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• Personality is the inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment • The nature of personality -Personality reflects individual differences ( e.g.,some people like to take risks, where as others not) -Personality is consistent and enduring (mothers comments about her child:-he has been impulsive from the day one) -Personality can change (some major events like birth of child or death of a loved one)
Theories of Personality
• Freudian theory -Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation • Neo-Freudian personality theory -Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality • Trait theory -Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits
it is internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct. . and Superego System 3 The ego – It is the individuals conscious control.the id acts without regard to consequence System 2 The superego – the counterweight to the id .it internalise society’s rules . The ego tries to balance these two opposing forces of Id and super ego System 1 The id – warehouse of primitive and impulsive drives .Freudian Theory A representation of the interrelationship among the Id. Ego.The id is selfish Gratification .
and ignores consequences Superego: A person’s conscience and moral voice. it actively opposes the id.Id: Warehouse of primitive and impulsive drives •Behavior is guided by the primary desire to maximize pleasure and avoid pain •The id is selfish. Ego: The system that mediates conflict between the id and the superego •The ego finds ways to gratify the id that will be acceptable to the outside world . illogical. •It sees that individual satisfies needs in a socially acceptable fashion.
Freudian Theory and Marketing Researchers believe that human drives are largely unconcuious and consumers are unaware of reasons for buying what they buy • Product Personality -Consumer researchers using Freud’s personality theory see consumer purchases as a reflection and extension of the consumer’s own personality. .
Neo-Freudian Theory • Karen Horney’s CAD Theory . individuals desire to conquer feelings of individuality. self-sufficiency and freedom from obligations . and appreciated by others Aggressive Personality . desires to excel and win admiration Detached Personality .It can be classified into: Compliant Personality .one who moves against or competes with others.one who desires to be loved. wanted.Using the context of child-parent relationships. desires independence.one who seeks emotional & behavioural freedom from others.
Trait Theory • Any distinguishing. relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from one another. • Trait theory is an individual’s characteristic ways of responding to the social and physical environment: Eg -Innovativeness How receptive a person is to new experiences -Materialism Degree of consumers attachment to “worldly possessions” -Ethnocentrism Consumers likelihood to accept and reject foreign made products .
avoids conformity to others expectations and standards ( In appearance or in possessions) • Sensation seeking. prefer ads that have social acceptance features • Optimum stimulation level. willingness to take social and physical risk • Variety-novelty seeking Exploratory purchase behaviour Vicarious exploration Use innovativeness . willingness to take risk be innovative • Need for uniqueness (NFU). prefer ads that stress product features • Other directedness. openness • Social Character • Inner directedness.Distinguishing Innovators from NonInnovators • Consumer innovativeness • Dogmatism –Measures the degree of rigidity vs.
and communications that appeal to various personality types • For e. Thumbs Up .Marketing Implications • Personality traits may be related to consumption behaviour • Marketers can develop products. services.g.
Cognitive Personality Factors • Need for Cognition Measures a person’s craving for or enjoyment of thinking High in NC-Ads with more product related information Low in NC –Ads with background or peripheral aspects • Visualizers Stress strong visual dimensions • Verbalizers Raise a question and provide the answer .
openly shared Barbie dolls • Compulsive consumption behavior Realm of normal behavior.gambling drug addiction.• Consumer materialism • Fixated consumption behavior Frequently displayed .addition(uncontrollable shopping. alcoholism) .
they attribute various descriptive personality.Brand Personality • Consumers subscribe to the notion of brand personality I.like traits or characteristics to different brands • Brand personification are specific “personality-type” traits or characteristics ascribed by consumers to different brands • Issues in Brand Personification includes: Product personality & gender Product personality and geography Personality and colour .e.
How consumers use brand personality • For self-expression – act as a bridge • Reassurance • Communicates the brand’s functional characteristics • Trustworthiness .
Brand Personality Sincerity Excitement Competence Sophistication Ruggedness .Spirited .Wholesome .Daring .Charming .Up-to-date .Reliable .Honest .Tough .Cheerful .Down-to-earth .Upper class .Outdoors .Imaginative .Intelligent .Successful .
compliance. competitiveness. sensitivity. rebelliousness Femininity – tenderness. dependence. cooperation Androgyny – both masculine and feminine characteristics .Product and Gender In the marketplace some products are viewed as “men’s” or “women’s” Gender-typed product image targeted to match consumers’ gender-role orientation: Masculinity – independence. aggressiveness. toughness. achievement.
real & authentic Bacardi Breezer Outwardly innocent & inwardly (Cat symbol) naughty • Product and Gender . Product & Gender • • • • • Brand Personality Volvo Safety & reliability Nike The Athlete in all of us Levi’s 501 Dependable. rugged.Examples of Brand Personality.Coffee & Toothpaste Masculine persona -Soap & Shampoo Feminine persona .
various products. associate a specific colour with personality-like connotations . even brands.Personality and colour • Consumers also tend to associate personality factors with specific colours • In some cases.
hot. formality Sophistication. platinum • Personality Link • • • Commands respect. strong Affordable. stately • • • • • • . secure. chastity. authority. powerful Informal & relaxed. authority Caution. masculine Goodness. power. informal. relaxed. passionate.Personality-like associations of selected colours • Colour • • • • • • • • • Blue Yellow Green Red Orange Brown White Black Silver. cleanliness. mystery Regal. living things Exciting. novelty. warmth Natural. Gold. purity. wealthy.
Ideal social self-image . cosmetics. clothing. • Self-concept emerges out of our impressions about ourselves as well as from others’ impressions of us • Variety of Self-Concepts .Self concept • Self-concept is the overall image that a person holds of him or herself.Expected self-image .Virtual personality or self • Consumers often wish to change themselves to become a different or improved self by grooming.Ideal self-image .Social self-image . jewellery etc • Expression of self is more popular in Western cultures .Actual self-image .
Self Image Self-image is the configuration of beliefs related to the self Actual self-image (or private self): it involves those images that one has of oneself about which one feels protective –how consumers see themselves The self-consistency motive: doing things that are consistent with one’s own self-image Ideal self-image: how consumer would like to be By acquiring products consistent with their ideal self-image. Social self-image: how we believe other people see us The social consistency motive is present . Self-esteem motive is at work here. consumers may boost their self-esteem.
Ideal social self-image: how consumers would like others to see them The social approval motive is working here: doing things that would cause others to think highly of them .
alter. enhance.Marketing applications of the Self-Concept • Consumers tend to protect and defend their self-images and buy products and services to enhance them • Consumers frequently attempt to preserve. or extend their self-images by purchasing products or services and shopping at stores believed to be consistent with their relevant self-image and by avoiding products and stores that are not • In some cases markets can be segmented in terms of groups within the population that exhibit similar selfimages and seek products and services to express that image .
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