keys be struck automatically so as to produce the same loudness as was obtained by the hand. photographs of piano tones are shown. a brief notice of the nature of piano tone will enable us to establish this conclusion.thing which tone. which are not often taken into account. There are factors in- volved in the time relations of beginning the several tones of a chord or combination. and seldom thoroughly analyze the principles of physics involved in the complicated mechanical operations of tone production in the piano. different even of the when the same touches all is loudness. a variation of artistic touch . in other words. by a variation in the or emotional touch of the finger upon the key. the first.

Fig. FIG. dreclths of a second. but with a progressive change in quality. is but after a tenth of a second. 157.TONE QUALITIES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS and the first other. fallen to less and in one its fifth of a second it it has then than a tenth of greatest loudness. Photograph of the tone of a piano. In the beginning the fundamental is the loudest component. gradually dies out. 158. 158. of the note one octave below. the octave the loudest . The rises photograph shows two important features: the sound to its maximum intensity in about three one-hun- Fiu. Photograph of the tone of a piano.

as well as in the strength of the blow. nor will in the least reduce his prestige. of This condition will in no it way displace the artist. peculiarities of piano partials construction which prolong certain and absorb others. and we shall honor him the more for . The more highly developed such instruments become. Whatever complex tone may . and I believe that in all the near future the automatic piano will reproduce the effects of hand playing. on the contrary. be generated by the hammer blow the quality of tone that enters into combination with that from other strings is dependent upon the parts of the tones from the several strings being simultaneously coexistent.than ten partials of appreciable loudness. which attempt to reproduce the characteristics of individual pianists. It is believed that the artistic touch consists in slight variations in the time of striking the different keys. and it depends upon the length of time each of these tones has been sounding. it will enhance his standing. the imitation is practically perfect. quality of tone obtained from a piano when a melody note is struck is dependent upon the mass of other tones then existing from other keys previously struck and sustained. The correctness of this argument further supported by the mechanical piano players. the more nearly they imitate hand playing in musical effects in many instances . which are continually changing in relative intensity. but there possible an almost infinite variety of tone quality in combinations of notes struck at intervals of a few hundredths of a second. The It is variety of tone is evident that not only does a piano give great by various degrees of hammer blow. and that tone quality is determined by purely physical and mechanical is considerations. to . due no doubt.

the . photographs of small portions of this music are shown in the frontispiece. The clots on the lower An edge of the picture are time signals which are / 100 second apart. SEXTETTE AND ORCHESTRA very complex tone quality is obtained with the talking machine reproducing the Sextette from "Lucia di Lammeraioor. When an instru- ment has been scribe its tonal characteristics approved. the increase in the amplitude of the wave is due to the entrance of the tenor voice. each line of the picture represents the vibrations ] due to music of less than one second's duration." by six famous voices with orchesillustration of tral accompaniment. the smoothness of the curve attesting the pure quality of the voice. On the photograph. a scientific investigation and analyof the sound from a violin or a piano cannot determine it is sis whether artistic the ideal. second line shows the comparatively simple wave of the solo soprano voice singing high Bb.The machine can never create a his accomplishments.ifnp. the artist must ever do this.fir. the length of film required to record the entire selection would be 1000 feet.ifiK and artistically . Musical instruments are used for purposes and their selection is ultimately determined by the aesthetic taste of the artist. The effects impressed upon the wave scale of the original by a particular voice or instrument are in the clearly reproduced middle of the top line. musical interpretation. the physicist can deand select other instruments the same dualities: he pan detent rlp. THE IDEAL MUSICAL TONE Neither science nor art furnishes criteria which will define the ideal musical tone. which is five inches wide.

in musical Bearing in mind the one may speak of an qualifications ideal just mentioned. the tone grows in richness. ing." A musical tone of remarkable quality may be produced special set of ten tuning forks shown in Fig. when the effect is that of one splen- One is hardly conscious that the sound from ten separate sources. a sweet but dull tone is heard. these forks are accurately tuned to the pitches of a fundamental tone of 128 vibrations per second and its nine harmonic overtones.")!). is and has a fullness and richness rarely heard instruments. but he cannot thereby select a masterpiece. When the fundamental alone is sound- by a Fio. 159. until the ten forks are sounding. did musical tone. meaning the most gratifying single tone which can be produced 212 .can scrape the paint from a canvas and analyze it. 1. musical tone. Set of tuning forks for demonstrating the quality of composite toucs. As the successive over- tones are added. the components blend so perThe tone is vigorous and "living" fectly into one sound.

the characteristics of various instru- as described in the preceding pages and as shown by the photographs. The great vatone coloring obtained by the modern composers requires instruments of the greatest possible di- vergence in quality. accompanied by a complete series of twenty or more overtones of successively diminishing intensity. This is a simple tone and is of a dull. they are silenced in succession from the highest downward. the tone becomes less and less rich. upon the screen as explained in Lecture The sounds so demonstrated were the simple and complex tones from tuning forks. If. the ideal tone ing may Following the above experiment be arbitrarily described as one hav- a strong fundamental containing perhaps 50 per cent of the total intensity. It is by no means desirable that all musical instruments riety of musical should have the quality of tone described.from one instrument. of successive overtones. the contrasts thus available are very effective. in certain of its lower tones. approaches most nearly to the arbitrary ideal. p. Of the instruments of the orchestra. perhaps the horn.nrl by the addition t. DEMONSTRATION In the oral lectures. hn. while the forks in the above experiment are sounding.vintr rnanv rmrtlflls thp . until finally the fundamental alone is heard. the experiment demonstrates that a pure tone is a poor tone. were demonstrated by playing the instruments themselves before the phonodeik. the full inhranf. which projected ments the sound waves III. droning quality.nrnpf.nnp. the flute tone as it develops from the simple pianissimo quality to the more complex fortissimo n.

and the concert band. from simple to most complex shapes. which the ear interThis ability to see the is effects of qualitative changes as well as to hear them certainly advantageous in an analytical study of sounds. stretching across the end of the room. 214 . tive demonstration. or quality of the sound. which may be ten feet wide and forty feet long. as reproduced by various types of phonographs. and finally the vocal sextette with orchestra. the waves of light.bell with its interfering inharmonic overtones. As seen upon the screen. and possibly it adds to the musical effectiveness it is at least a fascinating and instruc. with every change in frequency. the wonderfully changing waves flow with perfect smoothness ously blending prets as music. and reproduce visually the harmonimovements of the air. loudness. are constantly in motion. and pass from one wave form to another.

and the vocalist.-Jm ml m-P 4-1-1 . that is. The tone quality of vowels has been more closely studied than that of all other sounds combined.1. and the expressions of the results. . the philologist. . this theory was extended by Wheatstone Bonders (1864) dis(1837) and by Grassmann (1854).. THE the physiologist.1-. he wishes to know the The nature of the musical tone quality which gives individuality to the several vowels. The methods of the several classes of investigators. . have each attacked the problem of vowel characteristics from his own separate point of view. who concluded from experiments with reed organ pipes that it depends upon a fixed characteristic pitch.*. that all. Helmholtz (1862-1877) -i^-i/-^ *- ex- 4. the physicist.-.-.LECTURE VII PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VOWELS THE VOWELS vowels have been more extensively investigated than any other subject connected with speech. and yet no single opinion of the. J J J.-1^ r*\t-mv\ T-H-V-P/-V >/-. covered that the cavity of the mouth is tuned to different pitches for different vowels. The first attempt at an explanation of vowel quality was made in 1829 by Willis. one person is seldom able to appreciate them physicist wishes to interpret the vowels as they exist in the sound waves in air.cause of vowel quality has prevailed. are so unlike and so highly specialized.

Ellis. but by a fixed region of resonance. ject In opposition to this theory. Several quotations will indicate the uncertainty existing at the present time in regard to the nature of the vowels. many writers on the subhave held that the quality of a vowel. but upon the relative pitches of two or more. from which it will be seen that much remains to be done before the perplexities involving the subject can be removed. correct. concluding that both characteristics are concerned. the translator of Helmholtz. as well as that of a musical instrument. not by a single fixed pitch. this is the so-called fixed-pitch theory." Lord Rayleigh (1896) says: "A general comparison of his results with those obtained by other methods has been given by Her- mann. writes (1885) : "The ex- treme divergence of results obtained by investigators shows the inherent difficulties of the determination. the fundamental. is characterized by a particular series of overtones accompanying a given fundamental. the pitches of the overtones varying with that of the fundamental. and that the pitch of the most strongly reinforced partial alone is not sufficient to determine the vowel. which is independent of the fundamental tone of the vowel." Auerbach (1909) discusses the various theories. the pitches of which are within certain limits. Auerbach in 1876 developed an intermediate theory. so that the ratios remain constant.that each vowel is characterized. Hermann (1889) has suggested that the vowels might be characterized by partial tones. partials being independent of the Lloyd (1890) considers that the identity of a vowel depends not upon the absolute pitch of one or more resonances. this is the relative-pitch theory. 83 but without deciding which is . but which are inharmonic.

Two conclusions. and bee. out of harmony with Scripture's arguments. from a fricative and so on. recent publications on this subject arrive at opposite Professor Bevier of Rutgers College in one of 84 the most complete studies yet made (1900-1905). says: "the overtone theory of the vowels cannot be correct" and he gives ex. gloom. as sound). mat. no. pet. separated from the combinations and noises by which they are made into words. arrives at conclusions in accord with Helmholtz's fixed-resonance theory and the method of harmonic analysis. The particular vowels specified are according to the pro- . and continuable sounds uttered by the voice in the process of speaking a sound in which the element of tone is predominant. A dictionary definition of a vowel is: "one of the openest. eight standard vowels contained in the following words were selected for definitive analysis: father. After preliminary study. raw. the "Century Dictionary" gives nineteen vowel sounds in its key to pronunciation. therefore. a . and they are. formerly of Yale University. 85 The results of the work here described are in entire agreement with Helmholtz's theory. using the phonograph as an instrument of analysis. from a distinguished mute (explosive). 80 STANDARD VOWEL TONES AND WORDS Vowels are speech sounds which can be continuously intoned. they. tended arguments in support of this opinion and opposed to harmonic analysis of vowels. Professor Scripture (1906). while some writers on phonetics tabulate as many as seventy- two vowel sounds. tone-sound." (rustling Helmholtz specifies seven vowels. most resonant.

hawl no. add. the in German in vater. rode. bless they. while a larger given on page 257. the writer will give the whole word containing the vowel. far. growp mat. goal gloom. machme Some of these sounds are is equivalent of father French in pate. but this does not in the results. found there seems to be no equivalent German or French for miv or mat. bait." one may emphasize and prolong the vowel as "a record of 218 . gward raw. feather.that the quantitative results would vary for the slightest change in intonation or inflection. pique. hate bee. father. cat pet. the latter being indicated by italics. instead of using single letters connection with a multiplicity of signs to designate the several vowels. fall. and in equivalent of no in German is in wohl. Others may disagree with some of the pronunciations. For the sake in of simplicity. Since individual pro- nunciations vary greatly. even within the range of one language. list is change the fact that these are the sounds studied and defined A table of such words follows. but in either common to all languages. there seems to be no better method of defining a vowel than by specifying several words. the and in French in cote. move. in each of which the author gives the vowel the same sound. in pronouncing the phrase "a record of the vowel father.

while analysis of other photographs of the same vowel are shown analysis of this curve -nA IfiQ . as "a record of the vowel PPIOTOGRAPHING. Photograph of the vowel a. better. as explained in Lecture V. is shown in Fig. page 169. 160. at the pitch of F2 = is 182. AND PLOTTING VOWEL CURVES The as follows: the speaker begins to general procedure in the investigation of a vowel is pronounce the appropriate in as natural a word and prolongs the vowel manner as FIG. is voice curve. percentage intensities for the several partials are computed. The given in Fig. by means of the phonodeik a photographic record taken of the central portion of the vowel. . ther. 1GO. and the results are diagramed." or. 129. in father. A photograph of the vowel father intoned by a baritone voice. ANALYZING. one may pronounce only the vowel part of the last word. The vowel curve is then analyzed into its harmonic components.the vowel fah . while the zero line and time signals are recorded simultaneously with the possible . for analysis. corrections are applied. .

The significance of these . and C.no intensity whatever for pitches other than those of its own partials. 101. its partials may lie between those of 129 2069 4133 FIG. a curve can be drawn which shows the resonance of the vocal cavities for the particular vowel. intoned at two different pitches. 162. the first sound as shown in Fig. is permissible to For purposes show the relations 162. Loucluess of the several compontMits of the vowel father. Fig. Fig. If the vowel is intoned by the same person at a different pitch. 220 of analytical study it of the separate points is of a single analysis to the indicated resonance curve as done in A. B. 161. D. By plotting many analyses to one base line.

two baritones. o^rl A tt 99V 2# D = was intoned by the voice its D C M at 155. show the same vowel by the same voice intoned at nitfhps nf TT. Distribution of onorgy uniong the scvcrfil partials of the vowel father. tenor. . and one girl soprano the normal pitches of these voices ranged from 106 to 281. . on page 228. The vowel the pitch father energy distribution curve being as shown in the lower part of Fig. VOWELS OF VARIOUS VOICES AND PITCHES pitches as intoned vowels has been photographed at several of eight voices. one boy soprano. the next two curves.617 1035 2060 4138 FIG. 102.curves is more fully explained in the section on Classifica- tion of the Vowels. all of which have been analyzed and of the eight Each by each 259 . There were two bass voices. B and C.. one one contralto. plotted.tt 189. 162. giving about a thousand curves. intoned at various pitches.

in the second case the fifth partial of pitch 910 loudest with 48 per cent of the energy while in the third case the fourth partial of pitch 908 contains 65 per cent of .i the the upper part of the figure. instead of twelve separate curves. approximately upon each semitone of the octave from C 2 = 129 to C = 259. shows the location of is all component intensities of the twelve analyses. D EF C A BG.. at twelve different pitches....|. Distribution of energy among the several partials of the vowel r.!. 103. l D EF l ll l l l l '|| l |^l^^||^ CADC DEF GABC? ^.'.!. .||^|.!..!.!?. one drawn showing the average Trr\TTr/-\l -P/-*4-l-\/-\-- energy distribution.'.'.is quency of 930 contains 69 per cent is intoned at the lowest pitch.. the sixth partial having a freof the total energy of the sound.|^. the energy.!. A BC.' R ^ J28 .' DEF GA | l l j. father... D. ^^. D C The same vowel..250 .517 2000 4139 FIG... M. I r* Q f\t~\ r\rrnr nil vT7/-\r* /- -f-V f\ nr i-v^ /% -i-*-\^-v-\i^^\y-J l-^--r ...|. was intoned by the same voice.^^^lil BC4 D EF G A ^^|^ ||^| | ' | l BC..^.|.!. as intoned by eight different voices.

1. are shown A . I. Distribution of energy among the several partials of the vowel bee. a bass M).. I. t.. intoned by the same eight voices. as described on page 231. a boy soprano (K S..1 . 14 years old). at pitches ranging E). from 106 to 522. D ... yet it may be said that the higher resonance is the characteristic one... 1G4. a tenor from 111 to 400.. These diagrams indicate that there is not a fixed partial . I. The energy curves for the vowel bee...eight different voices. and a girl soprano (H F.... I.l 4139 129 259 517 1035 2089 FIG.!..ilii. G A I EC. .7...!.T.. . .!... since its absence converts the in Fig.... 163. G A BC I 4 D EF A BC6 D EF G A BO. JJij "l*l*rl. I.. one at a pitch of about 300... While the greater part of the energy is in the lower resonance. D I.. . JD EP G If.!.T.!.. The voices are a bass (0 F (E C).1..1. a contralto (E E M). a baritone (D C (F P W).. 164.! 1.T. BC. . EF I.!.i.!..I I?. . a baritone (W R W).. I... as intoned by eight different voices.T.1 . vowel bee into gloom. For this vowel there are two regions of resonance. EF I. 10 years old).. and the other at a pitch of about 3000. . at pitches ranging are given in Fig..

or regions. six photographs were made in succession of the vowel spoken in normal pitch and inflec- D tion. To establish this theory it is necessary to show that all the different vowels have distinctly different characteristic regions of resonance. but approximately on six equidistant tones covering one octave. and even extreme variations in of the vowels of different voices The study pitch for one voice probably alter the accuracy of pronunciation. beginning a little below normal pitch. then six more photographs for the same vowel were made. Thus twelve curves were obtained for each vowel. that is. Therefore it was decided to make a final study of the principal vowel tones of the English language as spoken by one person in order to determine the physical cause of their differences. no matter at what pitch the vowel is uttered. the nature of study is indicated by the following description. and for some a larger number was made. C M. The greater part of the energy of the voice is in those partials which fall within certain limits. nor by what quality of voice. which remain the same for all voices. a detailed account is to be published elsewhere.pitch. of which this DEFINITIVE INVESTIGATION OF ONE VOICE and pitches showed that it is practically impossible to obtain the same vowel from the various voices with sufficient certainty to permit of a definitive study. which refers to one voice only. all being made under exactly the same . of resonance or reinforcement. There are 202 photographs in. An investigation has been made leading to this conclusion. this second series. Each of the eight vowels previously mentioned was intoned by one voice. the vowel is characterized by a fixed region.

732. for the vowels of the first class the words may be ma. to the effectiveness if It adds the vowels are indicated by simple syllables of the same general form. The vowels of the first class are represented selected as a starting point for a classification. raw. or pat. CLASSIFICATION OF VOWELS vowel curves. maw. and moo. paw.conditions of the speaker's voice and recording apparatus. poe. mate. while for the second there are two characteristic regions. and the new syllables selected are mat. simple characteristic region of resonance. maw.R1 cmrl 3fi9 rpnpp+:nrplir TVip rpcnnanr>p rporinns . the first class vowels are ma. and one of these may be 110. having maximum. 165. and moo. which pot. they. mow. The and finally a composite or average curve was made for each vowel. were arranged upon a table and their peculiarities studied. pate. pet. The vowels of the second class are represented by mat. Many schemes of classification were eight final composite tried. The investigations indicate that the most natural vowel sound and the most elemental words used in speech are ma and pa. mow. shown 4. and peat. This series may be presumed to start from the fundamental vowel ma. drawn on separate pieces of paper. met. The with the final conclusion that all vowels may be di- vided into two classes. and bee. by father. for similarity may be expressed by the words of the mot or The are characteristic curves for vowels in Fig. and meet. curves were analyzed and reduced in one group. resonances at pitches of 910. the first having a single. or pa. and gloom. and pooh. a separate energy distribution curve was drawn for each analysis. pet.

containing only about 4 per cent of the energy. two curves are shown for this vowel. 105. as Sometimes this vowel has two resonances close shown in the curve of the second class. together.but little. as its characteristic may vary from 900 to 1100. The vowel ma seems to have 129 250 517 2060 it 4108 FIG. the partials lying within a characteristic region much as 90 per cent of the there is a conspicuous total absence of higher tones and all the lower tones are weak. and probably there is only one resonance. The double peak for this vowel is peculiar to certain voices. as the highest ma is perhaps the initial sound from which all vowels are derived. the fundamental is of small intensity. which is separated into two narts bv the absence of a narticular Dartial tone . of resonance often contain as total energy of the sound. unless its pitch lies within a region of characteristic resonance. ChjiructiH'istir curves for IIP distribution of tho energy in vowels of Class I. having a single region of resonance. considerable range.

488 and 2461 . GABCoDEFGA 3 I . BC4 -DEP GABC 5 D EFGABC DEFGABC a 7 I . The lower and intermediate tones are stronger than in the vowels of the first 227 . 691 and 1953. resonances very close together at pitches of 950 and 1240.. 800 and 1840.I . 308 and 3100. mate. Characteristic curves for the distribution of the energy in vowels of Glass II. I. but contain only about 50 per cent of the energy.1. and a curve for the same vowel in which there are two MA 2 ( MA IB4C MAT MET 1461 MATE 31) MEET C9 DEF . 259 1035 2069 4138 FlG. 1GG.jgJLW. met. next is is placed at the top.I I . I .. The lower resonances are same as for the vowels of the first class.1. having two regions of resonance... while about 25 per cent is in the higher region...1.Ha V_/J single resonance at the pitch 1050. .1 . practically the and meet. the other vowels with the pitches of their resonance regions are: mat.

class,

energy.

the fundamental often containing 10 per cent of the Although each vowel is characterized by two re-

gions of resonance, the distinguishing characteristic is the higher resonance. The characteristic curves show the resonating properties
of the vocal cavities
fied vowels,

when

set for the

production of the speci-

their

and they have true significance throughout These curves may be considered curves of lengths.

probability, or perhaps they
bility, of

may

be called curves of possiis

energy emission when a given vowel
is

intoned.

The mouth

capable of selective tone-emission only, that is, the only frequencies of vibration which can be emitted If the harmonic at one time are in the harmonic ratios.
scale (see

of a given

page 169) is placed upon the characteristic curve vowel with its first line at any designated pitch,
intensities of the various partials

then the ordinates of the curve at the several harmonic
points

show the probable

when

the particular vowel is intoned by any voice at the given pitch. These curves show the probable intensity for that part of the energy which is characteristic of the vowel
in general, but, since they are averages of

many

analyses,

they do not show the peculiarities of individual voices aside

from the vowel

characteristic.

Since the pitch region of the maximum emission of energy for a certain vowel is fixed and is independent of the pitch of the fundamental, it follows that the different vowels can-

not be represented by characteristic wave forms. the vowel father is intoned upon the fundamental
154, the sixth partial, 6

X

154

= 924,

When E 2 b =1

is

the loudest, and the

wave form has six kinks per wave length. Fig. 167, a, is an actual photograph of the vowel father from a baritone voice. When the samfi vowel is intnnprl hv a. snnrn.nn vm'p.p

at the pitch
is

B 3 b 462, the second partial, 2 462 924, the loudest, and the wave shows two kinks per wave length, as in b. These curves are for the same vowel, but

=

X

=

are wholly unlike.

baritone at the pitch

When B2 b

the vowel no

is

intoned by the
is

231, the characteristic

the

FIG. 107.
1)

Photographs a and 1). though unlike, are from the same vowel and o are nearly alike but are from different vowels.

;

second partial, 2X231=462; the and has the appearance shown at c.

wave has two kinks

Wave

forms b and

c

are alike in general appearance, but are for different vowels. The wave form therefore depends upon the pitch of intonation as well as

upon the vowel, and one cannot in general determine from inspection alone to what vowel a given curve corresponds. Familiarity with the curves from an.

THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS
individual voice will, however, often enable one to vowel of this voice is represented.
outline for the classification of
tell

what

Either one of the word pyramids of Fig. 168 forms an
all vowels; starting at the top and descending to the left are the vowels characterized by single resonances of successively lower pitches; towards

first

the right are those characterized by two resonances, the of which descends, while the second ascends for the
successive vowels.

There

is

a continuous transition from'

one vowel to the next through the entire range of each class. The number of possible vowels is indefinitely great, having
shades of tone quality which blend one into another.
It

pa pot

ma mot

paw
poe

pat pet
pate
peat

maw
mow
moo

mat met
mate meet

pooh
FIG. 108.

Word pyramids

for c'lussificntion of the vowels.

is

believed that

any other vowel from any language after

analysis can be placed

upon

this classification

frame as

intermediate between some two of those in the pyramid, It happens that the pronunciations used in this study cor-

respond to nearly uniform distribution of resonances, and the vowels are distinct in sound one from another; they

form what
basis for

may

therefore be considered a rational selection

of standard vowels

and give a scientific pronunciation as a word formation and for phonetic spelling and

ma
as,

...

maw

.

.

.

mow

.

.

.

moo (pronounce only the

vowels,

again by starting with the same vowel at the top of the pyramid, keeping the lips in constant position, but changing the position of the
a ... a ... 6
.. .00).

And

tongue, one can continuously intone all the vowels characterized

by two resonances,

ma

.

.

.

mat

.

.

.

met

.

.

.

mate

.

.

.

meet

(a ... a ... e ... a ... e).

Many
pyramid

photographs have been
classification

made which confirm the by simple inspection, showing that

FIG. 169.

Photographs of the vowels mew and meet.

the relations are based
tive curves for the

upon

essential features.

Compara-

vowels

moo and meet

169. The first is for moo, and is vowel characteristic being the single resonance which is an octave higher than the fundamental and is represented by

are given in Fig. a very simple curve, the

the wavelets
resonances,

a.

The vowel meet has two
first

characteristic

the

of which, b, is practically identical 231

THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS
with that for moo, while the second

and

is of very high pitch represented by the small kinks which are present throughout the curve but show most clearly near the points
is

b; the addition of this high pitch to the

sound
is

for

moo

changes

it

to meet.

The

relation of the vowels

moo and meet

illustrated

by a common difficulty in telephone conversation. Telephone lines are purposely so constructed as to damp out vibrations of high frequency; if the vowel meet is spoken
into the transmitter,
its

high-frequency characteristic

is

not

carried over the wire,

word

part eliminated is three is often misunderstood as two, to prevent which the r in three is trilled.

and the sound being heard with this interpreted as moo; for this reason the

TRANSLATION OF VOWELS WITH THE PHONOGRAPH

The phonograph permits
characteristics of certain

a simple verification of the

vowels, since the pitch of the

sounds given out by the machine can be varied by changing

vowel

the speed of the motor which turns the record. When the ma is recorded, the greater part of the energy is emitted in tones having a frequency of about 925; if the

is reproduced at the same speed as that at which it was recorded, one hears the vowel ma but when the speed of rotation is reduced so that sounds which previously had the pitch 925 now have the pitch 735, the phonograph speaks the vowel maty and still further reduction of speed gives the vowels mow and moo.

record

;

;

Tf

mn/m

is rpr.nrrlprl

thp.n t.hp

rp.p.nrrl

p.a.n

hp

mn.rlp tn rp-

ma and maw

In early experiments with the phonograph the vowels were recorded several times at various speeds of the cylinder, and afterwards it was impossible to identify
the records, because each could be

made

to reproduce both

vowels perfectly.

The vowel ma was recorded by the voice

DC

M

on the

phonograph, and without stopping the cylinder, the phonograph was made to speak this record into the phonodeik; the sound was photographed and the speed of the phonograph cylinder was determined at the same time with a
stop-watch.

Analysis of the photograph showed that the fundamental pitch of intonation was 154, while the maximum energy of the sound was in the sixth partial tone,

having a frequency of 924; the corresponding speed of the cylinder of the phonograph was one turn in 0.276
second.

The speed
the time for

that the vowel

was reduced, till the ear judged was being given by the phonograph; one turn of the cylinder was found to be 0.348
of the cylinder

maw

second, corresponding to a frequency of 730 for the tone of

maximum

energy.

Similar trials were

made

for the vowels

mow

and moo, and the shown in tabular form.

results of all the

experiments are

Frequencies of vowels obtained by translation with the phonograph.

The

charactersitics

from the phonograph experiments

461. Since in this experiment. since the amplitudes by the depth of the cutting in the wax. lowered in the same proportion as is that of the characterto the abnormally low pitch of 54 for moo. mow. this causes a diminution in intensity proportional to the square of the speed reduction. though it retains the vowel characteristic. in the is proportion shown in Fig. when recorded at different pitches or by the speed is changed so that any all one pitch or voice gives mow. In phonographic reproduction. it is better to record the first tone at a pitch higher than that of normal speech. same time. maw. the amplitudes of the several component tones remain are determined constant as the frequency is reduced. 444. and moo are translated similar relation of reproduction to by changed speed these vowels. and 311. since the the same (approximately) exists characteristic for for all voices and A one of the when records of any vowels ma. the amplitude should explained in Lectures II and V. any other one of In order that the loudness of a sound stant may remain con- when the pitch increase. as was lowered. This difficulty is somewhat over- come by the method of experimentation described below. hence a translated vowel often has an unnatural sound. 732. respectively. and 326.730. or to voice. 113. When the vowel mow is intoned by a baritone voice the normal pitch for speech. give other pitches and voices mow at the is each vowel pitches. the pitch of the fundamental is istic. If the make the record from a contralto or soprano vowel ma is different voices. and alters the relative loudness of the several component tones. while the photographic analyses give 922. the characteristic . at E 2b = 154.

if now this record is reproduced at a slower speed to give mow. while this sound is clearly mow. the time signals being photographed simultaneously. the characteristic is the sixth partial of pitch 6 is X = 154 = 924. as Phonographic translation of the vowels of the second class. and the = = = characteristic 462 . and meet. the higher when the lower decreases. it is not like a natural mow of the baritone voice. the fundamental falls to E 2 b 154. mat. regions of resonance. but these whispered sounds The vowels can be must contain vowels. at least the essential characteristics of the Photographs of such whispered vowels are readily obtained and. they give by direct measurement the absolute nf tViP tmwpl r>Tinranfpri Hrs i . mate. without fundamental or pitch and without the series of partials which determine the individuality of the voice.the third partial of pitch 3 154 462. the third partial of pitch 3 154 this translated ma of the contralto voice becomes mow is still X of the baritone voice in general quality. When ma is recorded X 77 by a contralto voice on the fundamental characteristic is E :5 b = 308. met. 166. that is. the fundamental pitch becomes is when and the characteristic the sixth partial of this lower pitch. is not possible. in- creasing in frequency WHISPERED VOWELS distinctly whispered without the production of any larynx tone. the phonograph speed is reduced to from this record. for each has two is shown in Fig. 6 462. If ma is recorded on the phonograph by the same voice at the same pitch. mow X sound 77. X the the third partial of the pitch 3 308 924. and has a natural sound. being pitched on such a sub-bass fundamental.

ma being Since the usual voice tones are entirely absent. The second class of whispered vowels. each curve consists mainly of one frequency. 170. that charac- Fin. at the top. the high frequency . is shown in Fig. teristic of the vowel. 171.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS Many photographs have been taken of nine vowels. mow. . mat. maw. inspection of these at once proves the general correctness of the classification of the vowels already given. Photographs of whispered vowels of Chiss I. whispered by several voices. are shown in Fig. Each for curve of this group has two distinct frequencies. and moo. mate. mat being at the top. the curve meet has the lowest and the highest. These curves are arranged in the it is or- der of the classification and evident that the frequency of the principal vibration in each increases from the lower to the upper record. 170. Whisper records for the four vowels of the first class ma. and meet. met.

Photographs of whispered vowels of Class II. upper curve for mat. is perhaps due to the fact that. the . which is not periodic not caused by beats. The variation in the is wave form.in frequency. the vibration of the air in the mouth cavity is uncontrolled and fluctuand therefore ates in both intensity limits. quite entangled in the while the higher one decreases. as the vocal cords are not in motion. Comparisons of forty-five curves of whispers show fre- quencies for the characteristics as given in the table. and pitch within the characteristic FIG. the two being. 171.

.

though the whisper characteristics are well within the limits of those of speech. of the words "Lowell Institute. to prolong a vocal sound without variation. THEORY OF VOWEL QUALITY The analytical studies which have been described lead strictly periodic to the conclusion that intoned vowels are unusual. 173 shows the periodicity of the vowel sound mate. its adjacent vocal cavities is an adjust- by varying the positions of the jaws. ing in intensity. When the mouth is wide open and o cnno-o ." and Fig. It is usually given some emotional expression. It appeal's that the resonance frequency of the mouth in whispering is somewhat higher than when speaking. in song a sustained tone or musical sounds. The mouth with able resonator. however. this cavity can be tuned to a large range of pitches. cheeks.frequencies determined by analysis of the spoken vowels arc also given for reference. though simple in quality. Fig." The slightest change in the sound causes a change in the wave form. Such a photograph is a complete justification of the application of harmonic analysis to the study of vowel curves.. The photograph of shown in the frontispiece represents the soprano voice a sustained musical tone which. tongue. and other parts. in which time there may be hundreds of waves which are truly periodic. The is quality to another 172. 184. lips. Fig. spoken words "Lord Rayleigh. and in spoken words the vowels change continuously and are blended with is the consonants. but it is not impossible to maintain a pure vowel tone unchanged for several seconds. It requires some practice. of the is continually changflowing of speech tones from one illustrated by the photographs.

showing periodicity of the wave form. oo.high frequency. channel between the tongue and the roof of the mouth. when is is small. together with brass resonators tuned to these and therefore producing the same effect as the mouth when set for the several tones. the cavity responds to two simple tones. E. of the mouth may be illustrated by holding forks of certain pitches before the mouth. one corresponding to the back part of the oral cavity. the opening between the lips FIG. The mouth cavities may be adjusted to reinforce two different pitches at one time. pitches. as for gloom. when it is set but when no sound is made. . the pitch lowered. and the other to the The resonance for the vowel. 173. Photograph of the vowel ino-te. . Fig. Shape of uiouth cavities when set for various vowels. 174 . 174. as has befin explained by Helmholtz when set for the vowel meet. and is set for the vowel father. A. 175 shows five forks corresponding to certain vowel pitches as determined by 87 Koenig. will be strongly reinforced. the fork tone / / t^iii^ / *r*^- 00 FIG. Fig.

easily compensated by changing the opening of the lips. The effect of such a resonator. Both of these conditions are illustrated father. can only be to modify the intensity and phase of the several components which are the resonator cannot originate already present in the sound produced by the vocal cords. then those partials whose pitches approximate that of the mouth will still be favored. 17. the effect this particular partial. Koenig's forks and resonators for vowel characteristics. having certain natural periods.The variation adults and in the size of the is mouth cavities. by the curves of the eight voices for ."). Fig. If the frequency FIG. any tone. 163. as between children. if must be to reinforce the pitch to which the mouth 1 cavity is set does not exactly coincide with any partial of the voice. of the resonating cavity coincides with that of one of the partial tones of the voice.

TPIE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS
cords should be a composite containing at least those partials which are characteristic of the vowel to be spoken.

The sounds

of the voice are normally very rich in partials;

in one analysis of the vowel

mat was found every

partial

from one to twenty inclusive;

in another analysis of the

same vowel, there are eighteen partials, the highest being number twenty-four; in the vowel met, an analysis shows sixteen partials, the highest being number twenty-three.
Peculiarities of individual voices are probably due to the presence or absence of particular overtones in the larynx

low voice of a
tial to

sound, according to incidental or accidental conditions. A man has a large number of partials not essenteristic tones;

the vowel, which, so to speak, overload the characthese partials may make the voice louder,

but they detract from clearness of enunciation. A child's on the contrary, produces only the higher tones, and but few besides those necessary for the vowel the enunciavoice,
;

tion

is,

therefore, especially clear, clean-cut,

and

distinct.

conscious of the greater clearness of enunciation of a child's voice when listening to a conversation in a foreign
is

One

language which

is

understood with

difficulty.

The process of singing a vowel is probably The jaws, tongue, and lips, trained by lifelong

as follows.

practice in

speaking and singing, are set in the definite position for the vowel, and the mouth is thus tuned unconsciously to
the tones characteristic of that vowel.

At the same time

the vocal cords of the larynx are brought to the tension

in

number, of

partials, usually of

ticular partials in this series

a low intensity. The parwhich are most nearly in uni-

son with the vibrations proper to the air in the mouth cavity, are greatly strengthened by resonance, and the result-

ant effect
fied

is

the sound which the ear identifies as the speci-

vowel sung at the designated pitch. If, while the mouth cavity is maintained unchanged in
is

position, the vocal corcls are set successively to different

pitches and the voice

produced, then one definite vowel,

recognized as being sung at difIn this case the region of resonance is constant, though the pitch of the fundamental may vary, as may abo the pitch and order of the particular partials
is

the

same throughout,

ferent pitches.

which

within the region of resonance. vowel cannot be enunciated at a pitch above that of its characteristic, a condition which is easily
fall

It follows that a

shown

to be true for those

characteristic, such as gloom.

vowels having a low-pitched Words which are sung are

may be due in part to the fact that the tones of the singing voice are purer than
often difficult to understand; this

those of speaking, that is, that they have fewer partials; also, the words must be intoned upon pitches assigned by
the composer,

and the overtones

may

not correspond in
furthermore,

pitch with the characteristics of the vowel;

singing tones are often too high to give the characteristic, even approximately, as is explained in the next lecture.

LECTURE

VIII

SYNTHETIC VOWELS AND WORDS, RELATIONS OF THE ART AND SCIENCE OF MUSIC
ARTIFICIAL AND SYNTHETIC

VOWELS

THE most convincing proof of a vowel theory would be a reproduction of the several vowels by compounding the partial tones obtained in the
analyses.

Mavowel

rage of Paris has

obtained

soundsby means
of artificial lar-

ynxes
FIQ. 176.

and
Fig.

mouth and nasal
Apparatus for imitating
the vowels.

cavities,
176,

combined with artificial lungs made of bellows and an electric motor. Such an apparatus, like the doll that says

"ma-ma,"

is

very interesting, but

it

gives no evidence re;

garding any particular theory of vowel quality the vowels so made are not synthetic reproduction.:; scientifically con-

but are more properly imitations. 88 Koenig devised the wave siren, a simple form of which is shown in Fig. 177, for reproducing any desired wave motion,
structed,

the shape of the wave being cut on the edge of a disk; he also made a large wave siren for compounding sixteen sim-

pie tones of variable loudness and

phase; Fig. 178
shows
ratus. 89
this

appaThese in-

struments have not

proved successful, perhaps because the resulting wave in

air is not a repro-

duction of that cut

on the

disks.

One
Fici.

of

Helm-

177.

Kocnig's wave siren.

holtz's

most celebrated devices

is

apparatus for reproducing vowels synthetically

by means
forks."

of

tuning

It consists of

ten electrically driven

tuning forks in con-

nection with
adjustable res-

onators, Fig. Helm179.
holtz describes

the experiments by which he says he produced a very
FIG. 178.

Koenig's Avave siren for compounding

only imperfectly imitated. Zahm, who repeated the experiments with the Helmholtz apparatus, remarks that the

resemblance of the
at
best,

artificial
less

sounds to the natural ones

is,

more

or

fanciful.

experiments are
repeated."

difficult

Rayleigh says: "These and do not appear to have been
difficulties as in

Helmholtz explains the

part due to the

fact that the higher

forks give only weak tones and that the
series
is
;

not large
his highest

enough

fork gave 1792 vi-

brations per second.

Other difficulties are
that Helmholtz and others have not

known

the

exact

composition of any of the vowels; and,
FIG. 179.
for
II<?lmholtz's Inning-fork apparatus compounding ten pnrtials.

had the composition been known, there was no adequate

components to the proper In order to imitate an actual vowel, it is desirable that the pitch of the fundamental shall correspond exactly to that of the voice being reproduced. Helmholtz
intensity.

method

of adjusting the several

had only one

series of forks giving eight partials

based on

112 vibrations per second, which was later extended to give also eight partials based on 224 vibrations.

Helmholtz

also tried

organ pipes, and says
246

:

"We

can

effect

have at

our purpose tolerably well with organ pipes, but we must least two sets of these, loud open and soft stopped

pipes, because the strength of tone

additional pressure of ing the pitch."

cannot be increased by wind without at the same time chang-

Our study
are

of organ pipes

are not insurmountable

showed that these difficulties and that pipes can be made which
for experiments in

more advantageous than tuning forks

synthesis.
.

The most

suitable pipes are stopped pipes of wood,

known

as "Tibia" pipes; these are of large cross section in pro-

portion to length, have narrow mouths,- and are voiced for low wind pressure. The pipes have lead "toes," the openings

which can be made larger or smaller, thus adjusting the quantity (pressure) of the air entering the pipes. This adjustment in connection with that of the lip and throat
in

permits any strength of tone to be obtained from the least to the full tone. Every change in the strength of tone causes
a change in pitch which must be compensated by adjusting the stopper. Many analyses show that the tones from such
pipes have 99 per cent of fundamental, that the tone is simple.
is,

practically,

vowel having been photographed and analyzed, the synthesis can be performed in a strictly quantitative manner set of pipes is prepared, by means of the phonodeik.

A

A

one pipe for each partial of the given vowel for the vowels as spoken by C the least number of pipes is six for the
;

D

M

vowel gloom, while the vowel father requires ten pipes, and the vowel mat sixteen the group of pipes for the latter is
;

shown
Halo nt

in Fig. 180.
o TrnTtrol m/rf

Even sixteen pipes reproduce only the more important parT rt

cnnno fVia

-Piill

analTrcnc

oVir>Tiro T TiTOTrf.tr

nrvp. Group of organ pipes. reproduce the vowel a in mat. p. when sounded simultaneously. voine.or of higher pitches the set more component tones in some instances. The smaller pipes alternate with the larger ones and their mouths are on a different level to arate. which.s fhp a. o-ivp. small prevent interference.H-nnl "oh- . The analvsis of the. wind chest. For voices number of pipes required is less. Each of pipes is mounted as compactly as possible on a sep- FIG. ISO.

since inexact relationship produces a slowly changing curve. The tuning is now necessarily perfect. With care. it is hardly possible to tune sixteen pipes so that the resultant wave form remains unchanged. and the other partials can then be tuned to the exact harmonic ratios by means of the phonodeik. The reproduction is wholly independent of the peculiarities of . is sounded simultaneously with the fundamental. The fundamental pitch is set from a piano or tuning fork.the phonodeik. however. the adjustment is readily the amplitude is directly measurable on the ground glass of the camera. 249 . already in approximate tune. pipe corresponding to a component tone is separately adtill it shows in the phonodeik the amplitude required by the analysis verified as for this partial. is perhaps the best possible for two more frequencies which are in exact ratios. and the pipe is tuned until the wave form remains constant. While it is not difficult to adjust a small number of pipes to practically perfect harmonic This method of tuning or frequencies. and conse- quently the synthesized tones do not blend as perfectly as do the partials from a single source. the resulting curve is observed on the ground glass of the phonodeik. the tuning is sufficiently exact to secure success in the experiments. The third and other partials are then successively tuned in the same manner.justed. since it possesses the advantages of Lissajous's optical method and is more generally applicable. The pipe for the second partial. for it is made with tions as the same instrument and under the same condiwas the original record.

due In the oral lectures demonstrations were given of the synthetic pipe-vowels constructed from the analyses of the speaker's voice.wave wnicn can oe analyzed into tne same components as those of the original voice curve. the inference then is that the composite sound will give to the ear the same vowel sound as did the original voice. Fig. maw. 181. 181 shows several curves from synthetic pipe-vowels together with corresponding voice curves. In the more complex pipe- vowels there is a continual change in wave form. mow. there is a close resemblance between the two. 250 and the pipes and voice were sounded alThere is no diffi- . ns interned by the voice and as synthetically reproduced with organ pipes. produced to imperfect tuning. and moo. ternately to permit a direct comparison. by a slowly shifting phase. PIPES VOICE FIG. Photographs of the vowels mo.

we -flia T7/~imao <->( will colo/rf fr\nv n /-Viil<-1 n l~>/~nr o t*rr\rvia-n nnrl a -man . in this manner the tones of the flute. no. The experiments also included the four different syntheses of the vowel father. WORD FORMATION Experiments with synthetic vowels lead to interesting conjectures concerning the origin of speech. which also say these words. spoken by D vowels the mat and bee were demonstrated. articulate sound of the human voice is ah as in father. 163. which make it possible to construct the vowels synthetically. the latter showing transformation of oo to ee. The synthetic gloom. enable one to reproduce the tone quality of any orchestral instrument. if the nasal passage is also closed the word is pa-pa. and the reproduction of the simple words ma-ma and pa-pa. of course.culty in identifying the synthetic vowels and in detecting the peculiar qualities of the voice. Perhaps the automatic production of these sounds by the infant when in need of attention explains the origin of these names for the parents. of vowels The analyses show that the highest-pitch. is. if while intoning this vowel. as described in the next section. the several groups of The same methods pipes used being shown in Fig. Our organ-pipe talking apparatus. are reproduced. 182. the result is the word ma-ma. but a mere infant. In this manner the general characteristics of the vowels father. raw. indeed. the clarinet. and C M. and the oboe have been imitated. the lips are closed and opened alternately. can Referring again to the diagram which shows the analyses for the vowel father from eight voices. Fig. In the laboratory eleven vowels have been successfully reproduced by organ-pipe synthesis. the violin.

.

the latter being the speaker's voice. If the supply of air from the "lungs" to the "throat" is stopped and released by pressing the edge of the hand on the rubber supply tube. For the . with a voice that would be considered human.different voices. the success of the synthetic reproduction is the 253 more easily recognized. while the boy's voice. as intoned by four different voices. were unknown. child's high-pitched voice only three pipes are required father is when these are sounded the vowel very clearly produced. reproducing. ten pipes. say pa-pa perhaps even more naturally. speak the same word very clearly. the "infant" is caused to cry pa-pa FIG.the vowel a in father. if the source Similarly the pipes for the contralto voice. By thus using the vowels in a word. eight pipes. and the baritone. Sets of pipes. . six in number. the word was actually spoken for comparison.

.

bb-ee. which when combined with the vowel tones already produced will form other words. which a photograph of the words "Lowell Institute" as spoken is by in D C M. to produce various other noises. the It is certainly possible.. pa-pa. a-tt. the sound does not altogether cease between syllables. flection In addition to the imperfect tuning the absence of inand tone flow gives an unnatural effect to the synIn speaking the word pa-pa. yet each contains the characteristic as its and while the general tone same vowel loudest component. the word pa-pa is obtained. and pa-pa. as sss-ee. If the raw. as is shown in Fig. etc. These words were spoken in a natural manner. by further experimentation. The first word and . The comparison of the four is a striking illustration of the truthfulness of the analyses. same experiment is made upon the synthetic vowel word paw-paw is spoken. thus we have the three pronunciations. thetic words. hisses. If the flow of air is only partially interrupted. and if the vowel mat is used. for instance.WORD FORMATION While the four sets of pipes are entirely different. qualities are very different. and the pipes pronounce ma-ma. paw-paw. and in any phrase there is an almost continual change of quality and quantity of tone. etc. nn-o. explosive effects. about one and two tenths seconds. the two syllables are usually uttered at different pitches. 184. and each distinctly sounds the vowel father. contain- ing from three to ten pipes each. this is better shown by alternately producing pa-pa and ma-ma.

but the system is neither "shorthand" nor "simplified spelling. but also quite as much upon the peculiarities of the individual voice and upon the resonance characteristics of the recording apparatus. formula having been arbitrarily selected. a group of eight words may be formed. and aspirant sounds according to a systematic scheme. these vowels may be combined with the various consonant.The exact form of the record depends not only upon the words spoken. the eight words of the sixth column are formed. such records constitute a system of phonetic writing. words thus formed. If to each of these words is added a final s. Other combinations are shown in the If the table. These experiments suggest a scientific method of word formation. and thus the orig- sound may be reproduced after the manner of the talking machine. Such a scheme of word formation contains interesting . as shown in the following If the sound represented by the letter table. only three of which are in use. while the addition of a gives the words in the third column." Such records inal are. explosive. The incidental variations and the extensive vocabulary of language. which have not been in use in the English language. are printed in italics. the words of the second column are obtained. Any word words each having a distinct pronunciation. we have the words in the first column. yet it is possible to learn to "read" the sound-wave records of spoken words. into corresponding movements capable of being transformed of the air. doubtless. word formula chosen is that for bottle. is placed forming sets of m before each vowel. A series of eight distinctly different vowels has been established by quantitative analysis. would produce an enormously extended set of records.

WORD FORMATION suggestions for uniform and simplified spelling. and also for a uniform pronunciation. which illusthe fixed-pitch theory and the relative-pitch theory of difference . 185. VOCAL AND INSTRUMENTAL TONES The trates exhibited between vocal and instrumental tones is by the analyses shown in Fig.

and the tone energy is at A 4 $ actually has a resemblance to the vowel. the fifth. and not the pitch of the partial. The loudest component is always the second partial. the maximum = flute imitates the vowel. since the second partial the 922. the loudest partial being in turn the sixth. thus it is the relation of partials that stant. By stopping the breath. somewhat as is done in speaking the word pa-pa. . till its loudness agrees with that of the vowel father. and the fourth as the pitch of the The lower lines of the figure show flute tones at three different pitches. fundamental rises. the loudest. the flute tone a maximum When the is flute sounds A 3 # = 461.fixed pitch of about A4 J = 922. which changes pitch with the fundamental. is con- It may be asked what little is the effect of raising the pitch of higher than shown.

in Fig. Superposed curves of vowel characteristics showing relations voice ranges. although the pronunciation of such a vowel might be different from pitch of which comes in the region that used in defining the characteristics. it would be readily interpreted when used in a word. the pitch of which is within certain limits indicated by the corresponding curve. A characteristic. The essential part of each vowel is a component tone or tones. 180. 186. to where the curves for two vowels overlap. where perfect is not expected. Many singing tones have 259 . and. would produce an intermediate vowel which might serve for either of those specified. This shaded pronunciation of a enunciation vowel would be accepted in singing. the MA MAW MOW MOO MA MAT MET MATE MEET Cj D EF Q A BC3 D EF G A BC4 D EF G A B& 1085 D EF C A BC6 2069 D EF G A : 4138 FIG.

Yodeling is probably the easy flowing of varying vowel tones to fit the melody. A consideration of the characteristics of the vowels leads . 187. by the test of free enunciation. in falsetto. a twelfth. 187 the notes correspond to the pitches . A vowel can also be freely intoned upon any lower note of which the characteristic note is a harmonic. Characteristics of the vowels in musical notation. The vowel father has a characteristic higher than any singing tone and can be sung scientific under any circumstances of voice or pitch. upon the characteristic pitch of E s shown in the The characteristics of all the vowels can be verified . as shown by the curves of the previous figure. such as notes an octave. and these vowels cannot be sung properly at the higher pitches. The characteristics of the several vowels are given in musical notation in Fig. figure. of maximum resonance. baritone voice can easily intone the vowel gloom. and each vowel can be most clearly intoned upon the corresponding note. such as gloom and meet.THE SCIENCE OF MUSICAL SOUNDS pitches above the characteristic ranges of certain vowels. zfe mow pooh poe maw ma pa mot mat met mute meet pot -pat paw pet pate peat FIG. Thus there is a reason for the free use of such syllables as tra-la-la in vocal exercises. or a fif- A teenth lower (in musical intervals) than the characteristic.

since he must constantly be guided by the facts represented in the curves of vowel characteristics. falls upon this note its proper enunciation will be difficult. such a is combination of artist and scientist very rare. The by translator of an opera must secure this adaptation his skill. the translated opera. he needs to be not only a linguist and a poet. The effectiveness of vocal music is not dependent upon the nationality of its words. a condition which the composer fulfills through his artistic instinct. the auditors will hardly under- stand the English words with the forced and imperfect vowels any better than they understood the foreign language. If.widely discussed. to the melody note F 4 #. and will be emphatically of the opinion that translated opera is impracticable. it must be sung at the pitch 732. the vowel can then be sung and enunciated with ease. to the natural requirements. Furthermore. the characteristic pitch of which is 461. If the translator arranges the vowels upon the same notes as were used in the original. Suppose that in the original the composer set the vowel raw. in the translation. will be just as satisfactory to both the vocalist and the auditor as was the original. but also a musician and even somewhat of a physicist. so far as this element goes. some other vowel. or upon others equally suitable. perhaps unconsciously. or impossible. but upon the suitability of melody to vowels. No doubt every composer sets words to music with some regard for doing which he conforms. of the same pitch. having a effective rendition. whether grand opera originally written in a foreign language should be sung in English. as no. The vocalist in attempting to sing the vowel will find the result vocally since deficient and the effort perhaps physically painful. in characteristic pitch of about 732. .

When one considers the authors of the arguments which have been published concerning translated opera. that . The top of the diagram.It has been suggested that certain songs and choruses which are especially effective owe this quality to the proper relation of vowel sounds to melody notes. 186. translated opera seems ineffective. while many of those who favor it are baritones. it will be found that some soprano singers are opposed to the translation. as well as of all others. Fig. indicate the ranges in pitch of soprano and bass voices. related as it is to many of the necessities It is as well as to the luxuries of existence? true of the science of sound. since an adequate discussion would require several The appreciation of knowledge for its own sake is general and what knowledge should be more valued than that con. and it is thus able to intone any vowel on any note which it can sing. The pitch of the soprano voice in singing often rises above that of the characteristics lines at the of certain vowels. and the Hallelujah Chorus from the "Messiah" has been cited as an instance. the intellectual. In conclusion we will refer to some of these relations without extended comment lectures. the bass voice when highest is still below the lowest vowel characteristic. while to the other it causes no difficulty. cerning sound. The science of sound is related to at least three phases of human endeavor. the utilitarian. RELATIONS or THE ART AND SCIENCE OF Music In the lectures now brought to a close we have very briefly explained the Science of Musical Sounds and have incompletely described some of the methods and results of Sound Analysis. and the aesthetic. to one. which then become difficult.

The science of sound will be found ready to satisfy the utilitarian demands which will be made upon it. him to devote himself to further While formerly the regard for science was largely confined academic world." Helmholtz. experi- ment. the artisan. and be thrilled with the desire for their possession. and the scientist shall all Timf-ir f\f rMiTM"naoo onrl T'oorMTrnoo Tnon i work together in mon GT\or>'fe>rl rlOTrol/rn . and climbing the height of some discovery. and theory. by observation. The science of sound should be of inestimable benefit and construction of musical instruments. have developed this science to magnificent proportions. though far distant. No sooner is is a new scientific fact or process its announced than there an inquiry as to usefulness. and yet with the exception of the important but small work of Boehm 77 in connection with the flute." The larger grows the sphere of knowledge The greater becomes its contact with the unknown. science has not been in the design extensively employed in the design of any instrument. This can hardly be due to the impossibility of such application. truths. Koenig. artist as to the conditions to be fulfilled. and Rayleigh. within the last few years there has arisen a remarkable and widespread appreciation of sciento the tific methods. but rather to the fact that musical instruments have been mechanically developed from the vague ideas of the When the artist. The challenge of the unknown and the joy of discovery inspire exploration. yet the realm of nature is so vast and varied that to some other indefatigable discoverer may be able push forward into unknown regions. see the inspiring prospect of new. and now industrial and commercial enterprises are appealing to the scientist for assistance.

The marvelous inventions of the telephone and the talking machine could never have been developed without the aid of pure science.ments and perfections will be realized. nothing else will have contributed so much to the testhetic development of musical art. such as the player -piano. a knowledge of the science of electricity and magnetism and of mechanism is not sufficient for theic perfection an increased knowledge of the science of sound . but such has been the result. These possibilities are becoming manifest in relation to the piano. The utilitarian application of the science of sound is . is also required. resulting in greater artistic per- fection. The simple mechanical player has been developed into elaborate devices for the complete reproduction The success of these synthetic of artistic performances. musical instruments depends upon an analytical knowledge of all the factors of sound and music. yet I believe that. The mechanical precision of such instruments reacts critically upon the artist-per- former and the composer. and some other instruments. The inventor of the Pianola little dreamed that the mechanical operation of the piano would lead to a thorough scientific study of music and musical instruments. The artistic and aesthetic musician has been wont to disparage. the unlimited technical possibilities of the machine are an incentive to the composer to write music with greater freedom. the pure science of these subjects must be brought to bear upon the practical problems involved. the development of mechanical musical instruments. since the establishment of the equally tempered musical scale by Bach. the organ. if not ridicule. that is.

the material on which it works. largely intellectual in its appeal. while this comparison may not be true at the present time. and the nature forms and progressions. can be explained science than better Experience indicates a study of the science of scales and chords and of melody and harmony. . Poetry finds Archi- material ready formed in the words of language. faculties practice in the effort to imitate a teacher. in nature itself. then to shape for itself. Regarding the art of music Helmholtz says : "Music was forced first to select artistically. if the auditors are placed in surroundings which distort and confuse the sound waves is so that intelligent perception The artistic impossible? world has rather disdainfully held aloof lated information is is from systematic knowledge and quantitative and formuthis is true even of musicians whose art . what effect is an oration pro- nounced with faultless elocution. The student of music rarely given instruction in those scientific principles of music which are established. that a month devoted to pupil more than a year spent in the study of harmony as ordinarily presented. and it is no doubt true that the relations of the of chords as and their various major and the minor scales. as well many by other fundamental principles. form and color. Years are spent in slavish and the mental is are driven to exhaustion in learning dogmatic facts. will advance the by precept. rules and Bach said "music the greatest of all sciences". yet the construction of the equally tempered scale is clearly scientific. its which they strive to imitate. Painting and sculpture find the fundamental character of their materials.for of trolled what avail is a perfected musical instrument conor of by a master.

yet the abundance of evidence that they do so indicates that the training of the youthful ear to discrimination between the pure . There is a greater and more absolute freedom in the use of the material for arts. Let the music lover not be content with imperfect in. upon it by technical and not by purely artisMusic alone finds an infinitely rich but totally shapeless plastic material in the tones of the human voice and artificial musical instruments. or to the existing symbolical meaning of sounds as in poetry. .' should give pleasure to any one of average intelligence. out of tune and harsh. let him learn to detect all the shades of timbre which instruments and voices afford. guide to musical appreciation need not deem his effort wasted when he preaches upon the need of preparing The the auditory sense to catch the finer shades of tone values. . tonation. his ear is invaded by the surge and thunder of the full or- . unfettered by any reference to utility as in architecture." In "Music and the Higher Education. or to the imitation of nature as in painting. . Hence also the culti- vation of the tonal material of music has.are partly forced tic considerations. much more slowly than the development of the other arts. . music than for any difficult other of the But certainly it is more to make a proper use of absolute freedom. and the impure is not to be neglected. as we have seen. which must be shaped on purely artistic principles." Professor Dickinson says: "Strange as it may seem that notes 'jangled. let him train himself to perceive the multitudinous varieties and contrasts which are due to the relative prominence of overtones and while . . than to advance where external irremovable landmarks limit the width of the path which the proceeded artist has to traverse. .

Music is an emotional symbolism. unworthy he wrote a very ordinary piece of music. that which converts sound exalts it above the experiments something free and unconstrained and which therefore cannot be expressed by a formula. was offered a great sum of Centennial Commission to compose a Grand money by the March for the Under the base pay debts. lies beyond all words and 267 . and they provide the methods and instruments for its analytical investigation. says: In "The Mysticism of Music" the late R. Wagner. influence of mere gold which he needed to of himself. The into a grand symphony and is of the laboratory creations of fancy and musical inspiration cannot be made according to rule. which as performed at Bayreuth is perhaps the greatest and most sublime piece of instrumental music ever heard by man. quite and of which he was ashamed. sometimes called the Funeral March. one of the most inspired musicians that the world has ever known. Nevertheless.may well appeal to science. it is a most profound expression of abstract grief. while under the inspiration of the death of a mythical hero in one of his great music dramas. nor can they be made upon command. as cal studies we have Such mathematical and physidescribed prepare the "infinitely rich. of science than it is the age of music music is the art of the age of knowledge. Heber Newton "Our modern world is not more distinctively the age . suggesting that which. Wagner wrote the Siegfried Death Music. opening exercises of the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876. as feeling. In contrast to this. plastic material" out of which music is made.

and closes the door behind us. . a reed. is deep and earnest. before Pan. vestibule of this inner temple. long before either a larynx or a tympanum had been evolved I T O-nioT. so hopelessly impervious to the written word.i T-v i V> 4- rt-P . All sciences lead us up to the threshold of this inner creation.. all Du siveness of musical sounds as follows Maurier. because thought.->v. boldly leads us within.-I- ""TVrroo ^-w. time values." (These sentences have been selected from the first twenty- nine pages. All arts pass through the open door into the Music takes us by the hand. at the unspeakable pathos of the sounds that cannot lie. always trembles into place in the universe is The most holy the soul of man. a fiddle string by invisible." describes the impres"The hardened soul : melts at the tones of the singer..thoughts. noises. one whose heart. impalpable. in "Peter Ibbetsen. mathematical ratios. throw the door ajar and point us within. that beat against a tiny drum at the back of one's ear. a metal pipe. tones. yet with these it awakens the deepest emotions. rhythms. silences. before Moses. 'Where words end.) Music is indeed a mysterious phenomenon . They " 4-Vlrt are absolute " ! would like to quote again from the "Letters of Sidney Wllnistinii t( -1-VO/-. so helplessly callous to the spoken message. incompre-' hensible little air-waves in mathematical combinations. can be reached only by the organized vibrations of a trained larynx. this unseen universe. and even conveyed to the ear by mere variations in air pressure. there music begins/' Music it can never cease to be emotional. are its only means of action. in proportion as feelings. And these mathematical combinations and the laws that govern them have existed forever.

! thither. and after standing some while.Thomas' orchestra. the thrilling pathos of virginal thoughts and trembling anticipa- and lofty prophecies. and above all else he must tions be an artist. found a seat. my soul utterly bent and prostrate. Sweet Heaven of icy spiculca how shall I tell the gentle melodies. the 'Dream of Christmas' overture." A musician must be skilled in the technic of music. and sprinkled glistening foam in my face. the solemn and tender breathings-about of the coming reign of forgiveness and of love. and so. Hiller. and the great violins and small violins swayed me upon waves. which he himself was the principal flutist: "Then came our piece de resistance. and in among the clarinetti. the frosty glitter of and flashing and of frozen surfaces. he must be trained in musical lore. floated and flowed. even lying in the music-waters. as among waving water-lilies with flexible stems. and the final confusion of innumerable angels flying through the heavens and jubilantly choiring together. in by Ferdinand star-light. Ah the dear flutes and oboes and horns drifted me hither and so I went. and I plunged into the sea. But will not the creative if mu- be a more powerful master XTT'11 1 he is also informed in regard to the pure science of the methods and materials . the conditions are provided which have given to the world sician its greatest musicians. the hearty chanting of peace and good-will to men." And again Lanier writes of an orchestral performance. the gracious surprises. and I could not resist the temptation to go and bathe in the sweet amber seas of this fine music. when to these qualifications is added inspiration. and and tugged me through a vast crowd. I pushed I my easy way. and lay and floated. and the baton tapped and waved. and overflowed me with strong lavations.

because of its full influence incomplete development. possibilities. yet it should be appreciated and for the great assistance more generously cultivated can be which it made to yield. has never exerted its on the art. If to phenomenon this pleasure of sensation is added the intellectual of the interpreter." No 97ft . the facilities at the command and the physical effects received by the hearer. through any sense. in order that he may render a composition with consummate effect? While the science of music. then music truly becomes a source of exquisite delight which so pervades is carried away "on the golden other art than music. can so transport one's whole consciousness with such exalted and noble emotions. The musically uncultivated and scientifically untrained listener may greatly enjoy music.greater skill it ne understands the nature 01 the ingredients which they produce? Does not the interpretative musician need a knowledge of the capacity. and thrills one's being that he tides of music's sea. as well as a knowledge of the construction of the written music. satisfac- tion of an understanding of the purposes of the composer. but this enjoyment is a gratification of the senses. and interpretative artist be the the purely mechanical means of operation because of complete knowledge. but the receptive musician will derive greater pleasure from this physical will the creative Not only better able to control if he is also cognizant of its marvelous but systematic complexity. and limitations of the tonal facilities at his comeffects and the mand.

. Barton. London (18S5). largely mathematical in treatment. Paris (1882). II. F. 452 pages. Bd. Ellis. J. Vorlesungen i'Cber die mathcmatischen Principien Liepzig (1898). 687 pages. Sensations of Tone. 2 aufl. experimental and theoretical treatise on sound in general. An encyclopedic treatment of the whole field of acoustics. 714 pages. 256 pages. Akustik. as treated by Helmholtz in. Quelques Experiences d'Acoustique. translated by A. 248 An account of Koenig's own experimental researches. J. Text-Book of Sound.. experimental and theoretical. von Helmholtz. 2 ed. Auerbach. London (190S). 271 . consistpages. Theory of Sound. E. Sound and Music. 2 vols. + 504 pages.APPENDIX REFERENCES GENERAL REFERENCES English : H. 2 The most complete account of ed. A concise mathematical treatment of certain acoustic phenomena. contains thousands of references arranged according to subjects. 576 pages. A. account of sound in general. 480 Lord Rayleigh. The most comprehensive treatise on the theory of sound. his university lectures. Winkelmann. Liepzig (1909).. London (1894).. H. A pop- ular. A. II. der Akustik. yet scientific. An R. von Helmholtz. and in particular with reference to music. the phenomena of sound as related to sensation and to music. ing of a collection of papers published in various scientific journals together with others not published elsewhere. Zahm. Handbuch der Pliysik. Koenig. Chicago (1892).

Vibratory Motion and Sound. Winkelmann. 28-64. 178-227. p. J. 188 pages. 10. E. Annalen 408 (1880). Tuning-foi'k resonator (31). pp. Helmholtz. 443-446. Frankfort S. tuning fork (33). Barton. of . 2. Leipzig. R. Hart(1903). Simple harmonic motion (7). 65-69. Paris (1900). p. 494-588. coefficient of tuning fork (31). Text-Book of Sound. New York (1899). The siren (28). R. S. an extended account. Electrically driven Sound. Relation of amplitude and pitch of tuning fork (32). A. Determination of pitch (28). Electro-Akustische Untersuchungen. Rayleigh.(1907). Barton. of Cleveland. 180. Winkelmann. D. Frankfort (1903). a full discussion of velocity. pp. der Physik. 4. I. Appendix to Helmholtz's Sensation of Tone. Koenig. Ellis. in 1912. Text-Book of Sound. Akustik. 3. 68. p. 7. S. Quelques Experiences. 182. following a subis treated. Temperature 9.SPECIAL REFERENCES ject. with many references. Kielhauser. with 8. Sidney Lanier (24). Quelques Experiences. Congres International de with more than 200 references. mann-Kempf. Die Stimmgabel. New device for producing. as a C. J. : The number the page of this book where the subject in parenthesis. Tuning forks (29). with more than 100 references. 73-83. R. Text-Book of Sound. p. devised the simple harmonic moveresult of his interest in the harmonic synthesizer de- scribed in Lecture IV. Letters of Sidney Lanier. 513- 553. Elektro-Akiistische Untersuchungen. S. Mr. I. pp. ment shown. AJcustiJc. 1 Velocity of sound (6). AJcustiJc. Sensations of Tone. Hartmann-Kempf. 11. Physique. Everett. Voille.simple harmonic motion (11). 345-367. Smedley. pp. 9. 361. J. 228-250. J. London (1882). refers to 1. 560-580. Winkelmann. pp. Theory Barton. R. 255 pages. p. 161. Koenig. 5. A. many plates. 6. pp.

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Helmholtz. Acad. British Association for Paris. (73). 28. 170- 235. Phase and tone quality (63). and others. I. 10. J. Rayleigh. 21 (1906). Winkelmann. 47-70. Comptes Rendus. 45. 575. Koenig. 34. p. Helmholtz. The Electrician. II. Brown. 30. Agnew. Annalen der Physik. pp. S. S. the Advancement of Science. 274 . 27. research (77). 32. 555-566 (1896). Annalen der Physih. 33. Photographing manometric flames Physical Review. 242-269 (1903). 347 (1890) Hermann. G. Barton. Toronto (1897). Phase and tone quality (62). (71). The phonantograph Manometric flames . 29. 146.(1905). Akustik. Helmholtz. 268-278. 36. 26. 44. 372. D. Cosmos. 446 (1911). Annalen der Physik. A. G. R. Oscillograph Sept. L. records (76). 605-607. 282 (1889) 47. Blondel. W. 442- 37. 246. 161 (1872) 35. 38. Physical Review. Koenig. S. Text-Book of Sound. Proc. 36-49. 42. Sensations of Tone. pp. The oscillograph (75). 7. pp. Lloyd and P. R. 502. 57. p. Sensations of Tone. Nichols and Merritt. 33. 314 (1859). (74). 93-101 (1908). Vorlesungen. Bulletin of the 31. Resonators (68). Quelques Experiences. Lindig. 748 (1893). Ramsey. Bureau of Standards. 6. Duddell. Sensations of Tone. Vibrating flames (75). pp. Phase and tone quality (63). 1346. M. G. 33. Tone quality (62). F. Phase and tone quality (63). Sci. 39. Theory of Sound. Phase and tone quality (63). The phonograph for acoustical . Pflilffer's Archiv. 14. Leon Scott. 255-263 (1909). 116. 126. . A. p.

p. S. 45. British Association for the Advancement of Science. 77. 223. London. Washington (1906). E. 162. The phonodeik . Philosophical Magazine. Fourier's Analysis and Periodogram Analysis. harmonic analyzer (98). Fourier's Series (93). Les Appariels d' Integration. by Alexander Freeman. 2 ed. lii. 131. Boston (1893). Franklin. The demonstration phonodeik (85). 47. Experi- mental Phonetics. La Theorie AnaThe Analytical Theory of Heat. A Toepler. Engineering Mathe- 48. Dec. Engineering Mathe2 New York 94-146. Annalen der Physik. Steinmetz. 1922. J. Proc. Calculus. C. . and Integrals. Cambridge (1878). Engineering. E. 112. Physical Sender. D. (1909) (79). Paris (1913). Steinmetz. London (1906). F'oley and Review. 2 ed. 43. 550 (1912).\27.waves of compression (88). E. Fourier's Series lytique de la Chaleur. British Association for the Advancement of Science. Wiener (1899) . Winnipeg (1909). Horsburgh. Fourier's Series Spherical Harmonics.pnonograpn records (it). P. 33. 218 Optics. . before the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 180 Berichle. ed. B. 134). Physical can Architect. Proc. South' Bethlehem (1913). II. 104. D. P'aris English translation pages. 110 (1894). W. 204 pages. Ilenrici's Magazine. Sabine.*JL. Photographing. New York (1911).. Philosophical H. 42. 199-209. matics. P. Miller. 48. Carslaw. pp.. p. 0. pp. New York C. 1909. 550 (1866).151 Science. (1915). Scripture. Boston meeting. Cambridge. 471 (1909) . Shearer. C. 29. enlarging. C. (1913) . Fourier. p. 44. 373-386 (1912). J. Calculation. Dundee (1912). Byerly. W. 78. London (1914) 275 . Fourier's Series (97). page 94. Carse and Charles. Modern Instruments of p. and matics. Collected Papers on Acoustics. McNutt. 94. 35. Mach. 92.. AmeriR. 419. (1915). (1867). M. 38. 414. 257-279 W. de Morin. (1822) W. Fourier's Series and 46. Miller. 171. C. Henrici. Physical Review. London (1915). pp. 466 (92. 28. Wood.

367-374 (1895). Appendix B'. Special Publication No. 1914. Magnetism-. Cambridge (1896) Kelvin. E. Carse and Shearer. March (132). 53. United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 54. Rowe. 27-34 (1898). Tables for Facilitating Har3. 113 (1898) Philosophical MagaMichelson. 326-331 (1914). Turner. Washington (1915). Michelson and StratAmerican Journal of Science. . Engineering News. Phi/sikalische Zeitschrift. Harmonic analyzer 25 L. Physical Eeview. Astrophysical Journal. Tide-predicting machine (131>). 42. A. pp. 56. Part I. Light Waves and Their Uses. Harmonic analysis in astronomy (133). T. 45. Feb. 268-274 (1913). 11. 7. 13 (1898). W. 51. Terada. 25. 68. Douglass. Chicago zine. A. Harmonic analyzer and synthesizer (131). Carse and Urquhart. 34. p. Astro physical JourA. B. Michelson. A. nal. Elektrocliemisclte Zeitschrift. W. New York (1915). Natural Philosophy. Vol. Schreiber. theory given by A. 0. R. Catalogue (Munich Mathematical Exposition). Engineering Mathematics. 147-188. Ill. G. 39. fairven. 61-79 (1887). 38. Oxford (1913). de Morin. Orlich. May. 220-253. Steinmetz. Royal Society. 69-73 (1911). 5. p. G. 36 (1909). 66. Schuster. Yule. pp. 125. Munich (1892). Horsburgh's Modern Instruments of Calculation. . Electrical World. 50. Philosophical Magazine. 285-289 (1905). 40. Various harmonic analyzers (132. Proc. 354. p. Strachey. E.(1910). Chubb. U. H. Harmonic analysis in meteorology (133). monic Analysis. 32. Paris (1913). Dyck. Harmonic analyzer and synthesizer (l^U). 85 (1898) 52. The Electric Journal (Pittsburgh). 1914. . Terrestrial H. London (1915). Nr. 276 . Mader. Braunschweig (1906). Popular Lec. LeConte. p. 27. Royal Society. London (1914). 1ST. tures. Froc. 55. ton. (1903). J. 371 (1878) Kelvin and Tait. Fourier's Analysis and Periodo- gram Analysis. [Fischer. Les Appariels ^Integration. (1905).VII. Zeitschrift fur Instrumentenkunde. Aufnahme und Analyse von WechselstromG. 134). 337. H.Jbord Ivelvm. 184.

Akustik. 245-249. R. Physical Determinations.. 567-646 (1913). Text-Book of Sound. 58. Cambridge (1912). Harmonic analysis (134). 141). Erliiuterung des Rechnungsformulars. juonaon ^lyuo. Miller. London. . Winkelmann. Grover. Braunschweig (1913). E. D. 56. Perry. Horsburgh's Modern Instruments of Calculation. Harmonic analysis S. 86-93. 368401. F. Physical Review. 67. 443-456 (1903). Langsdorf. various articles in The Electrician (1895). 52. London (1907).u. Plnjsilc. Fourier's Analysis and Periodogram Analysis. Harmonic 9. Physical Review. Vibrating diaphragms and sand figures (151). C. 2 ed. Barton. E. 331-344. II. Kelsey. 2 62. 68. 248. W. 35. Graphical methods for harmonic analysis (135). 6. Electrician. ozs- 353. Leipzig (1787). 19. pp. Theorie des Klanges.. pp. 64. W. pp. of Standards. (1915). (135). pp. 61. P. Zeitsclirift filr MatJiematik (134). Runge. Chladni. Proc. Physical 303-311 (1915). Taylor. pp. 12. H. (1901). Harmonic analysis und C. 117-123 (1905) . Periodogram analysis for non-periodic curves (133. London (1914). Resonance Fifth effects in records of sounds (143). (1911). Bedell and Pierce. P. Harmonic analysis (134). 143. 63. Thompson. 48. Sensations of Tone. 33. pp. 0. 146Helmholtz. Carse and Urquhart. J. pp. Society. Bulletin of the Bureau H. 285 184-190 Graphical method for harmonic analysis (135). 247. ed. 334-343 (1011). 66. Direct and Alter- nating Current Manual. 59. 443-450 (1905). Proc. 65. A. S. JuaiDy. pp. Engineering MatheNew York (1915). 114-134. S. The (1895). Carse and Shearer. (1905). F. valves ana yaive-uear mechanism.. 277 Resonance (177). 60. matics. 148. 405. New York F. 66 pages. London See also references No. analysis (135). (1911). Steinmetz. C. International Congress of Mathematicians.

593-599. 121 (1906). will be found in the following books: Helmholtz. of Arts and Sciences. American 639-727 (1906) Physical Review. 416-436. Sidney Lanier (191. 78. 72. 395-399. together with references to the published Avoi'ks of a very long list of investigators. April 29. . Tone. Barton. Theory of vowels (216). 384-387. Damped vibration (179). Vibration of violin strings (194). and numerous papers in the Philosophical Magazine for 1906. von Schafhautl. Zahm. Vorlewngen. (1922). 73. Physical Review. Material and tone quality (180). Miller. Science. 1911. Theobald Boehm. 1907. English translation by D. pp. Teclmical. D. Vibration of violin strings (194). . Leipzig (1879). New York (1903). 225 pages. Text-Book of Sound. pp. Sensa- A 278 . Sensations of Vibration of violin strings (194). 75. H. Simple tones (185). Edwards. 23-37 (1911). C. 29. 76. (191). 161- Beat-tones (183). H. 202). Proc. Cleveland (1908). 35. and Artistic Axpecls. 121-139. Barton. Ilehnholtz. S. 32. Davis. P. Material and tone quality (180). Text-Book of Sound. Hewlett. Miller. 82. 41. 74-88. 79.forks (189). 80. C. Poems of Sidney Lanier. 2nd eel. W. pp. 24. general discussion of vowel theories. 77. H. 322-340. AUgem-eme Musikalische Zeitung. Academy 22. Barton. E. Violin tone quality (195). Octave overtones in tuning. Physical Review. 83. Sound and Music. 71. S. Text- The Choralcelo The flute (189). H. Book of Sound. and 1912. E. p. 70.70. 74. N. C. 1910. pp. pp. page 62. 359-372 (1912). E. 91-96. 171 (1909). H. The Flute and Flute-Playing in\ Acoustical. C. The Music Trade Review. 242 (1907). Hehnholtz Sensations of Tone. 81. 100 pages. G09-G32.

89. 339- 388 (1896). 193 (1900) 85. 171. Washington (190G). 109. 92. Artificial vowels (244). Researches in Experimental Phonetics. Sensations of 279 . 398-400. 86. Miller. 88. Comptes Rendus. 15. Analysis of vowels (217). Theory of vowel quality (217). 14. The wave-siren (245). t>y more tlmn a Hundred authors. 214 (1902) . Paris (1911). 7. Acad. Physiologie de la Voix. 90. Scripture. Bevier.numireu references to papers 84. Helmholtz. E. 70. Quelques Experiences^ p. 931 (1870) . Sci. the 87. pp. 80 (1905). Marage. p. Atlanta meeting (1913-1914). 10. L. C. Vowel characteristics (240). Tone. Koenig. Koenig. 123-128. Physical Eeview. 271 (1902) . 57. R. R-. 44. W. 42. pp. 1 D. Annalen der Physik. Physical characteristics of the vowels (217). Tuning-fork synthesis of tones (245). 21. Paris. before American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. .

.

92. Choralcelo. 133. 22. 259. 264. 137. Collision balls. 199. 97. 17. Beat-tone. 18. for tuning fork. 32. } Amplitude and phase 123. 58. 264. adopts international pitch 50. 124. sound of. Bell. 98. 2. 1. 123. violin string. 217. 198. manometric Bugle. 53 effect of. analyzed by inspection. 20. Compound pendulum. B Bach. Automatic piano. Audibility. 134. 63. Philadelphia. list of vowels. C Camera for photographing waves. 264. Bell and Tainter. Bibliography. manometric. 138. 208. Atmospheric vibration. Henrici. 123. Cards for records of harmonic analy122. . 64. Bedell and Pierce. 48. 75. Aucrhach. Blondell. . Chladni. 4. tone. 191. 271 Alternating current. reversal of. waves. 215. 194. 189. 103. see tone quality. 107. Characteristics of vowels. analysis of phonograph records. 97. 168. 28. for phase effect. 216. see vowels. 24. Barton. of fork. 183. Characteristic noises. 185. on pitch of tuning fork. flame. 31. calculator. tone quality of. 167. Boehm. Bevier. 87. Appendix. 244. sis. 63. 144. 264. 42. harmonic analysis.. 208. tuned. Clarinet. . 7. curve. Axis of curve determined. Cobb. related to loud. theory of vowels. Analysis. Amplitude. 75. 197. Arithmetical harmonic analysis. telephone. Coefficient. 56. 67. 251. Art of piano playing. inventor of flute. Clifford. 8. harmonic an- alysis. 25. Koenig's exhibit. equally tempered scale. temperature. 153. 92. Agncw and Lloyd. Carse and Urqukart. harmonic. 18. of vowels. Century Dictionary. 136 of of organ-pipe curve. wave method . Grand March for.INDEX A Acoustics of auditoriums. graphophone. 94. 77. . 75. 103. 33. 205 vowels. 262. ness. 101. 82. Chromatic scale. 217. glass. of. Berlioz. theory of vowels. limits of. Berliner. 38. various. 73. 46. 134. Centennial Exposition. 89. 108. the violin. Bottles. 133. Analyzer. acoustics of. gramophone. 183. 125 violin curve. 50. 138. vowels. Color. Classification 225. violin. by inspection. 82. Boston Symphony Orchestra. 165. 35. sand figures. Brown. 267. 56. phase and tone quality. Auditoriums. 176. harmonic. arithmetical and graphical. 77. 53. 151. Clock-fork. of violin. Art and science of music. 128. Capsule. 32. Bass voice. Bowing. 77. 89. 82. harmonic analysis. 229. 63. phonodeik. Chart for sound analysis. 263. 225. photograph of sound Bell. oscillograph. L. in Fourier equation. 62. 141. see Beats. photographed. 264. 62. 265. Artificial vowels. N. 196. 134.

. 169. 219. 122. 162. 133. E Ear. theorem. Ihlison. 268. Graphophone. 166. of vowels. 115. 37. Gramophone. "Music and Higher Edu. 43. 11. 71. 49. invention of. 139. 177. 170. D Damped vibration. 53. graphical study of. Dudddl. free periods of. 133. 175. violin string. harmonic analysis in. 249. 220. manometric. 179 . 135. 124. 158. Geophysics. 33. Flame. modes of vibration. 20. Demonstration phonodeik. 170. Flicker. 216. 214. and loudness. effect of material of. compression waves. Fork. theory of vowels." 266. 180. 115. Generator. philharmonic pitch. Gen. 53. 49. 62. oscillograph. Enlarging curves. Displacement. 34. 2. 148. 267. Everett. 143. theory of vowels. influence of diameter. 53. tone compared to tuning fork. 23. 185. 145. 16.Convergence Correction of series. 218. 265. Costa. 68. in moving pictures. 4. mined by. 6. Fourier's. sine. 215. history of pitch. G Gallon. correcting. Diapason. 162. 28. 11. 140. Graphical harmonic analysis. effect of clamping. tone quality of. sec tuning fork. Glass bell. 14. 257. 50. 142. Levi K. Lissajous's. 258. Journal of. Fundamental Funeral March. synthesis of harmonic. 108. tonometer. 257. 150. Danders. enlarging. 73. 76. 163. 104. device for simple harmonic motion. Cosine curve. curve. Epoch of component of curve. monies. 32. 26. 190. 227. in piano tone. 226. Fixed pitch theory. 213. 44. Cross. longitudinal and transverse.Folcy and Soudcr. Fine arts. 155. distribution of. 64. 50. 140. cation. 114. Dickinson. musical pitch. 100. 153. organ pipes. harmonic analysis in. 110. Elasticity. 217. Siegfried. 25. 108. 192. Fourier. Curve. 71. violin string. 171. 75. Fuller. 107. of analyses. French vowels. see pitch. response of. tuning. 22. French horn. 92. Graphical presentation of analyses. 177. 265. see phase. Energy of 'sound. 179. simple harmonic. Fireworks. 172. phonograph. tone quality of. German vowels. Forced vibration. sound. 194. cosine. photographed. Electro-magnetic operation of tuning fork. tones. 70. Davis. Equation. axis of. 202. 11. 179. 216. 77. 7. 185. effect of on sound records. 264. influence of mounting. 93. 85. 70. energy. 151. 41. 144. Diapason Normal. 139. 115. Errors in sound records. 142. 251. Engineering. see talking machine. 176. tuning forks for. 50. Explosive sounds. Franklin Institute. 88. 62. determined. Explosion of skyrocket. Drum. 37. 20. 10. 282 . of vowels. of sound waves. analysis of tone. 126. to voice. pitch deter- Frequency. Edwards and HcivlcLt. of gold. 77. Free period. Sir Michael. 153. 38. of instruments. photographed. 149. Flute. correction. F Figures. 139. 192. Diagram of sound analysis. Ellis. simple tone of. 68. whistle. 11. Diaphragm. 135. see talking machine. 167. 133. 21S. history of pitch. 163. 1. 6.

98. of simple sound. Longitudinal displacement." 268. resonating. resonance scientific pitch. 71._239. 213. compression waves. 97. 62. phase 38. Lloyd. Inspection. 239. 110. 211. Material affecting sound waves. M Mack. 28. 63. theory of vowels. 20. 177. simple tones. tune 165. 120. 41. 23. Hermann. effect of. 191. 25. 168.r. in. 45. method of tuning. Manometric capsule. 11. photographing sound Hauplviann. 15. 120. 244. Lavignac. 128. violin string. Ferdinand. 265. phonautograph. 201. tone quality. Madcr's. Loudness. figures. vibration. 100. 216. phase and tone Harmony. limitations. 20. 63. Howe's. du. 53. "Instruments of Calculation. 24. 62. 38. resonance 131. nents. length of. 268. 144. Kintncr. by machine. 113. Lindig. quality. audibility. 168. 98. 240. complete proc. 202. flame. 88. 132. 103. of 51 . 77. example of. 132. Maragc. Mad Scene from Lum. 53. art of music. Hallelujah Chorus. 142. 16. 179. harmonic analysis. harmonic analyzer. Marloye. 110. 240 . mouth. verified by synthesis. vowel characteristics. 204. 25. 244. 97." 132. ess. tuning forks. 262. 37. inventor of resonance box. 63. Hewlett and Edwards. theory of vowels. law of from. 29. 194. Lowell Institute. 215. 269. analysis of phonograph records. of simple sound. 37. Horn. harmonic analysis. wave. arithmetical and graphical. harmonic analysis by. harmonic analyzer. violin string. 42. Lcydcn jar. Mechanical. clock-fork. Lord. Kelvin's. 31. harmonic synthesizer. French. 129. 31. 108. Koenig. Hiller. Lismjous. records. 73. 132. "Peter Ibbetsen. 202.1 K Kelvin. imitates vowels. musical critic. 228. 29. 133. 249. theory of vowels. 42. 20. Horsburgh. synthesis. 92. 169. 92. tone quality of. calculation. 50. 134. Inharmonic partials. flare of. 68. 136. limits of 128. Inharmonic components. Mad Scene. 212. phase and tone quality. Michclson's. and tone quality. Harmonic analyzer. resonators. 122. the horn. 110. composer. 240. 161. 194. 185. bility. Chubb's. Messiah. 50. 141. 144. microphone. Lanic. Ideal musical tone. 68. box for fork. 245. 75. 141. 145. Michel- son's. see energy. manometric 46. study 263. 73 Manometric flume. 140. limits of audi. 73. 131. Harmonic plotting scale. Harmonic curves. wave siren. Hcnrici. 62. by inspection. resonance of. Harmonic analysis. 194. 147. 49 trumpeter. Intensity of sound. vowel apparatus. 88. pitch. Harmonics. Hughes. see energy. HdmholLz. Harmonic synthesizers. quotations from writings. 98. tonometer. Integrator. on sound Lucia di Lammerrnoor. 265. Sextette. 188. Handel. 97. 194. 157. 216. Horn. 283 . frontispiece. 160. Logarithmic scale. 128. 135. 3.Limits of pitch. 43. tide predictor. 136. 202. resonance of mouth. 159. of various materials. 269. Lloyd and Agnew. Manner. 255. of. photograph of the words. 156. 62. Henextended to 30 comporici's.

49. . 24. 176. 166. 126. ppndular. 228. analysis and synthesis of . simple. 118. 43. high. 50. Pendular motion. 195. Non-periodic. see fre- Organ. manonictric 232. harmonic analysis. 49. Period. 67. 38. vibrations. Ninudi'. quancy. 44. 38. 129. 103. international. translation of vowels. simple harmonic. philosophical. architecture. described. 208. Lissajous's. determined by beats. pitch. Nichols and Mcrritt. shown by tone quality of. Pyramid. of partials. 6. largest. 122. 88. 87. art of. tive. 249. 74. 12. 140. Moving picture apparatus. pitch in time of. 7. 166. 107. Motion. French. 230. 140. 47. Periodic and nonperiodic curves. 42. 70. 208. effect on explained. of components. clock-fork. N Naval in. harmonic analysis of. 124. 19. Microscope. 49. of acoustics. 140. American. Pianola. 24. 28. 251. 62. classification of vowels. 199. 41. Jaw 41. 145. 180. 264. 33. 133. 208. UJ. fre- one dimension. 110. 151. 49. 249. 179. for tone synthesis. Planimeter. wind figures. Music. 37. 219. 1 science and art of. touch. . vibratory. 26. flicker. 71. and periodic vibrations. thesis harmonic analysis and synof.se. 38. ivj. Phonograph. Player piano.synthesizer. denned. in u string. 25. scientific. Optical method. 140. 51 limits of." 267. 168. 12. 87. 6. see free period. Pierce and Bedell. 6. 97. does not affect Musical scale. 284 . 50. 42. 269. 3. . 22. compound. 7. tone. Persistence of vision. Organ pipe. Partial tones. Profile. 262. 201. 264. Phonodeik. 62. inharmonic. duration of sound. Middle C. 78. 17. 141. Phase. for sound synthesis. Koe. 120. 127. 175. flames. Mozart. Perry. 33. O Oboe. uoiu Grand Opera. 50. 207. 62. ' Phase and amplitude calculator. 6. 75. 247. harmonic analysis of Music. 264. 51. 131. Pin-and-slot device. 239. 28. automatic. 197. 49." Pendulum. 178. Portrait. 259. Molecular vibration. 114. for demonstration. 49. 134. 4. 141. 8. 13. Prediction of tides. 63. 21. 51. Newton. tone quality Pitch. "Mysticism .t. 143 . 97. Phonautograph. characteristics of. 119. 43. 62. nig's. Order. 1 science of. concert. 185. quency. 134. of various materials. of uniform loudness. 208. photograph of Sextette. 76. 42. 137. of 7. rela- determined with synthesizer. 85. Morin. smallest. characteristic:. 42 low. wave. Opera in English. 50 philharmonic. Noi. mined with the phonodeik. Nodes. 85. frontispiece. Plotting sound analyses. curves. deter- Ohm. harmonic analysis. . 249 for tuning. wave form. 22. 49. Piano. 33. of. Stuttgart. and stopped diapdiapason open ason. see talking machine. Pressure wave.sound wave. for determining pitch. resonance of. 8. 141. 146. 20. diapason normal. 246. 70. "Lcs Appariels d'Integration. tibia. Mouth. 61. vibration. tone quality. 20. 132. Oscillograph. Partials.

ijtH ni'ii J. .S.'M. 2-1. niiiipai'eii Jl'n. n!' liming it-. 1. (o till . 1:5:5.i-T. 177. '2n. 1 vihralmn. Siiu]i|i- uni: n-al \. waves liiaih. J. 17(5.nul Sralr. ll.-. 1-12. SlalT.Jt. . front 2. *> . HI-VI -lln-|. vowels. l-'uiiiu-r. 1 if \Mtti-K 'jilt. lifviri' 11.i. '2. Simple liMviniuiif hy mrcliiuuc'al mm run-ill. i. 1 !{trd 271. >lanilanl pilch. nf it' inhi . velitcily of. 22-S. visible. /. Tn. j. table of frequencies. S\ tiipallielic viliralinn. harmonics compared with.. fur . Xi-iiniiitiut!.'il ! \Sttiitmft. 17s Jt|. ulKih Sniuiiliiig Iniily. 11(1. llir: l/.?:i.R A'rjyli n. T nj'il. lt. . effect.'i . L''JS. and conino 11.uttr nnil Itfll.-liiiliiil wilh analy/. iniiUiin.>. Si-.i. Hum Lnrti. Skvictrki't. hannonic analysis. "lilrulnt. io. I. Si-H./. fork. ilr. 211.S. \iiUt-l . 75. r I-MIVI is. . d!i. ss. 70. r. 17S. L:i2. .//. I'Olllpl'I'. *7.*iS.^ion WHVI'H. 2. 102. n|' . SujUHiui VIIHM-. liauunjuf uhnli I lli. harmonic curves.-:i(lr[). records . I'lntill-J'H'i'r. . HI !( mi tumiitf link. 217.'!. I'M. M'illl .S'fr (tfnw. li in iijM. lii.it.oncn. fork. 2M.hannonic unulI y-H.s. Jan. (5. iitiinl ilingnun of."ill. Sf)."iuiph i. 110. of l. clii mini ic. 77. tM. Hr-jtiiUM !u -iitjtl'l. \\\ waves. scale.i. cnjitputnitlcd.U ./i r fHl*/ /''(/r //. 47. 251. >. LSD. ih"M.-. 2(51. 20. '{5. Xtj'tittf tldln j:i'. (ii5..'i. 2-11. '1'alkinji machine.' l!7.Mi. 137. 2t)7. Su-i-n.'!!).illli)i)ili:il :Ui. 250. : nul. Slicks of woiiil. 11)7. f)0.!. mill uni.'. (52. en'ni> in. Siunn. nirvi-N. 211. 178. 17. Siati: I Slatnlanl pilches.M ]"n-i|. 2. I' .r.7. lll ni Hi-f n-ii Nw.iJ r. 5.sj)ii'fi hnrmoniu . h:s!|iUi i. for phuso experiments. UmltliMI. 251. 2-1-1.S*u*. 04. Ttninliiitimr Orirhm'.' L'7D. Nf/ir ihii tniidiiiHrr. -li). Ht-iin:itii".'iphoplmnc.. . 17. . phutntmtplii'il. harmonic analysis. on Inning and velocity. iiivciilnf . Miuiul. pitch. Kr. "I M. SiiiKiiiK }. i 2()(i. explosive.ifi-fial Syntiiesis. 70. liai -iiiiinif c. Smunl. see jilitiiioiirnjih.iiui-. Saxrum-. Tni/inr. 1<50. tuned. !57. 105. SITU--. |). 1. 131). 1ST. Tempered IS. 171). nil Slnlti/tirt.r nnl'. harmonic analysis. I . 3i:t.*.t(ri. LT. ihrniy 1. t'nrK. 2.'). !ij. 2.yn- Si-ilM--.il nth.- . 17. SVmn . lli-itv MS vmsrh. ainulynis of Kin.ilh IS. Teleplninc. i^r. Smuiil Stimuli !Hi:ilyM'M. . ilrtinril.urr < .ed. 12S. )i. 70. nl' jiiuno. liiuly.ss. {-lint ugtii]<h nf flit* wtini".-till Mir f ni \ Silciici-s. Temperature. 22. . 01. 7. "I Ui.mf I'-. 77.-iphti'iil presi'tilnlion. 172. His.'i. Sjii-firuiu. Jill .'i ilelint'il. n| I. HHI-IIM!.if-h ill> //. nl' J limn. Sticirt. I. 1 1 Trlephnne siren.'i.n'i. 177. (>U. liiK.-i. 77. . '\\\. SS. (5. S. 100. SMitlielir vuwel. L'fi. Hr\ /I'M I'!' lil lii \ linU.uuUitii.J.W. \nlm L"JH. thlliii nri- l. wave. ininsiniKing vowels. philharmonic."j. -. l-J. Mmheil In. 27.SV. in . 2(51.h'r. l.S.l. 211. ri'c. Hi!). HI. L'O.

related to vowels. 25. . 43. Kelvin's. Voice. 267. 58. 239. quality of tone. 35. 46. 257. acoustics of auditoriums. wave motion. Translation. 120. 20 transverse. 244. instruments. free. 2p9. 137. atmospheric. timing forks for. in solids. composer. Time required for harmonic analysis. 30. effect synthesizer for vowels. 208. of W Wagner. words formed from. 120. 87. for lower limit of audibility. 135. Whitman. analyzed by inspection. Koenig's and Scheibler's. invention of. 28. Wood. of United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. photographs 238. synthetic. 166. 134. of compression. 14. photographs of compression. Watson. 21. Tonometer. 4. 178. 188. microscope. analysis of. Words.INDEX Tempered scale. 213. 177. reversal of bow. 68. analyses classification 137. 88. 41. 138. 3. siren. 30. vowels with phonograph. 60. V synthetic. comparison of bass and soprano. 251. longitudinal. displacement. P. musical quality of. 174. . to relation photographing. 251. Thompson. 100. piano. . theory of. 24. Transverse. 20. 215. Vibration. 129. Tide predictor. Theory of vowels. Whispered vowels. compared with instruments. 82. 70. 4. 186. 177. and noise. 244. 171. Tocplcr. Time signals on record of sound waves. vibrations of. 62. 134. 260. 189. analysis of sound of. 59. liquids. 20. 43. 34. overtones of. 215. for higher limit of audibility. Wires and cords theory of vowels. 217 diagram of analysis. singing voice related to. quality. . 228. compression waves. Vowel curve. pure tone is poor. 31. 195. 204. 58. 225. resonance of body. compression waves. 32. independent of phase. Theorem. Wave Wave motion. Wi'-dmorc. exciting. Vowels. 197. 257. 25. 224. continuity of. acoustics of auditoriums. Whcatstonc. Y . Tone color. 251. artificial. 175. 215. 2. 29. 58. 254. 179. 32. 244. 38. 92. portrait. . 88. 58. harmonic analysis. 255. 38. Tidal analysis. 212. 136. 185. 25. Wave 61. formation 24. ideal. 230 defined. 259. . 3. 51. 5 . . 23. harmonic analysis. 15. longitudinal. 235. pitch. 215. 87. invention of. tone quality of. 13. 185. see lone quality. oo. Tuning. 171 clock-fork. as musical instrument. 230. Touch. Thomas. 187. 257. Tibia organ pipes. 231. 24. Torsional wave. 197. translation with of. 239. 253. adjusting. whispered. of vowels. 58. 232. 235. 19. 33. 221. synthetic. S. 34. 267. 251. 230. 261 phonograph. analysis of tone. 59. U Urquhart and Carse. of Grand Opera. 62. 129. forced. 24. 264. 219. Orchestra. 18. 194. characteristics . 17. 26. torsional. of. 14. 232. 205. 197. of.. pitch affected by amplitude. 221 of. Violin. models. 17 of sound. 58. 239. harmonic analysis. 34. 258. damped. transverse. 37. 140. rust and wear. 177. 31 for tuning chromatic scale. resonance box. 134. 15. 245 of temperature on. sympathetic. . Fourier's. 33. ee. Vision. Tone. Waves. persistence of. 16._218J 257. and gases. in an auditorium. 171. 219. vibration. 215. from different voices. 139. 58. Tuning fork. 59. 215. theory of vowels. of. Tone law quality. 88. 247. 129. 14. 177. 225. of. Willis. periodic curve. shapes of. 269. list of.

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