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39161835 Irrigation Engineering Formulae

39161835 Irrigation Engineering Formulae

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TECHNIQUES OF IRRIGATION ENGINEERING

1.1 - Surface Drainage
1- DRAIN SECTION DESIGN
Drains are designed by using Chezy, Kutter or Manning’s Formula in addition
to Elliott’s open drain formula can be used
V=/ a/P . 3/2 A V = Velocity in feet per second.
a = Area of X-Section of drain in Sq. feet.
P = Wetted Perimeter.
A = Slope in feet per mile.
2- SEEPAGE DISCHARGE OF DRAIN
q = σ H P . 10
-3
q = Discharge in cusecs per thousand feet
Length of Drain.
σ = Percolation intensity co-efficient per million
Sq. feet at 20
o
C per unit head in cusecs.
H = Percolation head
P = Perimeter of drain section.
3- TILE DRAINS “ FLOW”
V = 138 R
2/3
S
1 / 2
V = Mean velocity in feet per second
S = Hydraulic grade or slope = h /l
h = Fall of water in feet
Q = a . V l= Length in feet between points.
R = a / P
a = Area of tile opening
P = Wetted perimeter or circumference of tiles in
feet
A = Q / z A = Area in acres drained by the tiles.
z = Rate of Run Off.
1.2 - Soil Physics
1 (i ) - Capillary Rise.
h = 2 T g p r h = Height of meniscus above water level
T = Surface tension between water and air
g = gravity i.e. 32.2 foot per second per second.
p = Density of liquid.
r = Radius of tube.
h = 0.15 ŗ г =Equivalent Radius of capillary tube of
Elements of pore vacuum
(ii) - Movement of Water
V = π g h p r t V = Volume of fluid passing in time t.
8 η t h = Pressure head
t= Length of tube
1.1
η = Viscosity of fluid
(iii) Qx = - λ . ( δ φ / δ x) δ φ / δ x =
Capillary Potential
Qx = Mass of water passing in unit time
Through unit cross-section 8 to the
direction of flow
x= distance from source.
\ = Capillary conductivity or
transmission constant.
CAPILLARY CONDUCTIVITY OF SOIL
Loosely packed 1.8 x 10
- 3
cm /sec
Well packed in dry condition 7.4 x 10
- 3
Further packed by moistening and drying 5.4 x 10
- 3
Un- restricted field condition 8.7 x 10
- 3
General mean 5.8 x 10
- 3

2 - Porosity
(i) P = Vv /( Vv + Vs) x 100
P = Porosity
Vv = Total volume of voids in mass of soil
Vs = Absolute volume of soil particles.
(ii) P = e / (1 + e) x 100
e = Voids Ratio
Sand 0.54 Silt 0.71
Organic matter 2.00 Clay 2.65
Diatom 3.19 Mica 3.44
Colloids 8.18
3 - Other soil constants and equilibrium limits
Heat of Wetting
Q = pT
2
.( d / dT) . log p/P
Q = Heat of dilution
p/P =Ratio of vapour pressure or relative
humidity.
T = absolute Temperature.
P = Gas constant for unit mass of water
vapours
4 – Distribution of water in vertical column of soil crust.
i) φ = 30.5/1033.2 . h – 0.0295 h
φ = Hydrostatic pressure of liquid in
atmosphere
h = Height in feet above a given datum in feet.
ii) -α φ = A/η - B
α , A, B = Constants
η = Moisture contents.
1.2
5 – Soil Analysis
S
2
= 30n / [g(G-G1)V]
S = Dia of particles in millimetres
n = Co-efficient of viscosity of suspended
medium
g = 9.8 meter per second
2
G = Specific gravity of particles
G1 = Specific gravity of suspended medium
V = Settlement velocity in centimetre per
minute.
Assuming n = 0.0102 viscosity at 67
0
F
G = Specific gravity of soil = 2.65
G1 = 0.9984 density of water at 67
0
F
S
2
= V /5290 or V = 5290 S
2
cm / minute.
= 173 feet per minute.
6 – Surface evaporation, soil evaporation
Effect of Barometric pressure
i) Evaporation = log(P/(P-p)) P = Barometric pressure
p = Max. vapour pressure, value
is infinitive at boiling point
II) Meyer’s evaporation formula from small bodies of shallow
water
E =15(V-v)(1+w/10)
E = Evaporation in inches in 30 days
V = Max. vapour pressure in inches
v = Actual pressure of vapour in air (Average)
w = Average wind velocity.
1.3 – Ground water Reservoir Movement
Sub-soil flow “ Darcy’s & hazen”
i) Darcy’s sub-soil flow
Vc = 0.0388P/D
Vd = 0.2458P/D Velocity of flow = k . slope of water
surface
V1 = 52100 f d1
2
(h/l1) feet per second
This flow is inversely proportion to the viscosity
“Poiseuile’s Ratio”
P = i /(1+0.0337T + 0.000221T
2
)
T = C
0
f = i / P = f = 0.337T + 0.000221T
2
f = i / P = 0.474 + 0.0147 t +0.0000682 t
2
t = F
0
V1 = must not exceed 0.039/ f d1 feet per
second
1.3
f = i / P
Or the flow may cease to be capillary
a) Hazen velocity of percolation
V = Cd
2
. [(t+10)//60] . h /t =kh/t and k = Cd
2
. ((t+10)//60)
V = Equivalent velocity at which water passes
through sand.
V1 = Velocity of water in pores of sand
t = Length of path along which percolation
occurs in feet
h = head producing percolation in feet
d = Effective size of sand
((t+10)//60 = Approximate factor denoted by f
b) Darcy’s estimation of flow
Q = k . i . A Q = discharge in cusecs = V . A
k = coefficient of permeability of soil cm/second
i = Hydraulic gradient
V = k . i
A =Area of site for which calculation re needed
(Sft)
ii)- Percolation Intensity Coefficient
e . q =  (H – h) e = % porosity
c = e.q /(H-h) c = Percolation intensity
e = 40 % = 100/60 . 5/3
If h = 0 ,  = (5/3)
3
. q/h cusecs per
million sq.feet
iii) Transmission Constant
V = k s = k (H-h)/D
k = qD /{60
3
(H-h)}, q = Rise in feet in 24 hours (if e = 40 %)
iv) Permeability coefficient
“ Theim Method”
k = q . log 10 (r1 / r) / (20.4 m (s-s1))
k = Permeability Co-efficient
(Cft/minute//Sft on 1:1 gradient at 54
o
F
q = Rate of pumping in gallon per
minute
r, r1 = Distance of two observation
points from pumping site
m = Average vertical thickness of
saturated portion of water bearing bed.
s & s1 = Draw down of two observation
wells in feet.
Seepage Flow from Canals
1) Temperature Effect

1.4
µ = 0.00003716 / (1+0.03368T+0.000221 T
2)
µ = Viscosity
V = Velocity of flow.
T = Temperature
o
C
V α 1/µ α (1+0.03368 T+0.000221 T
2
)
A α 1/µ
2) Flux or Loss from Canal “f “
F = Vd1( 1/cosθ +sinθ /θ )
d1 = Horizontal distance of the point of
observation on outer most Stream
V = Velocity in feet per hour along
stream line
F = is flux or rate of loss from cnal.
3) Liquid Limit
= weight of wet soil – weight of dry soil x 100
weight of dry soil
4) Optimum Moisture Contents
W = 24 – 0.14 S W = O.M.C. by weight percentage
S = Sand percentage
W = Clay (24), Silt Clay (22), Loam (15)
Sand (11)
Relation
W

‘ = W / (W + (100/G)) G = Specific Gravity of Soil = 2.65
W

= O.M.C by volume percentage
1.4 – Vertical Drainage
1) Darcy’s law for determined Ground water
Q = k.i .A
k= Proportionality constant and is
variable with the type of soil and
is denoted as Permeability Co-
efficient.
i = Hydraulic Gradient
A = Area
Q/A = k .i = v
2) Permeability Co-efficient (k)
S.No Type of Formation App. Av. Value of “k” in
cm/Sec
1 Granite, Quartzite 0.6 x 10
-5
2 Slate, Shale 4 x 10
-5
3 Lime stone 4 x 10
-4
4 Sand stone 0.004
5 Sand and gravel 0.400
6 Gravel 4.000
7 Sand 0.040
8 Clay and soil 0.04 x 10
-5
3) Co-efficient of transmissibility “T”
Introduced by Theiss
1.5
T = k. d
d = depth of water bearing strip
4) Specific Yield
Specific yield = Volume of water obtained by gravity drainage
x 100
Total volume of material drained or dewatered
5) Yield of under ground sources
Theoretical Method
Q = A . V
Q = Discharge in cusecs.
A = Area of the aquifer and can be
found by dia of well and depth of
porous strata
V = Velocity = k . v
v = Actual flow velocity of ground water
k = Constant of permeability.
k = 2.3Qlog10. R/rw
2 n.H.(h-hw)

= 2.3 Q log10 R/rw
2 n H.s
Q = 2 nk H (d
2
-hw)
2.3 log 10 (R/rw)
Q = 2 nk H (h-hw)
2.3 log 10 (R/rw
H = Total height of confined aquifer
hw = Artesian pressure in well
rw = Radius of the well
h = Initial height of piezometric surface
from the bottom of the well
s = Draw down = h-hw

1.5 – Design of Channels
Hydraulic Formulae
1) Chezy
V = C _ R.S V = Mean velocity flow
R = Hydraulic mean depth
C = Co-efficient
S = slope of channel per foot length
A = Area of Cross Section
Pw = Wetted perimeter
i) f

= f w /g w = Weight of one Cft of water
f

= Co-efficient of friction in lbs /Sft at
one foot velocity
ii) C = w / f

2) Bazin
C = 157.5 / (1 + (k/R
0.5
) k = Co-efficient of roughness
Clean smooth pacca sides and bed = 0.2
Dirty sides of brick or stone etc. = 0.5
Sides of natural earth = 2.35
3) Mannings
V = 1.4858/N . R
2/3
. S
½
N = Coefficient of roughness or rugosity
1.6
Q = k

d
5/3
k = Co-efficient of Area x velocity x
roughness
Q = Discharge in cusecs
4) Kutter
C = 41.66 + (1.811/N) + (0.0028/S)
1 + (41.66 + 0.0028/S )/ (N/R
0.5
)
N = Coefficient of roughness or rugosity
C = Constant
Values of ‘N’
Well laid brickwork or ashlars =0.013
Rough brick work good stone work =0.015
Same in inferior condition =0.017
Rubble masonry or coarse brick work =0.020
Earthen Canal in good order =0.0225
Canals and rivers in bad order =0.030
Torrents enumerated with debris =0.050
5) Barnes
V0 = 58.4 R
0.694 .
S
0.496
5) Kennedy’s
i) V0 = C D
n
V0 = Critical velocity in feet per second
D = Depth of water over bed
n
= Index number
V0 = 0.84 m D
0.64
m = Critical velocity ratio.
m = V / V0
Values of ‘m’
i) Light sandy silt in the river = 1.00
ii) Some what coarse sandy soil = 1.10
iii) Sandy loamy silt = 1.20
iv) Coarse silt or debris = 1.30
v) Silt of river Indus in Sind = 0.70
ii) Silt Transported
Qt = a . B . V0
5/2
V0 = Critical velocity
Qt = Quantity of silt transported by channel
a = Constant
B = Bed width
iii) Lindley’s Formulae
Va = 0.95 D
0.57
Vb = 0.59 B
0.353
B = 3.80 D
1.61
6) acey’s Formulae
i) Lacey’s Regime Equation
V0 = k .fL R fL = Lacey’s silt factor
= 2 /(3)
0.5
. fL R
= 1.1547 . .fL R = (4/3)
1/2
. .fL R
= A . fL
2
= 4.0 V0
5
1.7
ii) Regime Flow Equation
V0 = 16 . R
2/3
S
½
S = Slope of water surface per foot run
iii) Perimeter Discharge Relation
Pw = k / Q = 8/3 / Q = 2.67 / Q
k = Co-efficient = 8/3 or 2.67
iv) V, Q , fL Relation
Q fL
2
= 4.0 V0
6
V0 = [(Q fL
2
)/4.0]
1/6
v) Regime slope equation
S = fL
5/3
/ (1844.3 Q
1/6
)
vi) Regime scour depth relation
a) R = 0.9(q
2
/fL)
1/3
R = Scour depth
q = Discharge intensity or discharge per
foot width
fL = Lacey’s silt factor
b) q = 3/8 . .Q
c) R = 0.474(Q / fL )
1/3
Q = Total discharge of channel
d) Q = (q/0.375)
2
vii) Area of Section
A = 1.26 (Q
5/6
/ f
1/3
)
= BD + SD
2
B = Bed width
D = Depth
S = Side Slope Generally ½ :1 or 0.5
P = B + 2.236 D (With ½:1 slope)
P = Wetted Perimeter
B = P – 2.236D
Or
A = D(P-2.236 D) + 0.5 D
2
= PD – 2.236D
2
+ 0.5D
2
= 1.736D
2
–PD +A = 0
D = P - /P
2
– 4x 1.736A
2 x 1.736 Evaluating Value of D B can be
calculated
Or
D = (A / 2 R K) – (2RK)
2
- (A/K)
1/2
A = Area
R = Hydraulic mean depth.
K = 2x1.736 (for ½:1 side slope)
Lacey’s Flow equation
V0 = 1.3458/Na . R
3 / 4
S
1 / 2
viii) N a , fL , CVR Relation
(CVR)
2
= X
2
= (V/V0)
2
= fL CVR = Critical velocity ratio
ix) Silt factor grain size ratio
FL = 1.76 / mr = 8..D1 mr = Silt particle diameter in mm
1.8
D1 = Silt particle diameter in
inches
Soil/Silt Lacey’s silt factor fL
a) Fine sand = 0.50 – 0.70
b) Medium silt = 0.85
c) Standard Silt = 1.00
d) Medium sand = 1.25
e) Coarse Sand = 1.50
x) Lacey’s shock formulae
a) V0 = 1.3458/Na R
3/4
(S – s)
1/2
s = Slope required to withstand shock
losses
b) =1.3458/0.025 R
3/4
S
1/2
(S-s)
1/2
= 0.9 S
1/2
s = 0.19 S
19% slope for shocks and 21 % for
friction
7) Lined Channels
i) V = 1.486 / N . R
2/3
S
1/2
ii) Q = k x 0.8225 C
2/3
D
2/3
Side slope 1:1 Side slope 1.25:1
P = B/D B/D
C = R/D R/D
Area = D
2
(P+1.7854) D
2
( P+1.9248)
Pw = D (P+3.5807) D (P+3.8496)
V0 = 0.826R
2/3
S
1/2
0.826R
2/3
S
½
K = (P+1.7854) (P+1.9248)
FL = 0.511C
1/3
D
1/3
0.517C
1/3
D
1/3
9 Super Elevation at curves
i) F = w
2
/ 2g (B
2
+ 2 R B) w
2
= V
2
/ R
2
Angular velocity in Radians
= V
2
/ 2g [( 2 R B+ B
2
) / R
2
]
ii) D1 = q / V1 R = Hydraulic mean depth
D2 = q / V2 B = Bed width
e = D1 – D2 F = Centrifugal pressure difference in
feet
r = Radius of the stream
q = Q / B = Discharge / bed width
V = q / D = Discharge per foot/Depth of
channel
D1= Depth of canal at outside of curve
D2=Depth of canal at inside of curve
e = Super Elevation
iii) Radius of Canal at bends
Discharge = Q Radius= r
Less than 10 cusecs 300 feet
10 – 100 cusecs 500 feet
1.9
100 – 500 cusecs 1000 feet
500 – 1000 cusecs 2000 feet
1000 - 3000 cusecs 3000 feet
Above 3000 cusecs 5000 feet
iv) Mean velocities
a) Major Disty . = 0.7. . Central Surface Velocity.
b) Minor = 0.65. Central Surface Velocity
c) Water Course = 0.60. ..Central Surface Velocity
v) Bank Widths
a) Discharge of Channel 0 - 49 cusecs = 4.0 feet
b) Discharge of Channel 50 - 199 cusecs = 5.0 feet
c) Discharge of Channel 200 - 350 cusecs = 6.0 feet
d) Main Canals = 20 feet
vi) Hydraulic Gradient
a) When F.S.D is upto 4.0 feet = 1:4
b) When F.S.D is 4.0 to 5.0 feet = 1:5
c) When F.S.D is 5.0’ or above = 1:6
vii) Berm Width
a) Channel in filling = 3 D
b) Channel in cutting = 1.5 D
c) Channel in partially cutting and fiiling = 2 D
10) Absorption Losses
Haigh’s Formulae “
a) “Earthen Channels”
i) k = 5.0 Q
0.0625
k =Absorption loss per million Sq.ft of Pw
ii) Qa = 0.0133LQ
0.5625
Qa = Absorption losses in cusec
Q = Discharge in cusecs.
L = Length of reach in 1000 feet
b) “ Lined Channel”
iii) k = 1.25Q
0.056
k =Absorption loss per million Sq.ft of Pw
1.6 – Hydraulics of Rivers
1- Classification of rivers on the Basis of topography
i) River in hills
a) Incised or rocky river stage
b) Boulder River stage
ii) Rivers in alluvial plains.
a) Aggrading stage
b) Dredging stage
c) Stable
d) Deltaic
iii) Tidal Rivers ( Tail reach adjoining sea or oceans)
Classification on the basis of Flood Hydrographs
i) Flashy Rivers
ii) Virgin Rivers
3) Behaviour of Rivers
i) Straight reach, trough shape and high velocity in middle of
section.
1.10
ii) Bends, silting and scouring continues simultaneously due action
of centrifugal force.
iii) Meanders, Deviation from axle, formation of shoals on convex
side and erosion at concave side.
Meander Length = ML = Axial length of one meander
Meander Belt = Mb = Distance between outer edges of
clockwise and anti- clockwise loop of meander.
Meander Ratio = Mb / ML
ML = 65.8 .Qd
Qd = Qdominant = ½ to 2/3 of maximum
discharge =Qmax
4) Training of rivers
i) Marginal Embankments
Runs parallel to river on one or both banks,
Main function flood control..
ii) Guide Banks
iii) Groynes or spurs.
iv) Artificial cut-offs or Leading cuts
v) Pitching of banks and provision of launching aprons
vi) Pitched islands.
vii) Miscellaneous Methods.
5) Runoff
Q = K.P
Q = Runoff
P = Precipitation
K = Constant depending upon the surface of Drainage
Area
Values of “K”
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
Qv =
6) Flood Discharges
i) Dicken’s Formula.
S.No. Type of Area Value
of “K”
1 Steep bare rock, city pavements of asphalt or
concrete commercial and industrial areas 0.90
2 Rock steep but wooded 0.80
3 Plateaus, lightly covered 0.70
4 Clayey soils, stiff and bare 0.60
5 Clayey soils, lightly covered 0.50
6 Loam lightly cultivated or covered 0.40
7 Loam largely cultivated , urban residential areas
having single houses
0.30
8 Sandy soils of light growth 0.20
9 Sandy soil covered with heavy brush 0.10
1.11
Qv = High Flood or peak discharge in Cumecs
C = Constant = 11.5 for Himalyan
Ranges
A = Catchment area in Sq. kilometres
v) Ryve’s Formula
Qv = C1 A
2/3
C1 =
Areas within 80 kilometers from the
coast = 6.8
Areas 80-2400 km from coast = 8.8
Limited areas near hills = 10.10
Actual observed values upto = 40
vi) Jarvis Formula
Qv = C .A
C = Varies from 1.77 – 177 . The value of 177
Gives 100 % chance.
vii) Myer’s Modified Formula
Qv = 177p.A
P = p vary from 0.002 –1.0 usually taken as 1.0
1.7 - Discharge of Notches Orifices and weirs.
1- Notches & weirs
a) Discharge through Rectangular Notches
i) Rectangular Notch (Free Fall)
Q =2/3 Cd B 2g . H
3/2
Q = Discharge in cusecs
B = Width of Notch
= 3.33 B H
3/2
Cd= Co-efficient of discharge
= 0.60 – 0.62
H = G+ha = G + V
2
/ 2g
g = gravity = 32.2 feet per second per
second
ii) Rectangular Notch (Submerged)
Q = C A V C = Cd (2g)
0.5
A = Area of Water over notch
V = Velocity
iii_ Rectangular Notch (in thin plate)
Q = 2/3 Cd(B-0.2H) (2g)
0.5
H
3/2
Cd = 0.606
0.2H = End contraction if length of notch
is not less than 3H
b) Discharge through triangular notch
i) Q = 4/15 Cd B (2g)
0.5
H
3/2
Cd = 0.60 – 0.62
ii) Q = 8/15 Cd (2g)
0.5
Tan θ /2 H
3/2 (
For any angle
)
iii) Q = 8/15 Cd (2g)
0.5
H
3/2
( Right Angle)
c) Discharge through trapezoidal notch
1.12
Q = Cd -/2g H
3/2
(L+8/15 tanθ H)
L = Length of cill.
2) Weir Formulae
i) Q = 2/3 C B H
3/2
.2g H = G + ha = G + V
2
/2g
Value of “C “ = Cd.2g
Broad crested or flat top = Cd =0.577
C = 3.09
Narrow crested Cd= 0.623 C= 3.33
B = Full width of channel=
Cd =0.666 C= 3.56
Co-efficient “C” includes velocity of
approach
i) Francis Formula
Q = 3.58 (B- 0.1n H) H
3/2
n = Nos of end contractions
ii) Bazin’s Formula
Q = j .2g B H
3/2
No velocity of Approach
j = 0.405 + 0.00984/H
Q = m .2g B H
3/2
( 1+0.55 H) ( G + H )
iii) Partially submerged weir
Discharge through free portion m = j
Q1 = 2/3 Cd B .2g (H1
3/2
– H
3/2
)
H1 = U/S difference top R.L. of orifice to
Water Level
H = Difference of U/S & D/S Water
Level
Cd = 0.62
a) Discharge of submerged portion ( into water)
Q2 = Cd1 B .2gH
Description of orifice Value of Cd1
Sluice without side walls 0.66
Canal lock and dock gates 0.70
Sluice in lock gates 0.83
Narrow Bridge opening 0.90
Wide bridge opening or very large well
built sluices with side walls 0.94
Wide openings the bed of which is
level with bottom of reservoir 0.96 – 0.86
Total Discharge = Q = Q1 +Q2
iv) Discharge over a submerged weir
a) Discharge through free portion
Q1 = 2/3 Cd B h .2g .H1
3/2
Cd = 0.577
H1 = Difference of u/s & d/s W.L.
b) Discharge through drowned portion
Q2 = Cd1 B h .2gH1 Cd1 = 0.80
x = 4/3 Cd1.Hy h = Drowned height over crest
y = D + 4/g H1
1.13
x = Horizontal Distance fro centre of
falling water to lip of crest at d/s
at any depth D below crest.
y = Depth of falling water
Q = Q1 + Q2
c) Round Crested Weir
Q = C1 B H
3/2
C1 = 3 – 4.50
Discharge through Syphons
a) Loss of head “ h “
= (1 + f1 + f2.L/R) V
2
/2g - j
2
/2g
h = Fall of water head through siphon
L = Length of barrel
R = Hydraulic mean depth
V = mean velocity through barrel
j = Mean velocity of approach
f1 = 0.08 for bell mouth and 0.505 for
cylindrical entry.
f2 = ( a + b/R)
Surface Condition “a” “b”
Smooth iron pipe 0.00497 0.084
Encrusted pipe 0.00996 0.025
Smooth cement plaster 0.00316 0.030
Ashlars or Brick masonry 0.00401 0.070
Rubble masonry or stone work 0.00507 0.250
b) Lacey’s Formula
h = (1.08 +0.008 L R
-1.05
) V
2
/2g - j
2
/2g
4) Nozzles
A/a = .8fL /A’ A/a = Ratio of area of nozzle & supply
pipe
8fL/A = Vn
2
/ V1
2
Vn = Velocity in nozzle
L = Length of nozzle pipe
H = Pressure head at base of nozzle
Projected vertical upward height of water would reach
= V
2
/ 2g = h = H / (1+c .(4L/d1) . (d/d1)
4
c = 0.01 For old pipes
= 0.005 For New pipes
= 0.0026 For varnished surface
d1 = Dia of pipe
d = Dia of nozzle
A’ = Area of piece
5) Allowing Air resistant
Hh = h (1 – 0.003h
2
) hh = actual height of jet
Qn = k . A .2g (H-h) (H-h) = Jet height
k = Co-efficient 0.95 – 0.99
A = A’
Deduction less due to Friction
Hf = (4 f L V
2
) / (d . 2g)
1.14
1.8 - Design of Hydraulic Structures
A – Falls
a. Falls with drop wall or glacis
i) Drop fall is recommended when downstream water level is at crest
or below crest.
ii) Glacis design is essential when drop is not enough.
b. Requirements of Meter Flume.
i) Length of crest = 2 H to 3 H
ii) Minimum modular head
a) Free over fall = 33 %
b) Contracted flume (Crump’s L- Type) = 9 %
4) Contracted meter flume
( 1 in 5 downstream expansion) = 20 %
d) Full channel width with 1 in 5 glacis. = 10 %
Safety margin of half a foot is allowed
iii) Fluming Ratio.
a) Drop “HL” upto 4.0 feet = 65 %
b) Drop “HL” upto 4.0 – 10.0 Feet = 75 %
c) Drop “HL” above 10.0 Feet = 85 %
iv) Upstream of Flume.
a) Hump
Upstream slope shall be with Radius “R”
R =( La
2
+x
2
) / 2x La = .3 . H
1.5
La = Horizontal distance of us bed and crest
= 2H
x = Height of crest above u/s bed.
R = Radius = 5H – 6 H
H = Depth of water over crest.
b) Wing Walls
• Un-flumed Non Meter Fall
may be splayed to an angle of 45
0
from crest and Junction 3.0
feet in bank of canal.
• Flumed Meter Fall.
Subtending Angle of 60
0
and Radius “R” 5H – 6 H
c) Upstream Cut-Off
1/3 of Full Supply Depth of Channel “D”
d) Upstream Protection
D.B. Pitching on edge may be laid both in bed and sides for a
length = water depth in a slope of 1:10 in bed.
v) Downstream of Flume
a) Glacis Slope 1 in 2 to 1 in 5 is adopted
Radius of curves joining glacis with crest and cistern = H
b) Wing Walls
• Un-flumed Non Meter Fall
may be taken as straight upto end of floor and then return wall.
• Flumed Meter Fall.
Splay of 1 in 3 for small work and for
Large works:-
1.15
Bx = (B1 . B2 . L ) / ( t . B2 - (B2 – B1) . x)
B1 = Width of crest
B2 = Width of canal at D/S
Bx = Width at x feet distance from crest.
t = Length of wing wall.
x = Distance from crest
• These are kept straight 5-8 times .H.HL and then flared out with
1:1 slope at end and end return wall 3.0’ in bank of canal.
HL = Head Loss or difference of U/S &
D/S water level
c) Downstream Cut-Off
½ of D/S depth “D2”
d) Inverted Filter
F.S.D = D2
e) Downstream Protection
D.B. or pacca pitching on sides and bed floor = 4-5 times of “D2”
vi) Cistern.
a) Etchevery Formula
• Length = Lc =3.HL . E
E = H + V
2
/2g
Lc = Length of Cistern
• Depth = Dc =1/6 of length
Dc = Depth of cistern.
b) Montague’s Formula
• Depth = Dc = ½ Ef2
• Length= Lc = 4 Ef2
Ef2 can be had from Crump’s Diagram
c) General Equation in use
• Depth = Dc = ½ D2
• Length= Lc = 4 –6 Ef2
d) Lc = 3 (B-Bt)/2
B = Designed Bed width D/S side
Bt = Width of crest
Scours Depths
a) Lacey’s
R = 0.9 (q
2
/f)
1/3
R = Normal scour depth
q = Intensity of discharge (Discharge per foot
width)
f = Lacey’s silt factor
b) Kennedy’s
R = 1.11 q
0.61
Max. scour depth to be adopted U/S = 1.5 R, D/S = 2 R
Maximum scour Level can be had by deducting Max. Scour
Level from
F.S.L. of U/S & D/S side.
4) Hydraulic Jump
1.16
1)
a) 2/g . q
2
= 2Dc
3
Dc = Critical depth
b) Energy loss in jump
HL = (D2 – D1)
3
(4D1-D2)
c) J = (D2 –D1)
d) Position of jump
= 3 J on level floor and 3J on Glacis
e) Dr. Rehbock’s Formula
D1
3
–D1
2
H +( q
2
/6 + g) = V
6 = Friction co-efficient 0.9 – 0.94
f) T – Blench
• D1D2[D2+D1- (2D1D2/(D2-D1))] = 2q
2
/g
• HL = D2 . D1 – D2 +q
2
/2g(1/D1
2
– 1/D2
2
)
He took trough as full
DL = J = D2 – D1
• D1 . D2 (D2 – D1) = 2q
2
/g
• D2 = D1/2
+
- D1
2
/4 – 2/g . q
2
/2D1
• HL = [(D2+D1)(D2-D1)] / 4D1D2
2) On Glacis
a) Crump’s “L” Method
= xy (x+y) = 2q
2
/g =2C
3
x/c . y/c .(x+y/c) = 2
L = (y-x)
3
/ 4xy
L/C =(y/c – x/c)
3
/ (4 . x/c .y/c)
x = Upstream depth
y = Downstream depth
c = critical depth
= (q
2
/g)
1/3
K = Total energy at weir crest
F = Vertical distance fro top of crest to
point where jump is formed.
L = Loss of head in jump.
b) Montague’s method
• HL = E+F – Ef2 = (D2 – D1)
3
/ 4D1D2
• W (1/2D1
2
+ q
2
/D1g) = (1/2D2
2
+q
2
/D2g)W
Regulators, Outlets, and Misc. Structures
1) Canal Head Regulators and Cross Regulators.
i) Crest Levels
a) Cross Regulator At the U/S Bed Level of channel
b) Disty. Head Regulator 1.0 to 3.0 feet higher than crest level of
cross Regulator.
ii) Waterway
Q = 2/3 . Cd1..2g .B.[(h+ha)
3/2
– h0
3/2
] + Cd2.B.h1.2g(h+ha)
Cd1 = 0.577
Cd2 = 0.80
B = Clear waterway required
h = Difference of water level u/s &d/s
of crest.
1.17
ha = Depth of the d/s water above the
crest. crest. crest.
h0 = Head due to velocity of approach,
which is very small and generally
ignored
iii) Downstream Floor or Cistern Level
q and HL is first calculated and then from Crump’s diagram value
of Ef2 is found
The level at which the jump would form i.e. level of d/s floor, is
then given
D/S Floor Level = d/s T.E.L - Ef 2
Neglecting velocity head, d/s T.E.L = d/s F.S.L.
Level of d/s floor = d/s F.S.L. – Ef 2
In case d/s floor works out higher than d/s bed of channel then
d/s floor level =
D/s bed level.
iv) Length of D/S Floor
= 5 (y2- y1) or kept inconsideration of Exit gradient = b = a.d.
v) Cut-Offs
U/S cut-off = (yd/3 + 2.0) feet
D/S cut-off = (yd/2 + 2.0) feet
Yd = Upstream depth of channel
vi) Total floor length
‘b’ is worked out from the safe exit gradient
vii) Uplift Pressure and floor thickness
The floor thickness are worked out by working out the uplift
pressures by
Khosla’s Theory.
viii) Protection Works.
The protection works are designed for a scour depth ‘D’ equal to
(yd/3+2) feet
On the upstream and (yd/2+2) feet on the downstream
ix) Inverted Filter
=1.5D
x) Launching Stone apron.
= 2.25D cu.ft per foot length
i. Outlets
i) Pipe Outlet
Q = C.A..h
Q = Discharge in cusecs
C = Cd..2g and Cd varies from 0.577 to
0.84 according to
Modularty. In general value of C = 5
A = Area of pipe
h = Working head or difference of W.L.
in Distributary and Water course
ii) Adjustable Proportionate
Module (A.P.M.) or
Orifice Semi Module (O.S.M.)
Q = 7.3.B.Y.h
Q = Discharge in cusecs
B = Width of orifice or throat.
Y = Height of orifice or throat
h = Depth of water over crest – Y
1.18
iii) Open Flume (O.F.) and Standing Wave Flume (S.W.F.)
Q = C.B.H
3/2
Q = Discharge in cusecs
C = Coefficient
For B = 0.20 to 0.29 = 2.9
For B = 0.30 to 0.39 = 2.95
For B = 0.40 or above = 3.00
H = Head or depth of water over crest
iv) Scratchley
Q = 6.4.A..h
Q = Discharge in cusecs
A = Area of orifice
h = Working hed or difference of W.L. in
cistern and water course
v) Minimum Modular Head .(M.M.H.)
For Open Flume = 0.2 H
For A.P.M. = 0.75 (H – Y)
1.9 - .Afflux
x = [( V
2
/ 58.6 ) + 0.05] . [(A/a)
2
– 1]
x = Afflux or rise of water
V = Velocity in normal channel
A = Area of Normal channel
a = Area of contracted section
L = (d1 – d2) / S + D [1/S – C
2
/g].[(¡. d1/D) – (¡ . d2/D)]
¡d2/D, ¡d1/D are Bresse’s function
T1 = d1/D , T2 = d2/D
1.10 – Bligh’s and Lane’s and Khosla Creep Theories
1) Bligh’s Theory
The percolating water follows the outline of the base of the
foundation of hydraulic structure. In other words water creep along
the bottom contour of the structure. The length of path thus
traversed by water is called the Length of Creep. Further it is
assumed in this theory that the loss of head is proportional to the
length of the creep. If HL is the total head loss between upstream
and the downstream, and L is length of creep, then the loss of
head per unit of creep length i.e. (HL / L) is called the Hydraulic
Gradient. Bligh’s makes no distinction
between horizontal and vertical creep.
1.19
Head Loss per unit length or Hydraulic Gradient
c
[ HL / (b+ 2 (d1+d2+d3)] = HL /L
HL = Head loss
b = Total Length of floor
d1 = Upstream cut-off or sheet pile
d2 = Intermediate cut-off or sheet
pile
d3 = Downstream cut-off or sheet
pile
L = Length or distance for which
loss of head is required to be
calculated
Losses at Different points are =
(HL/L x 2d1) , (HL/L x 2d2) , (HL/L x 2d3)
i) Safety against piping or undermining
As per Bligh, the safety against piping can be ensured by
providing sufficient creep length it is given by
L = C . HL
C = Bligh’s coefficient for soil
S.No Type of soil Value of
“C”
Safe Hydraulic
Gradient should
be less than
1 Fine micaceous sand 15 1/15
2 Coarse grained sand 12 1/12
3 Sand mixed with
boulder and gravel,
and for loam soil
5 to 9 1/5 to 1/9
4 Light sand and mud 18 1/18
ii) Safety against uplift Pressure
The ordinates of the H.G. Line above the bottom of the floor
represent the residual water head at each point. For example if
at any point the ordinate of H.G. line above the bottom of the
floor is one foot then one foot head of water will act as uplift at
that point. If h’ feet is this ordinate , then water pressure equal
to h’ feet will act at this point, and has to counter balanced the
by the weight of floor thickness = t .
Uplift Pressure = wh’
W = Ordinary density of water = 62.4
lbs /Cft
Drowned Pressure = (w.G).t
1.20
G = Specific Gravity of floor material
For equilibrium
wh’ = wGt
h’ = Gt
Subtracting t on both sides
( h’-t) = (G.t –t
= t(G-1)
t = [(h’ – t )/(G-1)] = [ h / (G-1)]
Where (h’-t) = Ordinate of the H.G. line above the
top of floor
(G-1) = Submerged specific gravity of the
floor material
For Concrete G = 2.4
After calculating the thickness of floor add 33 % for the factor of
safety.
2) Lane’s Weighted Creep Theory
Bligh, in his theory, had calculated the length of the creep, by
simply adding the horizontal and vertical creep length, making no
distinction between two creeps. Lane, on the basis of his
analysis carried out on about 200 dams of the world,, stipulated
that horizontal creep is less effective in reducing uplift (or in
causing loss of head) than the vertical creep. He therefore
suggested a weightage factor of 1/3 for the horizontal creep and
1.0 for the vertical creep.
LL = (d1+d1) + 1/3L1 +( d2+d2) + 1/3 L2 +(d3+d3)
= 1/3 . (L1+L2) + 2(d1+d2+d3)
= 1/3 . b . 2(d1+d2+d3)
LL = Lane’s Creep Length and other
features are as per Bligh’s
To ensure safety against piping, the creep length LL must not be
less than C1HL
HL = Head causing flow.and C1 is
Lane’s Creep Coefficient.
C1 = Lane’s coefficient for soil
S.No Type of soil Value of
“C1”
Safe Hydraulic
Gradient should
be less than
1 Very fine sand or silt 8.5 1/8.5
2 Fine sand 7.0 1/7
3 Coarse sand 5 1/5
4 Gravel and sand 3.5 to 3.0 1/3.5 to 1/3
5 Boulders, gravel and
sand
2.5 to 3.0 1 / 2.5 to 1/3
6 Clayey soil 3.0 to 1.6 1/3 to 1/1.6
Lane’s theory was an improvement of Bligh’s theory but is still an
empirical without any rational basis and hence not adopted in
designs. Bligh’s theory is still used even after invention of
Khosla’s Modern Theory.
1.21
3) Khosla’s Theory and Concept of Flow Nets.
Many of the important hydraulic structures , such as weirs
and barrages were designed on the -basis of Bligh's theory
between the period of 1910 to 1925, In 1926-27, the:
Upper Chenab canal syphons were designed on Bligh's
theory, started posing undermining troubles.
Investigations started. which ultimately , lead to Khosia's
theory..-
A detailed description of this theory is available at
C.B.1-Publication No. 12. The main principles of this
theory are summarised below:-
(i) The seeping water does not creep along the contour of
pacca floor as stated by Bligh, but on the other hand this
water moves along a set of streamlines. This steady
seepage in, a vertical plane for a homogenous soil can be
expressed by Laplacian equation.
(d
2
¡ /dx
2
)+(d
2
¡ /dz
2
) = 0
¡ = Flow potential =kh where k is the
coefficient of permeability of soil, as
defined by Darcy's law, and h is the
residual head at any point within the
soil.
The above equation represents two sets of curves intersecting
each other orthogonally. One set of lines is called
Streammlines and other is called Equipotential Lines. The
resultant flow dia gram showing both the sets of curves is called
Flow Net.
The streamlines represent, the paths along which the
water flows through the sub-soil. Every particle entering the soil
at a given point upstream of the work, will trace out its own path
and will represent a streamline.The first streamline follows the
bottom contour of the works and is same as Bligh's path of
creep. The remaining streamlines follow smooth curves
transiting slowly, from the outline of the foundation to a "semi-
ellipse as shown in above Fig.
1.22
Equipotential Limes. Treating the downstream bed as datum
and assuming no water on the downstream side, it can be easily
stated that every streamline Posses a head equal to h1, while
entering the soil, and when it emerges at the down-stream end .
into the atmosphere its head is zero. Thus, the head h1 is entirely
lost during the passage of water along the streamline.
Further at every intermediate in its path there is certain
residual head (h) still to
be dissipated in the remaining length to be traversed to the
downstream end. This fact is applicable to every streamline and
hence, there will be points on different streamlines having the
same value of residual head h. If such points are joined together,
the curve obtained is called Equipotential line.
Every-water Particle on line AB is having a residual head h =
hL and on CD is having a residual head h = 0, and hence AB and
CD are Equipotential Lines.
Since an equipotential line represents the joining of points of
equal residual head and hence if piezometers were installed on
an Equipotential lines the water will rise in all of them upto the
same level as shown in Fig. Above
2) The seepage water exerts a force at each
point in the direction of flow and tangential
to the streamlines as shown in Fig below
This force (F) has an upward component from the point where
the streamline
turns upward. For soil grains to remain stable, the upward
component of this force should be counter balanced by the
submerged weight of the soil grain. This force has the Maximum
disturbing tendency at the exit end, because the direction of this
force at the exit point is vertically upward and hence full force
acts,
as its upward component. For the soil grain to re-main stable,
the submerged weight of soil grain should be more than this
upward disturbing force. The disturbing force at any point is
proportional to the gradient of pressure of water at that Point (
i.e.dp/dl). This gradient of pressure of water at exit is called the
Exit Gradient. In order that the soil particles at exit remain
stable, the upward pressure at exit should be safe. In other
words, the exit gradient should be safe
Critical Exit Gradient. This exit gradient is said to be critical
when the upward disturbing force on the grain is just equal to the
submerged weight of the grain at the exit. When.a factor of
1.23
safety equal to 4 or 5 is used. the exit gradient can then be taken
as safe. In other words, an exit gradient equal to 1/4 to 1/5 of
the critical exit gradient is ensured, so as to keep the structure
safe against piping.
The submerged weight (ws) of a unit volume of
soil is given by w(1 –n)(SS - 1)
where w = unit weight of water.
SS = sp. gravity of soil particles
n =. Prosity of soil material
For critical conditions to Occur at the exit point. Table
below.
F= WS
Force F= Pressure gradient at that point.
= dp/dL = w . dh/-dL
w . dh / dL = w . (1- n) (SS – 1)
dh/ dL = (1 – n) (SS – 1)
where dh / dL represents the rate of loss of head or the
gradient at the exit end.
=0.6 x 1.65 =0.99 - 1.0
Hence an exit gradient equal to 1/4 to 1/5 g of the
critical gradient means that an Exit gradient equal to ¼
to 1/5 has to be provided for keeping the structure safe
Against piping
Values of safe exit gradient for some of the subsoils are given in below
. Table. Values of Khosla's Safe Exit Gradient.
Type Of Soil Khosla’s SafeExit Gradient
Shingle 0.25 to 0.20
Coarse sand 0.20 to 0.17
Fine sand 0.17 to 0.14
Khosia's theory of flow nets made it very clear that the loss
head does not take place uniformly in direct proportion to creep length as stated
by Bligh. In fact, it depends upon the geometry of the figure i.e. the shape of
foundations boundary and levels of u/s and d/s beds. When the Equipotential
lines are traced to be closer, the rate of loss of head wil ldefinitely be quicker and
vice versa.
It can, hence, be concluded that the safety against Piping cannot
be obtained by providing sufficient floor length, as stated by Bligh,
but can be obtained by keeping the exit gradient well below the
critical value. The exit gradient may not be safe even if the
average hydraulic gradient of Bligh ( i.e. 1 /C) is safe
.
(3) Undermining of the floor starts from the downstream end of the
d/s pacca floor, and if not checked, it travels upstream towards
the weir wall. The undermining starts only when the exit gradient
is unsafe for the subsoil on which the weir is founded. It is,
therefore, absolutely necessary to have a rreasonably deep
vertical cut-oft . at the downstream end of the d/s pacca fi0or to
prevent undermining. The depth of this d/s vertical cut-off is
governed by two considerations
i) maximum depth of scour; (ii) safe exit gradient
1.24
While designing a weir, downstream cutoff from the maximum
scoured depth considerations is, first of all provided, and
checked for exit gradient. . If a safe value of exit gradient is not
obtained , then the depth of cut-off is increased. The depth of
cutoff is also governed and limited by practical considerations, as
the execution of very deep cutoffs may be difficult -or un-
practicable at site.
A weir or a barrage may fait not only due to seepage (i.e. sub-
surface flow) as stated by Bligh, but may- also fail due to surface
flow. The surface flow (i.e. when flood water flows over the weir
crest) may cause scour, dynamic action.; . and in addition, wilt
cause uplift Pressures in the jump trough*, (if the hydraulic jump
forms on the downstream). These uplift pressures must be
investigated for various flow conditions. The maximum uplift due
to this dynamic action (i.e. for surface flow) should then be
compared with the maximum uplift under steady seepage (ie. for
sub-surface flow) ; and the maximum of the two chosen for
designing the aprons and the floors of the weirs. -All these
modern aspects and other details about designing weirs on
permeable foundations, as per the Khosla's theory, have been
discussed in article 1 1'6.
Khosla's theory differs from Bligh's theory in all the above
respects, but owing to the simplicity, Bligh's theory is still used
for design of small works. A minimum practical thickness for the
floor and a deep vertical cut-off at the downstream end is,
however, always provided, in addition to the requirements of
Bligh's theory. However, on major works, Blighs theory should
never be used, as it would lead to expensive and unsafe
erroneous designs.
Khoslas method of independent variables for
determination of pressures and exit gradient for seepage
below a weir-or a barrage. In order to know as to how the
seepage below the foundation of a hydraulic structure is taking
place, it is necessary to plot the flownet. In other words, we
must solve the Laplacian equations. This can be accomplished
either by mathematical solution of the Laplacian equations, or by
Electrical analogy method, or by graphical sketching by adjusting
the streamlines and equipotential lines w.r .t. the boundary .
conditions. These are complicated methods and are time
consuming. Therefore for designing hydraulic structures such as
weirs or barrages on pervious foundations, Khosla has evolved a
simple, quick and an accurate 'approach, called Method of
Independent Variables.
In this method, a complex profile like that of a weir is broken into
a number of simple profiles, each of which can be solved
mathematically.
1.25
. Mathematical solutions of. flownets for these standard
profiles have been presented in the form of curves
(Plate) -which can be used for determining the
percentage pressures at the various key points. The
simple profiles which are Most useful are :
i) A straight horizontal floor of negligible thickness with
a sheet pile line on the u/s end or d/s end) and'
ii) A straight horizontal floor depressed below the bed
but without any vertical cut-offs (c)
iii) A straight horizontal floor of negligible thickness with
are line at some intermediate point (d)
The key points are the junctions of the floor and the pile lines an
either side, and the bottom point of the pile line, and the bottom
corners in the case of a depressed floor. The percentage
pressures at these key points for the simple forms into which the
complex profile has been broken is valid for the complex profile
itself, if corrected for
(a) correction for the mutual
interference of piles
(b) correction for thickness of floor.
(c) correction for the slope of the floor.
These corrections are described below
a) Correction for the Mutual Interference of Piles. The
Correction C to be applied as percentage of head due to this
effect, is given by
C = 19 .D/b’[(d+D)/b]
b'=The distance between the two pile
lines.
D =The depth of the pile line, the
influence of which has to be
determined on the neighbouring pile of
depth d.
D is to be measured' below the level at
which interference is desired
1.26
d=The depth of the pile on which the
effect is considered.
b = Total floor length
This correction is positive for the points in the rear or back water
and subtractive for the points forward in the direction of flow .
This equation does not apply to the effect of an outer pile on an
intermediate pile , if the intermediate pile is equal to or smaller
than the outer pile and is at distance less than twice the length
of the outer pile
Suppose in the above Fig. we are considering the influence of pile
No. (2) on pile No. (1) for correcting the pressure at Cl, Since the point
C1 is in the rear, and hence, this correction shall be, +ve. While the
correction to be applied to. E2 due to pile No. (1) shall be negative since
the point E2 is in the forward direction of flow. Similarly, the correction at
C2 due to pile No. (3) is positive, and the correction at E2 due to pile No.
(2) is negative.
(b). Correction for the thickness of floor.
In the standard form profiles, the floor is assumed to have
negligible thickness.
Hence, the percentage pressures calculated by Khosla's graphs shall
pertain to the top levels of the floor. While the actual junction points E &
C are at the bottom of the floor. Hence the Pressure at the actual points
are calculated assuming a straight line pressure variation. Since the
corrected pressure at E’1 should be less then the calculated pressure at
E’1, the correction to be applied for the point E1 shall be negative.
1.27
Similarly, the pressure calculated at C1 and hence, the correction to be
applied at point C1 is positive.
c) Correction for the Slope of the floor.
A correction is applied for a sloping floor, and is taken as +ve for
the down and
–ve for the up slopes following the direction of flow. Values of correction
of standard slopes such as 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 etc. are tabulated below:-
Slope
Horizontal : Vertical
Correction
Factor
1:1
11.2
2:1
6.5
3:1
4.5
4:1
3.3
5.:1
2.8
6:1
2.5
7:1
2.3
8:1
2.0

The correction factor given above is to be multiplied by the horizontal
length of the slope and divided by the distance between the two pile lines
between which the sloping floor is located. This correction is applicable
only to the key points of the pile line fixed at the beginning or the ends
of the slope or the ends of the slope.
Thus in Fig. para (a) above correction is applicable only to point
E2. Since the slope is down at point E2 in the direction of flow, hence, the
correction shall be positive and will be equal to the correction factor for
this slope multiplied by b2/b1 where b2 and b1 are shown in above fig.
para (a)
Exit Gradient (GE) It has been determined that for a standard form
consisting of a floor length b with a vertical cut-off of depth d, the exit
gradient aat its downstream end is given by
GE = H/d . 1/(n.\)
Where \ =(1+.1+o
2
) / 2
And o = b/d
1.28
From the Curves of Plate by Khosla for any value of o, i.e. b/d the
corresponding value of
1 / n.\ cn be read off. Knowing H and d the value of GE can easily be
calculated. The exit gradient so calculated must lie within the safe limits
as given in Table below:
Type of Soil Safe Exit Gradient
Shingle ¼ to 1/5 or 0.25 to 0.20
Coarse Sand 1/5 to 1/6 or 0.20 to 0.17
Fine Sand 1/6 to 1/7 or 0.17 to 0.14
The uplift pressure be kept as low as possible consistent with the
safety at the exit, so as to keep floor thickness to the minimum.
It is obvious from the above equation of GE that if d=0; GE is
infinite. Hence it becomes essential that a vertical cut-off at the
downstream end must be provided
1.11 - Examining stability of Hydraulic structures against sub
surface flow
The following data required to be collected for checking the stability of
the Hydraulic structure.(Falls and Regulators)
i) Upstream max. water level
ii) Downstream floor level
iii) Length of impervious floor from upstream cut-off to downstream
cut-off.
iv) Depth of cut-offs
v) The difference of upstream water level and downstream floor
level = H
vi) Length of floor = b
vii) Max. depth of any cut-off = d
viii) Nature or type of foundation soil
ix) Observation piping, undermining or scour upstream and
downstream which shows sign of any alarming situation for the
structure.
x) Now apply Khosla’s Exit Gradient Formula and calculate the GE
xi) GE = H/d . 1/(n.\)
Where \ =(1+.1+o
2
) / 2
And o = b/d
If the value of GE is less than the specified value for the type of
soil than the structure is safe if not than the remedial measure must be
proposed. The remedy may be extending floor length or providing extra
deep cut-off on downstream side.
For other structures like bridges The upstream and downstream scour
pits are thoroughly observed and their stability thus examined against
slipping or overturning in scour pits.
For Syphons the observation of piezometric heads are needed to
ascertain the safety against uplift pressures caused both by the
Channels and drains.
1.12 – Losses of water heads
i. Loss due to friction
1.29
= {( 4 f L) / d} . (V
2
/ 2g) f = Co-efficient of friction
ii) Loss due to sudden enlargement
= (V1 – V2)
2
/ 2g V1 = Initial velocity
V2 = Final velocity
iii) Loss due to contraction
A1/A = 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0.9 1.0
Cc = 0.624 0.632 0.643 0.659 0.681 0.712 0.755 0.813
0.842 1.0
iv) Loss due to obstruction
= A / (0.66(A-a) –1 A = Total area
a = Area of obstruction
v) Loss due to bends and elbows
= k . V
2
/ 2g k = Co-efficient depending radius of
bends
vi) Gradual change
= h = V
2
(c
2
R) = (V1
2
– V2
2
) / 2g
Variable flow in channels
Loss of head right angled bend = 0.84 V
2
/ 2g
Loss in 0 angle subtended by bend = (V
2
. Sin
2
0) / 1.34
Difference in bed slope S’ and water surface slope S
S’ – S = (S’ – V
2
/

(c
2
R)) / ( 1 – V
2
/gd)
Strength of pipes and cylinders “Syphon”
t = p r / f t = Thickness of pipe in inches
p = Internal pressure in lbs / sq.inch
r = Radius of pipe in inches
f = Safe stress per Sq. inch
1.13 – Energy Dissipation Devices
1) Friction Blocks
Rectangular Concrete blocks securely anchored into the floor
a) For vertical drop fall
Two rows of friction blocks
• First row ay be started from a distance 1.5 yc from the
downstream toe of crest ( yc = critical depth of water).
• Spacing in between rows = yc
• Spacing in between blocks = 2 yc\
• Dimension of blocks = 2 yc x yc x yc
• In addition, cube blocks of size 1/8
th
to 1/16
th
of water
depth may be provided at the end of impervious floor.
b) For Glacis Fall.
• Four rows of staggered blocks in case of flumed falls.
• The first row may be provided at a distance of 5 x height
of block fro the toe of glacis..
• Height of block = 1/8
th
of water depth.
• Distance between two rows = h ( h= height of block)
• Dimension of blocks = 3h x h x h
c) Baffle Fall
• Two rows of staggered friction blocks when drop is more than 6 feet.
• Height = h = 0.26 y2
• y2 = Sub critical depth in canal downstream, required for jump formation for parallel
downstream sides.
1.30
• Length = h
• Top width = 2/3 h
• Distance between rows = h
• The first row ay be placed at a distance 2/3
rd
of the cistern length fro the upstream end of
the cistern.
2) Glacis Blocks (Chute Blocks)
• Single row of blocks of the sae dimensions as friction
blocks may be provided just at the toe of glacis in case of
flumed falls drop more than 6 feet

• Helps in reducing turbulence and in turn reduces wave
wash, ensures uniform flow.
3) Baffle wall or Deflector wall
• A baffle or deflector wall is provided at the downstream end of concrete floor in cast with
downstream cut-off.
• Height above downstream bed level = 1/10
th
of water depth
1.14 – Retaining walls
Retaining wall is a vertical wall backed with earthy materials is subjected
to a thrust which tends to overturn it as well as cause to slide. In the design of a
retaining wall the thrust on the back of the wall due to earth pressure is
calculated and the wall made of such a cross section (thickness) the weight of
which will resist the movement due to the thrust and the resultant force on the
base lies within the middle third to ensure that there is no tension at the base. In
cohesive soil the resultant should fall at or near the middle of base because in
such soils unequal settlement of the toe may start a vicious circle. It is necessary
to check that the stress at the toe does not exceed the allowable bearing
capacity of the soil and that the wall does not fail by sliding bodily forward on the
base. The pressure at the back of the wall is greater the heavier the material and
the less the angle of repose. There are two theories which commonly used for
the design of retaining walls:-
i) Rankine’s theory
This theory assumes the earth a homogeneous incompressible
granular mass with no cohesion and is thus appropriate for
cohesionless soils e.g., sand, gravel and broken stone. It makes
no allowance foe adhesion or for friction between the earth and
the backfill of the wall. Although these assumptions are not
always correct but give results erring on the side of safety.
ii) Coulomb’s Wedge theory.
In this theory it is assumed that there is a wedge having the wall
as one side and a plane called the “ plane of rupture” as the
other side, and this wedge shaped mass of earth tends breaking
away and slide down and forward , thus exerting thrust on the
wall, and the wall has to support this wedge. For a vertical
without surcharge the plane of rupture bisects the angle
between the plane of repose and the back of the wall. This
theory, however does not determine the direction of the thrust,
and which is taken to act horizontally at 13 the height of the
supported backing above the base of the wall, for walls with or
without surcharge. For a wall with a vertical back and level
1.31
Section
Glacis
Cistern
backing the overturning moment due to pressure is the same as
with Rankine’s formula .
Simplified “Wedge theory” Formula:-
P = wh
2
/2 x cos
2
¡ = wh
2
/2 x K1
sin ¡ . sin ¡ ( ¡ - 6 )
[ 1+ . cos6 ]
2
For a wall with vertical back and a level
Backing, 6 = 0
Hence P = wh
2
/2 x cos
2
1 = wh
2
/2 (1-sin1 / 1+sin1)
(1+sin1)
Rankine’s formula for walls without srcharge:
P = wh
2
/ 2 x ( 1-sin1 / 1+sin1 )
Intensity of Pressure at any depth = wh x (1-sin1 / 1+sin1)
The earth pressure acts horizontally at 1/3 height of the supported
backing above the base of the wall.
Overturning moment due to earth pressure
= wh
2
/ 6 x (1-sin1 / 1+sin1 )
P = Total lateral earth pressure per foot
Length of wall due to the backing.
w = Weight of backing per Cft.
h = Height of backing.
1 = Angle of repose of backing.
6 = Angle of surcharge
1.32

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