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39161835 Irrigation Engineering Formulae|Views: 2|Likes: 0

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1.1 - Surface Drainage

1- DRAIN SECTION DESIGN

Drains are designed by using Chezy, Kutter or Manning’s Formula in addition

to Elliott’s open drain formula can be used

V=/ a/P . 3/2 A V = Velocity in feet per second.

a = Area of X-Section of drain in Sq. feet.

P = Wetted Perimeter.

A = Slope in feet per mile.

2- SEEPAGE DISCHARGE OF DRAIN

q = σ H P . 10

-3

q = Discharge in cusecs per thousand feet

Length of Drain.

σ = Percolation intensity co-efficient per million

Sq. feet at 20

o

C per unit head in cusecs.

H = Percolation head

P = Perimeter of drain section.

3- TILE DRAINS “ FLOW”

V = 138 R

2/3

S

1 / 2

V = Mean velocity in feet per second

S = Hydraulic grade or slope = h /l

h = Fall of water in feet

Q = a . V l= Length in feet between points.

R = a / P

a = Area of tile opening

P = Wetted perimeter or circumference of tiles in

feet

A = Q / z A = Area in acres drained by the tiles.

z = Rate of Run Off.

1.2 - Soil Physics

1 (i ) - Capillary Rise.

h = 2 T g p r h = Height of meniscus above water level

T = Surface tension between water and air

g = gravity i.e. 32.2 foot per second per second.

p = Density of liquid.

r = Radius of tube.

h = 0.15 ŗ г =Equivalent Radius of capillary tube of

Elements of pore vacuum

(ii) - Movement of Water

V = π g h p r t V = Volume of fluid passing in time t.

8 η t h = Pressure head

t= Length of tube

1.1

η = Viscosity of fluid

(iii) Qx = - λ . ( δ φ / δ x) δ φ / δ x =

Capillary Potential

Qx = Mass of water passing in unit time

Through unit cross-section 8 to the

direction of flow

x= distance from source.

\ = Capillary conductivity or

transmission constant.

CAPILLARY CONDUCTIVITY OF SOIL

Loosely packed 1.8 x 10

- 3

cm /sec

Well packed in dry condition 7.4 x 10

- 3

Further packed by moistening and drying 5.4 x 10

- 3

Un- restricted field condition 8.7 x 10

- 3

General mean 5.8 x 10

- 3

2 - Porosity

(i) P = Vv /( Vv + Vs) x 100

P = Porosity

Vv = Total volume of voids in mass of soil

Vs = Absolute volume of soil particles.

(ii) P = e / (1 + e) x 100

e = Voids Ratio

Sand 0.54 Silt 0.71

Organic matter 2.00 Clay 2.65

Diatom 3.19 Mica 3.44

Colloids 8.18

3 - Other soil constants and equilibrium limits

Heat of Wetting

Q = pT

2

.( d / dT) . log p/P

Q = Heat of dilution

p/P =Ratio of vapour pressure or relative

humidity.

T = absolute Temperature.

P = Gas constant for unit mass of water

vapours

4 – Distribution of water in vertical column of soil crust.

i) φ = 30.5/1033.2 . h – 0.0295 h

φ = Hydrostatic pressure of liquid in

atmosphere

h = Height in feet above a given datum in feet.

ii) -α φ = A/η - B

α , A, B = Constants

η = Moisture contents.

1.2

5 – Soil Analysis

S

2

= 30n / [g(G-G1)V]

S = Dia of particles in millimetres

n = Co-efficient of viscosity of suspended

medium

g = 9.8 meter per second

2

G = Specific gravity of particles

G1 = Specific gravity of suspended medium

V = Settlement velocity in centimetre per

minute.

Assuming n = 0.0102 viscosity at 67

0

F

G = Specific gravity of soil = 2.65

G1 = 0.9984 density of water at 67

0

F

S

2

= V /5290 or V = 5290 S

2

cm / minute.

= 173 feet per minute.

6 – Surface evaporation, soil evaporation

Effect of Barometric pressure

i) Evaporation = log(P/(P-p)) P = Barometric pressure

p = Max. vapour pressure, value

is infinitive at boiling point

II) Meyer’s evaporation formula from small bodies of shallow

water

E =15(V-v)(1+w/10)

E = Evaporation in inches in 30 days

V = Max. vapour pressure in inches

v = Actual pressure of vapour in air (Average)

w = Average wind velocity.

1.3 – Ground water Reservoir Movement

Sub-soil flow “ Darcy’s & hazen”

i) Darcy’s sub-soil flow

Vc = 0.0388P/D

Vd = 0.2458P/D Velocity of flow = k . slope of water

surface

V1 = 52100 f d1

2

(h/l1) feet per second

This flow is inversely proportion to the viscosity

“Poiseuile’s Ratio”

P = i /(1+0.0337T + 0.000221T

2

)

T = C

0

f = i / P = f = 0.337T + 0.000221T

2

f = i / P = 0.474 + 0.0147 t +0.0000682 t

2

t = F

0

V1 = must not exceed 0.039/ f d1 feet per

second

1.3

f = i / P

Or the flow may cease to be capillary

a) Hazen velocity of percolation

V = Cd

2

. [(t+10)//60] . h /t =kh/t and k = Cd

2

. ((t+10)//60)

V = Equivalent velocity at which water passes

through sand.

V1 = Velocity of water in pores of sand

t = Length of path along which percolation

occurs in feet

h = head producing percolation in feet

d = Effective size of sand

((t+10)//60 = Approximate factor denoted by f

b) Darcy’s estimation of flow

Q = k . i . A Q = discharge in cusecs = V . A

k = coefficient of permeability of soil cm/second

i = Hydraulic gradient

V = k . i

A =Area of site for which calculation re needed

(Sft)

ii)- Percolation Intensity Coefficient

e . q = (H – h) e = % porosity

c = e.q /(H-h) c = Percolation intensity

e = 40 % = 100/60 . 5/3

If h = 0 , = (5/3)

3

. q/h cusecs per

million sq.feet

iii) Transmission Constant

V = k s = k (H-h)/D

k = qD /{60

3

(H-h)}, q = Rise in feet in 24 hours (if e = 40 %)

iv) Permeability coefficient

“ Theim Method”

k = q . log 10 (r1 / r) / (20.4 m (s-s1))

k = Permeability Co-efficient

(Cft/minute//Sft on 1:1 gradient at 54

o

F

q = Rate of pumping in gallon per

minute

r, r1 = Distance of two observation

points from pumping site

m = Average vertical thickness of

saturated portion of water bearing bed.

s & s1 = Draw down of two observation

wells in feet.

Seepage Flow from Canals

1) Temperature Effect

1.4

µ = 0.00003716 / (1+0.03368T+0.000221 T

2)

µ = Viscosity

V = Velocity of flow.

T = Temperature

o

C

V α 1/µ α (1+0.03368 T+0.000221 T

2

)

A α 1/µ

2) Flux or Loss from Canal “f “

F = Vd1( 1/cosθ +sinθ /θ )

d1 = Horizontal distance of the point of

observation on outer most Stream

V = Velocity in feet per hour along

stream line

F = is flux or rate of loss from cnal.

3) Liquid Limit

= weight of wet soil – weight of dry soil x 100

weight of dry soil

4) Optimum Moisture Contents

W = 24 – 0.14 S W = O.M.C. by weight percentage

S = Sand percentage

W = Clay (24), Silt Clay (22), Loam (15)

Sand (11)

Relation

W

‘ = W / (W + (100/G)) G = Specific Gravity of Soil = 2.65

W

‘

= O.M.C by volume percentage

1.4 – Vertical Drainage

1) Darcy’s law for determined Ground water

Q = k.i .A

k= Proportionality constant and is

variable with the type of soil and

is denoted as Permeability Co-

efficient.

i = Hydraulic Gradient

A = Area

Q/A = k .i = v

2) Permeability Co-efficient (k)

S.No Type of Formation App. Av. Value of “k” in

cm/Sec

1 Granite, Quartzite 0.6 x 10

-5

2 Slate, Shale 4 x 10

-5

3 Lime stone 4 x 10

-4

4 Sand stone 0.004

5 Sand and gravel 0.400

6 Gravel 4.000

7 Sand 0.040

8 Clay and soil 0.04 x 10

-5

3) Co-efficient of transmissibility “T”

Introduced by Theiss

1.5

T = k. d

d = depth of water bearing strip

4) Specific Yield

Specific yield = Volume of water obtained by gravity drainage

x 100

Total volume of material drained or dewatered

5) Yield of under ground sources

Theoretical Method

Q = A . V

Q = Discharge in cusecs.

A = Area of the aquifer and can be

found by dia of well and depth of

porous strata

V = Velocity = k . v

v = Actual flow velocity of ground water

k = Constant of permeability.

k = 2.3Qlog10. R/rw

2 n.H.(h-hw)

= 2.3 Q log10 R/rw

2 n H.s

Q = 2 nk H (d

2

-hw)

2.3 log 10 (R/rw)

Q = 2 nk H (h-hw)

2.3 log 10 (R/rw

H = Total height of confined aquifer

hw = Artesian pressure in well

rw = Radius of the well

h = Initial height of piezometric surface

from the bottom of the well

s = Draw down = h-hw

1.5 – Design of Channels

Hydraulic Formulae

1) Chezy

V = C _ R.S V = Mean velocity flow

R = Hydraulic mean depth

C = Co-efficient

S = slope of channel per foot length

A = Area of Cross Section

Pw = Wetted perimeter

i) f

‘

= f w /g w = Weight of one Cft of water

f

‘

= Co-efficient of friction in lbs /Sft at

one foot velocity

ii) C = w / f

’

2) Bazin

C = 157.5 / (1 + (k/R

0.5

) k = Co-efficient of roughness

Clean smooth pacca sides and bed = 0.2

Dirty sides of brick or stone etc. = 0.5

Sides of natural earth = 2.35

3) Mannings

V = 1.4858/N . R

2/3

. S

½

N = Coefficient of roughness or rugosity

1.6

Q = k

‘

d

5/3

k = Co-efficient of Area x velocity x

roughness

Q = Discharge in cusecs

4) Kutter

C = 41.66 + (1.811/N) + (0.0028/S)

1 + (41.66 + 0.0028/S )/ (N/R

0.5

)

N = Coefficient of roughness or rugosity

C = Constant

Values of ‘N’

Well laid brickwork or ashlars =0.013

Rough brick work good stone work =0.015

Same in inferior condition =0.017

Rubble masonry or coarse brick work =0.020

Earthen Canal in good order =0.0225

Canals and rivers in bad order =0.030

Torrents enumerated with debris =0.050

5) Barnes

V0 = 58.4 R

0.694 .

S

0.496

5) Kennedy’s

i) V0 = C D

n

V0 = Critical velocity in feet per second

D = Depth of water over bed

n

= Index number

V0 = 0.84 m D

0.64

m = Critical velocity ratio.

m = V / V0

Values of ‘m’

i) Light sandy silt in the river = 1.00

ii) Some what coarse sandy soil = 1.10

iii) Sandy loamy silt = 1.20

iv) Coarse silt or debris = 1.30

v) Silt of river Indus in Sind = 0.70

ii) Silt Transported

Qt = a . B . V0

5/2

V0 = Critical velocity

Qt = Quantity of silt transported by channel

a = Constant

B = Bed width

iii) Lindley’s Formulae

Va = 0.95 D

0.57

Vb = 0.59 B

0.353

B = 3.80 D

1.61

6) acey’s Formulae

i) Lacey’s Regime Equation

V0 = k .fL R fL = Lacey’s silt factor

= 2 /(3)

0.5

. fL R

= 1.1547 . .fL R = (4/3)

1/2

. .fL R

= A . fL

2

= 4.0 V0

5

1.7

ii) Regime Flow Equation

V0 = 16 . R

2/3

S

½

S = Slope of water surface per foot run

iii) Perimeter Discharge Relation

Pw = k / Q = 8/3 / Q = 2.67 / Q

k = Co-efficient = 8/3 or 2.67

iv) V, Q , fL Relation

Q fL

2

= 4.0 V0

6

V0 = [(Q fL

2

)/4.0]

1/6

v) Regime slope equation

S = fL

5/3

/ (1844.3 Q

1/6

)

vi) Regime scour depth relation

a) R = 0.9(q

2

/fL)

1/3

R = Scour depth

q = Discharge intensity or discharge per

foot width

fL = Lacey’s silt factor

b) q = 3/8 . .Q

c) R = 0.474(Q / fL )

1/3

Q = Total discharge of channel

d) Q = (q/0.375)

2

vii) Area of Section

A = 1.26 (Q

5/6

/ f

1/3

)

= BD + SD

2

B = Bed width

D = Depth

S = Side Slope Generally ½ :1 or 0.5

P = B + 2.236 D (With ½:1 slope)

P = Wetted Perimeter

B = P – 2.236D

Or

A = D(P-2.236 D) + 0.5 D

2

= PD – 2.236D

2

+ 0.5D

2

= 1.736D

2

–PD +A = 0

D = P - /P

2

– 4x 1.736A

2 x 1.736 Evaluating Value of D B can be

calculated

Or

D = (A / 2 R K) – (2RK)

2

- (A/K)

1/2

A = Area

R = Hydraulic mean depth.

K = 2x1.736 (for ½:1 side slope)

Lacey’s Flow equation

V0 = 1.3458/Na . R

3 / 4

S

1 / 2

viii) N a , fL , CVR Relation

(CVR)

2

= X

2

= (V/V0)

2

= fL CVR = Critical velocity ratio

ix) Silt factor grain size ratio

FL = 1.76 / mr = 8..D1 mr = Silt particle diameter in mm

1.8

D1 = Silt particle diameter in

inches

Soil/Silt Lacey’s silt factor fL

a) Fine sand = 0.50 – 0.70

b) Medium silt = 0.85

c) Standard Silt = 1.00

d) Medium sand = 1.25

e) Coarse Sand = 1.50

x) Lacey’s shock formulae

a) V0 = 1.3458/Na R

3/4

(S – s)

1/2

s = Slope required to withstand shock

losses

b) =1.3458/0.025 R

3/4

S

1/2

(S-s)

1/2

= 0.9 S

1/2

s = 0.19 S

19% slope for shocks and 21 % for

friction

7) Lined Channels

i) V = 1.486 / N . R

2/3

S

1/2

ii) Q = k x 0.8225 C

2/3

D

2/3

Side slope 1:1 Side slope 1.25:1

P = B/D B/D

C = R/D R/D

Area = D

2

(P+1.7854) D

2

( P+1.9248)

Pw = D (P+3.5807) D (P+3.8496)

V0 = 0.826R

2/3

S

1/2

0.826R

2/3

S

½

K = (P+1.7854) (P+1.9248)

FL = 0.511C

1/3

D

1/3

0.517C

1/3

D

1/3

9 Super Elevation at curves

i) F = w

2

/ 2g (B

2

+ 2 R B) w

2

= V

2

/ R

2

Angular velocity in Radians

= V

2

/ 2g [( 2 R B+ B

2

) / R

2

]

ii) D1 = q / V1 R = Hydraulic mean depth

D2 = q / V2 B = Bed width

e = D1 – D2 F = Centrifugal pressure difference in

feet

r = Radius of the stream

q = Q / B = Discharge / bed width

V = q / D = Discharge per foot/Depth of

channel

D1= Depth of canal at outside of curve

D2=Depth of canal at inside of curve

e = Super Elevation

iii) Radius of Canal at bends

Discharge = Q Radius= r

Less than 10 cusecs 300 feet

10 – 100 cusecs 500 feet

1.9

100 – 500 cusecs 1000 feet

500 – 1000 cusecs 2000 feet

1000 - 3000 cusecs 3000 feet

Above 3000 cusecs 5000 feet

iv) Mean velocities

a) Major Disty . = 0.7. . Central Surface Velocity.

b) Minor = 0.65. Central Surface Velocity

c) Water Course = 0.60. ..Central Surface Velocity

v) Bank Widths

a) Discharge of Channel 0 - 49 cusecs = 4.0 feet

b) Discharge of Channel 50 - 199 cusecs = 5.0 feet

c) Discharge of Channel 200 - 350 cusecs = 6.0 feet

d) Main Canals = 20 feet

vi) Hydraulic Gradient

a) When F.S.D is upto 4.0 feet = 1:4

b) When F.S.D is 4.0 to 5.0 feet = 1:5

c) When F.S.D is 5.0’ or above = 1:6

vii) Berm Width

a) Channel in filling = 3 D

b) Channel in cutting = 1.5 D

c) Channel in partially cutting and fiiling = 2 D

10) Absorption Losses

Haigh’s Formulae “

a) “Earthen Channels”

i) k = 5.0 Q

0.0625

k =Absorption loss per million Sq.ft of Pw

ii) Qa = 0.0133LQ

0.5625

Qa = Absorption losses in cusec

Q = Discharge in cusecs.

L = Length of reach in 1000 feet

b) “ Lined Channel”

iii) k = 1.25Q

0.056

k =Absorption loss per million Sq.ft of Pw

1.6 – Hydraulics of Rivers

1- Classification of rivers on the Basis of topography

i) River in hills

a) Incised or rocky river stage

b) Boulder River stage

ii) Rivers in alluvial plains.

a) Aggrading stage

b) Dredging stage

c) Stable

d) Deltaic

iii) Tidal Rivers ( Tail reach adjoining sea or oceans)

Classification on the basis of Flood Hydrographs

i) Flashy Rivers

ii) Virgin Rivers

3) Behaviour of Rivers

i) Straight reach, trough shape and high velocity in middle of

section.

1.10

ii) Bends, silting and scouring continues simultaneously due action

of centrifugal force.

iii) Meanders, Deviation from axle, formation of shoals on convex

side and erosion at concave side.

Meander Length = ML = Axial length of one meander

Meander Belt = Mb = Distance between outer edges of

clockwise and anti- clockwise loop of meander.

Meander Ratio = Mb / ML

ML = 65.8 .Qd

Qd = Qdominant = ½ to 2/3 of maximum

discharge =Qmax

4) Training of rivers

i) Marginal Embankments

Runs parallel to river on one or both banks,

Main function flood control..

ii) Guide Banks

iii) Groynes or spurs.

iv) Artificial cut-offs or Leading cuts

v) Pitching of banks and provision of launching aprons

vi) Pitched islands.

vii) Miscellaneous Methods.

5) Runoff

Q = K.P

Q = Runoff

P = Precipitation

K = Constant depending upon the surface of Drainage

Area

Values of “K”

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

Qv =

6) Flood Discharges

i) Dicken’s Formula.

S.No. Type of Area Value

of “K”

1 Steep bare rock, city pavements of asphalt or

concrete commercial and industrial areas 0.90

2 Rock steep but wooded 0.80

3 Plateaus, lightly covered 0.70

4 Clayey soils, stiff and bare 0.60

5 Clayey soils, lightly covered 0.50

6 Loam lightly cultivated or covered 0.40

7 Loam largely cultivated , urban residential areas

having single houses

0.30

8 Sandy soils of light growth 0.20

9 Sandy soil covered with heavy brush 0.10

1.11

Qv = High Flood or peak discharge in Cumecs

C = Constant = 11.5 for Himalyan

Ranges

A = Catchment area in Sq. kilometres

v) Ryve’s Formula

Qv = C1 A

2/3

C1 =

Areas within 80 kilometers from the

coast = 6.8

Areas 80-2400 km from coast = 8.8

Limited areas near hills = 10.10

Actual observed values upto = 40

vi) Jarvis Formula

Qv = C .A

C = Varies from 1.77 – 177 . The value of 177

Gives 100 % chance.

vii) Myer’s Modified Formula

Qv = 177p.A

P = p vary from 0.002 –1.0 usually taken as 1.0

1.7 - Discharge of Notches Orifices and weirs.

1- Notches & weirs

a) Discharge through Rectangular Notches

i) Rectangular Notch (Free Fall)

Q =2/3 Cd B 2g . H

3/2

Q = Discharge in cusecs

B = Width of Notch

= 3.33 B H

3/2

Cd= Co-efficient of discharge

= 0.60 – 0.62

H = G+ha = G + V

2

/ 2g

g = gravity = 32.2 feet per second per

second

ii) Rectangular Notch (Submerged)

Q = C A V C = Cd (2g)

0.5

A = Area of Water over notch

V = Velocity

iii_ Rectangular Notch (in thin plate)

Q = 2/3 Cd(B-0.2H) (2g)

0.5

H

3/2

Cd = 0.606

0.2H = End contraction if length of notch

is not less than 3H

b) Discharge through triangular notch

i) Q = 4/15 Cd B (2g)

0.5

H

3/2

Cd = 0.60 – 0.62

ii) Q = 8/15 Cd (2g)

0.5

Tan θ /2 H

3/2 (

For any angle

)

iii) Q = 8/15 Cd (2g)

0.5

H

3/2

( Right Angle)

c) Discharge through trapezoidal notch

1.12

Q = Cd -/2g H

3/2

(L+8/15 tanθ H)

L = Length of cill.

2) Weir Formulae

i) Q = 2/3 C B H

3/2

.2g H = G + ha = G + V

2

/2g

Value of “C “ = Cd.2g

Broad crested or flat top = Cd =0.577

C = 3.09

Narrow crested Cd= 0.623 C= 3.33

B = Full width of channel=

Cd =0.666 C= 3.56

Co-efficient “C” includes velocity of

approach

i) Francis Formula

Q = 3.58 (B- 0.1n H) H

3/2

n = Nos of end contractions

ii) Bazin’s Formula

Q = j .2g B H

3/2

No velocity of Approach

j = 0.405 + 0.00984/H

Q = m .2g B H

3/2

( 1+0.55 H) ( G + H )

iii) Partially submerged weir

Discharge through free portion m = j

Q1 = 2/3 Cd B .2g (H1

3/2

– H

3/2

)

H1 = U/S difference top R.L. of orifice to

Water Level

H = Difference of U/S & D/S Water

Level

Cd = 0.62

a) Discharge of submerged portion ( into water)

Q2 = Cd1 B .2gH

Description of orifice Value of Cd1

Sluice without side walls 0.66

Canal lock and dock gates 0.70

Sluice in lock gates 0.83

Narrow Bridge opening 0.90

Wide bridge opening or very large well

built sluices with side walls 0.94

Wide openings the bed of which is

level with bottom of reservoir 0.96 – 0.86

Total Discharge = Q = Q1 +Q2

iv) Discharge over a submerged weir

a) Discharge through free portion

Q1 = 2/3 Cd B h .2g .H1

3/2

Cd = 0.577

H1 = Difference of u/s & d/s W.L.

b) Discharge through drowned portion

Q2 = Cd1 B h .2gH1 Cd1 = 0.80

x = 4/3 Cd1.Hy h = Drowned height over crest

y = D + 4/g H1

1.13

x = Horizontal Distance fro centre of

falling water to lip of crest at d/s

at any depth D below crest.

y = Depth of falling water

Q = Q1 + Q2

c) Round Crested Weir

Q = C1 B H

3/2

C1 = 3 – 4.50

Discharge through Syphons

a) Loss of head “ h “

= (1 + f1 + f2.L/R) V

2

/2g - j

2

/2g

h = Fall of water head through siphon

L = Length of barrel

R = Hydraulic mean depth

V = mean velocity through barrel

j = Mean velocity of approach

f1 = 0.08 for bell mouth and 0.505 for

cylindrical entry.

f2 = ( a + b/R)

Surface Condition “a” “b”

Smooth iron pipe 0.00497 0.084

Encrusted pipe 0.00996 0.025

Smooth cement plaster 0.00316 0.030

Ashlars or Brick masonry 0.00401 0.070

Rubble masonry or stone work 0.00507 0.250

b) Lacey’s Formula

h = (1.08 +0.008 L R

-1.05

) V

2

/2g - j

2

/2g

4) Nozzles

A/a = .8fL /A’ A/a = Ratio of area of nozzle & supply

pipe

8fL/A = Vn

2

/ V1

2

Vn = Velocity in nozzle

L = Length of nozzle pipe

H = Pressure head at base of nozzle

Projected vertical upward height of water would reach

= V

2

/ 2g = h = H / (1+c .(4L/d1) . (d/d1)

4

c = 0.01 For old pipes

= 0.005 For New pipes

= 0.0026 For varnished surface

d1 = Dia of pipe

d = Dia of nozzle

A’ = Area of piece

5) Allowing Air resistant

Hh = h (1 – 0.003h

2

) hh = actual height of jet

Qn = k . A .2g (H-h) (H-h) = Jet height

k = Co-efficient 0.95 – 0.99

A = A’

Deduction less due to Friction

Hf = (4 f L V

2

) / (d . 2g)

1.14

1.8 - Design of Hydraulic Structures

A – Falls

a. Falls with drop wall or glacis

i) Drop fall is recommended when downstream water level is at crest

or below crest.

ii) Glacis design is essential when drop is not enough.

b. Requirements of Meter Flume.

i) Length of crest = 2 H to 3 H

ii) Minimum modular head

a) Free over fall = 33 %

b) Contracted flume (Crump’s L- Type) = 9 %

4) Contracted meter flume

( 1 in 5 downstream expansion) = 20 %

d) Full channel width with 1 in 5 glacis. = 10 %

Safety margin of half a foot is allowed

iii) Fluming Ratio.

a) Drop “HL” upto 4.0 feet = 65 %

b) Drop “HL” upto 4.0 – 10.0 Feet = 75 %

c) Drop “HL” above 10.0 Feet = 85 %

iv) Upstream of Flume.

a) Hump

Upstream slope shall be with Radius “R”

R =( La

2

+x

2

) / 2x La = .3 . H

1.5

La = Horizontal distance of us bed and crest

= 2H

x = Height of crest above u/s bed.

R = Radius = 5H – 6 H

H = Depth of water over crest.

b) Wing Walls

• Un-flumed Non Meter Fall

may be splayed to an angle of 45

0

from crest and Junction 3.0

feet in bank of canal.

• Flumed Meter Fall.

Subtending Angle of 60

0

and Radius “R” 5H – 6 H

c) Upstream Cut-Off

1/3 of Full Supply Depth of Channel “D”

d) Upstream Protection

D.B. Pitching on edge may be laid both in bed and sides for a

length = water depth in a slope of 1:10 in bed.

v) Downstream of Flume

a) Glacis Slope 1 in 2 to 1 in 5 is adopted

Radius of curves joining glacis with crest and cistern = H

b) Wing Walls

• Un-flumed Non Meter Fall

may be taken as straight upto end of floor and then return wall.

• Flumed Meter Fall.

Splay of 1 in 3 for small work and for

Large works:-

1.15

Bx = (B1 . B2 . L ) / ( t . B2 - (B2 – B1) . x)

B1 = Width of crest

B2 = Width of canal at D/S

Bx = Width at x feet distance from crest.

t = Length of wing wall.

x = Distance from crest

• These are kept straight 5-8 times .H.HL and then flared out with

1:1 slope at end and end return wall 3.0’ in bank of canal.

HL = Head Loss or difference of U/S &

D/S water level

c) Downstream Cut-Off

½ of D/S depth “D2”

d) Inverted Filter

F.S.D = D2

e) Downstream Protection

D.B. or pacca pitching on sides and bed floor = 4-5 times of “D2”

vi) Cistern.

a) Etchevery Formula

• Length = Lc =3.HL . E

E = H + V

2

/2g

Lc = Length of Cistern

• Depth = Dc =1/6 of length

Dc = Depth of cistern.

b) Montague’s Formula

• Depth = Dc = ½ Ef2

• Length= Lc = 4 Ef2

Ef2 can be had from Crump’s Diagram

c) General Equation in use

• Depth = Dc = ½ D2

• Length= Lc = 4 –6 Ef2

d) Lc = 3 (B-Bt)/2

B = Designed Bed width D/S side

Bt = Width of crest

Scours Depths

a) Lacey’s

R = 0.9 (q

2

/f)

1/3

R = Normal scour depth

q = Intensity of discharge (Discharge per foot

width)

f = Lacey’s silt factor

b) Kennedy’s

R = 1.11 q

0.61

Max. scour depth to be adopted U/S = 1.5 R, D/S = 2 R

Maximum scour Level can be had by deducting Max. Scour

Level from

F.S.L. of U/S & D/S side.

4) Hydraulic Jump

1.16

1)

a) 2/g . q

2

= 2Dc

3

Dc = Critical depth

b) Energy loss in jump

HL = (D2 – D1)

3

(4D1-D2)

c) J = (D2 –D1)

d) Position of jump

= 3 J on level floor and 3J on Glacis

e) Dr. Rehbock’s Formula

D1

3

–D1

2

H +( q

2

/6 + g) = V

6 = Friction co-efficient 0.9 – 0.94

f) T – Blench

• D1D2[D2+D1- (2D1D2/(D2-D1))] = 2q

2

/g

• HL = D2 . D1 – D2 +q

2

/2g(1/D1

2

– 1/D2

2

)

He took trough as full

DL = J = D2 – D1

• D1 . D2 (D2 – D1) = 2q

2

/g

• D2 = D1/2

+

- D1

2

/4 – 2/g . q

2

/2D1

• HL = [(D2+D1)(D2-D1)] / 4D1D2

2) On Glacis

a) Crump’s “L” Method

= xy (x+y) = 2q

2

/g =2C

3

x/c . y/c .(x+y/c) = 2

L = (y-x)

3

/ 4xy

L/C =(y/c – x/c)

3

/ (4 . x/c .y/c)

x = Upstream depth

y = Downstream depth

c = critical depth

= (q

2

/g)

1/3

K = Total energy at weir crest

F = Vertical distance fro top of crest to

point where jump is formed.

L = Loss of head in jump.

b) Montague’s method

• HL = E+F – Ef2 = (D2 – D1)

3

/ 4D1D2

• W (1/2D1

2

+ q

2

/D1g) = (1/2D2

2

+q

2

/D2g)W

Regulators, Outlets, and Misc. Structures

1) Canal Head Regulators and Cross Regulators.

i) Crest Levels

a) Cross Regulator At the U/S Bed Level of channel

b) Disty. Head Regulator 1.0 to 3.0 feet higher than crest level of

cross Regulator.

ii) Waterway

Q = 2/3 . Cd1..2g .B.[(h+ha)

3/2

– h0

3/2

] + Cd2.B.h1.2g(h+ha)

Cd1 = 0.577

Cd2 = 0.80

B = Clear waterway required

h = Difference of water level u/s &d/s

of crest.

1.17

ha = Depth of the d/s water above the

crest. crest. crest.

h0 = Head due to velocity of approach,

which is very small and generally

ignored

iii) Downstream Floor or Cistern Level

q and HL is first calculated and then from Crump’s diagram value

of Ef2 is found

The level at which the jump would form i.e. level of d/s floor, is

then given

D/S Floor Level = d/s T.E.L - Ef 2

Neglecting velocity head, d/s T.E.L = d/s F.S.L.

Level of d/s floor = d/s F.S.L. – Ef 2

In case d/s floor works out higher than d/s bed of channel then

d/s floor level =

D/s bed level.

iv) Length of D/S Floor

= 5 (y2- y1) or kept inconsideration of Exit gradient = b = a.d.

v) Cut-Offs

U/S cut-off = (yd/3 + 2.0) feet

D/S cut-off = (yd/2 + 2.0) feet

Yd = Upstream depth of channel

vi) Total floor length

‘b’ is worked out from the safe exit gradient

vii) Uplift Pressure and floor thickness

The floor thickness are worked out by working out the uplift

pressures by

Khosla’s Theory.

viii) Protection Works.

The protection works are designed for a scour depth ‘D’ equal to

(yd/3+2) feet

On the upstream and (yd/2+2) feet on the downstream

ix) Inverted Filter

=1.5D

x) Launching Stone apron.

= 2.25D cu.ft per foot length

i. Outlets

i) Pipe Outlet

Q = C.A..h

Q = Discharge in cusecs

C = Cd..2g and Cd varies from 0.577 to

0.84 according to

Modularty. In general value of C = 5

A = Area of pipe

h = Working head or difference of W.L.

in Distributary and Water course

ii) Adjustable Proportionate

Module (A.P.M.) or

Orifice Semi Module (O.S.M.)

Q = 7.3.B.Y.h

Q = Discharge in cusecs

B = Width of orifice or throat.

Y = Height of orifice or throat

h = Depth of water over crest – Y

1.18

iii) Open Flume (O.F.) and Standing Wave Flume (S.W.F.)

Q = C.B.H

3/2

Q = Discharge in cusecs

C = Coefficient

For B = 0.20 to 0.29 = 2.9

For B = 0.30 to 0.39 = 2.95

For B = 0.40 or above = 3.00

H = Head or depth of water over crest

iv) Scratchley

Q = 6.4.A..h

Q = Discharge in cusecs

A = Area of orifice

h = Working hed or difference of W.L. in

cistern and water course

v) Minimum Modular Head .(M.M.H.)

For Open Flume = 0.2 H

For A.P.M. = 0.75 (H – Y)

1.9 - .Afflux

x = [( V

2

/ 58.6 ) + 0.05] . [(A/a)

2

– 1]

x = Afflux or rise of water

V = Velocity in normal channel

A = Area of Normal channel

a = Area of contracted section

L = (d1 – d2) / S + D [1/S – C

2

/g].[(¡. d1/D) – (¡ . d2/D)]

¡d2/D, ¡d1/D are Bresse’s function

T1 = d1/D , T2 = d2/D

1.10 – Bligh’s and Lane’s and Khosla Creep Theories

1) Bligh’s Theory

The percolating water follows the outline of the base of the

foundation of hydraulic structure. In other words water creep along

the bottom contour of the structure. The length of path thus

traversed by water is called the Length of Creep. Further it is

assumed in this theory that the loss of head is proportional to the

length of the creep. If HL is the total head loss between upstream

and the downstream, and L is length of creep, then the loss of

head per unit of creep length i.e. (HL / L) is called the Hydraulic

Gradient. Bligh’s makes no distinction

between horizontal and vertical creep.

1.19

Head Loss per unit length or Hydraulic Gradient

c

[ HL / (b+ 2 (d1+d2+d3)] = HL /L

HL = Head loss

b = Total Length of floor

d1 = Upstream cut-off or sheet pile

d2 = Intermediate cut-off or sheet

pile

d3 = Downstream cut-off or sheet

pile

L = Length or distance for which

loss of head is required to be

calculated

Losses at Different points are =

(HL/L x 2d1) , (HL/L x 2d2) , (HL/L x 2d3)

i) Safety against piping or undermining

As per Bligh, the safety against piping can be ensured by

providing sufficient creep length it is given by

L = C . HL

C = Bligh’s coefficient for soil

S.No Type of soil Value of

“C”

Safe Hydraulic

Gradient should

be less than

1 Fine micaceous sand 15 1/15

2 Coarse grained sand 12 1/12

3 Sand mixed with

boulder and gravel,

and for loam soil

5 to 9 1/5 to 1/9

4 Light sand and mud 18 1/18

ii) Safety against uplift Pressure

The ordinates of the H.G. Line above the bottom of the floor

represent the residual water head at each point. For example if

at any point the ordinate of H.G. line above the bottom of the

floor is one foot then one foot head of water will act as uplift at

that point. If h’ feet is this ordinate , then water pressure equal

to h’ feet will act at this point, and has to counter balanced the

by the weight of floor thickness = t .

Uplift Pressure = wh’

W = Ordinary density of water = 62.4

lbs /Cft

Drowned Pressure = (w.G).t

1.20

G = Specific Gravity of floor material

For equilibrium

wh’ = wGt

h’ = Gt

Subtracting t on both sides

( h’-t) = (G.t –t

= t(G-1)

t = [(h’ – t )/(G-1)] = [ h / (G-1)]

Where (h’-t) = Ordinate of the H.G. line above the

top of floor

(G-1) = Submerged specific gravity of the

floor material

For Concrete G = 2.4

After calculating the thickness of floor add 33 % for the factor of

safety.

2) Lane’s Weighted Creep Theory

Bligh, in his theory, had calculated the length of the creep, by

simply adding the horizontal and vertical creep length, making no

distinction between two creeps. Lane, on the basis of his

analysis carried out on about 200 dams of the world,, stipulated

that horizontal creep is less effective in reducing uplift (or in

causing loss of head) than the vertical creep. He therefore

suggested a weightage factor of 1/3 for the horizontal creep and

1.0 for the vertical creep.

LL = (d1+d1) + 1/3L1 +( d2+d2) + 1/3 L2 +(d3+d3)

= 1/3 . (L1+L2) + 2(d1+d2+d3)

= 1/3 . b . 2(d1+d2+d3)

LL = Lane’s Creep Length and other

features are as per Bligh’s

To ensure safety against piping, the creep length LL must not be

less than C1HL

HL = Head causing flow.and C1 is

Lane’s Creep Coefficient.

C1 = Lane’s coefficient for soil

S.No Type of soil Value of

“C1”

Safe Hydraulic

Gradient should

be less than

1 Very fine sand or silt 8.5 1/8.5

2 Fine sand 7.0 1/7

3 Coarse sand 5 1/5

4 Gravel and sand 3.5 to 3.0 1/3.5 to 1/3

5 Boulders, gravel and

sand

2.5 to 3.0 1 / 2.5 to 1/3

6 Clayey soil 3.0 to 1.6 1/3 to 1/1.6

Lane’s theory was an improvement of Bligh’s theory but is still an

empirical without any rational basis and hence not adopted in

designs. Bligh’s theory is still used even after invention of

Khosla’s Modern Theory.

1.21

3) Khosla’s Theory and Concept of Flow Nets.

Many of the important hydraulic structures , such as weirs

and barrages were designed on the -basis of Bligh's theory

between the period of 1910 to 1925, In 1926-27, the:

Upper Chenab canal syphons were designed on Bligh's

theory, started posing undermining troubles.

Investigations started. which ultimately , lead to Khosia's

theory..-

A detailed description of this theory is available at

C.B.1-Publication No. 12. The main principles of this

theory are summarised below:-

(i) The seeping water does not creep along the contour of

pacca floor as stated by Bligh, but on the other hand this

water moves along a set of streamlines. This steady

seepage in, a vertical plane for a homogenous soil can be

expressed by Laplacian equation.

(d

2

¡ /dx

2

)+(d

2

¡ /dz

2

) = 0

¡ = Flow potential =kh where k is the

coefficient of permeability of soil, as

defined by Darcy's law, and h is the

residual head at any point within the

soil.

The above equation represents two sets of curves intersecting

each other orthogonally. One set of lines is called

Streammlines and other is called Equipotential Lines. The

resultant flow dia gram showing both the sets of curves is called

Flow Net.

The streamlines represent, the paths along which the

water flows through the sub-soil. Every particle entering the soil

at a given point upstream of the work, will trace out its own path

and will represent a streamline.The first streamline follows the

bottom contour of the works and is same as Bligh's path of

creep. The remaining streamlines follow smooth curves

transiting slowly, from the outline of the foundation to a "semi-

ellipse as shown in above Fig.

1.22

Equipotential Limes. Treating the downstream bed as datum

and assuming no water on the downstream side, it can be easily

stated that every streamline Posses a head equal to h1, while

entering the soil, and when it emerges at the down-stream end .

into the atmosphere its head is zero. Thus, the head h1 is entirely

lost during the passage of water along the streamline.

Further at every intermediate in its path there is certain

residual head (h) still to

be dissipated in the remaining length to be traversed to the

downstream end. This fact is applicable to every streamline and

hence, there will be points on different streamlines having the

same value of residual head h. If such points are joined together,

the curve obtained is called Equipotential line.

Every-water Particle on line AB is having a residual head h =

hL and on CD is having a residual head h = 0, and hence AB and

CD are Equipotential Lines.

Since an equipotential line represents the joining of points of

equal residual head and hence if piezometers were installed on

an Equipotential lines the water will rise in all of them upto the

same level as shown in Fig. Above

2) The seepage water exerts a force at each

point in the direction of flow and tangential

to the streamlines as shown in Fig below

This force (F) has an upward component from the point where

the streamline

turns upward. For soil grains to remain stable, the upward

component of this force should be counter balanced by the

submerged weight of the soil grain. This force has the Maximum

disturbing tendency at the exit end, because the direction of this

force at the exit point is vertically upward and hence full force

acts,

as its upward component. For the soil grain to re-main stable,

the submerged weight of soil grain should be more than this

upward disturbing force. The disturbing force at any point is

proportional to the gradient of pressure of water at that Point (

i.e.dp/dl). This gradient of pressure of water at exit is called the

Exit Gradient. In order that the soil particles at exit remain

stable, the upward pressure at exit should be safe. In other

words, the exit gradient should be safe

Critical Exit Gradient. This exit gradient is said to be critical

when the upward disturbing force on the grain is just equal to the

submerged weight of the grain at the exit. When.a factor of

1.23

safety equal to 4 or 5 is used. the exit gradient can then be taken

as safe. In other words, an exit gradient equal to 1/4 to 1/5 of

the critical exit gradient is ensured, so as to keep the structure

safe against piping.

The submerged weight (ws) of a unit volume of

soil is given by w(1 –n)(SS - 1)

where w = unit weight of water.

SS = sp. gravity of soil particles

n =. Prosity of soil material

For critical conditions to Occur at the exit point. Table

below.

F= WS

Force F= Pressure gradient at that point.

= dp/dL = w . dh/-dL

w . dh / dL = w . (1- n) (SS – 1)

dh/ dL = (1 – n) (SS – 1)

where dh / dL represents the rate of loss of head or the

gradient at the exit end.

=0.6 x 1.65 =0.99 - 1.0

Hence an exit gradient equal to 1/4 to 1/5 g of the

critical gradient means that an Exit gradient equal to ¼

to 1/5 has to be provided for keeping the structure safe

Against piping

Values of safe exit gradient for some of the subsoils are given in below

. Table. Values of Khosla's Safe Exit Gradient.

Type Of Soil Khosla’s SafeExit Gradient

Shingle 0.25 to 0.20

Coarse sand 0.20 to 0.17

Fine sand 0.17 to 0.14

Khosia's theory of flow nets made it very clear that the loss

head does not take place uniformly in direct proportion to creep length as stated

by Bligh. In fact, it depends upon the geometry of the figure i.e. the shape of

foundations boundary and levels of u/s and d/s beds. When the Equipotential

lines are traced to be closer, the rate of loss of head wil ldefinitely be quicker and

vice versa.

It can, hence, be concluded that the safety against Piping cannot

be obtained by providing sufficient floor length, as stated by Bligh,

but can be obtained by keeping the exit gradient well below the

critical value. The exit gradient may not be safe even if the

average hydraulic gradient of Bligh ( i.e. 1 /C) is safe

.

(3) Undermining of the floor starts from the downstream end of the

d/s pacca floor, and if not checked, it travels upstream towards

the weir wall. The undermining starts only when the exit gradient

is unsafe for the subsoil on which the weir is founded. It is,

therefore, absolutely necessary to have a rreasonably deep

vertical cut-oft . at the downstream end of the d/s pacca fi0or to

prevent undermining. The depth of this d/s vertical cut-off is

governed by two considerations

i) maximum depth of scour; (ii) safe exit gradient

1.24

While designing a weir, downstream cutoff from the maximum

scoured depth considerations is, first of all provided, and

checked for exit gradient. . If a safe value of exit gradient is not

obtained , then the depth of cut-off is increased. The depth of

cutoff is also governed and limited by practical considerations, as

the execution of very deep cutoffs may be difficult -or un-

practicable at site.

A weir or a barrage may fait not only due to seepage (i.e. sub-

surface flow) as stated by Bligh, but may- also fail due to surface

flow. The surface flow (i.e. when flood water flows over the weir

crest) may cause scour, dynamic action.; . and in addition, wilt

cause uplift Pressures in the jump trough*, (if the hydraulic jump

forms on the downstream). These uplift pressures must be

investigated for various flow conditions. The maximum uplift due

to this dynamic action (i.e. for surface flow) should then be

compared with the maximum uplift under steady seepage (ie. for

sub-surface flow) ; and the maximum of the two chosen for

designing the aprons and the floors of the weirs. -All these

modern aspects and other details about designing weirs on

permeable foundations, as per the Khosla's theory, have been

discussed in article 1 1'6.

Khosla's theory differs from Bligh's theory in all the above

respects, but owing to the simplicity, Bligh's theory is still used

for design of small works. A minimum practical thickness for the

floor and a deep vertical cut-off at the downstream end is,

however, always provided, in addition to the requirements of

Bligh's theory. However, on major works, Blighs theory should

never be used, as it would lead to expensive and unsafe

erroneous designs.

Khoslas method of independent variables for

determination of pressures and exit gradient for seepage

below a weir-or a barrage. In order to know as to how the

seepage below the foundation of a hydraulic structure is taking

place, it is necessary to plot the flownet. In other words, we

must solve the Laplacian equations. This can be accomplished

either by mathematical solution of the Laplacian equations, or by

Electrical analogy method, or by graphical sketching by adjusting

the streamlines and equipotential lines w.r .t. the boundary .

conditions. These are complicated methods and are time

consuming. Therefore for designing hydraulic structures such as

weirs or barrages on pervious foundations, Khosla has evolved a

simple, quick and an accurate 'approach, called Method of

Independent Variables.

In this method, a complex profile like that of a weir is broken into

a number of simple profiles, each of which can be solved

mathematically.

1.25

. Mathematical solutions of. flownets for these standard

profiles have been presented in the form of curves

(Plate) -which can be used for determining the

percentage pressures at the various key points. The

simple profiles which are Most useful are :

i) A straight horizontal floor of negligible thickness with

a sheet pile line on the u/s end or d/s end) and'

ii) A straight horizontal floor depressed below the bed

but without any vertical cut-offs (c)

iii) A straight horizontal floor of negligible thickness with

are line at some intermediate point (d)

The key points are the junctions of the floor and the pile lines an

either side, and the bottom point of the pile line, and the bottom

corners in the case of a depressed floor. The percentage

pressures at these key points for the simple forms into which the

complex profile has been broken is valid for the complex profile

itself, if corrected for

(a) correction for the mutual

interference of piles

(b) correction for thickness of floor.

(c) correction for the slope of the floor.

These corrections are described below

a) Correction for the Mutual Interference of Piles. The

Correction C to be applied as percentage of head due to this

effect, is given by

C = 19 .D/b’[(d+D)/b]

b'=The distance between the two pile

lines.

D =The depth of the pile line, the

influence of which has to be

determined on the neighbouring pile of

depth d.

D is to be measured' below the level at

which interference is desired

1.26

d=The depth of the pile on which the

effect is considered.

b = Total floor length

This correction is positive for the points in the rear or back water

and subtractive for the points forward in the direction of flow .

This equation does not apply to the effect of an outer pile on an

intermediate pile , if the intermediate pile is equal to or smaller

than the outer pile and is at distance less than twice the length

of the outer pile

Suppose in the above Fig. we are considering the influence of pile

No. (2) on pile No. (1) for correcting the pressure at Cl, Since the point

C1 is in the rear, and hence, this correction shall be, +ve. While the

correction to be applied to. E2 due to pile No. (1) shall be negative since

the point E2 is in the forward direction of flow. Similarly, the correction at

C2 due to pile No. (3) is positive, and the correction at E2 due to pile No.

(2) is negative.

(b). Correction for the thickness of floor.

In the standard form profiles, the floor is assumed to have

negligible thickness.

Hence, the percentage pressures calculated by Khosla's graphs shall

pertain to the top levels of the floor. While the actual junction points E &

C are at the bottom of the floor. Hence the Pressure at the actual points

are calculated assuming a straight line pressure variation. Since the

corrected pressure at E’1 should be less then the calculated pressure at

E’1, the correction to be applied for the point E1 shall be negative.

1.27

Similarly, the pressure calculated at C1 and hence, the correction to be

applied at point C1 is positive.

c) Correction for the Slope of the floor.

A correction is applied for a sloping floor, and is taken as +ve for

the down and

–ve for the up slopes following the direction of flow. Values of correction

of standard slopes such as 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 etc. are tabulated below:-

Slope

Horizontal : Vertical

Correction

Factor

1:1

11.2

2:1

6.5

3:1

4.5

4:1

3.3

5.:1

2.8

6:1

2.5

7:1

2.3

8:1

2.0

The correction factor given above is to be multiplied by the horizontal

length of the slope and divided by the distance between the two pile lines

between which the sloping floor is located. This correction is applicable

only to the key points of the pile line fixed at the beginning or the ends

of the slope or the ends of the slope.

Thus in Fig. para (a) above correction is applicable only to point

E2. Since the slope is down at point E2 in the direction of flow, hence, the

correction shall be positive and will be equal to the correction factor for

this slope multiplied by b2/b1 where b2 and b1 are shown in above fig.

para (a)

Exit Gradient (GE) It has been determined that for a standard form

consisting of a floor length b with a vertical cut-off of depth d, the exit

gradient aat its downstream end is given by

GE = H/d . 1/(n.\)

Where \ =(1+.1+o

2

) / 2

And o = b/d

1.28

From the Curves of Plate by Khosla for any value of o, i.e. b/d the

corresponding value of

1 / n.\ cn be read off. Knowing H and d the value of GE can easily be

calculated. The exit gradient so calculated must lie within the safe limits

as given in Table below:

Type of Soil Safe Exit Gradient

Shingle ¼ to 1/5 or 0.25 to 0.20

Coarse Sand 1/5 to 1/6 or 0.20 to 0.17

Fine Sand 1/6 to 1/7 or 0.17 to 0.14

The uplift pressure be kept as low as possible consistent with the

safety at the exit, so as to keep floor thickness to the minimum.

It is obvious from the above equation of GE that if d=0; GE is

infinite. Hence it becomes essential that a vertical cut-off at the

downstream end must be provided

1.11 - Examining stability of Hydraulic structures against sub

surface flow

The following data required to be collected for checking the stability of

the Hydraulic structure.(Falls and Regulators)

i) Upstream max. water level

ii) Downstream floor level

iii) Length of impervious floor from upstream cut-off to downstream

cut-off.

iv) Depth of cut-offs

v) The difference of upstream water level and downstream floor

level = H

vi) Length of floor = b

vii) Max. depth of any cut-off = d

viii) Nature or type of foundation soil

ix) Observation piping, undermining or scour upstream and

downstream which shows sign of any alarming situation for the

structure.

x) Now apply Khosla’s Exit Gradient Formula and calculate the GE

xi) GE = H/d . 1/(n.\)

Where \ =(1+.1+o

2

) / 2

And o = b/d

If the value of GE is less than the specified value for the type of

soil than the structure is safe if not than the remedial measure must be

proposed. The remedy may be extending floor length or providing extra

deep cut-off on downstream side.

For other structures like bridges The upstream and downstream scour

pits are thoroughly observed and their stability thus examined against

slipping or overturning in scour pits.

For Syphons the observation of piezometric heads are needed to

ascertain the safety against uplift pressures caused both by the

Channels and drains.

1.12 – Losses of water heads

i. Loss due to friction

1.29

= {( 4 f L) / d} . (V

2

/ 2g) f = Co-efficient of friction

ii) Loss due to sudden enlargement

= (V1 – V2)

2

/ 2g V1 = Initial velocity

V2 = Final velocity

iii) Loss due to contraction

A1/A = 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

0.9 1.0

Cc = 0.624 0.632 0.643 0.659 0.681 0.712 0.755 0.813

0.842 1.0

iv) Loss due to obstruction

= A / (0.66(A-a) –1 A = Total area

a = Area of obstruction

v) Loss due to bends and elbows

= k . V

2

/ 2g k = Co-efficient depending radius of

bends

vi) Gradual change

= h = V

2

(c

2

R) = (V1

2

– V2

2

) / 2g

Variable flow in channels

Loss of head right angled bend = 0.84 V

2

/ 2g

Loss in 0 angle subtended by bend = (V

2

. Sin

2

0) / 1.34

Difference in bed slope S’ and water surface slope S

S’ – S = (S’ – V

2

/

(c

2

R)) / ( 1 – V

2

/gd)

Strength of pipes and cylinders “Syphon”

t = p r / f t = Thickness of pipe in inches

p = Internal pressure in lbs / sq.inch

r = Radius of pipe in inches

f = Safe stress per Sq. inch

1.13 – Energy Dissipation Devices

1) Friction Blocks

Rectangular Concrete blocks securely anchored into the floor

a) For vertical drop fall

Two rows of friction blocks

• First row ay be started from a distance 1.5 yc from the

downstream toe of crest ( yc = critical depth of water).

• Spacing in between rows = yc

• Spacing in between blocks = 2 yc\

• Dimension of blocks = 2 yc x yc x yc

• In addition, cube blocks of size 1/8

th

to 1/16

th

of water

depth may be provided at the end of impervious floor.

b) For Glacis Fall.

• Four rows of staggered blocks in case of flumed falls.

• The first row may be provided at a distance of 5 x height

of block fro the toe of glacis..

• Height of block = 1/8

th

of water depth.

• Distance between two rows = h ( h= height of block)

• Dimension of blocks = 3h x h x h

c) Baffle Fall

• Two rows of staggered friction blocks when drop is more than 6 feet.

• Height = h = 0.26 y2

• y2 = Sub critical depth in canal downstream, required for jump formation for parallel

downstream sides.

1.30

• Length = h

• Top width = 2/3 h

• Distance between rows = h

• The first row ay be placed at a distance 2/3

rd

of the cistern length fro the upstream end of

the cistern.

2) Glacis Blocks (Chute Blocks)

• Single row of blocks of the sae dimensions as friction

blocks may be provided just at the toe of glacis in case of

flumed falls drop more than 6 feet

•

• Helps in reducing turbulence and in turn reduces wave

wash, ensures uniform flow.

3) Baffle wall or Deflector wall

• A baffle or deflector wall is provided at the downstream end of concrete floor in cast with

downstream cut-off.

• Height above downstream bed level = 1/10

th

of water depth

1.14 – Retaining walls

Retaining wall is a vertical wall backed with earthy materials is subjected

to a thrust which tends to overturn it as well as cause to slide. In the design of a

retaining wall the thrust on the back of the wall due to earth pressure is

calculated and the wall made of such a cross section (thickness) the weight of

which will resist the movement due to the thrust and the resultant force on the

base lies within the middle third to ensure that there is no tension at the base. In

cohesive soil the resultant should fall at or near the middle of base because in

such soils unequal settlement of the toe may start a vicious circle. It is necessary

to check that the stress at the toe does not exceed the allowable bearing

capacity of the soil and that the wall does not fail by sliding bodily forward on the

base. The pressure at the back of the wall is greater the heavier the material and

the less the angle of repose. There are two theories which commonly used for

the design of retaining walls:-

i) Rankine’s theory

This theory assumes the earth a homogeneous incompressible

granular mass with no cohesion and is thus appropriate for

cohesionless soils e.g., sand, gravel and broken stone. It makes

no allowance foe adhesion or for friction between the earth and

the backfill of the wall. Although these assumptions are not

always correct but give results erring on the side of safety.

ii) Coulomb’s Wedge theory.

In this theory it is assumed that there is a wedge having the wall

as one side and a plane called the “ plane of rupture” as the

other side, and this wedge shaped mass of earth tends breaking

away and slide down and forward , thus exerting thrust on the

wall, and the wall has to support this wedge. For a vertical

without surcharge the plane of rupture bisects the angle

between the plane of repose and the back of the wall. This

theory, however does not determine the direction of the thrust,

and which is taken to act horizontally at 13 the height of the

supported backing above the base of the wall, for walls with or

without surcharge. For a wall with a vertical back and level

1.31

Section

Glacis

Cistern

backing the overturning moment due to pressure is the same as

with Rankine’s formula .

Simplified “Wedge theory” Formula:-

P = wh

2

/2 x cos

2

¡ = wh

2

/2 x K1

sin ¡ . sin ¡ ( ¡ - 6 )

[ 1+ . cos6 ]

2

For a wall with vertical back and a level

Backing, 6 = 0

Hence P = wh

2

/2 x cos

2

1 = wh

2

/2 (1-sin1 / 1+sin1)

(1+sin1)

Rankine’s formula for walls without srcharge:

P = wh

2

/ 2 x ( 1-sin1 / 1+sin1 )

Intensity of Pressure at any depth = wh x (1-sin1 / 1+sin1)

The earth pressure acts horizontally at 1/3 height of the supported

backing above the base of the wall.

Overturning moment due to earth pressure

= wh

2

/ 6 x (1-sin1 / 1+sin1 )

P = Total lateral earth pressure per foot

Length of wall due to the backing.

w = Weight of backing per Cft.

h = Height of backing.

1 = Angle of repose of backing.

6 = Angle of surcharge

1.32

Ppr2015.0608ma

Negative Skin Friction

t069

HK NotableTunnel Cat

c574.pdf

RSI Guidelines(1)

Storage Coefficients

m2l07

MRTS70

Underwater Concreting

Storage Coefficients

EAU-115.CT.03.A

Tust_Vol_15_3_303-331

Half Tunnel

EYGEC2014

Ruukki RD Pilewall En

5 Design

2 3 3 Development of Traffic Surcharge Model for Highway Structures

P-I-SET-M

P-II-SET-Q

Vrindavan Travel Guide - Wikitravel

Agra Travel Guide - Wikitravel

Agra Travel Guide - Wikitravel

cdc_8488_DS1

The Use of Geosynthetics in Road Construction

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