THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

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THE VERSE
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GREEK COMEDY

JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE
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that in consequence of the loss of the music to which these Greek odes were sung do not. tribute to a juster understanding of their art tion of their skill.INTRODUCTION Greek poetry a remote past. The poets of the and that still later age. relation and development of the materials with which the poets wrought will con. of the origin. inherited from in the fifth century before art. perfected during centuries of practice among a song-loving people. now admit of but such knowledge as we may be able to get. and a truer apprecia- And in a fashion we are better able to some of these facts than the poets themselves would have been. passing from Shakespeare to Milton and from Milton on to Tennyson. but they were only vaguely conscious of historical relations. just as the English heroic line. developed and complex Christ was a highly Greek poets had begun to sing in Their successors in the age of Aristophanes had singers in many many lands the islands of the of Aegean and the Continent a great treasure rhythmical phrases that had gradually been developed and — — the coast of Asia. became under his magic touch a newinstrument of melody modulated to every theme. guided by that intuitive apprehension and appreciation of beauty of form creative art. had they been interested in formulating the rules of ascertain . by sure solution patient investigation. What ? is the rhythm of these phrases and their metrical constitution What ? are the laws by which they are combined ? in period and strophe Whence did particular phrases come We despair of a complete Many problems confront us answer to some of these questions. which characterized their race in all ranges of combined these phrases into harmonious periods and symmetrical strophes with extraordinary skill. admitted countless harmonious variations. nature. we must frankly confess.

in which the last are meagre. is a mggeder field. long way. chapter treats of the origin of the forms of Greek poetry. within the range to which this book is of Demosthenes. but has not hitherto been systematically as utilized. treatises and complex subject in a direct and simple manner. and their publication chapter of this book. Ancient rhythmic. The fifteenth There is one exception to these statements. and comparative study have enabled modern scholars to determine the laws of the use of the Greek language as a means of expression with a fullness and precision that would not have been possible in the time modern who would doubtless have inspected these on Greek Syntax with austere surprise. Hephaestion in his manual on metric must be weighed with care his treatises on poetic composition have particular and unique The doctrine of his master. of course. and the conclusions there submitted for consideration have undoubtedly determined the point of view from which my investigation and treatment of the manifold rhythms of Greek poetry have pro- ceeded but here our ancient authorities give : little direct testimony. and I have derived the principles on which its scientific study must proceed in the main from the writings restricted. .viii THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Thus also historical investigation their craft. I have is turned to the poets themselves and there sought the laws which they unconsciously but unerringly obeyed. I have endeavoured. Heliodorus. is a The statements of is worth making. analyses of the structure of certain of the plays of Aristophanes. with hidden pitfalls. to treat this difficult of ancient teachers. a rhythmician of inferior authority. is of great moment to the student of comedy. Where ancient authority silent. Their application to the comic poets is recorded in the second and fourteenth chapters inclusive of this book. . Heliodorus. Aristides. but the journey Aristoxenus to Aristides. embodied in his value. in the investigation of rhythm. saw the profound importance of Aristoxenus. chiefly Aristoxenus. a younger conFrom temporary of Aristotle. It is only a hundred years since Bockh first and Hephaestion. and I have submitted the validity of all conclusions to the practical test of their applicability to the poets themselves. where we must proceed with extreme caution. and this happens only too often. sufficient justification for This fact will perhaps be regarded the reconstitution of the text of unfortunately these remains.

until I saw how these rhythms had all gradually been evolved from the primitive dimeter and trimeter. from Greek subject. and the limitations of its use.^ The final test of the probability of the views advanced in this chapter must be the extent to which they are judged to explain consistently and satisfactorily the numerous and. but it was a great advantage to the comic poets to have them at their command as a vehicle of dialogue. and that such knowledge is the only means that we moderns can safely employ 1 in attempting to differentiate his style ^ from that See 664. I for Logaoedic rhythm. verse. and for that matter also of Aristophanes.INTRODUCTION ix Still these views are not and the poets naturally are silent. excellent discrimination. is a befogging one confess that I did not clearly apprehend its historical significance. when viewed independently of one another. longer which the various forms of poetic rhythm were gradually evolved and differentiated by regulated arrangement The dimeter and trimeter thus of long and short syllables. See375flF. or shorter. its unquestionable relation to the four common rhythms with which we are familiar in ancient and modern poetry. they are supported by parallel manifestations in languages closely akin to Greek.. the true source from which the metre and simple foot were gradually derived. developed are precisely the greater or compound foot of Aristoxenus. over fifty years ago. mere speculations. the conviction that an accurate and precise knowledge of the laws of our poet's usage can best be acquired in this manner. of Avestan and Vedic with Greek dimeters and trimeters has been amply confirmed by subsequent investigations made by Professor Arnold and other The fundamental concept is a primitive phrase. element foreign to the modern drama. hypermeters and trimeters.^ Non-melic verse in Greek comprises the spoken trimeter and recitative and melodramatic tetrameters. 603 flF. and the Greek mode of rendering them would doubtless seem singular to us. and constitutes the greater part of each comedy of Recitative and melodramatic rhythms are an Aristophanes. The significance of Westphal's comparison. perplexing metrical phenomena of scholars. for example. . and they used them with I hope that the importance of nonmelic verse will be thought to justify the attention I have given I have used the statistical method in its treatment from to it.

with a generally accepted.' to hand as I This warily. and Aristophanes modulates his spoken verse skilfully to varying themes. 158 ff. be indecorous to summon the emenders of Aristophanes hither to trial at the bar is of his usage. but no system of strophic analysis has yet been proposed that has been Two scholars have lived to reject. its the considerable is here given to I investigation by no means complete. obtained by bald statistics may prove to be a salutary corrective. Notwithstanding non-melic verse. vii. Professor fathered . perhaps. The determination of the structure of the Greek melic strophe is a problem that has been repeatedly essayed. have discussed caesura and diaeresis with particular care. It would.^ defends and illustrates in an article that comes write. THE VEKSE OF GKEEK COMEDY His spoken trimeter is not the trimeter of the The ignorance or disregard Menander. . See also his editions of the text ^ 2 of Pindar and of the odes of the Greek dramatic poets. for example.X of other poets. in which proposed emendations and restorations of the text of the four newly-discovered plays of test of his Menander are submitted to the actual practice. Schroder has recently given a brief account of the views that have been successively put forward only to be combated or He has an alluring theory of his own. 136 ff. as I may have shown in a recent monograph. but lack of space has precluded the study at any length of our poet's The trimeters different manners in each sort of non-melic verse. certain degree of scorn. of the usages of individual Greek poets exhibited by many of their emenders and by many modern composers of Greek verse tragic poets nor that of in results The application of the a particular manner is incredible. although the range of emotion and sentiment is not so great in comedy as in tragedy. in one play. See Classical Philology. on which attention it Sufficient has not always is behooves one to walk been paid by ultimately a question to investigators to the fact that the problem of melodic correspondence. the systems that they had themselves others declare that the problem is insoluble. If the music which the odes of See his Vorarbeiten. is treacherous ground. differ in interesting particulars from those in another. (1912). but the process for the entertainment of legal and may be recommended attention an idle hour. which he abandoned.

sung to the same melody. The metrical correspondence of antistrophe with strophe is generally close in Greek odes.^ The groups are generally triads. 812 ff.^ and it is agreed that the melody to which a strophe was sung was repeated within a strophe final ? in the singing of its antistrophe. or Hephaestiou pentads successively derived. = See 728. ^ See the illustrations in 729 ff. establishes another important fact. 630 ff. analysis now a simple process. in which I am gratified to find that the conelusions which I have stated in 51 are confirmed by his high authority. ^ gge Bbckh's Pindari Opera.INTRODUCTION xi the Greek poets were sung had been preserved with the text. I received from Professor von Wilamowitz a copy of his recent monograph on the Vespae. 308 tf.* His practice. the last metre of the is colon of a subordinate period catalectic or ends in a is variable syllable or hiatus. •* ' I. See 475 ff. the metrical . like strophe and antistrophe. me to constitute The two rhythms treated in the eleventh and twelfth chapters have been the subject of vigorous discussion during the past I shall probably be thought to have said quite fifteen years. deliberate. "What similar correspondences are there between subordinate periods With few exceptions. I observed. a pause in singing that marks the close of a period. that a long strophe is apt to be divided into intermediate melodic groups similarly arranged.^ was confirmed in a startling but conclusive manner by the testimony of Heliodorus.' 1 If it is not. ii. furthermore.. is tetrads. ' See chapter xvii. that the inference that the Greek dramatic poets probably arranged the subordinate elements that compose a strophe in the same ways in which they combined whole strophes in the parode natural and other great divisions of their plays. form of the text is the sole means to an answer. main divisions the correctness of his statements.^ On the legitimate assumption that two subordinate periods that have the same metrical form were. See 722 ff. and the plays themselves confirm I have applied the principles outlined above to the comedies of Aristophanes in the eighteenth chapter of this book with results that seem to evidence of their truth. testifies to the same groupings of strophes in the of the drama. in studying the metrical commentary. the larger from the smaller. the question would not come up since it is lost. Aeolic Verse is on a different footing enough about the former. ." The effect of each phenomenon the same.. script of this book had been sent to the printers. the change in form is After the mauuSee 51.

classifies tetrasyllable feet as isomeric or diplasic. designating the feet by the earlier names that were in use in the time of Aristoxenus. 29 f. 20 J. Aristides analyzes each of the four completely developed feet of Aeolic verse into thesis and arsis. respectable I This united testimony would seem to give Aeolic rhythm a standing. although it is of profound very considerable part of Greek melic poetry is its issue The question of composed in it. and demands reconsideration. Hephaestion devotes two chapters of his Manual to an explicit. 39 M. length in venturing to offer a chapter in continuation of Mr. and is I must beg for indulgence if I write at demonstrably wrong. 1 SeeHeph. defer for the present detailed consideration of this evidence. In my twelfth chapter I have outjustifies a stronger emotion. without ancient warrant.. from their Procedure so drastic as this rouses curiosity possibly it books. lined the structure of Aeolic verse and analyzed the Aeolic odes . names and discusses three of the four tetrasyllable feet of Aeohc verse and quotes passages from the poets in illustration of their use. but most modern metricians who have written on Greek and Latin verse during the last century have banished this rhythm. . three. J.. whose authority is not to be antispastic periods. or more than four. in its ancient constitution. and in a fragment of his Principles of Rhythm.xii THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY less and requires importance. states that simple feet four syllables but not of may consist of two. ff. 33 fif.. 2 See Aristides. Caxton's great work on The History of Human Error. recently discovered in Oxyrhynchus.^ His predecessor Heliodorus exemplifies ancient opinion on the constitution of this form of verse in his analysis of such odes as are found in the first parabasis and first stasimon of the Knights. Our ancient authorities all regard the four completely developed feet of Aeolic verse as simple and as tetrasyllable. A formal treatment. 54 f. to each of the four syllables of each foot its normal Their statements are poetic value of long or short unreduced. and in a following chapter he gives an account of choriambic and Aristoxenus. and in subsequent chapters discusses certain related cola and periods.. and they give exposition of the uses of the choriamb and antispast. 34. M. ff. is due to misconceptions. that now generally accepted in England and America I believe.'^ questioned. 43 ff. is constitution is a serious for the theory of its rhythm is. 26.

therefore. It now remains to recall the history of the astonish- ing break with ancient tradition which began about a hundred years ago and to re-examine the grounds of belief. and Hermann's Tactlosigkeit in the scientific sense of that term became a by-word among those learned in these matters. in his early period. Gottfried Hermann is the founder of the modern science of ancient verse. and that these were the only syllabic values with which Greek poets operated. the former in 1802 and the latter in 1806. when a metrical law ' might provoke the applause of Europe. . Greek music was rude and passionate. but even he was intolerant of criticism. were doomed to become personal enemies. trochees and spondees was an agglomeration of isomeric and diplasic feet promiscuously mingled. in Greek poetry and music as in modern. and Apel. Voss.— INTRODUCTION last part of the fifteenth chapter xiii of Aristophanes in conformity with ancient doctrine. writing in 1811. although had published his edition of He did not hesitate. and if when two literary antagonists. 1796 able. Hermann was they were of the temperament of only twenty-four years of in his age when he wrote his first book on metric. took issue squarely with Hermann and insisted that successive feet in the same colon. and that a short syllable was always short. ' ' — 1 See 651 S. were crude. calls the that his books incomparof and deprecates the severity of the criticisms enliven . these two scholars. to express opinions on such matters as the relative timethe Frinciples values of successive feet and the difference between Greek and modern music. first of He Elmsley. and his notions of rhythm. and wrote three books on this subject between 1816. and in the ^ I have stated what I believe to be a credible theory of its origin from the primitive dimeter and trimeter. These views provoked lively remonstrance. the celebrated translator of Homer. were all of equal length. youth He was at this a metrician. however. Hermann of the Person's celebrated preface to his edition Hecuba still ' but those were stirring days when the classics were generally thought to be of vital concern. and has powerfully influenced opinion. to use a phrase of Elmsley's. Any line. in brief. He seems not to have known Aristoxenus Morelli time. He held. of Rhythm in 1785. that a long syllable was never more nor less than long. that combined dactyls.

since a distinguished scholar. Eossbach says that he has by the grace of God hit the mark just once tion to ancient tradition. the first modern book that treated the subject separately and as a whole and aimed to set forth the ancient system of rhythm completely. he has paid atten- but this single gain disappears in a See 16 and 390. is the only time that. while maintaining firmly the theory of the Hermann stigmatized his views temporal equality of within the foot. a task of great difficulty because the early ancient sources of information are scant. Eeferring to Apel's cyclic dactyl. of verse.xiv THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY rhythmical. but his sturdy maintenance of the doctrine of the exact equality of feet brought him more than once into conflict with his chief authority. His opinion of Apel is contemptuous a fact to be noted. too. fancy. Eossbach gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to Bockh. cyclic ' dactyl. He aimed to formulate a system of universal rhythm.-^ Eossbach in published the first edition of his Greek 1854. and ominously announces in the preface of his big book that he intends to pay no attention to grammarians and philologians in his attempt to re-establish Apel in ' time. as has just triple since they were line been mentioned in Voss rendered such a logaoedic common time throughout. in a lively and entertaining criticism of the new metric but why the new metric ? has recently announced himself as the defender of the principles of Apel as developed by Eossbach. ' the true rhythm poets. It was the latter who came upon the which has had great vogue. at first welcomed them. . contrary to his principles. ' ' — — ' point is made with deadly precision in proof of Apel's ignorance and folly. as in his conclusions in regard to the irrational metre and the logaoedic dactyl. feet. writing in 1808. but soon afterwards. Point after Bhythmic . Schmidt and Christ. —he ' will derive his conclusions directly from the adequate. rejected Apel's cyclic dactyl and in general his a priori conclusions as to the distribution of times In his great edition of Pindar Bockh turned from the metricians to the rhythmicians and was the first modern to utilize Aristoxenus in the study of Greek rhythm.' It would be hard to find in any field of philological controversy a more scathing arraignment of another man's views than Eossbach makes of Apel's.' with whom in fact his acquaintance was in' as an ephemeral Bockh. 1 — this.

and De 511. The greater Asclepiadean. and that they The etfect of the were to be treated as a separate element. die ein giites Apel is. is choriambic. but were themselves unrhythmical. coepi relinquere.. that they consisted of two theses. clearly apprehended. " die bliude Henne. whose origin and significance are now. They.^ and should be noted that he thus advanced the theory of logaoedic scansion of certain Aeolic cola before any of his successors in the same field had written on this subject. as also the Glyconic* He does not state why he thus discriminates. h . 518 ^ ^' ii. Koru gefunden hat.'^ The acatalectic lesser Asclepiadean. 21 ff. says " inde profectus universam Apelii doctrinam. although he disliked ' ' ' ' application of this theory is wholesale production of choriambs. for example.^ . made 'basis.^ | .INTRODUCTION welter of hariolations and hypotheses." : Even the gentle Bockh. regarding 1 Bockh accepted Hermann's but only one thesis and completely severed it from what of only two or at the it.^ these syllables the name basis and discussed them at length in He held that they were a sort of praeludium his first book.' the Phalaecean choriambic. See Caesius Bassus. like the inconsequentially. although it consists See506ii.v^|. Hermann's theory of the nature and use of these undeveloped syllables was at first thought to be new learning and they still Hermann's basis. . after investigations that He gave have extended over a century.' who on demand will furnish ' ' almost allowed anything it that is desired. 216. ^ |-^^ -^ | See i De ^i=L\-^^-\-^^-\-^^-^^^Mj_^^_i_>^^-\^-. on the contrary he artificially extended its use.*^ follows. ut desperatam prorsus. and he dispossessed it of its rightful place among the eight prototypes by the very process by which He had fallen into diffihe enlarged the use of the choriamb. See532. ^x|_^^| Metris (1796). it This classification was made in his first book. but the Phalaecean is log- aoedic. is made to furnish three Hermann treated these Aeolic verses choriambs by this process. culties with the undeveloped syllables which begin the Glyconic. 652f. however. it Nor did he absolutely because it was rough and harsh. 258 K. xv in fine.'' et tentameutum of the feet that followed.' but this doctrine crops out pass current as among the Latin derivationists. after a statement of reasons. c. 4 -sd\-^'^-\-^-^-ff. as he thought. greater Asclepiadean. Metris. reject the antispast." Hermann had no quarrel with the choriamb in itself.

thanks to the intuition of Professor von Wila- mowitz. See his Choriavibische Dimeter. See Spec. The antispast disappears. ' ' it {^ ^) or the dactyl.xvi THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY three syllables. goes much deeper than that. 88. alleging that these syllables constituted triseme foot in descending rhythm." 554 ff. have needed also ? to rid themselves of the obsession of an ictus.^ and had seen that the unformed initial syllables of the Glyconic were only a minor manifestation of the same pheno- menon. to be sure. It beheads prelude or colon or foot. xxiii '^ f. the antispast. ii. No other To what extent is existing prejudice against general. characterized by great freedom of form.^ ^ 2 2 See Find. The basis was a and the trochee and but might be irrational ( ). See 653. who did not admit the pyrrhic most trochee. if Is it pertinent (or impertinent ?) to surmise ^ modem metricians had had from the beginning of the as discussion as clear a conception of the polyschematist dimeter we now have. as a ' ' monopodic colon. aU antispastic cola. K. 3 ff.^ that. When the iamb occurred (as it does in Pindar) was not to be considered as a basis but as an iambic colon ' ' prefixed to a following trochaic or dactylic colon with an effect Eossbach and comparable with syncopation in modern music.^ they might never have raised their turbulent outcry They would. that Old Man of against the antispast the Sea. and no victim survives that fatal process. 6. . It is obvious that the original segregation and prolonged discussion of this unruly combination would strongly individualize it and give it that sort of general recognition which comes from possession of But its recognition as a separate element. 80 cf. •* ^ ^ See 506 f. Op.). were its only forms in Pindar.5. See Marius Victorinus. . and as closely connected as possible with what followed. method is possible. which is unobjectionable. Metrik. whether as the field. See p.^ Westphal protested vigorously against the separation of the syllables grouped in the ' basis ' from the following a feet. and the remainder of the colon must now be analyzed as either choriambic or logaoedic. 149. i." We need not follow these troublesome syllables farther. These irrational colon might be resolved (^ ^ ^ and w ^ . but their trouble was that The pure antispast was they contaminated the antispast. due to the unfortunate accident of Hermann's misconception of the origin and nature of the unThese syllables formed syllables that begin many Aeolic cola ? disturbed the Latin metricians also.

Rossbach states the fact from precisely this point There was now general of view and in precisely this way. both predisposed rhythms of modern poetry and music. Eossbach and Westphal were unable to face them and left the Other scholars. still mere conception that the complex but authentic tetrasyllable rhythms of Greek poetry can be stated in terms of the simple dissyllabic and trisyllabic rhythms of modern poetry is alluring. ." It is neverthewholly lacking. my His two volumes occupy over twelve hundred pages. On the first of these two feet.^ extended exposition of his theory of rhythm^ had undoubtedly It was his ignorance or neglect of principles influenced opinion.. consistently sacrifice the ionics along with the antispast and Von Christ even choriamb and give them logaoedic scansion. . the true theory. but choriambic theory devised by two Alexandrian period. ggg Metrik. whether the following feet were to be regarded Voss and Apel. logaoedic. s ^^^^^ Metrik. of Greek rhythm transmitted in ancient sources of information The extant that involved him in fantastic conclusions.71 rendered as where J. J*'. He announced a third volume. and Bockh adopted the same view.^ to the show — . Metrik. ' XV. Metrik. p.'^ "~" ^2 See Spec."^ but halts abashed before the repeated testimony of Aristoxenus and the paeonic odes Aristophanes. but died before it was written. 'Logaoedic' Metre in Greek 31 jf. See I shall shortly f.^ feels doubt about the pentaseme of feet of Greek heniiolic rhythm. see 390. is Historic evidence of logaoedic scansion of Aeolic verse Eossbach and Westphal confess that it is entirely without the support of ancient authority.^ 521.^ 518 ff Comedy.' When Hermann as choriambic or as their books had established his ' but had left the question open. Metrik. '^ ' •» See Von is jjjs ^^ 6 ' Christ.Spec. on metric* This ^ and was replaced by an ionicunknown grammarians of the whose doctrine was adopted by Latin writers it was lost is a startling 5 statement. less.INTRODUCTION xvii basis. as the late Professor von Christ in Germany and Professor Shorey in America. early or late.^ disagreement arose when agreement that the choriamb must go another deadly process into the it came to dismembering it Apel's two diplasic feet required by logaoedic scansion. the consequences are appalling. the cyclic dactyl. the theory of the poets of the classical period.. they allege. such two ionic tetrasyllable feet untouched. Greek or Latin." 64. promptly decided for logaoedic scansion. 521. sustained by the courage of their convictions. — but if it is consistently applied.

a vohiminous work of considerable originality. Both are rhythmically stressed. 2 In his Meirik see also his 'Grund. there is no consciousness of any difference between Greek and English metre. 213 ff. notably by Professor von Christ. outlines system of verse alleged differences to which between we are fundamental its rhythm and that accustomed tend to ..^ vogue. are quantitative though English is less exquisitely so. It is possible with the schemes of Rossbach.. the pleasure received. XXII. Schmidt. ii. an ardent and eloquent Two American scholars have recently come forward advocate.^ and Professor Shorey with a vivacious monograph in which the author's views are expressed with ardour and the main argument It is enlivened by practical suggestions. Professor Goodell in a cautious and judicial reconsideration of the ancient evidence. if so fine furentem. is precisely analogous to that enjoyed by appreciative readers of Shelley and Swinburne. and others. 212 ff. — Me quoque pectoris a word may be applied to a performance so pedestrian. (1902). when Aristoxenus. his general position at the beginning of his monograph in the following and similar tenets : In prowe study any foreign portion as — .^ disappear. therefore. discussion of pedagogical methods. The aesthetic effect obtained. if we regard the practice of the better English poets. had extraordinary had the honour of making the outlines of Schmidt's general system known to English and American scholars w^ho had not become acquainted with it in the original by the publication in 1878 of a trans- The ' logaoedic theory ' of Aeolic verse has it. Schmidt adopted I lation of his summary statement of it.^ in its support. and both. J. • He In his Choviambic Dimeter.^ challenged. . . must not be supposed that the new theory has gone unProfessor Henri Weil condemned it and repeatedly Professor controverted what he affirmed was false doctrine. Misit Temptavit in dulci iuventa Fervor et in The present book. If the Greek accents are ignored. is a palinode. 2 See his Greek Metric. H. in fragendermelischenMetrikderGriechen' the Transactions of the Bavarian ^ca(^e?«?/. undertook to formulate the principles of rhythm which the great poets had unconsciously obeyed. to teach students to read with appreciation the choruses of tragedy and the odes of Pindar. The logaoedic theory has been adopted in many editions of the poets and has been repeatedly presented in books and monographs. and piquant criticisms. H. with the wealth of the poetry and music of the preceding century at his command.xviii THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY evidence that advance fourth has convinced me at least that the logaoedic theory of Aeolic verse cannot have prevailed in the century before Christ. ^ First in the iVews Jahrhucher fiir 1 In his Kunstformen der griecMschen Poesie. strictly confined to Aeolic forms. . logaoedicos vae. a man of profound intelligence.

his £tudes de Rhythmique in two papers with expressive titles Les Prelendus : Logaedes (181 fiF. pp. Philologie for 1862. aud 1865. 411. would satisfy all the demands of ancient and modern verse. Kenyon published the British Museum papyrus of Bacchylides. Pindar was published in 1900.^ very strong on the Continent volume. 459-464 of this book. (1872) 49 ff. (1895) His views are summarized in 399. for they are not found in modern poetry. and a mere child is charmed by the rhythm of motion. 294 fi'. - See the Bibliography.^ six The publication of Professor von interest in Wilainowitz's Isyllos and HeraUcs powerfully stimulated renewed and the subject became general on the Continent when Dr. . But Apel neglected certain elementary but fundamental principles. tetrasyllable simple The new doctrine denies the existence of Greek poetry. scrutiny The reaction against the logaoedic theory of Aeolic verse is its waves have hardly as yet reached the shores of England and America. developed a priori. Professor Masqueray followed and Professor Hugo Gleditsch went over to the enemy.. Greek dramatists. 650 vi. . and was followed by his metrical editions of the his master. Weil. convincing they have successfully submitted the ancient theory to . It has gradually gathered . xix. first affirmed by Apel. Ehythm has various media of expression. Submitted to this test Ionic and Aeolic Greek rhythms were doomed to disappear. Professor Blass in his edition of the text of Bacchylides in the treatment of the Aeolic odes (1898) abandoned the logaoedic theory among the newly discovered Professor Schroder's poems. The sense of rhythm is universal poets have been singing since the world began. ff. 1873. they have observed with surprise the disposition of extreme advocates of this theory to minimize plain differences between Greek and modern languages and to establish equivalences that do not exist they have reexamined the ancient evidence and found it. Language is only one of them and it is the stubbornest of all. In justification of theory of universal Apel affirmed a rhythm which. ^ Jahrbiicher fiir classische Philologie.).) and Za Vraie Mesure dcs faux logatdes {203 ff. . though meagre. on which this theory rests to severe but judicial and found it untenable . the practical test of feet in its application to the poets. and monographs began to appear.INTRODUCTION Susemihl declared against attention to Aeolic verse. Scholars have subjected the fundamental principle.. and in tlae Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique. Later in the Fievue Critique. 346 tf. Even in Greek this. it.

and our great poets charm but sure control of the means by which they spoken verse. ff.^ 195 ff. There of variation is conditioned is by the nature nothing improbable in the supposition like that a strictly quantitative language like Greek developed forms of rhythm of which a modern language English is incapable on the contrary probable. The English poets have developed three a fourth. iambic. sceptral and tall. * Swinburne in a note prefixed to his spirited rendering of the parabasis of Aristophanes's Birds speaks of English as "a language to which all variations and combinations of anapaestic. but one of the facts that deterred Professor von Christ from dismembering the paeon was Brambach's discovery of modern melodies in fiveeight time. . xxxv. but if this were said seriously. or trochaic metre are as natural and pliable as all dactylic and spondaic forms of verse are unnatural and abhorrent. and their facile use of hold and pause in marshalling the almost colourless and very uncertain syllables of English speech so that they march in time. of course. ' medium. XX THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY make it not only the order but also the length of syllables had to be regulated to an instrument difficult of rhythmical expression." .^ and Westphal quotes an aria from Mozart's Bon Juan that is in ionic rhythm. It is. full of tte sun. its expression in language are of the and the degree medium. We may go farther. . Museum. But vs^hile the sense of rhythm is a universal possession. a mere rhetorical pleasantry to deny the existence of a fact because it does not come within the range of one's own experience. the forms of various.'-^ That is. Modern poetry cannot manage these longer rhythmical elements with ease. modern music with its greater resources can compass rhythms that are not found in modern it is poetry. since as Aristoxenus says rhythm is an ordering of times. (1880). fruits that were reared for thee. in the attempt to dispossess tetrasyllable feet of their rightful place as indivisible measures of rhythm in Greek. it would be an ineffective argument. but our poets have The charm of Swinburne's Chori' undeniable : Large red lilies of love. and perhaps These are the only rhythms natural ambics is to this particular essayed others successfully. 242 - See Hhythmik. English give is a still more us by their delicate it medium.^ simple rhythms. their is rhythmical effect in their skilful sub- stitution of natural stress for the quantity that inherent in Greek. lovely for eyes to see Thornless blossom of love. The battle over the hexameter that began in the sixteenth century still rages. ^ See Rhein.

and were often accompanied by a dance. to secure just the effects he wished. it may be said. would logaoedic noted. who waits hungry and cold and still he stands lone on a lonely hill. scire nefas. as has been alleged. alleged equivaOne's sense of the significance of features lences are multiplied. That precisely their value in this discussion. a good Grecian. real differences between the as inevitable as it is deplorable Greek tetrasyllable — ancient and the modern language are minimized. rhythms have not been used by modern poets because modern languages are constitutionally inadequate to sustain these longer rhythms easily. which is the vital feature of modern poetry and is there combined with the word-accent. Stress. another good poet and Grecian. xxi Horace's Tu ne quaesieris. but it has also gradually The effect of its adoption was altered the cut of that garment. is now of one. he fears nothing : Here we see the same is skilful use of natural length. stress. perhaps ' Horace. is imposed upon Greek poetry blurred and deadened. Apel's system of universal rhythm not only put authentic Greek rhythms into a strait-waistcoat.'-^ An He old eagle.^ have nothing theory' of to do. and is here seen in his delicate attention to natural length of syllables and in his use of stress. because these rhythms are impossible in any language. are treated precisely as modern verse that is read or recited by a single person. but in what he I am happy to know — — believes was Sappho's manner. in separating the first two syllables of each verse from His technical the choriambs that then flow on to its iambic close. that are sharply characteristic language. it should be this verse.— INTRODUCTION This is . . has kindly sent me verses composed in the same rhythm. now of the other Thus the distinction between melic and spoken verse is broken down. both reinforced by caesura. quern tibi the greater Asclepiadean. seeks nothing. not. and Greek dramatic choruses that were rendered by a dozen or fifteen performers in song. Swinburne. Professor Gilbert Murray. with the He has followed Hermann. and caesura to produce the desired These are tours de force. qiiem mihi. 1 See 532. a blind eagle. effect. skill was unrivalled.

Aeolic. The Greeks. is strictly defined is purely artistic. their the solid foundation on which Greek orderings of ' varied times ' are based. prosodiac-enoplic. whereas in modern poetry one school of metrists practically denies that it exists. inherent in the language and fixed is in almost all syllables. therefore. however. now a connotation far removed from its original Greek sense. because we moderns cannot read Aeolic verse — — in to Eegret that we cannot teach our pupils ? render the odes of Pindar as Greeks rendered them is an amiable sentiment. another affirms that it has a function comparable with that in the ancient languages. Finally. the resolution to read them even at the cost of reading them in the wrong fashion is prompted no doubt by any other manner 1 See 59. rhythms with consequently believe that ictus in Greek is a Quantity. in fact. but in Greek the quantity inherent in syllables requires no support. how credible and convincing is the allegation that the metrical structure of Aeolic verse must have ' ' of the simple trochaic a bastard form. exceptions. at best been a form and dactylic rhythms that the Greek poets did employ in nonmelic rendering. the pause and the hold are indispensable in rhythmizing the uncertain syllables of modern speech. these With rare The choruses rhythms were exclusively melic. dochmiac. paeonic. no evidence for an ictus in Greek poetry. anapaestic. and meanwhile the shows that whatever the true arbitrators practice of the poets — — role it plays is entirely secondary to that of accent. ionic. trochaic recitative dactylic the rhythms that were used an actor's rendering. and the use of pause and hold while Iambic in Greek. The word lyrical has the idea of reading dochmiac verse.xxii THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY to is and alleged whereas there be an indispensable element of Greek rhythm. and many scholars modern invention.^ we mean when we speak These are the four rhythms that modern poetry has developed. but recitative of does not signify in the least what reciting his lines. and Bacchylides and Swinburne are not. poets of the same genre. Both Greek and English. the only rhythm that was used and in in spoken verse are Iambic. Only a highly imaginative mind can grasp of tragedy were sung. developed other rhythms. If now the rhythms just named were not used in spoken verse in Greek. . employ only simple dissyllabic and trisyllabic rhythms in nonmelic verse.

whatever its precise nature may be. and Dionysius in his treatise on literary composition gives it due attention. is reasons its determination may be in remains true that the great body of English composed in simple feet of which one part is distinguished for various it from the other part or parts by what we this coincides with the word-accent. and however perplexing verse particular Hues. See Consbrueh's Hephaestion. since. The argument of Longinus Hephaestion with some change of See Consbruch. English-speaking men stress seems a natural and necessary manifestation. — —and therefore generally because Longinus himself tells us what So important is it in interpretation he means. and it is not that. is found also in Choeroboscus's commentary on . may be rendered as heroic verse. not all longs being of the same length nor all shorts. The inference from this cannot be that Greek verse was distin- guished from prose by a foot-stress. but neither has the least significance in the scientific facts. He has just been saying that to pay attention to the context. 178. The more ardent advocates of the logaoedic theory of Aeolic To verse assume stress in Greek poetry and make much of it. but both refuse to give the testimony for which they were summoned. S2. it is the ear which determines whether or not a given combination of words constitutes a verse. phraseology.(biaa7) in one of the orations of Demosthenes. ^ See the second paragraph on next page. as it can. tov iroXefxov. 143. De corona. rhythmical detection. hi yap iv ov et? 'EXaretay rjXde ^iXcTnro^.'' effect the sounds is must so first be given proper length. call But in stress/ and that Greek there is no ' evidence for any such phenomenon. is older than Aristoxenus.INTKODUCTION determination of xxiii a generous impulse. and about that modern prosodists are at loggerheads. but that this was not observed because the orator declaimed it in the prose manner. but that the voice must In order to get previously shape and regulate the syllables. otherwise the combination much prose and the verse escapes This doctrine that syllables in their natural state vary in length. passages have recently been brought into the discussion. that verse was stressed.^ 1 ^ * See 28.^ Two The ancient authors have been searched in vain. no historic proof that the Greek poets distinguished the thesis from the arsis by variation of stress. Louginus in his prolegomena to Hephaestion's manual ^ says that a passage ^A/j.

xv. . 36 See 11. and M. . J. and he therefore recognizes that his assumed dimeter ' may be purely anapaestic. he says. and until he can determine that fact he does not know how to beat This particular combination of long the time of this dimeter. as in dvBpe'i an illustration from oirXtrat Siara^dfievot. diphthongs are long a syllable that contains a long vowel or diphthong is long. that the length of a naturally long or naturally short vowel was The speculations of increased by the addition of consonants. See his VOrigine. one that contains a short vowel is short. 1 and therefore made the primary ^ * 2 57 M. apprehended the element of truth in them. He regards either solution as legitimate. is ambiguous. There is time with hand or intensive genial protest ^ foot." bouche ce Quantity in Greek a syllable. but syllabic length Time is is increased by conjunction of vowels and consonants. plenty of evidence that the Greeks beat none that they accompanied this with utterance on the is down il beat. and short syllables. a certain slight varia- tion in the length of syllables. 360) that has just the metrical constitution But in a preceding chapter (xxiv.. all Greek all rhythmicians early noted the fact just intimated that of precisely the long syllables were not same length. chap. nor short syllables equally short. passage from the De musica to show that Aris tides would have stressed the theses of his assumed colon when he had determined he is in its rhythm. that the ' Aristophanes (Vesp. 56. — for instance that a dactylic metre might be joined with an anapaestic metre. verb. Kawczynski's avec le just : " Or la me parait inadmissible de faire qu'ils faisaient executer aux anciens par pied. There is nothing in this whether we assume or deny stress.'* Aristoxenus some rhythmicians on this subject were fantastic.xxiv THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY The second passage is in Aristides. 36.) he has stated dactyl ^ and spondee are proper feet in anapaestic rhythm. See Dionysius De coinp. quantity is innate in the Greek language. the conception underlying these elementary principles. is the relative time occupied in uttering Greek vowels are by nature long or short. but doubt which the poet intended.^ He believed that simple in antithetic rhythm might be combined even in the same feet colon. to furnish him he assumes. SvaBcaKpirov Troiet Tr}v l3d<7Lv. and it is clear that the ambiguity remains for him. — a doctrine now exploded. ff.

^ by the pause in melic verse that occurs at the close of most subordinate periods. but were true So little do new the metrists. than the normal short syllable longer than the - protracted theses. which admit that prevail in Greek : no exceptions. 2. It that unconsciously established the simple laws of poetic was the poets rhythm in Greek poetry all short syllables are normally of the same length.^ time of the syllables of speech required regulation in order that This regulation they might become proper measures of rhythm. But verse and melody limited to syllables and tones of only two durations. long and short. longs and Defenders rather are they of the true to who piously rejoice and triseme theses struggling. by this pause and an additional rhetorical pause at the close of most spoken. 20. in trisemes and tetrasemes . the unit of measure in rhythm.^ and in iambic and trochaic verse a short longer than the normal short. pure anapaestic and pure dactylic verse in comedy. all long syllables are normally of the same length.^ See 11.INTRODUCTION xxv The time. was effected just as soon as men began to sing. and the time-ratio of the former to the latter These simple rules are beautifully illustrated by is one to two." as Professor Shorey insists on calling them. •' ^ Caesura. ^ See 228. ^ is as yet little better than 1 See 1. would have been monotonous. and variations of these two times arose in the most natural manner in the development of certain rhythms from the primitive cola.*^ the " English verse in order to secure rhythmical length. merit charge of simply juggling with faith. melodramatic. and by caesura and diaeresis in non-melic verse. See under Irrationality in the General Index. Diaeresis in the Index. These variations include irrational arses. shorts. which were in no sense comparable with the hold that is so frequently necessary in pauses that interrupted the flow of the rhythm. displaying a normal long."* Variety was further secured by resolution. not the syllable. . and ' Greek Metric. and recitative lines. displaying a long long syllable shorter than the normal long and short syllables shorter . See under Pause. have themselves escaped from the welter of irrational arses in which they see their apostate brethren Professor Goodell declares that the theory of English metric This cannot be due to lack chaos. See under Protraction in the Index.

"Fear not. just ' ' it ' were musically annotated so that it might be read with proper quantity and force." This can only mean that he regarded the quantity of English syllables as in itself so unobvious that a ' musical score was required to indicate four simple rhythms of English poetry. theorists in plenty have been ready to instruct the poets in their art. isle of silvery it in any except the _^ w^ ^^ ^^ " ! parapets . all quantitative hexameters that sadly disregarded the accent of the English words.Elsewhere in the Life his son records: " He gloried in his new English metre." ^ that " he wished that you can. and every possible Since the time of Spenser view has been advocated and denied. but he feared that no one could read it except himself. syllables." of which the metre is " an echo of the metre in the Atys of Catullus. once said that he believed he knew the quantity of every word ' ' ' in the English language if except perhaps ' scissors. forth- Tennyson satirized these hybrid hexameters in kind." But our great poets are endowed with too sensitive and delicate powers of perception not to feel Tennyson that English syllables are not all of the same length. even rules of English quantity were coming. He seems to be laughing behind his mask in his hendecasyllabics.^ ^ The common form of this catalectic — v^ ionic tetrameter in the Attis is — y^^^. conceit that English verse may be written in the classical manner It is attractive. those who incline syllables take practically the broke out violently soon after the middle of the ' last century when Matthew Arnold delivered his lectures On Translating Homer' at Oxford and Professor Munro declared in Cambridge that modern speech had lost all sense of syllabic quantity. isle of blowing woodland. what he meant by that. A vast number of books and mono- graphs on English prosody has been written. who in the sixteenth century attempted to saddle Latin rules of quantity upon English to the view that all English The same time for utterance. and wanted some one to annotate it musically so that ' . Specimen English hexameters done in the Virgilian manner. Theories on English quantity range all the way from the dogmatic doctrine of the to classicists.xxvi THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY of attention to the subject. Spenser had humorously said three hundred years earlier that the middle syllable of the word carpenter (which the classicists had made long by position ') " seemeth like a lame gosling that draweth one leg after her.' It is important to discover. and he himself said of his " Boadicea. and the malady recrudesces from time to time.

that the it inevitable is element it in English a poetry unquestionably in Greek. or of four parts syllables in poetry. I cannot pubyet. " extant. hold. presently state why these parts are never and adds that he will more than the four which the fulfilment foot has in virtue of its own special character} The of this promise is unfortunately no longer can read her except myself? ^ See 290 M. fixed and is they are long or short. safely be said about quantity. but they feet do not ultimately invalidate the fact poetry.' no. can be formulated. An important part of this testimony has been recently acquired. In discussing the principles of rhythm Aristoxenus states that a simple foot or foot-times. and by a variety of devices. or of three. To This difference may be summarily stated as follows. pause and the in English poetry. use of pause and hold. the difference constantly and no rules ' . Neglect real differences and assumption of false re- semblances between Greek and modern languages confuse the investigation of a subject that is in itself difficult. but this particular function and pause of is unknown in Greek.. for who ' . Chief among these are pause. tetrasyllable in Greek These are established by the testimony of Aristoxenus.' " Again lish " : her Boadicea. neglect or consciously disregard the difference between quantity in Greek and in English breeds lamentable confusion. which in the poetry of languages demands that feet in the same series shall be of equal length. § 18 W. and obscure the individual charm of each of language. In English poetry the role of syllables in prois ducing rhythm degree of secondary . like quantity. Time and stress are intimately related.INTEODUCTION It is xxvii confidently hard to make one's way in the ruck of opinions expressed by contending prosodists about stress. it is but so not that much may fundamental. hold. people could understand the rhythm. the most of them are common they are fitted all into the rhythmical scheme. and variety processes that are independent of secured by modifying is them by regular in operation and perfectly determinable. perhaps never. The skilful stress. is not structural necessity. is In Greek poetry the quantity of syllables stress. that may is consist of two. when they varies ' differ in length. the indispensable means by which the rhythmical units of hold temporally imperfect elements of English speech are grouped in is the highest art.

them here. the choriamb briefly ^aKxeio^. and of these feet are briefly characterized by Aristides in a passage "The source: original the is Aristoxenus agreed is it which KprirtKO'i (i.^)."^ : : ionics in diplasic rhythm..^ . with which we are now particularly concerned. but he here treats the feet all as simple feet. in which he is considering feet and reference to the number of primary times that they contain arsis and thesis.e. TToSe? to be considered. are given. and choriamb. 223. magnitude admit two divisions into arsis and thesis. M.e. This important document is a fragment of the same work that I have twice cited above.^ ^ -). a trochee as arsis ^). ^ ..^ as does Aristoxenus in the evidence still we owe to the energetic and learned discoverers of the treasures found in Oxyrhynchus. the BaKTvXo^ Kara ^aKx^lov rov airo Id^i^ov (i.e. diiamb Aristoxenus does not name and ditrochee in isomeric rhythm. Grundziige. the iambic For of the three ratios that six primary and the dactylic' ' ' times admit. namely the isomeric (i. the first belongs to but the the dactylic class of rhythms. 1 5). § 34 W.e. which consists of a trochee as thesis and the SaKrvXo^ kut cafi^ov (i.^ -). .' . the diiamb BaKrvXo'i Kara cafxjSov.e. as arsis the BdKTv\o<. which davvderot. but the earlier names of the four-part isomeric feet. and treats of protraction in the ditrochee. 3 3). and of other special cases of rhythmization. Kara ^aKxecov rov airo rpoxalov which has a trochee as thesis and an iamb as arsis . Aristoxenus's Frinciples of Rhythm. 2:4 = 1:2)." " these feet by names (iamb.. J. the second to the iambic. and each in discussing iambic catalexis. 20 ff. diiamb. ^ . thesis which is composed of an iamb as and an iamb (i. which has the same constitution as the foot just named but with iamb and Aristides designates the parts of trochee in converse order. ' * See Caesar. Elsewhere in this book I have gratefully availed myself of the Oxyrhynchus frag- ment fragment as in the passage in Aristides the ditrochee is called KprjriKo^. xxviii THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY with In a subsequent passage. the diplasic (i. he says: into times these of distribution the Feet of this "Hexaseme feet constitute the fourth class. and the choriamb. See 49 f.e. .. This classification covers the two last is not rhythmical. See 780. . trochee) with which all his readers would be familiar. antispast. and the pentaplasic (i. The diiamb is See 302 M.^ In this is 1 regarded and treated as a simple isomeric 2 foot.e. 26.

or syllables. and each half consists of the same metrical elements.' and dipody the corner-stone of their theory. Aristoxenus characterizes and describes the choriamb in this in the iambic. simple foot diiamb and the ditrochee it is consisting of two long and two hexaseme it is tetrasyllable. . the poets The bare metrical form of the proIn re-establishing. . the length demanded by the rhythm. Jj)ril 1912.INTRODUCTION consists of four foot-times.v^ l_ in the ditrochaic series and i. but these are arranged in reversed rhythmical . of xxix incidentally described in the last part of the fragment as a foot that which the from first is short. fragment with unmistakable precision. . this becomes . Each of these feet may be used continuously and each quotes freely may be in protracted. order. illustration Aristoxenus of both facts. and each syllable has its natural poetic length of long or short it is isomeric. short syllables. . The rhythmical value of the protracted form of the choriamb because triseme protraction is more suitable to the is L_ ^ trochaic movement with which the choriamb begins than to the iamb with which it closes.w -. would assume. ' Yet the ' logaoedists ' declare this that the is choriamb is a catalectic dactylic dipody. in the apparently defective feet. . Harvard University. tracted measure in all three alike is .^ - One might feel doubt which form the choriamb Aristoxenus tells us and states the reason. It is congener of the it is a single.

See The lower-case indicate letters abcde. 468. 80.). see 8 n. etc.METEICAL CHAEACTERS AND EXPLANATIONS OF USAGE The references are to sections. indicating correspondence. (J). . the capitals ABCDE. For ^'j in iambic ( • and trochaic rhythm. 467. 83. The small capital letters attached to these numerals. after the metrical analysis of the colon. AA. 48. the small capitals abcde.uj (^). 82. 88. 303. 84. ). XXX systematic periods. see n. etc. m 23 (J^J). see 33. For V. etc. the final etc. etc. Hypermetrical periods (47) are analyzed into cola in both strophe and antistrophe. see 228. hiatus. I. in the analysis of the structure of odes. subordinate periods or hypermeters . The numerals that follow the metrical analysis of a strophe signify the number of metres that each preceding subordinate period or hypermeter contains. 85. When is a minus sign is added. signify respectively catalexis. above the level of the line (^^^). 83. in the thesis. Brunch's lining is followed in referring to the plays of Aristophanes. See 82. Kock'a numbering in referring to the fragments of comedy. For A For A A A. a heavyface letter signifies the beginning of a colon within the period. See 301. 82. above the level of the See 84. See 41. For the cmy/xTj placed over w and — see 51 n. 86. 3. is indicated by a hyphen (') placed line. gee n. 83. intermediate periods 46. 85. 93. in strophe or antistrophe. variable syllable. In the text of antistrophes arranged in subordinate periods.(J. See 465. 35. (I). (r). . etc. (/). colon is brachycatalectic or hypercatalectic. Indentation of cola signifies the continuation of a subordinate period or hypermeter. the preceding period dochmiac. For N^. For ~. etc. 572 . in place of a lacking short or long syllable. See 82. See 80. 83. 344. see 31. (P-). the equivalent of w ^ • . The close of a colon within a word. 94. See 89. "When d is added. etc.

an Alexandrian invention. f>v9/xi^6fieva rpia- Xf^is. — "/ieXoioetv yap irapaaKevd^erai" <Tw/j. 15 W. variation in tone. Aristox. and length of time of bodily movements its basis in the dance. v.^ "^^^ Greek comic poets were poets in a threefold sense. Aristid. as the name. 31 Cf. among the Greeks. Graec. Klvr)ais awiiariKT). preceded in order of development verse that was simply recited or spoken (59). whether in poetry. . or rhythm. f. not accent nor stress (28). 278 il. 'makers' not only of verse but also of melodies^ and dances.. the primary time. In Greek songs Ouri^itaUvJ the distinctions of tone indicated by the written accents.. (99). Aristoxenus defines rhythm as y^povoav ra^t? (Walz. : ' ' 1 iari de to. and was inseparably associated by the Greeks ^st^eJ^ts with the kindred rhythmical arts of song and dance. Greek poetry differs from modern poetry in an essential particular the language in which it is written is strictly quantitative. Melic poetry. Poetry is distinguished from prose by its measured move- ment. f.it^iTaL €v fiovaiKy Kivriffis 175). § 9 21. were lost in the ampler tones of the melody. signifies pitch. irpocrw^ia. as length of tones was its basis in melody. and.€\iii5ia. Rhet. was the basis of rhythm in Greek poetry.aTos. M^Xoj.). implies. 49 ff. § 10 W. devised the rhythmical bodily movements by which they were accompanied. 2. Xefts. J. Length of regulated syllables. fj. 454) and calls the fundamental unit of measurement of rhythm. . when these were rendered with a dance. melody or dance.' 7rp(t)T0<i TMV '^povcov (280 M. pv6fj.Agathon 'composing' in the is prologue of the Thesmophoriazusac (39- M. Aristophanes composed the music to which his odes were set.. Greek accent. CHAPTER I FUNDAMENTAL PEINCIPLES 1.

but it was probably consistently maintained throughout a single strophe in most of the simple songs of comedy. Goodell. Aristox. * ' ' THE FOOT 5. The word measurement of rhythm.. 42 M. 83 See also. With this definition. fxipos toO ** iravrbs pvd/xoO 8i' oS rbv 8\ov Kara- Xoyii/Sdvo/iec. the foot of the verse. ^^s^^e^^ch regard a short syllable in rhythmical measurement primary time. de Mus. Aristid. speak of a ' diseme syllable. four designated as a triseme. l_ triseme. (J") in modern music."* ^ is a sort of rhythmical 1 t. Karexovfrg.o<i.)..' But as in reTpdo-jj/xo'i rhythm there is also a and & •^povo'i Trevrdar] /j. TpLar]/MO'?. 18). both quoted in 780. with this we may. in dealing with the forms of poetry. Metric. : ttoi/s ixh oZv iaTi. with convenience. 7rov<i 5^ (rvWa^ri ^jpeixtl: Tivbs ixirpov fJ-^y^Gv odcra ovk fjikv Kara rbv °^'^ yap xp^^^" ai ™ avTo. cf.long. a •^povo'i {Avistox. 781.o<i ')(^p6vo<. or of a quarter-note ( J). 2^^ 29 ff. and is not to be confused with the word time signifying the tempo (dycojrj. may be and may be protracted to the value of three. § 16 W. time.) in which a strophe as a whole was The tempo of Greek songs varied. Syllables are foot. Aristid. common measure xP^''°v °-^^ A rrj simple foot. Bellermann. J. since their values are not constant. (^ (7r)/j.2 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 3 syllables of speech are not in themselves proper 3. by which we apprehend the rhythm and make others. of which the exact meaning is disputed. (p. tetraseme or The metrical signs of the length of syllables pentaseme syllable..^ On rules of quantity in comedy see 790 ff. J. ap. as in modern music. 34 M. for triseme syllables. is here applied solely to the 4. . 1 xpo'''"') MO** iroLoOnev (TLv crvWapal.. and in agreement as the '^p6vo<. are ^ short.' %/3oi^o9. l_i tetraseme. Anon. (p. lu pentaseme.^ this perceptible to In poetry. 26 f. Aristoxenus in the first volume of the Oxyrhyyichus PaiJyri and the inscription of Seikelos. Aristoxenus names this rhythmical doubled-time 'x^povo^ Sl(T7]/j. trovs eaTiv eh t) Aristox. § 10 W.). equivalent to an eighth-note The long syllable has then the value of two primary times. 280 M. Trpeoro?. and we may for °^ convenience.^ values are regulated in poetry. 22.e6a TrXeious iv6s. The These measures of rhythm. 7rov<i. empo. 132.6v Kai yvwpiaicrdrjaei. . 2 t6v pvd/j.aiv&fj. so a long syllable or five times. §§ 1. as that Aristoxenus defines the combined into feet. 288 M. Psel. 76 W. rendered.

302 M. i. v^v^j— and —| and trochee. cretic. 6. tides (31 M. (11) w V and . The parts of a foot are divided between the upward beat. 21.) classified.). or of four. W. of iamb. TO avo). The Promiscuous combinations of syllables do not constitute possible combinations of a short and a long syllable (two units) number four in two places. ' but some of them were avoided by the poets as arrhythmical. -\^. eight in ^^^^® places. consist only of such combinations of short syllables as were felt to be rhythmical (Aristox. FEET IN IONIAN VERSE 8.). ' § 8 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES one that cannot be divided into smaller normally consists (Aristox.. now designates the r^l^^ part or parts of the foot that were sung to the upward beat as the arsis. 0€cn<. following Aris§ 17 W. - 1 v^ v^ and . feet' Rhythmical and ancient iii. four. P^'i^^^y times that §§ number of each contains (Aristox. with reference ShnpSreet of six times. The general practice. apac<. it may consist of three. as named by the metricians first epitrite N^ and v. feet. sixteen in four places. but not in poetry of developed forms. — o — [ and bacchius. ch../ . — o | v^ v^ . as the iamb. 7.. thesis. is . the remainder of the foot as the 8 W. and ' fourth epitrite. . - . Feet.. 31 ff.. to kuto) (Aristox. ! ^\- . TToSe? TrevTaaTj/jLOL 1 : first paeon. 10 f.'^ ii. is It 17 W. . and the downward beat. and TToSe? TpLCTTj/jLot. as the anapaest.1 iii. or syllables poetry...) of at in two parts (^povoL v/ ttoBckol).). The simple are feet that occur in Ionian to Verse (603 the fF. as the ionic. 274. and their number is limited. metricians name all these ' (Heph.. 286 M. o . ^ ^ but only by resolution rarely of more than four. then. — and . § 276 M. between arsis and The thesis indicated by the (TTiynT) {•).).. dactyl. least § 3 feet.). 288 M. d(Tvv9eTo<. irohe'i T€Tpdcn)[jboi: anapaest. as feet of three. J.^ The hair-liiie here marks the division thesis. of five. .' Such arrhythmical conjunctions of syllables and long occur of course in prose.&% in the inscription of Seikelos (781).

rarely occurs in comedy. or BiTToSia.^ w. THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY TToSe? €^dcr7]/jbOL : 9 minor ionic. ^ .tKa yevij (Aristox.. long in the thesis.- 11. but not of the spondaic. v^ anapaestic dipody. including anapaest. pv0fj. . case.o o On 12. thesis). giving celeusmatic. the spondaic dactyl.- including iamb.: . sometimes resolved into two shorts. resolution of .- . called their Rhythmical -^^^yg^ 7roSi«o9. first paeon.- .=^ 1 1 trochaic dipody. in which jevo<. ionic. ou e- feet of three or four primary times are combined.^ v. first paeon.v^ . The thesis of a simple foot never contains fewer primary arsis. The thesis of the anapaest . Feet. called tribrach.-. in the ratio .. av^vyia.' . .^ v^ v^ and . fall into three classes. by doubling. =^ . dactylic dipody. major iii.(' spondaic anapaest with resolved The thesis of the trisyllabic. by resolution of ^ ^ by resolution of . . § 30 W. 9. : . which the ratio is 1 2.' . . . in the other. is equal./ . The arsis of the anapaest and dactyl is v. 10. but it is rare.and .o -. by dactyl may likewise be resolved. anapaest.. i. A long thesis is in the iamb. StirXdaiov. ^ ^ ii. .o . .(607).o . classified with reference the ratio of primary times in the arsis to those in the thesis. as This trisyllabic form o o v^ .and major ionic.. ^ § . times than the and generally it has more. to The principle prevails that short syllables stand in the arsis. ' ^ ^ o o called prodactylic and . .and .. dactyl. The bacchius the probable relation of the cretic to the See 447 f.) : 7eVo9 taov.' . trochee. 4 iv. ' . and trochee. may likewise be resolved. . in which the including the feet of five times. j^p^^jy^ metricians iambic dipody. and 761/0? rjfitoXLov. and bacchius.^\-^ | . w o o is . ^ v^|. the foot ' the ' spondaic anapaest. o . see 620.v^ minor ionic. dissyllabic ^ or . 2:3. hemiolic class.-. ratio is diplasic class.^ ^ -^ cretic. 300 M. isomeric class. is some. Simple ee . In the one times called spondee. This gives o o ^ v^./ The is form of each foot. into a higher rhythmical unit called by the syzygy.

MetiS^^ these metres is commonly expressed by writing . and all four are isomeric. fF. 292 M./ . an ionic dimeter. v. 29 f. J. it is not an exact multiple of the primary time. trochaic or anapaestic tetrapody was The called a dimeter. k^ajxkTpouTi 220). : .€rpa KarakrjKTLKa. and Thus o this arsis may appear as ^ This variability in the form of and -^ o . as is the normal long.o . 112. of five or six times. § than the '^6vo<.^^\-o^^isa paeonic dimeter. the second two each of eight primary times. See KwXa fS Heliodorus in Schol. implies monopodic division of this verse. ftatvova-t 8e rtve? avTo Kal Kara ' ' . and 132. For the dactylic SaKrvXtKo. the trochaic metre. trochaic The fundamental colon (22) in each of these four compare the phraseology of metre 14. : TTOLOvvTes T€Tpa[j. The general rhythmical effect of metrical variation is retardation.. that is. This grouping prevailed in melic and anapaestic verse. 13.§ 16 first FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 5 two dipodies consist each of six. 16. but while greater (Aristox. .and . ' . Voss {Zeitmessung. non-melic verse in which the Homeric poems are written was called a hexameter. : .^ The time of the long syllable them o .^ .^ . ^^^^l^^-:--!. that may thus be substituted for the short is irrational. 184 . Heph.' and this name. Each of these dipodies will hereafter in this book be called a metre..) the value of a normal long syllable and measures the irrational for metre in dactylic or isomeric time.and . in accordance with the ancient practice by which an iambic. iv eTreai which appears first in Herodotus (ev l^a/xer/aw tovm i.). dactylic as well as in melic iambic. The normal forms of iambic and trochaic metres are ^ _ o . SLfj-erpa. 52 M. 47 vii. 15. (TV^vyiav 15 f. . with thesis and arsis equal. aXoyo'i 20 W. the ratio of the parts that constitute the is 3:3. Sicr7]fxo<i. 33. and Schol. See 333. Eq. 14 f.. Modern eflTect metricians differ in opinion as to the rhythmical value and gives it of this irrational syllable. irpcoro'i is less than this the '^p6vo<. But the heroic. arsis to those that constitute the thesis may be irrational. 328 f also Aristid.w and in both the ratio of arsis to thesis But in each. term metre may be applied in the same sense to all simple feet Thus -<. four simple feet combined in pairs. rhythms conThe sisted of a dimeter.

and on the semi-developed metre that begins the Glyconic. 449. as J. ^ This view was ardently maintained by Karl Lehrs as part of his general doctrine that all Greek feet. 1 . resolved irrational iamb) and (' anapaest. 131 ff. These are likewise all isomeric.) are the choriamb ^^ the antispast v^ . v. Aristoxenus von Tarent. Op. . resolved irrational The trochee) are legitimate. .e. FEET IN AEOLIC VERSE The feet that occur in Aeolic Verse (651 £f. regarded 18. makes the ratio of the normal long to the irrational long ^^ to f. see 506. 1 «. and it is never resolved.^ . instead of V. but is rendered with special force. J*J J. v. but somewhere between 2 1 and 2 2.) gives the irrational half of the metre the value of three and one half primary times. 462.to -f (2:1). 372 flf./ .. irrational trochaic metre becomes by similar resolu„ Besolution m Irrational tion -w|^v^. § 20 W.yj.) holds that the irrational syllable has the time of a short syllable.for -w] The forms w e res. | > "^ . ii. its arsis. Westphal {Ehythmik ^. 25 f.- v. i. with actual lengthening of the primary time represented by the irrational syllable. thereby shortening the time of the normal long and lengthening that of the short syllable represented by the irrational long.v^ . On the undeveloped metre that begins the polyschematist dimeter. all simple feet of six primary times. believing that the irrational half of the metre retains its original value of three primary times. by resolution of the normally becomes v^ v^ . long syllable in each is irrational.' i.' i. 651 ff. 'sforzando. I. Each may 19.^ the diiamb ^ .^ Apel (Metrik^. including ionics. Goodell {Metric. and the ditrochee TToSe? €^dcrr)fMOL.for ^^ \^ . 107). : : : long syllable in . are simply metres in which two of 17. These differences of opinion result from the uncertainty of the meaning of the expressions ixka-ov and {Mera^v as used by Aristoxenus in the passage cited above (292 M. the ratio between the parts being 3:3.. ^c ^ (j^ctyl.^^ from the point of view of the probable origin of iambic and trochaic verse (606. The irrational metres o . On the probable origin of these feet see 600 ff. ! See his . and belong to the 7eVo<? ta-ov.. 608). i.).. 112) regards the ratio as indeterminate. An irrational iambic metre.and . v./ 1 .e..' Bockh (Find..v/ . were in even time Kleine Schriften. the three forms of the primitive variable arsis of Ionian verse are interchangeably retained in fixed places. and makes the ratio between normal long and irrational long 2 1 1.^ | with convenience be called a metre. 6 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 17 example.

p.. The simplest cola. Paris. membra. and Aristid.v^ under the influence of the iambic metre and trochaic metre gradually admitted °^ ^^^ °"^y resolution and irrationality but even pro^^tvles traction (31). the parts of which are unified by modulation. COMPOUND FEET OR COLA 21. since they are constituent parts of a higher rhythmical unit. trochaic metre by poets of the fifth century. -n-oSe? 298 M. Heph. . 93. (rvvOerot To these KoiKa. Its length . The following occur in comedy : 1 Frg. v^ . 18.v^ . ap.).*= ^ vanes accordmg to the nature oi its division into arsis and thesis.. in turn. 22. A colon a rhythmical unit capable continuous control by the voice. . 23. 12 ff. . 63. W. and therefore of limited extent. with balanced arsis and thesis. It is probable that the diiamb and the ditrochee were not differentiated from the iambic and the . The Colon.. the hemiolic. the isomeric ratio. longer compound feet the name were (Aristox. . in the exactest sense. the diplasic. the period. twenty-five. § 22. 35 M.' was specially applied by Greek metricians (cf.). 23. but four are dipodies (12). .. ^ . Psel. namely..w . 7 J. 4 W.. diplasic to eighteen. are those composed of feet that may be continuously rhythmized (Aristox. in The most of them are simple (5). which were originally of a fixed number of times and syllables. (p. and hemiolic to „. § 23 20. 85 W. 15 flf. 2). All these. § 26 W.and . 300 M. See also frg. cola. * named feet by Greek 296 M.).^ isomeric compound feet may extend to a length of sixteen primary times. rhythmicians. within these limitations. „ . The feet thus far considered contain from three to eight primary times.. ^30 W. These Aeolic metres. See 659. According to the doctrine of Aristoxenus. FUNDAMENTAL PEINCIPLES 7 The diiamb and the ditrochee are identical in form with the iambic metre and the trochaic metre of Ionian verse. were combined ^TeeT"^ and they larger rhythmical units that were also feet. . and the normal ratios that determine this division are those that govern simple feet. 68. -^ . The prevailing is cola in Greek comedy are of the dimeter and the trimeter.

in which iambs are combined with anapaests and trochees with dactyls. and 337.^ ^25./v-'. diiamb and ditrochee are variously combined.2 : : THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Isomeric Cola Dimeters.^ .w v^ . 395 277. for the dochmius. Tripodies (diplasic).^ ^ .w ^ -^ 1 1 v.^ trochaic anapaestic ^ .^ . but they are extremely comedy Pentapodies (hemiolic). v.. might occur within the limits of length allowed in rare in compound feet (22). see 506 ff. 26. are composed of different feet and. 68. in which the choriamb. On see 276 the anapaestic metre and the dactyHc metre developed as cola.^ . 396 The sign ua has exactly the value of v. and flf.^ . 394 338. consisting of simple feet of three or four primary times. 24 paeonic 5 6 6 5 thesis arsis : arsis iambic trochaic thesis : thesis arsis arsis : arsis minor ionic 6 8 thesis thesis : anapaestic dactylic : 8 thesis arsis Diplasic Cola Trimeters. 24. See 435. antispast. ^- v^/v^j- tions of length set of twenty-five primary times. 458 ff.^ . . A ^ liemiolic paeonic colon .^ - dactylic ^ ^_^_^_^_^_ _^_^_^_^_^ ^_^_^_ ^ ______ __________ to indicate that 393 203. might occur under the limitaby the rhythmicians. iambic ^ . For cola in prosodiac and enoplic rhythm see 475 ff. ^ s^ ^. Tripodies and pentapodies.^ . see 375 For Aeolic cola. but it is rejected by ^- Heliodorus. For logaoedic cola. Cola of more complicated structure also occur in comedy. paeonic 1 5 6 12 thesis arsis : : arsis iambic trochaic 1 thesis : 6 12 thesis arsis : arsis minor ionic 6 thesis . like those consisting continuously of the same foot. are dimeters and trimeters. These Mixed Cola. which are given this form simply v^ and — are convertible in certain simple feet.^ .

M. The thesis of a arsis. a firmer pattern along which are grouped the more varied dpcreis. G?e'ek pl)Vtry. of a simple foot. 389). is its more constant and the prominent Greek. through logaoedic forms. then. or omitted (31 f. but neither of them. from an arithmetical precision that would be machine-like and repellent. Metric. of the form ^u-w. it is probable that the^Thelif it was rarely reduced. is metrically as well as The distinguished in Ionian verse from the arsis. theory of the irrational metre stated in 16. or as brachycatalectic (35) dimeters and trimeters. but it is to be observed that the thesis of the simple foot that is shortened in each of these metres is a part of the Some scholars hold arsis of the metre. (15).§ 28 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 9 It seems probable. it is the thesis that gives stability to foot in the processes. that the thesis of a simple foot may These views dactyl recorded in 390. Yet Aristoxenus (296 ff. of iambic and anapaestic cola from the Was the thesis otherwise disprimitive dimeter (603 ff. nor any other ancient authority. of rhythmization in part 28. accompanied respectively by upstress. Aristoxenus and Aristides recognize the division of the foot into arsis and thesis. It is the latter chiefly that provide the needful relief from monotony. that marks and fixes its rhythm. or made irrational The thesis of a foot. as protracted (31) catalectic dimeters and trimeters. that these cohi. and various views on the 'cyclic' . 174. are considered in 391.. sometimes complex.^ whereas the ^^^ variously affected it might be shortened : (388. from the point of view of the origin of Ionian Verse. under each form of verse.^ part."The series of 0e<x€is was in the whole rhythmic design a sort of central beside and tliread. are to be regarded. shorter than the ^^^^^ generally simple foot in Ionian verse is never It seems longer (8). The thesis. They will be separately considered. ^J ictus in Greek poetry is unsupported by ancient evidence. 27. See Bbckh's be shortened on occasion. when they occur. and it is theses of simple feet in beat and down-beat of hand or foot.and — 228). In the Germanic languages it is tinguished from the arsis ? marked by heavier generally assumed that the Greek were similarly marked But this assumption of an intensive utterance. §§ 22-29 W. . as they hereafter occur. even intimates that the thesis was stressed.).)." Goodell. evolved in the process of phrase-building. which functionally permanence fundamental This clearly appears in the gradual evolution.). of the thesis and the instability of the arsis are distinctions. followed 1 The only instances recognized in this book are iambic and trochaic metres v^u-w (75. therefore.

The distinction of ascending the connotation of stress and pitch. feet inference seems inevitable. ways in rhythm and specifies which foot and defines with differ. and the voice of the singer advances from the less to the more important iambic and anapaestic verse. Modern poetry maintains had it to abandon it. 300 M. Schultz.. and The are numerous. Rhythmik^. Ad' d were the first to take form in the development of j^^^. eirofxevov Se tov iXarrova.10 THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY Aristides (34 M. ionics. arsis See ff. 1 It seems probable that the conception of thesis and Grundzuge der Ehythmik. 198 ff. noting the as iamb and trochee. it was made long ago by Capperonnier and Madvig. Aristoxenus makes it (298. Beitrage. but This was inevitable. same relation. 361 ff. of a stress-ictus in very general. discussion has been spirited. xx. to prevent intolerable complications. a highly developed and rigidly begins each bar with a stressed thesis. and descending rhythm is important and is an essential part of Greek rhythmical theory. The it has . 53 ff. Aristides (34 M. 23. Descending Rhythm. See also Goodell. L'Origine. Ca.es3ir. 4 £f. Westphal.. o airo fX6i^ovo<. but not lacked humour. that in Greek verse the thesis was not distinguished from the arsis by variation of stress. . whatever our prepossessions may be. 29 W. it must be noted. P^-"-^ °^ ^^^ ^*^*^^' ^^ ^^ 29. but it has . ' obscures real differences. i(oviK6<i. 412 ff.. but with arsis and thesis reversed. xix.^ Cola in which the arsis precedes the thesis. These cola. but modern music. 30. speaks of thesis and arsis as the greater and ' ' the ' less ' foot-time : orav Svo iroSoov Xafi^avofiivrnv 6 fjuev eyrj Tov fiei^ova ypovov Kadr)<yovfM€vov. Metric.. Hendrickson in the American Journal of Philology. to adopt a convenient modern form of statement. is unfortunate that Hermann should have followed the practice of modern music in treating Greek and Latin verse. 6 avr' e\daaovo<i lwviko^. and it has recently been vigorously discussed.) in noting the of the same primary times. two art. . 102 ff.. as in rising rhythm trochaic and dactylic verse.). particularity definitions § 29 by great seven of ancient 28 ff. it. in descending or falling rhythm In Greek.j^^ rhythms (604 ff. 155 ff. J. 22. His theory of anacrusis.' applied to periods in ascending rhythm. J. . are in ascending or those in which this relation is reversed.. o oe The same distinction is marked in the names of the evavTla)<.^). 314 ff.). these terms do not carry (608 ff. Bennett and 105 2 The assumption Greek poetry is Protest against not gone unchallenged. See Kawczynski. .). antithetic relation of feet composed §§ 22.

for example. Protraction occurs chiefly in iambic (72 .. . - ro rac ion. : ->/ 1 | seem. ing syllable that 27.: § 32 FUNDAMENTAL PEINCIPLES 'x^povo'.).and in which the often in the Glyconic thesis and arsis of the other two feet exactly but antithetically .^ ...w v^ .and . the 7rp6(rdeai<i of two. See the Editor's Logaoedic Metre. 11 and iXda-acov ')^p6vo<.^ ^ .) xp vos K€vo<. diiambs over ditrochees in the 31. 32. in protraction. all of an iambic ^ trochaic ' metre ' may be protracted. but ff. j^ . Aristides (40 f. „^.^ . fifth century. K€vos. In melic poetry a may lack one or more syllables necessary to satisfy the rhythm.^ colon Some cola are metrically defective. was taken up by the long syllable adjacent to it in ' This long syllable was ^^^^ ^^^^ simple foot.^ balance one another within each foot Here the distinction of ascending and descending rhythm. unrepresented rhythmical time was made effective in two ways. The time. : . K6v6<i became a factor in the melody. nrpoo-- The Xelfifta Be 'vp6vo<. By thereby lengthened to a triseme or tetraseme syllable (3). but necessary to complete the rhythm. it seems probable that the rhythm of Aeolic verse ultimately came to be regarded This is indicated by the great preponderance of as ascending. a time unrepresented in the words of the song.^ Thus we meet such iambic and trochaic cola as .^ . foot 384).v^ v. . ff. due to the partial lonianizing of Aeolic cola (20).v^ .^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ 'Xp6vo9 K€v6^ {' inane tempus ') calls fiev ovv iarL y^p6vo<i avev (pdoyjov 'irpo'^ avairXyjpcocrcv Tov pvdfiov. M. did not originally exist which could combine feet as diverse 'as the diiamb and ditrochee in the same colon.w the dot indicating the lack. Iambic and Trochaic Cola. The protraction. J. but with the general elimination of original differences between Ionian and Aeolic rhythm. ^^ ^^^^ In or these the xP°vo^ '^^^o'? ^^ ^"^ ^^®^^ Either simple simple foot. ekd-x^KTro^. 6e<Ti<i This had the value of one primary time. well illustrated in the odes.' the first is seen in the process called tov^. must originally have been excluded by the perfect balance that characterized the verse. it would as fiei^cov in Aeolic verse. void. as . second in catalexis and acephalization. 34 . . this process the 'Xp6vo<. . Chiefly in cola (207 ^ ff. of Aristophanes. 4 tf.) and trochaic .and .. is demanded by the rhythm. . ' occasionally in logaoedic cola (380. . Xetyciyua 8e ev pvdfifp )(p6vo<t Kevo^. fxaKpo<i ekayicTTov hiirXaa'iwv. a primary time.^ .

.. see tion in Aeolic verse.and incomplete. the second. its purpose was to ease the strain upon the voices of the singers.choriamb .^ . Protraction does not occur in melic anapaestic and dactylic verse in comedy.' a.) as 6aa crvWa/Srjv Tov TeXevraiov ttoSo? is aefx. thesis common forms ^ ^- being .) are called cola acatalectic. or prosodiac and enoplic.y^ . Hephaestion e-^ei (13. § 102). the colon TiKov. ..^ .v^ anapaest dactyl minor ionic v^ enoplius paeon . . chiefly in diiambic and ditrochaic 516 f£. is not taken up by the long it • „ .. . The corresponding complete dimeters. .^ . .^ v^ A final pause that normally is equal to the ^p6vo<i Kev6<. the 'Xp6vo<. On protraccola. . v-/ v. -v^-vy -^-v^. The form of the simple . foot is that which . Anon. nor in paeonic.^ ./ . triseme and tetraseme syllable incumbent (3). dochmiac. 12 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY is § 33 protraction mucli more frequent in the (12).^ .^ . In minor ionic verse. the final long syllable short at of a period or verse may be long or pleasure (43). _ Final Pause. A pause of one time is indicated by a one of two times by tt of three by "a.. adjacent .^ - On the metres ^ - and - v^ w 227 f. of the rhythm in which the colon is composed follows the catalectic metre and completes the rhythm of the period before „. a diseme time (3).^ . conformably to the actual length of the final syllable : . ' ^ that .aKpoT€pa<i assumed in catalexis normal at the close of an acatalectic colon iamb ^ . . 27 d(f)aipel J. KaraXrjK- iambic dimeter. foot ^ (31) . third and fourth are the same character with the signs respectively of the long.^ is a catalectic . to in suppressed. Aristides (50 M. of four by r (Bellermann. the metre than in its . defines catalectic as oaa fxe/xeco/juevov rov reXevraiov iroBa.and w see 75. 32. If the '^p6vo<. 33. . ^tthe singing or the next period begins.. The first of these is the initial letter of the word \elfjbfia. the arsis of . 6 ff. Thus ^ . .y^ .trocliee .^ ^ catalectic trochaic dimeter. k€v6<.. v. Since KaTaXi]^eco<. . is the last half of the thesis. : . „ ^. Four pauses are recorded and each has its own sign. Kev6<i that occurs in the last simple foot of the final Catalexis. . 620./ . colon of a syllable "^ •* period . the length of the pause may vary in two equal cola in the same rhythm.v6Tr)T0<} eveKev t^? /j. de mus. but is is called catalectic. ^ .

conclusion from these facts is that the choriamb in catalexis becomes The catalectic form of the paeon.^ ^ _ ^ _ ^-^^ .^ ( A or ^ . 29 principle 13. Hephaestion's application of the (19. that of a diseme.^ ^ . See 203. the xpoi-os The legitimate Kevos in this verse has the value of a primary time.^ (a ( TT or a ) 335 or^) 437 polyschematist Glyconic 34.^ whole of that foot. (for . Arist. Heph. 15 ft". The two examples of catalectic paeonic is determined analogously. _^^_ v^^^(AorA) 477 0000 -w-(AorA') 508 00-^ ^-^(Aor^) 511 of the normal pause is easily determined in most In iambic and trochaic rhythm and in the Glyconic. -^^(AorA) dactylic 202 paeonic enoplic - . - ^ ^^ . dactylic. On the current theory of iambic and anapaestic catalexis. if a short syllable is substituted for this normal long syllable. -_. 18 ff. ends in fairly conclude that the xpovos K-eros in paeonic verse had the value of a primary time and that the paeon in catalexis became — — The final syllable.^ ^ ^. periods quoted by Hephaestion (42. enoplic and minor The evidence for determining the ionic rhythm. 5 ff. . The length rhythms.^ . Papyri. . it is that of a primary time .) and paeonic (— w — ). trochaic _^_^ -^-v. the chief exemplar of this sort of verse.^ ( TT or v ) 272 A 13 iambic anapaestic ) 66.^ ^w .^ ^^ or . see 779 ff. col. 7 ft'.^^(TTorA") 418 201.v^ rhythmical treatise found in Oxyrhynchus and edited by Grenfell and Hunt {Oxyr. which rarely occurs. § 35 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ^ . Hephaestion (29. 32. J. The following pause is lengthened one primary time.^ .) Aristoxenus vouches for the form ^ . The pause length.) end in The only instance of a catalectic paeonic colon in Aristophanes {Av. • ' ' v. that is.) in protracted choriambic verse. 35.^ ^ _ ^ _ ^ .. not a brachycatalectic dimeter. 50 M. We may 247). then. .)..) needs correction.^ . 16.^ v^ . 67 minor ionic ^^ .) states that the proper catalectic In the fragment of the form of the choriamb is . is long in catalectic cola in all rhythms. in anapaestic. iii. facts is not abundant in case of the choriamb ( . The final colon of a period may lack not simply the Xpovo'i Kev6<i of its final simple foot but the It is then said to be brachycatalectic.: ./ ^.(l_ w . i. 1 which completes the rhythm is of corresponding Thus in apparent tripodies and pentapodies The Ithyphallic is a protracted.

successively shortened dimeter finally becoming a Greek metricians regarded such a penthemimer.^--w^ or ^-^(TT a ^ ^ a ) 277 _^- ^^ or (a or r) 379 dactylic -^-^ -^ is A a) 338 On iambic and trocliaic cola that in form apparently are tripodies and pentapodies. 203.^^ (a . Aristid.w ^ deficient normally A a ~ . J. with a longer final pause. ff. as dimeters. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^-^j. ^^ ^-^^ ^f ^^^ following form ' and spoke of its final syllable as a syllable in excess. 32. which are extremely rare. with a few exceptions. 1 See 488. No satisfactory proof can be adduced that they were in some manner compressed in rhythmization so that their rhythmical value was that of the succeeding form. not as dimeters important to hypercatalectic cola. The relation of the various successively ('incomplete') forms of the dimeter may be illustrated by a trochaic series acatalectic dimeter catalectic dimeter brachycatalectic dimeter hypercatalectic monometer acatalectic monometer ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ w ^ ^ ^ .^^ . diminished 37. brachycatalectic.^ . See also Heph. see 68. all It is Brachycatalectic dimeters are relatively rare. poet. the possible that in given instances they were rhythmized by but as tripodies.^ complete .. 4 . On a form of the choriamb in Aeolic verse that probably 36. and. but it should not be allowed to obscure the real process that it designates. but Aristides clearly recognizes the true relation of such a colon to the brachycatalectic form that precedes.^^^^ Hypercatalexis. 50 M. We are unfortunately left uninformed on this point. 14.^ „ „ "a ^ „ „ „ „ T 7: Acatalectic dimeters are the rhythms. at other times. They may have been rhythmized sometimes as tripodies. ^.^ catalectic is established hypercatalectic The term hyper- by usage and should be retained.: ' 14 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY anapaestic logaoedic § 36 ^ . in setting his song to music. the prevailing cola Greek these dimeters admit in all As fact to note is that they sustain catalectic relation to the ante- cedent brachycatalectic forms. catalexis. The length a of brachycatalectic cola may in turn be reduced. 29 ff. see 509.

ionic. constitute a subordinate period. Syllables may be suppressed not only at the close but also at the beginning of a rhythmical period. whole. which is so regulated that the combination of cola ^ is felt to be with beginning and close or beginning. This process is called acephalization. but it often occurs in songs of more elaborate structure PERIODS in other poets. with the same purpose of easing the strain upon the voices of the singers. Subordinate Two. as the name. dactylic. 266-78 (90). 3-7) ou the rhetorical period. ordinate period. all in the same rhythm. see 698. an extended subordinate period. anapaestic.^ 39. iambic. in fact. are of great length. all Melic hypermeters occur in Aristophanes in nearly the varied rhythms of comedy. Some melic hypermeters Cf Ach. middle and close. a series of cola continuously combined that is so long as to entail some loss of the sense of harmonious union that characterizes the subordinate period. 41. trochaic. is eight metres. name hypermeter has been given. 300 ff. 209-22 (285). On subordinate periods and melic hypermeters certified by Helio- dorus. 'jrepioho'i. greatest length of the subordinate period 40. with special effect. ix. Av. Acephalization is rare in the simple lyrics of Aristophanes. three or four cola may be combined to form a subThe bond of union is the rhythm. implies.§41 FUNDAMENTAL rRINCIPLES 15 The reduced dimeters and trimeters will be separately considered under each rhythm in the following chapters. See also 608. Subordinate periods and melic hypermeters are designated in this book by the lower-case letters abcde. This harmonious union of phrases is easily rendered by the singer and easily apprehended as a whole by the hearer. The melic hypermeter is. The times necessary to complete the rhythm are ^poz^ot Kevoi (31). It is assumed in this book that the but this is not common.^ A single colon may. 38. paeonic and Aeolic. Combinations occur of more than four closely connected To these the convenient melic cola. ^ Compare the instructive statements of Aristotle in his Rhetoric (in. . ^ See the Editor's Origin and Form of Aeolic Verse.

and his bald statement of facts has someIt should times been misinterpreted. the decameter gradually merging into the hypermeter. (735). ' Variable ^^^ holds in Greek poetry that a short syllable may be substituted for a final long syllable in the last The result colon of a subordinate period or melic hypermeter. but it may be signified in other ways. may length of the subordinate period is lacking. with a conseHiatus is frequent quent pause of the value of a primary time. and the phenomenon ^^ ^^^^ nature of that just described. never have 43. is shortened before a vowel or diphthong at the beginning of the following period. at the rhythm demands a long end of a period or hypermeter. and it may be accompanied in comedy by change of rhythm or speaker. caused by the concurrence of a vowel sound at the end of a word with a vowel sound at the beginning of the following word. the subordinate period For example. The close of a subordinate period may be indicated also simply by change of rhythm 44. been consciously determined. 15 ff. The fact. The 35. be observed that no proof can be adduced that a long syllable was ever substituted in Greek for a normal short in this position. precisely A long vowel or diphthong.16 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY limitation of § 42 the length of the subordinate period to 42. indeed. But no period or hyperTheir constituent cola. (14. 36). periods and melic hypermeters lack the mentioned (775). where the syllable. in the following period. Some subordinate indications 1 Heph. . especially in paeonic verse. of the ^ ^ ^' marks of the close of the subordinate period or melic hypermeter. Hiatus also. 384-8 (89) may have been felt to possess the essential unity of a period. may mark the close of a subordinate period or is melic hypermeter. on the other meter ends within a word. or of both.) defines the avWa^r) aSid<popoi ('syilaba anceps') broadly. and it is sometimes accompanied in the odes of Aristophanes by change of rhythm or speaker. The eif'ht metres arranged in three or four cola is adopted in this book as Trustworthy ancient evidence on the limit of a working hypothesis. or of both.^ of this substitution is a pause of the value of a primary time that This pause serves as one is necessary to complete the rhythm. in paeonic verse. a period following in the same rhythm without an intervening pause. which avoids catalexis. The final colon of a subordinate period or melic hyper- meter ' is generally indicated by one of the forms of catalexis (33. of five cola that constitutes Putn. Hiatus. The long syllable that may close an acatalectic trochaic colon is the irrational syllable.

may be combined to constitute an Intermediate period. with variations of such as resulted from allowed Ssteophe correspondences variant syllables. the structure of the systematic period complex. 45. frequently end manner. c . Heliodorus 46. leaving it to his reader to differentiate them. see 720 The music only to be repeated with a new which a systematic period was sung might stanza of the same metrical form. including hypermeters. or one or more subbut ordinate periods and a hypermeter. and of melic tetrameters or trimeters. Its close is generally pause.§ 51 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES in this 17 hand. an important but difficult subject. of In Aristophanes. 48. periods. authority for the intermediate period. simply as TreptoSoi. even is consist subordinate period or hypermeter (773). Heliodorus designates all the periods that have been mentioned. and the two taken together a monostrophic dyad. systematic On 51. 50. which is is indicated the text by punctuation (734). On systematic periods certified by Heliodorus see 695. The close connexion of the cola that constitute a subordinate period or hypermeter is called avvdcpeta. the period broken up into intermediate periods. The first stanza was then called the strophe and the second the antistrophe. indicated by hyphena- tion in writing. not more than two different sorts See 778. Two or more subordinate intermediate periods. Systematic periods are indicated in this book by the capital letters ABCDEF. rarely. si/7iapliea. 47. structure and intermediate flF. of verse may the be combined in the same stichic period. Au intermediate or systematic period consist solely may be stichic. Intermediate periods are indicated in this book by the small capital letters abode. marked in in Aristophanes by a rhetorical See 728. A systematic period that contains a hyper- meter may with convenience be called a hypermetrical period. Its recognition is important in analysis. This sometimes. consists of a single hypermeter. Subordinate periods and hypermeters This of is may be united to form a systematic period. 49. generally simple in comedy and Systematic j^^ consists j^^^^y a limited of number a single If is of elements.

(86). trochaic and anapaestic verse.pentameter. The correspondence of strophe and antistrophe is generally close. correspondence that was deliberate.1033-6 (583).948-51 is a part. 54. AB. . Three systematic periods may be combined. See 706 ff. Triadic Groups.) the melic periods described in the preceding sections (39 that were found to be suitable in melic rendering. Ban. A 53. the iambic trimeter. subordinate periods. (217). 937-9 . A systematic period may stand alone without equivalent. Cf. iambic heptameter . the poet deliberately changes the rhythm and melody of a subordinate period in the antistrophe. eight an octad. trimeters and hypermeters occur in ff. AB = AB. mesodic. and especially in the drama iambic. however. are not of the same We must infer in these cases. -jt^ t a t^-o a t> a ment may be AAB. movement for continuous nonThese gradually (59) came to be employed not only in song. See 715 ff. 333-5 -349-51 ^ (473). ^ The sign ~ indicates correspondence. Pax 950-3. . or ABA. although in the same rhythm. . Sometimes. melodramatic and spoken Thus the 'heroic line' in dactylic rhythm came into use. Some of these non-antistrophic periods were melic. 536-8-592 f. Non-^tistrophic Q^j^gj^g ^^^. but also as recitative. trochaic trochaic trimeter ~ dimeter hexameter . ABB. » a NON-MELIC VERSES AND HYPERMETERS 55. six a hexad. with change in the structure of the systematic or intermediate period of which the subordinate period Thus Ach. Av. proodic.18 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 52 Three such stanzas constituted a monostrophic triad. but a lack of length. trochaic hypermeters. as = indicates equivalence. a dochmiac pentameter in correspondence with a paeonic decameter. epodic. ianibic. not a lacuna. irepLKoirri. and anapaestic tetrameters. This subject is fully treated in 701. citative (59). 897-994 (214). Two systematic periods of variant metrical constitution may be united to form a pericope.g rendered melodramatically or in reof which The order of arrangetwo are metrically equal. four a tetrad. See 705. 52. Certain tetrameters. and slight change of melody.iambic octameter. pericope may be repeated and the two double- stanzas stand in antistrophic relation. Ban. a diiambic octameter Sometimes two in correspondence with a diiambo-Glyconic octameter.

is called caesura. felt to was regarded anapaestic be a well-defined whole.' no less than iambic. and there can have been no appreciable pause between them. trochaic and as a ' tetrameters and the dactylic * hexameter.p6(n^ . of dimeters and monometers in Hypermeter!" anapaestic for rhythm.5) as 'two periods. and the spoken iambic trimeter verse. . (974-92. In this particular the recitative or melodramatic hypermeter was in marked contrast final with the a-Ti^o(?. ^ The won! is used by Hephaestion exceeds the limit of length he allows the (ttLxos (66). which . The non-melic hypermeter ^ is a combination of closely connected monorrhythmic dimeters and trimeters in iambic and trochaic rhythm. 19). to/xj].§ 58 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ' 19 56. as regularly in tetrameters. at it this point is named falls within a colon. therefore. overlong comfortable rendering. exactly after the manner of the cola composing the subordinate period or melic hypermeter. defining the length of the arlxo'i. If this pause is coincident with the close of a colon. therefore. 993-101. Cf.' To facilitate rendering.' the division 57. but each was (22) is the iambic trimeter. (18. . 16 it f. trimeter and these cola were connected monometer had its own modulation as a colon but by synaphea (44). which was rendered not only with a but also with one or more interior pauses.' applying the same name he uses for the melic hypermeter (698) to each of these recitative trochaic hypermeters. called chokers ' Each dimeter. The dactylic hexameter/ the tetrameters and the trimeter occupied each the space of a line in writing and were named (xri-xoL. The iambic trimeter does not exceed the limit of length allowed the colon in diplasic rhythm the other verses mentioned are all dicolic. pause 58.). verses. it is Its cola are rhythmically of connected. as generally in the iambic trimeter and in the dactylic ' hexameter. and in fact a single line. They were united. the parabasis were. Heliodorus designates Pax 974 ff. Hephaestion (62. The ' trochaic hypermeters (668). if 8ia{. ' The the longest shortest line ' in comedy is the anapaestic tetrameter. who applies the epithet vir^pfiiTpov to the trochaic pentameter. a slight pause marked by the end of a word might be introduced within the verse. the Diaeresis dividing of the verse and diaeresis. says that less contains not than three nor more than four syzygies or dipodies.

see 803 ff. others are choruses. 305 f.. begins with a prologue and ends with an exode. who with recitative and regard it as the sole See Christ's variation in passing from song to simple declamation. sustained by the tones of the instrument. like a tragedy of the same period. On non-melic hypermeters in Aristophanes see 710 ff. He recognizes also. but this still a ive. recitative withmelodramatic rendering. ^^^^ ^^^ verse are was modulated accompanied recita- by a accustomed to designate this In further development towards simple mode as recitative. that continues See Schol. « STRUCTURE OF COMEDY 61. the melodramatic. 824-35. either Thus also in comedy. Zielinski in his Gliedermig. 1320-8. on the authority of Plutarch ama ic. out accompaniment. duos or trios. the recitative. in which it was the speaking voice that was musical instrument. Uq. whatever its length. A parode. 313 f. irapaKaraXoyrj. 60. voice eci was ^^ modified. which the chorus enters.20 Schol. Melodramatic TrapaKaTaXoyi) Parakataloge. ^^^ ^^^ 1141). some by a chorus. A in comedy of Aristophanes. 166 ff. From songs are monodies. He uses the name TrepioBos also in application to a non-melic anapaestic hypermeter. secco-recitative. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 59 Pax 974. We Finally comes plain speech. sung to the single voice or accompaniment of lyre or flute. and the In the earliest times Greek poetry was spoken. differentiates n-apaKaraXoyt] as recitative with accompaniment from KaraXoyi]. without catalexis to its close. The singing song other modes of rendering verse originated. invented melodramatic rendering. For a discussion of the modes in which the different parts of a comedy were rendered. There were probably four : modes of rendering Greek comic verse ^* by a " the melic. ' ^° y^ikr) Xe^a. MODES OF EENDEEING 59. speech Archilochus. prologue. immediately follows the Here strict resemblance between comedy and . Pax 82-101. verse without accompaniment.. 154-72. declamation of identify rendering is denied by some scholars.

is like the parabasis and regularly of four the debate. . as in a court of law. This subject is treated at length in 665 ff. called the parabasis in which. named because song consists and a spoken part united with a A syzygy may occur second song and a second spoken part. ara asis. indeed. wholly peculiar to comedy is the syzygy. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES About the middle of a 21 comedy occurs a division implies. and an outline of the structure of each of the eleven plays will be found in the " Table of Structure and Rhythms. is A some of them. have two. it ^^^' balanced thus parts. The poet may come on a second time in an additional parabasis found in the second half of the play. the purpose of which was chiefly to adjust these larger divisions It is normally a spoken part and generally to the action. the main theme of the play.. called scene. singular and interesting division.§61 tragedy ends. was gradually developed. which in their a form and function resemble the corresponding parts of tragedy. but is represented by the leaders of parabasis. does not appear in person. The occurs. The action of the play is at a standin either half of the play. in the first half of the play. regularly in the first half of the play and when complete consists of nine parts. A seven parts. as the name He ^^^ ^^^^ comes on and addresses the audience. Another division which. action of the second half of the play is carried forward mainly in a division consisting of episode and stasimon. called the debate. still during the debate and the parabasis." at the end of this book. when complete. and a division. as would be expected. consists of the two half-choruses. The The debate occurs chorus presides and renders the verdict. found in most of the comedies of Aristophanes Two actors appear in this and . discuss.

becomes .€vos XWov (SaXeiv l3ovX6p.). 1208 65. The arsis of each metre may be irrational y^ Kol Kafia^oiv aTraAAayei's oOevTrep ets eKKXyja-Lav A-i]fjL7^Tep dyi/wv opyiwv ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — — ^ — ^ — ^ — Ach. 970 6 7r€pi7rov». comedy (186 f. 66./oos 'Apreiiiov Aa/3ovr€§ I'TTO cfuXrjBias j3Xy]X(i>iJ. The dimeter. 850 ^ — '^ — PZ. 311 wv^^--— PL 293 — — w»^ Th. 408 An iambic dimeter normally consists of twelve primary times and All iambic verse is eight syllables. 270 Ec. in ascending rhythm. 490 Ran.€vos ev CTKOTW XdfSoi — v^v^<^ — s^v^— — v^ — — v^— Ach. 63. If the normally long syllable in the arsis of an irrational resolved.13): Ttves TTod' otSe Kol TToOev . The thesis of each iamb may be resolved ^ ^^ ^ — ^ — ^ ^^ — — ^ — y^ — ^ — Ach.€V0i re irpofiaTiwv fiiXTTovcra Kol t^v To^ocfyopoi' jxoyepos €yoj — — vv— ws^^v^— (TTuyepos eyw. 384 Irrational metres are extremely common in all forms of iambic verse in 64. 1168 f.aiv6p.— : :: : CHAPTER II IAMBIC VERSE 62. the arsis o Se metre is becomes a ' dactyl v^ v^ ' (17) fji. by suppression of the catalectic (33) 22 arsis of its final iamb. w-/^^— Ach. -^ — ^ — v^ — v^— Av. The fundamental colon of iambic verse is a dimeter composed of two metres that consist each of two simple feet (12.

1200 Trpol^oXo'S €/xos. is never irrational.^ Ach.is the equivalent and -^ (11.) metres. 729 « 8' do-TTts eV TW cf)(il/dXoy KpefiTqcrcTai Ach. and its metres admit the varieties of form found in tlie dimeter. . normally consists of eighteen times and twelve syllables. The equivalents of the iamb in the first half of the iambic metre are ^^. in the second half w. 1224 Ktti yap yap irapal3Xe\{/a<.^ .kXo'i eoprrj'i ^_^_ ^^ ^ i?an. but its last syllable may be short (33). 23 v^ ai)T<j) Sta/vovetrai ix^raftifid^ei ^ — ^ — ^ — €ts aya^a -^ ^^ w — ^ ^ Ach. p.^ -) and pentapody 68.. 1161 ^ .^ . 398 The trimeter is much rarer in melic verse than the dimeter.^ - Vexp.- (OS TOVS KpLrds fJi€ (j)€p€T€' TTOV 'cTTtV 6 /SaO-iXeVS ^^^^ ^_w^ ^_ ^^^..^. if catalectic. 15. iambic tripody {^ .(f)p(i)v : TTidov TTidov XoyoLO-L.^ ^ - Ach. (^_^_^_^_^_) is apparent tripodies found in simplified logaoedic verse. 101 < Pax 947 The its fiual metre. The second colon of iambic verse is the trimeter. and also full and protracted (72 S. 409 piv tTrt yeAwrt ^_^_ ^-^^ ^-^ Ran. v^^w^ Ach. o-WTTyp 8d/xots. nor is either of long syllables ever resolved. are protracted (74) catalectic dimeters. ti fxeipaKia-Ki^s ^ (TV KaT€(T\i(r(>i ^ - Ran. but the thesis of its final iamb is never resolved a. in their respective places. fJ-TjB' ^_^_ ^_^_ ^_ ^ - ykvQ ^ . . are interchangeable with one another in strophe and antistrophe and in two corresponding subordinate periods. 1226 -^ch. 69. 1191 CTTvyepd rdSe ye Kpvepa irddeo. 279 <f)iXi']craT6v fie fxaXOaKio'i a) xpvcrtco ^_^_ ^ .§ 69 Sc' 6(rT€(i)v IAMBIC VERSE oSvfyTo. the single pentapody that occurs a protracted catalectic trimeter (393).Nub. These forms. 403 "laKX^ TroAvTi/tryre. ^_^_ __^_ rdXa^i tyoj ix^P^'-'^ fSXafSi) .^ ^ . It 67. 17). The Certain do not occur in comedy (26).

This anapaest is simply Vesp. This is not the and Pax 663.^ . 1314 . apparently Cf. is the most frequent form of protraction (31 f.— •— . 987 Similarly a catalectic colon may have w — ^ — ' spondaic • close KaAet Tts dvdpwTTiov Av. foot that characterized the primitive Ionian dimeter (603). .' This On the normal in logaoedic verse (375 £f.^ ^ -.and ^ _ ^_ (376). . Ach. a spoken trimeter. ^^ § 70 ..TrapaLvi(ra<i e)(^b) ^^ . This verse. ' ' : ofJLOppoOoj. — ^ — v^— Lys. a-vvdeXu) (TviJ. 72. . occasionally occur in melic iambic verse. By suppression of the first syllable in the arsis of an iambic metre. occurs in a few instances 1016. 886 = 869 (470). but common : Se tois crots Aoyois ^— . 1040 = 1011 (83). in place of an iambic metre. generally Cf. 1723 74. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY The logaoedic metres of ascending rhythm.)._^_ •— _4t). . 851 f.) in iambic The thesis : of the second iamb in this protracted metre may J) be resolved Zi€v Ti TTore )(^pq(r6fX€0a roto-Se tolctlv kvwSolXols ^ 73. 988'' (589) a manifestation of the variability of the arsis of the simple as the first metre of the colon. Av. A choriamb. logaoedic anapaest (389) in spoken and melodramatic iambic manifestation is verse see 113 71. — ^ — — ^ — — ^ — ^ _ ^ _ . true choriamb that is the fundamental foot in Aeolic verse (651) the form is here due to interior anaclasis.: : 24 70. the metre assumes cretic form 213 (373). ^ • — ^ ^ . metre assumes Both syllables are sometimes suppressed and then the spondaic form ' ' : vyyou 5e y' wS' atiTos — — ^ — .^ for ^ -. TJiesni. r^. 177. ff. 476 The first syllable in the thesis of an iambic metre ' may be suppressed and the metre then assumes this is less iTravy^rjcras bacchiac ' form. and the periods in which it occurs should not be ' emended. — ^ — . 1020 (374) Ban. — . _ ' Th. . t)28 This protracted metre may even be irrational w <f>ev (f)€v Trjs ^paii Tov KaXXovs •— Av. .

^ TrT(pO(f>6p' (ttI ^v. this iambic metre is probably to be regarded as -• v^ it the second syllable in the arsis ..). when employed as a subordinate period.— ^— ^ v^ Liis. tion of subordinate periods.^_ ^ Vesp. and was effectively employed by Aristophanes as both recitative and melodramatic verse (167 ff. 255 Cf. 77. Ban. iambic verse The used in stichic (50) systematic and intermediate periods. (82).^- w-v^. TreSov Aius Kat A€)(os ya/xv/Atov ^^•w^^ ^ — v^— 76.of the metre being slightly protracted. 279 f. The acatalectic iambic trimeter became the set verse of Spoken and melic trimeters are the dialogue of comedy (95 ff. 1757 f. 166. occasionally occur. compounded of dimetrical and trimetrical cola. see 223 S... The chief constituent of the melic iambic hypermeter to On the combinathe dimeter. in melic verse : TTLVwy pvTTWv CLTrapaTiXro's. non-melic tetrameter also has large use in comedy. — ^— Av. see 720 ff. so that the metre appears not as ^^ . The distinguished by marked differences of form (126 ff.). is confined to ff. 398 The catalectic dimeter also may be used as a subordinate period. trimeters are rare. Iambic has special affinity for anapaestic and dochrniac rhythm. The long syllable in the arsis of an iambic metre is sometimes shortened.^ ~ v^ ^^ . but not to the value of the normal long syllable Cf. § 78 IAMBIC VERSE 25 75. 179 ff. represents.^ ^- ^ for . Cf. hexameters. the recitative verse kvxvovs airifiiv : d7ro<r/?£0-avTe5 rovs oiKaS' avToi ^_^_ ^_ ^^. catalectic trimeter. e^ erwv aXovros ^ . 130 ff.). hypermeters and intermediate periods is form systematic periods.^ On the analogy of a not infrequent correspondbut as v^ w «>^ . The subordinate period that occurs is oftenest in melic the catalectic tetrameter. ing manifestation in trochaic verse {. and pentameters. and iambic cola may be combined with anapaestic and . formed by the union of This is the only period an acatalectic and a catalectic dimeter. heptameters and octameters.).). verse see 78. imitations of primitive forms of the strophe. These tetrameters may be followed On caesura and diaeresis in iambic by hypermeters (190 ff.

says (Foet. {Rhet. >=i 417 — ^ — ^ — ^ w ^^ w — ^ 2*^ 2*^^ OS €7rT€Trjs wv ovK e(f>v(r€ (^parepas Strophe II./xaywyei €V Tois 420 avw veKpoi(rt Kacrrlv to. stands in other rhythms. Ran. Strophe I.etov rfj Be tovtov TrXeicrra Xeyofjuev iv 8ia\eKru> 7rpo<i aX\7]\ov<{. 'H/x.. 416-39 (Parode). ranging from the primitive processionals Ranae to the festive duos of the Acharnians. 26 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY cola. in the same systematic period. iv. a f3ovXe(r9c 8yJTa Koivrj crKCoiJ/oiixev 'Ap)(^e8r]fj. yap lafi^ela and elsewhere also r. Trpwra tv}s cKet fxo^dripia'i. and occasionally with cola origin. 14) that nature herself discovered the trimeter as : the verse appropriate to dialogue (f)V(Ti^ \e^eo)<i 8e yevo^evT]<i avTrj r/ rb OLKelou fMerpov evpe' fj^aXicrra yap XeKTiKov rSiv fierpcov icTTcv rfj TO lafi^eiov ar)fi. e'cTTiv "Zepivov ocTTis ava</)Auo-Tios. 'Up. 4) he remarks speech of everyday life 6 S' : how iambic rhythm pervades the twv iafi^o<. . Aristotle which it approaches in use the trimeter of dialogue. of the parode of the in In comedy it has varied use in song. IIL a/couw a Tov KXeto-^evovs S' 423 Iv Tats Ta(fial(rL TrpojKTov TiAXetv eavTov Kal cnrapaTTiLV ras yvddovs. 613). iii. § 79 dochmiac 79. Iambic rhythm. avTrj ianv r) Xe^t? tmv fxerpcov la/x/Seia iroWcov \eyovre<i.ov. 'H/x.. Strophe 'Hyu. in in close relation with the primitive cola of Ionian verse (605 f. 8i6 /jLaXicTTa ttuvtcov <p6eyyovTai Melic Iambic Verse 80. 8. j3' KOLKOTTTer eyKCKv^ws 426 KUKkae KOLKeKpciyei. Strophe IV. fi' vvvl Se S>.

398-402 = 403-8 = 409-13 I.ropa.). flf.evw. At. Z^""' Sevpo (TwaKokovd^t ^ . text may have been furthered by the form of ode in the following lyric (416 82.^ 399 TJSio-Tor €vp<i)y. F (704) = aab. a "laKxe irokvTiptjTe. VII.^ 3^'^ . Strophe 'H/x. Strophe 'Up. e)(^OLT av ovv (fipdaaL vwv OTTOV 'v6d8' oIk€i eo-/x€v . 432 IIAovTwv' ^€vo) yap dpTiios d(f>iyf/. 3.. At. Strophe VIII.t — w— dos Kol piT avrrjS ^ — v^— ^a. 435 /X7y8' eirai'epy pe. then become the ordinary trimeters of the dialogue. 2 2 epodic triad : two catalectic dimeters with an acatalectic trimeter as epode. but Dobree's The verses suggestion that p. Kccyojye — -^ ^ — ^ — — 4 415 Trai^wv . 415) read: v^ eyo) del ttws <^tAaKoA. Ban. Ha- TOVTt Ti i) TO irpdypa 439 dXA' 418 ^pdrepas Dindorf Albs KopivBos kv roh a-TpMpacriv <pp6. and are exactly The inclusion of the gloss in the adapted to the sentiment expressed.ov€t/x.(op€i'etv (iovXopai. *H/x.. These are apparently a tetrameter and a trimeter.. KVcrOov XeovT-Jjv vav/iaxeiv Strophe VI. The preceding S' verses (414. pkXos co/dttJs ^ . 27 a KoX KaA-Aiav yk <^acrt 429 TovTov rhv 'Itttto^ivov kvi^iijxkvov. (Parode). dA/V avry]V ri]v dvpav dc^ty/txevos. 81. § 82 IAMBIC VERSE Strophe V. Ai. See 737.eT avrqs is a gloss is probably right. a'lpoc dv avOa & -qv irai. ^' pL-q?>\v paKpdv avdL<i i(t6' eTT direkOij^.s : 427 di'a^Xyo-Ttos Porson : avaipXvuTioi The eight strophes constitute a monostrophic octad (701). Trpos.

7r/307re/i. TO TTvp VTroa-KaXeve. three strophes constitute a monostrophic triad 3 3 5 3. Ach. tTTCtSav TcLs .). Kal x"/'^'^*'^* "la/cxe <f>iXoxopevTa o-vixTrpoirefXTve Strophe III. 'HjLi. 83._^_ k^ — ^ 4*^^ i=i_v^_ ^ — ^ — Kopifw<.8w(reiv. Strophe II..7re fie. 1008-17 = 1037-46 (Syzygy LYRICAL DUO Strophe. kov/c coikcv ovSevt p-era. 413 "laKXe (f>t. iJKOVcras ^ — ^ — Kop. a ws fiayeLpiKU)<. E (704) epodic tetrad : catalectic pentameter. i=. with the two catalectic trimeters and a same ephymnium. __^_ At.XoxopevTa a-vjirrpoTveinve fie. III. . f3' avrjp avrfvprfKev ti Tais aToi'Satcriv i^Su. as epode in each of the three strophes. Ki)(Xas 70 oTTTWfievas iSrfTe Ko/D. ^' (TV yap Kari(Txi(T(a fxkv iirl ye Aeon 404 408 KttTr' eureAeia tov re cravSaXLO-Kov K(x^r]vpe<s Kol TO paKOS. 404 Toj/ re Bentley : rbvot rbv (701). The = aabc. wa-T d^vj/itovs Trat^eiv re fie. re Kal 8enrvi]TLKU}<. — — — — w — — o "IaK)(€ (fiiXo^^^opevra (rr)/i. w — ^ — — — ^ — 6^ ^ — ^ :^ ^ "C— v^— — — v^i=^ 5— — ^— ^ — w 4*^^ ^_^_ a olfiai ere Kot tovt ev Xeyeiv. Kop. a' Kat yap Si) TrapafSXeiJ^as Ti fieipaKL(rKrj<i 410 vuv KttTeiSov Kai /xaA' evTrpoa-Mirov (TVinraia-TpLas ^(Itwviov Ttapappayevros rndiov irpOKVipav. 28 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY TTpOS TTjV diOV § 83 KOI Sel^OV COS— — ^ — w— \_i i=i — ^ — \j avev TTOvov ttoXXtjv 68ov Tre/aatVets. fiaXXov 8e avOpwire Tt SrjT etiw^tas ttJs Trapovcntjs. a (r]X(i) (re ttjs ev/3ovXias rrjs 1009 At. an acatalectic See 742. trimeter. 'H/i. avTW BiaKovelrat 10 w— ^— v^ — 6^ ^ Ko/o.

Tiav At. which clearly is palinodic. eta w— ^ — eia- w em e?a Tras. e7aeta- — — — ^ — w — v. Eccl. § 85 Karaxei /3' /i^' IAMBIC VERSE (tv rrj'i 29 At. which he regards as a colon. avSpiKiiWepoi: eKelvo.ela- era • eia iras- R R 4 2 w ci eia eta eta eta eia eta eia. dvjjp aun^ or (R) aiVa 1037 avrip Elmsley : A = abba. and two iambic dimeters that enclose an acatalectic iambic tetrameter. epode that repeats the melody of the first period. 85. '^^ /xcAt. with an iambic hexameter as epode. A = abcbd. 43. a efi(3a x^p"- 43. (fivXarre TToAAoi yap ot —avoupyot.. VjS?. reduces the number of cola by thrice combining two dimeters in a tetraHis combinations destroy the meter. I'JKOvaras 6pBia(Tii. 281 -^^ — ^^ — 1 ofjiov Vrti' Kop. oTTTare rayxikeia. 5 482 fJil] TTOV TIS eK TOVTTLCrdeV u>v TO (TX^/^a KaTa<f)vXd^r].. Tas CDyTrias CTTadive. a 'E/3. and a second hexameter as See 746. 276. (Epiparode).eTa. Heliodorus See the metrical scholium on 1008 and the note.a./ wv^4 w k^ 2^^ — ^ — v^— 6 518 Richter: w era. two tetrameters. hexameter as proode. 281 >}- v> 1" 479 Kop. 6 4 4 6. Kop. (rTpe(f)OV (TKOTrei. Kop.' symmetry of the period.^— 5 2 ^ w — w — 515 'Ep. Kop. x^P^V'^ . ttSj V Non-antistrophic. epodic pentad : a tetrad composed of an anapaestic monometer.eta519 Richter: w eta. ^ — ^ — v^ e?a era ela vvv.). ^ — y^ — ^ ^^ ^ ^ 5 ^ — 4 . a-JTOKTiveh At/iw '/x^ '^'^' ^ovs yeiVova? Kviirrj re. See the metrical scholium on Pax 512 with the note. koI (JKuvr/ roiavTa 1017 auTv Bentley : \a<XK(x)V. V • eta eta eta eto. 13' firi vvv dvoifiev dAA' TeLvcafxev eirev- ^ — ^ — v. -^Bt] Vti tout t3 Kop. u) ela ttu?. 12 6. B' ap' ecTTi filv Ttjv avSpiav Tts ^ — ^ — 4 oo"Tts €7raKoAov^€t — — v^>^^ — — a-avTi]V d(r<^aAais. : ' 84. a' & ela vvv. Pax 512-19 (Syzygy aye vvv aye Kal [X7]v II. See 762. Ko/3. 478-82 and 483-92 = 493-503 Proode. Tra?. 276. paliuodic tetrad a Monostrophic dyad.

f3pd8vv • ws Tr/vSe Kat 6pu)[j. — — Antistrophe. an anapaestic monometer as proode to 5 4. The A 14 : a tetrameter as proode. dXX kyKOvQip-iV tqv tottov eo-/xev 7]8rj yap eyyus 490 491 ^pfiwfJied' oOevirep ets €KKX7]aiav rjViK rjp-i^v. 489-92). 8^ Tr]v (rrpar-qyov '///xwv Xwpouo-av e^ eKKXrjcrias diracra Kai p-Lcrei dXX' eVetyou • craKov irpb? tou' yvddoiu e)(ovcra XauTtti ya/3 i'jKOVcrtv TrdXai to <rxW'^ tout ex°^'°"'^'- 487 y TdKeio-e : Faber 6^ed' : KOLKtlae 488 (puXard' Sirm Blaydes 495 i^bTncOtv von Velsen iifias abcb.' eSo^e ToTs TroAiVats.^ ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — 15^ — w— ^ — v^— v^— ^ .' o)s fidkiara toiv ttoSoiv ^epot kTTLKrvirwv /3aSt^e- 484 485 486 T^/xiv 8' av aio-. ^— 'Hu. palinodic AB (483-8. 4 6 6 4. a dXA.^OTTicrOev y xrip-MV tcrws Kareiiry. a <(f>vXaTd' ^vfifftopa i=i_^_ ^ — y^ — 10 ^_^_6 v^ V.4 v^ ^ — ^ w4 v-' 492 eo-^' 17 to Trpay/i. and a second See tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of the first period. — TauTa (ruo-TeAAov Kol (Ttav- w— w— v^— i=d_^_ w — 06 i^^ — v^ v^ Tr)v Trepco-KOTTOv/iei'T. See 778.v^ i^ — — — 4 w-c. 746. See 750. /3' wcTT etKos i/juas /a^ fSpaSvyetv eaT fir) eTravayxevowas TTwycovas k^t^pTrjixkva<i. § 85 'Hu. Tr)v 8' oiKiav 17 'i^ea-Q' opdv o vvv oOevTrep crTpaTr]yo? evpovcr ^ . proodic tetrad two iambic tetrameters that enclose a pentameter. ABB (717). €?a 8e?p' ctti q-kius eX^ovo-a Trpbs to retxi^ov -napafSXeTrovcra darepo) TrdXiv [Meraa-Keva^e cravTrju avOi? fJir) r]7r€p ^aOa.eyx^^*':r/3bs 5v:. Ka'i Tts (.(iJvryv — — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — y^ ^=^ w — w4 v^ — v^— v-^^^^^ TraxraKTi irapa rots avSpao-tv TO irpayfj-a tout' lA. tetrad : : . B a stichic period composed of four tetrameters. 496 dXA' 499 Kop. w — — — — 4^^ TttKEtcre Kai tuk Se^tas 07ra)S> ft"!] 488 Kop.ev.. ^ - V.30 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Strophe. /3' Kai. B = A probably = abba (776). yevTjcreTat to Tpayfxa. = three strophes constitute a proodic triad. two hexameters.

Ai. K-aAws ex^' <^<^^- /AcAAw ye toi OepcSSeiv. 7 7 2 2 7 (8).). Kop. Xvxvovxo<i Kal kvXl^ 51 939 xa Trpd. See the metrical scholia on 929. Kop.€vos TocrdvS' dei Kar' OLKiav xpo(f)ovvTL ttot'.yfj. but in the antistrophe an See 754. ifiol {xeXr'jO-et rauT . T-qv e/x7roA^v cii' — — o — Kard^y. 7}8r. a cvSt^o-ov ^ei'ff) (5 /JeAriCTTe tw (fiepiov 930 Ka\(JtJ<. ^' Bo. two dimeters. eirei 934 Kop. c. Kop. 87. Fax 1305-10 = 1311-15 (Stasimon Strophe. — Tza./ v^ Antistrophe.- v^ — w — v^ — 40 'vTavda Twi/ pevovTiov ii_v^_ ^ . Monostrophic dyad. w— ^— 2 2^ Kparrjp kokwi'. 31 II. A = aabbc.y\pri(Trov ayyos eWai. 946. 948. etirep Ai. ojctt' oi'k av /carayetTy eV TToSwV KCtTW Kapa KpefJLaLTO. On the lack of correspondence in strophe and octameter.Ta'i ttot' aiVw . ioM_^_ __^_ __^_ 7^ — w— ^. ottoi Kop. TpnrTrjp Sikwv. w — v^— — — v-- — 938 cf)aLV€iv virevdvi'ov<. ^_^_ ^_^ w — — kj 7CV \pi](Tf. I. tcrxupdv t'oTtv wyd^'. IAMBIC VERSE Ach. proo lie pentad: a heptameter as proode that anticipates the melody of the first period of the following periodic tetrad. 929-39 = 940-51 (Episode LYRICAL TRIO Strophe. 87 86. 'HfjL. a vpdv TO AoiTTov €pyov Srj 7. ^' TTois S' av TTeTTOiOoir) tis dyyeuo toioutw Xpwp.aT' eyKVKdcrOai. a' Tt XdXov TTVpoppayls KaAAw? rot Kttt ipoffjei Tt Kat o — w— 5— — v^— ^ — ^ — ^ — v^ — ^ — w — deolcTLv €\dp6v.. ^' ttAA' w ^ei'wr /JeAricrTe o-uv0£pt^€ Kai toutov Xa/Swv irpdcr/?aAA' jSovXet cfieptov irpos Travra crvKocjidi'Tijv. ovTW<s OTTWS firj Ai. antistrophe see 51. composed of a heptameter. and a heptameter in the strophe. and the discussion in 723. Sttoi 943 ^o-Tic Princeps : eo-r' 950 Fritzsche : 6'toi.).

ds ayeiv./ re irpofiarLUiv ^ — ^ ^ — ^ — — w4 v-- aiytuv re Ktva/JpwvTtov fikXr] eirea-d' 43 10 — — v:? >^ 4° aTre^wAiy/iei'ot 8' • rpdyot aKpaTLeicrOe. Ti Ktti fxaa-wvTai.oi'i. 1307 aAX' dvSpiKws 6/x^aAAeT€ Kai (rfx<j3\<iT w— w— — — 4 — ^^v:72 dfX(f)Oiv toiv yvdOotv i^_^— i=i_^_ v^ ouSev yap w TTOvrjpoi 4 1310 AeuKwv oSovTwi' epyov )jv /A7J eor'. eiKy St KaraSap^oi/Ta 301 /Atyav Aa/^ovre? r^jw/jievov (T<firiKL(TK0V eKTV(f>Xw<TaL. See the metrical scholia on 1305 and 1307.o-€ii'. 1312 dAA' w <i)S Tov 7reivwvT€S €/ij3dXA€cr^e twi/ Aaywajf. t' 298 7rr. second. y\ €v irotets Se Kat crv (f>pd^(Dv. dAA' ela tckc- ^ - a dap. Antistrophe. 4 4 2 4 4. 1315 Trpos Tavra ftpvKer : rdx' I'/i'*' ^VH-'^err' /xeTa/xeAr..pav e'xovTa Adxavd dypta Spocrepd.^ — — v^— Antistrophe 'Hu. ^' rifJitv fieX-qcrei TT/Do ravTo. a' 17/i. and fourth periods.32 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY <^/\.t rbi' v-'— KuKAcoTra — ^^ ^ — v. and a third tetrameter. nyovpLevov TOis 7r/3o/3aTtot5.av § 88 1306 Tavra Travra Kal 111] o-TToSetv ^ — 5 ^ — ^ — w i^ Kul Kcvas irapekKeiv. ov)(l rrdcrav t^fiepav 4'crTiv irXaKOva-iv evrvx^iv trXavcofjLevoLS ?} epn^p. Kat firfv eyw OpeTTaveku l3ov\-Q<Top. tovtovi ireivwvTa KaraXafSovTes. See 760. 'H/i. P/m^.ets I. A = aabaa. KpaiiraXQvTa ttov.iv' €Travaf3owvT€<i (iXrj\(lip. ^ . Strophe Ka. . I. 302-8 = 309-15./— 291 UlflOV/A€VOS Kol Tolv TToSolv 0)01 Tra/aevcraAei'wi' ^ 5 -^ — 292 293 295 vp. Se y' aS ere ^Tjrr^o-o/iev QperraveXo rov KvKAcoTra BXyivwfJLevoi. 316-21 (Parode). epodic pentad a tetrad composed of two tetrameters. 290-5 = 296-301. a dimeter. ^<rr2j' 1307 ifipdWere Portus ^n^dWeroy 1310 Bentley : or : ^crriy Monostrophic dyad.o. 88.tvoL —^v^=^ ^ — v^ ^ — — w4 ^ — v^ — * ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ w — ^^4 v. with a final tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of the first.

epels.§ 89 IAMBIC VERSE Strophe II. which the fourth is acatalectic. AABBC of : (716).^€a)v Kpe/xwyuei' 313 fiivduxTOfxiv 6' iocnrep rpdyov y-qv piva. Up.^ ^ — ^ 4*^^ w— w — 4^^ ^ — v^— w 5w — v^^=^ i:i_^_ o — ^— w — w — ^ — ^ 6^^ ^— ^ — ^ v^ v/xeis Se ypuAi{'ovT€S iVu <fiiXr)8ta^ ^^ v^ ^ — 7^ ^ — ^ — eVecr^e IxrjTpl x^'po'- 10 — w— Antistrophe II. dXX! eia vvv twv (rKw/j. See 739. 4 8 4.dT(jJV __^_ __^_ v^ d:raAAayevTes r/Si^ — vy— v^ 4^ 317 v/zets e:r' a A A' eiSos TpiTrea-9'. Ka. (Parode). 306 fxiixi](TOixai TravTas T/aoTrovis" w — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ . tetrameters and a hexameter.y]T€p ayv-tuv opytwv 385 dvacraa o-vpTrapaa-rdreL .i'jp. a LS. i^an. epodic tetrad two See 778. /3' ouKoiJi' (re T^i' T^ipKYiv ye t^v ra (^dppaK dvaKVKMO-av 310 Ktti fxayyavevovcrav ixoX. : __^_ ^__4C Karaoapd^vra w — <^— — 300 KaradapdovTa Porson The five strophes constitute an of epodic five pentad.. : A a stichic period composed tetrameters.fJi. iyw Se tjjv KipKrjv ye ti^v Toi (^dpfxaK ai/aKVKwo-av. crv 8' 'ApicrrvXXos . with a heptameter as epode. C probably = ab'a (776). 33 Ka.vvovcrdv re tovs 311 Xa/Sovres vtto <^6A7/Stas tov Aaprtov €Taipov<. mesodic triad two tetrameters. 4 4 6 7. 384-8 = 389-93 Strophe. See 743. i(av i]8ri w— ^ — ^ — 5 v^ eyo) 8' Xddpa w — w — v^ jSovX-qaofiac tou SecTTroTOU Xa/Siov Tiv' dpTOv KoX Kpeas — w— ^— w — — 8 ^ — v^ 321 /iacrw^evos rb Xoiiruv ov- Tw Tw KOTTO) ^wetj/at. : 89. B = aabe. vtto- )(^acrK(av irrea-de fJ-r}Tpl Epode. fxiixov/jLevoL twv o/D. "J>iAa)- 303 304 ?') Tot's kraipovi tou viSou ttot' Iv Kopivdu> eVeio-ev ws oVras Kapirovs fJupLayfievov (TKwp iaOUiv.(otpot. with an octameter as mesode. *H/i. auTi) 8' ([xaTTiV avTois.

Monody At. metrical 263-79 and 280-3 into a pericope. . ^ — v^ — ^. In his edition 271-3 (ttoAAw See 234.aT(uv re Kat /xa^wv Kat Aa/i. scholia 6 30 pericopic triad : hexameter. of the second parode.^ 273 T'))v ^Tpv/JioSwpov Oparrav Ik w— v^ — Toi) ^cAAews p. v^ ^aA)}s eraipe BaKX^ov ^vyKiofxe vvKTOTrepnrkdvi]- — w— v.€^' ^vjnr'i. is an indivisible hypermeter com- 773. Kat (Trj<i T^s koprrjs d^Loys Traia-avTa Kal crKwipavTa vlKr](TavTa raiviov(r9at. 277-8 (Idv . and 276 {^aXTj^ ^aX'7]^) as a monometer.' ^aXrjs- 277 cav p. . See 771. 5 ^ — w — v^— ^ — ^ — ^ 6^^ w — w — v/^^^y (TTTOvSas Troi7]crd[xevos e/xav- Tw 270 7rpay/i. Non-antistrophic. ^— ^— o — v^ v^ — — 10° Antistrophe. of Dicaeopolis (593). (ravTT^'i x^pov 5 v^— v^ a.^ 15^ — w— ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ -^ — v.axwv aTraAAayets. D (704) See posed of a single decameter. 274.o-(f>aX. ^' Kal TToAAa 7re6i/. Heliodorus combined on 263. A = abc.Sata. 263-279 (Scene I. 90. cf)t\f/dX(i) __^— ^_^_ __^_ __^^30 3.). trimeter. el- po(f>rjcrei Tpv/iXiov.a»./— ^ — ^ — w^>w^^ — 265 re p-OLX^ TratSepacrra..34 THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY Kal crw^e tov Ktti /a' §90. 'Hyu. w — 279 17 8' do-TTts €V Tw Kptiiyja-erai. CKTO) cr' eVet TrpocrelTrov Is rhv Sr^fiov eXOoiV acr/xevos. AB. TToAAw yap p6v6' €(r^' Tr'^Stov w __^_ __^_ v^ ^— w— ^— — — — w — w — w — v^ v^y ^aA?}? 4>aA^S KAcTTTot'o-avev-lO (optKr)v vXi](f}6pov — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — v. . . hypermeter See the of thirty metres.ka-y]v XafiovT dpavra KarafSaXovTa Karaytyaprt'cr' w ^aXrjs 7)p. TpvfBXiov) ^eAAews) were arranged as three trimeters.Qs iravrjfi^pov 388 Tvala-ai t€ Kal )(opev(raL. but the latter is the beginning . /xev yeXoid jx' et- 390 ttoAAoL Se (r7roi. . as two.rj<i. Monostrophic dyad. Ach./ — eK KpanrdXi]'i eutOev P'qvy]'.

). IAMBIC VERSE Eq. a . 35 IT. 756-60 = 836-40 (Debate Strophe.§ 92 91. fi.

1190 IF.' marked by preponderThe scholiast on 851 says So^okAcovs ance of the rational metre.. Lys. iKavov e^er' 6\pov. and again on 857 koI tovto Ik Ht/Acws. 857 ITO) ITW 6TW 8e II V- w — 73 v^ v^ v^ v^ ^tas /3oa ^€w. (290). 257 ^ _ ^ v^^^v^ ^ _ ^ ^Tpvp. xy ^~^ ^ ^^ ^ Kara 8' aKpoTToXiv ep. A = ab. 852 — w — — ^ — -^ ^^ . 94. 851-8 = 895-902 (Syzygy Strophe. See 770.o 6^^ — — 'H/LA.69. iK IlTjAews. Xo. — v^ — ^ — ^ — TTpoaoSia p. (Parode). Cf. a ofioppoOw. (rvvOeXo).dv XafSelv v 69. o-wa. except U Monostrophic dyad. rj TToAA' aeATTx' ecrriv kv T(x 69 ^_— _^_ _ w — _ ^ — k^ — . (599) and Aves 406 ff.aKpw /Sio) (fiev. Serco Se Xatpts wSav. .KOva-at 5 ^ — ^ 260 ywaiKas as ejSocTKopev ^ — ^ Kar' oiKOV €/x(^aves kukov ^v^os^ w Kara pev dy tov e'xeiv /3peTas. /3' etr' avdi<i av rdpa SiVTepov croi yiteAos Itti- 896 Set /i€ XepvLJSb 6eocref3e^ 6(riov f^oav. § 93 'Hfi. 901 Tci 8ev yap irapovTa dvpar ovaAAo TrXrjv yeveiov t' Ka6 KepaTa. The metrical form of the lyric is 'tragic. w — v^ — pLoxXois 81 Kol KXyOpot10— =^w— ^^ crtv Ta irpoTrvXaia iraKTovv 265 p. 4C €7r€t TtS av TTOt' tJXtTKt' W — — — — — — v^^. Fe/O. I. KaXeiv 8e paKapas itirep — eva Ttvot pLOVov.€ydXa o-epiva kvai deolcriv.). 36 93. hexameter. pericopic dyad : hendecameter. 857 trw trw Irw : €o-Tt 856 -irpo^driov Bentley rcji 6ii^ deep Bentley : : irph^arov all MSS. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Av. 94 f.^ O — ^^ — — v^ — " . irpocri- ^ v^ -^ ^^^^^^ v^v^wv~ a^a 8k irpoae- — w— w— Tt )(^dpLTo<i eVeKtt TrpofiaTLOV Ti dvetv. (TVfXTrapaiveo-as e'x'^ v7 . 256-65 = 271-80 Strophe. w ^ ^ ^ w ^ — 4CV — — — — y _ 12*^^ . 11 6. .68(op' a. Ach.

277 thus becomes — ^^^ . 851 ff.J TTtvaiv pvirCiv dirapaTLX- 280 264 /uoxXo'J Brunck : Tos. 1 in 17 . but the results of his investigation have often been quoted by editors. is dubious. indignant but unavailing complaint of sentiment. in this section are the product of an dependent investigation and frequently are not in agreement with those in Rumpel's Trimetrr des Aristophanes. O/XWS KaKlsiVlKOV aW 7ri/£tov tw. In the next colon (278). 500. The '111 vx^" ^'!ji"Xa is the reading of F. ov yap fxa T'tjv AtjurjTp' 37 efxov 272 {'wvTOS €7r€t iy^avovvTaf at'- ov8e KAeoyuerr.^^. epodic triad: two See 737. as in Av. Only six of its metres are irrational as against twenty-two that are rational. and exultant but buffoon reminisHere. paratively rare. 513. 1189. 588. •^ .' that is. 150. 514. which consist solely of iambs.). €^ erwv aAovros.. 09 275 aTrrjXdev a. Meineke proposes (TfUKpbv irdw rpi^ibviov ^x'^"article is necessary.?. 4 4 12. : 1 The numerical statements and tables in- main. although it occurs once elsewhere (563). whereas irrational metres outnumber rational on the average A * in the melic iambic verse of Aristophanes (186). in Sophocles In Aeschylus 1 in 14 See in Euripides 1 in 22-5.. Rumpel's Trimeter. it has tragic form with comic intention. Tep. by resolution of the theses of but Aristophanes avoids the latter the simple feet in the logaoedic metre Bothe (376 ii. Xo. The JSfubes has relatively the most.\pa. Monostrophic dyad. 601.§ 95 IAMBIC VERSE Antistrophc. which has the same metrical proposes ^wttX' yx^^oform. The first metre in . 799. tetrameters with a dudecameter as epode. Non-Melic Iambic Vekse 95. are comOf 8835 non-melic trimeters in the eleven extant plays of Aristophanes only 128 are pure. 472. . 1 in 69. 474. I it best to follow.j ja-fMiKpov e'xwv Travu Tpij3u)VLov. in order to For melic trifacilitate comparison. and — •^ ^ — ^^ ^. querulous old men in the strophe. Pure trimeters.XaKTO<." Eleven occur in the Acharyiians 34. meters see 126 ff.(€TO OcoTrXa irapaSovs efioi. The lyric is tragic. vxe^' S^Xa (vx^'^'i "ot^ VX^^') implies it. expresses the is — The form admirably made the means of special comic effect. /ulox^oIctlv and the reading in R. metre cence of past glory in the antistrophe. (704) = aab. 454. in the thought have since the order and method of his presentation of the facts.

^ 99. 119. 1 in 3-84 two. 1 in 36-9. 6 in place 688. over 62 per cent of The number of trimeters in which the total number of metres. Irrational metres preponderate. Of the 8835 trimeters 97. 2199 (1328 + 871) have three.819. Av. 439.' occur in nearly every other trimeter.610.610 irrational feet are distributed as follows i. the Equites the fewest. 672. . somewhere in the verse . tribrach and dactyl.^ trimeters. 1 in 4-02. The Acharnians has relatively the most. are very common.'' % 54-4 5-2 iii. The 16. foot has iambic form except the last. There are 1 8 7 of these non-iambic trimeters. 11 in 758. in of the normal iamb. in 42 . 22 in 811 1 in 47'2. . Eesolved feet. 114-7. 4804 459 5263 5174 849 6023 5162 162 Total irrational feet . 59-6 ' 68-2 5324 60-2 98. .818. 2299 (1583 with at least one trisyllabic foot and 716 that consist solely of dissyllabic 3857 (2586 + 1271) have feet) have one long arsis. 1 in 2*14. and verses are not rare in which no Cf. 192. 1 in 2-29. 1 in 68-9. % 58-6 9-6 y- % 58-4 1-8 'Spondaic 'feet 'Dactylic 'feet .: : 38 THE VEESE OF GEEEK COMEDY 1 § 96 18 in 758. The number of irrational metres is 16. one or more metres are irrational is 8355. on the average The distribution of the various forms of the foot that is are found in the trimeters of Aristophanes as follows Iambs . 1 in Irrational and trisyllabic feet. 96. the Mibes the fewest. in Aristophanes. etc.

.: § 101 IAMBIC VERSE tribrach 39 first the may occur in any of the five feet. The following table exhibits the usage of Aristophanes Play.

was rhythmically objectiontribrach able. 733. 1383. 1218. case of a tribrach that overlaps forward oftener than elsewhere in Cf. Uq. in iii. 1306. Cf. 134. 748 (proper name). 102. 117 384 32 304 20 857 103. Ach. 175 (proper name). These summarized i. The trisyllabic tends to produce medial caesura (137). in maintain penthemimeral caesura (130). of tribrachs thus composed ^ : . 670. Tribrachs composed of two or three words or parts of The following table shows the distribution words number 1797.: 40 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 102 He allows it in iii. as the poets of the Old Comedy felt.. because this commonly produces hephthemimeral caesura. in the following table Trisyllables Overlap forward Overlap back Overlap both ways . which. end of the verse followed by a variable Ach. 473. Totalin one word . Cf. 1512. iii. 1097. Vesp.. 1385. at the Aristophanes eschews the v. facts are 812. tribrach contained in one word in in order to avoid four short syllables syllable.

1588) and one in the fifth {Ach. 916. t<xa The first yap Av. iv. 489. iroOev . 1670. Trimeter. It is noteworthy Av. 7l. ore irep Av. Tra^v Lys. of them by emendation. that 53 occur in the first metre. 1523. The first word is a dissyllable and the second a monosylii. 107. 106. 1382. Cf. 989. 728. IAMBIC VERSE Eighty-five tribrachs are divided v^ v/ 1 41 ^ . 1639. labic enclitic. airo yap Nub. The second word is yap (4). 181. By ' resolution of the theses of irrational feet in a tlie trimeter a 1 dactyl ' (resolved irrational iamb) 607. 52. e'/xe ye Av. eVt i/6ot7. — 884. airep cKel Vesp. 29. Cf. irarep eXavuet^ Nub. 71. <l>epe ae Lys. 1300. uKovere The tribrach occurs in a fixed phrase (13). independent word (13). 817. 839. 767. riva rpoTTOv Av. ht ye JEc. vii. irepl yvvaiKO'^ Av. TToXv ye Ahib. 884. v. (13 instances). 248 . irapa rov Th. fjue Eq. 728. dirLr diro Eq. 1023. e'/io? dvrjp Lys. 490. Cf. daTriSa Xa/Setv Lys. see may occur in Besides Rumpel's ff.to'? Vesp. Cf. 1055. diro Ach. \€M Ach. 754. ^paxv ri TIi. 1335. OTL he Av. PL 838. oaa 890. Miscellaneous cases (10). word is elided (7). 1199. yap Ec.^ in trimeters of which i. vi. A preposition and its case constitute the tribrach (25). ra-xp irdw Th. Lys. Nub. 746. OKa fiev Ach. 180. 938. 1639. 1159. Bachmann's Zur Kritik der Komodien. 181. aj>e<i diro Afco. 1159. 102. Ach. 24. raStKa Xiycov Nub. 1336. Trpoaer aTrey^rjadpL-qv Ran. Av. % Twenty second. 33 in the 29 in the fourth. Kara ae Ran. 830).: § 107 105. virep ifxou Nub. Cf. 373. 1000. 500. 24. vTTo (})t\opvt0la<i Av. 817. ep. hua xpovov PI. avrUa pcOC Eq. 714. Ec. In most of these eighty-five cases the two words that Editors eliminate some form the tribrach are closely connected. 6 n Xeyeif Av. A/a rov Nub. Eq. the text is generally accepted. 1575. Cf. 102. 1167. e/xe re Uq. which loses its accent and its identity as an is enclitic Cf. of the 85 instances occur in the first foot.e in. 1023. but only two in the third {Ach. and these may be classified as follows The first word is a compound dissyllable of which the second part Of. 792. rafXTropt dvecpyp^eva Av.

§ 108 The following table exhibits the usage of Aristophanes Play. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY third and fifth feet. Thes. v. Trim.: 42 first. Total. -^v^ i. . iii.

^112 IAMBIC VERSE 43 .

116. v. the word is a trisyllable. Of the remaining 1643 31. Ach. Av. Pax 19. 62. 1027 begin a word which overlaps the following foot 846). PI.^ but. ii. it is virtually excluded from melic iambic verse. Ach. 134. 766. Nuh. 96 the in the second. So natural is the use 352 is instances. occurs on the average in 2"30 of this form of foot that in trimeters. THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY The anapaest occurs in § 113 comedy without restriction in the first five places of the spoken trimeter. 603. Av. 196. Total. Vesp. 20 in the third. Th. and 25 in jxev anapaestic scansion secured by position. 5. anapaests contained in one word. PL word which overlaps the preceding foot (cf. 156. 137. 160. Eq. 1197 ff. 26. 115. Paz Av. This In 919 of these. fifth. Ra7i. 279 in 495. 1110. irpo^acnv iroiel. Cf. . iii. 113. 439. 90 in the first foot. Nuh. 91. less settled form of poetic expression that was marked by extreme variability of the arsis of the simple foot. See 389. iv. 757 711 839 895 752 811 695 925 1004 758 688 286 276 349 384 324 352 302 407 446 360 354 83+18 19+4 44+64 86+21 18+3 59+ 9 17+3 56+ 44 78+20 28+8 68+15 28+7 24+ 56 66+19 20+6 59+ 11 31 + 10 62+ 62+ 34+ 41+ 495 70 71 61 65 46+ 49 71+ 13 35+ 52 71+19 49+ 73 75+ 42 42+ 58 109+ 31 8-r 11 4 56+ 25 18 12+ 15+ 2 5 12+2 39+18 22+6 + 10 10 + 10 51+ 94+ 89+ 928 38 13 + 10 60+ 69+ 91+34 22+9 82+ 98+28 16+7 71+ 15 13 14 16 9 30 + 17 44 + 17 17 + 12 22 + 12 27+ 5 193+ 179+ 201+ 263+ 224+ 258+ 200+ 259+ 301+ 236+ 248+ 93 97 148 121 100 94 102 148 145 124 106 + 663 + 280 180 + 81 697 261 + 166 262 + 88 2562 + 1278 350 8835 3840 1158 1208 863 3840 The anapaest is a conspicuous feature of the comic non-melic trimeter. 146. ^ It occurs also as a vagary twice in the sixth foot.44 113. Lys. 114. Lys.' and anapaests (3840) are nearly as common One anapaest as tribrachs and dactyls taken together (4124). Ran. 270 in 698. Ec. Vesp. Here the anapaest points the metrical jest. and is very common in the fourth. 53. Anapaests contained in one word (117) number 2562. Trim. 85. Cf. Cf. as we have seen (70). 1203 and 1231. the original in Uq. Th. it is simply a reversion to the earlier. which might with fitness be called the 'anapaestic trimeter. wv. Ach. 121 in the fourth. which approached as closely as possible to the man in the street. The following table exhibits the usage of Aristophanes speech of the : Play.y— i. form being a tribrach. In the spoken trimeter. Ec. (fiiXovi rifiiv 7rp6<f)a(7cv 466. as 'Apy€iov<. about one-third. Ran. form of the anapaest preponderates in the first foot. 465 end a (cf. Eq.

117. V65. in iii. 526. Cf Ach. 237).: § 120 IAMBIC VERSE are contained in 45 words whicli overlap 65. 151 both the following and the preceding foot (cf. 162. 201. 922. 214. 125. 518. word sparingly dactyl (109). He allows it in iii. which was rhythmically objectionable. These facts are summarized in the following table . because this commonly produces hephthemimeral caesura. 1301). in case of an anapaest overlapping forward oftener than in other cases. Av. 499. 535. C£ Ach.. Aristoplianes uses the anapaest contained in one 1249. 624. medial caesura. as This is he does the tribrach (101) and the due to the same desire to maintain pentheminieral caesura. The trisyllabic tribrach in iii. tends to produce 536.

iv. a-v. Cf. 863. 124. 935. 1046. (pepe. 41. 584. in the second foot chiefly in the second and fourth feet. Av. In the arsis may Cf.) is generally so disposed that the parts of the anapaest are not separated. The dissyllabic arsis of the anapaest may consist of the last two syllables of an unelided word of three or more syllables. but It appears examples of this anapaest are relatively rare. Ran. Th. in The caesura the fourth Ach. Pax 1195 (in both the vulgate has been corrected). 120. Av. 14). and subsequent editors have emended them ' freely. 1022. exceptional. 1363. Av. 930. Wi (Ach. 1027. 646. 107.^ Cf. \al3i. Cf. a. PL 942. . 519). foot. Lys. the forms ii. 738. precedes. relative. and short monosyllabic prepositions may begin the anapaest. 754. 816. 476. 6v. 9'il. 1078. | [ | as follows i. 6. feet. 134. 288. and dissyllabic forms of rt? {Fq. Vesp. 285. ^c. Nuh. 498.46 ii. 535. to. and first (dissyllabic enclitics) Ves'p. Some Cf.or ^ ^ . of the verse (130 ff. 54. Eq. begin an anapaest in any of the first five feet. TToXv. oirep. previously banned many of the examples. Less 728. Th. 1433. iroQev. if a pause in sense Such words are ore. Lys. Cf Nul. on. e'. Ban. Xva (Ach. 1228. 09. t6v. Tore. 1226) the arsis and thesis are separated This anapaest rarely occurs in the third and fifth Nuh. 219. ^u 22. 746. P/. may begin the anapaest. dye. Pax 926. ircikiv.may be classified by a pause. are oa-a. cnap. had ' 142. to. 922. 158. 84. Uq. be separated from thesis by punctuation. . rt. Any other word that consists of two short syllables may iii. 516. Ban. l70 {nve^ etc). 1 Ai'. of the in the also fie and ere when accented. 831. if a pause in sense 90. and fjbd formula ^a precedes. 66ev. Av. Anapaests divided ^ ^ . Cf Eq. 637. orav afxa. 73. This polysyllabic word always has dactylic close (— ww). Av. 22.^e. In other feet this licence ttw?). : The monosyllabic forms of the article o. § 154).Ban. en. Nuh. exceptions to the restriction of a pause in sense occur. Th. and Hermann condemned the anapaest thus formed Bentley and Elmsley {Epitome. 483. The interrogatives rt?. Ban. Tayy. Ban. Fax 104). . common Trdvv. 809. 481. 1239. NuK 664 {<\>epe 731. is Vesp. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY The word Ata in § 121 oaths may begin an anapaest in the second and fourth feet. 158. 1188. 164. but in two cases in the fourth foot {Pax 233. 121. Cf Ach. rarely in the third and fifth.

The formula ^la At" is a 930. 750. discussion. 998. Nuh. fourth foot.and they are rare. but wholemerely because the sale correction. 415. Pax pause in sense occur. 79. 551). 1307. 26. 1024. Ec. as . 815. dissyllabic arsis ^ The anapaests in this subdivision and the following subdivision have been vigorously discussed and many of them have been emended out of existence. 171. 1021. Th. 912. in 187 .may not be separated whether the form be v by punctuation. Pax 187. 178 and 262 if. . 749. twice {Nub. Only two and the parts of the anapaest are not separated. De incisionibus. 25) octahemimeral (137). ff. sometimes hepthemimeral {Av. on its the other hand. 550. 131. . 694). (Auctarium) Enger. 847. 62. See Bernhardi. Av. 428). The comexceptions have the form v. 1685. rhythm is supposed to be objectionable. Pax 930. the trimeter generally mimeral caesura as the primary pause within the verse {Ach. and it may be separated by a strong pause from the final syllable of the anapaest arsis. Lys. brought under discussion are here cited. 44. Pax 48. . 90. Vesp. Vesp. on which see 138. 946. 121. this anapaest occurs in the is generally divided by hephtliemimeral caesura {Ach. 1393). syllable of an ujielided cannot be said to be infrequent. PL 349 and dialect. 684. finally 97. may not be an enclitic. Elmsley on Ach. note. Some of them are objectionable on otlier accounts than the suspected anapaest. 214. xviii. 461. syllable of the arsis of the anapaest The first may be the final word of two or more syllables.§ 121 IAMBIC VERSE 47 to the restriction of a 982. Av./ | | | . Eq. Ran. 246 If. Most of the verses that have been ' ' . Ran. Ban. 118 in ii. Lys. Se rv. 144. The sole exception is found in the first foot of The second word in the anapaest. iii. 208. 1198). in ^j. exceptions occur {Ach. Eq. 40. Ach. ^ . small relatively the total first iv. 1225. notable exception (cf. Less often the trimeter has penthemimeral caesura {Av. 847. if we take into account how number of anapaests divided after the short syllable is in these positions. Nub. are rare (cf. 966. and v.. 1369. When. whether monoAch. 6. 20. 1495. 1184.^ Examples of this anapaest in iii. Av. Ec. Lysislrata. in Eq.or ^ v^ . Ran. 178. The two short syllables of the (cf. 1221.^ | | bination Tfc TTOT (rt TToO') occurs six times. v. Ec. 1462). 114. 927). 1192. Lys. but its occurrence in ii. 1220. Ec 440. 843. 93. and iv. the true reading of some others is now furnished by the manuscripts. Nuh. and 82 in anapaest has penthe- including those now under When this occurs in the second foot. 6 TL occurs twice. Nub. 47. 146. Some exceptions Cf. 88. Vcsp. Ran. 167. The only syllabic or dissyllabic. Th. Nub. Av. is not to be countenanced.

once {Lys.. It should be observed. 1085 in the fifth. 838) triemimeral (138). 3. is hephthemimeral. even with interior punctuation less freely in the third and fifth. 658). Bl. 100 dactyls and 340 anapaests. Lys. Ban. 11. Ban. 1407. Ec. 1614. are found each in a trimeter that contains at trisyllabic foot. Ban. the occurs being feet of the trimeter in i. Eq. the most frequent arrangement in the combination. once hephthemimeral. 617 ff. in Bl. In PZ. one other The combinations I. Lys. 23. 219. 847. and once {^Nvh. iv. dactyls and anapaests are composed in comedy wholly or in part of proper names. 652. tetre- the fourth foot 78.Nub. Bax 31. 998). 1191 in the fourth. 107. 70) octahemimeral (137). Av. 768. in the second foot Nul. ^lZ. division of the arsis (Jjys. 472. of trisyllabic feet in Aristo- phanes are set forth in the following table. in mimeral (137). which named in the order of and in parenthesis the See his Tri- 1 [jAv does not occur in this use in the trimeters of Aristophanes. 70. 1173 the pause Th. Ban. finally. Ach. 876. Av. with word. 664 medial (137). . 77. designate in order: the feet that are combined. 849. Of these 8 tribrachs. 123. 442. Niib. 4 dactyls and 54 anapaests are each a trisyllabic word. Bl. 1638. 173. 1222. 1281. 749.48 THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY § 122 441. ^ Rumpel's statement of facts has been completed and corrected. 2025 of 3840 least anapaests. 66.i^fm. When this anapaest occurs in the caesura is generally penthemimeral {Av. the total number it of times the combination occurs iii. ^c. . each with penthemimeral caesnra. Cf. . Eelatively few tribrachs. 1011 630. 118. 469 Th. 723 of 1470 dactyls. There occur 196 such tribrachs. Av. Nuh. 122. 45. . Th. Combinations of two or three trisyllabic feet in a single Twelve hundred and sixty-nine of 2654 tribrachs. syllable or last . 956. 1026. . trimeter frequently occur. meter.' in which the columns ii. that the last remaining remaining two syllables of elided polysyllabic words may freely begin an anapaest in the second or fourth foot. In the same category with the preceding belong anapaests of which the first syllable is a monosyllabic enclitic or Se. 926. Cf Av. av or '^ap} since these monosyllables adhere closely to the preceding Cf. Ec. This anapaest does not occur in the third foot and rarely in the fifth. 124. 760). Vesp. 969. in the second foot. in the third.

next in order of frequency II. number iv. v.§ 125 of times it IAMBIC VERSE occurs . an example an example. 49 . . vi. the arrangement .

Many emendations by Bentley and his successors have subsequently been confirmed by authority of the manuscripts. . 845. 961. 408.see^c^. 1693. 127. which have all been brought into the discussion at one time or another. Vesp. (2).^ See the on the following passages. Miscellanea. He. 2 Ach. 1158. 190. 473. v. Nub. 1222. metres cola in is 113. 1011. 975. Pax 900. 1283. Av. ii.see Ach.. feet. but all but four of these are tribrachs which are distributed as follows which one or more metres are 27 resolved Cola. Sixteen have one long and catalectic 32 have two. 1191). four v^ v> . (2). Thesm. who seeks to establish the proceleusmatic as a legitimate foot in the comic trimeter. 424. Th. 480. 731. 32. 307. 418. 1224 . 1395 Vesp. 1199 f. 1170. 444. 1 It is obvious that the virtual exclusion of the anapaest . 679. acephalous arsis. Rossbach. wv. For . I {Ach. 430. 1203. 439 Ec. 11 have three. 126 ff. . 266. 285. 1169. cussion. 743. 1356. 1347. 11 ff.615." "tragic" and "comic" trimeters in his Gliederung.^ ^ w v. 1 in 4*8 . . 923. 1349. III S. (2). 76 23 2 + 0+10 of | 1+3 1+6 . There are 76 melic iambic trimetrical cola in the extant plays of Aristophanes. 886. 1156 f. -. 162. 983. 718. 1303. 268. 417. 885 f. 1216. Lys. Av. 733. 1345. 364 f.. Ba7i. 100. 1220. 369. Conmann. 402. Ran.315. 47. SPOKEN AND MELIC TRIMETERS COMPARED 126. 1213 f. Dobree. 1011. 430. (2). + 4+19 Four trisyllabic words two have the ^ The dactyl occurs three times (Vesp. See Zielinski's differentiation of "lyric. (2). 179. 1299. There are on the average one in 2-8 cola. 745. 391 f. made in The count excludes protracted. Vesp. For ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ . 18. Lys. 178. 433./v> i. 49*6 per cent. book. 1391. iii. . 492 f. 928. HerDawes. His method is not followed in this . 427. 1393. 1002. Elementa. 253 ff. 551 Plut 145. 266. 436. (2). 1191-3 (2). 663. 1203. 413. 985. 228 f. one has four 886). 868 f. 914). Lys. since editors % . (2). 20. (2). 1306. Plut. 1 in 6*9. 1161. 68. 920 Plut." according to the analyses of his odes this book. 914. 421. Nub. . Reisig. Spec. 134. 867. 292 f. Addenda to iectanea. tribrachs v^ consist division ^ ] ^ . 730. Iia7i. (2). iv. Five cola contain each two trisyllabic feet. the anapaest but once (Vesp. Vovsons Notae in Aristophanem. . 1 in 2-4. 298. Fax 246. 288. (2). 1211. 1148. 958. 1218. 144. cola. Total. The total number of irrational The total number of trimetrical irrational is 59. 314. 709 f. 108. HJc. 1506. Metrik? 227 ff. 1311.: 50 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 126 forbidden combinations which have been the subject of great dis- Dawes first pronounced against them. 279. 204. 729.

and a single mode of rendering it would have made the dialogue of comedy. IN THE TRIMETER is The spoken trimeter a colon and can be rendered continuously without difficulty (22). however. 1190 ff. A . roughly equivalent to 367 trimetrical cola. difference is the sparing use of the dactyl (108). since he is a 405 comic poet. Ach. cola.80) irrational metres greatly preponderate (70 per cent). 90) 416 ff.. on the average once in 3 trimeters. Ban. The tribrach. Av. found 122 times. broader means of comparison is general in comedy. comic iambic verse. 128. but it is in constant use in the drama. one tribrach in 3-3 cola (100). and they contain 1100 complete metres. instructive to It is (290). composed almost wholly of rational and protracted metres. secured by grouping all the melic iambic cola found in the eleven plays. on the other hand. at the The metrical tone of this ode is strikit. compare the iambic lyrics of Aeschylus. once in the equivalent of 6 But the tribrach is trimeters. both sung and spoken. (599.1 § 130 IAMBIC VERSE 51 from the melic trimeter is the most important mark of difiference The next signiticant between melic and spoken trimeters (113). The anapaest occurs only six times. 263 ff. Irrational metres also abound. intolerably monotonous. and there The perare 618 irrational metres in the 1100. irrational metres in abundance. 384 ff. It is is 6 2 (97). CAESURA 130.. once in 16. apparent that the irrational metre abounds in The poet. Cf. In the processional in skilfully varies its use in melic verse. of parody and paratragedy. as in the spoken trimeter (97). ff. (89) the is retarding effect of the irrational metres (77 per cent) ingly similar marked. Dicaeopolis {Ach. is lighter The tone of the monody of and the use of irrational metres is come within the range (93). These including of course the 76 trimetrical cola that served as the basis of the first comparison. When we pass this limit we diminished (53 per cent). the dactyl 23 times. centage in spoken trimeters 129. to that of the anapaestic lyric that precedes Even in the Song Bridge {Rail. or 56 per cent. holds its place. excluding those that are protracted or acephalous. with those of Aristophanes. 8 5 1 ff. in particular. number 611. But it happens that the percentage of irrational metres in these 76 cola is somewhat lower than in mehc iambic cola in A second. and see 598). who uses protraction sparingly but.

in his discussion of the pauses of the dactylic hexameter TOfir] 8e rcov ari'x^av iarlv 6 single ' ' : TOTro^i 6 SecKvv<i iv jxeaw rov eirovi Sidvoiav. followed the ^ nou-melic verse.).^ hephthemimeral. Virtual equality in length of rhythmical elements was necessarily observed in the melic period. dramatic and recitative verse. which is sometimes overlooked. which cadence. caesura of the same nature as that which accompanied and diaeresis. is emphasized by the anonymous writer in Studemund's ^?iec(^ote Varia (215.. v^-v^. notwithstanding the reported opinion of Hephaestion The ancient actor. 24 f. might however be elided. the penthemimeral. studied and tested his poet's lines and determined the appropriate place -for the pause with due regard for thought and rhythm.^ .^ 132. one generally stronger than the other. 34. He doubt(229.) records two alternative pauses of the trimeter.^ . It was possible to secure great variety of effect in rendering the trimeter.). was developed within the colon. when the logical connexion of its parts was close or involved.v^-v^|. less often rendered the trimeter without pause.52 THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY and is § 131 pause. 148 . and the ^ 131. precisely as in English blank verse. crri'yfjLTjv i'7riT7]Seico<i Xa/x^dvovaav. see Goodell's Bisected Trimeters.^ but sometimes divides it. which generally follows the arsis of the fourth foot. For tragedy. A final pause. but a pause that facilitated rendering might be introduced into a verse that was spoken or recited by a single voice. furthermore. ^ . These are the chief but not the only caesuras of the trimeter.^ - . This fact. like the modern. which follows the arsis of the v^j-w. 21 ff. and its place in the verse was determined with due attention to the thought. without seriously disturbing its rhythm. therefore. ^ .^\^ . Aristides (53 M. which produced variety by introducing a double instead of a This pause followed a complete word.^ . 15 ff. On the other hand. two pauses sometimes occur. especially if the sentiment justified rapid delivery.^-w-. often in accompaniment to a dance.^ . producing a triple cadence. which in comedy was generally sung by twelve voices. A pause which had the ff. J. place within Caesura and diaeresis (56) are peculiar to spoken. meloIt is obvious that a pause had no a melic subordinate period. third simple foot. such as in the English heroic line natural to all is found spoken verse. Compare his repeated use of the phrase to vorj/xa in the passage quoted in 360.

conclusion which they justify is that. 239. Nuh. 28. 354. Ach. 862. Vesp. iva (Eq. 133. o-rrm {Ach.§ 133 IAMBIC VERSE 63 value of at least a primary time certainly followed tetrameters. The signifimeters. but a pause may occur that breaks the continuity of the thought. 868. 1107. Bq. is followed by a pause due to catalexis. 869. 502). but such a tetrameter is sometimes closely connected in meaning with the tetrameter that follows. 375. admit a pause The thought expressed in many of these verses. or it may even directly overlap the following Compare verses that trimeter. 1164. 13. is brought to such a conclusion at the end of the verse as naturally to require a following pause. but a pause must have occurred also after the iambic trimeter of this is the constant and dactylic hexameter. which are all catalectic. Vesp. . A Most somewhere within the verse verses allow caesura. end with ore {Acli. often separates words that are logically Cf. 781. etc. Tetrameters furnish evidence of this. 196. The pause also that follows the melodramatic iambic tetrameter. It is not credible that the pause natural to such a close should have been ignored. etc. to facilitate rendering. 170. 845). 19. 7. 435. while due regard is to be 714. Sense and pause. Cf Ach. implying separation of the verses second proof is the fact itself that these non-melic generally. for example. Nuh. 844. 706. indeed. just as some verses lack caesura. 313. 21. indicated in the modern printed text by punctuation. 850. But a single trimeter may on occasion be followed by a pause that is very brief. 311. 887. The same separation is seen in tri861. Hq. 79. 852. while the pause within the verse was observed. or some similar word. 26. 23. 1181). Every trochaic tetrameter. 1393). The identity of the spoken trimeter. This fact of a final pause bears upon the question of the extent to w^hich logical relations should determine the position of the caesura within a given trimeter or even effect its rejection.432. Cf. 37. 189. which is intimately related to the trimeter in form (173) and mode of rendering. that end in a syllable that is not affected by hiatus and is long by nature. whether inner or final. as a rhythmical unit would have been lost in a succession of trimeters thus rendered. 8. generally coincide. 1470. 860.' One evidence but wholly irregular occurrence of ' the variable syllable and of apparent hiatus at the close of the trimeter and hexameter. The practical cance of these examples is not to be ignored. 329. trimeters. 211. for example. eVet (Mth. closely connected.

in general any word that on account of the close of the verse . such as fxev. and the like. 12. yap. as well as principal and subordinate sentences connected by subordinate conjunctions and relatives. 55. he/ore first. 96). such as the article. av. ov (proclitic). verb and subject. nor 39. therefore. noun or pronoun and Caesura is thus participle. in Only eight verses. 102 cannot be given the penthemimeral pause. The penthemimeral is the prevailing pause in the trimeter only second to it in importance is the hephthemimeral Acharnians. 51. what follows. 80. 97 the hephthemimeral. kul {and). any separation of words logically connected that the poet permits at the end of the verse caesura. Be. (progressive). noun and adjective or dependent genitive. 83. 37. 32. with the arsis of the fourth simple foot in 46 of these 100 verses. 74. or a recessive word. seen to be an independent and significant phenomenon of non- verb and adverb or melic verse. 54 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 134 paid to the thought in determining caesuras in the trimeter. 71. its progressive force avoided at thirdly. Nevertheless. verb and dependent infinitive. 61. fore. A word ends with the arsis of the third simple foot in 71 of the first 100 verses of the Acharnians (excluding 43. a preposition ^irj when and is it precedes its case. 136. that a pause must not be made an enclitic. and parts of adverbial phrase. subject and predicate. closely connected with what precedes and not admissible at the beginning of a trimeter secondly. thereboth places in 25 of the 71 and 46. . 100). close of a occur in which neither the third nor the fourth arsis is the word (31. It is to be noted. 78. follow that 135. if required by 134.. but there are nine verses in the first 100 trimeters in the Acharnians that admit neither of these pauses. verse 1 2 in which . Caesura consequently may divide not only sentences. but also verb and object. that it must not be placed after a progressive word closely connected with . that it must not be placed between the two short syllables of the resolved thesis of the tribrach or Of the first 100 verses of the 'dactyl' in the trimeter. phrases speech that are connected by coordinate conjunctions. its place in the verse is not to be determined by a merely mechanical observance of word-endings. noun and appositive. but it does not 92 of these trimeters are best rendered with either a penthemimeral or a hephthemimeral pause. as a general rule. is to be allowed within it.

19. 905. Even the arsis. and the eight cited above (134). 176. 437. is if observed. medal. the first metre. ^-wWe which is less v^|-v^-. cretic. the pause occurring at the middle of the verse. 815. 452. or bss often after the fifth. 170. 254. 262.^ . ^-v.^ first ^ . 434. ^ . ^ . Trimeters that do not admit either the penthemimeral or the hephthemimeral pause may have medial caesura. 430. 139. 445. 24. 51..^in A37i. iii. secondary. 145.^ and the freqvent. dissyllabic 406.w-{v^. if observed. 499. 172. begins with an arsis Two other pauses sometimes occur that are in the same class with penthemimeral and hephthemimeral pauses. 484. 137.. . !).^ - ^ -' it -^ - . ^ In Ach. dirision is into dimeter v^-w. the triemimeral following the second arsis.^ -\^ .§ 138 is IAMBIC VERSE 55 the third arsis singular.^ -.the pause following . The octahemimeral pause may Cf. tetremimeral. and the fourth ends within a word. occur in a verse in which the hephthemimeral pause. divided at the middle or a Or the caesura may Ach.i (pepuv. even find verses with a pause well defined by the sense after the first thesis. be tetremimeral. The tetremimeral pause like188. since the caesira follows an arsis. 179. 409. 400 trimeters in the number of trimeters in is The second metre is of a verse of this class either wholly without division. penthemimeral caesura. ^ . wist 465. Cf also 163. iyCo fi^v 8€vp6 croi <nrov8a. 451. 137. ^ . 771. and octahemimeral pauses. hemistich. -. 105.^ .^\- ^-^- ^-v^-. 110. or part of if it (750 may be separated from the remainder of the Elmsley reads ^o-r'. 782. 485. 405. Cf 48. 461. monometer. ^ _ ^ _ ^ . 257. 382. 7 1. 450. 54. about one-half of the total the play. after which the folloA^ing phrase.. is secondary.^ . 467. 473.^ . 1021.^ .^-^-\^-^-. tl 5' 1(774' .^ _ V. as in 4.so and monometer. 753. These are not 59 such verses occur in the first Acharnians.. — . 178 the triemimeral pause diviies the dissyllabic second arsis. occur also in a verse in which may L38. Cf. following the fifth arsis. but see the cases of similar division in the fourth foot cited in 121. 910.asin Ach. followed by an enclitic. so that the verse is divided into monometer and diaieter. as is in 134. and hephthemimeral pauses so The penthemimeral divice the trimeter that the second rhythmical phrase always Much less frequent are the begias strongly with a thesis. Or the caesura that the may be octahemimeral. as in 47. dimeter.as 1065.

arsis The pauses after or within the first and before a final thesis are secondary. 75. 402. 50.56 verse. It is possible that the logical relation of \^ords was. The penthemimeral and hephthemimeral pauses were so important that. because the sense demands cretic ending. Cf. It is now impossible to determine how freely the ictor may have used a triple cadence. 9. but verses of this kind are comparatively rare in Aristophanes. 53 should be thus rendered with a pause before and after the vocative. as the penthemimeral pause excludes the hephthemimeral in 13. 24. Two pauses in one trimeter give it a triple cadence. If the rendering of 11. Other combinations are possible. § 139 So ov in the thesis at the end of the trimeter. as we have seen (133). Hephthemimeral caesun is excluded from 2. if mechanically divided. 473. 140. Ach. 139. in general. 408. 2. as in 46. and probably also from 5. The result would be to abridge the ise tre Trimeters with three interior pauses . they might break the continuiy of the thought. 86. Two opposite tendercies would then be disregard one to establish a main pause. active. Perhaps Ach. one pause is generally strongly demanded by the sense to the exclusion of the other. 82. 471. The hephthemimeral caesura excludes the penthemimeral likewise in 16. but verses are very rare that have both penthemimeral and hephthemimeral caesura. the other to subordinate pause. Each of these has either penthemimeral or hephthemimeral caesura combined with one of the other pauses mentioned above. as in THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 4i. of the secondary pause. because all that here follows the peiithe-mimeral caesura is a single paratragedic combination of the nature of a quotation. 11 and 24 have triemineral caesura and cretic ending. [n verses that might admit both. but the last pause in each is secondary and may lave been ignored. 34. but both operating to effect harmonious rendering. 93. a consideration so subordinate to the maintenince of the flow of the rhythm that a secondary pause required hy the thought may a often have been ignored. if the logical connexion of words is regarded. 89. 410. the hephthemimeral the penthemimeral in 27. 36. 470.^ is determined by logical relations. That most spoken trirmters had each at least one caesura is not to be doubted. 106. 98 triemimeral caesura and ianbic ending. 57. 421. 108. 417. and if appreciably observed must have been very brief.

1091.40. 50. 79. The dis- regard of elision a curious phenomenon. tragedy is Soph. 92.12. '• . 59. 45. Eq. 57 merely enumeratory. Pax The only instance of this in 198. but stimulating demand on the skill of the ancient actor. 102. 66. 761. The figures in italic type the purpose. 30. 22. 312.. the rhythraical effect Perhaps Ach. 5:— 11. 51. o' . 1502).'>:—!. 27. The Electro. 50. 165. 32. is Pax 275. 44. 83. 35. as in Nub. 38. When a Cf. 38? 39. cannot have been a monotonous line. 752. 4:— 20. 8. 69. much Nevertheless it is worth less are any two moderns likely to agree. 75. 13. 86. theses. 25. 36. 554. 219. the arsis of the anapaest in the trimeter are each dissyllabic.74. 24. 29. 70? 34. 33. 48. 7:— 16. . 15. be remembered that the thesis of the tribrach and dactyl and will serve . 65. 14. and Jebb's Sophocles. 408. 23. 551. 21. 403. 80. It is certain that no two ancient actors would have rendered any considerable number of trimeters in just the same manner. last involves aspiration. 89. which is the not displeasing. 53. Vesp. 5. 18. . 41. 93. Pauses are observed without regard to elision. 76? 8 :— 9. Phil.§143 very is IAMBIC VERSE rare. 97. 40. 85.^ 142. 63. Thus 5 signifies that a verse has penthemimeral pause 4 <5> ^^^^ 1 signifies an alternative. 68. 56. from the point of view both of rhythm and of thought. Cf. 192. 42. 5 9 :— 2. 63? 70. 76. Nme:—9 1 12? 37? 39? 60. for 141. 56? 60? 67. 1092. 71. 62. : : : 1 See Goodell's Bisected Trimeters. Ach. 306. 753. 98? ^:_4?19. 99. 79? 82. 64. verse is divided between two speakers into four parts the effect is so odd as to be in itself eminently comical. Niih. f. 103. The odd numbers signify arses the even. the penthemimeral pause. 247. 31? 47. and the first 100 verses of the Acharnians It will indicate half-feet. 95. 72. The trimeter of comic dialogue with its varied cadences. 9? 10. 4. 77. 48.81. it has tetremimeral and octahemimeral. 57. Ran. the only trimeter of its kind in Aristophanes.54. 17. 28. 103? ^:— 37. 90. 88. 999. 91. 150 226 (note on v. 46. When poet's intention. 609 The for the hephthemimeral. 190. 1161. 26. 5:7 :— 53 ? 3 5 :— 4.9 :— 1 1 ? 24 ? 3:10:— 98. 31 should be thus rendered. 460. 155. 201. . 6. 7. 191. 94. while to attempt to apply the principles deduced in the foregoing discussion to a concrete case. 78. Cf. 87. 58. 268. 73. 80 1 84. which are comparable in spoken verse with melody in verse that It made serious was sung. Ehythm can hardly be affirmed of a verse such as Ach.: 8:— 311 2:5:9:— Z01 2:^:8:— 31. 55. 891. 3. 52. 1090. 1270. 143. 49. 30. 96. and Plut. 56. 98? 101.

is 675. Eesolved feet. 1 in 146. ratio in Aristophanes is 1 in 47*2 (96). The percentage in Aristophanes is 62 (97). 97): i. ' % 49-2 9-2 iii. tribrach and 'dactyl. . ratio in Aristophanes is 1 in 2*14 (98). 1 in the 69 (95). 1 in 1*88. % 51-6 4-8 Spondaic Dactylic ' ' feet . Of the 728 trimeters 199 (131 + 68) have one long arsis. . of Menander. but the number is relatively larger than in Aristophanes. and verses There occur in which no foot has iambic form but the last. 358 67 ' feet . 147. number of trimeters in which one or more metres are irrational 146.58 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY THE TRIMETER IN MENANDER 144.' occur on the The average oftener than in every other trimeter. 728 trimeters now taken into account are pure. 1 in 4-89. Pure ^ § 144 Only 18 of trimeters are comparatively rare. 400 64 464 376 35 411 + + Total irrational feet 425 58-4 63-7 56-45 148. Irrational and trisyllabic feet are common. 149 (89 + 60) have The number of irrational metres is 1300. The 1300 irrational feet are distributed as follows (of. are found in the 728 trimeters follows 99) : . The 59 per cent. % 54-9 8-8 V. three. 1 in 40. 1 in 2-23. Irrational metres preponderate. The distribution of the various is as forms of the foot that (cf. 1 in 3-66. 327 (211 + 116) have two. The are five such non-iambic trimeters in Menander. 145. 149.

: The following table exhibits Menander i. Trisyllables Overlap forward Overlap back Overlap both ways . 728 222 18 + 17 27 + 50 77 8 + 20 12 + 59 71 35 28 0+11 = 65 + 157 = 222 11 151. v... about 7 to The tendency in Menander to increase in the number i. In The difference in distribution is marked in i. than in Menander. 1 in 3'28 trimeters. ^ Determined by the ratio of tribrachs in Aristophanes to those in . outnumber those in Aristophanes (the divisor^ iv. 1 in 3-33 (100). 29-3 per cent. iv. the tribrach first may occur in any of the the usage of Trim. slightly outnumber proportionally those in Aristophanes. Total in one word In three words w In two. 32-3 word is slightly per cent (101). . iv. (cf 107) Total. is 12) in the ratio of 2 to 1.^ | v. 152.^ | v^ v. Total.§ 153 150. number in Menander is relatively smaller. divided In two. but in the 9. five feet. in detail (cf The following tables exhibit Menander's use of tribrachs 102 and 103) : i. divided ^ v^ | v.^^ iii. of trisyllabic feet in for the relatively to those in Aristophanes holds dactyl and anapaest as well as for the tribrach. occur in any of the odd feet. and v.1 v v . : The following table exhibits the usage of Trim. 728 166 23 + 44 67 7 + 57 64 2 + 33 = 32+134 35 = 166 Menander. v^-v^v. The ti'ibraclis in Menander. and v. Menander the tribrachs in i. (cf 100) ii. -v. Total divided tribrachs 17 50 of 20 59 11 157 feet 153. iii. IAMBIC VERSE 59 By resolution of the theses of iambs. The proportion of tribrachs contained in a single greater in Aristophanes. Menander v. By ' resolution of the theses irrational in a trimeter a dactyl ' may i.

.

65 .

5 (1) 3. 2(1) 1. recitative (59) iambic tetrameter 2 is used by line . 5 (2) 1. 3.4(1) 1. 167. it is used by line. ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ .5. 2.3(4) 1. 18 (405) 4 (5) 5 (3) 4 (5) 5 (3) 1. when 168. 2. 2.). because Menander inclines strongly He makes great use of the medial to other forms of caesura. 3. 5 (2) 2. 2. 5 (1) . 2.3 (1)^ (16) (10) (40) (1) (5) 5. 4 (1) 2 (1) 4(1) 3. 2. 2.2(7) 1. 5. octahemimeral pauses also more frequently. younger poet as a regular form of division on an equality with Menander employs the tetremimeral and the hephthemimeral. 4(4) 3. which takes its place in the plays of the able on other accounts. 3. but the trimeters in which they occur arouse suspicion because objection- emended (cf 125). 3. 5. 4 (4) 3 (6) 2. 3(1) 5 (1) 4. THE TETEAMETER is used by Aristophanes both as a melic period (76) and also continuously by line in Its component recitative and melodramatic composition (77). variety of movement. - v^ v^ w v^ The famous forbidden combinations. 1. 7 (32) 5 (1) 1. 2. 4 (2) 1. 4 (1) 1. 2. 1 (1). 4. 3. 2 (2) 34 (549) 23 (245) 26 (225) 1 1. The 5.62 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY Combinations of Tkisyllaeic Feet 16(142) 6 (59) 2. 1 (6) 2. are found in the Cairo MS. 1 (3) 2(3)^ (54) (26) 4 (1) 4 (2) 4 4 1 1. 1. of Menander. 5(1) 3(1) 5. 2. 5 (3) 4 (5) 2. 5. are generally separated by diaeresis (179). 1.2(1) 1. 4 (1) (46) (7) 1. 3 (1) 2 (1) 5(1) 3 (1) 1. and is very free in His verse is characterized by great his use of the triple cadence. 3 (3) 4. 1(1) 1. 1 Also 2 (3). 1. The catalectic iambic tetrameter cola. The penthemimeral and hephthemimeral pauses occur much less often in the trimeters of Menander than in those of Aristophanes (130 ff. 4. 1. 1. 5 (1) 1.2. Also 2. 4 (1) 165. 3. in particular. 2.3(3) 1.3. and have been 166. 4 (8) 3. 1.and -. 1 (3) 3. 2. 166 4 (3) 1. 3. 1. 5. .1. 1. 4. pause. 4.

at steady pace but not with undue haste.' in other the parode. 32 have one long arsis. Tetram. debates. See the table in 186. Total. Cf. + 0+1 + 0+1 +6 See Vesp. Pan. 39 : -^^^ 4 i. 172. 53370. 1 in 4-84 Seventy per cent of the 51 have three.'* by an actor. 230-47. 1 in 3-04. Ilq. 1036-84. 306-18. 531-2.^ and once in a verdict that closes a The verses were recited by the leaders of the halfdebate. 155 0+1 +3 + 1+3 See Lys. Fl. Irrational metres abound in recitative tetrameters. 373. 1 in iii. Th. 2 Sq. . 2%. 905 f. No tribrach consists of a trisyllabic word. 173. 281. 381-2. Lys. iii. 237. Pan. is probably a trisyllable. 907-70.1399-1445. . 843-910. Nub. PL 274. w^v^ ii. v. 841-2. and it is well adapted to the choruses. 357. 457-60. Only two tetrameters in 155 have no long arsis and both are 70 have two. 335-66-409-40. vigorous movement of a chorus that marches into the orchestra Ves2}. Pax 508-11 and Ban. 1353-85. 333-4-407-8. 253-89. Total. Compare the counter-use (245). 467-70-471-5. w v^jw does not occur. 170. The melodramatic (59) tetrameter differs notably from the recitative It is found ouly in both in use and in form. PL 278. 1351-2-1397-8. ^ Pax . 288). purely iambic. Lys. in metrical structure. bv ^ Eq. 1 155 7 + 1 + 3 L^js. 285-8. or of three words. Nub. by sparing use of tribrach and dactyl and by complete disuse of the anapaest.^ trisyllabic foot.^ but probably never by the The recitative tetrameter is characterized. 254-5. • 1 Vesp. 407 synizesis. of the recitative trochaic tetrameter 169. 22 tetrameters: vi. 266-70281-5. Four dactyls are found. as in 230-47." in which feeling runs high and the language is violent.§173 in IAMBIC VERSE 63 debates. once in iv. 1 in 2-21 . 246. 571-3. The anapaest occurs but once. Th. 539-40. 1034-5. Th. v. 285.^ in exhortations that precede hortatory parts of the play. 539. 381. 1 Tetram. 374. 350-81. The tribrach occurs 7 i. Ec. times.508-11. in an emended reading No verse has more than one that is fairly certain (He. = Notably in PL 253-89. occasionally whole chorus. also « 'JovXiov in Eq. complete metres are irrational. 905-6. division and the 171.

175.y | 177. In 362 melodramatic 45 . vi. 565. 1 in 5-6 tetrameters. 921. that the anapaest is confined to the first three feet of the first colon and the first two of the second. 853.'^ 237).^ 237 f. 362 48 3 + 10 3 + 18 3 + 11 9 + 39 None of the words constituting the 9 dactyls contained each in a single word are trisyllabic.One also. to which must be added (180) Eq. bA2. 1039. 362 +9 4+ 4 7 + 6 + 2 6 +8 5 +2 40 + 25 1 Eq. Rossbach's statement 1067 Th. {Spec. Metrik. ii. 174. ^^yv^ ii. .^ v. v. Tetram. There are in the first six feet Tetram. irrational. oftener than in every other line. 880. once in 3-4 tetrameters: iv. Seventy-five tetrameters have one metres abound. iii. . Th. A resolved foot occurs. long arsis. 104 have three. 1 in 7*5 tetrameters iii- --^^ i. 422) and once in the fifth {Ran. 1083. in the seventh foot. 82 that consist of two or three words or parts of words have the ^ ^| w. . all in the sixth foot {Eq. Total. Th. diaeresis (179) is neglected in 13. 1 in 2-12 Sixty-seven per cent of the complete metres are 1 in 3-48. The division . 435. * Rossbach's statement (»S>cc. Nv. correction. 1361. Total. in a proper name. See the table in 186. needs is . 1440)." : 64 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 174 often approaching Billingsgate. In the 18 tetrameters that have a tribrach in the fourth foot.^ 176.h. Metrik. 893. 566. In two instances {Nuh. needs correction. Total. 893. are purely iambic. 1 in four ' others ' have no long but some Two non-iambic lines occur {Eq. v. 1056. ww65 12 1. that the tribrach avoided in the fourth foot. iv. Nub. Irrational . : 65 anapaests (cf. vi.^ the 39 dactyls formed of two or three words or parts of words. on the average. and the anapaest is The metrical form of this tetrameter admitted very freely. Ran. 107 1 + 1 12 + 23 +5 5 + 13 2 + 5 5 + 35 25 + 82 preceding di%dsion Eight of the 25 tribrachs that consist of one word overlap the Three of the Seven consist of trisyllabic words. Th. 567). 873. Nub. 893. 952).362 The tribrach occurs 107 i. times. 1 in 4-83 l7l have two. foot. tetrameters eight arsis. 1372) the dactyl contained in one word overlaps both the preceding occurs in two of and the following foot. >. 113). 48 times. resolved feet. Tlie dactyl occurs Tetram. once in the first foot {Eq. differs in no material respect from the trimeter of dialogue. 1052. 547.). iii.

The pause at diaeresis is oftener coincident with a pause natural to the thought. The chief pause is generally coincident with the close of the first colon (56). 932). 43 have two. Th.^ ^ . one {Eq. meters which do not admit diaeresis. although this change occurs at the beginning of the verse in most tetrameters that Aristophanes . See 135. 412. expressed in the logically may break the continuity of the thought tetrameter. But the 354. Ban. 930. Th. 1406. 567. To these must be added a considerable number of verses in which the first dimeter ends with a progressive word.(Eq. 904. Han. 1379. 359.(Th. and diaeresis is impossible. 560. 927. or the second begins with a recessive word. 1067. In tetra883. as in In 84 of the 362 melodramatic iambic tetrameters in Aristophanes. There may be a change of speaker at this point.. as in Eq. 926. 1039. 555. 366. Cf. In the 8 tetrameters mib. Nub. 952. as in ^^. etc. 440. 559. 423. Ban. While the pause that than all results from diaeresis more the frequent other pauses combined. Eq. that have an anapaest in the fourth foot. 1052. 558. 1412. The tetrameter is a compound verse consisting of two cola and was rendered with at least one pause within the verse. 365. 1359. 937). 433. by punctuation. without change of speaker. as in Eq. 873. Eight of the 25 that consist of two or three words or parts of words have the division ^\s. tlie first colon ends within a word. trisyllabic foot. 363. felt desirable in the tetrameter. 1050. This was secured by means of caesura. 1066. etc. 180. 922. just as the penthemimeral and hephthemimeral a fact indicated in the printed text pauses in the trimeter. Ntib. 11 overlap the preceding foot. pause at diaeresis. Th. 912. the main pause may fall after the arsis of the fifth simple foot. 415. ^ . Nub. here allowed admitted in is the trimeter. 1385. 1444. 550. 870. One hundred and fourteen tetrameters contain each one none has four. 880. 552. etc. 1046. but maintained in six (Nub. 1427. 434. 944. diaeresis is neglected in two (Nub. 918. Ban. and the is same separation of words that is connected See 134. 548. 919) or ^\^\. 359. 178. or in one in 4*3. . 7 have three 179. uses in dialogue. 1408. 902) overlaps both the preceding and the following foot. 350. 937). variety of effect in to be rendering was trimeter. Ran. 1410.§ 180 IAMBIC VEESE 65 Fourteen of the forty anapaests contained in one word consist of trisyllabic words. 340.^ F . 1372.

924. 343. 914. 933. v^-v^|.asin-£'2'. 1041. 915. Nuh.v^ as in Nub. 339. 7 -. 919. 1049.—Eq. 1059. Ran. The following analysis of 100 melodramatic tetrameters {Eq. 363. 1042. : : : : : 5:7: 10 :—Eq. 917. Ban.—Bern. 860. ^ _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ _ % . 1046. v^-^. 337. 933. at diaeresis. ^ . 937. 8 -.-|v. 895. see 143. or less often after the arsis of the fourth. 2: 8 -. 1057. . 1060. 890.-. 1039. v. 916. rare after the arsis of the first {Eq. 427. 921. Nuh. 1385. ^-v. 1060. 1047. ^ . 850. 3 9 . 336 Ban. 10 :—Eq. 1043. 1406. . . For the significance of the italic figures. 4.less often after the or the sixth. and (recessives) Nuh. after . 352. Ban. 883. 1408. 436. after the fifth. 346. Different pauses are variously combined. 6 8 :—Nub. Ban. 1063. 1048. but their number is limited with rare exceptions to two.-. . 3 8 :—Nub. Nub. occurs in the 52 tetrameters not cited below. 865.—Eq.v^l.^ also. as in Eq. 335. 1080. 1044.-. Ban. 907.v^|-v^^ _ ^ _ ^ . 1067. 353. 871.^ - ^ .—Nub. . 1056. 11 :—Eq. 365 Nub. Other caesuras occur. vy . at diaeresis. as in ^g. 351. 9 -. v^ . 335-66. Nub.^\. as in Eq. 923. 888) or seventh {Eq. 5 :—Eq. but less frequently. 1068. 344.—Nub.v^-^^ _ ^ _ ^ as in ^^. also after the arsis of the second simple foot. 904. 854. 181.^ . 1036-69. The recitative iambic tetrameter is somewhat more restricted in its use of caesura than the melodramatic tetrameter. 907-40) will serve to illustrate the foregoing statements. 1068. G:—Eq. the third. 353. producing three cadences. 351 .—Ban. after theses. Jf. 7 12 -.—Eq. 337.^ - ^ . Pauses occur second. 853 . 1039. 917. 182. 1409. 338. but it is extremely 861. 876). Nnb. Nub.^ . 885.—Eq. 439. 936. . 8 : —A single pause. Ban.vy-w. 918. 183.:—Niib. with agreeable effect. Ban. Ban. 1062.66 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 181 ^|_ ^ _ ^ .w-|^- v^-v^- asin Eq. one after the arsis of the sixth simple foot of the tetrameter. 1046. 5 8 -. 349. 1067 916. 1064. 346 Nub. 8: 11 -. One of the are two pauses illustrated is generally These combinations in the next paragraph.-. as in A pause may fall 336. 1058. and the penthemimeral. — after the - s^ -\. 1055. 1047 .v^ . 344. 1051.^ . and (progressives) Nub. Two are common. 893 first ^-^.

once in 7"8 which two pauses occur that has three pauses. iii. is relatively The number of verses smaller. 352) division ^ Lys. 186. The six indicate verses. : ii. 21-5.^ None of these are non-iambic. 352. tetrameters. There are 19 tribrachs. three have two. in 3-3. vi. Paa. fifth. One . in the 290. occur. ^^y^ i. 1040. Sixty-nine per the complete metres are irrational. 312 f. TA. 86 19 + + + 2 +3 + 2 3 + 9 3 + 16 Of the three tribrachs contained each in one word {TJi. meters have each one trisyllabic foot. iv. cent of 26 have three. one in the first foot. those in the last line percentages of metres . 1 in 4*5 Tetram. three consists of a trisyllable. 352). P^. bis). 185. 493. 948. 849. There are 86 melic iambic tetrameters in Aristophanes.§ 186 IAMBIC VERSE Diaeresis is 67 especially in the second half of the verse. two have three. 1 in arsis {TJi. 312. Fifteen tetraSee 70. The varieties of combinations of two pauses also are fewer. w|w does not PZ. is purely iambic {Pax 1314) and two others have no long one long 1 arsis. v. 1 in Five anapaests are found in the manuscripts {Ach. The Four dactyls occur {Vcsp. 296). Total. The melic iambic tetrameter differs from tlie melodramatic in restricting the use of the dactyl and anapaest. Fourteen have 6'14 43 have two. one {Th. 1 in 2 . 292). neglected in 20 times. figures in The following the first table lines : will further comparison. and no verse occurs 184. 538. 1318. ^c.

354. Strattis 30. 190. 117. 233. Hermippus 4. Anaxandrides 34. and 271 f. 163. 118. See also Antiphanes 25. . =837 f. Anaxilas 39. 911 : 7 (4) 3 Cf. Theopompus 55. 5. Eupolis 13. 56 Philyllius 3 Polyzelus 3. 252. 195.^ .^ 1 Eq 757 f. 98. 216. Pherecrates 93. 107. 442 f. Heliodorus in the rpifiiTpov Karascholium on Eq. 659. It appears that the irrational metre preponderates in forms of iambic verse in comedy. 265. 658.^ The verse gains in lightness of movement by resolution of the thesis. 219. 248-72. frg. 657. Archippus 24. 364. 231. that the dactyl and anapaest are much less frequent in melic than in spoken and melodramatic verse. 69. 218. and that the recitative tetrameter is the severest form all of this verse in its sparing use of trisyllabic feet. \eififia (31). and no trisyllabic foot occurs. 394 f. in recitation. 158. 767. Phrynichus 69 Aristophanes 79. 189. 25. 2 258 f. 300. incert. .. Ean. In the 25 tetrameters in Vesp. 294.^-v^^ but also in ^ (72). 252. Man. 1089 ff. Cf. catalectic dimeter. 440 f. once in a catalectic trimeter. ^ Nub. The connexion between the tetrameters and the following series of cola is so close that sometimes the speaker does not change (Uq. 232. 440- * Eq. 939 ff. 569. 220. Acatalectic iambic dimeters into hypermeters both in melic (76) and trimeters are combined and in recitative and meloseries dramatic verse *^ (77). 130. Lys. See 712. See Cratinus 26. as in Ban./. (94). Crates 14. 300 188. of the The iambic tetrameter had great vogue with the poets Old Comedy. (91). 351. 105. The commonly ends in a and with one exception it follows recitative or melodramatic tetrameters. 352. 231. 248-72 irrational outnumber rational metres in the ratio of 34 to 16. = 273 f.^ in which the verses were taken by Eecitative the leaders of the half -choruses or by an actor. The anapaest never occurs. 217.* and in tetrameters thus divided the time of the suppressed arsis may have been represented by an actual pause. Pax 939 * The exceptions are Vesp. _ ^ _ protracted tetrameters are found only in the parode.68 THE VEKSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 187 187. \tiktik6v. . 6. v. . .in verse 255 see 75. The protracted iambic tetrameter. is used not only in lyrical recitative parts of comedy. 43./-^. 363. . 355. 766. Ve^. Diaeresis of the cola is almost invariable. Plato 23. (583). 394-7 (2). 113. THE HYPEKMETER 190. On the metre v v. 196.

1446-51. but in is found only in debates. K introduces four trimeters in Eq.). The metrical form of the melodramatic hypermeter is Irrational outthat of the melodramatic tetrameter (173 ff.. and 1 in 5"91 percentage of irrational metres. 1089-1104. Ran. ff. continued {Nuh. 1088 is and even the grammatical construction 11'. 191. without the variation in cadence which would have resulted from the introduction of trimeters. 1388. 97- Even in the fourth foot: Eq. Nuh.^ The melodramatic hypermeter occurs more frequently. 192. dactyl.). the ratios as follows: tribrach. 1386. The dimeters and trimeters of which iambic hypermeters are composed are closely connected by synaphea (44). reckoning three comin plete metres as the equivalent of a tetrameter. 193. 67 In all four particulars the hypermeter is slightly less and 63. and tribrach.§ 194 ff. .. Ran. IAMBIC VERSE 69 440 K." dactyl and anapaest (see If the 213 complete metres that occur 177) are freely used. in 5*56 . 1385 191. 367-81-441-56. anapaest. 911-40. and they contain no trisyllabic feet. 194. inevitable in hypermeters in which the - 1 Eq. 1 in 7-54 and 1 in 8-87. on the evidence of the two oldest manuscripts of Aristophanes. that Nuh. were composed in least this manner. and it would seem. All the dimeters in the hypermeter except the last are composed exclusively of irrational metres. which one of the leaders of the chorus sometimes is and the tone often virulent. and Ban. 979. Nub. 1386 ff. 1389. 441 one trimeter is At which consists of 32 metres. free than the tetrameter. 1 in 3'38 in the tetrameter in the 1 are and 1 in 7*88 hypermeter. 971 ff. A hypermeter in which the number of metres is even may have been written by the poet solely in dimeters. a catalectic dimeter and follows thirty-two recitative tetrameters. 1386-90 . On the other hand. Nvh.). the melodramatic iambic hypermeters found in Aristophanes are expressed in terms of the tetrameter. and were therefore in danger of confusion in transmission. The closely connected cola are joins. made the vehicle of abusive discussion in a dialogue of actors. 1445 ff. number rational metres. At the close of the parode of the Lysistrata (382-6) Aristophanes uses a series of six dimeters that were recited by Tliis hypermeter ends in the leaders of the two half-choruses. 931.

the trimeter is the antepenultic colon (EV). 'Ittttlov) . as in E. . 367 1089 ff. 447. 441 All other probably not a trimeter. . . and the speaker sometimes changes within the colon. in order save space. . 1446 ff. .). . 380 f. ivairoTrvtjeir]^) . . 274 and Eq. . extant on a recitative iambic hypermeter See the metrical scholium on Eq. 454 . of writing iambic and trochaic trimeters is probably an imitation of the mode properly employed by the colometrists (831) in writing the anapaestic dimeter and monometer. (Ool/MaTLOv .. i/x/SaXeiv). vfid<. 1100. There ' hand. cola in iambic hypermeters in Aristophanes are probably dimeters. The two oldest manuscripts have certain characteristics common.. . ff. (TTpi^e 448^ f. . . The colon that begins Eq. . 70 THE VERSE OF GKEEK COMEDY f!'. for the division of a trimeter into metre and dimeter or dimeter and metre is forbidden in iambic verse. ^g-. (ttolcov f. . Both resort to the familiar palaeographical device writing two dimeters continuously in a single cni')(o^. 1449 (ovSev ae . has this anomaly in only two verses. 911. but a dimeter. and Heliodorus recognizes an iambic monometer once in melic and once in recitative verse.). . . The close connexion of the cola in non-melic iambic hypermeters is seen not only in the quantity of the final syllable . E is needs correction only once. and third (EV) of these is a catalectic trimeter. and this division lacks historical support. in . epeU) 1103 f. and Heliodorus. . confirms the trimeter in the second. . aKoirec). . . 1386 ff. Nuh. § 195 911 ff. (Ke-^rjvojo'i rerrapa^). 1101^ (/cat . In the fourth. 448^ (tov 442 ((f)€v^€i x^'^"'^9). in which the trimeter is a normal This mode colon (67). in which each hypermeter begins with a dimeter composed The two exclamatory dipodies rendered by different speakers. 911 and Lys. 911. 196. in the only note now in Aristophanes. Nuh. and both occasionally end a colon within a metre.. . f. (7a- (^ov\6/jb6VO<.). . On the best tradition. . as in Eq. See E. 382. 1096 (Kal . on the other the metrical scholia on Ach. number of metres is uneven. the following iambic cola hypermeters were probably trimeters: Eq. 939 . as in the spoken trimeter. second (EV). k6Xoi<. Nub. which are both of true cola (276). 195. The final colon in the first (E). : in of to ' V often writes is one serious discrepancy in their practice a single metre as a colon. Sopvcf)6pav) .. . 'monometer' affected by V is to be rejected. These hypermeters are all in dialogue except one (and this closes a dialogue.

378. 927. A colon frequently ends within a word. as the rhythm in demands. as in Eq. but also the manner which the cola are joined. 937. 936. as in 931. it as in Eq. 915. 375. as in Eq. 1386. 922. prepositions. 935 may even begin with an Eq. 453. and with . 917. 445. it may close not only with the otto)? subordinate conjunctions and otl (132). as in Eq. as in Eq.§ 196 colon. . Nuh. but also with Kai (and). enclitic. or with recessive av. 918. 912. in IAMBIC VERSE which is 71 of the acatalectic always long.

the arsis becomes an ' anapaest ' (17) \j Tis dya^oi' /SovXerab 7rai/xol -x^pi] diLV Tl Trap' KadevSeiv — ^ — ^ ^^ ^^ — — — ^ — — ^ Ec. The dimeter. 893 its f.eya (fypevas e'xoucra v^ rh Trpdy/xa. 268. ju. —^ — — -^ dXX. 334 901 Irrational metres are extremely common in all forms of trochaic verse in comedy. 540 A trochaic dimeter normally consists of twelve primary times syllables.^ y^ — w — v^ — v^ — ^ v^^ — v^ — ^^ ^ — ^ ^^ y~' Ban. If the normally long syllable in the arsis of an irrational metre e'i is resolved.: : : CHAPTER III TEOCHAIC VEESE 197. The thesis of each trochee may be resolved : €7r' dyaOw /lev rois iroXirai'. 341 Vesp. 233 200.a Tis All trochaic verse is in descending rhythm. by suppression becomes catalectic (33) 72 of the arsis of final .' arsis of each metre may be irrational €vo)X^^^ eToifjios 6 yap eaS' ix€v ravrd cr' eipyoiv /— — ^ w — v^ Tov doTeidv tl Ae^etv _^__ _^__ — ^ — ^ — w Vesj). 2'h.. The fj.^vy 615 462 Ran.13): Se^LOV Trpbs dv8p6i €(rTt — v-- — v^ — ^ — \y Ran. and eight 198. 261. ttoXv to veiKOS 8ovaK09. 199. 256.' iTraTToBvwfj. trochee. Jian. The fundamental colon of trochaic verse is a dimeter composed of two metres that consist each of two simple feet (12. 1099 ^^v^^^v^ Ran. See 247. 201. cVeKtt vTroXvpiov ^^v^. 1487 Lys. aAA.eO' &v8p€s -^ ovK OLKaipa. oi' ^.

^^^w. 959. 812. is The but it is final it may long syllable of a catalectic metre be short instead of long (33).^ . w Ko\a(ojU(T6a. - v^ ^ v^ 616^(231). like the corresponding but rare (393). be protracted. _wv^ Ban. This is not the trochaic 796. consists of eighteen times and metres admit the varieties of form found in the dimeter. •. oi'Se Vesp. Nub. Pax 111. 202. iambic colon. 1377 (218).v^ (26). 961. 799. -^- 326 (411). 1177 (354).^ - it • occurs. Man. K0/xi/'0T£/30V eV i) TO TTpoTepov ava7re(f>r]vev Th. iJLijKer' aTroSw ^ — w — w — ^ — — v^ — — v^ ^ ^^ w — 337 Th. TIi. 535 Lys. Lys. since the final syllable is long. 1490 (219). trochaic. and occasionally elsewhere in comedy.v^ . 1055 (374). Kivrpov Vesp. the law of the variable syllable in Greek does not permit the The colon substitution of a long for a short (43. tripody. as the final colon of a period. - • - . 884*^ (347). The second colon is the trimeter. 953. or Th. _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ :Eq.e6a TTtt/od — v^^ 1269 (ro(f)olv dvSpolv aKOvcrai riva Aoycuv ^^ 203. 460 (500). 319. Tr]v 1070 529 iraXaidv vtto Xidu) yap Travri ttov xprj Th. § 203 aAX' v<fi€cr6e TROCHAIC VERSE rod rovov — -^ Ky 73 Veq).067r«7rAevKOTOs oil' Aa^j. Tov^vdvfJLQv. alfJLvXav dk<i)Tr€KU)v Travcraip.. 896 A trochaic colon of the form - v? occurs in Cf. wherever ^ . but the thesis of its final trochee is never twelve syllables. . of trochaic verse It normally its never resolved. 1720 Lys. — ^ v^ v^ Trepcc^avws Sovvat SiK-qv TToAAo. is a protracted dimeter. Ran. and resolved. simplified logaoedic and enoplic verse. 406 1095 prjcriv €v Ae^etv e/xtAAo/xev tot'. Fc. 967 (415). w>j Lys. 460 avaye St^xe Trdpaye irdpex^ TrepLTrerecrde ^^^^ _^^w ^ ^ — w — ^ — ^ ^ ^ Av. 7r€. 330^ (411). 818 (497) Han. 465 1057 Ban. . . . Its first metre may be resolved. and 658^ (241). note). uicnrep oiKaS' et's eauTwv ytvvtKws. but not common. Ec. Th. 813 (242).

1113 (synizesis ?).apparently occurs in a few cases 898 f. and also full and protracted (207 ff. 1264 is (412). Dobree wished to emend this. the form is here due to interior ^ - for - v^ . but the dactyl is here merely a manifestation of the variability of the arsis of the simple foot that prevailed in the primitive dimeter.^ v^ in the second half the equivalents are ^w — . The two metres admit great variety of form. • . The penthemimer (36) is found in parody in Av. a dimeter.). Lys. A logaoedic metre (377) occurs in Th. 955 (589).^?. Zys. Ach. 1307 (413). but a protracted trimeter. 396. Av. 792^ 814. occur not infrequently in recitative trochaic tetrameters and hypermeters.(11. . but this variation rarely occurs. Eq. 788.) metres. -^ Logaoedic metres in descending rhythm. second metre constant. 5 ff. Ithyphallic (Heph. These forms. 19. Compare Eq. Eq. 496.^. Editors have attempted to emend these passages. 318. The equivalent of the trochee in the first half of the trochaic metre is v. § 204 - ^w. it may be used independently as a Similar to this in all particulars is subordinate period. which may be part 301. (408). Lys. syllable a short may .^ . 319. manifestation is normal in logaoedic verse (375 ff... or have paeonic-trochaic form. Th. 373. (220). Its ' - • . Cf. as in Ec. . (231) Lys. This is not the true choriamb (651) anaclasis. . 666 f. but the third is constant. . 17).^ . 816 (242). Lys. are interchangeable with one another in strophe and antistrophe and in two corresponding subordinate periods. be substituted for the final long Cf. - v^ v^ in place of a trochaic metre. EccL 1156.). of the variable . See 386.- 1499 = 1490 (219). . . 783. Vesp. 461 (237) in an ode otherwise purely trochaic. 206. Hephaestion erroueously regards this colon as a brachycatalectic dimeter. 790. L^js. This first is not a pentapody (26). 690 (241). This colon had great vogue and received ' ' the distinctive name 'Idv^aWtKov. Cf.- that occasionally occurs. ' of a tetrameter. v^ . Here the dactyl (389) usurps the place of the first or last simple foot in Cf. 807 = 783 (242) Ran. 71.-^ Like any other dimeter. 683^- w = 616^. 945. metrical colon the tri- -v^-^ -^^-^ -. 205. . 15.^^' ^. . 791. 1260. 204. 1293 . except that under the law Eq. in their respective places.74 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY . 953 (585). 1261 (412). . 616 (231). ' the use of the logaoedic anapaest in iambic verse (70). 789.^ . This A choriamb. and once in a hyporcheme.

959 = 962 = 966 (589). the v/Spi'i TO. . 616 Eq. v. but this form of the metre re Movcrat rare yap ea-rep^av evXvpot ^^ !roXvKoXv/jifSoi.rjp€iv — ^^ v^ ^. 1292 Such protracted metres are rare. 958 . _^_^ -^ — w ^^ Ea7i. — . 658 remarkable imitation of an ancient popular song in Lys. 342. composed is of an acatalectic and a catalectic dimeter. (242) and the hyporchematic ode in simplified logaoedic rhythm in Lys. 1476 Lys. Ec. 209. see 223 S.^ ^ — • ^ Ran. ^c. 906 Av. This tlie subordinate . Th. — . The corresponding form in iambic verse is 208. 343 (238). 618 Lys. 1377 Ean. The thesis of the first trochee in this protracted is metre may e/xe be resolved. 229 . f. Similarly a catalectic dimeter or trimeter may have ' spondaic ' close : auTov avTo. - may ( be suppressed and the metre then assumes ' antibacchiac ' w ) form : vvv ap a^tov iraa-LV cipyacTfiev' eW CTreA[jlol dois airavrd crac^ws aipead' av(a lai — ^ — ^ _ _ _ ^ _ ^ — ^ — ^ — w _ _ ^ _ ^ . For the metre 210.o"i/xov /xev oi'Sev. 245 Cf.^ ^ (72). The subordinate period that occurs verse is oftenest in melic trochaic the catalectic tetrameter. . TROCHAIC VERSE By form 75 suppression of the second syllable in the arsis of ' a trochaic metre.> — w .) t.: § 210 207. _ ^ _ — _ . (415).. 781 ff.^ _ _ . (412). 1490 These are Ithyphallics (203). uAfxkya Aws re SetAov koI eV^ev €^a)v eycu — — — _ ^ — w — w w ^ _ . 625 in This is the most frequent form of protraction (31 trochaic verse. _ ^ _ ^ — ^ — — ^ -^ — ^^ — . ' : to Tprjfxa Xp. — yj — ^ Lys. Both syllables are sometimes suppressed and the metre then assumes spondaic form ' ' : TavT ovv ovx Cf. 1247 ff. Sid rh (rw€Tos ehai ^ . X. The second syllable in the thesis of a trochaic metre Vesp. the metre assumes iKiricroL crov cretic .a-L fieXecrLv - . _ _ Han. Eq.^ -• v^.

(Tvi^Tpi'Xj} Tc5 BpdfjbaTi.). 211.). and melic trochaic tetrameters frequently occur in systematic periods that See 442. stichic systematic found form of employed. Bpo/xalco^. 415-29 Pentameters. 260 ff. Be avvkol p. are rare. whether Aristotle {Bhet.. fierpa. ii. It occurs also combined with are chiefly paeonic. 60. KopZaKCKoirepo^' StjXol Se ra rerpafi. 212. yiypairraL he to fMerpov • TpovaiKov. 8. iii. see 720 fF. The hexameter is also a favourite subordinate period. 5 ff. FE. and the dimeter is constantly thus (243). spoken verse (79) became pre-eminently the rhythm of quick movement. 213. ')(^opov<i.) characterizes (9.) .) as the regular : iamb and trochee rd')(0^ of diplasic rhythm ol fjuev follows twv S' eV BnrXaaiovL yLvofiivwv re eTrt^aivovai cr'^icrei airXol rpo-^aloi koI cafM^ot Kai elcn depjxol koI op'X^rjaTticoL is The ff. hypermeters and intermediate periods to form systematic periods.. 204 evrevOev rj irdpoZo'i yiverat Tov yopov ov crvfnrXrjpovaiv ol ^A^apvei^' Trapdyovrai. irocTjcrdfievov TT/ao? tov'? AaKeBatfioviov. 4) includes trochaic of dance or march. 789) they were differentiated Iambic rhythm is lively and singularly adapted to in use. and octameters are not uncommon. among the rhythms that are not appropriate to rhythmical prose composition: 6 Se rpo-^alo^. irpocr^opov Be TToielv Ttj TOiv BicoKOVTaiv yepovTOiv airovBrj Bpafjudrayv irocrjTal TavTa eldiOaaiv ol eTrecBav tmv koX TpayiKol Kot Xva o X070? kco/jukoI. hidoKovre^ tov ^A/jb(j}l6eov cr7rovBa<i t6v(i)<. (Codd. which it is other rhythms. of probably the immediate source (619 ff. by the dramatic poets is excellently : by the on Ach. ecrri yap rpo-^epo'i the trochaic stated tetrameter scholiast The use of pvdpLo<i ra rerpd/j^eTpa. These tetrameters may be followed by hypermeters (267 ff.). the melic trochaic hypermetrical period the dimeter On the combination of subordinate periods. J. as the name implies. whether in melic or trochaic rhythm. Aristides (98 M. heptameters trimeters The is chief constituent of . genetic relation of trochaic with iambic rhythm close (608 but on their distinct separation (610..). 259.€Td ctttouSt}?. eladycoaL tov<. the long. express the give and take of dialogue. The catalectic tetrameter is the trochaic verse chiefly used by the comic poets in recitative rendering (244 ff. Trochaic has special affinity for paeonic rhythm. but trimeters are rare.76 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY in §211 period period employed in Vesp.

epodic triad two trochaic hexameters with See 771. See 737. ti A. : (Til 5^ ri Bentley : cru 5?. a Kol fiyv ry/ieTs tTTLdvfJLOviJieu 281 :=^— — — c^i^__2 896 Trapa (TO(i>olv avBpolv aKovaai two. 51 •yAwcraa /zei/ ya/a tjy piiDTac. Anapaestic rhythm and trochaic a heptameter as epode. an anapaestic dimeter as proode to two catalectic In the antistrophe A = abc. jS'raSe (TV 8e /u. ov8' a. Aoyoji' _^^_ _^__ v-- ^^-s'^ v^v:. Monostrophic dyad.KLvqTOi ^pkves. 993 Schol. are not concordant and the effect of the shift of rhythm at 896 is proodic triad : : marked (281). Trochaic Verse (Debate). . cri) Stj R. 'H/i. lyvtV' av to irvivpa Aetov Ka6 KaOecTTijKos Xd/Sys. _ — — _ ^ _ _ w ^ ^ _ _ _ — — _ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 6^^ — ^ — ^ ^ gcv 902 TOV S dvao-TTwvT avroTrpefj. roZa-ii' ioriots V A 1000 toTs io-xtou A = AB (895-7. 900 irpoaSoKav ovv 901 Tov /xev eiKos ecrrt ttOTetdv n Xe^ew Kal KareppivqfJievov. 3*^^ (fifjieXeiav cTrire Satav 68dv. a = abb. rotffiv laTLOiaLu VM. Antistrojjhe. 895-904 = 992-1003 Strcplie.^214 TROCHAIC VERSE 77 Memc 214. aXX ottws w yevvaSa 998 p-y] Trpbs dpyi)v dAAd Kai o-vcrretAas aKpoicn j^pw/xevos T06S l(7TtOlS. 2 3 2. /yidvov ottcds (T o dvfJLOS apTTacras 995 €KTos OMTCi Twv cAawv. 'H/x. b = aab.voL'. — w — ^^w — v^ — — w— ^ — ^y — — 899 ATy/xa S' oi'k aroX/iov d[x<f)Oiv. Ban. 6 6 7. 2 3 3.ij jJLev AciVo-eis <^ai8t// 'AxtAAeu* <^e/3€ 993 Ti Trpos ravra Ae^ets . 1001 eiVa pdXXov pdXXov civets ^vAu^ctS. trochaic trimeters. (ti) 5i St) t/ TOiS icTTloKXiv RU. See 738. 898-904). Setva yap Karqyop-qKev di'TtAe^ets. 10 -w Tots koyoKTiv e/JLTreaovTa crvcTKiSav iroX- Xas dXtv8i]6pas CTTolv.

meters and a tetrameter. '^H/x. dX- AcDS Se SeiAov Kat //eya.78 215..^ — w — — v^ v. a TTpos 8e Tois 2Kta7roo-tv AtaAovTos ov fivrf Tis ecTT i/'^xaywyt' SwKpctTT^s" — v^ — w i^ — v-- _^_^_v^_. Aves 1553-64 = 1694-1705 (Syzygy Strophe. a-(f>dyi e'xfov Kdp. Kal ^vveicn ttXtjv ttJs IcTTrepas. — _ ^ _ — v^w6 — ^ — w v^ — vy — — ^ — wv76 — ^ — ^ — — v^ — ^ ^ i — ^ — — ^ — ^ 10— w — v^ — ^ — ^ — ^ _^ii8 ^ ^ ^ ^ 5— w — w — ^ — — — — v-- — ^ — ^ . a TToAAa jxda-T Srj koI Katvot koi dav- 1471 eTTCTTTO/xecr^a kol 207 Seivo. 1480 Tov Se xetju. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Aves 1470-81 § 215 = 1482-93 Strophe. On the protraction in the second colon. TrpdyiJ-aT lo-Tt eiSofXiV. epodic tetrad two hexaMonostrophic dyad.). (lio-irep Xaifiovs re/j-wv _^_^ _^_— — ^ — ^ — w ^ 6°'^ — w — o — v^ — v^ ^ 6*^^ — ^^ — > 4C ov8v(T(Tevs diTTJXde.T(^ K^T dvTJXO' KoiTw^ev 10— . TOVTO <Tovy /txev ^pos del 802 {3Xa(rrdv£i koI (rvKO(f)avT€L. in which the same melody is repeated with slight variations. III. See 743. yu/xvos t^v auroiJ Trcivra xaTrtSe^ia.'qXov arjs 1560 /xvov Ttv.evo'i ^vxqv I8eiv i] 5^w — ^ zp^ ^^ ^wvt' eKelvov TvpovXiire. 7re<f)VK0^ yap SevSpov CKTOTTOV Tl KupStttS d- 1475 TTwrepo) KXewuvp-os. ai. with an octameter as epode.c3i'os TraXiv ras acTTTiSas (fivXXoppoei. see the second colon (hyphenated) in the following lyric. 13' ecTTt 8' av X'^P^ T^pwcriv '^P^'^ avTi3 T(p o-kotw Tr6ppu> Tts Iv tj^ Aux»"i>*' 1485 evOa Tois dvOpwiroL a-vvapi(TTM(rt. ^prjcrijxov [xev ovSev. 6 6 4 8. 'H/x. 1488 TJjviKauTa 8' oukct 1490 ei yap evrvx©'' ^is 17 v da-<^aAes ^m'Tuyxai'e'i'- T/yotf) twv jipoTwv vvKTwp 7rA>^y€ts i'tt' 'Opio-Trj. (Stasimoii XL). w— v-- . _ ^ _ — ^ 1555 evda KOi Heca-avSpos rjXde Seop. 'H/i./ . (sic) 1478 <Tov> /J-^" Bentley : fiiv ye Vp2HC : A = aabc. 216.

epodic tetrad two Monostrophic dyad. (fivcret — v^ — vy — ^ — — ^ ^^ ^ — ^ — ^ 10— w — c. iravTa. 8e Trpos ' toCtov /SXeiriDV 545 TovpefBivOov S' oit' 8paTT6p. '>]v.e- _^___v. The eighth colon is catalectic in the strophe but ends full (proper Compare the corresponding colon in name) in the antistrophe (44).' fiev wpos avSpos eWt c^ovTos koi ^pevas Kat :roAAa TrepLireTrXiVKOTos 535 536 iMeraKyXivSeiv aiVbv del TT/DOS — ^ — w — w — — — ^ c^ w 801 ^ ^ TOV €V TT/OClTTOVTa TOIXOV fj 5— 51 >^ IxdXXov yey pafjifievr]v Xafiovd' iv Se 538 etKov' ecTTctvat. hexameters and a tetrameter.V. 20 ^ ^ ^ — ^ ^ b 548 TTV^ TraTa^as p. j3' eo-Ti S' eV 'I'ai'ato-i tt/jos tj/ KXeij/vSpa Travovpyov eyyAwTToyao-TO/)wv y€i/os. ov- _^__ — ^ — — ^— v-- — ^ — 6'^'^ wv aTJTos Travovpyos ti..s Kar eK yva(7oi. 217. 1697 ot dept^ovcTLv re kuI cnreLpova-i Kal Tpvy(iJ<Ti rats yAwTxato-i re* crt'Ku^oucrt 1700 f3dpj3apoL Ka-n-b 8' €i(rlv yevos.(o{5 tv/s ruJv cyyAwTToyacrTopwv iKiivwv twv ^tAtTTTTWv 'Attikt}? r} Y'^^''"''"** X'^P'^ Te/iverai.ii')\ov 79 — ^ — ^ — ^ '^KH. . — w ^ 6^^^ — v^ — ^ ^ 4CV ov yap av yeXocov ei Hav^tas p. § 217 TT/oos TROCHAIC VERSE t5 AatT/xa r^ys Kafi. ./C3^ yw Tos eibe.v^ M 15.7]V. Ban. with an octameter as epode./ _^__ Qijpap.. Kop. See 743. ropyiai re Koi ^iXittttoi.ev SouAos wv iv MiArjo-iois (TTpwp. a-)(^r]fJLa' to peTacrrpifjifcrdai 539 Trpos TO p.aX$aKi!)repov 540 Se^iov Trpos dvBpos eo-Tt Kai Ai. ^— — w — w — w — — v^ 6*^^ — — w — v^ — w^ 6^^ ^ — ^ v.^^ — ^ _^ — — — — — — — ^ ^ — ^ 6^^ ^^ ctT yTTjaev ap-ib .ov^€Koij/€ _^_^ — v^— 4^^ Tous X"P0^'5 Toi'S Trpoddiovs .evovs. a Tavra voi.V.a(rLV MiAr/criois 543 dvarerpapp-kvos kwwv \r](TTpi8' op- . : the preceding lyric. LYRICAL DUO Stro2)he. 6 6 4 8. 1561 ovdvajeCis Bentley : 'Odva-aevs A = aabc. 534-48 = 590-604 (Syzygy).

2 2 2 10. is a pentameter and A there = abac. a p.. 203 Bentley : ^ ^^ ^ v^v^v^^ -^ ^ — ^ ^^ ^ -^ ^ — ^ — ^ ^^ _^__ — v. 218. and a tetrameter as epode. -qvinp etx^s e^ 592 avavea^eiv koI ^Aoteiv av^6S to Setvov. Xo. 6 5 6 See 748. periodic tetrad: a dimeter Non-antistrophic. 601 dAA' o/iws eyw irapk^m '^avTov dvSpeiov to Xrj[j. o Tts av eTrevorjcrev jxa aAAos/ dv tis 5 Tov eyo) jxev ov8' 1375 e'Aeye fiot tojv iTrL66p. 1376 ^Tn66fn]i' iweido/xriv = aaab. OTtTvxovTwv Mop-rjV dXX dv arrov aiira X'qpelv. IttciS^ Tqv crToXrjv €iXr](fia<. — w -v^— — ^ — w— ^ — — — w— 2^ 2^ 2 . expanded by a Fum. tov diov p.). cm. -n-dXtv ra (TTpdyp-aTa. -^ 1371 ToSe yap erepov av repas vcox/'^ov. •^v xprjcrTuv rj ti.80 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Antistro'phe. ^Hpi. xai (SdXXeis M : 595 KCLK^aXeh Hermann 596 Vrai Dawes Vrt V. Tt 596 av$LS Hav. ws ukovw : 7% 6vpa<./ — w— — ^ ^ — w— 2^ 2^^ 2^ — v ^^v^ — ^ — ^ _ _ lo^ . See 747. ^ ^^ el droTTias TrAewv. 604 542 /cai /SdXrjj Setv S' arpihiiacriv eoLKev. occurs as the second stasiraon. See 747.a Kal ^Aotovt' opiyavov. a hexameter as proode that anticipates the 6 6 6 4. ei Se TrapaXrjpMV aXuxreu KaK/JaAeis juaA^aKov. 1482-90 colon. and a decameter as epode. ^^ y^ Se^ioi. But in the antistrophe 4. €7rt7rovot Ban. : Brunck (rrpiifiacL RAU. A The same melody. Monostrophic dyad.). (3' vvv crov epyov eW. irdpa Se 7roAAoro"iv padeiv. 01J atp€<r6ac cr' dvdyKQ 'arai Trapaiveir. toi^t' dffiaipetcrOai TraAiv ireipdcreTaC /x' eu otS' OTi. 599 on /Afv ow.aKdpi6% y dvrjp e^wv ^w ^^ ^^ ^^ ^Tjvecriv rjKpLl3(jjp^ivr]v. : KOK/SctXiys V. 592 f. A = AA (534-40. §218 Yiop. (Stasimon II.epviqiiivov 594 ^Trep etKa^ets creavTOi'. koI 8rj ^6<jyov.€VOS. = 1491-99 Strophe. RAUM A= aaab. KttKws &v8pes dAAd Kaurbs Tvyxavw TaCr' aprt (rwvoou//.rjv. 1370-7 (Episode y oi II. See also 51. 219. 541-8). periodic tetrad melody of the two hexameters that follow. as proode that anticipates the melody of the two dimeters that follow.

(427). 323 if.).§ 221 TROCHAIC VERSE yap €v cfypovetv SoK^cras cLTreicrtv 81 1485 oSe TrdXtv eir otKaS' avdfi. ^' xapUv oSv /ii) SwKpaTCt AaAeti'. 1492 -apaKaO/jfievov aTTofSaXovra Tct fj. (301).). 398 fF. 221. (82). 204 ayadt^ fi\v TroAirais. Kop. 2 2 2 12. Tis 893-99 7ra- (Episode II. is an indivisible period of fifteen metres. ktr dyado) Se rot? eavTov ^^^ — w 5^^v^ — \^ ^^ ^ — — c^^ — ^ ^^v^^ss? .\v Kov(f>ov l^opp-dv TToSa 660 Kal Siaa-KOTreiv o-Lwirrj p. '-y pdXXov dAA' e<^' i] 'yw Tuv erepov (filXov cS-ep ^vvenjv. Ec. (717). i:^ 'H/i. €1 Ecd. On the acatalectic close of this systematic period.(fiy](r[xoiari Xr^pinv 8LaTpif3->]v dpyov TTOieicrdaL 7rapa<fipovovvTO<. (80). (430 ff. Ban. TO Kal (TefJLVoiCTLV XoyoiCTi (rKapi. 8i) 659-666 XPV (Syzygy). cf.^ s^v^ ^vyyeveart t€ Kat (jiiXois 1490 Sta Tu o-rrero? tu'at. Trap' €p. 1496 (Te/xvo'icriv Brunck : (refivolai A = aaab. 372 ff. 416 ff.v _^___^^__^-— v^^^v^ ttctoito. Toi<. also 777. /8' Thesm. dimeter as proode that anticipates the melody of the two dimeters that See 747.?.ova-iKrjv re fiiyca-Ta TrapaXnvovra TTj? 1495 TpaywStKTjs 8' eTTi rexi'*. dvSpo^. — ^ — v^15 Non-antistrophic proode of a proodic combination of eleven strophes See See 773. A 938 (567). 206 a. and a dodecameter as epode. 8e \pr] ~ — — — ^ ^ — — ^ — ^ ^ — ^ ~ "^ _^^4^ — ^ — ^— 4^ . 204 203 ^ == v^ — ^ — >^ — O — ^ — ^ — w _v^ — — 12<^^ _ .ovoi' 7ravTaxj7. periodic tetrad: a Monostrophic dyad. em TTpMTio-Ta p. follow.ol XPV KaOevSeir. 220. 894 897 — ^n^— — w — v^ — v/^-~— — ^ — v^ — w — y^ ^^ ^ ov yap €v veats to (ro(f)OV ev— — ^ ecTTcv dXX €1' Tat'? TreTretpctS' — w>^ — ov8e Tts <TT€py€LV dv edeXoc 5— ^ dya^ov /SovXerai 6eiv Ti. This form of close is normal in periods that end in paeonic rhythm flF. F/aatis.

2 14 9. (232) . A: a Non-antistropHc. ws 6 Kaipds IcTTi ju. : — v^ — w — ^ — w fiovov 5e : — — — — ^— v^ ^y 7 — w — yj 6 ^— 660b iravTaxVj Bentley xPV : di XPV Kiister piif/ov xpV Travraxv 662 xPV" 665 5^ Hermann didppi^pov A = AB (659-62. 663-6).* 10— ^ — ^ — w T'qv TrapoLjiiav 8' eTratvoi to XP^ll^^ w— T'^v TTaAaidv SaKy -utto Xido) yap Travrt ttou xP^ 530 fJii] prjTtap ddpecv. pericopic triad: nonameter. rpex^iv kvkAo). Xo.v^ v^ v^ ) or cretics ( . — ^ TaSe yap etVetv rrjv iravovpyov 5^~w ^^v^^w — ^ Kara to (pavepov SjS' dvaiSm 525 — ^ — ^ — ^ ovK av (^ofxrjv ev r^fuv — ^ — — — v^v^l4 orSe ToXp. ct rt? ev tottois eSpato? aAAos av 'H/x. See 771. hexameter. Thesm. oju/ia. paroemiac. — ^ — vy — — w w 4*^ 662 aAAo. See 778. hypermeter of fourteen metres. /3' XiX. Tci — 796 — v^ v^ — ^ 7ravTax2? S« pii/'ov Kttt Tci 666 rfJSe Kat Seupo TravT dvatTKOTret IJ-^vov KaAws.) and trochaic dipodies are freely mingled in the same subordinate period and even in the same colon dAA' aTTttAov dv p.v^ . See 770. 222. mediate period. — w — v^ — ^ dAA' dirav yevoiT dv rySr.y]$ev wv. composed of four tetrameters. tovtI fievToi davfiaa-rov^ rjvpkdrj 281 w2^ ^^w — v^ — w — w — %^ — 621 oTTodev — ^ — ^ — ^ X'/Tts €^€^pei/'e X^P'^ w rrjvBe ti]v dpacrelav outw..^— 9"^ Non-antistrophic. TT^v TTpwTrjv iJSt.: 82 661 [JLr] THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY PpaSvveLV.rj(raL ttot av. 520-30 (Debate). — ^ — v. 'Hfi. In many odes of Aristophanes metres that appear to be paeons ( .aTCov Pax 351 ff. ~^ — w — ^ — -^ ~^ — v^— 4^ — ^^ — ^ ws Tax'O'T a (id vvv I'xveue Kal fxd- reve raxv Travr. 7 6. pericopic dyad : stichic inter- B= ab. Paeonic-Trochaic Verse 223. heptameter.^ § v^ 222 5— XPW v^ /AcAAeiv eVi.' tSots Kat ttoAv vewTepoi' d-iraAAayei'Ta 7rpayp. A = abc.

oi)(^eTat. 1192 ff.C7 with . -wv5^ 789 (243). (242) KVKVOV re TroXiwrepaL Si] = . Within the limits of a subordinate period. 225. prjcriv cu Xk^etv kjieXXojxtv tot. Lijs. antistrophe. there must have been a single prevailing rhythm. 784 f. Lys.e. (239). o>j (ftevywv ydfjLOV K'dv d<|>t/<€r' et's kpi^p. (233) 1046 ff.w . The problem in these cases is of the same nature as that in logaoedic and simplified logaoedic verse (388 f. protracted trochaic metre. 400). 224. cases. That they are metrically equivalent is proved by their correspondence in strophe and able.w .rOL(TLV iV (TKioXoKTL TO. 342 f. =813 (242). of more obvious in : oiiTcus yv veaviaKos MeAanwv Tts. ff.iav TOis opecrii' wKCt = TtytAWV '//V Tt9 dtSpi'TOS d.v^ -) is a familiar form that both iambic and trochaic metres with a suppressed arsis constantly assume in both tragedy and comedy. 412 = 468 ' ft". Cf. have endeavoured.^ Veqx 1064 = 1095 (235). Trp6<T(x>~a Trepl€LpyfXiVOS 'KpLvvwv d—oppio^ _^-. See 72 and 207.^ . Vesp. 428 = 486 (243). the time must have been approximately unified. Vesp. in order to secure exact metrical agreement.Po. 354 = .v^ ^^ ^ and . = 373 f. In the following analyses it is assumed that this was consistently trochaic. to emend many ' of these passages that are otherwise unobjection- But these correspondences are not to be set aside in a manner so summary.§ 225 TROCHAIC VERSE fiovi] 83 iraaiv ottoctol yewpyiKov (iiov eTplfio^iV yap ly/i-ds tic^eAei? Pax 589 Cf. This is the natural conclusion. The time of the metres in periods such as the pre- The same necessity is even which there are many in these odes even in parts that it is agreed are trochaic. Pax 352 = 390. in these odes.. But the paeon is not to be separated from the cretic. ir. i.-w^w -.is established by correspondence between strophe and antistrophe ceding must have been equalized. Li/s. = 808 f. where the equivalence of . with grave disregard of tradition. (240). and that the time of the apparent paeons and cretics was in some manner equalized with that of the trochaic metres among which they occur. (238). The cretic (. orSe -w-o Cf. at least. Editors.

that the equalization combined metres of different metrical constitution Greek verse was neither mathematical nor slavish. is It ' seems probable that the trochaic metre ' paeon ' in all these cases a ' light and arose in the dance.w became . • and In the rhythmization of an entire subordinate period. so far as this can be done. The equality of metres was not absolute even in Greek melic poetry. -w-w. the dot used in this book to signify not only the loss of a syllable. on — — — <-> v^ \j TovSe Xoyov dcrc^kpn. The long syllable in the arsis of the trochaic metre the long in the thesis by shortening. the paeon occurs quite 392. -w and . See 620. 410 ft". The paeonic-trochaic metre.w . syllables ( . where this interesting subject is considered from the point of view of the probable origin of paeonic verse.w are rhythmical equivalents.w -). One must accustom oneself . although not mathematically equal. of the time of in -w metres . To is indicate these relations. from Expressed in mechanical differentiated was symbols.. 84 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 226 Furthermore. The cretic of three substitute for -www. The ease with which the paeon could be associated with trochaic metres is remarkably exemplified in the Lysistrata (1014—1035). 226. _^__ Vesp. It must not be forgotten. That conception of Greek rhythm is disproved once for all by The forms . but they were The mechanical devices for by a uniform rhythm. —www — v^ — w — w^v^ — ^ — ^ -^ ^ — ^ — . independently among metres that it is agreed are trochaic : Kal KeXever avTov yjKeiv ws €7r' avSpa fiLcronoXiv ovra KOLTToXovftevov. with measurable protraction of the adjacent long syllable (see 31 f. -www to that observed in an irrational metre. however.) is a later -www.w the existence of irrational metres (16). -www expressing the metrical relations of the different forms of trochaic to unfortunately. but also the shortening of a simple thesis in the arsis of a trochaic and an iambic (75) metre (-www for -w-w. 228. embodies the contrary phenomenon for .w . where Aristophanes has used Kara arl'x^ov a form of trochaic tetrameter in which the third metre is continuously 227.). inadequate. then. one another are.w . w w w - w . controlled were felt to be different. 359 = 398 (232).

/xev ctt. . passim.^ 10— ^^^^^-^^ . Vep. _^ — _ 4CV _ ^ _ _ _ ^ . (caTaxeoucra R Karixovaa . 1192-4 with 1197-9 (Parabasis). Fvv. as the rhythmical equivalent of of the . _ ^ _ Antistrophe. just as -^ ( for -v^-w effect has become a familiar substitution. pna-dov. Xo.^oi)o-' lO-^dScDV • 6p[j. _^_. ot'K dp etcrtovTa c3 cr' oiKaS' 1^ TCKouo-a yvwo-erat. Trj<i 618 KOI 619 Kol jxdXia-T 6(T^paivop. y_. 623 Tas deoLS ixOpas ywat/cas _^_i:i _^_^ — i^€—aipw(rLU 86X10 15— ))p. (240). v..^ -' ^ _ ^ _ m _ ^ _ _ ^ _ _ ^ _ 6 — ^ — ^ — — ^ — w — — v^ w 4*"^ v.wv v-- — — w— v^ 4'-' 624 KaTaXa/Sdv rd h'Oev e'^'uv )(p'/jfiaO' tov re. _ ^ 5CV Xo.^ this v^ . yeyaio"' ei'^iis i)ppy)(f)6povv • ttoAci xp-qcripnov 643 eiT dAeT/ots 1. .ai 'Imrtov Ti'pavviSos' Trdvv 8eSotKa fxrj — ^— ^ _^_i^ — ^ — \^ — w 4^^ — v^^^c. Lijs. these light metres quicken the movement perceptibly when they occur. "vafiai. 616 617 I'lSr] yap o(eiv raSl 367 ff. 641 eTTTo. _ ^ ^ 4CV — v^^./ . ScKerts ovcra rapXT^yeTt 645 KUT e'xoDcra tov k/doko>t6v S/oktos r] j3pavp<j)VLoi. CTrei ^AiSwcrav dyAaws Wpexpk /xe. ivSponroi R 615 wi'Spes Meineke (i(n6vTa a' Bentley yap etV:6vTaj 645 k^t' : : 636 ?x<»'<''* oiJk 4p' Dobree : : oO Bentley FBC. 72 5 TrXei6i'(ov Kal yxet^dvwv [xol Trpayp. 0VK6T epyov eyKaOevSeiv eo"T ooTis eXevOepos. introduction of lighter The form - v^ vy vy ) of the trochaic metre.^ . e'yoi. . .v^ _ ^ _ 4CV -Twv AaKh)vo)V T^ves 8evpo a-vveXi^XvOoTe-i dvSpes €ts KAeto-^evovs _ ^ _ — ^ ^. 614-25 = 636-47 Strophe. its effect of retardation. and this is especially marked when they are brought into contrast with the is irrational form of the metre with (241). fivSpes TBC. which is not found in tragedy. rrj 637 aAAa awfjiecrd' </)tAat ypdes TaSl irpCtTov 638 r/^eis yap w Travres aaroi Ao'ywv KaTdpy^ofxev 640 €iKOTws.^ _ ^ _ . et 664-6 with 667-71 230. Cf. Originally hyporchematic.dTwv SoKei. unmistakable.<s 646 KaKavi-ji^opovv ttot oSo-a Trats koAt) '.a66v.. 615 dAA' eTTaTToSvwfJLeO' wvSpes TOVTuyl Tw TrpdyfiaTi.^ w 229. Lys.§ 230 TROCHAIC VERSE v^ 85 to .

B = aabc. 203 617 618 S> KaXa Xeyoiv ttoXv S' afjielvov €Tt Twv Aoywv — w — v/ — V — v — V c^ ^^ — ^ 4CV — w>. A = aaba. 'H/[z. elpyaa-jji€v./ dois COS avavrd fJLOL eyw wcTT TUTTe. Monostrophic dyad. See 743. 4 4 6 4. with a trochaic octameter See 751.' 86 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 231 = AB (614-18. as epode. 4 4 4 5. — v^ — — — w — v^ 8^ Antisti'ojJhe. epodic tetrad two the first two periods. two paeonic-trochaic tetrameters and a dimeter. Eq. I. : ' periodic ' ' ' . a ei yap kKykvoir T-qv fj. — v^ — ^ — w — ^ ^— — ^ - i^ . Sokw irpos rdS' 621 Kttv jxaKpav oSov SteA^ctv — — _ ^ _ — ^ — w . at least in such See Choeroboscus's Commentary connexion as this. 616 and 683. : Bentley proposed epyaffd/jiev Princeps : ai/ivXt'ots A = abbcd. eW iireXfioi craffiW'i 5— v^^^v^ v. epodic pentad a Monostrophic dyad. 688 dAA' OTTWS aywvtei (f>p6vTi(e rdiriXoLTr dpiarra ' crvfJip. There the term paeonic to designate both — ^ v^ v^ and — '^ — is ancient testimony that he classified paeonic feet. d)s 623 7ravT€S rjSofjLecrOd croi. Strofhe. 247. tetrad composed of a protracted trochaic tetrameter.k tSeiv rav- TTore t^v rj/xepav. 231. 'H/x. 4*" aKovcraf dapp-qcras w a- (3eX- _^_i=^ 10 _^_m — w — — v^— C7 _ ^ _ — w 2° Xey .^ojv €tVous cTTicTTOUTae TraAat. It should be noted that he employs arranged cola 8-10 as trimeters. Heliodorus See the metrical scholium on Eq.dxov^ 8' ij/i/ia? €. ^' TTavTa rot TTiirpayas oia ^pv) tov evrvx^ovvra- 684 Tjfipe 5' o Travovpyos eVepov ttoAv Travovpytais 685 p.. 11 232. paeonic-trochaic tetrameters and a trochaic tetrameter. AT. 619-25). with a penta: : A meter as epode. 'H/u. ^— v^— _^_. 687 ai/xi5\ots 618 elpyaa-fjiiv' MSS.--vy— v^^-w — wv^-v^ — v^— 4*^ .). 208 oAoAv^at.). 616-23 = 683-90 (Syzygy).et^o(Tt KeKacrpevov koI 86Xoi(ri ttoikiXols 687 p-qpa(TLV 6' atfivXois. a vvv ap a^Lov ecTTiv TracriV 204. Pax 346-60 = 385-99 (Syzygy Strophe. (Heph. as k^da-rip^oi. two trochaic tetrameters and an iambic hexameter epodic tetrad with a third trochaic tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of See 744. 4 4 4 2 8.

iv. -^-9^ Antistrophe.i) (fiavXov vofjLt^' ev Tw8e Tw irpdyfiaTi.w 4>p(>-C^ ' o"^ y«/> avTOKpdrop' 20-W--W -w — ctya^/y O ei'Aer ns >}/iti' rvxi]. 388 toCto Tp.6vwv. re Kal crTi. — — — — — — — — — — — ^ ^^ ^w w — O ^ — o w _ ^ _ ^ — w^. (3' pr] (T yevrj TraAty koto's dvTtd^oiio-tv /ir) '///..p Kal Trpo tov.f3a. 395 et Tt TLei(rdv8pov /38eXvTT€i TOl"J X6(fiOV<i Kal TttS te- 6<f)pv<i.. aye 802 — v^^-v^ f2 €vpot<s SiKaa-TTji' SpLfMVV Ov8i SvCTKoXoV.eyaXoSojpoTare 8atp. oi'K ju. 386 387 et Tt Ke)(apt(r/xevov e- )(04p68iov oi(r6a Trap /xou ye KaTeSrjSoKws.ivOL — ^ — €tS AvK€LOV KiXK AvKeiOV — w — ^ — ^VV Sopl ^VV aCTTTlSl.8as. a? f\a)(^e ^opjxiwv * 349 KovKiT av 350 351 355 356 358 359 — — — ovSe Tot'S rpoTTOvi ye S^ttov — (TKkriphv oicnT(. w— w— w v^ •^ 6^ wc^rO w^^-v^ 6^ ^ ^- 4*^^ ^ v_. uKovei? oia ^wTreuwi'a^ SeoTTora . /8' pr^SapoJs w SecnroO' 'Kpp. v^^-v^ — Kat ya/a tKOi/ov xpo^'o^' «" wv^-v^ — TToXXvpeda Kal Karare15— v^>^-v^ — TpipiiiOa TrXaviop. _ v^ =t v^ 10 dAA" airaXhy av fi lSocs w. 206 — w b t. 396 Kttt o^e 6vcriai(Tiv Trpo(ro8oL'i pala-i re peyd- . dAAa x'^P'-^' ^ (fiiXav- Opm—oraTe Kal p.^.) 801 -^.^ — dAA' o Tt pdXicTTa xapi— oi'peda TTotorvre?. — ^ ^. 'Hyu. /xrySajUOJS... oucrt cr 'Up. 391 wcTTe T^vSe Xa/Selv. p.§ 232 347 TToXXa yap TROCHAIC VERSE rjviarxofxijv 87 .^o .^/ ^ — v^— 6*^ v^ w v^ v^ 4*"'^ v^^4*^ ^ _ ^^. ^ 348 TrpdyfxaTa..oj'i.r^Sap.TJ.^ -^-. (ant.^0 — Kal TToXv vewrepov a^ — ^ — TraAAayevTtt itpay [xaTiav.

— ^ ^. — ^ — — 595 TOts dypoLKOKTiv yap rjaua ria-Oa yap /AcyicrTov ly/xtv v. 597-600). two paeonic. 4 6 6 4. 4. 15— w — ^ — ^ — y^ •^' WCTC Kal (re Ta t 6' djXTveXia \j k^ TO. as epode that repeats an indivisible paeonic- 385 fF.^— 4 — ^ ^.v> KOV (3lOV iTpt.^ v^v^'v^ dypov dvepirvaaL. b = abba. 5— — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ Ke/jSos w n-odovp. A = ABC : (582-6.p2v ^Xdes 599 birba' Bentley: 6<t' R: 6<tc V abc. paeonicThe melody may have been abb. Trpoaodois Princeps hpah wpoabSoLai.). the melody of the first period. and See the metrical scholia on Pax 346 233. A= two trochaic tetrameters with a paeonicaba./3oiMeV fJ. trochaic dimeter. 4 6 4. Pa^ 582-600 (Parode Xo. but the poet has omitted two cola and has otherwise varied the treatment of his theme. mesodic triad b = abba. R reading 390 <t' dvTid^ovffiv Ed.trochaic tetrad: hexameters. ^ 4>tXTa6'. 585 8ai/idvta fSovXofJLevot els — — — 800 — ^ ^ — ^ ^ .kvrj — v^^-v^ 589 Trdcriv OTrdcrot yewpyi— ^v^. See also 733. 2 4 4.ev 7r6$(o. Non-antistrophic. : avv 357 ^vv Ms Person 346 TTore ttjv Tj/iipav Dindorf rriv yj/xipav wori dvripoXovffiv. 4 6 6 palinodic tetrad : a trochaic tetra- . trochaic tetrameter. vofil^uv 388 vofu^ Bentley 396 iepaiai. trochaic nonameter. ws dcrfxevoLa-LV lyA^es rj[XLi>- yap e8dfiri[j.^ — ^ ^. Parode is composed on the general model of the foregoing. See 771.88 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Aaio-i Sta TravTos <S § 233 399 : Seo-TTOT : dyaXov/JLev Tj/xeis aet. X^'V^' X'^^P o-w II. palinodic See 739. vea crvKtSia OTTOcr ecrrt ^- rdXXa 600 <jiVTa ^- ^ 7r/30cryeXa<r£Tai XafSovr dcrfiiva.^ — ^^ ^.^^ — ^ ^. 587-96. : A = abc (346-9.^ )^i8pa Kal (TMT'qpla.610— — — vq yap rjfxds oxftiXeis./ — — — — — — — — — — _ — — v^— 2 ^ ^— 4 ^ ^' ^^ v^— 4 ^ v^— 4 w — w w — w w— ^ _ yj 6 . ^' ^ ww6 _^_v^ — v. and a second trochaic tetrameter c is See 746. 583 ^\ee%7)ixiv Dindorf: 7. RV TraXiyKorSs (sic) avTi^oKovaiv : : Monostrophic dyad. The following ode in the second flf. 358-60). a trochaic tetrameter as proode. 350-7. A= pericopic triad trochaic tetrameter. See 773. trochaic hexameter as mesode. ^ 692 TToXXd yap e7rao-)(o/i. proodic triad.€V — w^-w rrpiV TTOT 6776 (TOV yXvKia — w^^-^ KdSd-Trava Kal (fiiXa.

'H/i. Strophe. meter with paeonic-trochaic movement in the last two cola.^ ^ — 8 is an indivisible trochaic octaNon-antistrophic proode (717).' . dAAa KaK Twv Xenpdvwv TwvSe pu)fxr]v Set _^_— • i=^^_^ w vfaviKrjv cr^etv 796 ws cyw Tovfjibv vop. 'HjLi. was acatalectic.i^(D /} 10 - V. KVKVov re TroAiwrepat 800 -w-^ — w -v. § 235 TROCHAIC VERSE 89 meter as proode. ov /^aAeis ov f3aXek . See 746. but the A chorus reappear at 280. C is an indivisible paeonic-trochaic nonameter. fSdXXe ftdkXi /^aAAe /^aAAe.dxfJ-i-'S. 'H/x. was not In the text of Heliodorus the first colon (582) melic.^ — -^ — . /3' apa Seivos Ktti 7) rd^' wo-re iravTa jui) SeSoiKei'at 1092 KaTe(rrp€\p6.-^ 1065 ai'6' €7rav^oi'a-ii' T/Di'xes. 234. (717) — — — ^ ^ ^ ^ — ^ . Heliodorus regards See the metrical scholium on Ach. oStos 280-3 (Parode • II. 1069 yrjpas eivat kp^Ittov ttoA- Awv KiKtVvovs vcai'iwv Kol a^rjfia KevpvTrpoiKTiav. two paeonic-trochaic hexameters and a second trochaic tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of the first period. 1060-70 '<}/ietS = 1091-1101 — ^ — w — v^ — ^ — ^ — — ^ — ^ 5— ^cttw • (Parabasis). Vesp. vvv S'— St) ^^ -^-2*^ -wcrrv^ — w ^ 5^^ ot^eTai. His analysis does not include the last eight cola. 'H/ii. 571-600 as a pericope. — ^ _^__ — ^ — — — ^ — — — ^ — w — v^— 6 _^__ — ^ — i=iQ _^ Antistrophe. 263-83 as a pericope. but probably this trochaic hypermeter. of which the first period is 571-81. — — - ^ — ^ ^ . following tetrameters.). 1062 Kal KaT avro tovto 1063 irpiv TTOT riv irplv [xovov avSpes fia\iiiix)TaTOi Tavra. 235. a oiiTOS ai. 263 flF. Ach. 1061 uAki/xoi 8' iv fj. See 808 f. a w TTctAai TTOT 6Vt€S — ^ — ^ — w— 4 — w — 2^ — w^tw — v^— 4' akKLfioL fiev ev ^opots. See 773.-qv eKCtcre Tovs evavTtoi's TrAfwv ov rais rpi'ijpeaLV yap -qv rjplv ottws . /3' Trate Traie tov ixiapoV .^ ^ ^. Heliodorus regards See the metrical scholium on Pax 571 ff. of which the second period is 280-3.Tos eVrtv. See 773.p.

^w 1102 6 8' iiravaa-rpecjieLv Svvrfrai KaTrepiiSecrOaL 5=^w — — w ropm. ^ ^^ ^ 1100 x^'^f^oi' o^'' epyov Siaipeiv. but Aristophanes affects the trochaic hexameter.'^ 1110 TOtS WS TO. . A = Monostrophic dyad. 1063-5. AcTTTa yvwvat AeyovToii'. — w — 4*^ — ^ — ^ OTav 6 fiiv Te'ivrj ^tacws . 6 6. Ban. (iifiXiov t' €x<»v cKao-TOS pavOdvet. ov kX€tvtov(tiv oi vewTcpor. ciAA' ocTTts kpf. A = ABC (1060-2. See 767.90 1095 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY prjaiv ev Ae^etv t/ieAAo/xev tot. Kaivd. two hexameters in correspondence. See 776. (Debate). eio't — v> — vy — .Trj<. : : : 236. § 236 1097 eVotT ctpicTTOs.^w. o Tt 7re/3 otjv e'xeTov epi^eiv. ttoXv to vetKO?. See 771.^ .kvOl(TlV.^— 8 1103 aAAa 1104 1105 [XT] 'v ravro} Kcidrjcrdov _^_m _^_^ v-' ctcr/?oAai yap TroAAat "^^arepai (TO<fiL<T/xaTwv. Tovd' ' 1112 fJiljSeV 6pp(t)8€lT€ ws ovkW 1113 1114 1115 OVTO) TaVT* €X^'- icrrparevfjievot yap elcri. paeonicmesodic triad. yu. pericopic dyad trochaic dimeter. ouSe auKO(^avT7yo-eiv Tiva <^povTts.:zrv^ =^v^=^ — ^^ ^ — ^ — x^ — ^ 1108 KOLTroKivSweverov AeTTTOV Tt Kat a-0(f>bv Aeyetv. =^v^ z^ — ^ . a' fjLeya to 7rpay/xa. ^ — ^ c. Kat to. — c.^v^ aSpos 6 TToAe/xos epx^Tat. C probably = a'a. ^' et Se jXTj TovTO KaracfiofSeLcrOov./— 6 10=^v^ — o c^w . ra Se^udat <^uo-£ts t' aAAws Kparirrrai. trochaic pentameter. 'H/x. _^_m _^ — v. B = ab. — \^ — _v^ — — — ^ — ^ — v. monostrophic See 770. Totya/Dovv TroAXa? TToAeis Mr^Scoi' lAovTes aiTitoTaTOt (jikpecrdaL jov (f>6pov 8evp ecr/xev. 1097 o(rris Elmsley : Sorts a^ abc. paeonic. 1066-70). The ordinary type indications of the close of the first subordinate period in C (1066-8) are lacking./ — ^ — ^— 10 ' H/x. 1099-1108 = 1109-18 Stro2)he. trochaic tetrameter. pericopic triad The melody may have been aba. Tts afxadia irpoa-y 9€iii[X. 2 5.trochaic 4 2 4. dimeter and tetrameter. AeyeTov otitov dvaSeperov ra T6 TraAato.

A See 772. Ae- _^ m ^ v? _^_v — w — — kj — — v^ — — v^ — ^ — — ^ — — ^ — . 237. a' Tou 8' 4'^e^tv ai fxdraLe — ^ — Tttwra 8pdv ere /SovXeruL Kop. TT/oos evvov<s yap (^pacrets. fiyjSev 91 ovv Seccrr^Tov. r?]<5 — ^-^ — ^ — v^ 5 — ^ ^. octameter. 7 11. meter. ^ — .=i 4*^^ ^ 4*^ ou /SovXopai. — ^ — 335 ^^v^ — ov/ios vios. Kol <^/3evas e\ov(Ta VOlJfJL.^' (OS oVtwi' (rocfxov. — ^ — Kop. 459-65 (Scene I. dXXa 1118 iravT' kwe^LTOV d^arOfV y' oi've. = abed.§ 238 TROCHAIC VERSE vvv 8e Kal iraprjKovijVTai. 6 utapos X*" Kop. 238. 5— w — OLTe' Kal yap Tvy^*^^^' — 337 ovTOO-i irpocrOev KadevSwv.^v^^ _^ — — v^ ^ _^ — — w — . Trp6<^acnv €)(U)v.^ ^o^i./'v^ OTJK €^ /x' orSe 8pdv ov8lv KttKoi'. decameter containing a single paeonictrochaic metre. hexameter. A = ab. a' tout' iroXp-rja-' veiv 6 ^rjpoXoyoKXewv 204. 4 8 6 10. — — ^ov. oia KaTecTTMfivXaTO..).^ v^ v^ 7*^^ ^ — ^ — w ^^ ^^ — ^ 465 467 See Se ravrrjs vjSpews I'ljuv 7repi(j>avo}S 8ovvai SiKiji'. — k^ — ciAA' vcfiecrOe tov tovov.' " cuwxetv eTOip-os eyo) 8' ^^w _ ^ _ — ^ — — ^^ ^ 15— ^ 207 — w — ^ i^ . pericopic tetrad: tetraMonostrophic dyad. Xo. See also Thes7n./ i^ y^ ^ 4^ 2*^^ 339 <Kat> Tiva <i>l. 205 Ov8' OVK aKaipa. atv8/3€S StKtt^eil/ 10— wn.).. a Tt's yap kaO' o ravrd cr' ti'pycoi' — v> w KdiroKXyoiv ry 6vpa . €T€pov av re Ay/xa tovto KO/JLiporepov ^/^. — — — w — dyad: 11 Non-antiatrophic. I.v^ — w — ^ — ^ 460 eV r/ to TrpoTepoi' dvaTrecjirjvei'. TToAwAoKOV da-vver' dXXa iriOava Trdvra. Vesp. 777. See 770. heptameter. 334-45 = 365-78 (Syzygy LYRICAL DUO Strophe.^ ^ — u^v^— — ^ — ^ 6^^ ^ 4*^^ — ^ ^ v. aAAa yu.^ s^ ^^ — ^^ tov dvSpa v^v^ — . 341 dAAa ecrr' p. pericopic hendecameter containing a single paeonic-trochaic metre.

2 4 4. with a third tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody c is an indivisible hyperSee 749. 8taT/oaye6i/ to6VI'v KpaTtcrrov icTTl fJLOl TO SlKTVOV. of the first and third periods. 8iariTpu)KTaL toGto y' p. 4 239. A = abb. yap jx^Xlttiov. meter of thirteen metres. Fep. 6 4 738. /3' ly 8e /aoi /A1JV AtKTWva €X06 ToO StKTVOU. rdv SeSt^i. 1043-57 = 1058-71 (Stasimon Strophe. iKava yap to. iroX/j-rjcrev et 345 )Lii) ^uvw/AOTiys Tts — ^ — ^ — ^ 20— v^ — ^ _^_ii _^ — — v— ^ 13°^ Antistrophe. ravra piv vovTOS a- €ts 370 4>t./ Bergk 378 to?. Xop. prjSev ypi'- ws €yw TouTov y'. proodic triad : (334-7. eav ^7] Tt.' ^eatj/ Monostrophic dyad. See a hexameter as proode to two tetrameters. aAA' €7ray£ t^v yva^or. cruyyvw- 368 Kop. 4. irpos dvSpos to'T crwTrjpcav. ov wapaa-Keva^opecrda TCOV TToXlTWV OvSfv' WvSpeS cfiXavpov eiVeiv ovSe ev. tV ^t) Totv deoLV 339 /cat \pT]<f>Lcrpara. KaKa _^__ — — — ^ — i^ — ^ x^ 6°^ — ^ ^. Lys. 7rOl7yO-W SttKClV T>)v KapStaV Kttt Tov petv. TToAv TovpiraXiv Trdvr' dyada kol Aeyeiv Kal Spav. Ty]pwpecr6' ottws 372 Kop. /3' aAAa COS Kttt vvv kKiropt^e. (B' dXXa pi]8ev BSeAvKAewv u> alardrjaeTai. See 773. 1045 aAAo.. Trept ^i^X'y^ etS?^ Spopov 8pairarelv to.^ — v^ o 2°^ 5— v^^-v^ — ^ — — — ^ ^' ^^ — v^s^-v v_/ _^_m i=i _^_v^ . 342-5). See also 777. 338-41.7/^av>)v OTTWS Ta^Lcrd <3 t- 366 4>i.r] • dXXa /xi) fSoare prjBapio'i. : A = abc two tetrameters that enclose a dimeter. ^£01. Ko/3. epodic tetrad B = abaa. IL). /i. . ' 92 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 343 344 oTi Aeyets ti Trepi Ttuv vewv a\i)d€<i § 239 ov yap av tout' irod' outos avr^p Aeyetv vyr./ Cobet : rwv ^ewj/ or rai.

^op. 93- cTrayyeAAeTw dvy]p Kttt yi'vi^y 1050 TTtts €6 Tts dpyvpiSiov Set- — ^ ^' ^ _ ^ _ _ ^ _ 10— v^ — v^ . — v^ w _ ^ _ _ ^ _ — ^ Vru' 6*^^ 2 2 Ta6 XajSelv /xvas i) Su' 7) rpei'i.' Ttt TROCHAIC VERSE TrapaKiifiiva. oTTOTav re dvydKavri<f)oprj. Kpia yivead' C dyad.trochaic dimeters. — ^ — ^ nap i//xwi'. 8e TrotKi'Awv (Stasimon III.^^ — — — v/ — \j — ^ — w — 6 — w>^'^ — w — 2*^ —v^i^^ 5 — ^^ -^^ ^ — ^ ^. a tetrad composed of two paeonic .<JiV. B = aabcd. ^ — ^ ^' ^^ — ^ — 6*^ . 15— v^ — — c^w — 5*^ Xop. Lys. 1189-1202 = 1203-15 Strophe. Kat ^vo"Tt5(ui' Kat OCr' i(TTt /jlol jXOl. to'i TrAta 1054 1055 axop-ei' KOiV TTOT 6(rTis (SaWdvriaelpyjvj] ^icvy. w? #(rw ^Secrd' t| ^t'/Da : KSKXya-erai. tc^ux'j ^^"^^ i^P^' eSecr^' uTraAa Kat KaXd.dT(DV Kat i(Aavt8toji' \pV(Tl. — ^ v^ — w ^ 7^^ 2'''^ dv vvvl ^avii(7t)TaL av Aa/?jy fnjKer' diroStj). err' eicrw /?aSi^etv. Fe/D. avSpas KaAots re Kcicmi' <€t'> eVvos Tf Kat Kttt toi. : Monostrophic paeonic-trochaic : A = AB (1043-48. (Trpwp. 1049-57). with a pentameter as epode. €0-T6av Se /xeAAo/xei' ^ei/oi'S rtra? KapvcrTtoi'S. ?r' 1053 TrX^a Burges b-6\X' 1062 wo-re Kp^' Reisig 1054 Exofiev Burges K&xo/J-fv wcrxe rd /cp^a ^^ecr^' RF. A = abc. See 771. epodic hexameter. 6 2 6. pericopic triad trochaic hexameter.}. The mebdy and dance of the preceding ode were doubtless repeated in the third stasimon. a pentad See 759.to 1061 SeA^ciKtov »yv Ti //.ot. 2 2 7 2 5. 1064 I'JKer' ovi' ei's ipiov TrifxepoV Trpco Se ^/ai) 1066 TovTo Spdv XeXov/xevovs 1069 dAAa X'^P^"' 1070 Monrep otKaS' : avjoi's re Kat to TratSt". fiT^S' kpkcrdai fxi-j^iva. heptameter and a dimeter. 240. ws Reisig : 1060 to. paeonic-trochaic dimeter. T1JP Tivt — ^ — ^ — ^ .§ 240 Kol dXX. Ftiv. avTiK/3VS ets eavroiv yevviKcos. . 1191 ov (fidovos evea-Tt TTacrt Trapex^'-v cfyepeiv TOt-j 7raio-tv.^^ — ^ ^.

15— v^=^w — v^ — 5 Antistrophe. oSv /^oTjAerat ^at TW|/ TreVTJTCUV ITW CIS €/AOu craKKODS e'xwi' KwpvKovs. ic vv.7]8ev Kai _ ^ _ _ ^ _ 2 — ^ — 2 _ ^ — 10— v^ — — — ^ — — .- ttjv Kvva.kv. v.!' ep^v. oiTrep €7ri K€i\pv8piov 7]X6ofiev ot' T^/xev eVt.xcs R lyric. to f/.p.v i^wfiiS' €k8v- wpe^' 0)5 Tov av8pa eij^i's. ^ ^. 664 dAA' dyeTC AeuKOTroSes. el Se Tw Trap' /x^ crtTos t'/xwr eo-rt.^ _ 4 _ — v^ — ^7 . Xp-I^pa paAAoF. S' ws Ai/i/'crat 7ri.T €(rTi ttoXX'/j . Tvv. o Mav/)s ovfios avToh e/x/JaAei. 1205 1209 1211 ecTTt t/AoG Aa/Jeiv TTvpi8ia XeiTTo. 667 vvv dvT]Py]a-aL irdXiv KdvaTnepMcrai . ravr' ovv oix vfipa ra Trpdyp-a. PocTKit S' ocKeras Kat afiLKpa TToXXd 7rat8ta.7] onx^ Tovs pvTTOvs avacnraaaL. 8et 663 dvSpbs o^etv dAA' ovk ^vredpcwaOaL Trpe-nrei.poi's. p. J^ys. lj. dAA' tt/xwreoi' to ivpayii 0(t- Tts 7' evopx'^s «o"''' dvr. vGi' — — 10 — Set - v. TTpoa-ayopevw p.^ 1190 ^(tt/ MO' Elmsley ai^rols ovfibs avTois Bentley : : ^aS%iv e>oi dAA' evXafSela-daL a.Tep.^ . — ^ — ^ 5— w — w — w — ^^7 4CV — v^ 662 dAAa Tr. (Parabasis). — ^ — ^ — w — w /a'>j — — \j v^ — — t 2 oiI/eraL ovSev o-kottwv. ^ffri^ R 1200 Elmsley 1212 oi>. Xop. ouTws ev crea-r][xdv6at. 659 KaTTtStucretv /aoi SoKet to 209 209 — ^ — ^ — ^ • • . o 8' apros aTTO x°''^^'<^'^ 'S^'v ocTTis ^aAa veavias. 1200 x^"^"^' <^''> 8' evSov 7^ (f>opeLv. 658-71 = 682-95 Strophe. Xo. €t rts vjxoiv 6gVT€pOV efJbOV /^AeTTEl. . See the analysis of the preceding 241. 1213 Trpos ye /xevrot ti)v ^t'pav W.94 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 1195 TtacTiv § 241 vfiiv Xeyio Xa^jiavtiv rdv e/xwv ^prjixdriov vvv evSo^ev.

670 (rdai TO yrjpa<i ToSe.€v e/x' w ywaiKC? OaTTov tTw tis. (Stasimon Xo. heptameter. (re fiaLevKTOfJiai. 781-804 = 805-28 Strophe.§ 242 TROCHAIC VERSE Trav to <rw/ia KaTTOcrdija- 95 c. 783 avTos ere Trats ovTios rjv veavio-Kos — ^ — — . 7r/30S ttotc <^ay7/ o-KopoSa. 4 7. 4 4 7 = AB (658-61.ywv yajxov d- . Kal rrjfxepov tovs SrjfJLOTas (3o)(TTpeLv a-' lyw TrcKTOv/zevov. A = ab. Lys. e/cSvco/xe^a. el vrj tw dew ifiavTTJ'i [J. MeAavtwv tis. vTrepxoXw yap. " -=i i^i. See 770. Xo. . pericopic dyad 7. two trochaic tetrameters and a paeoiiicepodic tetrad : : A trochaic heptametei-. . aabc. 209 209 OV TTOT yKovcr wv. 242. 662-71). iVa p. 15— w — _ ^ _ — ^ — ^ — ^ ^ 7 Antistrophe. os <^ei.^ _ _ • • .). fi-qSe Kvdfiov^ [MeXava^- ws el Kai /xoroi' KaKtos epeis. [xvdov /SovXojJiaL Xe^ai Tiv' V/XLV. B= protracted tetrameter. yuvaiKajv auToSa^ wpyKT/xevoiv. I. Tep.e ^(OTrc/avyoreis. .^ — ^ — — e^^ m _ ^ . alerui' rcKTOVTa Kdvdap6<. Xvcrw ttol/jco) Trjv vv iyw 8>y. See 743.^ ^. Tvv. 686 688 692 dXXa ws vvr at- X^/^^'5 o^w/i.^. 664 XevKoTToSes Hermann : XvKonodes Monostrophic dyad. with a heptameter as epode.

Tep. — ^ _^_^ _ ^ _ g^ Antistrophe. pericopic triad (781-92. palinodic hexad See 774.cv '^ — opyta-rj ttjv cr(f>r)Kidv i^^_i^_^x 4CV . Iifiwv ^v Tis atSpvTO<.Kavdp' Monostrophic dyad. OVTd) 'xetVOS VfMWV dvrejua-ei tovs jrovi-jpov'i dvSpas del. trochaic rhythm. tetrameter. octameter.). dWd Toi' Kpova-io tc5 orKeAei. 6 9 refrain hexameter. Tvv. Ko/3. €K<f>av€is. 804 S>s Se Koi ^op/XLOiV. a-dKavSpov o/icos civ Tvv. II. tt/oo- 811 o-WTra Trepietpy/xevos. : The antistrophe lacks See 758. Yep. Hermann : rb aa. KaTapa(rdfjLevo<i dv8pdo-L TTOvrjpois. 96 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 802 Tpaxv's evrevOev fjieXajxirv- § 243 yds re tois t^Opoi^ aTracriv. (771) with : nonameter (with three dimeters in refrain). (plus A = ab 2 2 2) 4./ i=i 4. — ^ — ^^ — ^ ^^ ^ ^ — ^ ^=^ ^ v. Tvv. Aw/xevov T(p Av^vwXaKrla-ai. Xo. 8 2 2 2 2 8. a' eiTTC fioi Ti ixeXXo/Mev ki- veiv iKetVTjv rrjv )(oXr)v 404 rjvn-ep rivW dv Tts 17/i. rjv Talari. all in paeonicB = abbbba. octameter. Se yv- 820 Vvv. Vesp. dftaToicnv ev <TK(oXoi(n to. See 51. : to (tk^Xos 799 XaKTiaai Bentley 824 cydKavopof Suidas irpbawirov 810 rd Trpocruwa. 243.wv . dAA' ot'K tSots 826 828 : KaiTrep ovcrrjs y pah's ttAA' ovt' avaTTCl/'l- TOV KOp. one dimeter in the refrain. four dimeters. 793-804). A = abc. vat^tv TTjv (^lAraros. corresponding to colon 9. — ^ — ^ — ~ _ ^ _ . Kayoi /Sovkofiui Oov riv' vfjitv fiv- avTiXk^ai 807 T^ McXaviwvi.. 403-29 = 461-87 (Syzygy Strophe I.7ySa/xa!s eSeicrd ye.7]T7]V. OVTOS ovv 6 TlfHOV W^^e^' VTTO fJiL(TOV<S 815 TToAAo. 'E- pLvvoiV diroppu)^. fSor'Xei yvdOov devu) )U.

a! 5— w — o KevTpov — w — v^ KoXa(pfie. oijx op?^5 — v^ — v^ B8. Av.(icrTa TratSia 10— v^ — ^ ^£iTC K-at /Joare /cat KAe_ ^ _ wvt Taiir' dyyeAXfTe. 25 — ^ — 419 Ket Tis aAAos Trpoe_ ^ _ crTr]K€V rjfxwv Ko'Aa^. Tt>- — ^ — y^ — w — v^ — w ws — 20— w — ^ _v_/ — — v-- — — ^y ^> — c/ 4^^ — w — w— 4^ — w — ^ pavvis ia-Tiv efX(f)avqs cf.:^w <-- i:i — w — 7^^^ — v^ — ^ w 4*^^ — ^ — ^ _ ^ ^ 4CV — w — v^wv^ — v^>:^v^ _^bi^V _ ^ i:^ yuii) .§ 243 vvv eKelvo vvv Tov^vOvfiov TROCHAIC VEESE c/cetvo (^ 97 'H/x. _^ — i^ . rjS/^ — ^ — ^ — ^ ^ 4*^^ — ^ — ^ — w — w — ^^^^4'' 35— v^ — — — ^ _v^ — ^ — v^v^4 _ ^_ii — v^ — ^ — ^ o 4*^^ _^__ ToiJTO fiiVTOi Setvov _v^__ 40— ^ — w _^__ v^ At". a' Kat as y' ttTJTOis e^oXov/xeV _^__ _^_o _^_^ w— 4^ dAAa etV' Tras iTicrTpecfye 423 Seupo Ka^eipas to Kivrpov ctt' auTOV I'ecro. (Sya^ot TO irpayfi' dKOVcrar' aAAa Kop. i=i . 'i* _ _ — _ — — — — ^ _ 4CV ^ ^ — ^ _ 4C w — o wv^ 4^^ w — ^ . BS.(Tda 408 ttAAa 409 410 412 414 — ^ ^. _ ^ _ _ ^ _ pov 6eoL(r€)(^dpLa. Kop.7rA7y^evos. a' iie6i]croixai. — v^^^— Becrwora .' €ts Toi' oi'pai/di/ y'. di/ €v elSy rh AotTrov o-fiTjVOS olov oipytcrev. 10*^^ Strophe II. 800 Oal/xdrta jSaXovTi'i . OTt 51 15— ^ ^' k^ To'vSe Adyov d(T(f>epeL. a' vr) At. TttVTa S'Jjt' ov Seivo.i. evTerarat d^ews. oi<s y' oLTTwXea-av <J>iAt777rov 30— ^ — — €V SiKr. (I)S opyrjs Kai /X6V0VS €p. TOvS' eyw ou 'H/. _ v^ _ St/ca^eiv StKas. BS.w — ^ — ^ — — w 0)5 Ta. — v^ — ^ Kul KeAei'er' auTov •>JK€tv — ^ — -^ ws ctt' avSpa fJucroTroXiv — v^^^w OVTtt KaTToAoi'/XeVOV. Tou Fopyiov. /xt) KeKpayare. 424 ^ucTTaAets cvTaKTOs 425 Ha. • . 1560 (216) -^-v^ -v^-^4^ . €1 fiaxovpeOa' Se- — v^^4^ — v^v74 427 ws eytoy' avTwv opwv Tots _^^__ _. — ^ 'Hpa/cAets Kat K^vrp' exovaiv Ha.j_^ SotKa eyKei'TptSas. 418 (S TToAts Kai 0ew- . Kat .

s Hirschig aCris R.V . 4 4 7. Two cola (perhaps 12. r} /Se/SpwKores. epodic triad: two tetrameters with a B = aab.'^v oijS' Trr^ydvo)' 481 tovto ydp TrapefifSaXovfJiev /A€V twv TpixoivcKdH' «7rwv. ap' dv •)) ovSev dAyets. out^j V 422 ai^Tots Holden 487 <l!5' Hermann Hirschig fi^v 7' : : : : The two A = aab. 485 'Hp. dAAa vuv BS.€pas. . /3' KUKOis TocrovTOiS vavfj.WV : o^x €ws av eTTt Tl'paVVtS' <(SS'> €(TTdXrfS. See heptameter as epode.vwp. strophes constitute a pericope.oi twv ^ewj/ vjjieis dTraAAa^^^etTe pou . w Trpb? p.epat. 4 4 10 (4 4 6 in the anti737. 13) are lacking in the antistrophe. e'v 479 /aSAAov Kop. 408-14). 462 'H^. 468 ovTC Tiv' e^cuv TrpocjioXTtv ovre Aoyov cvrpdireXov.0Tas KaXy. ekavdav' VTTiovo-d 466 (TV y' (3 TTOvo) KOfii^rapLVVLa r) Toiv vofiuyv rjfxas aTreipyeLs Siv eOrjKev ttoAis. See 778. avrh'i apyoiv . 51. Antistrophe BS. TttUTa (TOV KaravrXyj Kat ^i. AB (705). : TOi'S' 416 414 /xtj Princeps tbs x/^ M^? evriTar <5fi) 407 ivTirarai 6^iws Ed.f3' (Tovs Aoyovs 5 fiKToS-que koI fiovapx^^as epacrrd 475 Kat ^Dvwv (TTefxixdriiiv ByDao-t8^ Kat (f)Opu)V KpacrireSa ry)v 9 virr^v-qv aKovpov rpee^wv BS. two tetrameters. /3' SeSoKTai Zkpecrdai Kat Sepeiv St' i}p. A in the strophe (two tetrameters with a See See 737.axeiv orS' €v o-eAtvw o-otjottii/ owSe p. a S 243 dAA' d^tet tov av8p' >(eAwvas fiaKapi- • 429 Tcts £tv (re Tou Sep/ittTos. epodic triad : = AB (403-7. Ti juou Aoittov >/. juovos Antistrophe II. dpa £t ot5k arrd SijAa to?? Trovqpe kolI xvpavvts ws Xadpa y' /xe. ovScTTOTe y'. €cr^' OTTWS dvev fidxV^ '^"^'' "^V^ Karo^etas /3o7ys 472 eis Aoyovs eXOoi/xev dAA^Xotcrt Kai StaAAayds 'ilfi. dXAa eiTrep /?' /i.a At" ou paStws outws dv auroi. I. roi'Se 7' crol 480 /j-tjv 473 <70!. strophe). debs ix^pia RY 418 deoicyexdpia Bentley Person: rix-S' R. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 'H^. with a decameter as epode hexameter in the antistrophe). B^. '^tv^ov Srjr' twv jxiXiov twv lAoKAeovs Trevrycriv. i'^ At" r} i^ fioi KpeiTTov eKO-TrjvaL to Trapdirav tou TraTpbs 6o-7//i. . OCTTtS 1]p. B is a stichic period composed of fifteen tetrameters. dAA' oTav £iivv/yopos TauTO.? Sie^vye?.

however.* 246. 313. Pax 383-4 ~ 314-21 ~ 391-6 428-30 Lys. . Aristotle.^ sympathy with their emotion was doubtless expressed by the chorus in mimetic dance-movements. after a musical therefore frequently the parode ^ (213). 779 . The recitative tetrameter is used in all the comedies of Aristophanes except the Plutus.^ 312 ff. .^ found in the epirrhemata and antepirrhemata of The tone is in general sceptic. . 702-6 Ec. 6878-726-7. fiev satyric in content and yap irpwrov Terpa/xeTpco €-)(pMVTO Sia TO auTvpLKTjV Kol op'^rjCTTLKoyTepav eluaL ttjv TTOirjatv.601-50.** 247. Eecitative trochaic tetrameters occur sparingly also in other parts of comedy than parode and parabasis. and once in a syzygy. 242-83 Paa-299-338 Av. its two cola are line in recitative (59).. 1 Ach. 575-94 = 6075 : . number.). 234-6 ~ 238-40 Eq. . 1036-42 Th. 626-35 = 648-57(10 = Th. but oftener in the earlier than in The verse is adapted to rapid movement and is the later plays. employed when the chorus enters in haste in sometimes on the run. .303-34. ^c. 122 2 s (syzvs^y). £g . 1155-62. and the Editor's Unrecognized Actor. Poa. 320-6. . Av." also in the parode. Lys. 26 (20 = 20) Nub. or when it retires from It is used the immediate scene of action in the second parode. . Thirty-nine of the . ff. Ach. language. and the recitation was accompanied by the chorus with mimetic movements. 10) and 672-81 = 696-705 (10=10) 830-45 (669) Han. recited The epirrhema and antepirrhema of the parabasis were probably by the first and second leaders respectively. when 14) it : was to still iv. the leaders of the chorus and personages of the scene engage in a dialogue in recitative to the accompaniment of a In many of these scenes the speakers are excited. speak- ing of the early drama. and tlute.§ 247 TROCHAIC VERSE Non-Melic Trochaic Verse the tetrameter in aristophanes 99 244. when. 1072-87 = 110217(16 = 16). . 753-68 = 785-800 (16 = 16). 686-705 = 718-37 . 676-91 =703-18 (16 = 16) JEq. 1115-30 (669) 1071-90 = 1102-21 (20 = 20) Pax 114055 = 1172-87 (16 = 16). 336-42-352-86. 1274-89 = 1300-15 (16 = 16) Nub. Vesp. Av. 430-60-488-525 ^r. recitative tetrameters in the . in Aristophanes the parabasis. 245. . ^ See Haigh's Attic Theatre. 426-7 . (20 6 = 20). The catalectic trochaic tetrameter is used by Aristophanes both as a melic period (210) and also continuously by When it is used by line. says {Poet. very generally separated by diaeresis (253 ff. 317-18. 553-70 . The chief use is of the recitative tetrameter. 268-309.t. 565-80 = 595-610 (16 = 16) ^. Fesp.

v^ ) in trochaic verse. 358. The anapaest. : v-«v^v i. Av. 505. 248. 319. three times in the fourth (Av. 380) and one in the third (Fax 615). 341. The tribrach occurs 161 iv. 504. Ec. v. iii. and the division of the 23 that consist of two is always 250. vi. 319). One hundred and sixty-one tetrameters have one long 4-84 357 have two. 1 in 2-18 213 have three. 5 in the fifth. iv. 1 in the second. 245. 276. : yj^— ii.^ times. 575. 1 in . 290. v^ v^|-. 779 161 28-h32 4 + 6 13 + 4 2 + 1 38 + 11 4+13 5 + 94 + 67 Five of the 94 tribrachs contained in one word overlap the preceding foot. Av. but numerous exceptions ( ^ ^ v^ ) occur in the tetrameter. 451. v. 281. 281). ii. vii. and the other three have been Only 6 of the 67 tribrachs composed of two or three emended. 1072). Pax 322. . Eq. and overlap forward. 1156). The dactyl occurs six times. 373. 779 44 11 +8 5 +3 5 + 12 21+23 Only two anapaests (Vesp. Vesp. 281. vi. once in the first foot (Eq. 689. Sixty-five per cent of the complete metres are irrational. 685. or parts of words. 791.100 THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY ai-e § 248 extant plays of Aristophanes 87. 1 in arsis. Sixty-three begin with the word 510. Hq. 12 overlap forward. Pax 553) of 21 contained in one word overlap the preceding foot. 581. The word containing the tribrach consists of three syllables in 26 instances. Total. The natural division of the tribrach when it consists of two words is ^ ^ (for . 1 1113. and 9 others have all arses short but one or more theses resolved.^ | | 7 in the Cf. once in 4-84 tetra- meters Tetram. 200). Av. Two of these are composed of proper names (iVw&. Av. 1 in purely trochaic. words or parts of words consist of three words or parts of words. 581. 1 in 20. 285 (emended). ' 249. Vesp. 492.' a form in trochaic verse which results from the resolution of an irrational foot (17. 353 . five in the first foot (Ach. These are Uq. Av. The five tribrachs in the seventh foot are contained each in a tetrasyllable word (^ ^ ^ ^) which comprises the seventh and eighth feet. 497. once in 1 8 tetrameters Tetram. 7 consist No anapaest consists of three words each of a trisyllabic word. occurs 44 times. first foot. 280. . Ach. These are all in the fifth or sixth foot (Vesp. 1 in the third. Total. 3-66. JVub.

101 and twice in the the first In each case. Eq. . once in 7*1 verses. The ratios for the two sorts of found elsewhere in the plays. 600. 1116). after the third. as in ^7. involving the combination ^ Two contain one tribrach and (Av. as in ^^. 1308) One contains 5. One tetrameter contains one three tribrachs (Av. . The trochaic tetrameter. Vesjx 506. 324. One hundred and fifty-three of the 181 tetrameters that contain trisyllabic feet have one trisyllabic foot.v^ ^ v^ 253. 322. as in Eq. of which 1. 623. as it happens. There are 391 tetrameters parabases and 55 neglect diaeresis. 268. Nine contain one tribrach and anapaest in 6 combinations.^ and two ^ one is dactyl (Ach. 571.v^ . closer to the recitative than to the melodramatic iambic tetra- meter (183). 491. 318. The tetrameters. 319). 262. 498. 1075.v^ -W-.. 1 in 6 and 1 in 4 dactyl. which do not admit diaeresis the end of the first dimeter. 496). 558. 303) each occur twice. the iambic Diaeresis is neglected tetrameters. 600. cribrachs and an anapaest. numbering 388. 34:0). 283. Th. or of a reqessive word at the beginning of the second. 457. Av. 318. Vesp. etc. in its observance of diaeresis. -^-v. 1281. . brachs in 8 combinations. anapaest and dactyl than those. 55 of these neglect diaeresis. 6 (Bq. anatetrameters respectively are tribrach. 622. : . Vesp. -w-v. ^. 576.^ -. of which 1. 302). 251. | -^-^ Vesp. in 5.§ 254 fifth TROCHAIC VERSE (Ach. Av. 1 in 391 and 1 in 78. 514. and. 559. 2 (Eq. Bq. Eossbach's assumption (Spec. there are 388 elsewhere comedy. 254. 1283. Fifteen tetrameters contain each two triand 2 have three. . v^ ^ . 5 occurs three times (Ach. it is or last simple foot of a dimeter. Pax 305. tetrameter (180). 269. Uq. 334. 488. found in the epirrhemata and antepirrhemata of the parabases are less free in the use of tribrach. The collocation ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ occurs QSO. 26 have two. 572. _^_^ -^:-v. 1128. Nuh. 257. numbering 391. as in a considerable number of verses because of a progressive word at elsewhere in recitative comedy is not in in supported by facts. 1 in 20 and 1 in 16 252. 244. 838). as in Ach. 280. See 205. etc. Mctrik^ 188) that diaeresis is neglected oftener in trochaic tetrameters found in the epirrhemata and antepirrhemata of parabases than in those that occur 110 times in 779 trochaic To these must be added. Fax 306. 6 {Vesp. Caesura is allowed after the second arsis. twice. paest.

298. 239. is found in the 58 non-parabatic and 68 parabatic (P. 459. 6:10:— 4. occurs also _ ^|_ ^ theses. 395.:—Av. P. where in the verse than in the places named. P. 1315. 444. Vesp. 282. 332. 435. 714. Fesp. 434. 758. 269. 791. 8 12 :—Av. 753-68.^ 331. P. 1082.as Pauses are rare elseEq. Nuh. 631. Ach. 768. 237. 1071-90. at diaeresis. _ ^ _|^ ^ . the ' anapaest ' may be dissyllabic. Fesp 1111. often in after Vesp. 273. 430-60. Av. 1083. 4. 324. 1115. 614. after 1283.^ . as in Ach. _ ^ -. iys. 1102-17. P.^ -. 426. 793. 6:—Ach. -^-. Nib. 708 P.^ . 8:11: . 268-304) and 100 that occur in parabases (Ach. the even the foregoing statements. 328. 1072.^ -|v^-^ . 603. 235. 3:10:— Ach. 583. 759. the fifth. 282. 623. 1281. 681. Ach. Av. 324 Fesp. 281. 297. 714. 794. Ach. 1084. Av. 1^1. follow. The following analysis of 100 recitative trochaic tetrameters found elsewhere than in parabases (Ach. a pause may occur after 1125. 3:8: . 7 -. -v^-w -^-v^ -v^-|v^ . 457. § 255 1276. 708. Fesp. Fesp 432.) tetrameters which are not cited below. 303-34. 1077. 3:11:—Av.^ . 624. 331. When diaeresis is not possible. 1110. 676-91. 5:7: —Av. 285. 6:11:— P.— Fesp. Av.—Ach. 295.^ . 322. 5:8:— Av. 272. 498. P. rarely with three. 283. —P. Av. not infrequently the second. 684. 274.as in Eq.^ .^ -\^ . 299. Vesp. 8:10:— Av. 279. 620. 1112.^ . 442. 456.^ 258. 4 10:—Ach. Nub. after the Ach. 1309. 1114.^ -v^-. 1073. 685. 283. 291. 754. 524. 1 :S :—F. 301. 286. 715.^^ . as in after fifth. but occasionally one occurs after the sixth thesis. 703-18. : — : Fesp. 333. 682. 294. Fesp. 284. Fesp. . Fesp. 384. and Av. 266. S -. 240. Illustrations Verses occur with two pauses. Fesp. 510. Pax 317. 1110. 3:7:10:— Fesp 458. 277. 308. 444. F. Eq. It 503. 1311. 584. Pax 302. Av. the fourth thesis. 7:13 :— P. 445. 443. 8 -. less . 270. 8 —A single pause. 442. ^c^. Av. 1315. Nub. Av. 333. 615. sometimes _|^-^ . 625. as in Ach. 785-800) Avill serve to illustrate The odd numbers signify theses. 20:— Ach. Av. . 328. 1088. It will be remembered that the thesis of the tribrach and of arses. : 3:— . 438.^ -.^-. 435. Ach.^ . 799.: 102 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 1277. Ach. 788. 580. 506. 798. _^_^ _^_^ 1307. Av. 255. Pax 630. . Av. 268.—Ach. Eq. asin Ach. P. 313. 785. Vesp. 316. Ach. Av. 1087. after the third. Vesp.^ . 1122. Fesp. Eq.

999 En '312 f. tribrach | The anapaest occurs six times. 404 340 f. 330. Pax 346. 343. 714 540. 548. and four others Thirtyhave all arses short. (2). 595. 583). The single tribrach in the seventh foot {Vesp. (2). 686 f. The trochaic tetrameter. 1165). 645. Th. 403 f. . 1285) contained in one word overlaps the The word is a trisyllable in 3 instances. . 114 + 3 +3 3 + 2 0+1 3 + 1 3 + 1 1+0 12 + 11 A single preceding foot. op^TjcmKcorepov. 1285). remained in favour with all the comic poets for just the reasons that made it a means less fit than the trimeter to express In the language the exalted sentiments of developed tragedy. 623. : ^^^ 23 2 ii. 1 in 3*5 Fifty-six per cent of the complete 25 have three.: § 259 256. TROCHAIC VEESE The melic trochaic tetrameter in is 103 the recitative exchiding the dactyl somewhat severer than and in some minor particulars. 1099. (2). 43 have two. 596. 14). of Aristotle it was KopSaKtKcorepov. (2). Ran. 461 f. 259. 338. 1 in 5 v. Vesp. one has four {Ran. 293 296 335.). 286. 263. (2). 1060. Lys. 662 f. 341. but one or more feet resolved. 640. 733 301. Rhet. 284. (2). . 2 have four or more. Ec. Ec. 1267. 204-7 (4). 1291 Pax 346. . (2). tetrameters contain two tribrachs {Pax 733. 258. 389 f. 478. words or parts of words. . 636 f. 478-485 (8). 219-22 (4). . 583. Of the 1 6 tetrameters that contain trisyllabic feet. vi. (2). 618. 9 Three have one trisyllabic foot. 674. three in the sixth {Vesp. (2). 369. iii- iv. 1164 f. 1 in 21. in. 587. 420427 (8). 985. 659-662 (4). Total. 400 f. 395. in The remonstrance Socrates addresses to Strepsiades the Niibes (641 f) was evidently a live question in our poet's . metres are irrational. 604. Lys. times. 371 f. 291. (2). 461. (2). 1109. 1093. 1109. own day 1 Ach. There are 116 melic tetrameters in Aristophanes. (Lj/s. The dactyl is not used. (2). which preceded the iambic tri- meter as the stock verse of tragedy (Aristot. 1283. 462. 367 f. 462). 1091. 9. . iv. 614 f. Tetram. 257. 265. 336 f. 461) is contained in a No melic tribrach consists of three tetrasyllable ( ^ ^ ^ . (2). 389. 337. 304. 1 in 2-7 three have one long arsis. of anapaest and tribrach occurs twice {Vesp. 1099). 415-417 (3). Poet. (2). 326 f. 466 f. 294. (2). 356. three times in the second foot {Vesp. (2). (2). 471 f. 403 f. 5 have two. one has six {Lys. (2). The combination 461. (2). 349 f. The tribrach occurs 23 i. 1 in 4-6.^ Eleven of these are purely trochaic. 615). 1285 Ran. . vii. i. The division ^ ^ w does not occur. 1 in 10'5.

142. 22. 433. Strattis 5 7 Apollophanes 6 Antiphanes 40. 8 Anaxilas Cratinus iunior 2 Aristophon 4. 1 in 20. 98. Of. Plato 24 Ameipsias 13. 427. 117. 927. 386-8 (3). 357 Phrynichus 15. 367. 164. 117. 442. 14 22 Euphanes 1 Alexis 79. 122-5. . is found in the Cairo There are ninety-eight trochaic tetrameters in the Periceiromene and Samia that script. 205. 174 (in part). 38. 52. 212. 301. incert. 401. 7749 . . 164. . Evangelus 1 Poliochus 1 Erg. 52. 71. . 198. while five others 1 have all arses short Periceiromene [Samia in the Prin: ceps) 348-52 (5). 417 f. Philemon 213 Menander 23-6. 269 f. 236-42 (7). Pherecrates 10. . 70. 97. 352. 83. 165. 261. Alexander 6. Ecphantides 1. 78. 671-3. 204. 379. . 179. as in Aristophanes (247). 36. 375-84 (10). . Menander uses tri- syllabic feet in the trochaic tetrameter much more freely than Aristophanes. 433 f. 360. 156. (2). Fragments are extant that begin with Magnes and extend to Poliochus. 301-5. 4. 162. 412-15 (4). 929. 197. Five of the 98 tetrameters are purely trochaic. 182. (2). . Magnes 6. . 298. 100. 29. 1113. 354. the all menta) and was affected by 41. . of Menander recently published. 923-5. Eriphus 4 Mnesimachus 2 Axionichus 8 Timocles 1 6 Diphilus 20 Theophilus4. 97. 221. : 256-64 (9). THE TETRAMETER IN MENANDER 260. 71. 3. . 43. 332 f. An especially trustworthy means of determining the form of the trochaic tetrameter in the period of the New Comedy MS. 268. 1324-7. 411. . . 330. . . 38. Eubulus 49 Nicostratus 24 Philetaerus 9 Amphis 7. . 181.104 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY epcoTM a. . . 433. 770-2. 245-54(10). . . . (2). 8. Cratinus 25. 171. 394-9 (6). 306. Aristophanes 108. Lysippus Metagenes 13 . 295-7. 143. Callias 1. 244. 115. 211-32 (22). (2). 45. The trochaic tetrameter was the fragments the metrum Epicharniium in Kaibel's Fragcomic poets. Samia 202-8 (7). 37. 494. 49. which are of that sufficient number justify broad comparisons. 550-2. 470. . 44. metrically intact in the manu- It appears to from these verses. (2). 930.-^ are. Teleclides 41. Hermippus 29. Dioxippus 3. 32. 302. aXX" 6 re KoXkcarov fxerpov rj § 7)<yel' | 260 ov TOVT irorepa TO rpi/jb€Tpov TO TeTpoLfxeTpov (see . Crates 20. 508. 81 Eupolis 76. 325 f. 301. in effect. Anaxandrides 6. 496. 205. There are also 51 mutilated trochaic tetrameters in the Perifeiro7?i€7ie and 24 iu the Samia.

speaker thus changes in Aristophanes on the average only once . . words or parts of words. but in Aristophanes once in Tetram. is sixty-five (247). v. iv- v. 421).^ I vy 264. 3 Of the 7 contained in two or three forward. 12 have two. . In Aristoeight per cent of the complete metres are irrational. The anapaest occurs 17 18 times. 1 has three. 1 overlaps back but 20 overlap Of the 1 7 contained in two or three words or parts of forward. and this word is a progressive only twice. phanes the per cent 262. 419. once in 5-8 : tetrameters. v. ii. wv. For other examples of the anapaest table in 249. 2 have the division ^\^\^ o y^\^ ^ and 12 422. 257./ 1 once. : but in Aristophanes once in 4"84 (248) Tetram. .and 4 ^ The dactyl occurs but . 1 1 Total. 266. have one Of the 47 tetrameters that contain trisyllabic feet. . 1 98 U 7 + 9 2 + 2 + 1+0 13 + 6 1 + + 27 + 17 Compare the table in 248. vi. vii.. § 266 TROCHAIC VERSE 105 with one or more theses resolved. v. 426). times. Of the 27 tribrachs contained in one word in Menander 6 are trisyllables. 21 have three. 428. 2 have in *S'. but only Twenty-six have one long arsis. of the ten anapaests contained in one word overlap back. The first dimeter ends in a complete word in each of these 98 tetrameters. Both Aristophanes and Menander 262) and three times in broken lines (P. once in 2-23 tetrameters. Total. 98 17 4 + 2 5 +3 1 + 2 10 +7 Compare the in vi. but Menander has it twice in vii. but nevertheless many of the 96 remaining tetrameters are not 265. 425. in the fifth foot of a broken verse (P. 1 in 4-7. 407.^ v. the change of speaker generally occurs at the beginning of the tetrameter Menander is The strongly disposed to change the speaker within the verse. v^ words. vi. phanes avoids it in vii./ 1 263. Aristouse the tribrach sparingly in the second and fourth feet. Four 341. to be rendered When Aristophanes with a pause at diaeresis. ^^^ i. 1 has the division v^|-^|-. employs trochaic tetrameters in dialogue. 1 in 1 in 87 in Aristophanes. 34 trisyllabic foot.. 41 have two./ii. (249) iv. Fifty3-8. broken verses. in whole verses {S. 3 are trisyllables. see P. The tribrach occurs 44 iii. .. 1 in 20 in Menander. 1 in 2*4.

is freer than that of the recitative tetrameters in the use of trisyllabic feet. but only 7 3 of those in Aristophanes. of the instances the occurs at diaeresis in Menander this change change occurs in nearly occurs at diaeresis in every other verse on the average. 268. He introduces a pause at diaeresis less frequently.106 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY and in 7 5 per cent . . different places in the verse. The metrical form of these hypermeters (Uq. Av. 651-6.. 284-302.). although 9 6 of his tetrameters admit diaeresis. the modes in which he are arranges two or more pauses within a single tetrameter twice as numerous as those in Aristophanes. the peculiarities of Menander's metrical style in rhythm in this form of verse are seen to be as follows. Eecitative hypermeters are found in none of the later plays of Aristophanes. Fax 339-45. which include the liveliest recitative trochaic number in Aristophanes (Av. and without exception it follows recitative tetrameters. relatively to his total number of of pauses.). In a single instance two corresponding hypermeters conclude the epirrhema and antepirrhema of a parabasis (Fax 1156-8 ~ 1188—90). Finally. 571-81. The general result is much greater variety in rendering and more frequent interruption of the flow of the Menander than in Aristophanes. THE HYPERMETER 267. 387-99). dimeters and trimeters. only once (Fax 344 f. are combined into hypermeters in citative verse.) in a catalectic trimeter (in both the oldest MSS. See 713. 268 ff. 388. Acatalectic cola. Aristophanes in both melic (210) and reThe hypermeter ends in a catalectic dimeter. Av. Menander changes the speaker twice within a single tetrameter six times as often as Aristophanes. He introduces a greater number pauses absolutely and admits pauses into a greater number of Finally.) and even the grammatical construction is continued (Fax 338 ff.). These number: 28 tribrachs. In all other cases the hypermeter is part of a parode and concludes a dialogue (Hq. 386 ff. On the basis of a comparison of the 98 tetrameters now under consideration with the 100 tetrameters in dialogue that are analyzed above. but it only 30 per cent of the cases. § 267 in 1 1 tetrameters. 3 anapaests 299. Av. The connexion between the tetrameters and the following series of cola is so close that sometimes the speaker does not change (Fax 650 ff.

and were liable to the same danger ff. the a trimeter in EV 284 7 in If. . dactyl (see 205). 269. .. reinforced by the sense. 2 dactyls {Eq. of Both manuscripts resort to the device combining two dimeters into a false tetrameter. a tetrameter. Pax 578^ is a monometer in EV. ever. metres in the hypermeters are expressed in terms of the tetrameter. Pax 344 f. The preposition at the end of Pax 577 may be thought to be an indication. that 577. irrational metre. a natural form to employ in the expression of excited feeling trisyllabic feet occur in or of lively sentiment. 1 1 in in 18 and 1 in 13 . . making 344 a 'monomaking 579 a monometer and 580 f. ^v. howthemselves. 301. 269 TROCHAIC VERSE 107 If the 115 complete 394). anapaest. constitute metrical scholia on these hypermeters. and 1188 ff. The dimeters and trimeters of which trochaic hypermeters are composed are closely connected by synaphea. 1 in 130 and 19 . Heliodorus records 19 meter'. 301.. 396). 578^ originally constituted a trimeter. 10 in Pax 571 Pax 339 ff. ' ' . but 18 in The tribrach in the Equites and 12 in 13 in the Aves. . 1 in 4-84 in the tetrameter. 5 in Pax 651 ff. hypermeters differ structurally among Only 3 19 cola is 28 cola in the Pax. reckoning three complete metres as the equivalent of a tribrach. cola in ^57.i. that these It should be noted. following colon a dimeter. but V only twice. 65 per cent and 67 percent. of confusion in transmission which the corresponding iambic cola suftered (194). A colon ends within a word in Eq. making 655 f a tetraSee the meter and 3 each in Pax 1156 ff. the ratios are as follows : tetrameter and 1 in 1 "4 in the hypermeter . Pax 339.

[loi Trddos OLKTipas. anapaestic verse has a varied constitution. KaTretr' eis ^ — ^^ — ^^— 5 — ^^ — Vesp. Melic dimeter is consists sixteen primary times. owing only (11). ecfi o ri re /xeyaAoTrre^ov dfiarov ^^^^ ^. 403 Lys. 13) ToXffqo'ov ava^ ^apLcracrOal. not ^ v^ .o-as ^^ 6^d\fir]v €{if3aX€ depfju^v ^ of 327 ff. KarkXafiov. 709 (Tw^w evdaXel^i Av.: : CHAPTER IV ANAPAESTIC VERSE 270. aveXwv fj. The dimeter by suppression of the arsis of its final anapaest becomes catalectic (33) ' Tov crepLVOTaTov Koi'TTO) 8c OXvpirov Kapirovs — — ^^ — ^^w — — Th. 272.(eoJS. the or third colon just quoted. The fundamental colon of anapaestic verse is a dimeter composed of two metres that consist each of two simple feet (12.. may assume. 1062 108 .^ — ^^^ Av. even of dactyls proceleusmatics ovKOvv e'A/cw Ka^apTOJ/xai . An anapaestic 271. r/ — — -^ <^ — ^^ — — — ^^ fie Kepavv(3 — . : or spondees.^ SiarivdaXeoi o-TrdSicrov Ta.and dimeter 10) but also ^^ ^ ^ ^ ' and as . to the number of forms the simple foot (8.^ ^ in ' A may consist solely of or anapaests. or proceleusmatics are Dimeters consisting solely of dactyls found only in melic verse.^-^^ 481 f. All anapaestic verse in ascending rhythm.' a7ro(^v(rr. 1069 p-evTot 8' ye TTeiravpaL Th. Pax 470 KdvaTTi'dM/xeda TOvcrSe riVes Trore — ^^ — ^^ — .

'^ It rejects the probe short instead of long (43). (301). 503.^^ wXeofiev 'OSvcrcret 6euo — — ^^ — — -^ — ^~ ^^ -^ ^~ v. but the first metre of the melic paroemiac. i. 144) employs it continuously criyav vvv OTras iy^e (nydv.) derives the proverb. . 1 ff. the conjunction with a pause after each colon. cf. celeusmatic. suggests oi/xo^ ( = d56s). 17 word from wapoifxla. 479 aKpoTToXiv Upuv Te/xevos 1 ^^^^^^— ^ Lijs. Rossbach {Sf-iec. . since a trimeter composed of true anapaests in normal isomeric rhythm (9. it may be used as a octameter. 275. song ('lay'). Mctrik. generally in combination with dimeters.~ ^^^ — v^ — — See Heph. allows the dactyl only in the first simple foot. dimeter generally ends thus. Cratinus {frag. in fully one-third of the instances of its occurrence. Aristophanes frag. 483 Hephaestion (26. or hypermeter. 372 ff.'^ 254) march-rhytlim proposes OLfj. ANAPAESTIC VERSE The catalectic dimeter is 109 Its final called paroemiac. and Such continuous cola were probably rhythmized as full dimeters. 330. 277. maxim . and Ban. 27. syllable may ' ' 274.''' 131 f.Treva-ef qfiiv 8' 'WaKT] Trarpis 8' afjL icrriv. Every melic anapaestic colon in Aristophanes ends in The first metre also of the melic acatalectic a complete word. On this supposition.: § 277 273. and admits the spondee as the third simple foot only in melic verse. but the monometer was thus used. heptameter. ff.) would have exceeded the limit of length allowed diplasic compound feet (22). The paroemiac is used in the recitative verse of comedy only as the final colon of a tetrameter. 504.rj. In : his Odysseus. see 315.). For the corresponding facts in the ends within the word. ' ' . Anapaestic tripodies (26) occasionally occur in Aristophanes ToSe (TOi TO Trddos fur e/xoG 303 ^^ — ^^ — ^— ^^ Lys. regarding TrapoL/xLaKOi as of equivalent meaning with TrpotroSiavos. On the probable origin of this use of the monometer as a colon see 613. 276. 329. pentameter. Kol iravra Aoyov rdxo. In melic verse. The anapaestic trimeter was not employed as a colon. Clirist {Metrik. of vowels at the end of the second colon and beginning of the third (43) in the fragment quoted from Cratinus has no metrical significance. component part of an ode in any position. recitative tetrameter and hypermeter.

458 (409). 328 ff. see 720 280. marked. and hypermeters occur in the odes of Aristophanes that range in length from nine to twenty-seven metres. 510 (561). which may also be used independently (321 ff. is The catalectic tetrameter the anapaestic verse chiefly used fif. 281. considerable part of the systematic period in a series of connected cola. 455. 520 (222). combination of anapaestic and iambic cola in Zys. Introductory anapaestic cola also were probably sung in even time. Th. S. the in the same systematic period. When is they thus introduce a trochaic ode. 303 v^ — ^~ -^ kiriPaXf. but especially with iambic. subordinate periods are the is catalectic tetrameter The commonest and the paroemiac. 279. 317 f.).wva)v -^^^-^^^ 301 Av. iyKpovwv Ban. The same effect of contrast . Vesp.. by the poets of the Old Comedy in recitative rendering These tetrameters are often immediately followed 320). probably a brachycatalectic is trimeter also in logaoedic The penthemimer (36) time (389). Generally they constitute a isomeric time in most cases. irepL A€i//. (85). Melic anapaestic verse prefers hypermetrical structure. Av. 400 ff. (290). as in Fax 512 (84). of (406).: : 110 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY ' §278 These are true brachycatalectic cola (35) and have the mensuraThey may end in the spondaic anapaest tion of dimeters. the rhythmical contrast in Ban. ff. 478 (214). (305 by hypermeters. 285 = 336 (452). (303). 476 ff. occasionally found. but the hexameter not rare. 667 (472). (473). for example. dochmiac and paeonic cola. with the mensuration of a dimeter. 1319 278. On the combination of subordinate periods. Anapaestic cola may be combined with cola in other rhythms. as 895 Th. 374. TTTepvyd re Travra re KUKAwcrat 473. hypermeters and intermediate periods to form systematic periods. £c. Such anapaests probably keep their true Av. JVuh. 1058 ff. (577). (455). 1318. as in the odes just cited and in Av. 345 f. ' (f)OViav. The pentapody ere also occurs. ff. but only twice fxkv ovv KaraXeva-oiiev w ^^-^This is ____ __ fiiapa Kec^aA^ Ach. Protraction (31) does not occur in the anapaestic verse comedy. Cf. Compare.

and anapaests with their equal division were found to be the measure adapted to the march (607). It is this of from iamb. is sometimes difficult to distinguish melic from (i. f. occasionally found combined with subordinate periods in other rhythms. composed exclusively of anapaests On the other hand. Av. 1726 of ff and 1743 284. positive is metrical evidence in comedy that a ' series of anapaestic cola . The iambic dimeter and the anapaestic dimeter were derived from the same primitive element. as in N2ib. Compare. Little remains anapaest in arsis and distinguishes comedy of this 1 embateric use of the anapaest. 59. Less certain indications that the anapaests were sung are the frequent use of spondaic dimeters and the division of a systematic period into many . for example. (592).. (iii. so familiar See Smyth's A7iapaests of Aisckylos. in which the ratio of the primary times in arsis and thesis is unequal. through the mediation of logaoedic cola.1 § 284 result from ANAPAESTIC VERSE singing 1 1 would time. But some anapaestic hypermeters are melic although they are severe in form and exhibit none of the peculiarities just enumerated. or even within the same systematic period.) : ff. 1351 f.) of an . 254 ff. they were completely differentiated. Av.) of subordinate or hypermetrical periods in other rhythms in proode or epode. were probably sung in rhythm time when constituent parts of odes in simplified logaoedic Other examples of logaoedic anapaests (389) are (394). 209 J.) recitative anapaestic verse. anapaestic cola in parodies in even for just and here the poet probably sought (374). (595). as in Th.) a dimeter (iv. The play itself in this case furnishes evidence as to their nature.) composed of dactyls ' . It These will be noted as they occur.^ 283. 19 parts in isomeric Bt" f. such eftect. as also when he combined various different rhythms in the same period. melic a is the use solely of the proceleusmatic (ii. 1332 ff. Aristides(97 M. 142 . The of . 1160. (285). subordinate periods. notes the pleasing balance rhythms that (9) Kal ol fxev iv law Xoyw balance Teray/LLevoi o/xoXoTTjra thesis 'x^apiiaTepoc. acatalectic dimeter at the end of a series (vii. 1165 cola triple 1168 (474). but gradually. .. 1051 f.) of a paroemiac with spondaic close (vi. ff (588).) of a tripody of paroemiac at the in succession beginning of a series or within a short series or of two paroemiacs (v. 282.

cfivXXoKopov jLtiAttKos y'jX^ ^^ — v^ Trpos Aios 'dSpas. Mv. TayiaToi koL Oepfiorepoi. 108 E. dupols Non-antistrophic. kol 7rd0o<i 67rtT?. — ^^— — — v^— -^ -^ .^ — v^ 6eta paKapwv oXoXnyy].ias 792 — ^^ — ^^ ^^ 4>ot^os aKOVoiv Tots o-ois eAeyoi? 10— — — — ^^ — .^ (fioppiyya dedv 'i. metres. v^ 210 Xva-ov 8e vo/tons tepwv i5/avwv. is The statement that the put beyond question by peXw^eiv av in 226. 3Ionody. xvii. Av. and anatetra- verse Aristophanes. ol S' dvapX^ enTiKoivov. in but the actual is range of use of anapaestic paestic rhythm of comedy its : extensive. [xe>ye6o<i . including his recitative meters.. ol Se Sia jxaKpwv jxovwv l3paSel^ KoX Kare(na\[xevoL.croKO/.) e^et TroWrjV. 776-84 ^^ 43 (Scene III. 59.^ — ovs Sta Oiiov CTTO/xaTos Oprjvets — * ^^ TOV ipOV KoX €AeAi{'o/xevr/s S' 215 220 ^^ — '. Compare the hypermeter 286. verb. (Prologue).).(Trr](ri xopov'i Sea S' dOai'drbiv aTopdrMV X^P^^ ^95 ^ — ^ — ^ — — ^^ — ^Vp(f)U)VO'i O/iOV — — . Thes7n. the special secured by variation of 23 ff. 'Ett.y^ dvri^dXXoyv tAec^avToSerov ^^— «.^ — — yevvos ^ov6rj<i Kadapa X^P^^ ^^ — ^^ — — ^^ Sio.^ 5^^ — >^^— ^^ — v^ ^^ — — — -. to 81 perpov dKardX-qKrov melic dvaTrauTTLKOv Siperpov.) evOa hel ia-ri nrepideivai toU Trpdjfjbaacv irapaXafji^dveadaL. form in notes isomeric rhythm fiovayv rwv S' eV taa Xd<ya) ol fiev Bia ^pa'^etwv <yLvo/jLevoi. & x^^P^^ eyX^ipe.iv ^/^"•' -^ ^ 1 XPV^ ^Py^t^ Troptpo). §285 the the 321).112 in THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY tragedy (306. effect Aristides (97 M. aye (rvvvop. admirably illustrates (^De characterization ae/xvoTrjra S' t) by Dionysius comp.k fjioi irava-ai fikv vttvov. is scholiast jueAtKws 8e dpxerai. : Melic Anapaestic Veese 285. (TOV TToXvSaKpVV "ItW '^ — lepots peXeatv — — — * — — — — 27 213 eXeXtfo/i^x'r/s 5' lepoh Meineke : eXeXifoyaeV?. icrrlv A is an indivisible hypermeter on 209 : of twenty-seven See 773. ^^2 . I'v 6 ^/3i.Seio9 J. 209-22 Monody.

iapdy 8rJT w Zev Zeu* 20 >^— ^^ — .^— — — >^ : K^tx' €^ai(f)vqs T7)v : 25 TrepifSaii]. 954-79 /?iv7yo"w (Episode II. TToiav aiiXaKa . €LTa p. in imitation of the melic laments of tragedy composed same rhythm. 5 . fxoL — tltOtjv. rtVa — — ^^ — v. <5 Ki. ^^ (ia.. <f)€poiv.vTyjvl Reisiff TavTT)v rC 972 /juapa Elrasley 964 ttojos 5' schol./>^— — ^^— — . /zeyaAw tvc^w Kat — — — ^va-rpeipas Kal ^xryyoyyvAas ot.y^ — ^^— TTota opx^is. TTws ravT-qvl TraiSoT/DO^vyorcu TTOv — .^w/0€t \ii>p€t.ed€tr]<.^ KvvaXwTrr]^ . Xys. §287 ay€ Srj ANAPAESTIC VERSE irivaKiov ^eo-rwi/ SiXroi 113 .. Kt.ti)v. 975 ^u77077uXa5 Cobet voios : 5' ay RB. (t w Zeu Setvwv 969 7) Kop. KojO. KaTaretvo/xevos — Kal [xrj j3iVMV TOV<s opOpovs dvTto-7ra(r/jt.^ v.^ — ^ 4^^' TOVTt rh pa> fJLOxdijpov .. <. ^vxyii TTotoi 8' ____ __^^_ ____ _^^__ ____ ___t3C — — . of a dimeter. 81 <j)epoLT av irdXiv €is t?)v — . See 752.^ — — — >^— ^^— __ ^^ — — — _^^ — v^ — v. a' TTOta yXvKipd fiiapd p-iapd. yap av yj V€(f>po<i avrttr^^ot. oifjiOL 287.^^ __ __ — 9*^ 965 Kt.^ 9*^ ixicrdiiicrov ryv Ko/O. Two in the of the subordinate periods have spondaic close. ^vyyoyyvXlaav I . ri TrdOu) . ^>^ TTfpt yp(iiXr\v 13^ noioi Slv 956 Ta. TTOios 8' ____ ____ — .).^ — >^ ^^ ___]2^ — — — — iW 975 avTTjv wcTTrep tovs 6oip.^ TTOia 8' 6cr(f>vs.(Oto 7) — y^]v.. 6ppo<i 10— — — — — . a Tai'Tt [xkvTOL vvvi kiroirjcr 802 15 TrapfSSeXvpa kol Traixfxvo-apd. Ko/3.ovs Trprja-Trjpi. A = abccd. 12 * ' 4 4 6. /3' fid Ai' aAAtt (jiiXr] .(TK€T eireiyeTe irdcra's Kad' 68ovs • — XPV ^^ — ^^ __^^_ ^~ 6^ KCtva xavT^ Ta^etos XPV' 777 XPV" Bentley : Non - antistrophic. a €v Setvo) y' w SvcrTrjve KaKio 960 reipei ^v^v^v i^aTrarrfOel'S TTOtos Kaywy olKTipo) cr' aiat. proodic pentad : a monometer as proode to a periodic tetrad composed two tetrameters and a hexameter.^ ^^ — — ^4*^ Se^aarOe (rni\7]S oXkovs 780 K-qpvKas ejuwv ii6-)(duiv' oifJLOi 5 .p. Kal trayyXvKepd.^— — _ 955 TT^S KaXXicrrrj'S 7ra(rwv i/'ercr^et's . The song is paratragedic.

Kot ras TrAcupas SapSaTrrova-tv 5 Kal Trjv ^vx)]v eKTrivovcriv Kol TOUS OpX^I-'i €^iXKOV(riV — — — - Kol TOV TT/DCOKTOV 715 Kop. and in the spoken trimeter. 288. the constitute the only example of this combination in this order in On its occurrence in recitative melic anapaestic verse of comedy. — ^ — w v. ^ v^ XP^'-'^y Kol OTC flOV (f>pov8r] (f>pov8a TO. paratragedic. 707-22 38 447 f. — ^ 5 The beginning of the Echo Scene. a Tt 2t. Kal jX aTToAoTJcriv. Mv. a parody of the similar situation The anapaestic cola (1065-97) are in the Andromeda of Euripides. (Syzygy). (f)pov8r] 8' €pf3d<i- 720 Kal Trpos tovtocs eVt TOtcrt KaKoU . diroXXvixai SeiXaios' €K rov (TKi/tTroSos 710 BaKvova-i p. xp^/*a'''«j <f>pov8r] ^vxrj. The lyric is Compare the monody in 286. 1065-97 (Episode 43 II. Four spondaic of the close. 10 TTCOS . verse see 307.). 125. 8iOpVTTOV(TLV. 289.114 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY §288 a abacd. but this quality is marked by the form only at The 'dactyl' and anapaest in the fourth colon the beginning.' e^e/37rovT€S ol KopivO toi. ^uh.rj vvv Papers aXyet Xiav. ri Kct/xveis . W VV^ Upd. 9 6 9 12 13. five subordinate periods and hypermeters have and there are besides six spondaic cola. a' 2t. Th. p. with a hypermeter of thirteen metres as epode. 330. 1066 ws fiaKpov ao"Te/Doet8ea ^ — — — 5 vy l'^ iTTrevfxa StwKcts ^ ^^ ^ — >^ ~^ 2 vwra 8L<f)pivov(r — ^^ aidepos Upas ^^^^ — 1069 TOU O-C/XVOTttTOU 8t 'OXvfJLTTOV. probably all melic. TratrxciS . aTTarat aTTarai.^ •— w— 2 2 Kop. 2t. a second nonameter and a dodecameter. epodic pentad: Non-antistrophic. tetrad composed of a nonameter. a hexameter. A= See 761.

777. . v^ — w— v^ — w— w w — v^ — v^ — w— OTO) TTtiroid' e/xot ^wwv — — ^ — v^ — 20 rhv e'x^pov Kpareiv av — ^ — ^ — ^ — </)tAoto-tv cjcjiiXelv ex^iv. 802 (TTOip cr€ 5 -^^w ^^^^ — ^ — v^ — ^ — w — _ _ v^ — _ — v^ .§ 290 ^povpas oAtyov ^8ii)V ANAPAESTIC VERSE 15 yiykviip-ai. (TO(jir]<..a 411 TVXT] 8e TToia ko/xi^et 72 e/iws 10 TTOT avrijj Trpos op'Ett. 2 2 6 21 pericopic tetrad : protracted iambic bacchiac dimeter. 290. vt^as iXdelv.' oAov. St) 415 'Ett. dimeter.?./ v-- y-' v. a Koi ^vvelvaL rh 7rav. 430 cr6(f}i(rp. Aeywv. The anapaestic hypermeter contains four spondaic dimeters. Ko/3. 414 Kop. . TTpoa-fSifSq.(f)aTov w? <f)povip. /3tov StatVrjs re Kai O-OU ^VVOlKeiV T€ (TOt .^-v^^w. a TTOTepa patvdp. anapaestic hypermeter of twenty-one metres. ^ — aTTto-ra koi irepa v^ t] t) v.evos Kop. a. 425 ^^ — ^ — ^ — — w— w — w — 6p^ Ti KipSos IvOa?)' a^iov p-ovrj^. Kop. ei's 400-33 ei? (Parode). w— w— w — ^ _ ^ _ — v^ w — v^ ^ — ^y ^ — ^ — — — — Kop. <fipov8o<i 115 — — — — «^— — — ^^— — . 'Ett. iambic acephalous hexameter. . TrvKVOTaTOv KivaSos. 'EAAaSos. KaAeis Se tou kAuciv OeXd^v TivfS TTO^' ^evcu oi'Se a. Aeyet Bk riVas Aoyoi. 21 Non-antistrophic.a Kvpfia rplpp-a TratTrdAi^p. /3' 418 420 'Ett. See 772.os- 464 ^pivl ./ Kop. to* Kttt TToOev tfJioXov eirl rtva t tTrivotav. . v^ — w— v^ — w — Aeyei p-kyav tlv oA^ov oijv^ — w — v^ — w— re XeKrhv ovTe ttuttoV ws >^ — v^ — era yap <Ta> Travra raura.^— — — >^ — v~ — ^~ 10^ 404 406 'Ett. 'Ett. a 'Ett. ^ ^^ 401 Koi Tov dvfibv Karddov KV\pas Traparfjv opyrjv axnrep oTrXiTrjS' KoivairvdwfJLida TovarSe rtves ttotc ^ ^ w^ — — — — — ./— w — v^— 43 TO Sevpo. — _ ^ — v^ v^ <^ys./ Kop. P' evL cro(f)6v Tt . a dvay ra^iv TraAtv xavToi'.^-v^. Tt 15 . Kai ^j — \y — 25v^— >-/— v^ — '^ — TO T7j8e Kat TO K€?cre Kat — v. A = abed. TOt /caAw. kXiulv.<fj' v^— ^ — v. Kai tto^cv . Av.

None of the iambic metres is irrational. See 810. See 772. Av. dochmiacs in comedy (cola 27. 256 IF. aAAa TreTratCTTat yLierpiaJS rjfiiv t!)(T$' iopa 8-q 'cTTL ____ — 5 — ^^— — ^^— — — ^^ ^^ ^v. Lys. With the preceding cf. meter. All these periods are embateric. See 291. a aAA" Wl ^atpcov. 1227-31 /3aSt^eiv (Exode). dochmiac tetrameter. This use of rational metres Non-antistrophic. iambic nonameter. 8 291 30 kXvwv yap S)v crv jxoi. Th. a' THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Alyciv Aeyetv KeXtvi [jloi. were probably rendered with the singing voice. penta- 292. 851 ff. Ko/o. Nuh. % 498-506 7r/>a^eias (Parabasis). 1510 and PL 1208-9. Compare : 294. Aeyets Aoycov dveTTTepfoixai. pericopic tetrad: anadecameter. the ' parabasis ' proper. the cola that follow are a prelude to the poet's address to the audience. pericopic dyad : tetrameter. (94). Xo. 293. The final verses of all the plays except the which perhaps is defective. tw 0€a-po(f)6poi 6' ^^ — 5*^ 1230 rjfiLv dya6'r]v rovTOJV Xo-piv dvTaTToBoLTrjv. Anapaestic hypermeters and tetrameters are used in the Ko^Mfidrcov that introduces the parabasis (668). The metrical constitution of the fourth and lifth cola proves that the anapaestic hypermeter is melic. See 770. Furthermore. = abed. 1227 iriwaKTTai Biset : — — -^ — — w^— — : irivvarai 1231 dvTanoSolrrjv Bentley avrabotrov Non-antistrophic. Commation. is A characteristic of tragic style. 129. 777. 409 ^^yw Dindorf : — v^— w — v^— w — v^— v^ : v^_^_ v^ — v^ — w — — 9^ ^ebu 423 7ap Kock : iriwoidi fioi 415 X^yet Dindorf \iyov<n ret Trd^ra toOto Meineke : 418 irinoiB' iixol ravra y^Lp St.- 4C oiKaS' eKacrTy. 28) always indicate burlesque of tragic tone. part was probably melic. irdvTa HVp2C. Kal 499 Kara vovv tov e/xov Kat ere (^vKdrrot \ . (93). The opening cola are addressed to the actors as they retire from the scene.' 116 Ko/3. paestic Cf. A = ab. yap ravra Trdvra cett. iambic hypermeter of forty-three metres broken only by the exclamatory question in 414 b. and it This short seems likely that it was sung by the leader of the first half-chorus. 10 4349. 4 5.

€i<s dvSpeiuyi — 212 10 . ab. Kop. and finally the spectators of the play. Pax 729-33 (Parabasis). ___— -^ 627 irepl twv otttovSwv. The leader of the half-chorus recognizes in succession Trygaeus. Comynation. (is — 5 >^ elwOacTL fidXicTTa Tols CTKJyvas 4*^^ wepl TrAetcrTot KkeTTTCL KDTTTa^etv Kal /caKOTroieZv. A first is a stichic period composed of five tetra- meters. paestic tetrameters. . is possible that the first five cola. A = dyad: 498 fF. A See is a stichic period composed two ana- 778. of which four are anapaestic.s Treipa$€VTe<i KaO' ____ 10 pericopic ^^__7 decameter. Ko/O. toicti Xoyotcriv Kal Thv SrJ/xov fiiTaTreiOii. Mouo-». one trochaic. note. V/ieiS S' IJjxlv x^— v^— ^ ^^^^ TrpO(Tk-)(€T€ TOV I'OUl' 271 Tots avairalcTTOLS. a a AA' Wl ^atpwv TaSe Ta • )}/ie6S 8e Ttws — ^^ v~ ^^ — 4^^ (TKevi] Trapa86vT€S ^^ v^ ^^^ — w — v^ 730 TOis aKoAou^ots Sw/xev o-w^etv. ^^ • 4^^' aAAa ^vAaTT€T€ ravT r]fj. heptameter. See the metrical scholium on Eq. addressed to the hero of the were rendered in recdtative (810) but the last four. who is just leaving the scene. See the metrical scholium on Pax 729 ff. and the See also 854. See 778. . Sec 770.~— v./— 4^ Non-antistrophic./4^ of TOts dvaTraicrrois lirMfx^v.^ — ^^ ^^ 4*^ 8' av Tola-i ^earai? ct- 733 7')v iX^H-^^ °^"^' TrwpLev ocra re ^oywv vou? ^X*'* — — ^^ ^^ ^^ \^ y^ — ^ — v. 7. must have been sung. Ach. as the form of the sixth colon It play. 295. ^^ — — 505 (J TTavToias ^/St. Commatio7i. the attendants present. — eavTovs. a dvr]p viko. Non-antistrophic. addressed to the audience. — ^^ — — Non-antistrophic. shows. 296. 626-27 (Parabasis).§ 296 Zeus dyopatos" ANAPAESTIC VERSE Kal VLKrjaas i^/xas 117 avOis (KiWev TrdXiv ws — — 5 ^^ ^^ — — — — — — >^ 10*^^ 4'A^ois CTTfc^avots KaraTrao-TO?. aAA' aTroSvvres — ^^ ^^__4<^ — -^ >.

The form of the last subordinate period precludes its inclusion with the following parabasis.^ — —^ Tco 8e /xcTot TraiStcr Kr^^ 5— ^^ ^^ uipaiOTaTrjS. 4 10 4. See 739. which was rendered in recitative. tetrameters with a trochaic decameter as mesode. mesodic triad two anapaestic Non-antistrophic. Two other anapaestic odes belong to this class. ^ — 796 ^^ ^ — -^ — — — . 626 ff.»' ^ — ^^ v^— . of the actors as they leave the scene at the end of the episode. = 298. 1009-15 (Parabasis).' 1010 vfieis Se he xaipovTes T6WS w jxtj ottoi fSovXecrd'. a iTC By) xaipovTi<i (TTpartdv. kov jrpos v/awv' — ^ — ^ ^ ^ 1015 vvv aSxf Aew TrpocrexeTe rhv vovv. /xeXXovT €v ^~v^ Xcyeadai Trka-Q <t>av- — 207 >^ — w • Aws 1013 X°-y-^C ^vXafieia-Oe' TovTO yap crKaiwv dearCjv ea-Ti 5— v. 510-17 (561). ptydv koX KaOevBeiv it pOf^ivXaTTiiv. is an Non-antistrophic. Ach. See 773. indivisible hypermeter of thirteen metres. 299. see Nub. ^ — —^— ^^ ^— ^ 13 See 717 and This period is the proode of a proodic triad. — -^ -^ •^ fjivpLaSes — — — — — — ^ ^ ^^ wvv^4 dvapidfi-qTOi vvv to. the metrical scholium on Ach. 1143-49 IttI (Stasimon III). For another example of a commation in which anapaests The are combined with other rhythms. and they may have been simply 297. cocrnizance. 1011 ./— — ^ 10 TTourxctv. Vesp. dvaTpiftop-evw T€ to 8dva.118 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY See the metrical scholium on Ach. A . although The first begins a stasimon and takes not parts of parabases.^— w4 Burges : vvv fxev : A aba.'{. Ko/o. exactly as in the commation. Commatioji. 1143 fiF. 271 eiTre/D Kadapov Tt ^lActre. §297 The form of these verses gives no indication that they were sung. — — ^^ — — . only commation that shows no trace of anapaestic metre is found in the Avcs (546).^ (I)S dvofxoLav epx^o'dov o8oV 1145 to" crot piv Se TTtVciv (rTe(f)av(Da-apevui. recited. Ko/). a dXA. ABB.

with an acatalectic dimeter as epode. ANAPAESTIC VERSE 119 Parallel to this in all particulars. 301.X' ovx tXKOva-' . em. tetradcomposed of two paroemiacs. d) Ko/3. vvv. — ^ — .dXa. 'Ep. 'Up. a brachycatalectic dimeter and a See 759. a a en ( See Schol. = 378-81 Strophe.f3a XWTTWS dpeis TTjV "Swreipav yevvatcus 379 Tg rj (f)0)vy poXwd^wv o-<i'{^eiv <f>i^(r TYjV ^w/aav eis Tas lopas. (Parode). except that the actors Vesp. ela./ v-- 465 'Ep. Tb continuous use of spondaic periods would appropriately Cf.302 300.^^^ et's '''"^ dv8peL0}<s 282 277 2- 2 2^ 3' 3 Tors evavdets koAttovs Xeifiu)vwv IjKpovuiV KaTTtcr/cwTrTwv _ _ _ — ^ Koi Trai^wv Kal x^^'"^^^^' y)pi(TTr)Tat 8' e^apKOVVTOJS. ita. ^^ 282 —— 2 Antistrophe. ov ^vXXrjxpecrd' olpio^i(r6' €. Heph. 381 Kuv OoipvKLiov 72 vw Bentley : pi] fSovXrjTai. avSpes o/notws. trimetr. aip^ets V : C (704) = aabcd. The three odes that follow are Ban. 1058 (455) for a still more express solemn and exalted feehng. oV oyKvXXecrO'6 ol BotwTOi. 'E/3. QO (Syzygy II. 0. eia.. 5 Tp. Heph. epodic pentad a Mnostrophic dyad.r 45 9-7 2 = 4 8 6-9 9 Strophe.). antistrophe (717). /3' dXX' €p. 863-67. p. 11. 2 2 2-32. *a ' Kop. a hypermeter of nine is metres that serves as proode (A) to the following strophe and do not leave the scene. : Stj vw 378 dpels Scaliger atpeis R. 14 11. a 'E/J. strikin- illustration of their effective perversion to the uses of corned} 301 Pa. 51 ^ — v^ w — — — ^^ z^ y^ ^^ — — ^ — — kj — ^^ v. 'H/j. pdXa. 372-7 antistrophic. a X^P^'. Av.

irAT^yas X-qxI^u-O' wpyeioi. A probably = AB (459-66..' Bentley ^vvi\KeToi> R. 'Ep. ^wav^XKerov odv 498 dz'Speiws Bentley 464 dvSpes Dindorf dvdpa V 496 KO/c6rot Ed. (Debate). w Zed ti Trore \pT](T6fjLeda 72 tol(t8€ ToicTLV KvwSaAois All 478 ov yap Ictt' ave/cra raSe y\ 38 dAAa 479 ToSe 481 (TOL fSaa-avia-reov TO Trddos p-er' kp. : Heliodorus (and B) : : : cm. 277 ^-^^^^^^— ^^^ v. Tp. : avdpiKus Monostrophic dyad. but the tune to which the subordinate period ir4646 was sung may have been repeated with 470-2. with the notes. €<}>' o rt re peyaXoirerpov df^arov T 483 oKpoTToAiv tepov re/i. . 486 ff. KaKovoi TLvei etViv ev v/j. Tp. efa. 10 as the basis of melody J now indeterminable. vt) 'Ep. • • KariXafSov. 476-83 = 541-8 Strophe. RV vOy ?\/ceTe Meineke 497 7' oC. § 303 10 cr(})w. S w £?« /3' e'a. olis : 469 kkovoi. Lys. /?' Kop. T/j. Kop.. eia w. nd on 725. KaTre/XTTiTTTCo Kal (nrovSd^o) a TTws ovv ov X'^P^^ Tovpyov ______^ gcv Antistrophe.tv. — ^^ v^ — ^^ a ay€Tov vvv e'AKere koI OVKOVV e'AKO) — — ^^ 2^ Up. 467-72). Tp. KOL^apTM/JLai ____ __ . 120 Tp.€is fxkv r//i. Cola 6-8 n the antistrophe constitute a pentameter (51). etor' Kop /?' dAA' 462 ela 01 K(DXvOV(TtV. • Xo. Ata.ov 277 b o Tt /SovXopevai ttotc rrfv K. 471 Ko/j. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY (la S). _ 4 — ^ — w ^^^ ^ — ^ -^ —^ k^ i^ ^^ — -^ — -^ —2-^ ^^ — . Ep.ei'os.pavaav ^ — ^^ ^^ — ^^' _ ^ _ — —_. See Further analysis is impossible.^ — • . I 303. fiLKpov ye Kivovfiev ouKOw eta Sctvov Tovs /XEV TetVeiv Toiis S' dyTto-Trai/ . €ta [xaXa. . y ovv 01 KiTTwi'Tes T^s elprjvrjs <nraT dvSpeiws. See the metrical scholia on Pax 459 fF.6-^^' . since the metrical value gi-en to the exhortations in cola 1-5 and 9. vvi'. Tp. Ko/). Fep.

o"0</)0i'. because he discovered it. Aristophanes employs the tetrameter 1235 times with recitative rendering in the extant plays. 1006-77. but occurs not.^ and occasionally in Lys.~548 f. quoted in 442. 304.Ean. 345 f. 548-620-650-718. and it is found in each of them.6-. 484 f.s. 581 f. brachycatalectic (277). acottos 541 ^7^76 70/) yuov Kafiar-qpds Sj' Enger : e7w 7ap RF 542 Ed. 1 ff.: § 305 ANAPAESTIC VERSE Antistrophe. the dimeter quoted by Hephaestion (27.. Non-Melic Anapaestic Verse the tetrameter 305. -648 f. oftenest in debates.ov TO. : ov8i ri 76j'aTa e\et R 547 t6 Hermann since there would were made a dimeter.^ in the 1 Eq. (43) Cf. with a following pause. Lys.549 {.ot WkX(ji S' Itti tevat f'^'* 544 jXiTo. /ra^..) records that the catalectic anapaestic tetrameter was called to it. Jian. TwvS*. ei'i <j)tAd7roAts dperq cftpovtixos. because our poet made distinguished use of he naively adds. 959 f. ^v. PL 487 f. 121 Xo. Ec. e'/xov. 583-688. 761 f. = aabc.. has here no metrical significance. Vvv. 698 Cf. Nub. 462-522-550-610. 486-531-551-597. Vesp. Hephaestion (25. if be conjunction of vowel sounds (ep-ov it The colon is. and conjunction of vowels Av. with a brachycatalectic anapaestic hexameter as epode. eycoye yap <av> ovTor€ Kajioi/i. apexes fVex'j evt 8e <Tb> '^vi (f>va-i. 542 ovS' ip. Nub. Similarly it A : See 737. PL 489-597. (473). itself. epodic tetrad two Monostrophic dyad. Av. 546 f. Fesp. frag. 961-1008. ydvara Trdi' Ka/xaTrjpo'i <av> eA. 778 times. ^Apcarocfjdveiov. also the first period in Aristoph. 763-823. kottos. 4 4 2. Here debate it is used in the distich in which a leader of one of the half-choruses exhorts a debater to begin his argument. protracted iambic tetrameters and a brachycatalectic anapaestic dimeter. With the proceleusmatics in the ff. Ec. in fact. It has great variety of use. 460 f... 506.. ivi X*^/"^i ^'^^ ^P'^^-os. 2 Eq. The fifth colon (479) must end with /^er' n).) last period cf. has no metrical significance at the end of the second colon (541).. 1004 f. .' av opxovfievf). 22 Tis opea (3a6vKopa rdS' e-n-icrvTo (SpOTwv ^^^^ ^^^ — Aristoph. since the following colon is acephalous (38).

Fesp. Pax 734-64. Pax 1316-9. first The proceleusmatic occurs it is but once. Ec. parabasis.. wished emend The succession also of four short syllables resulting from collocation dactyl and anapaest (-v^v^v^v. 2 JVub. . 314-438. 688. 476 f. 514-9.-^ first § 306 rendering the the is In three plays it is employed only in half of the debate./-) was avoided. 1108-11. 1072 f. 1316-34 and-fiaw..~379 f. The form it. 685-722. 4. Av.. quoting a single verse from a Spartan war -song anonymously. 725-8 (672).. in the justified simple foot of Av. There are 112 is the spondee. particularly. Fesp. 348-57-381-402. of ' ' because it is that prevails in the tetrameter J The foot found in the fourth simple foot (308). independently of its collocation with a following anapaest. ^ ^^h. ^.^ notably * (668). Fesp. Eq. Note in 655-8. 1516 f. Av. this strife of tongues begins may be a reminiscence his • of the exhortation with which the leader once incited that men 307. The embateria sung by Spartan infantry both on the march and when joining battle were composed in anapaestic rhythm.786-813. not eschewed by the earlier poets of the Old Comedy. and the pair of tetrameters with which to battle. states that the embateric tetrameter of which it was composed was called AaKwviKov. The recitative tetrameter of comedy was not a march-verse. 263-74-291-7. 628-58. of the acatalectic dimeter is constitutes the first half of the tetrameter freer than that of the paroemiac that ends but there are limitations. 397). 6367. Th. and once at great length in a parode once in a syzygy^ in place of the ordinary trimeter. This was metrically distinguished from the ordinary anapaestic tetrameter by the spondaic form of its last metre. Nub. In three other plays the debate is not complete (673).). but its employment in the debate is in felicitous accord with its military use. The anapaestic tetrameter is used also in other hortatory also in ' parabases finally ' ^ (676). 507-46. 354-71. where of the to perhaps by the melic quality Bentley opening verses of this the reading. 382 f.122 THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY verdict. 306. 626-7 (672). The argument for the affirmative in stated anapaestic tetrameters. 346 f. but it was Cf. 875-8. * ^ Fesp. Jv. dactyl. Cratin. 658-60. 139 and Crates 17. Ran. 1016-50. 21 ff. and occurs Porson objected to this but once in a tetrameter (Vesp. and and introductory parts of comedy.. Lys. Hephaestion (25. that for the negative in iambic tetrameters (671).

647. is so effective an element in the anapaestic metre that 5 7 tetrameters occur that contain each six spondees. Nuh. Vesp. Vesp. 353. 790. etc. etc. in Hecuh. Se iroptfivplaiv 6 Av. This is the only instance of a purely anapaestic verse. 400. ^c. Ec. The anapaest the movement of the verse. Nul. ' ' 308. 673. Av. Av. 70 times and generally not progressive words are rare. Man. 630. that are possible. 397). none of the twenty verses emended on account of the dactyl in the second place Eq. 794. 581. tetrameter. felt to and 3 in the fourth. ff. 517. et? all aXKri\a<. 378). 319. 1044. of the dactyls in the second foot follow a dactyl in the first is that establishes the to be movement .) wished to emend the tetrameters in which it occurs {Nub. PI. indeed. 389. efnTLirTovaat prjyvvvrac Cf. 629. 659. the chief measure Cf. 1. 409. 220 was in the third. 659. Eq. 628. 524. Cf. 522. 805. 708. :7%. but it should be noted that these dimeters have their parallel in dimeters Thirteen that end in a dactyl in recitative hypermeters (330). Monosyllables result- ing from elision stand at the end of the dimeter in a few cases {Nuh. Cf Ach. The paroemiac that ends the tetrameter is simple in form and generally has the cadence of the second half of the dactylic 'hexameter' that follows the penthemimeral caesura The only variation on this that is (361) : ^-^-^-^. Ec. and Eq. 1327.— § : 309 ANAPAESTIC VERSE spondaic dimeters Vcsp. A monosyllable is occurs at the end of the dimeter objectionable . Ninety-one tetrameters Vesp. 380. The spondee. Vcsp. 684. tetrameter opens with four anapaests in 16 other instances. such as koX XvSl^cov koI -yjrrjvi^cov 523). 1026. 582. Cf. 20 in the second. is allowed dactyl for anapaest or spondee in the first foot. 294. 551. Lys. 500. 1027. Evidently the dactyl first be inharmonious at the close of the dimeter. 532. places. 671. 676. 326. 350. . 778. that lightens PL 502. is Pax 734. and Person {Praef. but the Cf. Ran. 591). 1033. 356. Ran. Vesp. etc. 351. 576. 580. 398. The form of the paroemiac is then invariably -^ 1>^-^. 309. Nuh. Ec. 638. 652. The dactyl (11) is less common than either spondee or anapaest and was virtually avoided in the second and fourth It occurs 234 times in the first foot. contain each five anapaests. Kal irarayovaip {Nuh. 1055. 1042. 123 instances of purely in the first half of the {Eq. 518. 707 6 jxev oprvya Bov<i 6 Se ^(fjv 6 Se Uepa-cKov opvtv. etc. % 516. Eq.

ii. vii. The spondees in these 122 verses number 445.498728 i. : wv^— 353 7 i. ii. two or more words or parts of words are distributed as follows i. iii. v. word are distributed iv. The following comparative statistical statement covers 122 in number. iii. . In three words. vi..^ 311. iii. 28 63 28 76 38 41 274 Among the 122 tetrameters. 1316-34 (Exode). iii. the tetrameters in the EqvAtes. Total. divided V. Total. on the average 2-9 in one tetrameter Tetram. Overlap forward Overlap back Overlap both ways . once.. Total. vii. The anapaests number 353. 122 445 28 + 44 63 + 17 28 + 29 76 + 6 38 + 43 41+32 274 + in one 171 The 274 spondees contained each as follows i. on the 310. divided ^ v^ I 4 9 6 3 4 18 2 1 8 4 14 8 10 10 14 2 18 5 4 18 16 30 52 75 87 178 remainder I Total divided anapaests 19 1 25 20 23 25 Eq. v. vii. 16 12 27 1 16 10 2 35 41 22 16 22 2 138 41 35 14 3 92 3 Total in one word . 122 + 19 14 + 25 22 + 20 26 + 14 12 + 23 24 + 25 70 + 52 175 + 178 The 175 anapaests contained each as follows Trisyllables . 11 9 2 62 6 4 1 3 19 1 14 Total in one word 7 14 22 26 in 12 24 70 175 The 178 anapaests contained each ii. v. vi. average 3 '6 in one tetrameter: Tetram. iv. in 18 tetrameters. 312.: : : 124 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY dactyl occurs § 310 This 68 times. . See 314. vi. 507-46 (Parabasis). iii. . . w In two. ii. . 7 contain each six spondees and 15 others each five. i. 2 40 87 47 1 Overlap forward 3 Overlap back Overlap both ways . ^\^\In two. a trustworthy type of the that occur in Aristophanes. Total. vi. . iv. on the average. are distributed Total. vi.. 761-823 These are (Debate). in one word v. iv. Dissyllables . v. iv. ii.

divided — ^ . Furthermore. . 7 4 2 Totalin one word . therefore. In three words. It should be noted that the final metre of the tetrameter is always v^ ^ in Aristophanes (cf. iii. 527. Trisyllables . 125 six Among {Eq. the metres of the are separated dimeter in 1040^ tetrameters tetrameters in by caesura. 21 ff.00301 . ii. . : Tetram. The 43 dactyls two or three words or parts of words are : distributed as follows i. on the average — ^w 56 3 i. . 3 2 6 2 13 No dactyl occurs in the sixth or seventh foot (309). contained each in See 315. distinguishes also.^ ^^ ^-' | | | | Total divided dactyls . 781. v.30301 . . 2*18 verses Total.§ 315 the ANAPAESTIC VERSE 122 tetrameters. . iv. iii. 313. 263 of the admitted 1 In 111 of the remaining 195 tetrameters the first metre ends within a in 84 caesura is precluded by a' Tetreprogressive or recessive word. 539. anapaests 791) and 14 others contain each etc. . 1 in v. divided In two. and this frequently coincident with a pause first demanded by the sense. 25. . iv. mimeral caesura.02000 i. . either in these 122 verses or in the remaining tetrameters in Aristophanes. . 315. overlaps both ways. The pleasing balance with arsis and thesis equal (284). in 84 per cent of the anapaestic tetrameters in Aristophanes. Overlap forward Overlap back . in unusual degree. and none.). of is The component dimeters nine tetrameters in ten are separated by diaeresis. is word . one contains five (of. are distributed as Total. 122 + 21 2 + 1 6 + 18 2 + 3 13 + 43 The 13 dactyls contained each follows : in one word ii. .). never a dactyl.v^ ^ . Eq. . In two. Caesura separates the metres also of in the following paroemiac 479 . The dactyls number 56. 21 1 18 3 43 314. 516. Heph. and that the sixth simple foot is may be a spondee or an anapaest but of the parts of the anapaest. 546. the anapaestic tetrameter as a whole.

that Person {Praef. 372. 785.^^. 1 also of the other progressive words and taken The remedy.^ separates the arsis and first is thesis of the preceding foot. Uq. 700. 348. 462. the brought. Ach. xlvi. kuI. in Hecuh.486. : "Metra sive dipodiae turn maxime numerosos versus efficiunt. his proposal. 588. phrases here enumerated. 553. PL 593. the most of which are exactly equal one to the other.126 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY it § 316 remainder simple metre. 968. 264.) wished to 'emend' the tetrameters in which it is disregarded. tetrameter (253). beginning of the second dimeter demonstrates that they must Cf. would be found in the fact that by his proposed changes every anapaestic tetrameter without exception could be rendered But in certain tetrameters the first with a pause at diaeresis. for Progressive and recessive words are precluding as Into account caesura in these three enumerations.) wished to emend these two verses on the ground that diaeresis must not follow prepositions and the article in This is true anapaestic tetrameters. not be rendered with a pause after them. to a complete thought or catalexis is partial close that demands a final pause. etc. which fortifies Commonly and leaves a strong sense of completeness.^ in fully 75 per cent of these tetrameters. 802. stantly imposed by progressive and recessive words in the comic trochaic The pauses in Ach. Ach. 372 are at 4:11. 803. Ach." ^ Porson {Praef. reading of the MSS. is not emendation but an arrangement of pauses different from This is a necessity conthe ordinary. if the Procrustean method in criticism can ever be justified. xlvii. The regularity with which these words occur at the Av. Av. Vesp. for to?. Nul. etc. The cadenced roll of the verse is impressive and its dignity befits the serious tone that often pervades the debate and the poet's address in the parabasis. Vesp. 632.. v^v/-v^v^-|v^v^-vv^-|^v^-^|-| ^ ^ I Furthermore. so constant Diaeresis is 316.^ S^. t«5. 636.^ (oa-irep. as with airo. Eq. 1317. r) Nub. Nuh. dimeter ends with a progressive word or phrase. Vesp. within the compass of the verse. Its pauses merit detailed consideration. 273. Av. 526. in Hecuh. xlviii. 630. 796. 09. Eq. but he The justification of overlooked some important considerations. 636 may be objected to for a different reason (308). the tetrameter it advances and generally ends massively in a word of three or more syllables. 655. Praef. Compare Dionysius's characterization. . Vesp. in Ifeaib. tva m. for prepositions. IJq.. 395. The 636 and Nxcb. 971. 1023. 2 See Porson. 485. 524. for h. in Ach. however. 514. quoted in 284. gathers volume as beginning with a monosyllable or a dissyllable. 808. cum in integras voces desinunt. in 314 it follows the short syllable of the last Thus ^ the tetrameter broken by caesura and diaeresis into four parts. Nub.

Vesp. One may reasonably ask why this cadence should be excluded from the fifth simple foot. Lys. seems possible that a third pause not required by the sense was introduced at diaeresis. begins with a recessive word. 527. 600). 974. Av.§317 ANAPAESTIC VERSE . 295. 682. 1007 for 77. 317. 362. 541. tetrameters. there are tetrameters in which a strong pause is demanded by the sense both before and after the middle of the verse. 663. Ach. etc. (Av. furthermore. in the second simple foot see Nub. since is quite iafiev ^ as objectionable as these three v/jliv must be treated which as one word. Nub. 790. The three discredited tetrameters must have been rendered in virtually the same manner as Ach. 356. Vesp. 540. 600. . 612. Av. as after the second and fifth theses in Uq. 522. in certain tetrameters. The doctrine. 127 ha firj. Av. 1324. in i/j-ariov /liv must be treated as oue word. <yap taaai Xeyovat No objection can be made. that all anapaestic tetrameters were recited with a pause between the dimeters is tenable only on a purely mechanical theory of rendering that ignores the Three of the objectionable verses that Porson and thought. Av. 567 in the sixth. in which the pause occurs after the second syllable of the dis' ' ' ' . Fq. 397. Cf. PL 532. Nub. etc. 996. 646. 763. 722. iov wairep. Nub. for the article. Ban. 574. Ban. 778. Lys. to a cadence that ends within an This is the cadence regularly produced by trochaic caesura arsis. ^c. 501. Ban. 639. PL 542. therefore. 710. fifth simple foot. 355. 687 in the seventh. Be. precluding diaeresis of the Cf. 468. syllabic arsis of the fifth simple foot. 583. 565. 529. Av. A word ends in these within the arsis of the 568. Lys. 520. 987. The second dimeter. 543. Av.^ anapaestic or dactylic verse. for Ka\. 1062. Eq. av Vesp. 780. Ec. 591. moreover. hexameters in recitative dactylic (361). PL 513. 1015. 569. Vesp. it hardly 617. Vesp. 351. and examples of it For this caesura are numerous in the anapaestic tetrameter. Nub. 969. 532. Av. in 8e rot rdhe 7rdvre<. 644. 656. Ban. 640. 604. others have wished to emend belong together. Ach. Further- more. 653. 712. 355. . fxev PI. 647. iartv Vesp. 978. 631. in the fourth. Nub. Pax 758. 565 (?). in the third. 503. 560. 638. 967. iafiev Av.. 514. He. 643. In these and similar cases. 351. before which a pause cannot be made. ^v. 540. PI. ^c. 579. Nub. 523. Vesp. 541. as tmv apyvpttov ovrot. 722. 565. Vesp. 594. also Vesp.

first note) is impossible or harsh. Av. 381. Vesp. are verses in which a strong pause precedes the whole of the arsis of the fourth simple foot. 426. 605. as in Av. 611. 567. Av. 355. 775. are The exceptions. the first dimeter ends with a progressive word or phrase (316) belong in the same category with Ach. 318. 387. The pause after the first metre is more pronounced. 551. Vesp. fifth. especially This pause may break melodramatic iambic tetrameters (180). to the principle of diaeresis most anapaestic tetrameters were probably not numerous . The secondary pause in the second dimeter. The long verse centres at this medial pause it in the anapaestic tetrameter with great uniformity. 559. 645). This must have been rendered in the same manner as Av. Vesp. A fourth tetrameter arsis of the fourth that Porson condemned has the pause within the simple foot instead of the elirelv to. Lys. 622. however. TrapeKivSvvevaev ^A6rjvaloL<i hUaia {Ach. 764. indivisible at the middle of the verse. 686. 387. the continuity of the thought. 1008. 823. 343. pause in the first colon may follow the thesis of the first simple foot. The secondary 786. 791. PI. the paroemiac.128 verse. and verses such as Eq.. Ec. Lys. Cf. in which the two syllables of Entirely similar the arsis are separated by strong punctuation. Eq. Nub. in fact. most of the 1000. . 516. The commonest secondary pause follows the first metre. 381. Nuh. It THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY must have been rendered in § 318 the same way as twenty-eight tetrameters in which a strong pause occurs after the thesis of the fifth simple foot. 540. Nub. 667. 463. 821. Nub. oo-Tt9 etc. 582. Vesp. as in Nub. in verses such as Eq. Eq. as in Nub. Eq. or the arsis of the second. 802. etc. or the arsis of the third. 785. 792. Nuh. 556. It is to be observed that the verses in which Lys. Vesp. since they are. 351. as in iambic and trochaic tetrameters. 297. 1326. 504. 366. etc. as in Eq. 581. 328. or within the arsis of the following simple foot. 594. Lys. 326. 364. Cf. although doubtless still secondary. Ban. as in Vesp. 389. These and occasional similar combinations occur in verses in which caesura of the metres of the first dimeter (315. 371. 325. 403. 294. 369. 348. Nub. these tetrameters observing diaeresis more strictly than iambic and trochaic tetrameters. etc. but may have a secondary pause and a triple cadence. 503. rendered with a medial pause. are not unusual. 512. Nub. 1053. 501. Eq. See 179. may occur between the two metres. 645. Nuh.

:10:—Eq. 369. Callias 5. 802. 361. 526. 572. 1322.: : § 320 ANAPAESTIC VERSE 129 arsis of the preceding simple foot. 524. 678. Nub. 823. 379. 371. 324. 658 Nvh. 164. 166. 10:— Eq. 368. 1326. 524. 130. 2224. 714. 314-91) will serve to illustrate the foregoing statements. PL 586. Two secondary pauses 684. 535. 679. 5:8:— Nuh. Ec. 324. Av. 781. 19. 337. 536. Cf. 220. S A single pause. Teleclides 42-4. 208. 109. 310. 395. 413. 415. 379. 793. occurs in the 145 tetrameters not cited below. 597. the even numbers theses. 4:18:—Nuh. 3:8:— 343. 412. 4. 513. 540. 416. Verses occur in which even three pauses are required by the thought. Eupolis 14. 721. 356. 15. 382. 1332. 356. 206. 4:11:— Eq. Nuh. 774. 54. 253-5. of the tetrameter the cadence produced by bucolic diaeresis in the dactylic hexameter (360 f. . in which a pause after the thesis of the second simple foot is combined with one after the arsis of the sixth. 124. 792. Crates 17. 769. 357. 367. 8 11 :—Nuh. 45. occurs after the thesis of the 380. 531. 126. 24. 8:13 {^\^):—Nuh.)A secondary pause sometimes 579. 355. often to the exclusion of the medial pause. Tli. 119. Aristonymus 2. 165. 590. Av. The odd numbers in italic type signify arses after which a pause falls. Ban. fifth simple foot. 761-823. 347. Nuh. 396. Anapaestic tetrameters are found among the extant fragments of the Old Comedy. Nuh. 325. 380. 8:1:2:— Eq.— Eq. 514. Cf. 73. 682. 183-6. 1062. 499. Nub. 46. as in Nul. 4:12:— Eq. 6 -. 340. 764. 7 -. . 387. 597. Lys. 4. 8 10 :—Nub. Ameipsias 9. 191. 366. The last combination gives the close 702. 11. 621 Nub. 1316-34. 23-5. Lys. 53. 536. 912. also Eq. 2. Poj^ 736. 138-41. 799. Av. 474. 259. Eq. 36. 1324. Nuh. Nuh. 94. 326. 498. Pherecrates 1. 233. J^:8:—Eq. 2:8'. 776. 45. ) 8:—Nuh. 307. 232. at diaeresis. 319. 351. 367. 791. 52. 139. 785. 306. Lys. 786. 379. 153. 34. 364. 784. Aristophanes 80-2. Lys. 514. Av. 534. Phrynichus 3. 267. — : j : : : : 320. as follows: Cratinus 5. may be combined.—Eq. Vesp.—Eq. 775. 680. 507-46. 309. See the combinations cited at the end of 316. .3.v. 683. 567. 3 8 12 :—Nuh. 821. 377. 503 Av. The following analysis of 200 anapaestic tetrameters {Eq. Plato 37. 1 S -. . Hermippus Philonides 5.—Eq. 515.6:8 :—Nuh. 120. Av. or after the as in Niib. 347. 381. 388. Vesp. 7 ( . 328. 12. 53-5. but these are rare. 506. 801 . K 30. 332.

Lys. Th. Nicophon 22.^ and a scene. Fax « " ^" 879-84. Fl. 7. in the prologue. without correspondent. Aristagoras 1. 14. Eecitative anapaestic hypermetrical periods (280) in Aristophanes generally follow anapaestic tetrameters.. furthermore. On its probable origin see 613. 598-618.^ and the series of cola rendered continuously furnishes an appropriate verses is 357 ff. of the 1500-27). a prayer. and is comparable in this particular with the occasional trimeter found in iambic (190) But dimeters and trochaic (267) hypermeters. 154-72. 546 ff. 814-29. Vesp.. common measure in tragic parodes. Metagenes 2. occurs in an exode {Ban.^ and from its rapid rendering was here named close TTvlyo'i or jxaicpov. a prayer. Av. It follows tetrameters also in a It parode.^° The nearest approach to this use. Fax 765-74. 532-8-593-607. 82-101. Av. 2 Ach 659-64. Ec. 16. 974-1015. 1500-27. 439-56. 1051-9. and the danger of confusion was increased by the conscious attempt of scribes on the one ^ Eq 824-35 Nub. Th. Eq. j^ggp^ 1482-95. chorus in comedy demanded 322. a livelier The entrance (245). 39-62.^ as well as at appropriate In none of these instances is places elsewhere in the plays. The largest use of ff. It had but it is a true colon. 723-36. Philyllius 13 Frg. 523-38-611-25. 1009-23.^ and in a long introduction to a debate. 621-30'~ 719-24. 736-42-749-59 (672). ^ ^ ' Pax 1320-8. Vesp. Lysippus 4.. 3 Vesp.^ appears in- dependently. Ves-p. hypermetrical period constitutes also the third regular part of the parabasis. 531 ff.. The anapaestic hypermeter is composed of dimeters The monometer (276) is the inferior element. sometimes very close. Lys. Fax mlb. Nub. * Vesp. See 668. 620 The anapaestic to the lively discussion that precedes. and here also the connexion of the period with the preceding long Cf. 522 ff. incert. 689-709. 42. and monometers connected by synaphaea (44) were especially likely to be confused in transmission. 45. its own modulation and gave the hypermeter variety. .130 THE VEKSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 321 20. 547-50. Futn.* an exode. 3. just as the corresponding iambic (190) and trochaic (267) hypermetrical periods follow respectively iambic and trochaic tetrameters. 823 ff. 1078-98. so it distinctly embateric. 889-948. THE HYPEKMETER 321. Vesp. Fan.^ in the exode.. 44. and monometers. . 358-64. anapaestic hypermetrical periods is found in debates.^ a syzygy. Eq. Av.

in E 11 times. 6 times in V. 765. in E. the tetrameter. three instances Both manuscripts. than in E. This remarkable agreement of authorities should not Modern editors do not agree in practice. 598 ff. is On Nuh. six instances in 761 metres. but the reasonprocedure is called in question by the number . Nub. into and monometer sometimes remains in doubt. E when it differs. E makes 1097 the monometer. arrangement of these cola. may combine a monometer and dimeter or even two dimeters The apparent trimeter thus occurs in V into a single arl'xp'i. in E it and V it is 990. In the seven plays contains. Not only monometers and dimeters but trimeters marginal also apparent and tetrameters are found There manuscripts of Aristophanes. Pax 82. Often one manuscript corrects There are. E and V. and evidence of value in determining the original constitution of these comic anapaestic hypermeters. In Ban. 24 times. that V is in error in its apparently introduced order to avoid ableness of this elision at the monometers into some hypermeters in end of a dimeter. This Eq. in is the authorities on which any investigation of this interesting question must rest. ment between E and V that are essential. 974. however. The commentary on Pax 974 makes 989^ the third monometer. 889. V in singular agreement with in general inferior. V 1089*. 1320. on the other to provide it comment. in adopting and placing monometers. 824. only two instances of disagreethe other. be lightly regarded. the oldest manuscripts and the metrical scholia. which are numerous. commentary is unfortunately meagre. 154. within a metre. between cola in such theless a false (jrixo<i. 1089 ff. occur in both manuscripts. as has already been observed. and the principles by which they are guided are not always obvious. Metrical scholia are extant on Ach. but in only two of the notes is there disagreement with the two oldest manuscripts. V 600^ 323. the remaining cola or into dimeter Whether the trimeter monometer and dimeter in these cases shall be divided Internal evidence demonstrates In PI. its authority is Impossible divisions. 889 see 326. They have are dimeters in both manuscripts. E makes 599 a monometer. are incidentally to furnish found to be in practical agreement.. but oftener in V. §323 ANAPAESTIC VERSE for 131 hand to save space. 659. hypermeters in the sometimes a small space Neverbut generally not. 3 times in 923 metres.

Vesp. Av. To these must 1026. Av. Pax 979 al. 1078 eVr'. 611 ov-xh 732 yeXw-ra. 627. 697^ ava>9\ "Afji/xQ)v. 556. often necessitates monometers. 883. Th. 321. 549. divided at the end of the colon in recitative hypermeters 752 ay^rij)L-(TTO<i. 1074. 537. recitative hypermeters found in the manner in which composed in dialogue are written in the two oldest manuscripts. Pax ^1 <t\ 994"^ a-rcofivWo/iee'. 550. 629 h\ 1057 iTOLTje'. Av. at the beginning of the following colon. 723. Vesp. which might be divided into 18 dimeters. 1097. 1 The fact is familiar that the elided syllable is placed in the MSS. Vesp. 533. scripts generally place The manufinal the odd monometer just before the paroemiac of the hypermeter. JVub. and the principle is applied in all but one of them with surprisThus PL 598-618 is composed of 36 metres ing consistency. Pax 759. 893^ 906^ which 45^ 45^ The proof of this is interesting principle. 534.i2aw. It has already been observed (315) that diaeresis fails in relatively Few words likewise are few recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 599. Ec. Av. but the majority of them cannot be relieved except by violent changes. 684. as in Eq. 368. 388. ^c. . 710. Ec. Vesp. 707. as follows ^ these is not to be eliminated by any device. Th. 591. 325. Nuh. Ec.: 132 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 324 of elided dimeters that constitute the initial cola in tetrameters. 926^ e\ Vesp. that no change of speaker can occur within a colon in anapaestic hypermeters in Greek comedy. 15 dimeters not operative. 694. The first of : % 828 E or V or in both. 324. be added 574. 606. 319. Lys. 969. eliminated some of these by shift in division of cola. 618^ Editors have Ban. Fmu. of which there are only four instances in Aristophanes. 582. initial dimeters ending in an elided monosyllabic enclitic as in PI. 356. Vesp. in 619 eV. 426. Progressive words occur at the end of cola in 1488 Kal. 519. unless the change irregularly occurs within a single metre. 631. Pan. K\e'7rTov6\ Nuh. if the principle were In fact it is written in E in 21 cola. 891 a. if the authority of the two oldest manuscripts is accepted. 708. 712. The principle is demonstrable. 323. Cf. 813. Av. Lys. Nearly one half of the anapaestic hypermeters Aristophanes consist of an odd number of metres. ^v. 500. 735. Both these forms of elision are found at the end of cola in anapaestic hypermeters in 454^ /^vfivrp. PL 532. There are eleven of these hypermeters. Nub. 537.

recorded as the tenth colon in the metrical scholium.g. 919. This computation reckons the monometer 893^ as a single part (325). 39-62 has 10 monometers (45^ into 23 dimeters. 948. 984. — the scribe in excess of zeal has written 45'^ yXavKov — ^ofi/Sd^. 990) the latter. 935^ 935^ 936^ 938. . therefore. 907. Vesp. although the change of speaker occurs within a metre. the longest hypermeter in Aristophanes. J^uh. 607. whieh makes 938. 993-1015). at the end. Thus also Th. The division of the hypermeter in V into cola establishes 17 additional dimeters and monometers witJii/i these speakers' parts 890. 923. whereas under the principle it should be a monometer and the beginning The scribe's error is probably due to of a following dimeter. 1489^ 1489^ 1491. ing occurs twice in Thus a tetrametrical groupV. In Tli. 753). the scribes of familiar V and E. cola. posed in dialogue. as extended as this promises to be. Fourteen in R. 51^ 57^ 57^). 605. 609. 326. speaking parts in the hypermeter. would have required an amount of space in writing which no scribe. 3 9 ff. or their predecessors. Kara aavrov opa. which was recited by a single speaker. The former is divided in EV into 16 dimeters and 3 monometers (975. 1015 . as two cola.. some short. Only two corrections are required in ten hypermetrical periods comvvv In Vesp. See the metrical single scholium. is composed of two hypermeters (974-92. Fax 82-101 has one monometer (91)." A hypermeter. 1482-95 has six (1485. is an anaphonema. 939^ a trimeter and 947. 924. 45^ 48^ 48^ 50^ 50^ Sl-^. furnishes unexpected confirmation of the principle under disHeliodorus records that this hypermeter contains 74 cussion. Vesp. 948 a tetrameter. 603. ' We find. This colon and 906* are the av^uyiac ov reXeiac mentioned by Heliodorus. 947. is a dimeter in both E and V. three times in E (e. The following monometer (45^^) is written correctly. much less his corrector. however.: § 326 6 ANAPAESTIC VEKSE 133 and Pax 974monometers (599. - ^ 749^. 946 as a See 322. 901^ 902^ 905. 617). the general occurrence of parateleutic monometers.. yap iv apdpoL<i. 918. assigned to three different speakers. There is internal evidence that the original source of are 45 There was thus written. 922. 945. 892. resorting to the palaeographical device of grouping cola in single aruxot. iu) fMoi fiOL. 1493^ 1493^). 889 ff.' could have viewed with equanimity. 921. others V and E long. 1482 tf. 749<'-59 has two^ (749°. 931.

If the monometers and dimeters thus combined. At. 901* RV 901''. by which words line. The total furnishes the 74 42 dimeters and 32 monometers. 20 meters) RV (903* 1 V.g. Heliodorus. o-e ris wv.15). 941^ 942^ 942^ 943^ 943^ 944. ( 898* *A8. yvufxas Kaivas e^evpt'cTKwi'. of apparent exception to the principle that the speaker must not change within the colon. nine times in V.g. ten dimeters (894^ 895^ 897^ 898^ 917. 895*^ i/JLOv At. just as two speakers' parts may constitute an apparent trimeter (e.v. are restored as separate cola. 945 946) and two monometers . At. RV RV RV } C 896 897* 897''. 936^)^ are added to the 45 and 17 cola previously determined. Thirteen dimeters (and two mono- 948 a tetrameter. 898^ as a a dimetrical. aAA' dvaTpkxpdi y avr' avTiXeyuiV cf>r]fxl ovSe At. [ 895'' 'AS. . ttov 'cttlv . PL ^ . RV \ 900* RV 900''. Xoyos. dAAa Tov vtKW. dXXa o-e cro({>ovs.aX.. 15 899* 'AS. in makes in R. aTToAets (Tv. Katirep Opa(Tvs wv. ten in E of 897. ovK. 939!i a trimeter and 947.X6v o"' ev roi<. in 895^. 134 single (TTi')(^os:) . yap yap efvai Trdvv (ftys . Ai. RV RV RV RV Ai. (927. t^'ttwv y' 889 890 891 892 [893* { 'AS. 'AS. cola recorded by Brunck. 889-948. 937. The aggregate of cola in R is also 74 (45 -H4 -t. has trimetrical grouping four times. quite certainly result in to this long hypermeter from the desire economize space. At. since this manuscript 938. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY a trimetrical o-Tt%o<?). TavTa yap dvOei Sia TOVTOva-l rovs dvoTi]TOvs. Ti (TO(f)ov TTOtwv. aTToAw KaKws. etTre rt TTOtoiv (899'' Tci StK-ata Xeywv. St/c?. These dimetrical cases. RV RV 10 'AS. X'^P^'- 8^^'ph Set^oi/ cravTov Tol(TL ^earais. 896). tetrametrical once. that are not already separated by the principle of change of speaker and by the divisions established in V. KpeLTTO) (^acTKOvr' elvai. two speakers in the dialogue are joined in a single ten times in RV (e. in 910). 5 wv. W OTTOL TToXv yap iJ. XPi?C'^'5.^ § 326 (e. 902* ( ovK elvat <f)epe 902'' 'AS.598 If. therefore.g. 'AS. T ( 898'' At. Kuh. but not R. iroXXoicTi Aeywv uttoXw. J | SdS^ 894* 894''. 928.

ANAPAESTIC VERSE 135 .§ 326 Ai.

136 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 327 .

The purely anapaestic dimeter. 330. 664. 829. which consists of two hypermeters {irepiohoi). 538. precluded by a progressive or recessive word seven times. 1523. Fax 974-1015. 920^-924.. See 315. Th. dimeters. 742. 934-8. 602. It is 736. The close connexion of 923 Cf. 1523) to mark the close of a hypermeter within the systematic period. Av. occurs occasionally {Vesp. 1088. 535. Schol. where the natviral division would seem to be into four 'trimeters' Vesp. How are Vesp. monometer. trimeter. Th. The proceleusmatic is found but once {Nut. 602. to be ^ ^^ | v^ and I w[v. Lys. 1059. The dactyl occurs once {Vesp. 328. a monometer and a dimeter. Lys.. 1514. Ban. and eight times (F((x 992. 774. The prevailing foot in this dimeter the spondee. in the recitative hypermeter form from the acatalectic and ff. The collocation of dactyl and anapaest occurs 3 times {Pax 169. ^z.. 535. with the following dimeter may explain the division. Vesp. is Caesura Cf. The parts of the complete trimeter (936^ 937) are closely connected and the point of division of its double cadence may have shifted to TralSevaLv. The paroemiac occurs 38 30 times as the final colon of a systematic period that consists of a single hypermeter. 1505. Eci 550. 538. of the metres of the paroemiac neglected 14 times. Th. 1328. 1525). In each case the combination constitutes the first metre is of an acatalectic dimeter. Vesp. 42. ciple serves to explain some divisions in E and V that at first seem odd. 612 and 732 f. Pax 172. Ach. a dimeter. as the first simple foot of a paroemiac. o-u Be 7' ev etc. 709. Ban. Ec. rendered otherwise than respectively as ^ ^ v^ I 611. Pax 992. 606 f. a series of cola which begins with a change of speaker. 148 9^ P/. 757. 822. ^ ^ and Cf. 630.). Lys. likewise. 835. The dimeter and paroemiac differ in metrical do not essentially 329. These manuscripts divide Nub. the equivalent of five dimeters. Ban. 759. Mib. ^ ^ ? for This prin1488. which in EV are dimeter. and spondaic dimeters are common. 884). Cf. into the last half of a dimeter. Av. . Cf. dimeter. catalectic dimeters that compose the tetrameter (307 times. in a monometer of which the reading is doubtful. 752 £. and the beginning of a trimeter. 916). 1098. 1505.§ 330 ANAPAESTIC VEKSE 137 shifted. Av. ^ ^ ^^_^^_ ^1^-^^1484 f. a dimeter.

Hermippus 46. 47. Lys. Ephippus 5. is barred. 624. . first note. 172. Eubulus 63. number of dactyls in the fourth place is unusually following colon. 533). Three acatalectic dimeters end within a word (323). 690). five 690). Cf. The large (308). and hiatus occurs only once. A single hypermeter of Menander is extant. according This dimeter is a singular exception to to the division in E. therefore. In the half of the tetrameter See 315. 1490. acatalectic dimeter neglects caesura of its metres 16 times in 380 ^Drogressive dimeters. 6 in the second {Yes'p. 331. Ban. 12. 892). few poets of the Old Comedy. Alexis 162. 1010. 81 in the third. 1055. 1525. and here it is accompanied by change of speaker {Nul. 1009. of this Anaxandrides 41 (71 cola). Antiphaues form of verse. No acatalectic dimeter ends in a short (' variable ') vowel. Fax 994. 819. in recessive 14 others Caesura it is precluded by a or word. Epicrates 11. 889 ff. 133. on first the average. Pax 82. 1054. 690) in a recitative hypermeter. The dactylic dimeter is found but once {Ec. The See 271. Anaxilas 18.. 154. Th.138 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 331 The dactyl occurs 85 times in the first place. it is once in 12-7 dimeters. Ec. 1517. Ec. 312. the longest hypermeter in Aristophanes. 535. forbidden in one in 6*3. 332. The fragments of Anaxandrides and Mnesimachus rival in length Niib. and 8 in the fourth {Ves'p. a rule that holds elsewhere in Aristophanes. This division corresponds to neglect of diaeresis in the tetrameter. poets of the Middle Comedy furnish more considerable remains 132. It happens that hypermeters have been quoted from The Cf. Mnesimachus 4. Three of these are followed by a dactyl at the beginning of the by a spondee.

and to it proceed from the ' ' (12. eiTr' w irdrep — ^^ dactylic — ^^ — vy^ — v^ — -^ — ^^ — ^^ — ^^ — v^ Kuh. familiar with the poems of Homer. The melic acatalectic dimeter differs 139 from the corre- .13): TTarpos dir' 'Q. f. arsis of its final dactyl becomes catalectic prjfiara Kal Trapair pierp-aT tTTwv — <^ — ^^ — ^^ — Ran.<i €776 — ^^ — — — ^v^ KopaKas /^aStet /xerayuwvtos / ei's ecrrt rt riovS' cti'/zw? . 336. In dactylic.Keavov /Sapvax^o^ v\l/r]Xwv 6p€(i)V Kopv(fia. 335.^ ^. The dimeter by suppression of the . 1. 278 — ^^ — ^<^ — ^^ — — Pax 117 times. as in iambic. 334. is a dimeter composed of two metres that consist each of two simple feet singing long before Homer's time. by resolution . in Av. the fundamental colon in melic poetry. Cultivated men in the West have always been . and the heroic line naturally overshadows all other forms of dactylic verse but Greek poets were would be as erroneous hexameter in determining the forms of melic dactylic verse as from the set verse of the dialogue of the drama in formulating melic iambic metres. of the (354). 1752 (588) and HccL 1168 ff.: CHAPTER V DACTYLIC VEESE 333. thesis in The dactyl assumes proceleusmatic form. trochaic and anapaestic verse. It never has anapaestic form by resolution of the ' ' thesis in See 11. as it appears in comedy and elsewhere. 882 The catalectic dimeter is rare. A dimeter is consists of sixteen primary All dactylic verse in descending rhythm.

479 and (303). Protraction (31) does not occur in the dactylic verse For an apparent exception see 365. = 782 (4:10). with 275 = 298 (Z^4:). 1750 f. trimeter was not employed as a colon. dimeter. 275 ff.^ Av.) would have exceeded the limit of length allowed diplasic compound feet (22). 337. Comedy . indeed. Av. have the mensuration of dimeters. like the corresponding anapaestic tripodies (277). of comedy. Cf Av. does not eschew the melic dactylic hypermeter. 674 = 706 339. Cf. but the monometer was thus used. Each of these lines is probably a dicolic subordinate period consisting of a brachycatalectic occasionally iVM&. seeming tripodies are true brachycatalectic and. introduces a hypermeter of nineteen metres into one of his most beautiful lyrics. dactylic since a trimeter The in combination with dimeters. Pentapodies apparently occur in Ban. ^ On the significance of the conjunction of vowel sounds here see Lys. the comment . Dactylic tripodies (26) occasionally occur in Aristophanes o[x/3po(fi6poL d' afjia /SpovTai. Nub. 1749. 750 (498). The two metres that constitute this dimeter are almost invariably joined in this manner. The commonest subordinate period in melic dactylic verse is the acatalectic trimeter composed of dimeter and monometer. 1752 These (588). Ban. composed of true dactyls in normal isomeric rhythm (9. 816 = 820 = 824 = 828 (346).^ ats ooe vvv x^oi'ct (rciet — — -^ ~^ — — ^^ . 287 = 310 cola (344). 286 = 309. but generally the series is short and does not exceed the length allowed a subordinate period. ' ' ^ TTOV Setvbv ept^pe/Atras X'^'^^v ev6oOev e^ei TrapLSrj dy'jyovro'S rjVLK av o^vXaXov oSovra. Ran. mensuration of a dimeter. made familiar to the audience in the theatre by tragic poets. 1344^ (592). Aristophanes. i. On the probable origin of this use of the monometer as a colon see 613.: : 140 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 33V sponding anapaestic colon (275) in frequently ending within a word. Nuh. 338. (35). (344). The latter invariably assumes the The close of this period is sometimes duly form . The the monometer and a penthemimer (36) is also found.^ ^ marked by hiatus or the variable syllable (43) 340. 814 f.

or. 126 ff. The heroic line. On the other hand. Consometimes a part of a systematic period composed in a different rhythm. 'hexameter. See 775. : Its constitution is strongly influenced by the heroic line the two cola are commonly joined in the middle of a word. in disregard of the original composition of the period. (344).). hypermeters intermediate periods to form systematic periods see 720 ff. and a word almost always ends with the ff. Ban. In the dactylic lyrics of Aristophanes in general dactyls greatly preponderate. in which in strophe and antistrophe the ratio of spondees to dactyls is only one to seven in the complete metres. arsis The dactyl has the same pleasing balance it of thesis and that characterizes the anapaest. (347). 1754 period ff. Ban. the Pherecratean. = 826 ff. 875 with shift to 275 ff. 284). is versely. On the antl 341. dimeter. cola composed exclusively of dactyls were probably sung in triple time when constituent parts of simplified logaoedic odes (392 fi". and perhaps in the simulated duo in Tli. a dactylic subordinate Such series of logaoedic dactyls (389) are occasionally found combined with periods in other rhythms. and it is this equality of from the trochee (cf. the paroemiac.) notes ' ' . Pax 119 (345). in order to point contrast in rhythms. fifth half-foot (360 combination of subordinate periods. lacking. (429). 141 But these indications are frequently corresponding to those quoted {Ran. less than one quarter of the simple feet being spondees.' with exception of a single verse (365). such as trochaic ff. 1528 (348). J. f.). and the truth of his observation is admirably illustrated in Niib. as in the periods f. Av. 250 fi: (595). 343. = 822 f. descending rhythm. Aristides the quickening effect of short syllables in isomeric rhythms. In parodies and monodies such a period probably kept its true isomeric time. whereas in his recitative hexameters the two parts that distinguishes (97 M. the ithyphallic. as in Th. 342.. Nul. 1052 f. (374). (588). (344). (592). 275 ff. close with a subordinate period the catalectic colon another rhythm. as in Ban. or A in dactylic lyric may ff. is the melic period exclusively used in comedy (50) composition. See 356 £f.). 23 ff. 814 (346). 1338 ff.§ 343 DACTYLIC VERSE 818 Cf. Av. 59. Ban. The trimeter in stichic ff. is the only form of dactylic verse used by Aristophanes in recitative rendering. The lilt of the song is remarkable. 1050. These will be noted as they occur.

(3po(f}6poL. /S' irapdevoi iXd(iijX€. 310 TravToSaTratcrtv ev iopafi. iva TTjXecfiaveL'i o-kotticis d. 275-90 = 298-313 Strophe. 802 -^-^ -^ dp6wfj.Tai. Xnrapdv \66va ITaAAaSos ei'avSpov yav 6\p6jx(.) 10-^-^ ^ — ^^ — .^ '^Keavov fiapva)(^€o? 794 Trarpos 5— ^^ — c^ vxpijXwv opeuiv Kopv(f)ds £7rt — ^^ — ^^ SevSpoKOjUovs.app.^ .)- § 344 On Aristophanes's of perversion the hexameter to the uses comedy see 356. 305 ovpavioLS re ^eots ^wp'i)p.^ .) — .a' akvaoi Nec^eAat. vuoi 6' v\l/€p£(f)€LS Kol dydXfxaTa.^ — ^^ 338 287 p. Melic Dactylic Vekse 344. 800 - -^- w.). 'H/-t.v 6fj.).e6a 800 (ant. Nub. eiVrec^avot re ^etuv dvcrlai daXiai re.' 142 sorts of feet skilful THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY are practically equal (357 of f. 342. Kal 77p6(ToSoL fiaKdp(DV lepcoTarat. 'H^.) — ^ — ^ — ^^ — ^^ KapTCOvs T dpSofxevav 6' lepdv \d6va Kal TTorafiCiv ^adkwv KeXaSt^/xara 800 (ant.apkai(TLV kv ai5yats.ev (f)av€pal Spocrepav (fivcnv — — — 2-^ ^^ — — — -^ 278 280 _ _ _ _ — ^^ — .l TTOVTOV KeXdSovTa f3apv/3popov 792.^ . 795 2-*^ — .^ 19-*^^' aKa/xarov creAayetTat 338. — ^^ — ^^ — ^^ — ^ dAA' a7^oc^elc^d/^£va^ ve<^os 6ix/3piov 15 — -^ — ^^ — ^^ — ^^4 795 dOavdras I8eas eTTiBw/xiOa 285 ofifJ-a yap aWepo? 290 TijAeo-KOTTw o/x/xart yatav.j^ — >^ evdyqTov cItt' -^ . . 800 (ant.<j>opd)p.aTa. (Parode). 800 (ant. 338. tVa /xvaroSoKos So/AOS fv TeAerats dyt'ais dvaSetKvi.^ -^ — ^^ _^_^ — ^^o — _^^_^^ Ko.- 2^ Antistrophe.vai 301 KeKpoTTOS TroXvrjpaTOV ov cre/jas dpprjTwv lepwv. 'qpl T eTTfpxop-hoi B/30/xia X"P'?) . 792 (aut.

Ban.. If he had analyzed 118-23. 123 KoXXvpav p€ydXi]v Kal kovSvXqv oi/zov 15— — ^^ : ^^ 3 w^^ cV ai'T^. 777. pericopic pentad: dactylic penthemimer. 2 2 2 5. i/j. A = abcde. eTVfiws /xe. Heliodorus's analysis includes only the first four cola. Fax 114-23 w irdrfp dp' eVv/nos ye -IJKei. Non-antistrophic.. 300 x^^^°. he would doubtless have designated them all as e-iKoi Note his phraseology in Schol. 1067./ ^^— ^^ ^^ — ^ — ^ — ^^ 118 T/3.^ v^ 5^ — v^ >^ — ^^ — v^ — -~ 3 — -^ — — — — __ — --^ — v^ 3^ — — — ^^ — — — ^^ — ^ — ^ 3^ — ^-^— — — — — — s^ 3 wv. See the metrical scholium on Pax 114 If. w lus et's Trdrep — 43 ^v^ 115 Sw/iao-tv r]fi£Tepois (f>dTts (TV jxer opvidoiv tt/doAittwv fxe KOpaKas ^aStct [xerapnovLOS ecTL Ti Twv8 €t — — — >^ ^^ — — — — — — v^— w^— v^ ^^2^ 2^ 2^' — — >^ ^^ v^ w^. 5— ___. § 346 DACTYLIC VERSE evKiXdSojv T€ xopwv e'/oe^tcr/iaTa. which he regards as a period. tetrameter. See 778. B is a stichic period composed of five acatalectic trimeters. ignoring the close of the fourth colon. : A = AB 346. So^dcrai KOpai. to 8' er/j-vfiov dydop-ai vfxiVj 800 800 43 10 120 7}vtK' av aiTi^rjr 8' dprov —diTxpaKas Trav /x€ KaAoucrat. 814-17 = 818-21 = 822-5 = 826-9 (Stasimon Strophe I. and the long pause in singing that followed was most appropriate (338).^ Tt c^iAets ecrrt.. I. A = aaab. (Prologue). a' rj TTOu Seivbv epcftpep^Tas xo^o*' €$a. Both See 772. See 747. Eq. 800 e^er' ev — . aemot Ne^eAat (275) and Trapdevot ofi/SpocfiopoL (298) are used in address. fir]8i y Trdvv i^v 8' fyo) ev Trpa^as dipct eX^w —aAti'. brachycatalectic dimeter. 345.i (114-18. 116 we Ed. cvSo^ev 794 43 — - -^ — 3^^ >^ — ^^" ^- ^ . ^ €t7r' w Trarep. 119-23).Princeps : ^s x^^^°- 310 iTavTo5aTra'L(jiv Princeps : iravToSa-rvoLs Monostrophic dyad. periodic tetrad a dimeter as proode that anticipates the melody of the two dimeters that follow and a pentameter as epode.. paroemiac.). brachycatalectic hypermeter of nineteen metres. 2-19-2-4 2.. DUO Ila. 143 Kal [xovcra /SaprfSpo/xo? avkwv. €v8ov dpyvpiov Trdfnrav. 'H/i.

• 144 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY rjVCK § 347 815 av o^i'AaAov Trapi^rj dq- yovTOS oSovra 816 dvTiTiX^ov Tore 8rj 338 212. ' H/A. 883 vvv yap dywv cro^tas pel Trpbs cpyov V/S?/. dixvvop.^ ^ 2*^^ Strophe 11. orav o^vfx. — ^^ — ^^ — >^ — ^^ . /3' cV^ev 8r) o-TO/xarou/sybs cttwi' /SacravicrTpLa Ato-(^7/ 827 yAwcrcr' dvcAio-o-o/xevr.^ . 821 p-qp-aO' Strophe III.ic /F.€vaL 8vvap. See 742. ^(aLTav. is noteworthy.S'^?-op. The 347. shift of rhythm in the last colon with a trochaic dimeter as epode.€vov (ppevoreKTOVOs dvSpos lTnrofidp. 3 3 3-2. (5 875-84 ^weras ets (Scene II. fi' ecTTai 8' lTnrok6(fi(DV re Aoyojv KopvQaioXa veiKrj 819 (TXtvSaAa/xwv re Tvapa^ovia crpCKevpaTa r cfiWTos epyuiv. 883 6 — ^^ —^ — ^ — ^^ — ^^ 10— w^— >^ --. T/crei 823 8e^vbv kirurKVVLOV ^vvdyuiV fSpvywpevos pqpara 825 yop<j)07rayrj TTtva/cr/oov d~ocnrojv yT^yevet ^vo-rj/xaTt . 342 5 fiavias viro Setvv]? 817 ofifxaTa (npofti^cr^raL.voi'i 5 — ^^ — — — -^^ — w^ v^ -^ 3 — — 3 ^^ -^ 878 eA^tocrt cnpefiXolcn -iraXaia-paa-iv 790 ^^ ^v- dvTtAoyoGv'Tes. two dactylic trimeters and a brachyepodic tetrad : A catalectic trimeter. 800 (ppevas — w^ — <^ ^^ 876 — — 5^ ^^ -^ — — — ^^ KaOopdre e/oiv 877 dv8pC}v yvw/xoTVTTwv.^ — ^~. = four strophes constitute a monostrophic tetrad (701). (^Bovepovs Ktvovcra ^^'^ti'ovs pn'ipara 8aiopevrj KaraAeTrToAoyvycrei 829 TrAeu/xovcoy 7roAt)v ttovov. The aabc.ip'ip.iv SeivoTciTOiv cTTopaTOiv TToplcraa-OaL p-qpara kol TapairpLcrpaT cttwv.>^ w — ^. 6 /xeyas x*^" 203. lian. ' H/x.^ — ^^ — — ^ 3^ -^ — -^ — ^^ — — 3.ova.>^-^ — v^ — v^ 342 .. AeTrroAoyoi'S at 790.— 4*^ — w^ _ _ 4C . 879 eXder eiroxp6p. a <f)pi^as 8' avTOKop-ov Ao^ias Xacriavxeva. Albs evvea —apOevoL dyval MoScrat. Xo. 2*^'* Hermann : doe . ' Hyu.).

a pentameter as proode to two trimeters.§ 349 Non-antistrophic. 1528-33 (Exode). B= abc. A probably = ab'b. Xo. Ban. 776. Compare the final colon of the : A = ab(875-8. catalectic dactylic tetrameter. 2 4 4. proodic triad : 879-84). 738. dimeter and an ithyphallie. DACTYLIC VERSE 146 5 3 3. See pericopic triad catalectic dactylic dimeter. preceding lyric. tetrameter compounded of a dactylic See 771. 348. .

1264. 1277 TTeAa^£is dpwydv 1 . and had a ring doubly familiar to the Aristophanes ransacked the plays of Aeschylus for audience. 8vo vol KOTTd) Ala-^vXe kvSktt' 'A. we may be where the sure. was ^6lwt' 'AxcXXev. KOTTOV ov TreXdOeis crot ctt' dpwydv outos.). a] KOTTOV ov TreXdOeis ctt' dpayydv . of these still bothers modern metricians. 351. . 1276).— . El'. Kpdro^ atatov identical in form and movement dpoelv oBiov periods with this close that had odd beginnings. f. El'. 108 TreXdOea 1291 dpcoydv.— --^ . This is with the paroemiac. KvpLO'i eifii Opoeiv ") oStov KOTTOV Kparos OV ato-toi/ Itt' dvSpiov. caesura elfit : ------- >^ . f. the greater It be the monotony of the recurring cadence. At. The form of the first The line is apparently Cf.) for the beginning of his travesty. T/DtTos (icrxvXi kottos eij(^a/x€iTe • jxeXicro-ovopoL 8o/aov 'ApreixiSos TTeAas oiyetv. derisive in the rendering Euripides gave it. Kvpio^.. follows THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY The the in fatal § 350 cadence is that part of the heroic line that penthemimeral Aeschylus. 115 This was followed in ir) the Myrmidons by the famous model kottov ov eV cadence follows the exclamation It]. variety of form of the first part of the period. tr) rl ttot' oil avSpoSatKTOv TreAa^ets ctt' aKOi'wv 1265 ''Epfidv /xiv KOTTOi' dpojydv Xifivav. which. 1264 f. for ex- ample. 146 350. The greater the would was not without malicious pleasure that he hit upon two lines from Aeschylus's Myrmidons (Fucji. ival. El'. { = Agam. ^-^ f. a combination of an iambic with the close of the heroic verse: Mail. penthemimer . Cf. avhpcov {Ran.!(aia)i/ 'Arpews TroXvKoipave pdvdavk pov t'/) 1271 Ai. 1284 f. also Agam. TTpoyovov Irj rto/xev ytvos ot irepl Itt' KOTTOV ov TTiXdOei? dpoiydv rovTio.

and no dactylic catenae such as are found in Euripides. Uccl.v TrpvTavtv kvvo. i)/3as. 'EA. (Exode). elaborated. which he says are citharodic. — ^ — v^ — ^ — ^ ^^ 1165 ^ CTTt TO SetTTVov -UTravaKtveti'. took this jesting of all modern commentators. 'H/x. 353. 1284-95 (Scene 1284 1286 1289 1291 oTTCus 'A^atwi/ %iBpovov K/jaros. (Tvv Tre/ATret. 354. least. Euripides insists.). Aeschylus was not specially amenable to this particular criticism. ^ They are found almost exclusively in the parode of the Agamemno-n (104159).354 DACTYLIC VERSE 147 352.aL <c5> yvvaiKes.a 8pav. IV. ^ — v/ — ^ — w— 4*^ ^^w Verse 1294. Sopl Kal \£pl TrpaKTopt dovptos opvts. It was the familiarity of the audience with the Agamemnon 1163-81 the that gave the criticism particular point. Aristophanes closes Ecdesiazusae with a spectacular in dance by specialists. In further proof of his contention."^ no recitative hexameters. He came upon this invention is the Vespae (494). also the These comic poet gathered indiscriminately from different plays of Aeschylus but all alike. or citharodic. Ran. Kvpeiv TTapacr^wv irayuats kvctIv depoc^otVots. See the scholiast. at in his extant plays. have the same monotonous cadence. and Aristophanes himself. which has no pertinence to the matter in hand as regards either meaning or rhythm. So much cannot be said rhythm is of course. whether aulodic . Nobody in the audience. Euripides quotes another batch of verses. Sophocles. from which Aristophanes secured three of the nine verses here quoted. . Mutilated anapaestic systems and dismembered dactylic octapodies must not be forced into service to furnish examples of the cadence over which the poet here makes merry. is probably interpolated. a' (5 In the later play the performance Sij. which contain few choral dactylics. seriously. The roll of dactylic not heard. eiVre/D IxeWofxev to \pijp. w oipa (f)iX.Aa8os S^i'yya 8v<Ta^epia.

the first half-chorus sings briefly in trochaic rhythm and at the close exhorts the second half-chorus to dance KprjTiKw'i ovv rw irohe The second half-chorus accordingly dances Kot (TV KLvec. -v^-v^.^ — w 1168 <Ta)(a X°P^'"^ o/otrov t'7rayetv> TOtV a-K^X'uTKOlV TOV pvO/XOV.- : : ft'. delivered by the first leader in recitative trochaic tetrameters (1154-1162). See also Aristid. 956. Heph.^ — — ^ — ^ 16 — ^— 2 ^/>^ 1177 XcklOov. Dindorf 1169 -Tefiaxo<r€\axo. 'H/M.^^^^^>^w^^. • 1180 SetTTvr^o-o/xev. 1167 <rv Ed. eijat. ment the first half-chorus bids Blepyrus bring forward the dancing I (rovTo Bpw).Princeps -Kotro-i^^o- : Kiister: -Kii'KXe-iri. tat ei'ot evat..^ 1170 KpaVlQX€LXpaVoSpLfJLVTrOTpilXIJ. purports no more than to give the sense of The parts are here ascribed to the half-choruses as in R Th. Papijri. trochaic girls 1 who ' are ' with him. After the address to the judges. Toijro Opw.. of course. wv^w — w 334 10 ^^ wv^ — >>^vy — — v^s^ — — wv^6 1 Tax** ya/D eVeio-i — v^ [Here follows the dance of the girls.. The cretic 7.a)(oo-eAa)(oyaAeo- 38 . 355.^ — v^ — ^^ —^—^ ^ — . 'H/7. 18 fi.] 'Hyx.aTO- —^—^ 15— — — ^~ — ^—^ — v^ — ^^ —^—^ — ^ ^ — wv. He is i. W? €771 VLKYj cvai. ii.Aa XaifxaTTOva-i a'tpe(T6' — ^ avo). crai. J.:/v^ v^^^.^>^. : to the accompaniment of an auletic melody in rhythm {KpvTL/cm)} The music was purely instrumental On the conclusion of this moveand the dance hyporchematic. €uat.-^ XeKTpvovoTTTOKecfiaWLOKiyKXoTre- ^^ 1174 XetoXayioo(TipaLof3acf)r]TpayavoTTTepi'ytov* cri' Se ranT aKpoacrape- vos Tttxv Kai Tttxews XafSe rpvfSXiov €iTa KOVLO-at XafSwv 206 ttou. erai. 39 M. The colon that obviously is lacking in 1167 f. wv. 1167^ rdxa xopeias 6paop i-TrdTeti' 1172 -KiyKXetri-refxaxoffffeXaxo1173 -o7rro/ce0a\Xto-KoiravKoPrinceps followed strictly been has in R Meineke -oTrreyKecpaWLO: The lining of 1167 restored by a line above. See Grenfell and Hunt's Oxyr. 302. 1163 iD Ed. an important figure on the 15. I'v' eTTtSeiTTvr/s" 203 20-^v^v^v-/ _. 26.— 148 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Kp-qTLKMS OVV Kttt § 355 TW TTOOe y8' 0— — vy v^ — — CPU Kivei.TOKaTaKexi'/^ei'0- KLyKX€TriK0(r(TV(J30(fiaTT0T€pl(Tr€pa- — — v.. 20 f. col._2 -v^— 2 ^' dA. Cf. .] Ao7ra8oT€/i. tvat. — ^ — ^^ (riA<^io77apao/xeA(. is here colon. — wv^ — . a /cat <(ru> rao-Se vvv Xayapas 206 — v. of Aristoxemis. missing the that.. — v-zv-/* — ^ — 2 [Here follows the dance of the second half-chorus. and Schol.^.

For com- binations of trimeters with hexameters in other comic poets see Cratinus 199. who was not only preeminent as a poet in the serious style. although in Aristotle's judgment these two styles are as different as possible (Aristot. but was also the first to outline the forms of comedy by dramatizing the ridiculous Aristophanes mingles trimeters with his (Aristot. 1015-20. The dactyls is in seven instances are resolved (334). Cf Eq. Eubulus 107.^ The dance feature of the exode. 65. 2 Eq. nothing to say after special 1150. 357. in the Stage in Aristophanes. on the average 3 '01 in one hexameter: 1 The ' close of this play is discussed. Aristophanes uses the hexameter in mock-oracles . 1080-95 1037-40. 1286-7. this But in he was simply the imitator of Homer. another 967-8. 987-8. 971-3. Non-Melic Dactylic Verse the hexameter 356.^ 357 close DACTYLIC VERSE of the of the is 149 scene to the play. . just as iambic verses were mingled with hexameters in the Mai^gites (Heph. 130001. Poet. for example in Av. 975. The dactyls number 428. ' Pax 1063-1114. Poet. 196.. 4). but has fie{paKe<. 1270-83. 1051-60. 1067-9. iv. Rhet. foot before the singing (1169). from Editor's point of view. Av. in. He 1 takes the final step. probably joined in The first half-chorus singing four cola as whole company retired from the orchestra. 983-5. 959-91. ^ p^^y. Lys. (of. Plato 173. 977-9. 2 £f. 197-201. Trochaic metre first resumed in 1176. 1292-3. and 1138) is the accompanied by the singing of the remarkable compound in dactylic metre that shows our poet's The dance probably began one rioting invention at its best. 10 f. Pax 1265-1304. and jSTothing could illustrate with keen appreciation of the incongruity of form and content uses the heroic line in ordinary dialogue better our poet's delicate perception of the metrical resources of the comic art. xxiv. 168-70. Antiphanes 194. 9). 770-6. 60. There are 142 recitative hexameters in the extant plays of Aristophanes. 1030-4. But Aristophanes out-Homers Homer.and in mock-heroics/ appropriating the " stateliest and weightiest of ' ' verses " (Aristot. last four cola The metrical form of the and of the the last cannot the now be determined with approach to certainty.). 1014-97. viii. 5) to the uses of comedy. heroic lines.

v. In two. iii. Total in one word . 358 ii. § Total. + 55 17 + 42 1 + 83 29 + 36 30 + 112 100 + 328 The 100 dactyls contained each as follows i. 142 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY — w"-" 428 23 i. divided In two. vi. 27 32 5 . Total. v. in one word are distributed Trisyllables Overlap forward Overlap back Overlap both ways . iv.23 17 in 1 29 or 30 100 or The 328 dactyls contained each two : three words parts of words are distributed as follows i.^ 1 1 v. | .: 150 Hexam. ii.v^ . iii. In three words.21 15 29 39 4 26 6 22 59 31 53 173 102 . divided . 7 5 v^ I . iv.^ .w .

e'X^ovaa rerdprrj to vorjfia et? TeTapTov iroha irdvTw^ iiTrapTc^ofievov irotrjfiaTa TavTrj ft)? Be TTj TOfifj Traz/re? ol to. 1096. the trochaic feminmc.. Verses are excluded from the count in which the thesis of the fourth foot is the whole or the final syllable of a progressive word (Eq. only once alone.) of Sia(f)opa<i rjixLixeprj Se e^et T6(Taapa<. 1279. two pauses. is 774. e^ovaa rov iroha he inrdp'^ei tov Tpirov /BovkoXiktj eh rj • rpo-^alov auvaTToXrjyovTa. Xa/Sovaa. may come in this foot. M. TrevdrjfML/xepr]!. Ai constitutes the first syllable of the dissyllabic arsis and possible precludes the supposition that the caesura Eq. -^-^ -^ is possible . 30 with bucolic diaeresis. 8 times combined with hephthemimeral caesura. 1084.^ __ ^ 50 times. 1283. 1087. 1109. 199. Cf. the hephthemimeral. 1094. 1110. 54 times. ydp. . Lys. Penthemimeral caesura. These 9 instances include six in which a short progressive monosyllable follows the thesis and precludes the supposition that the Cf. 1102. -^-^ _^|^_. 1099. 18 J. 1051. fiera 8e Bvo TroSa? Kal icrrcv a-vWa/Syjv t) riXetov e. 7r6Ba<i Kal rpirov fiev rpo^alov to/jLtj Kal i]Ti<i reTcipryjv (JLera e(f)9rjfjbi/jbep7]ii KaXelrat e'^^ei rpet<i Kal avWa^rjv rjri<. 22 times alone. TO TrXetcTTOv '^(^priad/jLevoi (^aivovTat' o6ev Kal ttjv KXrjcnv rjyopiav TOfMri Tavrr]}' eSe^aTO. Pax 1109. is penthemimeral. 1020.-^ 361.^ -|^-^ . 8e icmv jwrjfxa. 200. 1037. Be. Eq. 1034"^ 1088. Its other occurrences have just been noted. 1058. The penthemimeral caesura is sometimes called masculine. Trochaic caesura. 1033. 51 f. in Eq. rj to/jli] • e^drjfiifjiepi] re koI irevO/3ovKo\iK7]v. 16 times alone. Pax 1070. the penthemimeral Another occurs after the thesis of the fourth foot.: § 361 DACTYLIC VERSE 151 or trochaic. ^ 772. 18 times with bucolic diaeresis. 1276. 25 fif. ^ovKoXiKa <ypd-^avTe<. -^-|=^ Hephthemimeral caesura. 27 combined with hephthemimeral caesura. 11 with both. 1031. 1016. anonymous writer in Studemund's Anecdota (215. 1300) or is followed by an enclitic (Eq. 1018. 1018. is possible 90 times. See also Aristid. Pax 1072. 1056. 33. 1032.^ . These 50 instances include 11 in which a monosyllabic or an ehded dissyllabic enclitic or recessive fiev.^et ro rplro<i rpoyalo^. . in fact. 1274. reketov to voTjfia. diro TOiV ^prjaa/juevcov Tr}v Trpocrfi'. and 8 with both. bucolic diaeresis. eVl ?. caesura is trochaic. and another between the fourth and fifth These pauses are clearly defined by the feet.

975. 987. Zys. Every recitative hexameter has at least one of these four pauses. 1278. 1092. 1102. 1113. Pax 1076. According to the following analysis. 1095. possible 68 times. 1018. 1094. 1086. 1107. 1079. (P) Eq. it left may may be be unobserved. 1074. one pause excludes the other. 1052. the heph- (P) is The analysis themimeral (H) 10. -|__c^j-. Pax 1072. Pax 1076*'). the trochaic (T) 40. Pax 1082. 362. and bucolic diaeresis (B) 16. 1068. exclusive of one another the penthemimeral both are possible. Po. 1071. 1279. 1080. 1272. -^-^ ____: 1270. 1031. -1^-=^ 1054. 1087. 1092. 1073. 1084. nor the hephthemimeral and bucolic. When two pauses occur indicates all the pauses that are possible. 1066. 1112. 1051. Lys. Av. 1109. 1083. . 1084. simple foot is preceded by a progressive word {Eq. 1038. Av. enclitic or Se (^j. 1275. 1211. No hexameter. 1081. Pax Lys. the penthemimeral the chief pause 76 times. Certain of the four pauses are and hephthemimeral cannot both occur in the same verse. 197. 1098. 971. 1053. 973) or begins with an into -^-^ -^-^|-^ . in the same verse. (PHB) Eq. 1094. 1101. by word-endings. where the Its other occurrences enclitic precludes penthemimeral caesura. (PH) Pq. 1020. 1077. 988. 1114. 363.(PB) Eq. 1058. When due in each case to the contiguity of the two pauses. 1082. 1277. 1081. Av. opinions will differ as to their relative weight. 1110. 114:. ^i\ 984. 1101). 1114. 1105. or. has normally more than two pauses. is dimeter and monometer. nor the trochaic and This is hephthemimeral. 1108. therefore. 1271. 1086. only once alone. 1086. 1086.^ 1097. 1103. 1034. 1016. _^_^ _^i_^ -_--:(T)^2. The bucolic pause probably should be left unobserved in some of -^-^ : these verses. in Pax 1111. since the verse is too long to be rendered as a single diplasic colon (22). 979. 1090. 1017. which divides the verse 1083. 11&. the pause at the diaeresis the chief pause or secondary. . 1095. as often happens. 1019. 11B. 1088. 772. 1060. 1300. When penthemimeral or trochaic caesura occurs in the same verse with bucolic diaeresis. 1083. 1091. 1093. Pax 1069. 972. 1293. 1100. 1095.152 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 362 Bucolic diaeresis.^. 1030. Verses are excluded in which the fiftli have just been noted.

^jj^ ^^ -LQ33^ ^YLV) Eq. Pax 1065. 1032. 365. 1078. Trj<. Pax 1075. _^|^_^|____. Pax 1298 The Kpivct) ')(^p6vo<i K€v6<. 1089. Cf. (THB) Eq. (HT) Av._ -^-^ _|__^|____. 366. where the pause falls _^_^ (BP) (BPH) Eq. 1085. 128. 1273. 1275. _ ^1^ _^|___ _ (TB) Eq. 1274. 1088. 1057. Teleclides 45. 983. 1090. Pao^ 1076^ 1085. evTo? uixiofxqTov KaXXtTrov ovk e6e\o)v. 207-9. 1055. 67. Hexameters are found among the comic fragments. 770. Cratinus 6-8. 968. Cf. 967. 459. _^_^ ___|^ ___ _ . 201. 153. in verses quoted from Archilochus {fray. Cf Antiphanes 149 'Tyieia^. Pherecrates 152. Av. 1106. 1080. 1097. Pax 1064. 87. 260.vio f. sometimes accompanied by change of speaker. 154. 1059. 1283. 977. 153. Pa. 1040. 1091. 143. ^Iv. 199. 190. 171. (BT) ^^. 1037. At. (TH) i:q. 1089. 198. Crates 30. 6 B. _^_^ -__^j-_. 1067. but they are quoted chiefly from poets of the Old Comedy. and the unusual close of Pax 1270. 1051. 1069. 1282. 1099. 1)1/ Trapa ddf/. The bucolic pause probably should be left unobserved in some -^-^ : of these verses. Lys. 1070. 1088. In a few verses certain other well-defined pauses occur. 1292. 985. (B) Pa. 1287. 771.: § 366 DACTYLIC VEESE 153 1056. 1087. 200. 364. but once. P«5c 1068. 313-17. (BHT) Pax 1280. 1082. after the first arsis. composed of an acatalectic and a protracted catalectic hexameter. 1301.) tt(77rt8i \i\v 2aiwv Tis dyaAAerai. 1092. Aristophanes has the elegiac distich. also Pax 1110. Av. 1286. 142. Hermippus 63 . 1281. % 1111. 775. Av. : Pax 1063. 235-7. (31) of the second verse : was probably iyo) represented by a pause. 129. 1276.^• 1096. 458. 1015.a^ 973. 1093. Pax 1067. 1039. as a triemimeral in combination with the penthemimeral or trochaic in Eq. Z3/S. 978. 1037. Pax 1066. irlveiv tovtov ^leravLTrrpiha ^wporepw -^pfo/jievov olvo'^Ofp.

360. 17. 693. 257. Eupolis 235. 28. 108 Menander 443 Frg. Metagenes 4. . 82. Aristagoras 2. 84. . 18. 29. 289. Eubulus Alexis Cratinus iunior 8. 139).154 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 366 (23 verses). 35. incert. 51. 694. Aristophanes 9. 914. Plato 3. 52. Diphilus 126 . 22. Theopompus 30. (cf. Anaxandrides 50.

after an interrup- by a second intermediate period See that is composed of eight iambic and six trochaic metres. These are simple but effective modes also Av. in monodies to express grief and passion in situations where the Its form in Euripides older tragedy employs the dochmius. trimeters. Two lyrics of Aristophanes illustrate the artistic development of this verse. of three iambic and five trochaic subordinate periods. in order. Thus. was affected by the music to which it was set the metres are seldom irrational.CHAPTER VI lAMBO-TEOCHAIC VEESE 367. of which the last is an ephymnium. or the reverse. but pays Euripides the tribute 155 of imitation. 628 ff. He uses it. an elaborate parody in the Thesmophoriazusac of a monody in the Andromeda (374) and the Song The latter is composed in of the Frogs in the Banae (373). and the trochaic cola abound in resolutions. Euripides was the first to give iambo-trochaic verse a highly developed form. Aristophanes occasionally combines iambic and trochaic subordinate shift periods as constituent elements of an ode. in his later tragedies. (372). Vespae (371) Philocleou's drunken song begins with an intermediate period that consists Likewise in the third episode of the of eleven trochaic metres. the purely iambic strophe and antistrophe (256- 65 = 271-80) that the half-chorus of elderly men sing as they strophe enter the orchestra (94) are followed by a strophe and an anti(370) composed. tion of three spoken and this is followed. the Lysistrata. of composition. The from ascending to descending rhythm (29). in the parode of produces the desired effect of variety. . 369. : the comic poet's own manner. 368.

— ^ w ^ v^ 4^"^ 2*^^' 292 aA/V o/x(us Ka6 TO TTvp 2^^ 294 295 fx-j fi airocrjica-Olv XdOrj Trpo? 10 rrj? 68ov. § 370 286-95 = 296-305 Strophe. with an iambic trimeter as mesode. — ^ — w — ^ — ^-5*^ — ^ — ^ — v^ — 6^^ . 4 2 2 4 3. COS Seivov wva^ 'HpotKAets ir/JOO-Treo-cSj' ck t/}s x^''''P^^ 298 iknrep 301 ou yap kvojv XvTxiocra TdxftdaXfxti) SctKvet* tttj/) Kaa-Tiv ye A'^/nviov to <ai'> tto^' tovto ttuo-j^ py\avfj. Vesp. et jxr] ifMor ifxas ^ 5 ^ 'ppqcreO'. ^ 4CV (f>v lov lov TOV Kairvov. Vep. Tra.. (Parode). mesodic triad B = abbac. 776. two trochaic dimeters and a second trochaic tetrameter with an : : ephymnium consisting is of This See 756. See 739. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Zy5. the a catalectic trochaic trimeter as epode. S8' oSa^ 'i^pvKi.ov ye rw ^vAw tov i^LTTUiKaTOV f3a^i(rrkov. Aristophanes. epodic pentad a palinodic tetrad composed of a trochaic tetrameter. Xo.trochaic ode in 371. 43 5-— w— — — — — — — ^ — ^ ^ — — ^ . A = a'b'a. Xo.pe')(€ ' 1326-40 (Episode IL). i) ttot' fxaXXov vvv w Aax>?? apq^ojxev 305 ^U ^U 301 oi) tov lOV TOU : KaTTVOU. — ^ _^_. (jiva-YjTeov. Ty reXevry (fiv w . 7dp Sv Brunck ovdk -yap 304 -^ ttot' Bothe : ei' ttot' B (704) = ab (286-90. cive^e KXavxreTai tis tcuv ovrio-dev 1328 eVaKoAou^owTcov ofov. ravryl ry 5a8i (ftpvKTOvs (TKivdcrw. Ta? Avy/xas e/xou. ttoAiv (TTreuSe Trpocrdev /cat r) et's /SorjOeL ttj aiJTjy ^ew. 291-5). only antistrophic iambo. two protracted acatalectic iambic tetrameters 4 3 4. 1330 1331 (3 TTOvi^poi. 156 370. __vj — ^_^_4 ' TToXlV to <TL[x6v. Tep. Monostrophic dyad. Ot (T—0v8')]V €\(j) XWTTWS TTOT e^a/xTTpeiVo/xev v^— ^ — w — 290 291 ws ToijT' avei) Kavdi^Xtov._3 Antistrophe.^ ^ v^ ww4^ — — — — — w ^ w ^ w ^ e/iou (5/y. aXX TO avTO yap [xol rrjs oSov XoLTTOV €0"Tt \WplOV TT/Obs — — ^— — ^ — . <l*i. ^' _^_.

. trochaic pentameter and hexameter. TaSe [X alfSoi. 5^^w^-^>vy ipol <f>povwv ^wwSa. urd' 43 ^ — w — w — v^ v^ 2" 1336 apxala y vfiwv apd y 0)5 ovS' ttK-oi'wv avkxpixai LaijSoL. w— w— ^ — ^ — lOw^w — w — ^ ^ — — >^v^ — StKWv. — ^.-. Se 628-35 73 (Debate).§ 373 lAMBO-TROCHAIC VERSE Three Trimeters Ir] 157 'ZvfjL. 73 ^ — . : A = ab 5 6. with an iambic hexameter as epode. ^ — ^ — w — v^— _ ^ _ . e7ravxii](Ta'. Uv. evyqpvv kp. 215 i^v dp(f)l Nt'o-7yiov ei* Aios Aiwvvcrov ^_^_._^_ 475 10 ^ — — ^ — AipvaLCTLV la^i'](Tapiv. Kod^ Kod^. SiKaios dSoXos ocnos Bergk : SiKaiovs ddSXovs ocriovs Brunck : Tots epodic tetrad two protracted iambic trimeters and a trochaic hexameter. abe. kij/iovs. Ka\ovjJL€i'ot. Non-antistrophic. See 743. — ^_^_ . . Ban. pericopic triad See 770. rdpa pi] TToXvu \p6vov Oeovs eVt a-KiJTTTpa rplxpeLv. __. iV. Xo.^^v^ — ^ — 6'^ ^ — ^ — w — w — g*^ ^ 633 6._o — ^ — w apk(TK€La. trochaic is hexameter. See 771. ^t. 2^ _^_2^ — ^ — _ ^ _ — ww — . /SpeKSKeKe^ kou./— — ^ — .s 631 f. The pause that completes colon 1 1 looks about him in drunken bewilderment. Ba.dv 71 5 aotSav. 210 (SpeKeKeKe^ Kod^ Kod^.— ^ — — ^ ^^ ^ — w — v^ .-^-3 ^ — ^ ^ ' 3'^' qv (TV Trap' epe depevos 6p6(^po- ^ va? Aoyovs 8iKaio<s aSoAos oo-tos eTrl deovs %S. iambic hexameter. 372. l)XLa(TT1]S _^__ _^_gC a= ab.^.^. Xipvala KprjvQv TiKva ^I'vavAoi' vpvoiv /Soolv ^^ ^vw — w ^ — ^^ w — w — v^ — v. 209-68 (Prologue).— — v/^— v^w — w4 .^ koo. Philocleon Av. 3 3 6 373. 776. : Non-antistrophic._^_ ^^ . A probably = a'abc. . . 1335-41). pericopic dyad : (1326-31. (jidey^wped'.77€L(TL . fSdWe 1340 OVK TTOV '(TTtV CK/ToSwi'. intentional. 2 6 6. 217 i)i'ix ° KpanrakoKiDpos ToTs lepoi(Ti Xvr/joto-t ww^ •— v^wl4^ — vy^— v^v. ToTs croTs Aoyots V.^ ^ ^^ 629 e7rri7rei\i]a-a Kal Karw/xoo-a. B= iambic dimeter.

Trofj.K€K(. ovZkv ydp kcTT ^ — ^ k^ w — w— — w — 2 w — — ^ — 2 2 ^— — ^ ^ — i 227 Ba. ^ w-2 — w — w — ^ — ^ — w — 2 ^ ^ v^ 8etvd rdpa 45— w — ^ — — ^ ^ ^^ — ^ — ^ ^v^ — v^ ^ oeti'orepa et eywy eXavvojv 255 Ba. ^— dAA' S) ^tAwSov yevos Ba.^ ^ — ^ — ^ ^w— — v^ v^ ^ — ^y — w — ^ -w AO ^ ^ .6(i>doyya Trai^ojV Trpoo-eTrirepTreraL 8' 6 ^opp. At. 8' — ^ — v^ — 4 _ ^ _ — ^^ 35— w — ^ — w — — -^ — ^ . vfiiv oijSei' ^ — ^ w — w— w — v^— ^^—^ — ^ — v^ 2 — 4 /xeAci. Kat KepofBdras Ildv 6 KaXap. Ai. ^^-w -^-2 — ^ — >^— __^— ^_v^_ v-' KOT arrtV iyKvxpas /3p€KeKeK€^ Kod^ Kod^.ai. At.dXXoi' Trava-acrOe. fipf.-v^-. p. e-yo) --ww^v^v.^ Kod^ Kod^. dXX Kod^. v/awv Xafx/Bdvo). ev€/ca SovaKOS. Ai. eVvSpov €V Xifivats 25^^v^>^w v^^^v^v^ — w— 15 ^^w At. re jMoi-crat 207 230 232 w^^-. 481 220 (3p€KeKeKe^ Koa^ Kod^. cfid€y^6p. At. — ^ evkvpot. (>iappay'r](Top.£ TToAAa y yap eWep^av <t> Trpdrriov. ^ rj dAA' l^oAoto-^' auTw Kod^. lyw 8e (fiXvKTaivas y e'x^ XW Ba.iKTds 'AttoAAwi'.158 Xwpet KaT THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY ^fjiov § 373 re/xevos Aawv o'xAos.cjioXvyo-n-a(f)Xdcrp. l3p€K€KeK€^ Koa^ Kod^. dAAd firjv K€Kpa^6[xe(Tdd y 50-w-w -v^-w . ^ Atos (^euyovres ofxfipov fvuSpov ev Pvdoi xopdav aioAav ((fidey^dixecrda 249 At. TrpWKTOS iSUi TTttAat. 20 eiKOTWs €ju.. epei — /xev 30 w— .ecr9' . ^— '^ Ba. «-- • 251 Ba.Ki. p. ovv d Sq ttot €u- 242 -//Atots €1' afxepauTiV r]Xdfi€cr6a 5td KVireipov Ka6 ^Aeo). 235 /3peK€K€Ke^ Kod^ Kod^. Ai.^^ — v^ v^ — 2 6 — . Tretcro/xea^a. ov iiTroAi'ptov rp^cfuo. f3p€KeKeKk^ Koa^ Kod^.-^ 15 y dAyetv apxofiai Tov oppov w Koa^ ivoa^ 8e 8' tcrcos — Ba.^ — ^ — ^ — v^s^w — v^^lS -^v>-x^ -v^-2*^ ^ — w— •— .oi olfiwler- ov ydp p.eAet. -x^aLpovres mStjs 245 TToAvKoAvjLijSotcrt /AeAecriv.aa-iv — /JpcKe/ceKe^ TO-uTt Trap Kod^ Kod^. 43 2 Ba.

266 €ws av v/xcuf CTrtK/aaTTjo-w tw koci^. iambic tetrameter. the lyric naturally falls into five intermediate periods. In the following lyric Aristophanes parodies a famous scene in the Andromeda Tlicsm. iambic hexameter. II. yvvaiKa p. Mv. 1015-55 73 71 Kal ." 252-62. prosodiac trimeter. TrapdkvoL <^tA. epodic tetrad: two iambic tetrameters that 771. ^^<j>iXai. that was probably rendered Avith the speaking voice.' (XBelv. epodic tetrad See 772. TOV ^KvdrfV Xadoip-L "kAt'cis. 221-35. abode (209-20"'.^-^. with an iambic trimeter. as epode. y' e/xe oi'Se p)i^ i'/x€ts oi'SeTTore" KeKpd^ojxaL yap 5t' Kav 8ey rj/xipas. ov8e fx-t]v — avTWS. (Episode . — _ cLs rdv ev KaTdvivcrov. iambic dimeter as epode.— §374 OTToaov rj : lAMBO-TROCHAIC YEESE cf)dpv^ Sl' 159 av t'j/xwv -^ 260 At.at. See the scholiast on 1015 ff. 4 4 3 3. relations of It is hazardous to attempt to determine melody in so singular a composition as this.— ^ — ^ — ^ 6''^ _ ^ _ . as a pericopic pentad. C = abed.). : : 374. 0"V __^_ __^^2' [>o — v^ — Ba. two trochaic hexameters that enclose an iambic dimeter. 6 2 6 2. /?/3eK€KeK€^ Koa^ Koa^. 0^3 215 Atwj'woi' Hermann Aiowcroi' Cobet /xe 5g RV. 3. pericopic tetrad metres as epode." 1016 TTWS av eTreXdoLfj-L — ^ — — ^ ^ — • ^_^_ . _ ^ _ ^ _ _ yc . epodic tetrad See 748. with an E = aabc. metres. trochaic hypermeter of eighteen D = abac. v^ — _ -^ . 236-51. enclose an iambic dimeter. an imitation rendering of fSpeKeKCKs^ Kod^ Kod^ was always the same and that this phrase is not to be taken into account of frogs' croaking — — in correlating the melody. arranged iambic hyperSee B = abac. A : : 243 -/jXafxeada Princeiis : rjXdixeda 265 Non-antistrophic. At. 263-S). two trochaic tetrameters and an iambic trimeter. ere (S irpos atSovs di'-pois. with a trochaic hypermeter of fifteen See 748. 42 4 15. See 743. yet certain If we assume that the correspondences seem to be unmistakable. abc. iambic dimeter. Trai'creiv 60 tto^' — ^ — — — ^^ — ^ ^^ ^ — w w — w— ^~ v^ — w _^__ — ^ — — — w w -i*^^ — v^ — — v^^^— — w — 2*^ l*^ v^— 3 268 e/xeXXov dpa r/xas tov Koa^. of Euripides. /xe 5e?. 6 4 18 2. A= 14 4 pericopic triad : meter of fourteen metres. TOVTio w^ yap ov i^ynas viK7^(r€Te. enoplic tetrameter.-w^. )(^av8dvrj ly^uepas ^ — ^ — w — v^ v^ _^__ — — w— v^ 6^ 2^ /3p€K€KeK€^ Koa^ Kod^. eacrov " 71 1021 T>)v 5^-w.

v^— v^ — v^z yoacTPe (is w y watK€S.-^ _ _ _ ^ _ . Tts e/ibi' 477 30^«^wv-.a TrdOea. ^ _ ^ — _ ^ _ _ _ 6*^ . 2 160 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY " avotKTOs OS //. . ^__-_ 4 . . aiat.Xov. ws eKpepd(r6ip'.^v^.^v^ — ^ ^ — ^2 — ^ — ^ ^ — -.. 203 ^^ v^ -v. . 1050 et^e /x. v^ _ _ — ^ — . atai. 40-^--. ov xopola-iv ov8' rjXiKWV v€avtB<uv ixovcr'. 281 ov yap eV ddavdrav 4>X6ya Xevcrcreiv -^ ^__--2 --^ - v^ 2^^ 795 1053 ecTTtv epol (f)t." ypatav aTroc^uywv 10 1025 a-airpav airoiXofiriv o/xcos* oSe yap 6 Ski'^i^s <f>vXa^ — v^— \^ — \^ —2 — w— >/v^w — v^ v^ — v^— ^ ^ ^^ — v^ — vy— 4 v^ — \^— — v^— 2 v/>/v^ — w v^ TraAat €<f>e(rTm oAobv a<f>iXov eKpe/xacrev Kopa^L Selirvov.^ w — v^2 20 800 ^^^^ .^wv^ — v^l5 . " op^s Vcfi' .e- — \^2 — ^^ ^ — v^ — v^v^ w — v^— v^ — v^— _ >^ ^ — v^ _ ^^v^s^^ — v^>^\^ v--— v^ .vyv^-2 . XaipoTpi^r' dxn] Sai/iovo^r aioAav 1055 vcKVO-iv erl Tropeiav. 1048 w KarapaTos lyw. piXea pev Trkirovda pkXiw TttA-as eyw raAas.Tr€pipeV 1046 t€/)bv. ^v^->^ s^w-v-. — 4 vav TToXvSaKpvTOV 'Ai8a yoov (f)Xiyov(rav. 1043 OS OS e'/i. . . . dTTi^vp-qa-i. w-^— v^ decrpLK^ p. OS.' § 374 e8r](T€ tov TToXvTTOVMTaTOV fxokis Se f3pOT())V. . 1039 " aTTO Se cruyyovtuv aAA' 25 avop. v-/ e/A€ KpoKoev To8' ivk^vQ-ev. 3 ovK iTTOxJ/eTai Trddos dpkyapTov 35^v^-v^ -v^-v^v^^-v^ cTTi KaKwv Trapova-LO. 1031 Kt^ixov ecTTrjK dXX' ev TTVKVOLS 8e(rfJiol<TLV Ki^ret (3opa TreTrXey/xivy] TXavKiTr] TvpoKup^ai.e Trvpcfiopos aWepos dcrrrip — ^^ •^ — sj — -^ —^ 342 Tov (3dpl3apov e^oXeo-etev. 511 poi p-oipas areyKTe Saipiav. . 1034 yafxrjX'na 7rata)v^ piv ov ^vv oe y^w^^v^ >^w — vy — \^ — v^4 — ^ — ^ — ^ — 15v^ — ^^— v^ — w — _ ^ _ _ ^ _ v^ — v/— ejxv^ — w— ^ — 12 _ ^ _ . €771 8£ TOtO-8e ToS' dv(." <f)WTa XiTop.' tt/doItov _ _ w^w — • . . Lbi ev^a ywaiKes.

ras 1027 erpearCos i\Ieineke e<p^a-Tr]K' iKpifxacrev Meiiieke eKp^/uaae 1031 Kijuiv Hermann \f/rj(pov K-rj/xby 1039 dvo/jia Scaliger dWctj' &vo/j. See 762. abcdef (1016-21. c = abb + 12 2 2 ( + 2). See 738. pericopic triad protracted catalectic iambic See 771. (777). 2 2 4 6. epodic pentad an iambic dimeter and two trochaic dimeters that enclose an iambic tetrameter. A = ab. D = abc. See 770. 2 2 4 2 4. Non-antistrophic. See 129. pericopic tetrad dactylic dimeter. Pherecratcan. pericopic dyad iambic hexameter and heptameter. are well adapted to express Andromeda's agitation and anguish. See 772.i : : : : : : : : dveriKre The metrical form indicates but few repetitions This constant shift of melody and the introduction of periods in other rhythms. proodic an iambic dodecameter as proode to two iambic triad with refrain dimeters with refrain.a 1041 <pX4yov<rav Musgrave (pevyovaaf aial alai Dindoif ai al at ai e i 1044 KpoKdev r65' Bergk KpoKbevr' dTre\0oi/j. enoplic dimeter. Few of its metres. In the first particular it differs remarkably from the song that precedes it (373). either iambic or trochaic. and many of its cola are protracted. B = abcbd. 6 7. F = abed. 1050-5). The song falls into six intermediate periods. dactylic tetrameter. E = abc. 1037-46. trimeter.§ 374 1016 ^irdXdoiiui lAMBO-TROCHAIC VERSE Brunck : : 161 : rpbi 1028 &X\' 1042 1047 dreyKTe Zanetti 1017 Xddoifn Bninck XA^oi/lli 1019 aidoOs ae ra. pericopic triad iambic tetrameter. See 771. of melody ' ' : : . with a trochaic tetrameter as epode. arranged as a pericopic hexad. 1022-8. 3 2 5. : : : : ' ' . heavily protracted trochaic hexameter. 1047-9. are irrational. paroemiac. 1029-36. trochaic hypermeter of fifteen metres. The lyric is tragic not only in sentiment but also in form. 774.v Seidler TrpocraLOovcraat. especially in the last part of the lyric. trochaic pentameter. 4 15 2.

Neither was in position to 30 ff. ddKTvXov. 0-0-0-0-. 5 ff. are marked by extreme variability of the The verse arsis of the simple or it foot. ' ' of purely trochaic iambic and anapaestic cola and the corresponding See 600-614. and admits no fixed variation except irrationality in places..poetic is as follows in Srt 6 SchoL Heph. 33.: CHAPTER VII LOGAOEDIC VERSE 375. 24./ regarding for the 1 ( moment ') the omission of the arsis defined 8 ff. clauses is. might assume nine forms. to combine within iambs and anapaests or. 613. The term v. may be omitted. and in particular and dactylic forms. : : 'prose. The arses of the simple feet that constitute dimeters in ascending rhythm were originally unregulated in Ionian poetry or or . This arsis may be short or long. 603-610. if it is in descending rhythm. A colon thus constituted if it is in ascending rhythm (29). Iambic. simply a trace of the primitive variability of the arsis that prevailed in Ionian rhythm before the development seems.or ^ The arsis might be The m. trimeters are regular in structure.1o% Xoyoypdipois. i-jreidT] fSpvdpLos. as they primitive forms. treated both by Hephaestion (28. iambs and trochees in which Greek metricians designated as logaoedic^ belongs to an earlier stage of the development of Logaoedic dimeters and trimeters.etre. appreciate its historical importance. ScLKTvXos doiSoh /xdWov ivLTT]oetos. ). o 5^ Tpoxo. or two itself shorts. 376. disomitted. XoyaoidiKbp KaXdrai to fxirpov. therefore. XoyiKoi' 5i 5td 162 . 9 ff. 130./ v. doidiKoi' fiev did tov nh Logaoedic verse is briefly tov Tpoxa-lov. The apparent mixture of feet in these trochees and dactyls. in fact..) and by Aristides (34. 1 ff. trochaic and dactylic dimeters and The quantity of the arsis of is the simple foot in each of these strictly defined. anapaestic. occur in Greek poetry.

the metrical form of logaoedic cola is extremely varied. — ww — v^w.(vii. however. 163 . vii. 378. and •^ . another was avoided as although in form anapaestic (ii.). .) arrhythmical (v.^ ^ .) and anapaestic rhythm and poets of the fifth century doubtless felt them to be iambic and anapaestic. ' _ o - o - o - (608)..) arrhythmical (v. of logaoedic combined with logaoedic. ix. however. .. . . vi.). The primitive Ionian dimeter by acephalization became appropriated by iambic rhythm (ii.. heavy a measure (ii.). four dactylic in as viii. ii. Illustrations from Aristophanes follow. felt to trochaic (i.: § 379 LOGAOEDIC VERSE . — -^ — w w . Logaoedic Cola in Ascending Pihythm : . but certain preferences are manifest. One of them. . iambic or anapaestic 7netres and of iambic with anapaestic in .. IV. ix. ix. might also assume (610).). These consist. nine forms i. whatever their connexion. of these were iii. . viii. iii. 379. of logaoedic metres combined with logaoedic. Some of these are identical with metres that were later specially (i. Cola marked with the star are found in or parodies... One of them.) are the distinctively ' logaoedic metres ' of descending rhythm. trochaic dactylic metres and trochaic with dactylic. The development of these metres in the primitive dimeter and trimeter produced logaoedic cola.) It was the two that remain. The remaining forms as comedy too was rejected another was avoided (vi. and these may with propriety be spoken of as logaoedic metres. — v^ — ^ ^ — ^ viii. . v^ — w — vii. 111. that gave logaoedic verse in ascending rhythm its distinctive character. Notwithstanding this limitation.(vi. . w — v^ ^ — v^ — w ^^ — . by a logaoedic development similar to that described above. iii. V. in ascending rhythm. iv.. — ^ ^ . The metre in descending rhythm. is very rare in logaoedic rhythm in comedy. iv.). The order of arrangement of metres was not prescribed. viii. w be v^ Two (ii..' 377.).iv.. v^ v^ .w . or when given full length -o-o-o-o and these were the sources of dimetrical cola in descending rhythm. — w — ^y vy vii. descending rhythm.

502 7rda-a5 S' tSeas l^^^racrei/ €t T/i.- _-v. ot 5^-v^-^-- TaaSe rots Av.v^-v^J. 941 585 w-w* . 675 d«i Kara.6/i..r..* ^ — v^ ^ — ^ — 7rpo(T€Xov(r' ervxov e/xavrr}? Ban.^^ ^^ f.1271 ^ .- Wl Kol 8€vp\ w Kvvayi cTTi Trapaeve Lys. 80s e/i.vL(Dixei Lys. 592 (f)€peT(D ^-^Cf.as . 1346'' ^. 562 a-v B' w Atos SiTTv'povs avexo^'- v..-i]'i ^ ^-. 1325 406 Trapd-eiiTre to _-___-^n. 541 TToOo? OS /x€ StaKvaiVas STOiiJiOS o8' ecrriv 409 957 415 aivavTa Spav Nub.- €^a o-TToAas cirei' xirwvos Av. 585 dyaOov Sevp' Troptcras.aL Ec.-^^.^^-* >^ irkivaraL Av..- w^ w Kai irpoTepov ttot ctd/kow 1157 15 387 (jiikov.-v. __^___^__^_--^f.w585.. ^. 355 560 592 _- ^ - ^ _ ^ . 807 e'xct jEc. 412 eTTi/S-qOi. ^.-* KciXadov ra^^' Tts TrrepoiV Av.-V. * (Ta Aa/XTTciSas o^vToiTas Trapd<f)r]vov els xepoiv ^^ — s^ — * 'EKara TXvk-i]S Ran. iloS X€ip6jj. 927 585 OS {>(^avToSov7poi' ecr^os oi' ^-^-v.^ — ^-^— 10^^—^--— 1361 f.^- dXM 5' ev Tu (Tu fiovXojj.aKTpov Ar. .-^- iian.-v^-* ^-^943 v^-wf. tjs "E-dprav v[j. 75 -Ku^ais aAarai SrpdTwv ^v. ^a^ewv lepwi' opwvvfjLe. 1305 413 ^e\6[i€(T9a Koi diMv yevos XiTop-icrOa TtttcrS' lir — ^ — ev^ats Th.. 436''414 T7i.-^_ v^-v^^ 'iXd' repxpiv dotSas 498 SoAepov /X6V _-^-^-^. * tovto kolvov e'crrai 459 409 Si v^-^. . /rar/. irdvTa 81) rpoTroi' . 312 411 irarkpiav KaKip'. 20«^-^^.ti' o n -ep Av.164 Ta S' THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY apiarO' ocrais Trpocrv^KCi § 379 Th.->^-^ ^ — w— . 963 415 dKX(. 944 vojidSecrcri yap ev v^^.

The last two examples in 379 are brachycatalectic trimeters and had the mensuration of trimeters. ./ colon. iv.and ^^ . Lys.. latter never ends a colon. 25^-w---^->^: The following is limitations are worthy of note i. 409 380. 1290 ^^'. 1155.: . ii.^ .^ ^ . 383. 1136 387 irapdevov a^vya Kovpi-jV Th. They . is preferred to ^ -\^ ^ -. 35.w rj TToAti' I'jp. 1142. Logaoedic Cola in Descending ovBl SeivoTepov AeyoucrTys Th. Protraction of iambs is allowed.^ .^ ^ V. See 26. Catalexis in these cola assumes iambic . 1?/?. 320 f. 1288. __-__. 408 _ Cf. av B' ofxwi Aeye yuot Av.from ^ ^^ . Cf. 1154 _ ^ _ - IlaAAaSa t>)i' c^iAd^opov ipol Th. 177.. 185.^ . See 113. ^ ^ . but but not in anapaests. 383 7r€<f)VKev LOGAOEDIC VERSE avOpuTTOs' 165 451 f. See 70. 1139 ^-_ _^ 387 Kol TToXvMvvpe 6y]po(})6ve Aa- Of. ^ ^ .erepav e'x^' Of. 1137.' ^ ^ - y^ iii. 585 387 — ^^ — v^ ^^ Kj — Q€(T[J. The iambic metre ' practically excluded from the first place in the colon. but is preferred in the second and logaoedic metres. are here simply traces of primitive formation that lasted into the classical period. 1147 411. form. The logaoedic anapaest (389) remained an important constituent element of the spoken trimeter and melodramatic tetrameter and hypermeter. .^ ^ 387. ^ 387. 387 10 ^ .sometimes 382. The metres appear sporadically in melic iambic verse.0<f)6pU> TToXvTTOTvia Th. vi. not of anapaests._ ^-w^-" ^ .-ic./— v^ KpeKOVTiS LaK)(^ov 'AttoAAw Av. 437 414 5 . or in the same metre with two or ^ . isoi 412 Tovs XP^o^'^^'-^os epvos Th.^ to the complete exclusion of logaoedic or anapaestic catalexis. Eesolution of the thesis is allowed in iambs. v. _^______ dXcros €S vfieTepov TJi. 1156 TrdvTa S' e^acrrao-e (fipevl TruKVws re Tit. TTTflpots Ehythm — ^ 435 414 — v.or v^w 381. v^ .H'iO TTOTViat. 930 w -^ . .) occur in a Of the two The more anapaests ( ^ v^ third. 772 410 1149 Of. they are grouped together. If v. 193.

408 dvTperj/eis ert _________^_ 1234 f. 1248 412 — _ _ rat 8e Ko/xai creiovrat Lys. The trochaic metre avoided in the place in the colon and also preferred in the last it v-. 323 411 ^v^-^-^^ . __. rav ttoAii'* d 8' e'. ^ ~^-^ ^^ worthy of note is : The following is limitations are first i. 937 585 A'^Aoi' OS e^ets tepav 77i.586 d 6' v7ro)p6(f)LOL -^-^ ^ Av. ^ eK[xacv€L<i eirl ravrrj .-^-— w^— — ^ ^. Cf. _ 1150 f.(eTai Cf. Eesolution thesis allowed in Protraction of trochees allowed. vi. T/i.K\LOS ofifxaa-t SaUrau Lys.166 Brjfi6<._ -^^-^ 387. vvv a(jiLKe(r6ov Th. 1337 - ^^^ - . in the second place in the trimeter.^ * -^ 316 411 — OS /^era fxaivdcrt ^a. Ban.^ but . 1232 f.^ yj ( dactyls . 1313 586 592. 589 25 _^-____^_* Cf. 384 KaAet yvvatfioi — Th. ii. 1312 413 — -i^Xderov. The paeonic. but place of both dimeter and trimeter.ia^e IlivSapetov eVos 585 vuv Si) — w ^^ ^ — ^ jEc.' - - v^ v^ is preferred to .. 1159 Kwi" exovcra 8e /jloXols _ ^ ^ v^ . 387 Kvirpi Tb IX 15 965 - . Catalexis in these cola generally assumes trochaic . -^_v^— — f. ^ * KXycrov w ^pvcrd^poi'e rdi' rpoptpdv Kpvepdv Av. in the iv./v/ -^- Kara yoji'tas Ban.trochaic metre admitted. 570 558 dvSpdcriv ov Oepirov eicropdv Th. s^ _ ^ _ 1145 f.- Sei o"€ TTUKViyv (ftpeva koi ^tA(xro<^ov eyetpetv 571 501 384. ^w-. is they are grouped together.v\uv IxOvoevTa Th. '415 Movcra ToSe Sw/aov Sex^rai Av.. but not of dactyls. 1148 _ ^ _ ^ _ 387 — v^ — Kvpa-avLOis w Mvaiiova Lys. — ^ww* . Ec. 950 585 Ti» _^___^_^___* f. metres. 994 SepKopevov. /xeyaAous ovv^^as e^ovra. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY TOi ere § . If two or more v./>. iii.v^ ^ or . 1283 poTvas Vesp. 939 . it never ends a colon. ^ AWepa ov Bi] a-epvoTarov jiiodpip-pova iravroyv Nub. dAt/zeSov TT poXiTTOiv p. 1141. same metre with v. «^ ) occur in of the is is a colon. generally is cata- Of the two logaoedic ' . Se TCtt ^pevt /. where lectic. trochees.

The metres . . Trapdivov o. The hypercatalectic (36) dimeter (colon 24) was probably followed by a pause that made it the equivalent of a trimeter.a' ITaAAaSa Ti)i' <^tAo.^ ^ some386. of Xo 387. Eelatively few logaoedic cola are found in Greek comedy.: . /3' )) I.^w— — _ v^ . ai'To/iC^' w — w— -~ — wv^— v^ — ^^^— 2*^ Qe(TpO(l)6pO} TToAl'TTOTn'a. 1155 yuoAerov eA^cToi'. 2^ 2*^ 2^ Strophe II. .^v^— 2 . § 387 LOGAOEDIC VEESE 167 form. 2^ 2*^^ v^ w ^ ^^ _ 2^ Antistrophe 'Kfx.7rda-L 392 dflftpOTOV OlpLV. Xo.^ .^w — — — Strophe — w — — ^^ —4p — v^ 2 • • i^KCT ev<^/30ves t'Aaoi. TToXiv r]H€Tepav e^et (fiavepov p-ovt] — .^vya Kovpr]V. — s^ ^^ — . These metres are here simply traces 250. 800 — v^— ^ — s^ ^^ — ^ — — -^ >^ 2^ 2^^ dvdpd(TLV ov OepiTov eia-opdv 800 1152 opyia a-eavd Oeoa.^ .^ ^ times occur in recitative trochaic tetrameters and hypermeters.os Seupo KaXf. <fiaiV€TOV -^-^-^^-^-^-3"^ 15 tva Xap. See 205. ' ' . but logaoedic or dactylic catalexis occurs.^ -.lv ets \op6v. . 1136-59 (Stasimon Strophe I.^ v-- — 1141 Kat KpaTos 5— K\rj6ov\6<. primitive formation that lasted into the classical period. nearest approach to this Thes. ^ -^ 1145 8t]jx6s Tot o-e KaAet ywat- Kiov €l/37JVJJV exovcra 8e uot /xdAow (f)L\eOpTOl'. 1150 o? Si) aXa-os es vp-STepov. ^^ — ^ — — w— _ _ . re KaAeTrat. The following is the ode is composed of them exclusively. IL).-^ _ — _ • __ — 4*^ Strojjhe IV. ^. — oTVtat.-^ ^ .^^ ^ ^ from — v^v^ — v^or — v^^ 385. .^ . — — — ^^ ^^ ~^ — — — . 'H/^c. (fidvy^O' (5 Tvpdvvovs coa-irep 448 v^ •^ — — \^ — — 4 a-Tvyova' eiKOS.(o/DOV e/xot 1'dju. . 10— III ^^ w— -^ . 268.

with a protracted catalectic dimeter as epode. 12) admit scansion as Glyconics and Pherecrateans (511). B = abe.. rhythm.) were combined in logaoedic verse within the same colon. with undoubted logaoedic cola makes it very unlikely that they are in Aeolic rhythm. at least approximately unified. A = aab. C . : D pentad a tetrad composed of two dimeters in descending rhythm.aabc. 1143-7. eighth. six primary times rather than eight. = aabcd. and a protracted dimeter in descending See 759. 1148-54. the rhythm is probably exclusively logaoedic. 16). See 771. two catalectic dimeters. 10. Their close connexion. epodic tetrad two dimeters and a trimeter. With the exception of the seventh. if exact values must be predicated. pericopic triad bacchiac tetrameter. and this opinion But the process by is now held by most modern metricians. 1155-9). were used by the Greek poets strongly indicates that the metres of which they were composed contained. 20— ^^ Kbp-qv w— — ^^ • ^— — ^ — kj 2^ 2 ^ 2^ — — — : 1139 Koip-qv Hermann: 1152 ^eoiv Meineke 6ealv The stasimon constitutes an epodic pentad (1136-9 = 1140-2. either by increasing the value of the iambs and trochees from three primary times to four or by decreasing that of the anapaests and dactyls The connexion in which these cola from four times to three. 2 2 2. 2 2 3 4.€v iv6d8' ijfxiv. : lectic logaoedic tetrameter. assuming that the process was mathematically exact. which the time of the component anapaests and dactyls was It reduced was probably neither exact nor uniformly the same. their time must have been It was possible to effect this. epodic See 743. The theses of the component simple feet in logaoedic clauses remained constant. though certain cola (5. ii. and fifteenth cola. 11. however. cataSee 737. but the time of the two short syllables or of the one long syllable constituting the arsis was reduced. : 388. The general rhythmical effect of this upon the colon as a whole was retardation. with a tetrameter as epode. 4 4 2. 2 2 2 2 2. Since isomeric and diplasic simple feet (9 i. protracted catalectic logaoedic dimeter. 6. epodic triad: See 716. with a dimeter in ascending rhythm as epode. since the time of the two short syllables. anapaests with iambs and dactyls with trochees. was a process of approximation rather than of equalization and cannot have differed essentially from the naode of reducing the ' time of the irrational half of iambic and trochaic metres (15. 9. or of . a dimeter in ascending rhythm.168 €t THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Kol Trporepov iror ^ir-qKow § ^^ k^ 388 ^~— 1158 rjXOeTOVy vvv d4)iK£(rdov lKeTevo[J.

and dactyl are more commonly designated as cyclic. i. ' relation of the parts of this foot : ^ Bockh (Find. may be composed of such anapaests or dactyls in simplified verse (392 ff. 151 ff). so that the is 1^ ^ 1 (J J*) instead of 2 1 1. or. Mdrik^. 187 ff. Apel {Metril:^.^. and such anapaestic and dactylic cola occur elsewhere in heterometric combinations of cola in which the simple feet are probably It is all approximately in diplasic rhythm. ' 390. of course. Voss {Zeitmessung. but he confessed that practically there was little difference.§ 390 LOGAOEDIC VERSE equivalent long syllable. determination of the length of these cola. to use a modern phrase. logaoedic time. furthermore. 389. in now impossible. since a series ' ' of six dactyls. aftects the This uncertainty. concludes that the diplasic feet and that the ratio of the long to the short syllable is 3:1 (J J*). as do the anapaest and dactyl with which they are here closely associated. following the suggestion of Caesar {Grundzdge der Rhythmih. and that the Xoyos ttoSikos of the dactyl is unchangeable.). to determine whether the poet in his music gave the anapaests and dactyls some of these it combinations their normal isomeric rhythm or reduced to approximately diplasic rhythm.).' a misleading name supposed to have behind it the authority of Dionysius. Westphal (System der antiken Bhythmik. Such feet. The logaoedic anapaest See 337.-? ( = 3). Op.) in logaoedic verse have the value of four times . Westphal {Allj. ii. of course. : : . maintaining that according to Aristoxenus every long syllable in melic verse has t\vice the value of a short. 181) at first proposed 1^ + § 1 as a substitute for Apel's division. Finally. for example. 107) assumes reduction of the time of each syllable of the dactyl. Thus we come upon simple ' feet in may conveniently be called logaoedic anapaests Greek poetry that and logaoedic ' ' dactyls/ namely anapaests and dactyls that are not isomeric in Entire rhythm but approximately that were rendered not in cola diplasic. This preserved Apel's diplasic ratio of 2 1 between the first two syllables and the last syllable of the dactyl. See the next two paragraphs. assumes for melic verse a Sa/v-rAos Tpi(Ti][ios with accepted.) reduces the time of the first two syllables of the dactyl. if these are in is a trimeter. Apel's diplasic valuation (1| + | 1) of the 'cyclic dactyl is strongly supported by Bellerraann (Hymnen. common but in triple time. 365 ff. 58 ff. 169 the was still greater than a single primary time. but if the dactyls are isomeric the series constitutes a dimeter and a monometer. 121 f. with the division l-f.) and has been generally . do not admit isomeric measiu-ement. i.

y^ ^ -v^-^y. and the whole (240-244) should be consulted. (Metric. aifects the 1 1 | f time-length of each syllable of the dactyl its long and shorts were sung more rapidly than the long and short of the trochee. syllable is His irrational always in the arsis. quoting a verse from Homer {Od. § 391 This valuation. 39). but to be content with the view and dactyl approximate iamb This variety of opinion sufficiently indicates the difficulty of the problem. § 20 W. and Westphal (390) all assume a reduction of the time of the authority for this xvii. verb. that the modes of equalization proposed by Apel. ' Dionysius of Halicarnassus (De comp.). was to carry the equalizing process through the entire colon by making the feet themselves equal. {oKoyof. Thus. was to rhythmize the syllables of dactyls and spondees in even ff. is 6 3 3. if we assume a value of twelve units for each simple foot. . the timerelation of the syllables in the Alcaic dimeter. Bockh. This is a very different aXojia from that of Aristoxenus. Metrik^. like Bockh's.. being shorter than the normal (See Aristox. however. It should be observed. ix. This view is adopted by Gleditsch {Mefrik ^. . which was secondary. states that the rhythmicians' held that the long syllable of the dactyl was irrational long. The 108 f. 11) that it is better not to attempt to determine ratios of value with arithmetical precision. E. and trochee 391.. is thesis of the dactyl. But Apel of this and Westphal (16) leave the theses of the irrational iambic trochaic metre intact. Kossbach finally concludes {Spec. — — Goodell one might of the thesis. The other impulse.) of the anapaest and dactyl in logaoedic cola is admissible that is 292 not consistent with the explanation of the reduction of the time of the irrational half of iambic and trochaic metres. of ancient rhythmicians that anapaest in value.^ ^ . No explanation of the reduction of the time' M. 8 4.').) 240 time and the syllables of trochees in triple time. 8 4. 327). . 176) and Masqueray {Traiti. who. He rhythmizes logaoedic on the assumption that two impulses acted One impulse in a certain degree of opposition to each other. 6 3 3. Bockh saw the inconsistency upon the rationality and and parted company with Aristoxenus in both processes.170 dactylic division THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY : . 173 f) rightly insists say the inviolability cola {Metric. His doctrine passage is clearly conceived and stated.

) is the dimeter. logaoedic gradually led to the of reduction this of the is purely seen in element. and this generally consists wholly of anapaests. Av. even under the limitations that were gradually Simplificaimposed (380. 1309. 1313 f.§ 394 LOGAOEDIC VERSE Simplified Logaoedic Verse 171 392. considerable freedom of form. Cf. 457^ correspondence. the dactyl only once. ff. would be expected. 384). by Cf Av. primitive elements. 1314 (406). verse 393. 964 . are protracted catalectic dimeters. 1302 does not occur. See 68. 547 (413) is to be regarded as a protracted trimeter. variability of the arses of simple feet.^ The apparent pentapody also in Lys. is marked irregularity of form. therefore. Cf. eq^ual in number.^ . Certain apparent tripodies with spondaic close (-^). The proceleusmatic (271) never occurs. of the the spondee infrequently. preserves the of characteristic purely logaoedic verse. and anapaests or The effect of this combination. Rational and irrational metres are about Eesolution of the thesis of the simple foot and protraction are normal. however.) is the acatalectic dimeter. Av. In the main. (413) is marked. furthermore. rhythmically This shifting combination of different more regular. The colon v^ . 1314 = 1317. either combined in subordinate periods or constituting each although by itself such a period. and the is lively. Inclination logaoedic cola. The prevailing anapaestic colon (270 ff. This fact established = 459 (409). that does although there none of simplified odes not contain some purely logaoedic constituent. essential. but trimeters occur. of iambic and anapaestic. and The retarding effect. 1311 is (413). in descending rhythm. Lys. The result is process his Aristophanes. they consist. Logaoedic verse freely combines iambs trochees and dactyls within the same colon. The prevailing iambic colon (62 (409). spondaic cola in Lys. 394. in ascending rhythm. Eccl. of trochaic and dactylic cola. as These elements show. tion of this complex verse was secured by introducing into the ode cola that were wholly iambic or anapaestic or wholly A form of verse was thus unconsciously trochaic or dactylic. developed by the poets of which the movement is distinctly more regular than that produced by a continuous series of towards rhythmical regularity.

the 395. whether . in such relation (note the trochaic trimeter (389). ff. 324. . § 395 the 433 (414).) generally has the" (412). 1319 (406). 316 (411). 458 (409). with one exception in a logaoedic V-. times. These may be true Av. An occasional trimeter occurs. The prevailing meters. that of a dimeter or of a catalectic tripody. the dimeter. hyporcheme. that it cannot be This penthemimer may connected with the following be a true catalectic tripody. is found in such relations as to preclude doubt v^ w . is found only in the last place is This trimeter the approximate equivalent of a penthemimer is found as the final colon in a hexameter. 751 (410). 328 f. Eational metres preponderate and protraction is common. (411). but probably it had the mensuration of a dimeter.«^ ^ as to its constitution. the thesis of the simple foot freely is admitted in 1279 ff. The which is sometimes resolved {^ ^^ ^ . of an iambic trimeter (389). • • . catalectic tripodies. like the correCompare the use of sponding anapaestic penthemimer (394). Cf. 396. pody (hypercatalectic dimeter) occurs also in this same ode {Av. Spondaic trochaic metres (209) occur in unusual number in the first Spartan hyporcheme in the exode of the Lysistrata. and found also in other odes. Th. a lively often closes long subordinate period.) outnumber every other sort of colon in this verse prevailing phrase is and show unusual variety of form. dactylic colon (333 ff. The paeonic-trochaic metre (223 ff. occasionally occurs (203). Thesm.). in the colon. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Thesm. if measured in primary A penthemimeral form also. shortened trimeter. secured by a pause in the singing of unusual length. A catalectic pentathe brachycatalectic dactylic dimeter (338). with two exceptions in acatalectic trispondee. A antistrophe) colon. is not certain. is Eesolutiou of Li/s. but probably they had the mensuration of dimeters. Av.172 (415). Cf. The ithyphallic (203) The penthemimer also (408). 1247 ff. 455. Trochaic cola (197 use of the brachycatalectic dimeter (277). dimeter. approximate equivalent in this rhythm. 1318. This is probably to be regarded as a 742) between bird-notes. but a The the trimeter is not rare. form normal paeonic-trochaic metre {-^•^'^) is found only in resolved form (^ w v^--^^).) is the acatalectic dimeter composed of four dactyls or of three dactyls and a The spondee. although its rhythmical length.

25 ff.' which this verse is generally designated too limited in signification and is histori- Hephaestion. 157. . 47. Cf. discusses and quotes seven different styles of episynthetic verse. 18. which. Spec. Confirmation of the supposition that the time was approximately uniform is found in apparently irregular correspondences between strophe and antistrophe and between two equivalent subordinate periods in some of these odes. = 452 The (409). for example. was called by Roman metricians versus Archilochius by distinction ' ' : 7)1' yap €v av8f) olSlkov (rv Slmkij^^ ai'Ti/iaprvpora-L. See Hephaestion The most of these are prosodiac or enoplic 50. 374 f. it must be remembered remain one of the constituents of this simplified verse. 740 = 772 (410) a logaoedic dimeter of the form .^ so that the process of the unification of cola of apparently rhythms was the same as that which operated witliin logaoedic cola. Plut. The fact that in Aristophanes are in dancing. 7 ft". 400. Similarly in Av. 28 (1140 F) 'Apx'Xoxos irpocre^eDpe /cat rrjv et's toi'S oi^x ofioyeveh pvO/xovs 2 hraaiv. Hephaesfion ^ ascribes the invention of verse of this description to Archilochus. frag. . 437. periods (475 ff). an anapaest or dactyl answering to an iamb or trochee. See Rossbach. different Ar. which consists of a dactylic dimeter and an ithyphallic. within the lively limits of a period. it is probable that the controlling time was that of the iambic and trochaic chematic odes series. of or of dactylic and iambic within a Heph. in the chapter cited (xv. 1313 = 1325 (406). 399. The modern is ' name by which is dactylo-trochaic. and the form found in Ar. Metrik^. Mils.§401 397. ' ' many of the odes in this form of verse hyporchematic would alone warrant the assumption that the time of the constituent cola was at least It is hardly possible that it shifted.). or indeed at short intervals within is the strophe. 398. Since the tone of these hypor- and the movement rapid. 6 . anapaestic and trochaic cola single period does not occur.^y . ^ a subordinate period must The combination. cally misleading. which is only another way of saying that it was primitive. cola that constitute be in rhythmical agreement. 451 401. LOGAOEDIC VERSE 173 On logaoedic cola see 379. 27. Cf.^ ^ _ ^ ^ finds its correspondent in a trochaic dimeter. 7 tf. See 388 f. 383. approximately unified. 49. Cf Av.

as the ' versus Archilochius <f>€peL This verse might be used continuously Kara in the following ' arl'^ov. Karexo^'ct S' ^-^_ _-__| ij^qcjios v.cr€ v^ ^coi __-^ -__^|-^-^ fioriv ojiov - - ij/s- 1289 Trrepots KpeKovre'S taK^ov 'AttoAAoj -^-v. dw/Gpev cu e/?dcrTCMre ttwkvws t£ iroiKtAovs Aoyons _ ^ 404.ttoi' ^r. Tract tois aypor(rtv. 1279 it (408). rot Trap Ei'/jcorai' iJ/LdSSovTi. 211 Ki'Trpts f. . sometimes within narrow limits. 451 ff. See Thesm.. -dires oVoi 7ToXvf3o)rov -n-oi'Ttav Scptc/jov -_-^ 'Ho-u^ias (Tvpjxiyrj ->.^1-. A simplified or may be composed rhythm. Or. Crat. ^_ vouidSecra-L ^ - .^ Qo. 94 Iff. 405. avTop-drr] 8e riOvfxaXXov koI cr^aKov Trpos avrw voiTraicriv 8' darfidpayov KVTta-ov re' dvdepLKOs ivr)/3a' Kol (jiXofLov d(p6ovov wcTTC TTapelvai. avacrcrav. 1313 odes ff. 58 t Kai \aXKLOiKOV 8i) Tvv8apt8as dyacnos. 1299 fF. irrdvra 8' -^-. ^v.-^]-^-^ -^-. 1255 f. yaip^Ti. as in the other analyzed below.-^ ____^v. continuously in ascending in descending Cf. 327^ (411).- ^v. Trepi e7rot7. 1316 AauTTwra. cf.^ Lys. ot racrSe rots rifxas Trpoyovinv irapaSovTCDV __^_ ^_| epwres e/xas __ _ TroAews.- ^ v. (409). (406). THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY The in § 402 structure of the strophe is generally complex. ttoAi!? o rws KciTrpws OdyovTa<i oho rov oSovra Li/s.^ay€i' S. _'^_^ -v...: — : 174 402.7rep V..^ rr/s |-^-w -. and Lys. rov ov fSporiZv hvvarai (f^Xeyvpa Seirrvov </)iAwv aTTiipynv v^-^-l^-^^Aewa Tov 'A/auK-Aats crtui' ^ Crat. 403.dyai'o^poros t]1' Crat. Periods other rhythms are rarely admitted. yap eV ^L/ci'^ais dAarat Sr/aaTwr. Av. 541f. in ascending Compare the following examples and descending rhythm of subordinate periods irarkpuiv KaK-qv. 325 This fragment was probably part of a stichic melic period (778).^_^_ ^-^. . (^kpuv KeXevu) f. 6s v<f)ai'To86vaTov €(t6os • ov TreTrarat . <^pevt 771f. may shift the rhythm from time to time. 57. w ode T/iesm. 437 ff.^-._v^_j__o^. ff.

^' Travu yap ^paSi's crv' ecTTt Tts wcTTrep o vos. mesodic triad: two See 739. Ta T€ fJLOVCTL)^ O/AOU TCI oTTcos T€ pLaVTlKa.€pov irpocrwirov. 3. . [Jiovov Trpoa-eirj. a' KaT€\ov(TL 8' ITet. to? /?AaKtKWS Sta/vorets* oi3 Odrrov tyKOu/jcnis Antistrophe (1325—34). See 805. ^(rrt tis 1313 Stj Porsou : 5' di/ 1326 a5^tf Brunck aCrts Bentley constitutes a mesodic triad.ws irpbs avSp' : opwv 1328 TTTeptxxr €!.. lift.^ — . LOGAOEDIC VERSE Av. 2. With the tetrameters and in Crat. 'Hfx. 175 1313-34 (Stasimon L). which follows. B = aab. K-aAet rts drdpcjTrojv. w— . probably.^ .^ *H/x. See 718.. of which the second metre is logaoedic the tetrameter : dyav6(f)poves i)8vX6yio cro(f)ta Pporwv —epicrcroKdAAets Cf. ^' Se Tot TTTepd Trpwrov 1331 Stages TaSc Kocr^y. <jv 8' avOi^ i^opfxa— TVTTTwv ye tovtov b}8L 'H/x.^ v^ ayavoc^pofos'Ho-i'X'as 792 — 6*^^ iv-qp. Mcsode (1323-4).aba. tAvo anapaestic penthemimers Avith a hexameter as epodic triad See 737. 'H/i. Mav?)? yap eVri 8etAo?. The stasimon (1313-17. Ilet. 239. 5 w — ^ — ^^ — w^— v^ — ^^ . A= 1318-22). 795 <^ 1314 IleL. : AB 407. Strophe (1313-22). : § 407 406. tetrameters with a dimeter as mesode. epode. 4 2 4. A . also Crat. 'H/i-.6. 238. ^ttAciTTl'. a Ta\v Ti'x»y St) TroXvdvopa rdvSe ttoXlv 400. hexameter in this ode cf.<.2. This is the only ode in simplified logaoedic rhythm in Aristophanes composed solely of iambic and anapaestic cola. Kttl TO. and even in this there is logaoedic correspondence in the first colon of the antistrophe. eTTCtTtt S' <f)povifj. 393 TroAfcus. ABA. — Ct — _ — 4^ 2^ ^— -^ ^ -^ *H/i. KaXhv dvSpl /leTOLKelv 394 394 — — ^^^ ^^ — — — ^^ — w — — 4^^^ ^2-^ — 2-^ — — ^^ v? 1320 2o^6a Ilo^os TO TC T'/}s 'Kfj-Ppocria Xd/Jires ^-^— — w^— 10— — ^— ^^ ^_. fS' Tlei. (jteperoj KdXadov raxv Tis Tmpwv. a' Tt ya/D ovk evt Tavry . B is probably a melic iambic tetrameter. an iambic subordinate period. e/DtoT€s e/xas — — ^ttTTov <f)€peiv KeXevo).

1287-94). 'K9. epodic pentad two trimeters that enclose a dimeter. ^^^^^^^'^ — ^^ ^ — ^ ^ ^ ^w^'v^ v^ v^ v^ 4^"^ 1281 €-1 8e SiSviJLOV €v(f>pov. as the rhythm demands : Cf.^ - .^^^^^ — v^— 4*^ — ^^ — ^ — ^^ — ^^ - ^ . See 759. 'H/z. -^-^ — v^ — -^ — ^^ — >^ v^v. 395 eVi Se Kct/Vecrov "Apre/xtv. with a tetrameter as epode See 763. — ^ 5 ^^ v^ — ^ v^ 2*^^ OS /uera /xatvcwrt BaK.-^ 3^ 383 'Hcri'Xtas Tre/stTT^sayavo^povoslO 1290 yv e7roLi](T€ 6ea Ki'tt/dis. 802 206 civw vcKYj I'at. 802 (TV 8i] rpoirov ^-^. with a trimeter as epode.yav6<ppovos Reisig! ^v.^4'-' 3-^ 453 Tax« 7«P Ti'XoiS au )(pr](TTov e^- 379 eiTTwv o T6 [xoi Trapopas. where RVr = ab (1279-86. a SoAepoi' jnev del Kara Tvavra 400.176 408./ — w _ _ ^^ — ^v^— . a tetrad composed of two tetrameters. 1763 (588). eiraye Xapira?. aAaAaAat atpecrd' 0)5 €7ri «) Tranywi/* tai.^-wAeye /xot. § 408 1279-94 (Exode). 4 4 4 2 3.i(tos opfiaai Saterat.^ . ofs kTVip-upTva-L Xprja-Ojied' -_. A = abcba. V.eya\b(ppovoi have dXaXaXaJ. Xo. a tetrad composed of a tetrameter and 4 3 2 3 4. euat : €iia6. eVt re-^v^^v^v^ TTOTVtav aAoxov oXjSiav ovk iiriXjcrpocrLV etra 8e Sat/zovas.^ 455 ovva/uv Ttva fxii^io 394 5 — ^•. The metrical form of 1291 ff. ~ ^ Bd/cx«os or BaKx^o's 1284 Bd/cx'os Burges dXaXai 1291 dXaXaXat Bergk Ij. epodic pentad a protracted tetrameter and a dimeter. lo— — — — _ — — w ^ ^^ — ^ w ^ ^ _ yj — • 4^^^ <^ 4*^^ 4 2 — .^ — — ^ ^2-*^ .---w-^^ ^. 451-9 = 539-47 Strojjhe. : : A 409. i) _-v.- ^. (Debate). 400 .^ v^v^-^^ . • evot €vot.W 3-^^ Tri(f)VK€V avOpwTTO^' S' 0//OJS 381. 383 1285 Ata re Tri'pt (^Aeyo/ievov. that repeats the opening strain of the pentad. Tpoa-aye ^opov. Av. . 1289 a.:. is doubtful. Hyporcheme. B = aabcd. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Lys. €7rt ay e^opov 'Irytov y^ — v^-^ 3^'^ 1282 Se Nucrtov. Non-antistrophic.

- 4 TOTOTOTOTOTOTOTOTOTiy^. with a logaoedic trimeter as epode.^ y^ ^. — v^— =^ — ^^— — .4. 396. 800 (ant. di'tt^ets Tci ya/3 eyw croi oIki'jctw. 2 — ^>. veoTTia KafMavTov 544 Tt^'a Bentley 547 rd Princeps : rd re Monostrophic dyad. ^ >^ ^.-v.^ . 2. a Movo"a Ao>(|Ua6a.^ — w^ — w^ — s^ 10— . /5' TToXv 67) TToAv St^ • ^aXeTTCoTaToi'S Aoyovs i]veyKa<s av6p(Dcf> 541 TrarepoiV €7r kolkyji'. 'Up. ev^€V cjcTTre/Det . toijto kolvuv eo-rut. Av. _ 395 vd- ^^ _ _ 2- TIO TtO Ttb TtOTty^.- 1 N . with a tetrameter as epode.. : A = ab (451-4. t^d/x£VOS /xeAtas v^^— 2'^? eVi ^vAAoko/xov.CT no 745 TtO Ttb TtoTty^.^' 396. TToiKtAj. 3. A= aab. — w— 404 .^ 5>. — ^ — ^ — v^ — 400 — ^^c^^^ w.^ ^ 6-^^' — ^ 2^^ 15 c. 455-9). 802 . v-- . crv 5e /X06 Kara haijxova Kai <Tiva> cri'v-VYiai' dyaOi^v ^(cei? e/xot crwTJ/p../v^v^— 2^? v^~ 4 eyw 740 Tratcrt KOpvcftala-i r kv dpe/at?.5 2. See 737.Kj ^^ K^ — 2^ v. ^ ^^^— 2*^? St' e/i. (Parabasis). epodic tetrad two anapaestic penthemimers that enclose a pentameter.§ 410 456 TTapaXtL—ofxkvqv LOGAOEDIC VERSE vtt' c'/xt/s 177 arv ^pevo's dgwerov' 8e tovO' — ^^ — op^S' Aey' et's kowov. 737-52 = 769-84 Strophe.-^^v^^^^ w^^— 2^1 pkXiTra 749 <i>/Din'txo5 dp/3po(Tiwv pekean' d-€ B6(TK€To Kap-ov del (f>epwv yXvKelav w8dv.^ s. B = abac..-^. 393 458 6 yap av crv tv^j/s fiot 394 ^^ — w^ — 459 dya^ov TroptVa'?. epodic triad two brachycatalectic logaoedic trimeters. 01 ws eSaKpycrd y kfidv rdcrSe ra? ri/xas Trpoyovwv 7rapa8ovTtov 543 544 546 e/xou KareAiicrai'. See 748. TtO TIO Ttb TtOTty^. — ^ — ^ — v^ — w <^ — ^^ — ^^ — .3.o--3« 'H/x.7}s yevi'os ^ovO?)^ /xeAewi' dvacjiaivio 404 Ilai'i vopovs lepot's a-epvd T€ prjTpl \opevpaT opeia.3. : 410.~vy^'v^ TIO TIO TtO TtOTty^.) -^-^ ____w ^^ 3. p. — m 2-'^ 5CV — 393 ^-^- .€6' i^s ^~^^.

Aa- rods o-u 383 10 T€ TTOvTic (Te/xve nbo-fiSov — ^ — ^ — ^ 7*^^ — >^ — ^^ — ^ ^^ — ' . the similar use of the dactylic in address 275 (344).^ — v^ — w Kopa yAavKoX <TV Tray K par Se^b/iecr^a koX deiov yevos e's ^ — ^ — ^ — — 4^ ^ — — 2^ — <^— ^2^ — ^ — 2^ — — — y. in the metrical equivalence of subordinate periods. scripts is of R.e \pv(roXvpa re A'^Aov OS e)(€is updv. 209 ff. 312-30 ^^ (Parode). Thesm. § 411 'HyLl. — ^^ — . even that which only once commits the vagary of reading Tib seven times*. in 737 ( = 769) probably had the value penthemimer of a Cf. w 3^^ . 320 Ktti TToXvwvvixe Orjpo(f>6ve . — ^ — XiTOfiecrda TaicrS' eTT evy^ais 379 ^^ — ^ — v^ — w>^ (f>avevTas kirL\aprjvai. Compare the similar case in Ban. The evidence of the manuoverwhelmingly for the reading Tib Tib Tib riorty^. lib Tib Tib Tib TiOTty^. Probably both syllables of Tib are short. 779 TOTOTOTOTOTOTOTOTOTiy^ Tras S' iTT€KTV7n]<T "OAv/XTTOs. KVfxard t ecr/Jecre v^ve/ios aWprj. eXOe Sevpo. aWepiov v€(f>o<s rjXOe j3od. The metrical value of the bird-notes is as difficult to determine here as in 227 ff.€V0i Trap "E(3pov Trorajxov.^ KWTTi ^(pvcroXoyxe ttoAiv oiKovcra TrepLfxd- X^JTOV.• 178 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Antistrophe.s^ ^ - . in Nub. 411. There is no certain evidence elsewhere in the ode. 383 5 — ^ ^. TOiaSe KVKVOlj Tib TIO Tib TLOTiy^.iyaXii}vv[x. 209 ff. Ttb Tib Tib TiOTiy^. 748 liffTrepei Reiske : ucnrep i] The monometer dimeter. See the final note on Pmti. w . Xo. ox^w Slot S' i(}i€^6fj. that any part of the melody was repeated. eiAe 8e ddp-fSos dvaKras.^ — ^ 4^^ >^ — ^^ — ^^ — ^ 2*^^ • • 323 dAi/xfSov TT/ooAiTTWv /xv^bv IxOvoivra 383 w. Both this phrase and totototototototototlj^ may have had the value of a catalectic trochaic dimeter. 111 TTTrj^e 3e TroiKiAa <f)vXd re d-qpCiV. /3' 771 crvfj-iJiiyrj fSorjv ofxov Trrepots KpeKovres iaK\ov ^AttoAAw 773 Tib Tib Tib TioTiy^.)(pDa-0J7riSos epvos. 'OAv/t- TTiaSfS Se fiekos Xa/3iTes Mowai 784 T cTTwAdAv^av. (373).^ 315 Zeu p.

abcde. . 396 <^ai -^ . 4 2 3 5. 1260 ryv yup twv8/3€S ovk eAaacrcus _._3C — • -^ -^— ^>^ w v^ — w — ^ _>^__" _ ^ _ _ ^ ^ 10^^ >^ -^ — • >. which adds ttu?. ionic dimeter. OKa TOt p. On the musical effect of pericopic grouping see 777. logaoedic trimeter and a pentameter. 802 10 uyU(^t rots ttVO"£€i'. a.• . yevvas uc^pos 395 5' (Xyua TToAi'S Kar- Twv cTKcAwv i'ero. 412. pericopic triad: trochaic dimeter.£ S' av Aewvi^aj — w — w 6d- 1255 ayev avrep tws KOLTrptJS — ^ ttoAvs 0' — v^ — 5^ — w — w" . yovras otw tov oSovra' 384. c = abc. 5-1-^ -^^— ^ — v^ — v^— S*^ KoiXa TWS Mv/SwS ~' h'LKWV. 1247-72 (Exode). But See 771. pericopic tetrad logaoedic tetrameter.396 330 320 eryevets -yvvatKes. 15 dypoTepa (TrjpoKTovt /xoAe --v^v^ — — — • — — . Tus ij/dfiixas Tol Uepcrai. A = ABC (312-19. opixaov TOts Kupcravtois <S 395 — Mva/xdva 383 Tav reav Mwav. _ . -^ " t' 6p€t7rXayKTOL (j^opfjuy^ ctt' 327 ^pvaea t€ taXi^yo-eiev ev^al-i S' _ ^ _ 15 — w — v^ 416 v^w — — ' • 328 rjixeTepais' reAews iKKXj](Tia. : 320-6. paroemiac. dactylic dimeter. pentameter. trochaic dimeter. Aa. _ 3C ^w^^v^ . 2 2 6. trochaic heptameter. 4 2 2 2 7. a-is 1250 otSev d/ic tws t' 'Acravat(US. 327-30).. . J9''i/2)orche7ne.ev €77 A/OTa/ZtTtO) 383 TrpWKpOOV (TVCLKeXoi TTOTTO. B = abed. See 772. -^-^ _ 5C — 2*^ wv^ — — 2 _ — . — — ^~ _ ^ _ — w — ^ • . dTipotpdve -^ ^ — (first • — ^ — ^ — 5^' on IpPOi (va\lov R. v.(rai/xtv KOi^vw ^ 389. LOGAOEDIC VEESE N?ypeos fU'aAtov re Kopai '^vjx- 179 389. _^_^ _. a= iambic dimeter. See 772.. — ._. : pericopic pentad logaoedic tetrameter. _ _ — w— 4^ _ ^ _ ^ ' — v^ .§412 oiVt/OoSovtjtov. Lijs. the melody which closed the second intermediate period (b) may have been repeated at the close of the third (c). probably a gloss 323 ixOvbevra von Wilamowitz ixOvbevr 329 'Ad-qvCiv Reisig: 'Adrjvaiuiv : rejected by Hermann) 325 eivaXiov Brunck : Non-antistrophic.p.

1297-1322 Hyporcheme.^ 8<=^ ^irdprav crttov -u/AVito/xes. . 1302 TOt 8-^ ^--3^ 7ra/3 Ei'/sajTav ipLdBSovrL. Lys. = AB (1247-59.^ -^. (Exode). deca4 8 5 10. em /xdA' €/A/?a. : : : (noting the scholiast tCiv i'ero : dvrl rov ijvdei) : : ^vtrei Brunck : d<^p6s i'ero kclI Kara 1259 Karruiv Reisig 1262 dyporipa Dindorf dyporep "Apref/. 393 404 5 . • ^^ ^^ . and a nonameter.. von Wilamowitz 1252 wpuKpoov Ahrens irpoKpoov Toi^s r' 'Aaavaiovi 1257 lii^'o-eo' von Wilamowitz 1253 rws Mt75ws Kiister toi)s MtjSous deiKeXoi.^ . pentameter. 413. — ^ _ _ _ . _^ . 20-----.— _ v^ — — ^ — V. 404 . 1260-72). Tvv8apc8as r dyao-tus.180 Sevpo THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Trapcrevi cria TTOTTOtS CTTTOvSaS.ca a/xe xpo^ov. trimeter as epode.: : irapareve. See von Wilamowitz. composed of two trimeters.^ ^ 3^^' 1250 Ttis r' 'A(7a)'aiws Brunck 1248 Tots Kvptravlois Meineke tws Kvpaavius avelKeXoi. with a : : A logaoedic See 759. — 4^ _ ^ — . octameter. 1271 o) 8evp' Wl Sevp'. — — — v^ — \j — v^ 2 2*^^ ^^ v^ v^ 4-^^ v^ 1308 <ox'> are ttwAoi rat Kopai 393 Trap TOV Eij/owTav 1310 d/xTraSeovTt TTVKvd ttoSou' lOw-w. a hexameter. (L cm Kov(f>a TrdAAwv. X°P°' /JLeXovTi KOL TToSwV KTtVoS. 777. w Kwaye 379. Aa. .^ — v^— w — v^ — KAewa Tov 'AfivKXais crtov Ktti XaAKiotKOV avacrcrav. 9*^"^ Kal tolv — ^ _ alfxvXav dAwTreKwv Travcraifieda. pericopic tetrad a tetrad B = aabcd. Non-antistrophic. epodic pentad See 772.. TeoigeschicUe. _ — _ 6 1265 ws (Tvvexys ttoXvv av <jiLX. meter. .^ 1« . tetrameter. 1305 u)S TO. vvv 8' T ates euTropos eiVj 802 1268 Taicrt avvd-qKaia-i. — vy — 4 dyKOVtwai.w w — v^— ^ — ^ — v^ — v^ . Tavyerov aiir' kpavvov eKknrwa v^— w— w — v. : : 1267 1270 t' Schiifer 5' 1268 ralai : <Tvver]Kat<n von Wilamowitz : rala-iv ffwOriKat^ Trav(7ai/x€da Thiersch Travaalfxed' A = abed. 3 3 6 9 3. -- - - V. v^ . 88 ff.!. ^— 393 . § > 413 395 — ^ — _ _ ./— ^ — '^ B ^ Mwa /xdAe AaKatva TrpiiTTOv aplv 38 -v>— ^ .

aXKi0LK0V : 'Aadvav aibv 1300 dvaa-crav Schol. Thesm. B . —dcriv vfxlv Aeyeiv. Trdi'Ta 8' 379. _ 2*^ ^Trep BttK^^ai/ OvpcraSSwav Kal TraiSSwav. Kpdrov TTOir) d/xd 20— >^v^— ^ — ^ — — — ^ — ^ — — v^ — 4*^ x^pwcfieXi'iTav. c = aabcd'.' Blaydes tna. See 778. with an acatalectic iambic dimeter as epode. a tetrad composed of two iambic tetra4 4 2 5 2. 1314 ayrJTat 8' u Ai'j8a<i Truh 404 dyva xopt^yos evirpeTT-qs' — — ^ — ^ — — ^ — k^ 5^' — 2 1316 dAA' dye 8e KofJ-av TrapafXTrvKiS- X^Ph '^oSocv T€ TrdS?/ 8' ww^v^— ^ v^ 4*^ a Tts eAa<^os.^ — ^ — ^^ — ^— 6*^ _^__ EevoKAerys o K.apKLVov. — w— — w — 5 <.). and a hypercatalectic trimeter as epode (36 f. 436 437 irdvTa yap Aeyetv ifSdcTTacre 8iKaia. 1 2 2 4-. (relovTai 181 1312 383 15 — wv- _ . (1316-22). Non-antistrophic. A = aab. 441 Hei'o/cX^Tjs Bentley SecoxX^s : 440 Trap ainr) : .: § 414 Tttt LOGAOEDIC VERSE 8e KOfxai. 8ok€lv dv at'TOV. epodic pentad meters. a logaoedic dimeter. Dindorf 1320 trtd. — ^ — v^ — ^ — ^ — ^ iC — v^ — S^ dvTiKpvs 436 Scaliger :5eaj : fir]8iv Suidas : eJSe'as irapauTTjs i^dcrraaev 437 i^daTaae Ed. 404 ^^ — ^ — — — w2^ — w — -^ — ^ — v^ — v^6 ^ — 2 (fjpevl ttvkvuJs re 383. 1308-15. See 745. two dimeters.abbe.evovs' 440 oicTT' dv et Aeyoi nap' avri^v — ^ — ^ — w — ^ ~ ^ 10^~v^ — v^ ^^^ . See 759.~^ -^ — v. periodic tetrad octameter as epode. Richter aeiovr' or aeiovO' 1311 ajKOviivai Reisig irapanirvKiSdere 1319 xop'^0^^^''''*'' Hermann 1316 Trapa^TrrKiSSe Hermann 1321 i//t»'r. d = a stichic period composed of three iambic tetrameters. epodic triad: two trimeters with an See 737. Xo. 1299 cndv A'alckenaer afx-rrdWovTi 1310 d/j-nad^ovTi von Wilamowitz 1308 6x' ^'on Wilamowitz dyKovevovffa 1312 creioPTai. 404 TToiKiAovs Aoyovs dvrjvpev ev 8u('r]Trifj. ^ — 4^ : crrav X. 3 3 8. a hortatory dactylic monometer as proode.). A = abcd (1297-1302. 1303-7. 433-42 404 383 (Scene I./ TroAuTrAoKcuTepas yvvaiKos — ovSe SeivoTepov AeyoiVi/s. cridv ^ w 1320 Kal Tav avrav Kparivfivrj. 442 ws e'yoi/iai.~ v^ Trdcras 8' I8ea<i e^t^raa-ev./ 5' Xttypo^xXerav ov x<'P'^0fX^Ta»' rdv Trd/jL/jLaxov 'A7r6XXw : : : : : : I'S/tij'j. oiVdJTTOTe ravTrjs I'jKova'a — — >. and a spondaic pentameter. : : ' 414.

8 2. in the antistrophe iambic trimeter.^_ . iKVovfiat a.. S17. 952-9 = 960-7 (Episode Strophe. A = ab. Sev/ao S7) Sevpo 817.OL KaraSpapovaa dvpav avot^ov ct _ ^ _ — ^ — — v^ — 75 . pericopic dyad: indivisible nonameter. 379 404 . Sevpo fxoi Trpocr- 395 ^^ • • ^_^_ ^8 . b is an See 770.^v iKka-Qai. § 415 A A= ab. Is ^^ Troirjcrov ip. 440-2)./ _ ^ — v^ — — ^^ • 2 v^ 4 962 ri]vK.aL. 2*^ 4 Neavias. — v^ — w — — w _ _ . dimeter. pericopic dyad The cola composing the octameter in the strophe See 770. dXX ev Tw o-oj /3ovXop. logaoedic dimeter and catalectic The octameter is followed in each case by a anapaestic trimeter. Non-antistrophic. • -^ v.aL 379 KoA. Neavts. See 773. hexameter.(rrj^ TrvyTJs. OS /ie SiaKvatVas €Xe<- ^^ 958 959 /i€^es.-v. __^_ ^. B = ab..- 2 4 ^vvevvo'i Bothe : ^vvevv6% {xol 954 5nvbz Dindorf The strophe and antistrophe constitute the fourth dyad in a E = aba (952-3 See 717. 954-7). Ecd. 383 fiWes. "Epws. . KoX (TV rr^v p. — v^ — 2 _ ^ _ — ^ — ^ v^ — — ^ — ^ — ^ i eXde Kal ^vvevvos 953 — — ^ — 404 Trjv evffipovrjv owtDS etret. Kttt w^w-. 2 6. pericopic dyad: trochaic dimeter octameter. and tetrameter.01 tis irodos. Se ya^. <^ — ^^ — TTavv yap <8etvos> tis epws pe Sovd 379 5^^ v^ — — ^ — TwvSe Twv crwv (ioa-Tpv-)(wv. ' 182 THE VEESE OF GEEEK COMEDY = AAB (433-6 = 437-9. anapaestic dimeter. "E/dws. 415.r]v ttjvS' evv^v 10 967 T^v 953 iKkaBai. KaraTreo-wv KU(Top. 955 Sfvpo 8^ Bevpo (f)[\ov ^/J-ov. = 958-9.^— v^^n• w — 2 ^ 10— — ^ — vy v^ Kat V0L7](T0V TOvS' €S eUl'^V T17V e/i.965 Ki'/Tpt Tt /x' 8«^ iKpaiveis «— i raurj. TrXrjKTL^ecrOac p^ra . ^-^ — — — ^ — •— v. dimeter. 24. IL).. See 770. iambic dimeter and paroemiac . arorros 8' 'iyKeiral p.- <f)i\ov.7rco 5^ ri]S --. proodic combination of eleven strophes. : are iambic dimeter. .-^--2 w — — ^ — — v-• iKVovpiai (J.

The in variation of the strophe 51. 323) would find the explanation of the metrical discrepancies in the young man's state of mind ! .i< 415 LOGAOEDIC VERSE is 183 logaoedic dimeter. but this in descending in ascending rhythm in the strophe. Eeisig {Coniedanea. rhythm in the antistrophe. See melody of the mesodic intermediate period and antistrophe is intentional and is found elsewhere.

The fundamental colon of ionic verse in Greek is comedy 9 ii. by its suppression in the last metre. a diseme time (32). 334 f. ^ ^ -^ ^ Vesp. 7]v iv. becomes catalectic (33. The monometer does not normally occur. which consists of two minor ionic feet (8 Trdrtp. 418. normally consists of twelve syllables and eighteen times fj-a This- At" ot' rapa —po—ejxxptji ere to Aoittov ^ ^ \apiT(j)v TrAetcTTOV €)(^ov(Tav p-epos ^ ^ uyvav ^ ^ ^ ^ -^ Vesp.. 292 An composed of two simple feet or metres (13). el Kpkp. siguifies 184 . when used without 'minor ionic' definition. and an ionic colon. in this book. so that a short syllable first occurs at the end of the the second and a long ^ — the beginning of pa At". 417. normally consists of twelve primary times and eight syllables. 299 ^ ^ v^w Rmi.: : : : CHAPTER VIII MINOE IONIC VEESE^ 416.e tov p. 'Ionic. 300 419. 34) aTTO yap TOvSe p. Aristophanes occasionally uses the trimeter. (32) of ionic verse is the second half of the thesis of the foot. All minor ionic verse is in ascending rhythm.d% ^^ \j — w Vesp.' therefore. 298 further ^ Major ionic verse does not occur in Greek comedy.ai(rdk y vp. ionic dimeter.) the dimeter.Lcrdapiov ^ ^ is ^ ^ allowed in at wv^ — the Vesp. The ')(^p6vo^ k€v6<. (Tov ri ^erjOw . Interchange fifth of length fourth and places of two contiguous metres.

70 Eupol. The initial long syllable of this ( ' irrational ' ionic metre simply trace of an irrational syllable in the metre This See 615 ff. that probably was its source (^ . 326 423. ) .) found in Aristophanes states hypermetrical. 5 ff. 336 = 353 422. A protracted metre of the form : ^ ^ - • (32) is occasion- ally found at the beginning of a colon iroBl rdv aKoXacrrov ^tAoTratV/iova -ipidv ^ ^ — <^ ^ — • • ^ ^ — — Ean. Normal and strophe and antistrophe {avdK\a(TL<i). 148. 328 yovv TraAAerat yepovrwu = 345 upav oo-tois /ii'O-rats \opeLav = oa— eSoi' \opoTroiov p. 425.) seems ff.) says that ..: : : §425 This partial MINOK IONIC VERSE 185 derangement of the rhythm is called anaclasis See Schol. 6 most notable subordinate period is the catalectic tetrameter.^ - with which the of hypermeter in Ban. of the singular metre . also ( to be ) the source. 327 = 344 421. 19 ff. of the style of Demosthenes (De admir. 332 ^ ^ to lack vigour f. (427) begins. anaclastic metres may correspond in 420. frag. Dionysius in rapid characterization vi dicendi.aKap 'i]f3av Ran. 1093 E.^ .^ -). Anaclasis sometimes partial is and derangement of rhythm occurs only in the second metre. by acephalization. and quotes a line in illustration from the comic poet Phrynichus that the a 6' dvdyKa 'crd' lepevcnv Kadapeveiv <f>pd(TOixev ^ ^ Cf. but in this case either the anaclastic or the normal form found in the corresponding strophe or antistrophe TTokvKapTTOV /JLCV Ttvd(r(T(x)V = PMn. 424. The structure is of the two ionic lyrics regular form ff. 192. Heph. v-zv^ ^ ^ wv^ — Phryn. Ionic rhythm was thought his and nobility. Hephaestion (38. ocriovi €ts (f)Xoyl ^tao-wTas= y^ (^eyycTai 8e Xeificjv is ^ — — ^ ^ — ^ ^ ^ — — — ^ Kan. xliii.^ is original metre {^ ..

. (TTpaydXovs SriTrovdev w pd At dXX TTca • tcr^aSas w iraTr- wv^ ^ ^ v^w ^ \y ^ ^ v^^ — — — — — — — — — — — — ^ ^ wv^ — — ^ — — \j \j — ^ ^ — ^ \j — \j v^vy — — — — — TyStov ydp.. evyevei'. w Tt /SovXcL fxe TTpiaa-Bai oTfiai 8e or kpilv d./ v^ — • v^ v^ 8et Kttt ^vXa ^ ^ ^ ^ — ^ i^ <e €. 8e TTOv vTTop'^rjfiaTiKov^ re J.> crv 8e crvKd p atVets 78 ^^^ i]v prj - ^ . 10^^ Kop. 295 Yla. a. e)(^eis eX- I . v. 186 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY orator's § 426 f^^^ one finds in the TOi/? speeclies tmv kol pvO/jbcov TroWaxv aTravLoo^ avSp(oSec<. el Kpepaia-dk y 419 v^^-v. where the terms ^opriKO'i and ekev6epLo<i are descriptive of the movement of contrasted KaX 01 "Iwye? iK(i)/j.. (Parode). 101 426. 292 Ko/5.b Trat.. a ^ ^ v^v.. koL Si. WeX-qa-eis ri /xot ovv Trdrep.-^^ 21'' yap TovBe pe tov picrOapiov ^ _ 301 TpiTOV avTov (f>tTa 3C e'x^tv a A. 291-302 = 303-16 Strophe. ff. 24.(pB'>]6r](Tav.. tto^cv (Toped' dpurrov .) koL Iq)vikov<. rhythms. pd Ila. aAA. to ionic 20 f. 1340 b). tjv <3 800 v-'w crov tl ScTy^ai TraiSiov. dye vvv & Trdrep TO ^LKaCTTi'lpiOV dp-)^0}V (jivrj- 305 Kadicry vvv.' el- a Trdvv y' 7re.- 2 Antistrophe. Aristides (37 M. 9. ovk dv 421 v^v^-^-v^-vpels. even applies the epithet 'vulgar' e</)' rhythm : laiviKo<. and gave name is often repeated ionics.424 Kilyxj/ov ^. Kop. Ai". the Aristides's suggested soft it inference of the character of rhythm from the it and effeminate habits its of the people who used writers.-^-ere pd d/To At" ov rdpa t poire pil/io tu Aoittov. KaXov . Toij^ kol d^ico/xaTiKov<. by later but especially with reference to major See the passages quoted by Amsel in his dissertation De vi atque indole rhythmorum. Ua. Vesp. w Compare the use of this word in Aristotle's Politics (v. Tla. he Zta to tov pvdfiov (^opTCKov.aKXcofjL6vov<.

Editors who reject I e in both strophe and antistrophe p. 81. Straphe. pericopic tetrad: Monostrophic dyad. 323-36 = 340-53 w . "EAAas r-opov tepov.w — — TToXvKapTrov pel' rivdcrcrdiv ^^_-_^-_ v^v. 97 ff. aTraTrai fia At" 310 Ha. The omission of I e in thejast colon of the strophe is probably due to accident.£ 8yJT (L /xcAea {J. in their analysis of the clause crh Se crvKa al-ds = Trdpa and but any other form of catalexis See also Luthmer. T6 p. do not agree vwi' a-rei'd^ecv. Kop. 13. e Hermann Hermann &pa : ipx^v or 302 297 irainria Bentley Trania 314 d. Han. : § 427 TTiSa MINOR IONIC VERSE ^pi]<T~i']V 187 Tiva vuJv './^ v^ — — 2^ ^^v^ — — 3 & "laK'^e. ^v^ — — "laK)l v. j3' "EAAas Lepov (^(v.yJT€p eriKTes ifJLol TTpdyiMaTa (36crK€Lv Trapexyj. and Schroder's extended discussion of the in his Forarheiten.^ 1^' (Parode). -^-^^--^^-— o — v^ 420 421 5v^^ — — c.' ff' (bpxoiv : e 304 Hpx^v Dindorf a' w 6v\dKi6v y ionic B (716) = abed.v^ than ^ ^ - in his Arisiaphanis Cantico.op. tetrameter. catalectic iambic dimeter. leaves the colon incomplete intentionally. 'Up.') iropov K. 427. See 772. changes the order of Pindar's phrase.y]T Iv^aSe vai(DV. is. Aristophanes See the scholiast on 308..^ Rossbach ( v^ (»S/J^c. very doubtful. 328) assumes ).p' w ^i'\d/ct6.. 448 v^ — v^ 326 eXdl t6v6' dvd Aetpwva xopeva-ojv 422 ocTLOVs €t? Oiarrwras. Metrik^. 316 e €. a "laKX w iv expats 448 ~oXvTijJ. iyKaraKpovojv . 21 3 4 2. and his final conclusion colon ^ ^ . ./ Trepi Kparl ctm /Bpvovra dpacrel o' — — 330 a-T€(fiavov fivproiV. With ludicrous effect. in minor ionic cola De choriamho et ionico. trimeter. an exclamatory monometer.. (3' I'v' ovK eywye vwv oi8' oTTodev y€ SetTTVOv ecrraL. -rapa I'wi' o-TCva^eiv. and reduces the following dimeter to See 51. anaclasis shortened catalexis ^ . hypermeter of twenty-one metres (twenty in the antistrophe).. (L dv6vi]Tov dp' av- XaKiov a' e?xoi' dyaXfia.

12. 14.ai.^Tois 331 dpaael Princeps ^dpiret or ^I'-po-w 333 4>i\oTrai(rfiova van Herwerden ti/jlclv Princeps tl/jltju (piXoTralynova 335 ayvdv Kaibel d7ra. iii.. 'free' ionics 428. See 772. bacchiac dimeter. lepav oaiots /^vcTTats )(^op€tav. ionic hypermeter of twenty-two metres. The form .vcrTai. 25) . 13. 22 Antistwphe.k« 350 <piyywv Bothe <p\iyu3v. 12. 341 x«po-^ Hermann xep<^' Ti'tp 7. 8.188 THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY 332 334 TToSt § 428 Tolv OLKoXaa-Tov Tt/Aav. : By resolution ofv^w : ^ (419 ff. : : : : : : : : ) Monostrophic dyad. 'H/x.- -^ ^^- (cola 11. iv. 101 (' ') This exhibits.ova \0 ^ ^ — ^ ^ — • y^ • yj ^ ^ xapLTwv irXeta-rov e'l^oDcrav /xepos ayvdv. 13). and as the second (6.vffTan Princeps iJ. and ^ ^ (3.as. 20. /3' eyctpe (fiXoyias Aa/x7raoas ev X^P^'' Tivacro-wv "IcKX <3 "Ia/<xe. (^eyyerat 8e XeLfiiov • yovv TraAAerat ye/oovrcov 07700-660 vrat Se Awas li'tavTOi'S 347 xpovcovs T cTwv TraAatojv 349 351 Upas (TV inro rip. in addition to the forms found in the severer type of composition. bacchiac monometer./ 336 fj.' or 471/7. : -^---(7. rhythm developed great licentious manner of a parody that ridicules composition found in Thesm. In course of time minor ionic variety of form.. B (704) = abed. which would be a reversion to primitive form (428.v.. . 23) without the ordinary restriction (421). See 790 flf. and - ^^^ 10. pericopic tetrad. 18. and would involve a lengthening before mute and liquid that is not found elsewhere in the melic verse of Aristophanes. 323 7ro\vTl/j. 343 vvKTepov <f>Xoyl reXerijs (jnoar(f)6pos adT-qp. is An modern example of this ff. 22). 19. <^iXo7ral(T[x. the effeminate tragic poet Agathon. 17. cfieyytxiv ctt Se XapirdSi e'^ay Trpof3d87]v dvOjjpbv e'Aeiov SajreSov \opo7rotov jxaKap yj^av. 13 2 22. metres of the following constitution i. ionic trimeter. 21) By resolution of the foregoing (15).) as the first metre of the dimeter (9. ii.7}T' Reisig Tro\vTL/j.

MINOR IONIC VERSE By interior anaclasis of the forms 189 : ^ _ ^ _ (16) and what was probably the V. 429. _^__ — ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ — — ^ — ^ S'^ yepas lephv 'Ay. OS iSpiVaro X^P"5 110 Xo. a-e/SofxaL Aarw r dvaa-Q-av ^ ^ v^v^— ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ — ^ ^ — 7 — ^ Kidapiv T€ jxarep' v/xvoiv w^ — w -w ^ ^ ^ (f^ 125 dpa-evL ftoa 86kljiov./ ww— 8^ 'Ay. aye vvv 6\j3i^e Moucra T^/Ducrewv pvropa ro^wv _^__ ^^__ 10— ^w^^— wv^ ^^ s^ ^w ^oljSov.- • v^ v^ — • ^ ^ — — w w — >^ — ^— ^ — — — — — ^ — ~ s^ ^ — 6*^ — ^. ^^ — X^^P^ KaAXto-rais dotSats (V evfiova-ourt TifxaL<.. By resolution the anaclastic form ^ . The is protracted (20). Kopav deicrar "Aprefxiv dyporepav.^ - : ^ . 105. Tlusm. 101-129 (Prologue). yvaAa Si^ovvTiSi 4>ot/3'.v^ was a reversion to original form. not the correption of vvv. Trapdpvdp. § 429 iv. lepav 'xOov'tai'i Seww — ^d/xevaL AayLXTraSa Kovpai ^ ^ — ^vv (Xevdepta irarpLw^ — 8t ^opiva-acrOe fSodv. -^ — v^^— 6^ rdv T ev opea-t 8pvoy6voL(TLV 15— wv. 5^^ — Xo. This ^ ^ and . -' ^ .' evpvdpLa ^pvycwv 792 Siavevjuara Xa/JtTwv. 25— ^w^- . ^ of (20). SIMULATED DUO ^ — 'Ay. which occurs in tragedy and might therefore be used in parody of a tragic writer.vhv 118 'Ay.^--- ww 115 Xo. This is the ground of objection to the read- -v^ ing Xeye vvv (or vlv) euTrto-rty? he rov/xov (^ ^ ^ ) adopted by some editors in Thesm. wpocfiepioi'.^ ^ (16).^ ^ ^ — — ^ -^ — ^ -^ — ^-^_ — ^ — — — ^ ^ ^ — 6^ s^^-S^ Aaroj re Kpovp-aTd 'AcrtdSos ttoSI 121 Xo. See 422. ya. It will be form w ^ (424) within the colon observed that resolution of only normally long• syllables allowed. Tt'vt 8aLfi6vu)V o Kw/xos ^ ^ — Aeye vvv' tticttco^ 81 Tovfiov 105 — ^^ ^ 8aifiovas e^et arefSicrai. vi. i—ofxai K\rj^ov<ja (r€p. v. yovov ok/Si^ova-a Aarovs "ApTifJLLV direLpoXexrj.

proodic tetrad a See 770.v?w^-. composed of four intermediate periods. See 772. .. 102 iXevdepig. as often in tragedy. pentameter as proode to two hexameters that enclose a heptameter. Kiister 128 ^oi^ov Dindorf ^oZ/Sov n^aa : : : : : : : : In 109 the augment (790). has given the lyric as a whole a It is a non-antistrophic singularly simple and attractive structure. dactylic trimeter. 5 6 7 6. meter. ^ ^ . TO. 511 : 2'= xop^^a-aadai 103 xop^^'<^'^<^^^ Bentley iXeve^pg. acephalous : : : Glyconic. b = abcb. 570.^ ^ v^ 2^ 129 X"'P' oA^ie Trat Aarovs.190 'Ay. catalectic iambic dimeter. Our poet has allowed himself the following correspondences of.'0((n Bentley: oirXi^e <pu)S 126 ^dos Fritzsche doKifiqi ddcravT 125 56klixov Schol. pericopic tetrad See 750. THE VEESE OF GEEEK COMEDY <f)dos § 429 eWvTO wv Sai/^ovtot? St' 342 ojXfxaxTiv afierepas re X^P'*' ai(/)ViSt- OV OTTOS. 155 If.. is omitted. systematic period. as if in apology for the extreme licence he has allowed himself in metrical forms. AABC. . A = ab. 8 6. and t is short Aristophanes. Isyllos. dactylic catalectic C = abed.. pericopic dyad octaarranged as an epodic tetrad. 2 3 2 2. Hermann 106 ^x« Suidas ^x^'S 107 6X/3ife 105 TTLffTcos von Wilaiuowitz euTritrTwy 115 delffar' 114 opi/oYivoio-i^ von Wilamowitz 5puo76. — — — ^^w ^^^ ^^ — — — ^^ ^^ ^-^ — — 3 ^^ . 78 30 w-w— .^ — — 2^ ^^ dvaKx' ayaAAe ^ot/3ov. hexameter.^ ^ metres in paired subordinate periods : See von Wilamowitz. dimeter.

which consists of a combination of two simple feet. 433.^ - Ach. measure of ten primary times.^ - Eupol. _^_ -^_ -^^ (OS Ach. and has the measure of fifteen primary times rjpivd T€ w KUTaXafSp'. the simple foot or metre (13) being hemiolic. 9 iii. 325 — w — Pax 1134 — w Ach. Trimeters sometimes occur in pairs in the analyses of Heliodorus where a triple dimetrical division would be expected.( Ojoas creLopievov .^ - .. two cretics or a paeon and a cretic (8 iii.) w [xiap€ Kal l38eXvp€ Trpoa-TaTet prjTopwv Savorara tou depovs ou. aTroXer kuto. A paeonic dimeter has 432./ ^-^^ The last combination is the least common. 293 Ach.^ ^ Av. ^^ .: CHAPTER IX PAEONIC VEESE 430. 294 675 f. (0 ^^ ^ . 431. epe XafSova-a tuv SrjpoTqv The trimeter is rare. The fimdameutal colon of paeonic verse is the dimeter. The paeonic trimeter PocTKopeOa Tzapdkvia consists of three simple feet or : metres. 344 wv. Paeonic verse is in descending rhythm. 303 — ^ — Eq. 1099 KidapaoiSoraTe .^ . two paeons or their equivalent.^ ^ . — ^ ^^ — ^ — — ^ ^^ — v^ — — v^ Eq. and 191 .^ 'i)koXov6ovv •S'ar'AAco T/oe^wv ^ -w^ .^ ere y' oLKOvawpev . but the it is legitimate. frag. 214 _^_ crov .

Furthermore. A : single catalectic paeonic period occurs in Greek comedy €)(eT€ Aet/xwva t epo- w^ v^ — — ^ ^^ €VTa MapaOwvoi Cf. in Ach. it should be observed that Heliodorus does not use the terms St'/Aer/jov and rpijxeTpov to designate the dimeter and trimeter. ff. . — 434. since the tetrameter would be an isomeric compound foot and would exceed the allowed limit (22 f. (452) in which 294 f. Av. verse is The is favourite subordinate period in paeonic the tetrameter. The apparent instance See the critical 971 (456) is probably not authentic. Dimeters and trimeters are not used independently as subordinate periods. 246 t all Heph. See the scholium on Ach. occur See Hense. in fact. (453) and the metrical scholium. 7 €V notes this licence in a period in the 8' Hushandmen Ar. the form — ^ — — ^ ^. 437. With this exception.: 192 is THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 434 of His text thus sometimes avoided dimeters adopted in this book. 435.) Hephaestion (41.^ — ^^ ev 8La<f>vTeva-oiJL€v — w — ^ ^^ — ^ — Cf. ff. frag. where dimetrical division is imperative.' Paeons. 284 ff. 42. since he does not. Ill dyop^ av TrXaravov -^ y. only in melic composition. but these are legitimate. — ^ See 34.). include paeons among the principal metra 'metra prototypa. is called No longer colon than the trirrhythmon is recognized by Heliodorus in his analysis of any of the paeonic odes of Aristophanes. 11 9 fF. See Ach. hemiolic metrical dicolic. 436. 15 438. sub- ordinate periods in Aristophanes close with a cretic. but Heliodorus rejects it. its composed of two dimeters. 665 ff. Heliodoreische Untersuchungen. but invariably Sippvdfiov and rptppvOpov. but this usage is probably mere licence of speech. Heliodorus also classifies the tetrameter as a colon. just as he calls the trochaic tetrameter also a colon. note. 439. The monometer does not occur. A long syllable does not admit protraction in paeonic verse. Eesolution cretic of the long syllable of the thesis of the form of the paeonic metre rarely occurs. See 32. but in Aristophanes use almost restricted to stichic formations. The pentameter might occur as a colon. since it is a compound foot (24). ^ — ^J^' Av. as Hephaestion does. 246 (595).

i) 5 yXwTTav i] y vrjaTLV. ^. 271 yap ra Xnrapa KaTTTWv.). Aristophanes uses the penta160. Aristoph. affected a pentameter composed of four paeons and a cretic. Uq. there is great variety of arrange- ment. paeons within it. also with iambic. 216 ff.^^ ^ _^_^ were parts of hexameters. once. frag. 193 ff. 322 K (451). On the combination of subordinate periods. See also Eubul.^ _ ^ _ w ^^ — ^ — ^ — — ^ — ^ _ _ ^ _ _ ^ _ v^ ^^ — ^ .: § 442 in PAEONIC VERSE Ach. the regular form see above) ' Theopompeum TravT ' : ayada 8rj yeyovev avSpda-LV efxrjs aTrh crworma? Theopomp. 984) the tetrameter in Aristophanes consists of three paeons and a cretic. It seems reasonable to conclude that fragments which are quoted from the comic poets as tetrameters but have not the of the tetrameter (. With one exception (Ach. but the principle holds that cretics are placed at the beginning and close of the subordinate period. in which a paeonic series appears to be introduced by a melic anapaestic trimeter aAt? d(f>xn-j'S fxoi.rjvd n") el Se /X7y. 8 ff. anapaestic and dactylic rhythms. Of. 38 freely. /m^. Theopompus. 57. Vesp. Generally. in an octameter. hexameter and octameter freely.^ ^ . solely of paeonics. Ar. 1275 (457).^ — ^ — ^ — — v^ — 17 — — — — _ — ^^ . as in Ach. Hypermeters show 440. 334. (456).^^ -^ . in the paeonic and occasionally in other odes of Aristophanes. Paeonic rhythm has special affinity for trochaic rhythm. 442.^ 3 d/\/\a (jiepeO' rj-rdnov t) KaTTptSiov veov • KoAAoTTa Ttv' irXevpbv (nrX.~^^^ Traparera/zat . 214 f.). octameters or hypermeters. hypermeters and intermediate periods to form systematic periods. except the last metre (Ach. 112. 506. It is combined. These may consist solely of cretics. as 976 ff.. Cf Ar. however. Aristophanes has employed the dodecameter six times in the plays now extant and a hypermeter of eighteen metres twice. meter. on the authority of Hephaestion (42. 699. 507. The same form occurs also in Eupol. (449). 333. see 720 ff. Phryn. frciff. Paeonic verse admits hypermeters great variety of form through free mingling of paeons and cretics. 441. y SeA^ttKOS OTTOjpLVlj^ rjTpiaiav cfiepeTe oevpo fJ-e'd _^_ 10 Ko\kdfS(DV X^'-^P^^'' ^ ^^ — w ^^ ^ . 110.^-^ ^^.

Paeonic rhythm is not found in the last five plays of Aristophanes. 5 — v^ — — w — — v^ — v^w — v^v^— — ^ — — ^ — v-«v^ — 5*^ — X X of the nine associated rhythms. J. except in a single subordinate period in a parody It is spirited. 475 — 483 — ^ ww— Tovs Se Trdvdrjpas. also THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 443 paeonic series of which only the beginning Tous /jtev Anax. 444. but not common. 60. parode of the Equites (303 450. when he was himself man about town. well-known verse of the Trophonius {frag.. 12. In the parode of the Acharnians (204 ff. 1341^) ra fiev rjOifcd. 1359 ff.. and was {Pmti. 452) it in the is used to express the rising excitement of the chorus . inspir- in his Politics (v.. aX- Xovs dypuxrras Xvkovs <r5> XeovTas . to. plays written in the heyday of his youth. stasimon of the Acharnians (971 ff. principle that the close of a cretic must coincide with the end of a word does not hold in comedy. Cratinus. movement : of a lively dance... 322 ff. ra 8' evdovaiaaTLKa. In the celebrated monody in Av. 8 ff.. 456). nor in the Clouds. in which an enoplic pentameter introduces a is quoted opetovo/xot's v- [xwv TTOtija-et 8eX(f)aKa<s rjXijSaTovi. The language in which the Muse is invoked at the beginning ff. 592).v^ ^^ and - v^ ^ ) is allowed in strophe and antistrophe and in two correit is sponding subordinate periods.) implies that hemiolic rhythms are roi? S' even livelier and quicker than trochaic iv rjfiLokca) Xoyo) Oecopov/xevoci ivdovaiaa-rtKcorepoL'i elvai <TVfjbl3€/3r]K€v. On paeonic-trochaic rhythm see 223 ff. (592).' vii. 443. Be TrpaKTiKu. On the probable relation of the cretic See Heph. Correspondence between paeon and cretic ( . 449. 284 ff. 222).. 1359 f. . (595) paeonic is one See also Ban. •' He evidently applies the epithet in the sense ing') in which Aristotle uses in his classification of melodies it : (' passionate. Heliodorus names this verse paeonic.: 194 Cf. 451). Aristophanes has the rhythm chiefly in a lively young the Acharnians and Uquites. in a 445. but the tone is milder. In the tetrameter and in the longer subordinate periods The and hypermeters cola are frequently joined within a word. regarded as especially adapted to the Aristides (98 M. calls it cretic. 40. 446. 227 ff. to the paean see 620.. 1 ft"... in passionate Emotion is expressed in the second denunciation of Cleon.

325 (427). Two bacchiac dimeters in correspondence appropriately the open the parode of Ranae (316 f. 9 iii. Vesp. 195 of the parabasis of the Acharnians 453) is significant: Bevpo M. Ehythm (Parode). and the tone lighter. 317 single tetrameter is (577). 204-18 = 219-33 StrojjJie. 708 (289). 1144 (387): (3 A ^dvqd' Tvpavvoxs crruyoiicr' locnrep etKO?. found in Th. The bacehius (8 iii. Ach. It some of these paeonic be inspired by the prospect of in Bacchiac Khythm 447. Kop. In the follow- often domestic quite appropriate to comedy that odes lively sentiments should dinner. Ran. 448. use. Lykics in Paeonic 449. 1346 (592).: §449 PAEONIC VERSE (665 ff. is The sentiment in the antistrophe ing plays the scene is is bitter complaint.) is a hemiolic it is foot little and used belongs in the same class with the paeon. Hephaestion el (43. 1 TO Se ^a/c^etaKov airdvtov icmv.ova iXde (pXeyvpa Trupo? e^ovcra fievo<. Cf. ^A. €vtovo<.) with invocation of lacchus "laK^ "laKx' cS "IttK^e v^ — — v^ — v^ ^ ^ w "IaK\e its ^ — — this ^ — ^ The foot derived name from begins with a monometer (427). ware iirl Kal irov TTore ifiTrecroL j3pa-^v euplaKeadai. but in Greek poetry and hardly f. a . The following ode For other dimeters see NvJj.) : at all in comedy.'yapviicri Compare also the phraseology at the close of the strophe...

Heliodorus is here followed in regarding 204-8 = 219-22 as melic./)bs eTTtKWTTOS. iVa p^Trore Trarwcriv eVt rots e/uias d/.^ c.s. period composed of four trochaic tetrameters. Uq. but heptameter in the antistrophe (51). Brunck : eyxdvy A is a stichic Monostrophic dyad. See the metrical scholium on Ach.reXoi. eKKXi](ria Kal reXrj Kal ypacfial Kal 8iKaa-T-qpt S> 51 r}- (ant.. OT eyoj dvdpuKWV £Se cf)OpTLOV Tpe-^oiv. 204 and the comment in 728. : 220 AaKpareldrj Bentley AaKparidri 221 iyxo-voi. epodic tetrad two hexameters and a pentameter. 303-13 = 382-90 (Debate StropJie I. See 778. a' ocTTis Tcts 'AO/jvas (3o(Jjv 212 iKKeKuxfiioKas ^ -^^ — v^ <^ ^ ^^ — ^ — w — — -^ — w — — v^ — — w — v^ — 5 — ^ — vy — — ^ — w ^ v./ .tos ix^o8oTros tt/div Koi'K dv'/^cro) av crxoivos aTJTOtcrtv 231 o£vs oSvv7. See 743. — — ^ ~^ — ^ ^^ _ w — — 15— w— — — -^ — — 51 — v^ . B = aabc. 208-18).7jSe TraAatoj AaKpaTei8rj to CTKeAos fSapvveTai. Kal 310 rr]v ttoXlv aivacrav p-Civ dvaT€Tvpl3aKOj'5i'ip. as : A = AB epode. (204-7. 450. ^Hfi. 226 229 otb-i e/xou 7roAe/. ^' ocTTts w TTO/D ^eot TOto-6V €x6potcriv icTTretVaTO. a' w fXLape Kal /SSeXvpe KpoLKTa Tov arov dpaa-ovs 305 Trdcra /xev yrj Traara 8' TrAea. 214 rjKoXovdovv ^avXXo> <f)avXix)S av 6 e- 216 (nrov8o<ji6pos ovtos vtt fjLOv Tore StwKo/xcvos i^€<f>vyev ov8' (jipw<s av e\a- av OLTreTrXt^aTO. L). 8^ Kop.(ov Ko/3. 7re/D StWKTeos Se* ji^ yap ey^^avoi ttotc yepovras ovra? iK<jivywv ZeiJ Trarep Kai A\apvea^.196 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY (ftpovBo'i.^ — v^ — ^ ^^ — v^ — 18^ — ^ 10— v^ — ^ — ^^ — w — — — — — — — — — ^^. with an octameter in the strophe. 6 6 5 8. (3op/3opOTdpa^i.^ — — w ^^ — 20 — w =^ — 10 v^ — — — — — — w — w — w — ^ -^ ^ _ v^ 6 ^ — -^ . o'lfiot § 450 TaAa? TWV 211 ovK av €T(OV kir TWV ^(xyjs efJLWV ye V€o(fyepojv Tr)TO<i.^>^ 6^ w— ^^ v^ — ^ — 5^ ^ ^ ^^ . ot'. av^erac twv ep-wv X'^P"^^'' avTeyUTrayw 'H/x.^ — — v^ .s(CTat.i.(3' vvv 8' eTTCtST) crreppov i/Sv/ tov/mov avTii<vr]juov 220 Kat /i.

18 4 4. uAA' ixr]8€v £7ri6^t Kat (TTpof^ei.). oAtyoi' 388 Kop. — ^ — — ^ — — ^ — — v^ — — ^ — — v^ — — w — — v^ — 8 — w — w K^ tCV _^ — _ _^^_4 — w — c. 330 331 332 OS ere irava-ei Kal TrdpeKTi. 51. a paeonic hypermeter of eighteen metres in proodic triad the strophe. 877A0S co-Tiv auTo^ei-. and notes. Antistrophe 'H/x. A = abb. §451 313 Kairo PAEON IC VERSE twv TreTpwv avw^ev <p6povs dvvvocTKOTrwv. /3' v/v apa TTvpos <y> erepa dep/JLorepa Kal X. xai or €KK€KiJj(pevKas KpaKra or /cat KeKpaKra 382 7' Princeps om. as proode to two trochaic See 738.6ywv €V TToAei Twi' dfat- 385 Kat TO Trpayfx yv ap' ov (f)avXov wS'. tetrameters. Eq. . 197 — v^ — w — ^ — — Toi's _^_^ _^_4 I.. seventeen in the antistrophe. and 382 ff. a apa Srjr ovk (xtt dp- Xrjs eSv^Aovs dvai- 324 326 y ' Seiav iJTrep {xovrj TTpocTTaTel pyjTopMV (TV « TTKTTevwv d/xeAyets t/ V / 212 5 Ttuv ^ei'cov TOi. 390 5eiA6v evpjorets* eyw 701/3 Tors TpoTTovs 304 KpaKTa Dobree eKK€Kil)<}rt)Kas : iTTicrrapLai. — v^ — w — w — ^^4 328 dAA' k^dvi] yap dvijp 'drepos — oAi' 389. 303 ff.kcro<s. 13' vvv yap €.(€Tai ws eav ai'Toi/ vvi'i fxaXd^ys €V ry Trpo(r(3oXy..)^aip€tv. 451. 342 -^-^ -^-^ crov fXiapioTepos. p. See 705. 322-32 = 397-406 (Debate Strophe II. re Kal dpacret 506 511 KOI KofiaXiKevp-acriv.s KapTTip-ovs 327 TrpwTOS o5v o S' 'IttttoSci/xou XeijSeTaL ^coj/xevos. Trotci. Trai'OvpyLif. See the metrical scholia on Eq. 212 78. 'H/A. I. iocrre lie . : 312 €KKeK6<piOKas Reiske : First dyad (AA) of : au antistrophic pericope.

A = abb. meter as proode to two trochaic tetrameters. B = abc.198 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Antistrophe II./ Kop.^_ 3-^^ TTOtas at'rtas w. See the metrical scholium on Eq. 328-32).). ctti aa-aifJLi yap tot av ^ovov. See 771. — w — — — ^ — ^ — w — — ^ ^ vy 4^^ Kop. a ot'K — ^ _ ^ _ — ^ — b^ — ^— ^ — — 4^ _ ^ _ v. '^Upa. 212 )(^VTpav crvvrpLifere.7]8ap.KXet'i Ti]V Tovrt Tt €0"Ti . triad diiambic tetrameter in the strophe.e6t(TTijcrL rov xpoj/zaros tou TrapeCTTTJKOTO'i. <5 TrpoSoTtt T7}s TraTptSos. 452. 322 f. yevoijm)V iv l\. Ach.^ — v^ ^ 12^ — w — w 212— v^ — w — ^ — ^^^4^ w— v. ei'^e <f)avko)s bxnrip i]vpes eK^aAots "-irii'e t»)v ivO^criv.€vos eha Svi'a- o-at irpos e/M dirol3XeTr€iv. trochaic tetrameter. See 738.paTLVOV KwStov rrpocraSeiV fAopcri/xov Kat (5 SiBacTKoiiJLTjV TpaywSta. Aeolic dactylic tetrameter. the antistrophe. 15 • — w — At. § 452 'H/A. p. Kop. — dAA' dK0U0"aTC. At. . u' o-ou y aKovawpev dTroAer KaTa ere Xwo-o/xev Tots Allots. ^^apvediv yepaiTaTOi 212— 5— Kop. dvatKttt o'Xi'i'TOS ct fSSeXvpos 289 291 At./ .ws Trplv av y dKovcrr]T dAA' dvdcrxecr^' dyyadoL dvacr^ijcrofxai " 212 — w — c. a TOUT ep(i}T<^<s . The Glyconic dimeter in the last colon of the antistrophe is a pericopic : quotation from Simonides (frag. w — — — v^ v^ — 4 w — — — w — — — v^ — — ^ x^ — ^ ^^ — ^ ." Bentley : prjTopaiv B = ab See 705. a ere /i. 277 At.^ — w — — ^ ^^ 10 — ^ -^ — w ^^ — ^ . 4 4 4. Trepi ttcivt' Itti Tracrt Tt Trpayyaacri 8wpo8oK:otcr6v eV avOecriv t'^wv. 400 402 404 405 ci cre yui) /xtcrw. proodic triad: a paeonic octa(322-27. (Parode II.ev ovv KaraXevcrofxev & pLapa KetpaAiy. 8 4 4. fi' 0)5 Se TT/DO? TTav di/atSei'eTat kov [j. 325 pTjTdptxJv ttu'' rdij' <TVfi(fiopai'i. d- dvTi 8' Siv ka-TViia-djii-jv KOV(TaT. di'Tt ^-^. 1 4 Bergk *). oo"Tts rjp. diiambo-Glyconic tetrameter in See also 732. 284-302 = 335-46 LYRICAL DUO Strophe. Second dyad (BB) of an antistrophic pericope._-^.(av yxovos o-!r€ia-dp.

KeKpa)(^d' • e- yw yap Se oi'k axovcro/xat.ovtov aur&v o (rova-rl Tw 340 At.fS' kKcrk(r€L(TTaL OL'x )(afxd(' o-etd/A€i'ov . ws oSe ye o-cto-Tos dpa Try crTpo(f)yj K. Kop. cri) 7' av TAE.'' lare A. 7' Hermann rj\i. ws uTTOKTei'w. 298 'iTTTrero-t aKOvcrofiev 296 df y : Y~ (Bentley) 5?. ov5' e/xou AeyovTos I'/xets dpTiwi ijKovcraTe.fS' dAAa yap vGf Aey.ot Trpoffiaanv.icrr]Kai (re KAe- wvos €Ti fiaXXov. 6' ijXixa or is) in other MSS.Ka : and TTore (for ttot' dpa rbv 301 Trot?' or av cet. yiyvcTat. opas 345 346 Hamaker : aAAa pvy p. triad. pi) 'v TOIS rpLp<J)(TlV eyKdOy^VTac irov Xidoi. On 4 3 (5) 4 12. epodic tetrad: two trochaic tetrameters that enclose an anapaestic pentapody (77) in the first half of the strophe and a paeonic pentameter in the second half..ajxa^e. Toi' re AaKert </>tAo'j. Koi a-v Kard- OoV At. . (3' ovTOiL (TO!. dAAa Karddov to ySeAos. Tolaiv 'nrirevcriv ttot' e's ErE. 294 dKoijauixev Elmsley (R) or hv cet. -xaixai. rocs or ro'iai. See 728.• § 452 PAEONIC VEESE yMTjSe (US 199 298 299 Aeye /xot (rv Xoyov 20 i- [J. o"ot et SoKEt. oiy/c iVre re or : r' or 7' cet. 479 (303) and note. See the metrical scholia on Ach. See 748./5' arroAets ap' opyAiKa tov<fiLXavdpaKea . and on 335 ff. bv yw KaTaTefxiii) ttoO' 'Itt- Trercrt KaTTVjxaTa. oi}/c 293 dKoyo-ar' : ovk iVar' cri.€iJi. COS rpoTTii) ToSe TO XapiuSiov ov TrpoSuxroi ttotL Toi'5 Xi9ov<. with the note. Kop. The strophe and antistrophe constitute the dyad BB of a proodic See 717. imreva-i. Kop. 339 8atjU. CtAA' TTttAtV OTTOJS TO ^l<f)0<i. Bentley : vvv ixoi \ldovs /txot Hermann <ry /xoi R. — k^ ::^ — w — — v^ v^ — s^ — w — >_/ — v^ v^ — ^ ^^ — w v^ — v^ ^^ — ^ ^ 12^ At. 293-302). vvv [lot x. irpMTOV e^epda-are. with variants : apparent hiatus in 285 = 336 see Lys. 284 ff. B = aa (284-92. At. Kop. with a paeonic dodecameter as epode. A = abac.. 336 dp' o/mrjXiKa Reisig Spa 341 Xi^ons vvv jxoi.

two tetrameters. yk- povT dwoXecraL ttoXiov irepl dvSpa KXixpv^pav. kXOe (pXeyv- (Parabasis). 1 1 2 7-3 9 = 115 9-7 1 (Parabasis 78. Strophe. 667 oiov e^ dvOpaKwi' TTpLVLViDV <fi€\paXoS d- VT^Aar epedL^ojxevos piTTiSi.^ — ^ v^ — w — — w ^~ — «^ >^ — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ^ ^^ w ^^ ^ ^ Q^ v^ — ^^ v^^^ v^ Kj ^ v^ 8^ v^ ^>^ v^ 4^° w^^" ^ w w — «_< ^-. TO) ov- crofSapov iX$i /xeAos cVtovov dypoLKorepov o)? €/xe — v^ — — w ^^ — y^ ^^ — v^ — 5— v^— — ^ . § 453 665-75 = 692-702 Strophe. See also 433. 'H/i. 15— ^^v^ _. 6 8 4 4 9.^ — K^ — — w <^ — w ^>^ 10 — ^.^^ _^_9 Antistrophe. ovpia 670 671 ?)vtV cii' iiravdpaKiSes wcrt 7rapaK€t/i€vai. . Paa. 702 Trpos rdSe rt's dvre/jet Mapxptas : Monostrophic dyad. ]\Iapa. 665 ff. 697 dvSp' dyadov ovra Trepl OwuL TrjV ttoXlv /xev 698 elra MapaddvL or t'jfxev eSiwKopev. a' ij8op. 4^ ~ v-^ v^ Xa/Sova-a rov S^yiorqv. . See 753. — ^ — — v^ _ _ ^ _ I .. proodic pentad a hexameter as proode to a periodic tetrad composed of an octameter. and a nonameter. ^' raura ttcus etKora. See the metrical scholium on Ach. 200 453. 'H/i. 694 TToAAa 87) ^v/xTTOV-)]aavra Kai dep/xov Spwra Sr) dirol- ixop^ajxevov dvSptKov Kal ttoXvv. II. Kara TrpoaaXtcrKOfieda. .). THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Ach. ot 6e GaCTiav dva/cv- Kwcrt XLirapafXTrvKa. 454. A = abccd. 'Hyti. — ^ — — v^ — ^ — ^ — c.. 699 I'W 8 VTt' dvSpoJV TTOVI]pMV cr(fi68pa SnoKOfJiedu. a' Seupo Mow TTi'pbs ' pa exovcra fxevos eVrovos A\apviKy].ai y yjSofiai 38 Kpdvovs aTrrjXXayfiivos rvpov re Kal Kpofj-fxinov.-. 672 ot Se /AciTTwcriv.

dimeter. Heliodorus analyzes See the metrical scholium on Pao: 1127 cola 5-8 into two trimeters and a dimeter in the strophe (1131-3). a i]8-i] ' pol Tw TvavTo-Tu.at ras Avj/Livtas d/xTreAoDS. " &pai ^lAat." Koi ka-Q'na Tov dvp. irdaav pkv yap ydv — . /?' vyi'tV ai' S' dx^''""^ I'^Si't' 1160 aSi^ Toi' vofJLOV. 455. 8 12 6 2. : A See 772. vj- 1163 et 7r€7ratvouo-tv 8rj • TO yap ^^tv (fivcret' TTpco- ov tov t€ ^tj- Aryx opwi' otSdi'ovr 1166 eW oTTorav ij TreTrwi'. pericopic tetrad iambic Monostrophic dyad. gc _^_v _^_^ _^_2^ — w -^ — w — — w ^ — ^ — — — — — ^ 12^ — w — v^ — —^ — 'H/i. 281 2^ KoX —avTapxa. trimeter in the antistrophe (1163-5). 'H/i.. (Parabasis II.§ 455 PAEONIC VERSE ov yap ^tXi^Sw [xd)(^ai<.^v. See 433. oTrrei'dJ. r> 201 1130 uAAa Kwv Trpbs TTVp fier SuXkrai- dvSpwv pwv Twv (fiiXwv. — — — — — — — — — w — v^ — w — v^ v^— — •— v^ w — 8 — w — ^ ^ w w . ft'. 1058-71 = 1088-1101 Strojjhe. €KKeas ^t'Awi' ttTT ai' y Savorara rov depovs €KTr€Trp€pvL(rp. = abed.(a/xa ti)i' Qp(].TTav kvvwv 1139 TTys yt'vaiKos Aov/xevr. but into trimeter.. 1135 d' Hermann iKTreTrpLafieva or iKTreiruffneva tKireirpefii'iafi^i'a Bergk 1165 otSd^'oi'r' Bentley : : V^/ca 5' &v or rivW Slv : 1159 oldaivovr' r]vlK hv 1170 yiyvo/xai Brunck : ylvoiiai.ov rpi/Soiv KVKWp.h'a.(Siv6ov T7/V T€ cf)r]yoif 212 ep. dvrjTol TrdvTfs — ^^ 1060 $v(rov(r evKTatats ez'^ats. Siaa-KOTTWV ij8op. octameter. .?. 1135 10 KavOpaKi^wv TOVp(.). Kdirkyw Xo-p-a (l>rif^.Trvpevo}V. paeonic dodecameter. trochaic dimeter.aL' 1170 Kara yiyvop-ai Tragi's Ti]ViKavra rov 6(poi>s. trochaic hexameter.

x^ifxa^d) I'lpivd 6' tv KOiXois dvTpoLS TrapOevia vvix(jiais oi'/Det'ats ^v}jLTrai^(DV ' T€ /SocTKoixeOa XevKorpocf^a p-vpra XaptTWV re Kr^Trer'yuara. i/<j!)' r/Xitjj fiaveis V : A = abbaa. 06 ^etyttwvos /xtv )(Aati'as oi'k a/xTricrxi'oi'i'Taf 1091 ouS' au dep/xT] irvtyovs rj/JLas olktIs rv/Aauyiys ddXirei.^ _ ^ _ — v^ — _ ^ _ 8 K^TTOVS e7.).vd'y Sd/ce^' (pdeipovai 1069 Dissen t' Bentley 1095 6^i> /iAos Brunck o^v^eXrjs. 971-985 = 986-999 (Stasimon Strophe I. /5' evSaifxov cfivXov irT-qvwi' 1089 oio)V(ov. 2 4 4 2 a third paroemiac as epode that repeats the melody of the first and fourth periods. epodic pentad in anapaestic rhjthm a palinodic tetrad composed of a paroemiac. dyad. 1065-71). paeonic heptameter.1aL[v) ot 1064 & Dobree 1065 Dobree 7ro\v<pdyoLS 1066 icprjixiva Dobree ecpe^dfievoi or ((pe^o/uava (pdelpovcTLv Bentley Sd/cera <jr6. a efSes w irdara ttoXl tov (ppovipov dvSpa Tov VTr€p<TO<fiov. 1060 ei^xat'y Bentley evxo. The contrast in form of the anapaestic and paeonic lines marked as possible. Cf.. 1095 1097 1099 riviK dv 6 dea-n-ea-ios o^v p. a TrdvT kv yaia ____ 10 ___2*^ — w w^" 1065 1066 1067 €K KaXvKos ai'^avo/x€I'ov yevi'cri 7ra/x<^ayois e(j6i//xeva SevSpecri t Kapirov diro/Soa-KeraL' KTet'vw S' ot — v^ — v^ — v^ — ^ . acatalectic anapaestic tetrameter.'^'> oaairep {'tt' 1070 ecTTiv €1' €/j. 456. 'Hyu. B = abc.a5 Trrepvyos (^ovais oAAnrat. v^^^ v^v^ . § 456 ei'^aAets Kaprrois yei'i'av 5 4^ 2*^ KT€LV(jjv 7ra/i</)i'Awv di]p(t)v. or ^^uo/aeXrjs : : : : : TraiJ... 1093 aAA' dvOrjpiJjv Xetp. Xpyjpara — y^ — — w -^ — w— — v^ ^^^ — ^ ~^ — 5^' — w — •^ -^ — — ^ — 5 'c.h)vwv (fivXXcov <T> ev KoATTOts vatw. is as (301).(j)Ayoi. See 757. — ^ ^^ — w. II.a)8ets 281 4 (f)d€ipov(TLV XvfJLai^ exOLO-raiq- 1069 epTrerot re Kat SctKera <7ra.^ — ^v^ 15— ^^^ — w-^" — -^ — — ^ — T'' 'Hyu.eXo'? d-xeras 6dX~e(ri fiea-i^pPpivoh iqAtofxavi]^ (Sod. with Monostrophic 2. 8 4 7. Ach. : 771. : vcprfKLOfiav-qs R. the spondaic anapaests in I^an. 973 oV 'iyei cnreia-dpevo? ipTropiKa Scep. o^vfieXTjs. pericopic triad paeonic See octameter.^ ^^ ^^ . 372 ff. A = AB (1058-64.202 crw^co THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY S' .TroXdi'. two tetrameters and a second paroemiac.s : : 1068 1094 1096 riktofiavrj^ Sllid.

a avTop-ara Travr dyada 10 TwSe ye Tropi^erai.. on ira- pOLVlKOS dvijp ((fiV. fi' I.aKp6i'. cri'.e Kat ere "Epws ^wayctyoc XafSuv.^ — v^ -^ — ^ — ^ ^ — w — v^ — w ^ — w s^ — v^ w^^ — ^ .^ — w — — — v-/ — — 6 ^^ >^ Strophe II. ai' TTpiTTei ^Xiapa Karea-Oiiti: — — w — w <^ -~' ^/. 977 oi'SeTTOT iyio IIoAe/xov otKaS' uTToSe^o/xat. — ^ v^ — ^ ^ — w v^ i > ^ - i -. (S' COS KttAov ai' e'xoL'cra tu TrpoawTTOi/ ap Tis eAav^aves'.^^ — v^ ^^ — w ^^ — y^ ^^ — ^ . 988 w Kvn-jOi8t rrj KaXrj Kal XdpiCTL rats (fiiXats ^vvTpo(f>€ AtaXXayyj. €1' TO X<i)pLOV cr fX^tSttS utt' UTTttV KVkAoj. TvpoKaXovpAvov 983 "TTtve KardKeLcro Xa/Se TvyvSe <^iXori](TLa..v — w ^^^ — ^ .^^ 984 Ta5 x^P'^'^^s iyTTTe ttoAu t<o 7rv/3i. fSua. n-yawra /x€V dv d/iTrcAtSos opxov iXd(r at elra Trapd Toi^Se vea jjio(rxtSia crvKtSoiv. 5' ^pi'l(TLjia.yKaTaK-Aivets.p. • -dvv yepovTLOV ere vevo/xtKas y' tti' dAAa 995 Aa/3wv r/aia Sokw eVc irpotrf^aXdv p. K.dx^To Kul TrpoaeTL TToAAo. — v^ =^ .eydXa (fjpovei. Antistrophe 'H/j.. e^wv (rrecfiavov /xe ioa-n-ep i) 6 yiypap.op. 978 979 oi'Se Trap ep-ot ttotc tov 'ApyuoStov acrerat ^(.evos I'o-ws dvOkpiov. 999 wo"T dAetc^eo-^at avTwv nci/xe Tats vor/xryi'tats. 991 7rw« €yu. — ^ 25 >^ yuaAAov ev 985 e^exet ^' i^/twi/ tov 212 ofl'OV EK TaJV U/XTTfAcul'. riJiv Tov (3lov S' e^ifiaXe Setypia KjdSey rd Trrepd Trpo Ovpwv. Antistrophe II.^^ — ^ — — — — — — — — — — — — w ^^ v^ >^w — ^^ 4 ^ ^ v^ v^ 4 ^^ — 4 ^ ^^ ^ — ^ <^^ v^ v^ 4: 4^" _ ^ _ ^ — ^ — 4. Koi TO TpiTov /cat TTC/Dt i}/xe/DtSos opx*^*'? " yepwv oSi. 15 I- 980 981 ocTTis cTTt TTttVT dyd6' >(ovTas €7rtKW/Aacras I'jpydcraTO iravra KUKa 20 KdverpeTre Ku^eyei 982 Kdp." § 456 PAEONIC VERSE /xev 203 5 974 wv ra iu olklu TO. S?) eirrepwrai r ctti to SetTrvov a/xa Kai p.^ — ^ <. Kop. VH -. .

20 ^ y^ 1278 TOi' KtOapaoiSoraroi'. See also 51. Heliodorus rightly denies that this is an epirrhematic syzygy. K-op. 971 ff./ — w — v^— wv eXdrrwu ovSevos. 6 SeAAou Kp(i}/3v\(i>v _^__ — v^— — ^ — — — v^ yj fxaXXov ovK Twv 6V y uvtI 5— 4*^ kyu) ttot elSov Setrret- fMi'^Xov Kal pod<i _^__ _^__ — ^ ^^ ^ — v> — v^ — ^ — ^ TTVovvTa I'lj /Jiera Aewydpow yap ets yap yTrep 'AvTi^wi'- w— 8*^ 1271 dAAa irpecrfSiixDy ^dpcraXov mx^t'. of which nine in the strophe and eight in the antistrophe are paeonic and one trochaic. AB = AB.viTpa.aKapi^ofji€v 51 15— — — — — — — — — — >^^^ ere ^ <^ >.roTe • — — ^^ — — — ^ ^ 6*^^ v. See 778. 775 f.J v. The ode is an antistrophic pericope. avrhs TrevecTTijS _^ _^__ _^__ — _ _^__ — ^ — w 6*^'^ v. 1265-74. epodic triad two pentameters. a' w fiaKapt (lis Arro/xd'es fj. a TToAAaKts Si) '8o^' ifjLavT(p 212 Sextos TTiffiVKkvaL koI CTKaios oiiS£7rw. 1275-83 Strophe = 1284-91 — ^ — <^ — w — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ v^ (Stasimon L). See the metrical scholium on Ach.Tre irapoLviKbi Elmsley irapoLvios 981 Kavirpewe deTyfia rdSe Brunck dely/xara or Sdy/xa.~ — y^ ^ — v^ >^ — v^ ^. 665-718 the strophe. 'H/x. in See 737. B is a stichic period of ten tetrameters but nine in the antistrophe./ — v^^v^ — w — — ^ ^^ — <^ — — ^^ — \j — — vy ^. (453). 5 5 6. • w X"P'5 €</)eo-7reTO 1279 Tov S' vTroKpiTy]v erepov dpyaAeov ws cro(f)ov v^ ^^ ^^ w^ ^ v. with a hexameter : as epode./ 4 4 i A^ 4^^ . I.^ XeipoTexvLKwroLTOVi w v^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 1277 Trpwra fih' a/racrt dv'Spa T€ cro(f)(HTaTox'.~ 1276 TraiSas i(fiVT€V(ra'i on (ficXov . and gives V€S23. Compare the Elmsley : antistrophe Ka. A probably = aa'b. 10-^ 1272 1274 €LT CK-et -v. such as Ach.^ 5^^ /XOJ'OS fXOVOl'i — \^ TOis XlevccTTaicrt ^vi'rjv rots GerraAwv. Strophe II.^ ^ . 457.' 204 971 flSes THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY w Suidas : : § 457 979 987 : eldes w etSej u). See 705.^ 1267 aAA' 'A/xDVtas 1268 1269 otiTOS. his reasons.

is arranged in modern editors have followed this arrangement in part. : AB <A>B. It is not. pericopic pentad. but = the correspondent to the first systematic period is now lost = abcda. trochaic. eleven o-Tt'xot. pentameter. 6 4 8 5 6.dTLOV eiTTore n r\ QXi/36p. octov Se /xovov eiSevac (TK(ap.fS' €1(71 Ttre? o" ji /x' iXeyov ui KaTa8u]XXdyrjv./3'* ******* Antistroiilie I.^" w o 4^ -^ ~^ i^ _^_^ — ^ \^ ^ ^ ^ ^. in the strophe and antistrophe. however.e KXeuiV KttKicra? eKi'to-e* k^^' or aTreSet/aopyv. {'TreTapttTTev eTTLKetp^evos tjPLKa Ktti p. . 1265 ff. A reversion in the last subordinate period to the melody of the first trochaic hexameter. and one Heliodorus. but the rhythm is uninterruptedly V trochaic. rropi'^V elcrtovd' 30 212 €Kd(TTOT€. influenced Fesj). B is a stichic period of nine tetrameters in the strophe See 772.^ w — 4^' 4^^ 'Ufi. • 1290 Tavra KartSiov vtto ti y. See 778. the first systematic period (1265-74) of the pericope In R and Some See the metrical scholium. is an antistrophic pericope. ovKTos eyeAwv /zeya Kexpaydra ^ew/xevot. namely that they are not in the proper trochaic rhythm. hexameter.iKphv eVt^7yKtcra X'^P'^^ "^V^' e^ra vvv e^i]irdTij(Tev dp-ireXov. Kop. 1281 ovTivd ttot' cofiocre fia- Oovra Trapa fxi^Sivhs (f)V(r€o^ 1282 a\X 1283 diro croc^Tys — v^ — kj — w — ^ — ^ -^ ^^^ -^^ ^^ avTOfxarov kKfiadeli' yX(j}TTOTroiilv els to. eight paeonic (seven in the antistrophe). but with See 705. inconsistently regards this ode as an epirrhematic syzygy.p. : 1282 (piKxeos Bentley : cpvaeus 1286 Kadaas Briel KaKiarats This ode. 971 ff. that the chorus addresses the audience. (eight in the antistrophe).: § 457 1280 eiT ' PAEONIC VERSE ApicfipdSrjv ttoXv tl 205 n^ 25 6vfJLOcro(fiiKioTaTov. tetrameter. by the parabatic quality of 1265-74. See the metrical scholium on more. like the preceding. oi'Sei' ap' e/ioi! jxkXov. Antistro2)hc II. but in the epirrhemata of the true epirrhematic syzygy found Furtherin the parabasis (668). the reason given in the metrical note on Jch. — v^ -^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — — — — — — w . and introduced an iambic cadence in some verses. is equally applicable here. octameter.evos eK/3uXw. for denying that the stichic periods BB are there epirrhemata.

^^^ kj . ^ -. 716^ TIi. called dochmius. its phrase. 1195 ^^ ~. 1193 Secondly. Av. 1264 Av. 720 700* ^vv aSiKots epyois -^ Th.). Two assumptions seem to be warranted by variant forms of this fundamental phrase. 427-9) ^ -^ — ^^ — ^ ^^. De and ' versibus dochmiacis. 1188 Th.^ ^ — ^ ^-^ — y^ ^^ >^ Av. that the long syllables ra-xa 8e {j^erafiaXovcr o Ti ttot' to (TX^rXie (cf.^ Av.: CHAPTER X DOCHMIAC VEESE 458. f. resolution. of The fundamental form in dochmiac verse is a which the metrical constitution is ^ 358). 333^* arsis. source as t/ ovv ov \ey€L^ {Ach.^ 55 f.^ — ^ — — . 460. has strong inclination v^— . . w ets IIoTVtat Moi/Dai TTjv ejxrjv fjLTjKeTt Se SoAov eK-aAecre — ^^ — . 360 ov epefSos eT€K€TO ^^^^ v^ >^ Av.^ Ae^ets T — Th. The mental phrase irrational forms of the fundav^— are (2) (1) w (3) v^ </iesc.?. This manifestation may be combined with resolution of theses Tts ravrrj vepav dvocTLOvs v^ w — Av. (4) . Aristophanes rarely irrationalizes the second and in general he employs relatively few of the thirty-two forms (Seidler. resolution of each of these four . Various opinions have been expressed both in ancient and in modern times as to and rhythm (624 459. 723 Ach. that both the short syllables are arses which admit irrationality. are theses admitting resolution TToAe/tos atperat : First.) made ^ By 206 He prefers possible by irrationalization ^ -.

eight metres are joined. Elsewhere two. Each rhythm is singularly appropriate (465) only simple variations occur. diiambic correspond with aeolic these cases by The attempt to secure metrical equivalence in emendation and other devices " is unnecessary ' and unconvincing. is Similar intentional variation f. Schroder {Aristoph. frag. 492 f. De dochmio quid - Zielinski. ^- y^ .^ On its the relation of the dochmius see to the primitive dimeter and on name 623 462. 873 (470). ff'. ^ ^^ fif. 349-51 as paeonic. The chorus sings in dochmiac rhythm in the strophe (333-335). In Aves 327 (473) Aristophanes intentionally changes the rhythm in strophe and antistrophe. The dimeter and monometer may be assumed in all the 697. See Gleditsch. (468) and Th. five. 729 ff. 463. .= ^ ^ ^. occasional and rare. On the primary times and assumptions stated. four. (469) and Av. 489 ff. 265) regards 333-5 as partly anapaestic. See 51. may theoretically assume seven other metrically equivalent forms. x^ ^ ^ and w ^ v^ . three. 667 ff. the dochmius has eight v^ is octaseme.' i. partly paeonic . tradiderint vetercs. for example {Gliederung. v^ (once). In the latter. Other forms are .and also v^ . 566 (468) and Aristoph. but in comedy no dochmiac subordinate period immediately follows another. Greater freedom of correspondence is found in Ach. in paeonic in the antistrophe (349—51). seven.§ 464 ^^ DOCHMIAC VERSE 207 towards equally.~568 (468) and 950-955-1033-38 (583). for a convenient . Cant. found elsewhere. 464. Of. The dochmius admits neither catalexis nor protraction. 733^ 735^ (469). of melody Pow.) as anapaestic. In comedy the metrical form of the dochmiac metres in the strophe may (467). except possibly in Ach. ff. regards both the strophe and the antistrophe of the lyric in the Arcs (327 if. Kock {Die VogeP. Tor convenience the dochmius will be regarded in this book as a metre. 99) regards these verses as trochaic in both strophe and antistrophe {—^^^ and w^v^w = — w — ^).^v^. without interposition of a period in different rhythm. and the dimeter and monometer as cola. as in In Vesp. The monometer occasioually occurs singly in comedy.^. cola. to the sentiment expressed. ' See AcJi. Metrik'\ 188. and the paeons (349-51) as 'cyclic.e. lYub. This ^^ ff. (472). inserted between other rhythms or at the close of a strophe. 32. 331). be exactly repeated in the antistrophe. summary. metrical equivalents of anapaests. was the opinion held anciently. Vesp.^ - and inclines to which he employs about ^^^. ^ . 1 See the authorities cited in Kiihne.v^ . AcL 358 (once). 1188 ff. 461. 1166^ 1167^ (474).(four times).

1268 (465). all in the style of hypermetrical systematic periods. 569 (468). J . 'H/x.yS' aTroKeK/Xv/Ka/xev Sboyeveis 8eov<.a' TToXefMos atperai. but this 465.). 744 (469). 466. See 773. 724 (472). 358-65 = 385-92 (Syzygy Stroplte. _ Antistro2:>he} __ ^ _ . 467. L). e^et. The period consists of a single dochmiac The dochmius is frequently associated with other rhythms in comedy. <ye> Ttv' upoOvTov dva. Thesm. SdireSov €TC 1268 ~2/Se fipoTwv deoicrt Trkp^ireiv Kairvov. and 1266. 1264 1266 ixr]K€Ti rrjv /xrySe ifiy^v ^tairepdv ttoXiv._ _ ^ - 8d^' 'H^. as in the four odes that follow.e Kol 6eovs. and thus precisely repeat the form of their strophes. /X7^ ere Xadrj dewv rts ravry Trepwv. ov epe/So^ cTeKCTO. 310. 640. dWa (f>vXaTTe ttus 1192 1194 depa TrepLvetfiskov. 1266 7e Blaydes octameter. (Syzygy II. 1 ^ o 7d« For convenience. Monostrophic dyad. ^^_^_ w^antistrophes in this section that contain a dochmiac subordinate period which exceeds the tetrameter in length are printed in cola. 'H/x. Aves 1188-95 = 1262-8 StroijJie.208 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY lyrics § 465 dochmiac of comedy without resort to word-division. Vesp. Nuh. ends with a word. 489. a' Tt ovv ov Aeyets eiri^ijvov w vy — e^eveyKwv Ovpa(' 360 362 o Tt TTOT w a-y^irXie to ywe-ya tout' e^eis . Plut. TroXejxos ov (f>aTo<s ^^ -^ — ^ — >^>^— v^ — 1190 TTpos €/i. especially with iambic. 1163 (474). irdvv yap e/xe ye ttoOos o ri cf^povei'. Ach. 495. 358 (467). Av. Generally also the first of the two metres composing the dimeter is neglected in Ach.

'H/JL.Lcrv(f>ov. : A = abb. It is to be noted that nevertheless he separates them from the ode. Kop. Antistrophe} Kop. eld vvv. 1. 489-96 = 566-71 (Syzygy StropJie.). Aeye.'. 13' I'w Adfiax' w fSXeirwv do-Tpo. but his arrangement necessitates wordFurthermore. Ach.<i re koL Tropicus rpLfid^ . heptameter as proode to two Heliodorus divides See the metrical scholium on Ach. See 738. II.• <aAX'> Lcrdi vvv dva6O". regarding them as a distich.' {jiTip DOCHMIAC VERSE avTos rrjv 8cki]V Siw/Dtcrw.70. €Trei8i]Trep auTos aipel./3' Tt ravTa crTp^f^u TiXva^ei.7ru?. 358 fF.'' dywv outos ttj. 387 Xajil 8' kp-ov y' eveKa Trap' 'l€p(jjvvp.^ eiVSe^eTat. the following trimeters. aTracrt /xeAAets eh Aeyeiv 494 avTjp ov rpepec to wpdyfj. P .a Ti Spda-ei? . ti ^Tycret? . e^avotye fMrj^o-vas (TKrjxpLV rots ws 390 Ti. the heptameter into five cola. Antistrophe. 492 ocTTis Trapacrx^v ry ^__^_ ^__^_4d voXet tov avx^va _-\. he does not include the melic trimeters in division. in order to facilitate comparison with the strophe.§ 468 364 uXX./ ot5k 0. a dochmiac 7 3 3. 468.ov (TKOToSaarvTrvKVOTpiXoi etr' 389 391 nv' "AtSos kwt/v. 209 78 6eU Sevpo TOiVi^vyvor iyx^lpeo 5__^_ -_^_ ^_^-3« Aeyeti'.___^-^_^^3^ 78 rdvavTt'a.^WT0S lov O"t0r/pou5 t dvy'jp. proodic triad melic iambic trimeters. ^ The antistrophe is printed in cola. Brunck : 392 Porson : d7wi' Monostrophic dyad.

In 571 consisted Vesp. 327 ff. p^qS' uffipwv yei'rj 730 drevTys 78 dyav dTepdpwv KrjSepwv ^ t' J^ — ^ . the structure of the antistrophe was intentionally varied. See 767. the last period (570 f.' the antistrophe being octacolic.dxa. and a second dochmiac tetrameter as epode. 6 6. in imitation of the strophe. 51 eire rts ecrTt ra^iapy^os ^__^_ r) ^^6dv 17 51 ___^_ ^_^_ ^_^_ /Sorjdy^a-dru) crrpaT-qyos 1(1 + 2 570 reixoi^axas "^^P. If 569 was. ^-^_ w_^_ w_^_3 ^ — ^ — . his text. palinodic tetrad a dochmiac tetrameter as proode. of two 'cola. A in the strophe = abba. and became abc. 'Up. and this was its constitution in the text of Heliodorus. may have repeated the melody with which the first (566 ff. (Debate). contrary to : : : his regular practice (701).s Dobree reix^fidxas : : Monostrophic dyad. and the variation may have extended merely to the third and fourth cola.^ v^^w— ^ . as Elmsley supposed. Tis dvvcras. as in Av. 489 ff. a dyad of the monostrophic type two dochmiac hexameters in correspondence. Even in this case. : ^ ^_ lyw yap exop-at 489 d\X' Hermann 494 dj-v/p Dindorf dvr]p lu 566 w Hermann 569 The period consists of a dochmius and an iambic dimeter joined within a word. See 746. See the metrical scholium on 566 ff.€cros. If the received text of 569 is what Aristophanes wrote. a pericopic triad a dochmiac hexameter._^_ ^_^i-:3V . a mOov pi'qS TTidov Aoyoicrt. (463). 5___^_ /i. a dochmiac tetrameter.^ - 3 dvrjp. a dochmiac dimeter.). a separate analysis of the antistrophe. Heliodorus makes the strophe a mesodic triad. See 771. two iambic trimeters. 469.) began. The lack of complete metrical agreement between strophe and antistrophe probably led him to give. grouping the two melic trimeters as a single distichic period. 4 3 3 4. omitting (TTpaTTjyb^ 7) 570 TeLxo/ni. A in the antistrophe = aa. 729-35 = 743-9 Strophe. aba.. 566 ff. a period that consists of a dochmius and an iambic dimeter joined within a word. ^ ^— w— 2d iW w<f)€Xev poi i) ^vyyevijs 78 ^rvat Tis ocTTis Toiavr' (vovOerei.210 567 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY /SorjOrjcrov § 469 w yopyoXocfia ^ai-et's. Elmsley reduced the dimeter to a dochmius by reading ra^iapxos rts fj. See the metrical scholia on Ach.

efiTTpocrdev o fir^xai'drai ovtos twv dvpwv aTracriv rjp.^ w . 776.fS' ^vv€V)(^6pea-6a <. Antisirophe. 78 w <l>ot/3' ^_^_^_^_^_^c. See B = abcb. 78 Kal SrjXos (cttlv ev ttolwv Se TrapMV Sexov. yap dvi]p l<Tp. See 750. (Scene). 2 14 1. 749 wido/jLevos Bruuck : 7r€id6/x€vos a probably = (729-32. 868-74 = 885-90 Strophe.: ^470 733 o-ot DOCHMIAC VERSE Se 211 - vvv Tis 6ewv €fx<f)av'r]'S 38 5 .3« dyady rvyrf "AttoXXov Ili'^t' err 70 ^-^-'-^v.^xr-wb 870 TO Trpdyp. Invocation. 3 2 3 3. 885 TCLvrd crov <}>tAoi'VTas u)S oi'Sets Reisig ri<x$i)ne(76a 886 ^^e/ca Reisig eiVe/ca 890 7€ veuripuv Schol. Vesp. 'H1X. yevvaiorepuv : : 888 -^adbp-iada. proodic tetrad an acephalous protracted 748. Cobet . with a protracted iambic trimeter as epode. iambic dimeter as proode to two dochmiac monometers that enclose an acatalectic iambic tetrameter. w ^^ ^ — Til v^— ^ —~ ^ — ^ — ^ — i — v^ — id Aniisfro2)he.lv dp/iocrat Trav(rap. a' €V<f)rjiJb[a [xlv TTpoira vvv VTrapy^erw. epodic tetrad dochmiac dimeter.^ - 2 Trapwv 734 ^yXXafx/Sdvei Tov 735 (TV Trpdyfiaro'i./3' v€vovdeTi]Kev avrbv ' ei's ra TrpdyfxaO' ois tot' i-TrefjiaiviT eyvwKC ya/s dpTtws 745 Xoyi^€Tai 747 vuv 748 Kai 8' r' CKCtva irdvd' ap. ^ — ^ — v^ — — 5*^ — — ^ — i=i_^_ ^ — ^ — — — <^ — 4 — <^ — %^ — Id 874 lyu Ilatdv.ivoLS TrXdviov. 733-5).a'i a (rov KeXevovTOS ovk iTreidero.TavTdy ctol Kairf^iSopev et'VOL veauTLV dp^ats eVe/ca twi' TrpoAeAeyyuevcov.apTt.ev e^ ov 888 Tov Sypov i](r66pea-dd 890 Twv ye vewTepwv. two iambic trimeters that enclose a aba'c. Monostrophic dyad. Kop. i'o-cos Totcrt crois Aoyots TTiideraL (Tw<]ipov€i pkvToi /JLeOiirTds ets to Aoittov toi' rpoirov iri06pL€v6^ re croi. : A = AB : 470. Kop.

shows logaoedic form 471. tovtw r Tois (xAAois ecTTaL aTra(Tiv — 800 — — — — 'ipycov 6^^ 670 Tvapd^etyp vfSpeuis dSiKCDV a^ewv re rpoTnov • (fyrjo-^i S' dvai .^ re Oeovs (fiavepws. 13' Mv. 3 5 4 1. pentameter. 472. dochmiac nionometer. B = abcd. — ^ — ^ v^ >. pericopic See 717. (Syzygy). 8k KaKOV. 281. in the scene. TcdcTLV ep. as The dochmius has affinity also for anapaestic rhythm. with anapaest in the fifth place. fet — — v^ — — — w — — ^^ — v^ — rt Spwjyt o 3c.0VKed'> oo-ia 680 <t]> fiaviais ^Aeywx'.271 Saxrei re SiKrjv Kal irphs ^-^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ — x:.(fiav->]<. K. w — 3 Xva-cnj TrapaKOTTOS.^ - ^ . /cat vo/xi/xa — w — v^— c?v^v^— woo TTOtetv o tl KaAw? 678 Kctv prj TToiwcri ravra. r aTroSpas ov\ Ae^ets ofov Xijif/ei Spoicras SteSt^'j ^pyov.ai. rotaS' tcTTai* 78 ^ . iambic trimeter. ris. KOtiTrco TreTrav/ji. dkX ovv iJKCi? y odev Ji']K€ls <f)avXw<. ^' Tl av oiii' €i7rot 7r/3os ravrd . ore TOtavra Trotwv pevToi ye o8' dvat- crxvvT€t l\. The melic trimeter in 886. a i^v yap [xe ^o-Oj] Spdcras dvocria. tetrameter./^ — w — v^4 === 684 oTt Tci Trapdvopa rd r Oeo'i ^^ w dvocritt J dirortveTai wapaxpij/xd re TtVerat. (70).- 3^' avTwv oVav Xij(f>6y Tts <. 667-86 = 707-25 Strophe.^ 8pwv ^ .op.ii'ov<. Set^et r ^)8rj 674 Tracriv dv6pu)iT0L<i a-efSl^eLv 212 Satynovas j8iKaiu)S r — c^— — w — v^ — w ^ '^X^''- ^^ — 4*^^ 6 _^_i^ e^cTTOvrast ocria fiy]8op. exemplified in the two odes that follow.^ — _^_^ v^ ^^ 3d orat ywat^t Kot /SpoTOicnv. opdv e- 212 15— _-_^_ v.op.t Ko/3.212 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY The strophe and antistrophe constitute the dyad § 471 BB of the proodic triad inserted tetrad : See 772. . Thes.

6Tpo<fid 0' 'qp. a catalectic iambic trimeter as epode. 679-85).^1 Bninck 683 icrai Reisig ^^(TTif 680 ^ von Velsen 719 ^kust Suidaa 710 T^xets 7' /Jporols ^poTolfftv Enger yvvai^lv 721 ^tt' Enger 720 X^^ets t' Fritzsche re X^|«s ewjipiaeLS €vvj3pieh Reisig 725 eV^x" Bergk eV^x" '''^ 723 5^ Fritzsche 5^ <Te 722 Kai Hermann Bergk : : : : : : : : A = ab (667-78. an iambic trimeter as proode to two dochmiac proodic tetrad : : See 750. Exclamation.Twv eXdoi .7j8a/iws. in close 51.^^ . 213 TOVTO [xevTOi Mv. Kop. Aves 327-35 = 343-51 Stroj^he.^^^ _ _ €7ri/3aA€ Trepi T€ (US KVKXwcraf dp<f)(o ^^^^^^^^ 5 Set Tw8' Ktti olpw^etv ____ ___ — — — — ^ Souvat pvyx^i' <l>op(idv. (Parode). 277 -^ — ^-^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 2- piv Oea-povs dp\aLOVS. Trrkpvyd re iravTo. ^vv dSiKOis epyois Mv. . Monostrophic dyad. os yap 281. cKtiAecre irapefSuXe 5^^— — — — — — r kpX rrapd 4 333 eh Se SoAov yevos dvocrtoi'.P'ris o?v crot. 328 TTpoSeSopeS' dvoo-ia t eirudofxev. epodic pentad hexameters. (it) yvva. /?' 10) t'w. 3 3 4 3. — . 'H/A. 271 ^t'Aos v]v 6p. trimeters that enclose a trochaic tetrameter. See 759. ^Hfx.i. Exclamation. S' TTapejSrj opKovs opvidwv. a trochaic tetrameter. Ko/o.~^ — A^itistrophe. 723 Tctxa 667 /if ctti kukov ere/aoTpoTTOV tVexei T^X^: Meineke 679 oi'/c^^' 669 ^crrat airaffLV Bothe S. /3' fiaTrju XaXtlre OTj //ttt ' Tvyv S' deth e'yw ovk d^rycrw. but this fact is by no means See 473. This analysis assumes that the strophe and antistrophe were originally certain.^ ^^ ^^ 42- 345 KJioviav. oTrep €^(>t eyever epoL -^ -^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^ TToAe/itov €-pdcf)ij. -^^^ ^ — — 5d v/>^>. aAA' Tw rax ov xaipwv laws avocrtovs <«7r> a^eots kpyots' cr ivvf^puts Aoyovs Xe^etS t 722 </cal> yap dvTa[X€i\p6p€cr6d 8e /xtra/^a Ao Ctr' : Sicnrep cikos avrt TwvSe. Avith B = abcb.lv ^^^^ =^ ^^ — — 4- 330 €V€p.€TO TreSta Trap' TTapifSi] i)plv. and a dochmiac tetrameter. a tetrad composed of two anapaestic 6 6 4 4 3. Tt's o-i'/A/xaxos «k Oewv a$ava.§ 473 fx-rf DOCHMIAC VERSE ykvono av fj.a ea ea. 'iiriO iTray iTTLfftepe iroXepiov oppdv ^^^^^v. aTrev'XO/iat. A = aabcd. correspondence.ira<nf 'icTai.

^_3 ^- 1163 Avcravias irarptixav fxeydXuyv ov KaAecrov rpe^wv ev8odev 10 _ ^- . in the antistrophe a paeonic dodecameter. o8' eKctvos dv7jp. : The systematic period ends with The following lov lov is an . 281. ftoda-ofiac JVuh.p\aia Kai tokoc ovSev yap av tok<jdv • fie (fiXavpov epydcraiO' en. 346 is only apparent. 2w. A = abed. (^I'Aos.^^ v^ — -^ ^^ — • id^ 1 -^ v.). § 474 349 ovT€ yap opos a-Kupiv ovTC ve^os aWepiov 442 350 351 ovT€ ttoXlov TreAayos lo-Tiv o Tt Se^eTac /xe. — ^^ -^ : — — — — — ^ v^ ^^ ^^ ^ -^ ^ — w v^ 10^ Blaydes : £7r' efiol 345 iravrq. pericopic tetrad brachycatalectic anapaestic tetra- meter. 276 15 titdv. and in the strophe a dochmiac pentameter. 1155 iw. 2t.-w^ . croiTi^p — — w — — ^ — — ^ ^ — v. 2o). TwS' a7ro<^vydvTe 334 e/xol 10 — v^ — ^^ — ^ — v^ — w -^ ^^. e^dpoh f3Xd/3r]. lu). Reisig iravra Hiatus in 345. rapa rav VTreprovov w-w. ate (Tov Trarpos. brachycatalectic anapaestic dimeter.^^ .^ 1° 1 v^ - v^ v^ 4d^' 1165 & TeKVOV e^eXS' S) rat.214 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 51. 463.. loj KAaer SyfioXotTTarai . TeKVOV..^ . 281. 2t.ot?.^ — ..Tr(ov.v^ v^ .--.^ . Cf. 474. 479 (303) and the comment. 276 -^ - w oiK(j)v.. Lys./ V-' — v^ — ^ w — -^ ^ — 2^ v./ Id^' <^ — w — v./ — yj ^ Q 2*^' 1160 dfi<f)y]Ket yAwrry efJL6<i./ 2^^' 2*^ S) '/SoXoo-rdra: ivSoBev Tpix'^v ^^ o^oKoffTaraL Princeps 1168 woi'Dindorf: woj/ I'w. Monostrophic dyad. 78 ^^^^ KaKwv cos ifie. w ^tAos w aTTt^t 10) Xa/3o}v TOV 78 2t. --W.^ - avToi re koI Ta.^ ^ 6^ 1155 fioav. Xdp. anapaestic tetrameter. : 4-2-4 5 in the strophe. 4-2-4 10 in the antistrophe.-. 1164 rpex'^v ivSodev Princeps croi. 1154-69 (Episode 78 II. otos efxol rpe<^eTai ToicrS' ev\ 475 5 Sw/xacrt Trats. 212 : _ _ _ _ — -^ — v^ v^ — . See 772. . 281 2*^ TrpofBoXos 8o//.

112 2. 6 6 2 2 2. Nub. : ' ' : : .^ 474 DOCHMIAC VERSE 215 anaphonema. anapaestic monometer. 1167-70). A = a protracted iambic hexameter as abccd. 1170 ff. Non-antistrophic. pericopic tetrad See 772 monometer. See 754. dochmiac monometer. anapaestic pericopic pentad monometer. proodic pentad proode to a periodic tetrad composed of an iambic hexameter. The first two intermediate periods constitute a monody (593). B = abcde. anapaestic monometei'. iambic trimeter. two This intermediate enoplic dimeters and a paroemiac. trochaic dimeter. dochmiac teti'ameter. and show appropriate variety of rhythm. A = ABC (1154-60. period possibly may be aabbc. 3 4 1 1 1. catalectic iambic dimeter. See 752. See 772. See Schol. and in the text of Heliodorus was separated from the ode by the 8iTrk-7j. dochmiac G = abed. llGl-6.

but the first syllable of the prosodiac and the last syllable of the enoplius may be short instead of long (ras aTTTOyuevos Ww )]v ^aperpas clva 6e o-e yovarwv KapKiVos iXdwv Trpbs eyio ttot dpd ye tovt ap' ^ ^ — -^ ^ — w — w^ — v^v^— Eq. from Bacchylides Aristophanes are too few to illustrate all the forms. The prosodiac does not admit catalexis. Since the prosodiac-enoplie odes in quoted. ^-^v^ -v^^-. occasional cola will be and Pindar.^ ^ . where necessary. . see 630 476. which in comedy do not admit resolu478. iv67r\io<. and the enoplius. In both these associated cola. TTpoaoSiaKO'. 216 .: : : CHAPTER XI ^ PEOSODIAC-ENOPLIC VEESE 475. which are respectively in ascending and descending rhythm.^ ^ — y^ Nub. when joined with the enoplius that of a trochaic dimeter. the prosodiac. Each normally contains twelve primary times and eight syllables. 465 ff.^ ^ . 573 477..^ — ^ ^ _ Eccl. By catalexis the enoplius loses its final syllable eTncrrafjievriv (f>povTi8' — ^ .^. On 643 ff.. 572 Cola occur in association with these dimeters that when joined with the prosodiac have the form of an iambic dimeter. The fundamental cola of prosodiac-enoplie verse are the two dimeters from which it receives its name. the constitution and probable origin of these cola.. 1272 = 1298 — ^ y^ — ^ ^ Pax 782 — w^^. but a hypercatalectic (488) prosodiac dimeter occurs KOLvrj yap eV evrvx^aiaLV ^^ ^ — ^ ^ — y^ Eccl.

but by no means always. 1267 Crat. Neither of these admits .). Bacch._ ^ ^ catalexis. 1529 /rajr.: : : § 483 PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE the component metre : 217 tion. viii. may occur in cola of iambic and trochaic is The ithyphallic (203) TOV <f)ik0V common — ' XO/3«VO-OV — ^ — ^ y^^ PttX 111 Also a hypercatalectic (488) dimeter in iambic form depfxav 8' eVi Trvkwv diXkav ^ - ^ .w . 276 479. irrational (650) <Tol yap 5e TaB' l^ »-PX^)'= /^^'^«' Koi Td)l dv f3ovf3o)viipy] \opbv TO fii] (Tcfivpov 'xy Mdpcrt/xos yepovTos oitos ^ ~ — ^ ^ — ^ -— ^ — ^ v^w" Pax 781 — v^ — w" Fesp. Eq.r)8iv ets AvartcTTpaTOV ci/iiAe rais eVt/JSats ka-dUi KAewvv/AOS — ^ — ^ — — — w w w . is generally.^ : ^ Bacch. 3tf. . ' encomiologicum ' 51. Two prosodiac trimeters occur MoKTciv yXvKvSwpov dyaXp-a. 6 Aarors evpvpeSwv ^_ 483. 32 Two enoplic trimeters occur duTifSoXij fxerd rwv -aiSwv xopevcraL _^^_ ^^ ^ ^ ' Pax 783 574 f. V. 18 ff. Catalexis in these dimeters assumes the regular iambic ( ^ ) and trochaic ( . 286 Oi. epXerat yAcurr?.? €-a'ota — oAitvjv _^ 1 -WW.WW This was called (Heph.w — ^^ — >^ — v^ ^ Vesp. This was called ' iambelegus (Heph.^ ^ but ^ Pax 119 t both may be hypercatalectic dXX' wydd' dvtCTTacro prjO oi'TW creavTov ^ ^ Tov TTttts _^^_ re Ilocretoav ^ - ^ Vesp. x. twv y€ vvv ^ ^ dvSpwv T€ oaiTttS Kal _^^_ ^_^_ . 1293 480. ' AVcZ. 323 ^5. ^ ^ : _^^_ _ Find. 50. 22 K.^ - ) forms -^ : Kal ydcrTpKTOv (reavrov lj.). 277 — — ^— Pax 803 — ^ Vesp. Protraction form. 481. 4 BaXlas paKapwv _ _ ^ _ 482.

^v^- v^- Find. 1273 44 Kovpai Slw^lttttoc "Api/os — w Trav^aATys e/JLals — v. 01. ix. — v^v>— in Bacch. r\pipa<. 59 association with the two prosodiac and two enoplic trimeters. — v^v^y— wv^ v^/vy Bacch. These trimeters both admit catalexis § 484 Atayd^a KaTejSav. xii. 13 — ^ 485. 7 KaKWi Trev€(r6aL ^_ I'crropis _e.^ ^ "Y/3pis. ev Tol-i (rTe(f)avwpa(Tiv. ix.p aXXoii dAAo? £— ipypaa-LV dvOpU)Trocs jXvkvs i. is The second of these tetrameters enoplic €i> fiev aljxapdai irapa Sai/xovos dvdpdnroLS dpicTTOv — ^ The catalectic — form ^w— is v^v^ — v^ Bacch. 1 commoner — eyyoi'wv yevcravro. XV.2./ — v^ Baccli. 229 the 486. ^ v^v^ -. rav Trovrcav . Isth. vii.:: : : : 218 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY 484. xiv. evecrra^iv <fipao-iv -^ ^ ^ Bacch. which in ascending rhythm have the form of an iambic trimeter and in descending rhythm of a trochaic trimeter : eXOovra Koa-fxyjcTaL deoS/xarov ttoAii' ^ — Ilv^wi't 8t^ jxr] w^_ — w ^ ^ w— Bacch. 46 Compare the final colon of the hexameter in the follow- ing fragment of Pherecrates (2) Aoucra/zfvot Se Trpo Xap7rpd<. xiii. Trimetrical cola occur. 47 This does not admit catalexis. ol 8' ev tw fivpi^ AaAeire Trepl a-icrvfxfSpLwv Koa-/>iocravSaAwi' re . Similar in formation are two tetrameters that fulfil function of cola in the composition of strophes. a ttXovtov Suva/xtV re Oows ^ ^ -v^v^v^— Find. Kal v\ptirvXov Tpoias eoos — w 487. The first is prosodiac pi(Tuos yo.

with the notes.^ . 5. 35. as Hypersome in this manner. seems probable. For Schroder's final treatment of the hypercatalectic syllable. catalectic in Ionian verse becomes dimeter successively (tripody). hexameters. see his Vorarbeiten. element of prosodiac cola in iambic form (638).^ . 1 Onhypercatalexisinhighlydeveloped Aeolic verse. The hypercatalectic syllable generally results in Ionian verse from regressive reduction of an acatalectic colon. see the editor's Origin and Form of Aeolic Verse. and trochaic form.^ . These cola may themselves serve as periods or they may be combined into tetrameters. they were probably all rhythmized in a similar manner. -w^-^-^ v^w-^ 10. brachycatalexis. is Prosodiac -enoplic verse regular and simple. The twelve cola in ascending and descending rhythm that are illustrated above 1. the iambic penthemimer is the constituent hypercatalectic dimeter. . 3. the probable origin and formation of the dimeters of iambic six trimeters and of the two tetrameters. 300. .^ .: : § 489 PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE 219 On 633 ff. hypercatalexis. a brachycatalectic trimeter (penta- catalectic syllables in prosodiac verse arose if. 37.^ . However derived. 11.. See 33. others through the conversion of an original paroemiac into a prosodiac (631).^ ^ - -^w- ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ ^ ^ . 93 fi". The process of reduction ' is applied in successive stages eatalexis. 4. . 489. of the 643 ff. 36. See 37.^ .^ with their catalectic and hypercatalectic forms. are the elements from which respectively prosodiac and enoplic subordinate periods are constructed. pentameters. ^-^w -_^^ ^_^_ -_^_ -ww_^^_ -_^_ -_^^ _^^_ M_^_ -_^_ 9. see 488.^ .^ See 642.' Thus an a acatalectic catalectic ' dimeter dimeter. a ' catalectic trimeter. a ' brachycatalectic and a hyper- monometer (penthemimer) ' an acatalectic trimeter becomes a pody). 12. heptameters and octameters.

in the Thib was called 'choerileum' (Schol.w Vesp. Kol 8te^'jry]X ^'^oOiv Trore (^ai'Aws io-QUi KAewvi'/xos (10 KOL -v^-- -^^. 474 f. fX. in Aristophanes : § 490 aTpo/SeL.). 470 ff.^ ^ "Hpav d^ia (1 a-Yj _^^_! fiera crou ^ - ^ Ves2)..^ v. 1529 241 re ol 'Acnraa-Lav tikt€i l^aTaTrvyocrvvr) + 1) __^^ _^^_|__^^ . v^ ^ ^ ^ corresponding with _ ^ _ _ ^ _ _ ( Vesp. . this subject is treated at length (812 ff.cfiaperpas ^^--\-^^p. .. ^ ^ ff.ij Nub.W -^^_j__^_ --^^ _^^_[ ^_ Pax 778 fF.OVO'i OVK dv eTTiWiT 6. . (7 + 7) -v^.^ ^ ^ ^ -I Crat. KClTtO KVTTTOiV ttV OVTW + 7 + 8) Oewv re -^v^- ^^-^\-^^. 8e (re KapKivos ekdwv avrt/BoXy v^ v^ twv TratStov xopeva-ai + 9) + 8) (7 - ^ ^ I _ ^ ^ _ ^ ^ _ ^ 782 ff. (fipevl crvfiftovXevcrofJi. and . 6. 578 ff. 457 Antiphanes 174. by combination. Variants of these cola There are but two in Aristophanes.. under poetic impulse to secure special rhythmical effect.evov'.--^_ ^fierd -£2-1272 Pax- f. by slightly altering the form of a particular colon. ). is A great variety of combinations of these twelve cola found in lyric poetry and the drama.. For the two instances of variation in Aristophanes. commonly by the change of a single metre. 274 = 282). |_^ p.. exact parallel Cf.€LOVcra yd/xovs avSpwv re Satras kol 6aXia% qo\ yap (1 rdS' +4+ 2) --V.aKdpiiiV' 278 K/\. - v^ - ^2.w . era? aTTTOfievo? VIvOwvl 8ia KaKws Trevecr^at (1+5) qv (7 --^w -^^-1-'-. Kub.220 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 490. 276 = 283). see 825 and 826 f. The combination of subordinate periods in ascending prosodiac rhythm with periods in ^ descending enoplic rhythm has its ff. 5. Trapd/3aive kvkX(x> Kal ydo-rpta-ov cnavTov (1+2) ^ .^^__|-^_^ .^^__j_^^_ v^w -w eipTjfieva ~w irporepov ^^__|_^^_ Nuh..with _ ^ ^ _ _ ^ _ (Vesp. are very rare. where • .XX OTTOT aVTl/SoXoit] TtS. 491. 2. Variants arose. Thus. 1292f. p-'i'jre oeSpafieva firJT p-Laovcri yap rjv rd TraAaia noXXaKLS OeoJvTaL ^ ^ _ ^ I _ ^ _ ^ - in - £c. Xoyov eXOelv Tvpdyfxara Kavrt-ypae^as ttoXXldv TaAavTtov e^ ^PXV'^ /AcAet ^_ fSovAo/xevoVi dvaKOivovadat re Kal eis (7 + 7 + 9) -v^w.

1264-73 = 1 290-9 (Parabasis XL). A notable example is found in Pax 785 ff. (f>povTLa-i crvyyeyev7//zat. e^eXOe Kal o-uyyvw^t rjy Tpa-rre^y. 1292 Kal Su^i'jTi^x oTToOev ttotc <^avAws icrdUi KAewn'/xo-j.h> Bentley or (v dia or ofius <det> dW 1273 5t^ Dindorf 1296 av 6fj. tliat enclose an anapaestic tetrameter.§ 493 PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE ])eriods in flf. The first and last subordinate periods in Fesjx 273 ff. Strophe. f3' )) — oAActKis evwxLatari. 795 <^tA' (am.'' 1270 Kal yap ovros w vy. Single prosodiac and enoplic subordinate periods occasionally occur also in odes composed mainly in other rhythms. 492. The first intermediate period in Nuh. a Tl KaAAlOV (Tiv t) 7) dp)(^OjJi€VOL- KaTaTTavofxei'oiCTLV 488 doav iTTTrcov et's iXaTrjpas det^etr — 5 [XTjSev fJLrjSi Avaio-TpaTov.) — ^ — — _ ^ — — — \y \^ — _ ^ _ ^ •^ — — f. 'HyU.) verse. (497).w$ Bergk &v : Hermann: d/xoion or ev 5i<f. 1294 cfiacrl </J. 'H/i. 674 ff. where the regular series is broken. 571 ff. O — v^ — — ^ — ^ Ax'- v^w wv^ — — — v^w — — v^^— — v^ v^ _^^_ ^^__ 5*^^ ^ 5-*^ — ^ QovjJiavTiv tov dveortoi' av Treiv €Koi<Tij KapSia . at the beginning of the second intermediate period. (499) are in minor ionic rhythm. twv ixovTUiv dvepoiv 1296 ovK dv i^eXOelv dirh t^s (TLirvrjs' tovs 8' avTi/SoXeiv dv ofxias' 1298 " t^' w dva tt/oos yovdrtov. by a protracted Aeolic hexameter.evy yap avTov epeTrrofxevov to. (500) is in Eccl. (501) begins with a logaoedic the same rhythm. union of subordinate in iambo-trochaic (367 493. Periods in other rhythms are sometimes combined with prosodiac and enoplic periods in the same ode.) 221 ascending and descending rhythm and simplified logaoedic (392 ff. 457 ff. followed by two dactylic dimeters Similarly in Ban. "AttoAAoi' <dely Trei- daXepoti SaK/Jt'oiS (ras d7rTO/xevo5 Ilti^aivt 8ia cfiaperpas firj — wv^— — — ^w 10 ^ ^ — 5^ — v^v^ — ^ 5^ KaKws wevecrdai. ^ ^ - Antistrophe. dvonoius . the first intermediate period begins and the second intermediate period both begins and ends with simplified logaoedic cola. Eq. trimeter." 1270 ouTos Dindorf: oirroa-l 1294 <jji. (498).

89 S. Xo. See 716.a6ov Kal dlv dAos drpvyeroi- 1522 o KaplSwv dSeA^ot. 1264 fF. 6vpa^e touto ydyo ocTTts ot'Seis ttcu Trdpos SeSpaKev.. 1532 Kaurbs ydp o ttoi/to/xcSwv ava^ irarrjp Trpocrepirei 1534 ^(rdels Itti roicrtv eavrov Tratcri rots rpiop^^ois. . (TTpo/Sei. TTT^Sare irapa ^ — — \pdp. Kal to ^pwix^iov Tts. 222 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Monostrophic dyad. See 770. Ttapdfiatve kvkXo) ko-I ydtrrpKrov creavTov. The ode opens with parody of verses from prosodia {frag. periodic tetrad composed of a hypercatalectic epodic pentad a prosodiac tetrameter. See 751. The scholiast says that the antistrophe begins with a parody of verses quoted from Euripides. re- (Exode). 1530 pLTTTe (TKeAos ovpdviov ^ep-fSiKes kyy^vkcrOuiv.) quoted by the scholiast: Tt 1] of different form. and added with comic effect the unexpected clausula fjn^Sev Is Ava-ia-rparov./fX<fj ^aXatrcrtoto aoj3eiTe {aTpo^elre Dindorf V) : ^aXacrcrtoi. Epode.. 1525 eKAaKTicrccTW ottws iSdi'Tes ai'w tr/ceAos w^wo-lv ol dearai. 1523 7r65a KiJA-XocroiSerTe Dindorf : 7r65' RV an epodic triad. is constitutes AAB. brought forward his fourth with felicitous changes. — — — — 5o — ww w^ v_/— — v^^— ~ ^ — v^ 4*^^' — ^ ^^ — — ww— ' 6*^ ^ 'H/x. a ay' w pieyaXayvvfia 792 v^ — ^w '^ 1519 Kva Tov daXaa-CTLOLo. 5-5555. See the metrical scholium on j&j. A = ab. 1519 ei/ Kt.^vot. 1518-22 = 1523-7. Antist7^02?he. one of Pindar's KaAAiov apyoixkvoidLV pa9v^(t)v6v re !] KaTaTravofjAi/ouTLV Aarw Kat doav Linroyv eXdreipav aetcrat Aristophanes has omitted Pindar's third colon as inappropriate. The ode 4 6. dAA' e^dyeT. 1528-37 Strophe. Vesp. See pericopic : dyad I 778. and an enoplic pentameter with a prosodiac pentameter as epode.^!'" et ti ^tAetr' 6p\ovp. 'HyU. B prosodiac tetrameter and hexameter. 494. a stichic period composed of seven prosodiac tetrameters. rjpa^ ra. : two enoplic pentameters. 1537 d^X'3^'/"'^''05 aTTT^AXa^ei' )(^opov Tpvy(o8wv. P' ra)(yv 7r68a KVK-Aocro^eiTe. § 494 A = abbcd.

). as we have already seen. 323 30 TovTOKTi OTrtcTdev trw hi<f}pov (jiepwp AvKovpyos Crat. e'^wv KaXda-ipiv. a' Movo-a (TV pXv iroXeixovs fxeT cxtt- wa-afievrj ifxov 777 Tov (f>iXov xo/o€^^o'ov. ^ ^ w — — : — — ww -^ — ^ — 7ap> yevoiixav (?) Ed. eKTroLrjcrai. 'H/t. two iambelegi (481. 1337 ff.). Pher. 10— wv^— v^ w— — — 6*^^ dAAd I'o/At^e TravTas — v^ — w — o . = 1298 also f. A pentameter with corresponding. n. VTrdKovi [xrjT' e'A- 513. but trimetrical.). k€v6v.^ ^ - dvSpoJv T€ Salras Kal daXia^ /taKcipcoV 481 781 Tjv n. viro^vyiois dAootaai'T' €v9v<.: : . 139. Se ere KapKcVos eXOiov ^ ^ — ^ — — ^ ^ — ^ ^ ^^7" w^ V. in the Equites (1272 £f. 236 Xdyvvov exw Cf. 1338 afiiroTadeiriv Blaj'des av woTaOd-qv 497. latalectic iambic close occurs. Compare T?Js r^fxerepas (roffyias €v8aLfjioi'' Kptri^s aptcrre TrdvTtov €TtKT€ 8' <j€ firjTrjp iKpiwv \po(fir]aris. Eupol. Pax 775-96 = 797-818 Strophe. Note the of quoted of composed dimeter in parody in Av. f.W ^ — — — dvTL/SoXfj juera tcov TratScuv xopevaai^ 483 785 fiyjO' n.va'i. 12 Eupol. Compare fragment the hexameter. 480 — ^ ^ — — ww— — ^ — ^ ^ ^ ^^v^ — o 4*^ v^w— — — • w 2^^ 778 KXcLOva-a dewv re yd/xovs ww — . [— ~]^— ^ — ^ — — — ^ ^^ w§ diM—oraOeiip' virep drpvykrov eir' olS/xa Xifj. 65 w Seo-TTora. the with ff.. also w ypav.^ ^ — ^ ^ — -^ • • 5 dys crvveptdos ai'TOts. 496. in the strophe just above (Vesp. PEOSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE The 223 tetrameter that constitutes the epode of the pre- ceding ode was in favour with the comic poets.. 516 . Kal rdSe vvv aKOVcrov dv Xeyoi aoi. 497 495. BvXaKov Se fxecrrov. dimetrical iambic close. (Parabasis I. Diph.) and a catalectic iambic Oenomaus of an octameter * * y€VOLfxav aiero? yAai'Kas 1337 <et vxpLireTas. Crat. 5 croi yap rdS' €^ "PX'*?^ fteAet. 1520 = 1525 Sophocles.

See the scholiast. 674-85 = 706-17 Strophe. b = abcbd. — A^ m 2*^^ 678 <jiiXoTip.6TepaL KAeoi^wvTos. dyad. a/x</)Oj 810 Fopydves 6\po(f>dy oi fSaTiSoa-KOTroi "ApTTviai. pericopic tetrad heptameter. with an enoplic tetrameter as epode. : vTraKoicrj's 808 d5eX^6s Bekker dSeX^os Monostrophic 4 2 7 5..^ -^_^^_ ^^_i=i 5 . : A = ab enoplic (775-84.6' (ant. See 762. OV (TOcfiiai pvpiai KdOy]VTai. (ant. Ban.224 THE VEKSE OF GREEK COMEDY opTvya'i oiKoyevets yuAtaux^va'j § 498 389. i^kouo"'. 795 676 TOV TToAiJV o^opkvq AaWV O^AoV. 498. ypaocrof^at fiiapol Tpayopdcrxa^ot IxOvoXvfJiai- 815 «3v KaTaxpep-^o-pLivy] yxeya Kat TrAaru ^vp-irat^e ttjv 817 Moucra ^ea per' ipov 785 inrdKove Bentley : €opT7]V. 'Hyit. 36.i7y^avoSt(^as.) 379.^_ w^— ^^— ^^——^c lA/TiSas op)(i]crTas vavi'o<f)V€ts (T(fivpd8u)V 791 aTTOKViO-fiaTa /. i(f>acr)^' 793 Kal yap 6 Trarrjp o Trap' 795 ecx^ TO 8pap. 'x?? -jfppov Se Mopcrt/i-os 804 /xr^oe MeAav^to?. See 772. €^' ov 394 ^--^-^-^-2 . ithy phallic. 800 (ant. 807 rjVLKa Twv rpaywSwv tov ^opov e?xov d8eA<})0S re Kat auros. 37). The strophe and antistrophe open with parody of verses from the Orestia of Stesichorus {frag. enoplic pentameter. tetrameter. ft' TOtaSe \p-q (ro<fiov XaptTwv TrotrjTi^v Sa^ktofiaTa KaAAtKO/iwv 799 Tov 800 vfiviLV. See the metrical scholium on Pax 775 fF. : prosodiac 6 2 4 2 4.) -^ -^ -^-^2 — — — _ ^^_. — 4^ Aiitistrophe.^ - 3 — v^v^— — v^ — v^ ^ _ yj . tT]S — — k^ v^ ^ — — w v^v^ — . a' Mowa iTTLfirjOi ^opwv lepQv 396. (Parabasis). 800 Kal eX. 'H^. 35. OTttv 7}ptva /lev 4>a)V7/ x^'^'^'*^^' H'^H'^^^ /x?) KeAa8v. who quotes the lines parodied in the antistrophe. 800. ^-^. a= abed.) - ^-^ - 2-'= e-l repifiv dotSas e/tds. ov 8i] TttKporaTrjv oira yi]pv(ravTO<. ..a yaXrjv ecrirepas aTrdy^ac. 785-96). epodic pentad a protracted choriambo-iambic hexameter and two dactylic dimeters that enclose an anapaestic tetrameter.

dactylic penthemimer.. (Parode).)lOw- - -. 2-3 4 2./^— n^v^ — ^ Kttt /XOVOS Ol'K dv €— CI^Ct'. 714 vpoi'ov evStarpti/'et 'Swi' Se raS' ot'K €ipr/viKos ecr^'. ithyphallic. : A = ab : 777. 708 OU TToAt'l/ OVS' 6 7TL6l]KO<i 0VT05 O VVV t'rOxAcol'. iVa ^y^TTore Kd-o8v8i] fxedviav avev ^vXov 714 t'oi:' /SaSi^oiV. 5— v^ ^ v^ 491 ^ v^ — 276 €tV' tcpXeyp-rivev avTov — v^ — w — v^ TO a-cfivpoi' ykpovTOS ovtos. vo/xov. 710 o TTOV^pdraTOS jSaXavevs ottoctol KparovcTL KVKy]cnrecf)pov ipevSoXLTpov Koi'tas Kat KtyLtcoAta? yi.-. 273-80 = 281-9 Strophe. r^sp. A = abed._^6'^ Kal Tax' ttv ftovftiavLuyq 277 v^^— ^w — pjv TToAu Spt/avTUTOs y w . 2 2'-' _ _ 2-^^ l3dpf3apov e^ofxivi] 394.§ 499 81] PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE x^*'^^*'"'" 225 a/x(^iAuAois 680 Setvov €7rt/3pe/xeTat 792 TreraAoi'" QprjKia €7rt \i. pericopic See 772. V.i) TTpocreKOxp' ev 802 • .Xi8ioi' — — v^v^ . Kuv LiraL 393 — — ^ — ^ — — T'' Antistroplie. logaoedic trimeter. — ^ — — _v. 'H/jI.iv 417. 499. ySi'ov dvepos 1) T/)07rov ocrrts eV olfxiol^eTai. ithyphallic'! pentad anapaestic dimeter in logaoedic time (389). simplified logaoedic heptameter. 424 wv.w v^ — ^ — ^ — v^ w^^— w . 0^ Bentley : eiSws 5e or eZStis re (674-7. 678-85). enoplic dimeter. Ty Q .?.lv. Monostrophic dyad. aTToAcuAeKC ras ^ ^ — — 491 — w v^ — (ant. 800 (ant. a' TL -or ov irpo Ovpun' (fiaiver' dp' i)fj.? o jxiKpos. — v.-~ 274 275 o yepwi' ov8' vTraKovet jj-uiv .^ 4-<^ 488 10 278 7> rdv Trap i)p. tetrameter. enoplic pericopic tetrad B = abcde. - ^-^W9 a—oAet- 683 KeAaSet 8' i—u<XavTov dj]86viov ya'OJi'Tui. efJLf3d8as.) — ^^^— ^w — ^ — o4" TW CTKOTO) TOV SctKTuAoV TTOV. KAetyev?. Tat..W-wv^ — — ^ ^ — 5 '2!^ ^ ^ . See 772. prosodiac dimeter. 2 2 2 2 7.

^ . 290. Ti Trela-opaL Kop. pericopic triad hypercatalectic prosodiac trimeter. os >)/ias SieSi'er' 282 l^aTraTwv Kai Aeywv c^iAa^Tyvaios lyi' Kai rav Sa/AW Trpwros KaretTroi. A = abed. 500. The ode begins and ends with a minor ionic movement. See 716. enoplic dimeter. ye (xov rroX- 800 Aous eiTL . 4. enoplic : See 771. 777. efTTl ytt/O Sta TOUT oSw7/^£lS €tT tCTWS KerTttl TTX'/aeTTWV. b = abc. coryphaeus. viray & Trai I'Traye. enoplic See 772. : A = ab dyad in an epodic (273-7^ 277^-80). ionic dimeter. ^V^AwTOTttTOV /3lOV dv6pa>7r(jiV ^w ^ — k^ — v^w — ^7-*^ 8td^€ts. kolI yap dvrjp Tra)(^v<s r/K€t twv TrpoSovTwv Op^i/crys' TttTTt 289 ov oTTWs eyx^''"/''^'^* 281 x^^^'-i'O'' Hermann : x^f'^"'oi' The strophe and antistrophe pentad. 802 10 -^w- .226 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY dXX' TtS. f3' Ta^a (OS 8' av Siot tov x^'t'^°'' avOpomov.it/S' oi5tw creaDTOv dyavaKTei. ^ wv^ -v^ 7 Talcri Ovpais del 483.^ . dp' apd ye tout oxpopai . 5 2 4 6.^ — ^ — ^ — w — 5*^ _^_^ ravra paOwv Trap' epov KAeos ovpavo- 396 460 2t. lardi 8' ws . p.y]K€<i -^^-^ -^-^— w — w — w epov 4 ev fSpoTOLCTLV c^ets.ev Trdpecm TwSe y' ovk droXpov 395 458 dAA' eroLpov. 457-75 (Parode). a tov Trdvra xpovov per 481 n. ^^^-2^ Antistrophe. 5v^-.^ ^ Kad/jcrdai. Mih. tetrameter.^ .^— — — ^ wv^ -ww- 463 2t. a X-qp-a p. . The Verse entire ode that follows (291-316) is in minor ionic rhythm. is apparently a comical addition of the second It has the metrical form of the final colon of the ode. Lyrical Trio. Kop. constitute the first AABBC. enoplic hexameter in trochaic form.6 2. hexameter. TOtOUTOS 286 aAA' ecrOu wytt^' dvtcrTao-o [xy]S' /. § 500 279 ottot' avTifSoXoi-rj OLV KaTO) KVTTTWV €i/'ets" OVTIO — -^ ^ — — ^ — — ^ ^ w^ ~ ^ 6 280 "At^ov lAeyev. 'H/x. pericopic tetrad ionic pentameter. eyw /3' ttot loa-re — ^ ^ — ^ Kop.

Sec ere 571-80 Kal (Debate). periodic tetrad See 770. pericopic dyad: See 745. ttvkvijv (f^peva (jaXocrocj^oi' 383 <f)povTL8' £TrL(TTafxei'y]V _-_-_^w--3 3-*^ iyeipeiv 573 Taicrt. pentameter as epode. and a choerileum (490 n. Xevcroixevois /xera — ww— — w w — ww w w — 4^' copic (457-GO. 5 4. 7-7 7 4. 574-7. two enoplic heptameters. 3-5 5 6-. 776. 578 dAAa Trepaive fiovov ww— ww— ww— ww — 6-*^ ' . 'Hu. proodic triad: a logaoedic (571-3. 576 577X0? 5' ]\Ieineke : dr]\ovv <5e> Hermann 577 rt Princeps : tol or rol ye The antistrophe of the monostrophic dyad is lacking (673). TraAatu 580 — 8^ — 15 — w — w TToAAaKts ^ecovrat. tetrameter. 10 w WW -WW-' — ttoAis rjiMMV. periodic tetrad a hypercatalectic prosodiac dimeter as proode. a hyperb probably = ab'b'c.-W--7 15 cjipei'l crvfilSovcroij. : = ABC . 3 2 2.WW-. trimeter as proode to two enoplic dimeters. 457 if. perirhythm pentameter. 776. See 745. <^iAato-tv d[j. A = ab. yap ri a-o(f)ov 481 evp7][J. A A = abb.vv€LV.ipr^fieva ino irporepov — ww— ww — w dova-i yap riv to.) as epode.aros rj n.abT^c. Non-antistrophic. A = AB dyad in simplified logaoedic : : 501. 227 470 — \^ ^ — ww re koi els Xoyov eXdelu 472 IT pay [xara KuvTtypac/xis ttoAAwv -aAdi'Twi' 483 474 a^6a o-tj -^w.§ 501 PKOSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE ISovXofiivovs dvaKOLVova-dai. catalectic prosodiac hexameter as proode. b . 2 8. 2*^ — — w w — w w jJ-rJTe BeSpafieva fxn'^r' et— ww— ww — — p. a vvv 5i) £cd.? k-lvoia -irokiTqv SrjfjLOv eTrayXaiovcra 790 — St]- ww— ww — w5 5" IxvpiauTtv wcfieXiauri fSiov XoV Kaipos B' OTl TTCp Setrat Sl'l'ttTai* — WW— WW— nvos e^- <8e>. enoplic dimeter and octameter. See the metrical scholium on Nuh. See 738. See 770. KOiVTQ yap Itv evTV\[ai(Tiv — ww— ww— 2*^ 2 — ww— ww 488 — — ww — ww— w 574 575 'ipyerai yAwTXi. two enoplic pentameters and a hypercatalectic prosodiac c = ab. 461-75). 578-80).

trochaic hephthemimer. who analyzes three of the foregoing metrical scholia on See the Hub. 504. 12. trochaic trimeter. however./ ..€pol<i BaKpvoc? {Eq.p6vos dAAiyXotcri //. 1264 ff. Bco8€Kd(Tr]p. He gives a single indication.) nor His phraseology penthemimer. (for trochaic basis - v. iambic trimeter. more simply. i/jiov 6aK. as ' epitrites (see Heph. 465). all ancient metrical are not in agreement with one another.^ not . are of peculiar interest to students of comedy.o<. as to the constitution of the prosodiac. of doubtful meaning. unusual length (630 or does it mean that Heliodorus regarded the prosodiac . He does recognize. (Nub.tyevre ixkyurrov tckt€TOV rvpavvov ov 8rj K€<f)aX-i]yepirav Qeol KaXovcriv 503. He does not name the enoplius.16 iambic ionics. v.^ ). iambic f. ttoWoix. iambic dimeter. Eq. basis (for iambic . 798) S(o8eKd(r7)p. the prosodiac. as is x^ ' . Modern writers on Greek metric are not agreed as to the origin and constitution of the cola that compose prosodiacenoplic verse. ' Hq.o<. nor is the individual ancient metrician always in agreement with himself.' but respectively as iambic and trochaic. fxer ijMOv {Nuh. Does at anapaestic attached to 'prosodiac' here signify the differentiathat Hephaestion perspicuously states flf.by this (Fax 776) is Trep/oSo? irpoathe antistrophe. Thus ireLvrj.. eVt ratai dvpac<i dvairatcmKov TrpocroBcaKov BfoBeKdcrrj/jLov. Again.and odes. Fax 775 K. ^-wv^-wv^. In these analyses. 457 ff. hephthemiraer. Furthermore. (cf. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY With the last § 502 subordinate period cf.). repeatedly designating the combination name. tion 468) is Thus t6v nrdvra y^povov 462) is dvairaia-TiKr] TrpoaoSiaKr) rrepioSo'i Again. dTrcoa-a/jiivi] /xer rj oScaKrj evS6Kdar]/j. ithyphallic. but calls the combination — v^^ — v-'v^ — — haKTvXiKov TpiiTOVv et? BcauWa^lav (Fax 782 and 783.o<i. 240 (TTacris Se Kal TTpta-fivyivris X. The views of Heliodorus. theorists See 812 ff. he consistently regards the elements ^ . and 1 3 f. 1271) is irpoaoScaKov BwSeKaa-rjfMov. : the enoplic hexameter ending with an ithyphallic in Crat.- v^ -). 1265) or SaKrvXcKou KTpiTrouv ei<?> rpo'X^alov (JVub.^ . trochaic dimeter.228 502.

These analyses reveal how heavily Thus again he states that UnK re 470 ^ovkoixevov. dvaicoivovcrOai kuI e? Xoyov iXOeiv. a ' tetrametric combination of enoplic dimeters. . 472 f.' an eVo?. . in particular. Metric. of trochaic basis. which xv. tetrameter. f. Bacchijlidis Carmina ^ xxxv. an enoplic tetrameter. by his analysis. 647 The probable origin of these two dimeters and their consequent syllabic identity with fixed forms of the anapaestic and dactylic tripody must not be forgotten in weighing the significance of the phraseology used scholia. Fax 775 ' a catalectic ]irosodiac. these but it to be noted is his analysis of prosodiac his and of enoplic periods evidently controlled by to theory davvdprrjTa.^ ' dactylo-epitritic is (812 ff.Note also his analysis of Nub. 475. an enoplic trimeter. whether we regard them as enoplic or as prosodiac. 1 The prosodiac is briefly designated simply as dvairatcrTiKdv in the commentary on Eq. llephaestiou Til us seems have the adopted first ' from Heliodorus divides enoplic period dactylic in him (chap. achoerileum. See. by Heliodorus arise in the metrical Confusion would be likely to at once on the loss of the music..)- he obsessed by his theory.. penthemimer and So also in Eq.)^ 505 a real fact PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE anapaestic (logaoedic) is 229 of fixed is . . 196 f.. Fax 779 an iambelegus 783 f. 'dactylic ihe period consists. an f. encoraiologicum 795 f. ff. 630 ff. as line. are stated elsewhere in f.See Blass. 1270 a catalectic enoplic pentameter. .. this book. .^ for regarding the prosodiac and enoplius dodecaseme isomeric dimeters. it is no doubt identical with one form of the heroic 505. and so far as number and arrangement of long and short syllables are concerned. consists of ' ' dactylic He calls this penthemimer and anapaestic hephthemimer.. but form ^ ? The that perhaps indeterminable..is tripody. in which each short syllable has the value of one primary time and each long syllable that The reasons of two. f. 474 f....). penthemimer' and periods ' is Thus the true nature of these obscured. Goodell. . into f. 1272 and Ahtb.

) and (v. For their relation to one another and to the primitive dimeter ^ ^ . in are practically unregulated is which the quantities metre.^ the ditrochaic dimeter.) (i.^ (ii.^ -^ diiambic dimeter.. -^^.) . The fundamental colon in in Aeolic verse is a poly- schematist dimeter of eight syllables. choriamb the called choriambo-iambic. 507. These are all normal Aeolic dimeters. (iv.^ v^ Closely related with this dimeter are four others due to the further choriambization of the primitive dimeter o o . 657 flf. Aristophanes employs nine of the sixteen possible forms (651) of the polyschematist dimeter KUiTOL TToAAot TUVT eTTadoV . but the last is rare in comedy.) first syllables remain close unregulated. in which the quantities of the (iii. which .^ .^-^-. see 651 ff.) : V two v^ - . called Glyconic. as developed in Aeolic poetry. begins with a and has Glyconic .^ _ ^ _ ^ ^ . but the second the first : metre always a choriamb (19 f. CHAPTER XII AEOLIC VEESE^ 506.) o o o o .: .

(f)LKVOVIXiVOli. although unconsciously. but only in the VTTO iv. This catalexis appears the Eupolidean. which consists of an acatalectic and a catalectic polyschematist dimeter (3 deiijfxevot vi) KanpCi irpos ii/xa? iXevdipois fj. w w w w w — — — — — w w w w — — — — A.^ . 140 — Eq.^ The forms -WW- w xj -w^ Nub.) By catalexis o (Hepli. a tetrameter in favour with the comic poets. Aristophanes is fond of the Glyconic.t. TToXep-ov Koi /xavicuv ^wvTcs TOT eVt <^w— — ww — ww^ — Lys. 10 in the Eupolidean. w Compare the following tetrameter Av. . 973—6 .£. but later. . 70) might appear at the beginning of the first metre Aristophanes original ttoXlovx^ eras ecrxov 'dSpas Cf. 511.-WW510. to The Aeolic dimeter was originally severely restricted eight syllables.-WW. Vesp. AEOLIC VERSE 231 ff. Twv Nub.epas w-i=i)is called Plierecratean XopSov KtyKXof3a. KA.ewv a7ro/V>/Tat. of which the catalectic form (oo-w rjp. but this uncommon. 1461 (548).325 aAAo. that the metre which underlay each of these resolved polyschematist metres was diiambic.v'\s. Under Ionian influence even an anapaest (cf. 342 f.w ^ (34).as f. 345 EccL 940 (567). -WW. 518 f. under Ionian influence. the forms numbered 12 and 7 above. 6.~av pvOjiov i^SwTTOV — w w w — w — w — w — w ^aos SeVp' €0-Tai TOio-t Trapoi'crt TOtO-t rjv Kal U. frag. resolution of long syllables in certain forms (506.). 8.. <^— w— — ww— Lys. o 29. it admitted f. some freedom (659 Eesolution occurs first schematist dimeter. v. 1. are preferred 507) in melic 509.) with even in the polymetre T€ yepOVTlOl' oXkdpMV TTpoTepoiv wv^w— — — ww— ww — LlJS. 7 the polyschematist dimeter becomes notably in o o . By is brachycatalexis polyschematist cola end in : . of the first metre in the polyschematist dimeter (see which by Aristophanes are 7 and 9 Aeolic verse. 1724 fjLaKapLCTTov (TV yap-ov Ty8e iroXei y)'jp. 1029 probably felt.: : : : § 511 508. raXrjdi] tov Atdvucrov Tov ^Kdpeif/avTu.

is 512. 919 340 A diiambic penthemimer (562).vy. KaKws i^oXicretev 6 Zei's TpOTTOV TttAatva Kvrjo-ias ywatKas dvOpaKiveiv — ^ y^ — — ^ ^^ — kj — ^ — ^ — kj — is w — ^^ v^ — Ach. since Aristophanes rarely begins the Glyconic with the antispast. w^v^ — v. f.: : : : ' 232 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY first g 512 The four v^ y^ two syllables of the Glyconic here possible forms. in which he allows also spondaic close of the Glyconic (oo-v^ ^ ).^ ^ — ^^ — Ran. ^ — ^ — kj Lys. Eesolution of a long syllable first allowed in one of the syllables two places of the Glyconic. in is found in Aristophanes parody in conjunction with spondaic close as in Aves 910. 1152 Eccl. .€v dirAo) Aoyo). (36) found in Nub. He never admits the anapaest into the Glyconic. Irrational metres are freely allowed in diiambic dimeters and sometimes even as the second metre in choriambo-iambic dimeters KovSev rraprjXOev. which occurs in Pindar.10 Se Trepl KLcrcros v^^^v^— ^ — ^ — ^ -^ ^ kj — Ach. v^ ^ Compare the unusual resolution in froff. Ntib. except in parody. The choriambo. 141 . : w Trpea-jSvra. 515. as in Han. 1251 Here the underlying metre was probably felt to be ditrochaic. 513.v^ . 1322 (586). 552 Ves}). Aristophanes uses v^ - assume two of the very rarely and in only in parody. 1156 999 I . found Sophocles and Euripides. coar eywy w— ^ — — v^v^— v^ — ^— v^ Tou Trpay/xacrtv xpwTt^eTaL XaAKO/cpdrcov tWwv ktvttos is v^ — — 637 516 Eq. Th. 91-4 (585).iambic and diiambic dimeters occur frequently in comedy in both their acatalectic and their catalectic forms ws fJ. the unregulated Ti TTore Trpayfia yev/^crerat . 702 = 806. Eesolution also common in the first metre of diiambic dimeters ov ex eTTiSoipL reu^tSos ere kvkX. Trorepa c^tAets ^ ^ -^ ^ — This resolution. 704 = 808 514.

) xdO' iTipov vvKTepwov yevoiTo _^^_ _^^_ €^a—aTtocrtv —apafiaivova-l Te toi'S ^ Ach.) Glyconic. — Pax 807 517. 923 . 321 WpaV OVK UTToAeiS OvS' dT7oXrj\p€L ^ ^ Eccl. choriambo-iambic. as in Ionian rhythm /xYj (fiOoveo Taioriv veatcri. resolution and protraction. 992 xaip' <5 )(^pv<T6Kepws jSe/SdKTa kY^Xcdv Udv. 1168 353 f. 849 (582). 357 ^ (ii.) all five forms (i.: : {^ 518 IxaLvofievos' AEOLIC VERSE 6 Se XtOov fSaXeiv /3ovAoyLl£VOS €V CTKOTO) Xd/3oL 233 770 Act TcAea Se Svypo — .^ ^ ^ ^ Crat. 516. Fax in cola 94.v^ ^c/l. ^ ^ — 1159 f. 1163 _ ^ ^ _ Kar opea vvp. In illustranote the examples quoted from various poets in 654.^dv eparols ev {'/tvois _ ^ ^ _ v^ v^ . but sometimes in choriambo-iambic oKcAAof Kara fj. crov to Tprjpia — ^ TO T IttikXlvtpov aTrofSdXoi'i _^_^ ^v^-o 518. Trimetrical cola are = 906 f. e/x7r€(^i'Ke TO Tpvcfiepov yap iKirka-OL = — w — ^ EccL 900 f.) ditrochaic (rarely). HeXaa-yiKov "Apyos Ipftanvtav _-_^ ^ .^^v^ w — ^ — — -^ ^ — v^ — w — w — w ^. same choriambizing influence which produced the Compare the corresponding dimeters (506).) ^w - - n. of Diiambic cola may even have logaoedic form. 77t. Ditrochaic dimeters rare in the Aeolic verse of comedy.8 (583). (ii. Aovres Aa/Jetv avTOv kvojv apTrdaacra cf^evyoi >)vLKa Twv rpaycoSwv ^ — _ ^ _ — <y ^ — are _ ^ _ w — jich. (iv. tion. . but they occur in (iii. _ . Protraction (tovt]) cola : is not common and is found chiefly of diiambic form. and are due to the dimeter. and also the following (i. (v.) diiambic. but when they occur they admit the irrational metre. as in Ach. much : less common than dimetrical.- r/i.^ ^ ^ . under the influence iambic cola in Ionian rhythm (70). .eX- ^ _ .) polyschematist.

598 Ach.) ^ . see 519. 1151 = 1163 cfivtrecos. 1248). y]v e'x^' '''''' o. The these. The allowed of the Glyconic may correspond €V TO) Siiy/XaTi T(OV SlKWV = — ^ — ^ ovTos ov Swarat /xadelv ^_^_ Eq.€9a . is the Phalaecean the catalectic Vesp. 1227. except ditrochaic.^ ^_^_. -^-^ vvv 8k Toi/ e/c Oi'}fjLiTepov = — ^ ^ — = ^ — ^ — 7rotr.rjXois eTravdei' crv -v^ _^_. ^c/i. quoted from Cratinus. catalexis. that are allowed in dimeters. 1158 (Ti^ovcra TrdpaXos ctti rpaTre^rj Kecp-einj ^ yap (v.^ ^ )} ^ e\€i<i v^ ^_^_ Eccl. Correspondence is allowed between certain forms of the unregulated metre in polyschematist cola . generally assume iambic. 908 (585). For example. They admit the resolutions. protraction. 913 903 Tots {Ji. in parody. an acephalous ^ ^ which (38) polyschematist trimeter. 526 = 631 Aoyoicrt Kal (fipovTccri Kal ws rjSv <Tov Totcrt Aoyots — wv^— Nub. ^ 8' ^^^ ^ lirjTTip ctAAr. 1226._ kolttI .L = — ^ ^ — forms 1458 Tb yap €Keivo<s avTtAeywv different = 1470 521. lesser Asclepiadean. -^ Eccl. of all these cola to the primitive trimeter.e. 979 = 995 . irrational metres. 520. (iii. and the irregularities found in parody. Aeolic trimeters in comedy.^ - _^^_ ^ - Nub. On 655 the relation ff.) ecTTt SiKaiov.: : ' 234 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY first of § 519 (cf.-^ ends in Glyconic form with spondaic close (511). Aristophanes uses in Av. el 8rifMOKpaTov[ji. the second. rarely choriambic.^ . 951 = 1026 Tov ^vyypaff^Q rov fxekewv KaO' eVepov vvKTepcvvv yevoiro _-^_ _^^_ v^^^— v^ ^ Vesp. ^ .^ ^ (iv. 945 T E^ecrov jxaKaipa Tray^pvcrov . where normally .) fjLOi. In the following he would have colon (909) the same trimeter is brachycatalectic.T7yv ovTrtx>7rod' ovTO) KaOapojs _^^_ = Vesp. /Se/BijKe ._ w ypav ^ Eccl.

and some came to be used.: § 528 KctAet Ta/ioi AEOLIC VERSE 'Op9aynpav. = Lys. The normal and irrational : the choriambo- iambic dimeter XakKOKpOTOiV may correspond KTVTTO'i lTnr(x)V rys lepwrdry]^ «77a[o"aiv — — wv. Thus (i. 916 = 922 522. 552 = 582 523.) the Eupolidean.iambic dimeter may correspond as a whole with the polyschematist. ^v^v^— ^ — v^— ^ — ^ Acli. 1157 = 1169 rrpos Trjv i/xrjv dvdyKi]i' peXi]iia. The choriambo. yvvaiKas uvdpaKevew 326 = 340 525. wctt' eyojy' va-repoTTOis /3or]d(o ^ — ^ — w — w— w Vesp. = 636 f. 1 454 = 1466 524.OfJLiVO'i kv (TKOTM XdfSoi. of which the . or diiambic dimeter yvpvacTiov Aeyetv re Sei = — ^ ^ — w — v^— Vesj). Normal. 527. 526. Glyconic. like iambic and trochaic These tetrameters are nearly all tetrameters. 528. irrational and resolved metres : may correspond in diiambic cola Seoixevov. Aeolic verse developed many tetrameters of fixed form (506). The same correspondences are allowed in two equivalent subordinate periods. ojtws TTaiyviati]V S' 235 = v7 «p)i' — — ^ w — v^— forms of ^cc^. often with marked effect since the contrast of rhythms is impressive. of these tetrameters catalectic. i) 8' w-Trfpei'-i] = /SovX. in recitative verse. KvTrpi8o<s epvo<i {j = ^ ^ v^ Ecd. by uniting two of the five dimeters named above Some had vogue and received particular names in antiquity. 532 f. ot'Sevb? rjKovcrapev ov\Sk 527 = 632 Kara tov veaviav opa? yap ws rovSe XeycLV. already cited (508). fiTj oj? Se Trdvr' einXijXvdev = — ^ ^ — — wv^— ^ ^ w — KOvSev TraprjXdei'. Single Aeolic subordinate periods may be combined in the same systematic period with most of the rhythms of Ionian verse./— ^ — ^ — Eq. 969 = 973 peya tl /xerarecreiTat = ^ 6 Trais o <S>i/\oKAewvos ^ v^ ^^^ T'esjj.

incert. TO) TW(fiOaXf^b) TOVTM _^^_ ^^_^ -WW .^ (12). (3). ^ .) likewise consists of two polyschematist dimeters. V. 29. 122. : : ^ (2). The . Eupol 291. 290 531. vvr 8e yaaAAov -WW. . The forms the order V.tl TpiyXqv. 53. The Priapean (iii. _ . ovSe Tpvyovo?. Crat.). 78.(»v TrpoTepov t' KAewv icfiopu. 57. 74. 54.^ (11). Frg._ _ (i). 318. ^ (5).eXavovpov -^-w w-w. (10). 132 For other examples of the Eupolidean cf.: : : 236 general scheme THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY is § 529 oooo — ^ ^ — oooo — k^ ^ .eV TWV TTacSiwv Pher. doubtful cases forms of the third metre are : ^ ^ ^ . arranged in frequency of occurrence. 92. of (9). 64. 237.) acephalous (38). as in the lesser Asclepiadean (518.TTOjJ. developing an antispast as the second metre.^ with three doubtful list (1).^ . 34.^ (1). of the first metre in these forty-five verses. 529. . are (16 times). 11 w Crat.-w-w -WWCf. 7reptlx6. 221 (iv. 292. 1330. The greater Asclepiadean eKKaiheKaavWa^ov (Heph. Pherec. (l). ov8' At^wvt'S' €pv9p6)(^p(i)V ia-dUiv (. 530. . 532. 33. also Eupol. the first ff. Com- pare the Parabasis of the Mches (518-62). This Resolution is verse was much affected by the comic poets. likewise consists of two but the first dimeter abandons Glyconic close.. 55. 54. Plat.^ (1). . Alexis 206. 169. 320.^ (1). admitted in the second dimeter of the tetrameter as well as the first fji' o y^ixdiv (TVKov TLS lSyj 8ta )(^p6vov veov TTore.-w-w See also Crat.V. ^ Compare the of forms in 651. 55. oi'Se Seivov <j)vrjv p. called also SaircpLKov ff). ii. 47. The epionicum (ii. cases: . ci) 11 KaAXicrTTj TToAt Traawv ocras iv8a[p. and is thus closely linked with the Glyconics. ea-t] ws ycrda. the second catalectic (Heph. 120.) 19 ff. 98. the second acatalectic (Heph.^ . (1). 191 Eupol. .) consists of two Glyconics. 56. Aristoph. with four (8).^ (7).).

361. as : (vi. as ^>^Aw ye evTv^i'a? tov Trpko'fivv ot [X€~i<rTij ^ - .) rrj-i combined. . Eupol.(J)VL X(jiro(f)6pco. but two of these tetrameters got vogue.^ ^ - . 38.^ w . Tai'vcr iTTTepe TrotKiAa xeXiSoc Ct Aves 1415 For a also and of Vesp. frag. 304 ff. 319.v^ The first metre assumes various forms.) ifxal .) acatalectic and a catalectic choriambo-iambic were also combined (Heph.ovre>. with this in parodying Alcaeus {frag. this tetrameter see Pher.: : :: : § 537 dimeter. 11 ff. The polyschematist and the choriambo-iambic dimeter .\.^ ^ - . The polyschematist and the diiambic dimeter were (ix. 30 the Flatterers of Eupolis is used by line in Compare also 159) in a quotation of sixteen verses. AEOLIC VERSE Aristophanes has joined the 237 following Phalaecean ff. KVTreLpov re Spoo'ojS?/ ^ _^^_ ^ ^ ^ Plier.^ ^ ^ - ^ Vesp. .) the polyschematist dimeter and the Pherecratean ev Xeifj. frag. Eirst (vii. 109.) oooo . 109. 534. 30. see the Editor's Origin and Form of Aeolic Verse. 84) in Av. 2 Eor acatalectic examples of 537.^ ^ - ^ Arist. Different dimeters might be combined. ^ — _^^_ ^ Arist. 29 and 122. Xiyvvv SoKO) wa-irep irvpos fioL KaOopav koI KaTrvbv S> yvvaiKC? Kao/xevov <nrev(rTeov ecrrt Oolttov ^_ 536. discussion Asclepiadean tetrameters and longer periods. 320 Compare ei yap Trava-aiJuvo) yov 7roAe/xoi' ykvoiTO . 1450 f. 1238 (Asclepiadean trimeters.) oi?>a fxlv di- apx^alov Tt 8puiv koi'^i X^XrjO' i/xavTOV _^^_ This tetrameter (frag. 1410 opvide'i TLV€S o'lS' ovSev e. : TrrepoiroLKiXoi.^ ^ were combined under the fundamental scheme .^ ^ also (viii. 2 535.^ ^ - w Lys. An meter (v. 533. in a scolium).

of which the first metre was usually . especially in the parabasis. 54. gave the celebrated tetrameter named (xii. example epirrhema or antepirrhema of a parabasis..dpov. Crat.: : 238 538.^ . as w /xaAa>^as /xer e^epwv dvaTTvewv 8' vuKivdov Pher. hexameters. and (text uncertain) 41. quoted in 549. as the anapaestic tetrameter and trochaic tetrameter in Aristophanes. 37 see Heph. For Eupol. The only certain in Aristophanes of Aeolic tetrameters rendered in recitative is found in the parabasis of the JVuhes (528). 210.) combined. 19 K some of the foregoing tetrameters ' 541. The combination of the choriambo-iambic dimeter with a catalectic polyschematist dimeter. Erom the foregoing elements systematic periods of simple or varied form are composed. TrdvTa ^opT^Ta. hypermeters may have been It is also possible that Aeolic used in the pnigos. . 146. very strong presumption that the series of sixteen (668) tetrameters in Eupol.^ - v^^-vy v^ 540. where Eupolideans are thus used. and note Bergk's surmise.^. as (x. 324 327.^ 9. Pher. rwSe tu> X^PV^ TrXrjv Htvtoi) vd/uotcrt Kal Ixotvtwvos w 'K. 1 . of the anapaestic hypermeter in the parabasis. 141 The choriambo-iambic dimeter and Pherecratean were (xi.^ - . 11 Ei!ie KL(rcro)(alT' ff. Pentameters. according as they consist •of a single sort of colon or of different elemental cola.) Cratineum (Heph. 159 (533) constituted the employed for There is. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 538 The Glyconic was combined with the choriambo-iambic w ^ TrpecrfSvTa iroT^pa cfuXels ras SpvTrereli tratpas (TV Tots VTTOTrapOevovs dimeter. -wv^Cf. also Crat. example. It seems probable that may have been are often used in continuous passages as verses ' rendered in recitative. 54. Travra toXjii^to. ^ . 131. in the manner Cf.) aX/xaSas ws lAaas v^ ^ 539.^ . v^^w— — v^v^— Arist frag.^ . 543. octameters and hypermeters are formed by the union of dimeters and trimeters of the same or different orders.) after Cratinus X°'-^P' : ava^ '^^^^^^x' '^K<f)avTi8rj<. heptameters. 96 542.^ ^ - ^ .

(D. 545. 'H/X. SoiSi'^ orSe Topvvip Strophe IV. a 7'j3to-TOV </>aos rj[i€pas ecrrat TOicrt Trapowi Kat 975 Totcrt Sevp' a^iKVOv/xa-ois.\j/iv kirolcreL St) dvSpt Tw TToXr TrAetcTTa w — — w — ^^ — . oi'k ws d p) 'ykvS' ovros eV t// av i]aT7. — v^ — TtV apa fj. 973 ff.<f>iKvoviiivoicTLV 981 'yived' yivoid' The six strophes constitute a monostrophic hexad (701). yv KXewv — — — ^ ^ o ^ ./5' opytcr^evr' aTrayetv K-eXercu'. aTroXrjTUi. 975 Scaliger ToTfft : 5e?p' dcpiKvovfxevoLS Bentley : roiffiv a.a yen^o-erat. Strophe V.: 6 § 545 544. See the metrical schohum on Eq.V apfioTTecrOai Oajxa t7)i' Xvpav. as in the two odes that follow E^. 1251-60 (Episode XL). /3' KaiTOL -peo-jSi'Tepm' tlvmv oiojv dpyaXewTaTUiV iy tco oeiypaTL twv Strophe 'H/x.) Stroi^lie I.^ ^ — ^ — ^ — w w-v^^^ (fipovTL^iiv yap eywy' e. 'H/x.^co.^ — ^^ — v^ — w ^_^_ ^_^_ v^ — w — ^ — — S Strophe II. /3'dAAa Kut To5' eycuye ^arfia^w Tiys vofiova-ias avrov' (pacrl yap auTov 01 iraiSes ot ^vve<f)OiTiov. 'H^. AEOLIC VERSE 239 A strophe may consist solely of a single sort of colon. aXXrjv 8 ouK eOeXeiv fiaOelv K'Jra tuv Kidapt(n^]v Strophe VI. Xo. ws apfxoviav o Trais ouTOS oi' SiVarat [xaOelv r\v /xi) AcupoSoKicrTt. a' TTiv AwptcTTi ji6vi]v 0. "H/x. -payp. 'Ku. a Pherecratean.e/j. The period consists of a single octameter composed of three Glyconics and See 773. Tt TTOTC Ban. ^v^ — ^ — ^ . a' III TroAet /xeyas.i/ o-Kei'?/ 5i'o )(jir](riiJ. 973-6 = 977-80 = 981-4 = 985-8 = 989-92 = 993-6 (Stasimon I.

ff. a w ft) c^tAr. avairaLcrTiDV. probably because of the irregularity of form of its first is Aristophanes metre. S> ^ovd-i'j. oirr) 5— — — v^ — ^ — ^ >^ ^ — v^ -^ — 6'"' yap eywy' ttotc 531 /xe/i. See 737 and 774. Kop. In the following all but two cola are Glyconic Ai: 676-84 (Parabasis). Commation. : ^w — v^— A = abac.^ ^ — — ^ ^ v^ 2-^ ^vvTpo<f) avySot.^ . 162. tov vovv v^ \j f^ivprjfxaTi. 6 6 4 (+2 2). 1260 Kttt 8e8oLX 1256 iVep aurov. in Glyconic rhythm two hexameters with a tetrameter as epode. the strophe closing with two Pherecrateans that repeat the melody of the final colon of the tetrameter.. The Pherecratean was sometimes used continuously : in a series of short verses avSpes irpocrxj^Te. The continuous use of the polyschematist dimeter in an entire systematic period. The nearest approach to this use in found in the following ode . 2. Non-antistrophic. 800 <l>iXraTov opvewv 38 tmv efxoJv TravTwv. Katv(f). ^vvvo/xe vfxvwv. 79 Of. 509. . was avoided in melic verse.8. Crates 33.^ 4*"*^' _ ^_. See On the commation see 293 298. 547. in the manner of the Glyconic.. with a Glyconic octameter as epode. 548. Meineke ( : 10 — ^ — ^ _ _ _ ^ — v^ — ^ ^t) outuv ^ — w — w . 2*^^ v^ 2^ iJ-ixp'. Eupol. <TVfJiTrTVKTOL<i dvaTTaicTTOis _ _ _ ^ ^^ _ _ — — — v^ ^ _ _ Plier. w — w — w v^ v^ — — 6*^ 680 '^]X9es i)Xdis )]?)vv i!i<i>6'q^. 509 cfiepovcr' • 5 .'''"'' ert yOc (yOf + ).6 2.v^ . two brachy- catalectic polyschematist dimeters that enclose a Glyconic hexameter. : A = aab 546.a(riv 'I'lpivois apxpv Twv Non-antistrophic.w 2-^ " (f)d6yyov ip-ol dXX w avAbv KaXXifSoav KpkKovcr' <^6kyp. ___^ ^_^_ _ __^ ^_^_ ___^ ^__8*-^ epodic tetrad 748.: : 240 1255 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Kal KaXXicTTa a-avTt davjxa^di jxkXr] ttoii^- § 546 Twv fJ.i-XP'- vvvl. with refrain./'€Tat tovtov Tov BaK^^etov avaKxa. epodic triad.

the catalectic diiambic dimeters ending the first two subordinate periods.: ' § 549 Vesp. KpeiTTWv f3ovX6p. fS' TToXXov 8' liraivov Trap ip.. w^^— ^ ^ o _^^_ wv. a catalectic polyschematist dimeter (508). Up. pericopic triad tetrameter. ^lii'eyevo/XT^v €7^e/xav7y^' ovSe rpoTTOts oi'S' 1470 Tt OTJ yap eKeivos avTtAeywi/ ryv. a' (ijXQ ye tt}? evTv^ia^i OL /XCTeCTTT/ 537 ^— ^ _ TOV TTpea/Sw — v^^ — ^ _ M 4CV ^i]pCjv rpoTTcav Kal /JiottJs" ^_^_ _^^_ ^. ov8evl yap oiJtojs ayavw k^exvdrfv.^v. hexameter. With these compare the last colon.ei'OS TOV cjivcravra crep-voTepoLS .^ 1455 eVt TO Tpvcj>wv Kal /xaXaKOV./— eVepa 5c vvv avrt/xa^wv ^) _.^^— ^^ Th yap diroa-TrjvaL x^^^"""^^ (f>va-e(^<s — — — 14^^' r)v e'xot T15 aei. AEOLIC VERSE 241 II. 1450-61 = 1462-73 (Stasimon Strophe. ^ — ^_^ gcv ^^_ ^^ v^v. The polyschematist dimeter here admits six different forms of the unregulated first metre in addition to those that are pentasyllabic : or hexasyllabic by resolution or irregularity (1461 = 1473).^ Ta. _^^_ — v^ ^^ ^ Antistrophe.). fragfmeut Compare the series of dimeters in the following . See 771. 1473 KaraKoa-p^rjcrai Trpccy/xacrcv 1454 /jLeTairecreiTaL Bentley /xeTa-rreicreTai or (ae7a irelcreTai Tpvipuiu Dindorf eiri t6 pxxpav or iwLTpvcpbv or fVi t6 rpvcpov : : 1455 eTri to Monostrophic dyad. A = abc. 4 6 14.(a 8' av larws ovk edekot. ^. 549. 'H/x.^^_ — — — — /Jieya tl fieTaTreareiTai 5— ^ ^ 802 10 ^i? ^c^>^ .^ KairoL TToAAot ravr' aradov 510 1460 ^vvovres yvcu/xais erepoiv [xeTe/SaXXovro TOi'S rpoTrov?. hypermeter of fourteen metres.ol Kai Toicrtv €v (ftpovovaiv TvxijDV airetcriv Sia rr]V 1465 (fnXoTrarpLav Kal (rocfiiav 6 irats 6 ^tAo/cAewi/os. Only two cola are non-polyschematist.

precludes the supposition that it is a dochmius. a vvv 8ei^€Tov tw ttio-vvu) 535 950 TOts TreptSe^LOUTi ^ — — ^ ^ — — ^ ^ — w — v? 4°^ . in a verse of fixed form (533) The catalectic dimeter. as Hermann indicated (Elementa. 8e X^t^*^ firjXa Se y^pkixiTT eTai . 163 The last colon seems to be an abnormal catalexis of the preceding Emendations have been catalectic dimeter and has given offence. 533. like the Eupolidean. L). of 550. but the form. Pher. on the other which was used by line. — — — — — — — ^ ^ — w^ v^v^ — v^w — v^w — — Pher. 11.^— — — ^ — ^ KaKriyopLCTTepov. Eupol. although it appears. — Eupol. also a parabasis. ^. hand... 'H/x. proposed. jtiTJ § 550 VtOpKeiV I17]8' dSlKWS (fiiXiov — ^ 5 KpivcLV. as of cola in the following polyschematist and choriambo-iambic Nuh. is probably due to defective The sentiment quotation. yap Spwcrai vtt' Xafi/SavofJiea-O' avTwv 5 — ^ ^ — — w w — _ ^ ^ _ — v^^— — — — — ^ y^ — ^ w — ^ ^ — w v> — v. 95. 13 (two subordinate periods). ^ vrj rhv fivOov €ts ii/xas eVepov — ^ — — ^epeKpdT7j<i Ae^€t ttoAu toi'TOi. frag. 576). 10 Compare also : OS xapiT(3iv [xev o^ei ^ v^ — — w — — v^ KaXXafSiSas 8e crrjcrafiiSas jSatveL. since it is unique. Arist. 362 (a colon and the beginning of a second). this may have been the close of the pnigos Cf.: : 242 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY * * * * TOiS Se KpLTals TOis vvvl Kpivovat Xeyu).^ — — — ^ _ ^ — — — _ Arist. to which it would be admirably adapted. The continuous use of the acatalectic chorianibo-iambic dimeter was likewise avoided in strophic composition. 96 v>w — ^ — As Bergk surmised. 551. occurs in a fragment of Aristophanes in a series of limited extent ovK erbs Tracri w ywatKCS eKaa-Tod' avSpes' e'/oya — w w — v^ \j KaKolcriv rjfias <f>XM(riv Setvo. 949-58 = 1024-33 (Debate Strophe. Variety of effect was secured by the combination of cola of different orders.

5 See also Arist. 553. 551-64 = 581-94 Strophe. See 737. O/AOU yp^St' ^v ixeydXauTLV oi- — 5 kj — ^k^ — ^—~ w vov )^aipovTa Aerao-Tais.d8(j} ____ _^^_ ^ — ^ w — — ^v^ — v^ TTlvdvTWV.£TLcrixo<s dvSdvet 802 Kal KvavefJijSoXoc (ant.^v^_ w — w — >_/ _^^_ — v:. (Parabasis I.iambic dimeters and of Glyconics are linked by two trimeters Hq. A= two tetra- 552. crov TolcTL eVecrTii' Aoyots a. Polyschematist dimeters are combined with Glyconics in the following fragment * * * * TTcivTa yap yv fiear dvSpwv Kal S' fxiLpaKtijiV 6fJ. ll'-^ ' H/bi. a/a a-iocfipov 1028 eijSaiyuoves 6' ^crav €7rt oi ^WVTeS TOT TWV TTporkpoiv' fjLovcrav €)((ov TTpos ovv TuS' w KOfJi^oTTpeTrrj 1032 Set ere Aeyetv ri Katvov. 4 4 11. dfxdvwv woTepos Bergk oirdrepos avro^v oir&repos avToiv is a gloss on the original iroTepos 953 X^7c<. 561.v : \e7w. ws 7]v8oKiixr]K€v avt'jp./ d/uetVwc. KtvSi'Vos di/€irat (ro(f)ias^ 957 ijs TTcpt Tols e/iots ^t'Aots p. /3' w KaXXiTTX^pyov (US '>)8v <TO(fiiav 1025 KAeivoTciTT^v eTracrKOjv.^ ^ — ^w— .kyLcrTO<.. aab.v6o<. with a hendecameter as epode.) $oal . in which Monostrophic dyad.^ -w — w— Kal xp€p. epodic triad: meters. fO'Tii' dywv — o^— — ^v^— — w w — _.). a ("tttti dva^ Iloo-etSov w i'-Trcuv _^v^_^_^_ ktvttos XaAKOK/oo'Twi' — ^^— ^ — ^ —~ ^ . Hfx. series of choriambo. — — Philvl. 243 535 953 Aeywv u/>ictvwv Trorepos • (jiavi]a-€Tai vvv yap airas O — v^— — ^w — — v^ ^ — w — — 4^^ Ow — ^— — v^v^ — — ww — kd — y^ ^^ IvddBi.. /ra^. In the following ode.: " : § 653 AEOLIC VERSE XoyOKTL Kol ^pOVTL(Tt Kul yvw/iOTvVois {JueptfJivaLi.

w TTOlt]- T^s tepwraxT/s aTra- (TWV TToAc/XW re Kai ral<i 8vvdp.Trpvvop. A = abccd.3<=^ w Tepaca-Tie ttoi K/dovov c. 'H/x. 551 554. and an octameter as epode. two catalectic Asclepiadean trimeters.€Tepav ^vvipyov NiK-qv. p-ev e^epwv 539 dvairvifDV 8' vdKivOov. With this compare the following series of live tetrameters w /xaAaxas .iL 6' vinpcfiepov- 585 crr^s pe^eovcra ^w/aas. w (^lXmv pkv dp.^ — k^ — v^w— Kol peXiXioTivov AaAwv 533 — w^— Kai pdSa Trpocra-ea-qpm.--^ — — — ^ — ^ — w ^ -^ ^ .<piKov iv orpaTtais re Kai rjp. decameter as proode to a periodic tetrad composed of a hexameter. fF./ Antistro'plu. ^"fi TToAtovx^ IlaAAas.iu)Vi re ' vaiots Trpos TO 7rapecrT05. Seu/a — ^ ^ — — wv^— — ^ ^ — — ^ ^ — w 10*^ ^ ^ — ^ — ^ — -^ — -^ — — 6*^^ eXO' ets X^poi' ^ Xpva-orptaLv 518. 10 ^ --/ . C7 ^lAraT e/c Twv ciAAwv re ^ewv Kdrj^opp. 10 6 3 3 8. See 753. 5 fieLpaKLWV 6' ajLttAAa kap.a)(^aL<i Sev/o' a.^ . ^^ ^ — w — ^ — ^ i^^ v^ — v^ — v^ 4*^ v^ — ^ — ^ — ^ i^^ . vuv ovv Sevpo Set yap TOis dvSpdcri a-Q ToicrSe irdvi- T^X^V iropLcrai (re Kr]v ecTrep irore Kai vvv.: 244 555 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY iXLcrOoffiOpot.o z"" 560 Sekcfiivoiv /xeSewv Sovvtctpare. v. proodic pentad: a Monostrophic dyad.ev(DV iv app-acrLV KoX (SapySaip-ovovifTwi'. i] x^P'''^^^ eo-Ttv eraipa ly/xwi' 590 Tois T exdpoitri /xe^' (fjavrjOi' o-Tacria^'et.dpaKOV 531 5— <^ — w — w irpocTKLvCdv Se creAtra. ii. Xa/Sovcra Trjv p. See the metrical scholium on Eq. § 554 rpL-qpeis.^ ^ . / \ \ ' — — — v^ — ^ — ^ — qCV v — v7» v^ v.

iravvvxi^wv TYjV Se(T—oLvav epetSets. 695: «V t)8v6(rfxoi. 518 -^^-^-^^ w v^ v^ 915 d\K KaXet. ottws w ere. TjSr] Tov a-' 'Iwvtas T/DOTTOV TaAaiva kvtjo-i^s. frag. ^v. Diiambic and Glyconic cola are the chief constituents of the following Ecclesiaznsae 911-17 = 918-23 Strophe. decameter. alai t'l ttote Trila-Ofiai — — 516 /} v^^^ • — v^— • 2 ovx i^KCi fiovTalpos. oo-Tis cTTpio/JLaiTt. toi'S Aecr/?toi'S. S) fxaV iKerevofiaL. § 556 yeXCjv 8' iTTTTOo-eAtva AEOLIC VERSE Kal 245 y^ -^ 531 531 10 ^ ^ — ^ — 4 Kocr/ioo-avSaAa fSaivwv. Aeolic heptameter. proodic combination of eleven strophes. 800 w — — — ^ -^ — — w — v^7 yap Ktti fioi p-'JTrjp aXXy {xeTOi f^efSijKi. •— 5 •— — TaXA' ovSev ravra 8d Aeyeiv 38. 912 [MOVYj 8' avTov AetTro/iat. — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ ^ — ^ — v^ — v^ 4*^^ Pher.<. ws I'o^os series is 1(7Tlv. — ^ ^ — — ^ ^ — — — — ^ ^ w — — ^ _ _ 556. 73. iraiyvia' rrjv S' eyni^v 5 — — — ^ — ^ — ^ v^ — v^ — w — w — w/Dav ovK aTToAets ovB' aTroX-qifei. (Episode II. 131 555. (yX^i KaTTifSoa rpiTOV Tratcjv. _ ^ _ ^ — w — . Ne. — 'Opdayopav.). 2 7 10. See 717. Tp. ii. See 771.: . 920 BoK€LS 8e fiOL Kal Xdf3Sa kuto. w — ^ — 10^^ <av> cravT^S Karovat'. .--w^-v^ w -~ ^ — v^— Antistivphe. pericopic triad: catalectic polyschematist dimeter. In the antistrophe C = ab. Scaliger : : toc 'Opdaydpav 917 d)/ Hermann 921 i>ap7rd<rais ixpapTrdaaio The strophe and antistrophe constitute the second dyad in a In the strophe. dvTi/?oAw 518. A of two catalectic choriambo-iambic cola and a Pherecratean found in Arist. C = abc. 916 'Opdaydpav Ed. uAA' OTJK av TTod' v<f)apTrd(Tai'i Tafia.

: 246 7 7.^ ^ — ' ^ — — 6^ v. In are the following ode two subordinate periods that mainly ditrochaic end each with a catalectic choriambo- iambic dimeter Eccl 900-5 = 906-10 (Episode StT02jhe. 770.) Zrjva Tvpavvov ets . Glyconic heptameter. _ ^ _ ^ -^^ . In the antistrophe two hexameters in correspond(51) B = aa. 6 6. II.rjpol'i — ^^ — ^ ^ — ^=^ ^ — ^ v^ — — 6^ 903 KaTTt rots /^r^Aots €7rav^et' (tv S' w ypav. in which a simplified logaoedic pentameter two periods composed of choriambo-iambic cola with a of polyschematist and Glyconic dimeters. 'H/x. monostrophic type ence. j3ovXofxeV7j _ ^ _ K^ — ^ — ^w— 507 — ^ — — v^ 208 — — ^ ^ — .€X-i]fj. _^__ _^_^ -. 909 KUTTl TtJs kAiVT^S 0</>6V ev- 51.a. 517. as in the following. pots Kal TrpocreAKiVato <fiLXTJ(Tai. Yp. : 558. a vipifjLiSovTa /xev dc(av 800 (ant. 5 -y^ TTapaXeXe^at KavTeTpiipaL Tw davoLTO) p.^o/)6v — ^ ^ — — ^ ^ — w — w — ^ — ^ — . See Aristophanes simplifies the rhythm of the first half of the antistrophe. heptameter. /XTj (f)96veL raicriv veaLcn. See 767. 563-74 = 595-606 Strophe. (K~€<roL crov to Tprjfia 907 TO T kiTiKXiVTpov (iTro/BoiXois l3ovXojx€vrj (TTroSeicrOat./ • — ^J y^ — — ^ — ^ ^ ~ — 6^ in a proodic The strophe and antistrophe : constitute the first dyad combination of eleven strophes. rhythm are intentionally 557. kp.). Peculiarities of See 51. pericopic dyad hexameter. ^ — — — ^ — — — w ^ — ^ — v^ 7*"^ Antistrophe. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY epodic dyad : § 557 diiambic heptameter.). Still greater variety in form and melody was secured of three by combining cola joins series different orders in the same strophe. (Parabasis I. Ne.Trk<^vKi. exaggerated in this part of the strophe. See 770.^ -^ 901 TO Tpv(f)€pov yap Tois aTraAoicri p. Nub. See 717. 6 7. In the strophe B = ab.

simplified logaoedic See 772. pericopic tetrad Monostrophic dyad.eyacrdevrj Tptaivijs rafiiav. T €7rixwp'os 'ijperepa ^' alyi8os I'ptoxos ttoAiouxo? 'A^ava. 6 7 5 8. a-epvorarov PioOpeppova ^' -^-^ -^ ^ -^-^-^-«----5c TrdvTO)\\ iTnrovwpav o? uTrep- Au/x7rpots ttKTtcrtv Karex^' 10 yi^s TreSov. Yiiprjvr] The same Aeolic dimeters 109 (aab.iambic hexameter and heptameter. aypiov fioxXevTi'ji'. KW/AacrTTjs Atdvt. /3' a/x(^t /xot )/ avT€ <l>06/5' ava^ Ar)ki€ KwOluv e^wv e'xcis {npiKepaTa irerpav. choriambo. 247 565 — ^ y^ — ^ 6*^ //.^ ^ — — 7*^'' Kol fieyaXiovvfJiov I'lfieTepov irarkp' 389 570 383 Toi' AWepa. A = abed.^ w — ^ ^ — ^ .cros.^^ €V AetjUoivt X(DTO(f)OpO) 534 ___^ _^^_ w — — w •^^ ^ — — ^ ^ — <.kya<i kv deot<i ev 6vrjT0ia-i re Satyawv. . p. — ^ ^ — v^ — vy4 4 KVTTftpov T€ Spoa-aiSr] . — ^ -^ — — ww— : y^ — — v^4 — -^ — — ^ — ^ ^ — — ^ S ^-y Compare the following VTT series of tetrameters Of. 4 4 8 ?) (Ba6v—XovT€ Kal are combined more — — ^ ^^ ^ — ^ ^ — intricately 538 536 ^€vydpLov fSoeLKov €t yap efiol iravcrapevu) ToG TToXepov yei/otTo a-Kdij/ai KdiroirXdaaL t€ koX [> Aovcra/zevw SieAKiVat — — — — — — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ i — w ^ ^ — y^ ww— — — ^ ^ ^ — T^S Tpvyo^ dpTov Xiirapov Kal pd(f)avov (fiayovri. dvaSevSpdSojv ciTraAas da-TraXdOov'. TraroiJvTes 535 . frag. in Aiiat. yvy-j re Kal dA/xi'pa? daXacr- 800 cTTjs r. polyschematist-Glyconic octameter. 603 Ilapi'ao-o-tav os Karex'^^' ireTpav crvv TrevKais creAayei BaKXaiS AeXcfiLcnv epirpeTrwv.: " : ^ 559 AEOLIC VERSE —pwra rov re fieyav kikAi/ctkw. ofKOV €v ^ Kopat (re AvSwi' peydXws i} (rkfiova-iv. pentameter. — ^v^ — — ^yw — — w — w ^ — ^ — — ^ w — — S^^ v^— 'H/*. 598 601 T 'Ec^eo-ov paKUipa Trdyxpvo'ov 6eu<. 559.

6'crais " 355 357 TO.^w^ — ^ — — i^ 2^^ w 2° w — v^w — rdS' ivyp-ar iKyevecrdaL. 14 dStKoucrt re rvyv TrdAtv — dAA' 389 v^-^-^-^-2 ioo-8' (5 TrayKpares Zev raiJTa KvpwcreLas. as in the five odes that follow . anapaestic dimeter. two dimeters and a nonaB = abc._ __^_ ^__7C 357 i^airaTuiciv : 354 oi/ve/c' evy/JiaT eKyevecxBai Dindorf : tiJyfxaTa yeviffdat Hermann : 364 X^70U(r' Suidas X^yovaiv 366 eij-e/c' Bentley : eVeK* a disturbing phrase derived from 360. 538 5— Tpi(f)vXXov. __^_ ^^_. Kai vopov 10 — — — ^ v^ dvTLpeduTTdvai €- raTTOppl^Td T€ TOlCtV ___^^_^_ ^ <^ X^pois Tois rjpeTepoLS Xiyovcr. which should be double like the two that precede. 4 2 2 9. the second count in the third item of indictment. ^vv£V)(^6fxe6a reAea fxev TToAei TeAca Se S^/^o) — ^ >^ w — <^w^ \j \j . 370 ly/Liiv Oeov? Trapaa-rarelv KaiTrep yvvac^lv ovcrais. that has displaced some such sentiment as /xvpia t aWa vvv. a tetrameter as proode._. The commonest combination in Aristophanes joins polyschematist with choriambo-iambic and diiambic cola. Xo. Non-antistrophic. See 745. pericopic triad: Glyconic meter as epode. 12 2 7. 361-71). The imprecation after 367 dae^ova' ddiKovffi TT)v 7r6Xtf is left to the imagination of the spectator Hermann affe^ovaiv dBtKovciv (^airaruxn ^TTt 360 : /3Xd/35 : B = ab (352-60. — w — 365 If} M7y8oDS eTrayoncri t^s t ouveK £7ri ___^ ^_^_ ^ — wv^ 12^ X^^po-S acre/Joucr' f3Xdj3y f. 142. frag. See 771. Glyconic and diiambic cola may be combined Thes. diiambic heptameter. 8' dpia-Q' TrpoaqKei o I'tKttv Aeyoucrais oTrdcrat — y^ — 379 -^— ^— 5— — v^— re Tors I'qaTTarQxTiV Trapa/Saivovcri opKovs Tovs vevopicrpkvovi — — — ^ v^ ^_^_ — v^v^9" ^ — ^ — w — v^ — v^ v. a = abbe. 352-71 75 (Parode). — — v^ — v^w— v^ — v^ — 4^ Pher. dodecameter./ 360 7] KepBwv CLveK ijyqfjiLcrpaTa (rjTOva-' irrl /SXafSy. Polyschematist. : periodic tetrad 561. 560. w 109 With the first of these tetrameters compare Aiist.: : 248 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY IWV § 560 KdvdpVCTKOV /AaAaKWV T XiifiaKa Koi.

(xAAo 705 vorjfia (f)p€v6s. with a See 762. €VTV)(ia yei'OiTO rav- — — — >^ — — — — 3 533 792.aa-iv ^puiTi^eTai KOL cro(f)Lav eTracTKei.-^. 51 10 ^ — v/ 11 *S'^/'op7ie. MonostropMc dyad. vttvos S' uTreo-TW yAvKU^v/iOS 6fifiaru>v.rot- ^ - yap 7ra>5 rd 51 aij^' ^_^__-^-— ^^ trepci rpeTrecr^at. Ta. B' 379 513 iTrrjpfJievov ^-^-^-v.(us 67r' S'. a uAA' 'iOi yaipuiv Trjs uvopeias 281 ovv€Ka TavT}]S.^ — — ^ ^ — — ^ y^ — ^^ — 04 ^ — ^y — — 2-'- €Tot/iOS o8' Spdv 00-' av KeXevrjs. f3' ap' ala-Oavet Trkela-ra Sl' fias rj- 535 dyad' avTi'x' e^wv ixovas Oewv . — . trimeter. oTttv CIS 7r7^Sa diropov Trea-rjs. hendecameter (tetrameter in the strophe) as epode. 'H/i.-2 5 (TV avSpos eKTre7rXrjy/x€Vov (f)av€p{os 810 Kal ^ — ^ — w — ^=^3 — v^v^— 6i'i'ao"at — y^ 2-'- — ^ — w — v> — y. 4 2-2 2-11 (4 in the a tetrad composed of a tetrameter.). (Syzygy). Niih. epodic pentad : A probably = abc'bd. 800 dpwTTW. 249 510-17 (Parabasis I. and two penthemimers that enclose a logaoedic dimeter. : — v^v^ — w — v^— — ^ sj — v^ — ^ — — ^ ^ — -^ 8 avrov : 511 owera Brunck elVe/ca or ^..a' <f)p6vTi^€ 8r) Kal Siddpei iravra t/30— ov re aavTov 702 (TTpofSei TTVKVwcras. anapaestic On the commation see 293. 700-6 = 804-13 Antistrophc. Non-antistrophic. Ko/o. A = abc. diiambic . pericopic triad See 771. yvoi's diroXdipeis 6 n TrXi'icrTOV 51 raxfws" (jiiXei -wv^. strophe).: ii 562 AEOLIC VERSE Nul. Commation. 'Hyu. OTl TrpOrjKWV els jSadv Tvys rfXiKias cftvcTLV 5— ^v^— av- 515 v€(j)T€poLS rrjv Tov n-pdyp.ToO Dindorl' 3 4 8. 298. 562. Aeolic tetrameter and octameter. ws ecTTtv 513 diravTa.'6/ca 515 ai.

a.a)(^ov w T/3tToye. . KaXvKTjv v^-w. is 330 5oi5\at<riv Dindorf: 5oi/\7.vTas eTrtov . Xo.-v^^_ v^-w^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ — — ^ ^ — . fi^v vcTTipoTrovs fSoTjOw.250 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY See the metrical scholium on Nuh. — v^— — ^^_" 322 i/nreTTprjcrdai. 5 dXXa 327 vvv 328 Srj ^ofBovp-ai. (fikpetv v8(x)p jxeO' vfiQv.r€tAoi. 344 e^' oTcnrcp w TToXiovxe eras ecrxov eSpas. SrjfxoTLcriv 15 334 (ft'epovcr' v8wp ^ _ ^ — v/ w — w ^ — v^ ^^ w — ^ Antistrophe.^ ^ - T€ /cat KpiTvkXav 7repL(jiV(T'r]TW 509 VTTo -M 7. (Parode). Cf. Taicriv kpal'i /cao/^evais /3or)6w. ro^i. Xo.o-t. x^^_ w— _^^_ — ^ ^ — yap eixTrXi](rap. 342 aAAa TroXkfxov Kal jxavcwv pv(Tapeva<s 'EAAaSa Kal xpv(roX6(f)a TToAiVas. Tv.(p'^ 340 341 as (US TTV/Di Tols /xva-apas yvvaiKos dvOpaKemiV (5 dea fx-q ttot eyw TripTrpa/xevas iSoip-i. 278 (94) and the note 338 The second 'dactyl' 347 et Reisig ijv : dubious. 277.p.€V7]. Kal ere /caAw et (Tvp. § 563 321-34 = 335-49 Strophe. Lys. Fu. rts eK€t- vas vTroTTipTrprja-LV dvijp.kvi] 535 10 Tv/i/ vSpiav KV€cf)aia _ ^ ^ _ /toAts aTTo Kpi^vT^s inr' oxXov ^^^v^— gC ^ — v^^_ ^ _ m 4CV — ^ ^ — Kal dopx'fiov Koi Trardyov )(^VTp£iov 330 SovXato-LV (JjCTTl^OpAvi] 5^ (TTcypaTiaL^ 6\ apraAews dpafji. i^Kovo'a Ttts ydp Txx^oykpovdvSpa'S cppeiv crreAcx^/ 336 €tS (f>€povTas u)(T7rep /JaAavevo-ovTas TToAtV j-WS TpiTClAai'TOvt Seti/oTar' /Sct/JOS./€t'.' Lys.. irkrov Trkrov I^ikoSikyj TTpli' c. 804 563.CV re vopwv apyaXkuyv _^^_ 325 VTTO re yepovTUiv oXWpwv. fF.

Id Neavtas. (51). XapiTuiv Qpkp. tetrad The dochmius that closes the lyric is admirably adapted to See 742. the colon lacking in the strophe of. in in passages of Cf. (TV 8e flOl. 565.o<. 1221 (599). A^ub./— TOV TXi'jfioifa Atj- 5— wv--— — WWw-^5«^ II 55 voia yopnywv aTreXva-' dSenrvou. -^ (OS fiiv (xttAo) ^ - ^-^5^^ Aoyo). 744 (469). two tetrameters and a dimeter. decameter (dodecameter in antistrophe). On the pentameter 345.€V)j w^^w— w — w — ^ — ^ — . Ach. 4 4 2 1. in comic imitation or parody of tragedy. see 510. and connexion with iambics. II. 1163.a' 'Av'TLfj-axov rvv i^-aKaSos — y^ ^^ — — ^ ^ — . Ecd. c5 xpv(ro8ai8aXrov e/xov ^leX^][xa. : express the emotion of the singer. brachycatalectic heptameter. Crat.€v' i=i_^^ ^_i=i4 kcTTLV. 730 = = 890 (470). 'H/z. 172.erpi. _^^ w — ^ — ^^ 2 cfiiXrarov w iKerevw. KvTrptSo? epvos. fieXiTTa Movo-7/s. epodic See 717.-WWOV €t' fTTtSot/it t) T€v0l8oS S' cJ^^w^^ Seo/xevoi'. intense feeling. combination of eleven strophes. 7-84510 (12 in antiMonostrophic dyad.^ ^ w — v^ — 4*^ ^ Tov ^vyypa(f)ri rov /xeAewi' TrotJ^rryv. Tpv<^7]s' TrpcxrwTrov. 873 1219. with a dochmius as epode.). 1164 (474).jia. KaK(. Ach.§ 565 AEOLIC VERSE 251 strophe). pericopic pentad See tetrameter. Kol Tavra fievTOL fj. * 533 — ^ ^ — e^oXicreuv 6 Ztv? OS y' ^fJ-^ — ^v. -WW. Neavts. III.ui'i 537 535 5 w— ^ — ^ — — v^v^— ^ — ^ — -v^v^ — 969 970 Trpos Tr/v ifi-qv dvdyKr]y dpr)ii. 975 avot^ov dxrird^ov rot ere fxe' Bid ttovous ex^^- The strophe and antistrophe constitute the fifth dyad in a proodic r = aabc. ^4 civot^ov da-ud^ov fx^' 8td Toi ere TToi'oi'? e\(j Antistrophe.). 1150-61 = 1162-73 (Stasimon Strophe. With 564. pentameter. io—tijij. : 772. C (704) = abcde. elsewhere in it Aristophanes occurs in just this form. octameter. 968-71 = 972-5 (Episode Strophe. Fesp.

'HyLl.y— $t. ^v TttuTa TrapaKeXevi] Kara tov veavtav TovSe Aeyetv. with a hexameter as epode. 566. a tetrameter. a second pentameter and a heptameter. Kttt p.: ~ ' 252 CTL^ovcra THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY TrdpaXos enl rpairk^ij KeL/xhi] § 56G OKcXXoi' kStu fieX- 10 v^ — 1160 AovTos Aa/5etv avrov kvwv apTrdfracra <f>€vyoL. Kaireid' d/xaprwv /SdXoL Kparlvov. See the metrical scholium on Ach. . — 5 iveyKard) fxoi Sevpo rrjv — ^ — — •^ w — w — Kia-TTjV Tts ws Tax'tTTa. 526-45 = 631-47 Strophe. k^^' eVepov vvKTe/3ivov ykvoiro. 537 oStos ideXeL BS.€ (jidd' vjieis./ v^ — v? ^ — ^ v^ v/ 2^^ 2^^ av Xe^rj y' aTrAws — 4^ ixv7jix6(rvva ypdipofxai 'yw. Tt yap jU. 530 drap 'H/x. 15— c^v^— w w — v. . Tts aurov /xe^i'wv tvjs Ke(fiaXrjs 'O/jccttt/s 8e XWov jSaXeiv jSouAo/^tevos €V ctkotw XdfSoL tq X^ipl TTeXedov apTiws Ke^fO'/^^i'oi' e. o yevoiTO. The strophe and antistrophe : contrast in form.y)v oar' — — — — ww— — w ^ — — ^ v^ — v^— — v^v^ ^ — ^ k^ — ^ — — w— — — v^ v^— vy — ^ — v^— — — v^ — ^q^^ — — ^ ^^ — w — v^ wv--— <^ — \^ — — v^v^— ^^ — ^^— — — 6^^ — 4*^^ — 4^^ — — 6*^ 2*^ v.€TipOV yvfxvaariov Xkyeuv ti Set Katvov. (TOL )tA€yas opas yap ws eo"T dywv <vi. Cola of four orders may be combined in the same (Debate). OTTOiS (f)avq(r€L B8.)(^u)v tov /xctp/iapov. due to extreme resolution and between the last two subordinate periods is admirably adapted to heighten the comic effect of the sentiment. — ^ — \^ w— ^ _ m 6^^ 'H/. The protraction. B = abacd. 1143 fF. 5 4 5 7 6.v> 10 535 Koi Trepl rujv ciTravTwv /xt) ct'Trep. Kparrjcrai.1. a' VVV Se TOl' Ik $l]fJ. ^ — ^ — . — — _ ^ _ • . See 717. See 761. /3' TOVTO jiiev aiJTtj) Kaiwv 4V. a' /xr) <^avet ttoTos Tts wv. w oSt ^ — w — v^ 4*^ TO) Aoyw Kpar-jcry. epodic pentad a tetrad composed of a pentameter. 1164 TjTTtaAwv yap 1166 etra Kard^eLe 1168 /zaivo/ievos o 1171 cTra^etev 8* o'tKaS' e^ iTTTracrias /JaSt^wv. constitute the dyad BB of the proodic triad that forms the stasimon. strophe Vesp.

/3' (is Se ttcivt' ClfJiL. epodic triad The close of the antistrophe is simplified. with a 4 4 7 4. epodic tetrad See 742. with a nonameter as epode. two tetrameters and a heptameter. dXX' ipyjfxa'S OVK. 541 -^pTi'ja-LiJLos k<TT 8' ovS' — v-zv^— ^ ^ — — — v^w — (TKioTTTO/xevot iv Ta?5 oSots aTrdfrafi 544 6aXX.(3s yap ySeiv o)? eyw TaVTrj KpOLTUTTOS 'H/x.)(aA€7roi' 646 T7/V ya/3 /xi) €p)v opyrjv €/xo{! Trpos AeyovT6. mctt' eyuty' rjv^avofiTjv aKOVCDV. ^ — ^ v^ — 4*^ 'H/X. (7^1/01^' Bentley) yiuoLTo vvv MSS. See 746 and 774. KOLO-TLV lycij OVK CV BS. two tetrameters and a second hexameter as epode. A = abba ( + ). 1^ /xi]v (re rrjixepov a-KVTrj j3XeTrei. Kttv fJLaKapwv StKa^eiv ai'Tos t'So^ct VTjcrots. 635 KaA. 253 \^ H/X. 695 a) of a famous . tetrameter as epode. See 51. /3' 861 8e ere Travrotas TrAeKCtv et's aTTocfitv^iv TraAa^a?. 'H/x.: ^ ' 567 a OVK€Tl 7r/3eO-/?VT(ijV AEOLIC VERSE 6)(\o<i oLKaprj.v Trotiycrw.X-i]Xv6ev 637 Koi5Sei' TraprjXdev. See 737.O(fi6poL KaXoi'iMed' . •S>t. we^' ov- T(o p^SiUiS Tpvyt]cr€LV. 4 4 9. dimeters in refrain. 533 — v^w— — v^w— Antistrophe. kTr(. with refrain ( + 222). : iv 536 y^voiro Ed. 534 z/w Bentley 642 ws 5' Hirschig 544 KaXovfied' Person KaXolfxeO' Person hv iv : : 543 : ua-d' Monostrophic dyad. with three In the strophe B = aabc. palinodic proode. a hexameter as tetrad. A = AB (526-37. 538-45). The following ode has the metrical form xv. scolium ( Ath. In the antistrophe B = aab. dvTwfio<rto}V KeXvcf)-)]. yS' OVTTWTTod' OVTd) KadapW<i 632 4»i. Treirdvat . WS 8' Tttt OVTOS ^^StJ (TKOpSlVattVTOV. ot'Sefb? rjKOVcrapLei/ ov8e ^w€Tws AeyovTOS. two tetrameters. 6446 : : : 567. 641 ^8o/xevos AlyovTi.

510 v^— v^— eX^vdepio. 568. (Episode IL).16' e^rjv irapa T'fj vea KaOevSeuv Kal fxrj "Sei Trporepov SiaaTroBrjcrai. 569. 3 3 2 3. with resolution in it Anacreon {frag. 24) uses a tetrameter the first metre. He rings all possible changes .0KpaT0vp. with a trimeter as epode. ov yap Xapi^evj^s raS' Kara tov vojxov et ravra ttoiciv 945 939 /irj eo-Ti ix-qUv SiKatov. * 1245 * ff. makes this ambiguous resolution the under- lying conceit of a song in which he travesties the extravagances of the dithyrambic poet Cinesias. proodic combination of eleven strophes. kcrrlv. (. common use first In the fundamental scheme the metre of is unregulated.: : 254 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY Eccl § 568 938-41 = 942-5 Strophe. and in Av. * * ^pqixara Kal Kdjxol fx^rd (3lov KXetrayopa re GcTTaAwv. Aristophanes appropriates dvaireTofJiaL 8rj 1372 f . Ne.) is in doubt whether the resolved first Aristophanes.ida. D See 742. this general form. ^r]p. but as he proceeds he genially enlarges the original ambiguity. — ^ ^ — ^ ^ 2 ov yap dvao-XiTOV tovto y _ ^ ^ _ Anfistrophe. with much humour. Tvt'o closely related Aeolic tetrameters in are illustrated in 535 f. ol[JL(x>^(MV w — w^3^' dpa TttTTt vrj Ai'a CTToSyjtrets. 775. : 'Set Elmsley : 940 irpea^vr^pav Bothe irpea^vTepov The strophe and antistrophe : constitute the third dyad in a = aab'c. 6 ff. See 717. Tp. two Phalaeceans and a polyschematist dimeter with epodic tetrad anapaestic opening. jcv 940 dvda-tjxov rj Trpe(r(3vTepav. With the last colon in the above compare the fragment of the scolium in Vesp. Trpos "OXvfMTTOv TTTepvyecrai Kov<^at^ Hephaestion (30. metre represents an iambic dipody or a choriamb.

etSwAa 7reT€Lvu>v atdepo8p6p. d. 570. "OXv/xtov TrTepvyecra-i 68ov aAAor' eV aAAav fxeXewv — Kov(fiai. Catalexis is common in all forms of Aeolic verse. This had been TTi'vetv ctet made familiar by Pherecrates : Kal yme^rctv Ttplv dyopav TreTrXr^Bevai ^ Av.(f)6f3(ii cf)pivl (TijofxaTi re veav €(f)eTra>v — (Welcome) (Remonstrance) 1380 f. Tore 8' av jSopea o-w/xa TreAa^iov dXip-tvov aWepo? avXaKa Te/xi'iov. (Cinesias sings) _^^_ _^^_ ^_^_ 1372-1400 8i] pher.o)v 7ri/otaicri j3air]v — (Interruption) ^ ^ (Major ionic variation) (Anaclastic minor ionic variations) 1398 ff.§ 570 AEOLIC VERSE 255 on the tetrameter practice — —by means among they are of all impossible according to his own the of resolution and contraction in the choriamb equivalent in art. dialogue Furthermore. (' Iambic ' and antispastic variations) 1393 tf. at Since the — — . 1372 ff. and by substitution metres length to choriamb.s'" (Interruption) 1376 f. with In showman's he introduces these fancy tetrameters to break the stream of the dithyrambist's 'melody.' 1394 f. TOTc fikv voTiav ar€i\wv Tpos 686v. 29 (Episode IL). opvis yevio-dai jSovXopai Xiyv(fj6oyyo^ ar^Swv. Aristophanes himself never resolves either long of choriamb nor contracts its shorts not to mention the extravagant variations here introduced his audience would be quick to appreciate the skill with which he brought the resources of metric into the service of his art as a comic poet.iDV oicuvtov ravao8eipMv — (Interruption) Tov d\d8po- fxov uAd/jievos dfi' dvep. and at the close of the song the poet shifts to the acatalectic form of the original tetrameter. " dvaTTiTOfiai TreTOfxai 8' 7rpo<.

and is uncommon Similar shortening of the beginning of a colon was effected by or sometimes even two of the initial might be suppressed. xl. vofii^er eyo) €ko)v ev tw Tavr' rjXiOid^o). ^ .) 1112 apxriv. 0T€ • /x' ov 8' (fypoveiv croL — dkvoti.: " ~ 256 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY Brachycatalexis also is § 571 the close of a period. 1111-20 = 1121-30 = 1131-40 = 1141-50 (Stasimon Strophe II. Plant.^ 12^^' Strophe II. dvcras eTrtSeiTrvets. Zys. 1140 100. a & Arjfxe Kak-qv y' e^eis ore ttcivtcs avcr' w 800 (st. \r). 323 = 337 (563). ivirapaywyo'i ei. /3' xovro) e'l voGs OVK evL rais. Mus. Cant. 'H/i. One syllables of the colon tinuously. 1125 avTos re yap -rjSop-at 1135 el Tova8' Tvep €7riT7ySes w(r l3p'vXXo)V TO Kad' y)p.. Der saturnische Vers. see Lindsay^ classification in his edition of the Captivi On See also Leo. to? tVeor' Aeyets. The latter is called also colon Eeizianum. 74 ff. iii.^ v^ — v^ 10 o . in 1724 other (588).. 1115 a.^ -) and of its catalectic form. not 680 (546). Aristophanes makes frequent use of the acephalous Gly conic (^-^ ^ . as in Av. KXeiTTOvrd re f^ovXopai Tpi(p€iv eva 7rpo(rTaT>. 676. 185 flf. tovtwv 6s av y Tra^iis 1130 1 apas €7raTa^a.v • kv ry Kad' orav oxj/ov pij croi Tv\rj ov. 'Up. .v^ w .\X' ^WTTcvo/xevos re x'^'" peis Ka.. 802 o vovs 8e aov 1120 Trapwv airo^p. 58 ff.? t/jottw. a modern name.) I. KOfiais vfiSiV. found even in Aristophanes (509). (St. tovtw yrdw TroXXrj. pkv av ev ttoiois.. the acephalous Pherecratean (^ . ^^_^_~ — ^ —' — o 8^^' — ^— — w— ^ — v^ — dpomot SeSiWi irep uxt- avSpa Tvpavvov. poets. the various forms of this colon as they appear in Plautus.d. Srip-oaiovi rpe(f>£i^ ttvkvi.^ 571. orav y irXewi.^airaTwfXiVO'i.€pav. iii). ^ — ^ ^ ^ — ~^ w 5— — wv^ ^ ^ v^ ^_^_" irphs Tov T€ Aeyovr' aet 800 K€)(rji'a<. TouTov S'. In some odes Aristophanes employs these cola con- acephalization (38). Strophe III. as in the following Uq.^ ^ ). Rhein.v^ ^ _ ^ _ w .

See the metrical scholium on Eq./ w-w. AAA A. The value of the dimeter now under consideration ( . an acephalous-Glyconic octameter and dodecameter. if the previous colon ended with a word two acephalous cola were joined in the middle of a word. 572. dyad See 701. a pause.- v^ ff. 257 auTois TreptepxofxaL Toi'S KOLfx' oio[X€vovs <f>poveii' e^airarvkkeLV. in 576). the instrumental accompaniment and the but if dance continuing for the 1111 1121 ff. 1 1 1 1 fF.^ "A^./ ^^ .- v. It is possible that the acephalous Glyconic as a complete colon of seven syllables relation of the acephalous Glyconic to other cola (cf. --W . and that two contiguous cola were joined as closely as But it is more likely.ou arr' av KexAo^wcri 1150 K^jp-ov KaraprjXm'. that it lacking at the beginning of the acephalous colon within the subordinate period may then have been marked by .^ ^ ^ ^ v." The tie {^) here indicates the protraction of a long syllable to the value of a dotted quarter note or of a half note.. 8 12. 1*731 ff. CKacrTor' av- 1145 TijpM yap Toi'S oi'Se SoKwi' opai' eVetT' K AcTTTOvTas dvay- Ka{w TTccAiv e^epilv /x. S . pericopic Monostrophic tetrad. in 588 and Mib.— v^ lias been variously determined by ancient and modern ) Heliodorus consistently denominates this dimeter and metricians.^--^ ^ . £f. full time : .^ ^ .^ - 573. the foregoing ode in the first and second strophes respectively would be as follows. ^ — w — 1 The metrical symbols A and A (33) designate respectively an eighth (1) and a quarter (r) pause. 1345 and had the full was normally dodecaseme The time of the syllable time of the Glyconic.§ 573 AEOLIC VERSE Strophe IV. in view of the two normal Glyconics. See 770. Av. the union must have been Thus the first subordinate period in effected by protraction. : . A = ab. was regarded and ten or eleven primary times.

major ionic verse is not foimd in Greek comedy. of the Glyconic. acephalous Aeolic cola. for dimeters (— — v-'v^ — ^ — and — — ^ ^ ). Av.^ ^ . See the Editor's Origin and Form of Aeolic Verse. and Westphal regards. w Kopai. 3. Ban. 58 Athenaeus dvrjp yeyevqrai Bergk emended the text of cola (xii. fx^v irpbs 6xpiv /iaXa/cws Ix^"* "'"'^ ffwyaaros. 575. | 4. 904.-^ in accordance with the general logaoedic theory of all Aeolic verse If this dimeter is major ionic.) as 'anapaestic' . Aristophanes employs few and only in obvious imitation of primitive Of. and the constant association of this dimeter with Glyconics and diiambic cola in Aristophanes. 1319 (586). 258 its catalectic THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 574 ionic form respectively as hephthemimeral and hemiolic major See. it (Allg. Hephaestion (35. (TT/aaTeu/Aa. ) : to. parody. 530. the hemiolic phrase. of which abundant illustrations follow. ' ' 574. which is unintelligible in 524 f.: . Metrik^. An of dissyllabic acephalization occurs in Th. TO. 11 ff. 143. the scholium on this ode. 992 (589). 576. 354)asanacatalectic monanapaestictripody: ^ . ixkv y' Trpos KOfJLr) oij/LV e^ei KaAws. Isyllos. 1350 (592). 8 ff.— w v^ ^ — v^w ^ — w ^ v^ — ^ ^ 5^ — ^ ^ w — v^ v^ — — ^ kj — k^ w y_^ Glyconic and Pherecratean Xatp u) SiaTToVrtov Tt TTpaTTOfxev aiTO (ru>[xaTos . in popular forms or in parody. (r(f>pcyei ycrdov Toi/ "A/SvSov ws — — — — — — — v-- ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ — — — — — — — Hermip. cola With the now under exception of the acatalectic and catalectic consideration. establishes a strong presumption that it is Aeolic. instance 909 (585). Hermippus also used the acephalous . but follows Heliodorus in his classification of the longer colon (aS' "Apre/xis. T€ veaviKYJ re (ipa^iovoyv. quoted from Telesilla) as ionic.) ignores example. it will that these scholars entertain. 1347.) . be noted that the second. Furthermore. Metrik^. catalectic metre has primitive trochaic form (615 ff. as in the ode that follows : ' Hephaestion quotes the same colon earlier in his treatise (14. ^ . 908. and a shortened form See von Wilamowitz. Acephalous Glyconics are often associated with diiambic coia. 563). but this is without parallel in poetry of the fifth century. Rossbach denominates it " mixed first prosodiac " or " logaoedic prosodiac" {Spec.

768.€^' ___^ ^_^_ — ^ — v/v^ — w — w^ jSovXopai ye irdAai yxwv eXdwv eirt tov? KaStTTOi'/yaat. pe Kepavvu lb -^ — v. ei/i' ^ — ^ ^ 802 802 r- dAAci yap oi'X oios t — ^ ^ — 5 w — w — 4^ ^ 2^ ^ 2^ 319 aSeiv 320 Tt Troi^crw S' i'tto rrjpovpat twvS .— — ^^— — — 325 Upo^eviS-qu i] rov SeAAou toutov tov \pevhap.u)v vTraKoviDV.a oStos i^eipyacrp^evos XaAwv dvaTretcrfi. €7ret yu.).ai pilv 447 f. monostrophic : three penta- See Note the combination of acephalous and full dimeters in the first intermediate period of the following ode Vesp. ^^ v^ — o 5*^^ 'H/x. ToA/zryo-ov ____ ^~. : § 577 AEOLIC VERSE Nul. ^' of/xat' €t ye twv vediTepMV y' tols KapSia? irqSav o rt Ae^ei. w v^ 2 rrdkai Sia Trys ott^s 318 vp. meters in correspondence. (Debate II.dpa^vv. T-qKop.~ . av 7yi' ovTws uKoXacrTos. ___^ ^_^_ 802 281 802 O-KOVS KttKOV Tl tlAA' ry — ^ — ^ 10 v-/ 8*^ w ZeC peyafipovra TTOirjaov KaTTVOv €^ttt<^V7ys yx£ 7y 2^ ^ v^ — ^. 'H/t. aAA. yap TOtaCra 8epp.' eo-^' — — %^ ^^ — ^ 5 6'tw OpaavveTai. A = aaa.. 1345-50 259 = 1391-6 Strophe.y/.' SrjXov ye rdv- 1350 dpwTTOv Vrt TO A-. 317-33 (Parode). ^— ^^— v^6 ^^ ava^ ^^apifraa-Bal poL i"j — vrdOos OLKTipas. a (Tov epyov w Trpeo-^ura (ftpovri^eiv oirrj 1346 (1)5 TOi/ avSpa et K/DaTvycrets" /w/y ^ — ^ oi'k v_/ 5 ovTos. (^t'Aoi. T(o VeTTOi^ei'. 577. 1395 TO twv yepairepuiv 'arl to \7JfjLa Xd/Soip-ev dv dAA' ov8' ipe/Sivdov. Monody. ^i.ia. to X^m' fo''"' 1349 TCLvOpuTTov Hermann 5 5 5. : Tdvdpuiwov Monostrophic dyad.

(TTepywv (TKopoSdXfiy 292 fSXeTTdiv VTroTpifxp-a. acephalous Pherecratean. 578. hypermeter of pericopic dyad in anapaestic rhythm : pericopic pentad. a )(^b}pw/Jiev ei's iKKXrjcriai' >=i. B = ab. bacchiac dimeter. w — w — " v^— ^ 8^^ .€ ttoli^o-qv 802 ^— >^ — v^ yj — 14*'^ Tcts XP^'P'^^^'' o. choriambo-iambic dimeter. (Parode).€v 298 299 diravO' ovocr dv 8ey (piXas.i]V i<f> — — . v^ v^ (ravTip Trpo(Te\(MV ottw? ^ ^ \j prjSev irapaxopBieis wv Set (T diroSel^af 15 296 oTTws 8e to crvpfioXov Aa^ovTes eVetTtt ttAjj- 297 o-i'oi KaOeSov/xed'. 20— — — — : ^^ — 320 irdXat Brunck TrdXat Trdi'ii The monody See 716. and See 772 and 774. which begin each with a diiambic tetrameter. Eccl. 293 aXX 294 295 S) XapiTi/xtSr. with refrain fourteen metres.' " 260 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY SiaTLvOaXew (tttoSio-ov /a' § 578 raxews. 324-33). : a = abcde ( + ). Glyconic octameter. 2 4 2 2 8 + 2). . as in the The diiambic element was sometimes slight. and quite two odes that follow. constitutes the epode of an epodic pentad AABBC. — ^ — ^ v^ v^ ^_ ^ ^ ^ — ^ — v^ v^ y^ (SvS/aes./^^ v^ v^ v^ ^ ^ ^ dr x^LpoTov(ap. fir] Swcreiv TO rpiMJioXov.^ . *H|M. See 771. ^ ^ ^ ^ v^ ^ w \^ KoX ^[JLiKvOe Kal A/JttKTJS iTTov KareTreiyajv. ( C = ab (317-23.^ ^^ — . ws — — w v^ — v^ v^ v^ — ^ ^ o — v.^ — o^dXfx-qv efxjSaXe Sijra — ov XWov ju.cras 9€pfj. o — 20 v^ v-- Tots ry/xeTcpas KaiToi rl Aeyo) yd/) X/''?*' cjiiXov? v^ v^ ^ w v^ f' ovo/id^etv. . acephalous-Glyconic tetrameter. with refrain. distinct. — — — — — — — — _ — _ — — — — — — — — v^ — S^^ w — — ^ — ww4^ ^ — v^ — 6^ — ^ _ ^ — m v/ gcv — — 8*^^ w— v^ c.^ — ^^ -^ 330 KotTreiT £1? i] dveAwv d7ro(/)vo->. 6 14.pi9iiov(ri. rjTreLXrjcre yap . firj osdv Trpio irdvv tou Kve<f)ovs 7]Kr} K€Kovifievos._^_ ^ — — — 5— — — — ^ — — — — — 10— — o — m _ i^ 290 291 o Oea-fiodeTTjs. 289-99 = 300-10 Strophe. hexameter.

Gly conic octametei's in corre8 8. dXX 305 Tci ov\i. B = aa. ^oet Xa/Setc 293 XapLTi/xidij Bentley ^ x<^P'.ihc. i-i'vt 8' evo)(Xovcr' ayav. so that in the fusion of styles (659) the apparently Ionian element predominates. 'Mvpo)Vi8ris St' ijpx^" ^ •ycvvaSas. See 767. See 770. a -^lopwpev €ts 7roAv/3/Do5oi'S Aet/Awvav dv6epu)8eis.riixla iXOdfra Set Xa^etv or iXedvT' (or i\d6uT€s or iXddvras) idei Xa^uv 307 aiTU) von Velsen aD R. 296-99). Antistrophe. 'H/i. 293-95. pericopic dyad : diiambic tetrameter. (Parode). 6 6. . Diiambic cola sometimes preponderate. ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — — — ^ >:^ ^ — ^^ 4CV w — w v^ — v^ — — — v^ v^ — v^ — — — ^ w — v^ — 8^^ v^ w — v:? ^' /Liovots yap t)p. T Kopo5d\iJ. The unconscious blending of Aeolic and Ionian rhythms is perfectly illustrated in such odes. pericopic triad A= (289-92. Ba7i. o^'Seis av tToXfia T7JS TToAews StotKCtv a/ayr/3iov cfi^pwv dAA' 7]k€v eKacrros Kai eV acTKiSiw <f}€p(DV TTieiv a/itt t' aprov atiT<x) 8vo KpopLp-voi xat T/3£ts I'vvi av eAaas. 'HjU. 5 Moipai ^vvdyovatv. 448-53 = 454-9 Strophe.fjLa ariprfuiv 301 f. C = aa. 579. re Siyyopev rpoirov rrepl tovs ^evovs koI 456 oo-oi lUfivqfJLeO' e-i'o-c^// Tovs ISiwras. two acephalous . diiambic tetrameter. AaAovvTcg ev TOis o-Te<^ai'w/zacriv. 450 TOl' l]p. fi' 6pa 8' OTTWS ijjOrjcrofiev jovaSe tous e^ acrTCws p. monostrophic two octameter and tetrameter. monostrophic : spondence. See 767. 291 f. rt Se rpiuifioXov ^i-jtovctl Xaj3dv. 301 i/Kovras. acephalous-Glyconic hexameters in correspondence.§ 580 AEOLIC VERSE Antistrophe.€v. A = abc : 4 8 4.€T€pOV TpOTTOV Tov KaAAixopwrarov Trat^ovres. ov oXfiiat. oni. 580. G (704) = ab. Monostrophic dyad.r) (\06vt' Dawes : : Monostrophic dyad. 4 8. acephalous-Glyconic : See 771. 261 ' H/i. IXapov eo-Tiv. ocroi irph toi! rjviK eSei XafBdv ikdovT Ka^v/i'TO ofioXov /xouov. orav ir/oaTTwcrt Kotvov wcnrep Tn]Xo(j>opovvT(<i. acephalous-Glyconic octameter.lv -/yAto? Kal (f>eyyo<. ffT^pyojv ffKopoSaXfir. . ^X^ttiov virdrpififxa : Porson : ^X^ttuiv VTr6Tpifj.

Tp. (f>rj(T€i. tetrameters with a diiambic octameter as mesode.) Tt SrJT II opare XajXTrpov ovra e'crei 'HjLt.. See 770. .vas. B in the strophe is ab. vvv rdSe Trpdrrei. acephalous -Glyconic hexameter. avTovs in 866 is found only in cod. €7ret8av vvfKftiov 802 (ant. ocra y 3)8' IBelv. III. A = AAB ab. See the metrical scholium on Pax 856 ff. m_^_ ^__4C w — w — w — w — ^ _ ^^ g''^ ^ — w — Antistrophe.aAAov oios (TV ^' Kttt vuv ye 8tjXos €t' <jo)Ti]p yap diraa-iv dv6pw7rots yey€V7. crTpo/3tX(ov. The distinctively Aeolic element is sometimes merely one Odes two dimeters that break or close a diiambic movement. '^HfM. dypouriv See 729. See 51. wi/ TraXiv. wo-t ev TO ts dyporcriv avTOv? aTravTttS ovTas d0-<^aAws Ktvetv Te /cat Ka^ei^Setv. diiambic two diiambic B = aba. OTttv rpvydr. and may be due to the metrical recension of Triclinius. B. § 581 'H/i. 'Hp.^^ 6*^^' ^ — ^ — ^ — 5^ — ^— ^ — ^ 4*^^ w ^ — ^ — — — w v^ — w — v^ w — c.). 262 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Pax 856-67 = 909-21 (Syzygy Strophe. 4 11. is Monostrophic dyad. a {i^AwTos ye/Dwv. /3' vy XP^?^'''o? dv7)p 7roAtT?.^ v^ . 864-7). ^ 4^ a euSai/xovecrrepos <^ave6 802 (ant) ^_. Ttt o Trpe- 857 Tp. 7roAA(r)V yap d^ios Tpvyaios d^/xovevs eyw..(rai. Kttt ttAt^v yc Twv ^ewv det t'p. a €v8ai[xovtKws y (rf3vTr]S. aS^ts veos /iV/D(j) KaraAeiTTTOS.apKivov Tp. eia-eade ttoAXw p. ei/""^!. 'Hp. 6 4. 6*^^ oifxai. ^' Tp. 4 8 4. 861 Tp. a= (856-9 = 860-3. Tp. Setvwv diraAAd^as TTOvwv Tov Sr^p^ory^v o/xtAov.s CTretSav eKiriys oivov veov AcTrao-Tryv. or 581. 921 Kttt TOV yewpyiKov Aewj' '^Y-ep/SoXov re iravcra<i. the reading of the other MSS. Tt Svy^' ^ w — v^ — o — w w — w — ^ . . mesodic triad tetrameter.^_ ^ _ i^ 4*-'^ Twv K. ox-qfia oams et's KavOdpov Vt^as 15 866 867 ecrwo-a tous "EAA?. orav ^vvwv 10 __^_ ^_^_ v^ — — — ^— _ _ ^ _ w — v^ — v^— o — w— _ _ ^ _ o — w— Twv TLrOioiv e^wfiai 'H/x. If dypois.tv ct' rjyr](r6pe(rda TrpwTov.. pericopic dyad : : right.s etrTiv d-aa-tv oo-yis €0-Tt toiovtos. o^Kovv SiKaiuis .

,^

582

AEOLIC VERSE

263

thus composed are iambic rather than Aeolic.
at the

See the remark

beginning of the preceding paragraph.

Nnl. 1303-10

= 1311-20
Strophe.

(Stasimon

II.).

H/i.

a

olov rh irpayfiaTiav epav cftXavpoiv

o

yap

yepwv

o8'

ipa(r6el*i

1305

d7roo-T€/)^o-at
Tct

fSovkerai
dSai/eto'aTO
*

^pTi]fj.ad'

1307 KOVK

€0"^'

OTTCUS

OV TrfflipOV
o

Xi'jij/eTai

TL TrpayfM,

TOVTOV

TTOtV/Cret

TOV

(TOffiL-

51,

CTTTjv,

&u Travovpyeiv rjp^ar ,
Xaj3dv KaKov
ti.

^ ^ — o — 5— — _ 73— — €^- ^ —
.

^^

w— ^— w—
^ _ v^— v^— ^ —

aL(f)i'i]<5

^ — — 5^ ^ — ^ — v^o4^ — — ^ — 4CV ^^ _ ^ — — ^ — — — ^ — ^ — ^ 6*^^

Antistrophe.
Mfj.. (3'

oTfiai

yap avrov

avTi'x
ot

evpijcreiv

owep iraAat ttot

i^qrei

1313
1315

etvai

tov vlbv 8c6vov
too-Te

yvw/xas evavTta? Aeyeiv
ctTravras oTo-irep
Trap.Trovqp'
'

Totcriv StKttiots,

viKai/

av

^I'yyevT/rat,

Kav Aeyy

I'o-ws

8'

ib-ws fSovXu'jcreTaL

Ka.(fiWVov

avToy

eiVai.
ti

1307

Xrj-^eTai
:

ti

Hermann

:

X-q-^erai.

or rt

Xrixf/erai

1310 Xa^elv kukov

Hermann

t:

KaKov \apeiv

Monostrophic dyad. A = abbe, 5 4 4 6 (7 in the antistrophe), a pentameter as proode, two diiambic tetrameters, and a diiambic hexameter (heptameter in the antistrophe) as epode. See 745. See the metrical scholium on Nub. 1303
periodic tetrad
:

ft".

582.

Ach.

836-41 = 842-7 = 848-53 = 854-9
(Stasimon
Strophe
I.)

I.

'H/x. a'

evSaifJLOvel

y

avOpiHTzo^i.

ovk
>=i

w—
— ^ —
;
(St. III.)

lyKovcru? oi irpofSatvei

w — ^ — ^ 4CY

837 TO Tvpayfia tov
K a prr (OCT €Tat

/i/ovAei'/xaro?

515, 802

c;-"C- ;=^-v^i

yap

avi]p

i^y

838

Iv Tdyop(i KaOqixevos.

Kav

ela-nj

ns

KTrjcrtas

802

(st.

IV.)

264
-i]

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY
(TVKOcfidvTrj?

S

583

aAAos,

oi-

fX(i)(o)V

KaOe^CLTaL.

^ — — — ^

^ — ^ — 8*^ ^

Strophe II.
H/A.

p

ovh'

aAAos

di'dpwTTcjv VTro^wvuiv ae Trrjfxavel tl,
<toi,

843

ovS' i^ofi6p^€TaL Il/oeTrts t>)v evpvTrpwKTtav
ov8' oiCTTiet KAea)vr/x(p'

^Aaivav
cr

S'

e^^wv (fiavrjv 8Ut kou ^uvtv^iov
dvaTrXrjcrei.

'Yjrep^oAos Sikwv

Strophe
'H/i. a'

III
croi

ov8'

evTv\(j)v ev

rdyopa

irp6(T€i(Ti

jSaSi^oiv

849 Kyoartvos

act Ki.Kapfj.kvos fxoti^bv /xi^ fxa^aipa^

6 TTipnrovqpos 'Apre/xwv, 6 Ta^i'S

ayav

t>jv fiovcTLKyjv,

o^uiv

kukov

Ttov /xacr^^aAwv irarpos

Tpayacratof

Strophe IV.
'H/i.
/3'

ouS' av^ts

au

ere

crKioxfjiTaL

natVwv

6 7ra/A7rovr;pos
oveiSos,

856

AvcrtcTT/oaTos t
6 irepiaXovpyus

€v

rdyopa XoXapyewv
kokois, ptydiv' re

rots

Kat Tretvwv aci
ixrjvos
d^'r;/)

irAeiv

tj

rpiaKovO' rj/xepas toG
836
Ti

eKaarov.
842
irr]iJ.avtV

ai'^pwiros
:

Brunck

:

avOpuiros

L. Dindorf

Tr-q/xavilTaL

850

6

837 dj'Tj/j Brunck Bentley o^o' 6
:

:

Monostrophic tetrad.

See

701.

A = aab,

4

4

8,

epodic triad

:

two tetrameters with an octameter

as epode.

See

737.

See the metrical scholium on Ach. 836.
is found in the following which the poet has employed anapaestic as well as diiambic and acephalous- Gly conic cola. The last intermediate period (c) illustrates in strophe and antistrophe the close relationship between diiambic and Glyconic forms in Aeolic verse.

583. Greater complexity of structure

ode, in

Fax 939-55 = 1023-38 (Syzygy
Strophe.
Ko/3. a
tos

IV.).

irdvO'
X'/

ocr'

dv deus BeXrj

51
erepu)

''"''X'?

KUTOpdol

^ — ^ — _ ^ _
.

^_^_
^ _ _
..
v^
4C

940 X^P^'

'«*''«

vow, 'inpov

S'

281, 389
TOVTuyv KaTO. Kaipbi'
ttTravTcI.

^=^

Tp.

d)S

Tavra SrjXd y

eaO',
8-q.

6

yap

5

/Jwjubs dvpafTi Ka\

- - oc — -.^ — — — ^ — id — ^ —

-_— — 4*^ w — w — ^ — — ^^

;

8

584
OTCiycTe

AEOLIC VERSE

265

Kop. a

vw

€v 6(ro) crofiapa 281,

379

deodiv Karkyii TroXep-ov peraTpoiros

946
T/o.

atipa,
£is

vvv yap SaipiDV
pera/SifSd^eL.

(f>avepw'i

aya^a

10

^ — ^^ — -^ — ^ ^ — ^^ — v^-— -^ ^^ — ^ — 8 ^.^^^ w

TO Kavovv Trdpea-T

oAas

^X*^^

^^^

:^

Kal crrippa Kal pd^o-i^po-v,

949 Kal

TTvp ye touti,

KOvSev

i-

o-xet TrXrjv

to Trpo/Sarov

i//xas.

Ko|0. a' ot'Koi'V apiXXyicr€(rdov ;

ws

15—
802
OTt
(ant.)

951

17

V

Xalpis vp.ds
K^Ttt tout'

i'Sy,

O

TT/odo-eicriv

avXijo-wv o-kXt]€V OtS'

TOS,


20

— ^ — ^ — ^ — v^^ — v^— ^ ^ ^ — o— ^
i=i vl?

^ — ^ — ^
'^

^ — ^ — ^ ^ — — ^ — Y — w— w —
;=i

<f>v(r(oi'Ti

Kal TTOvovpevio

^—
^

955

TTpocrSwcreTe Si/ttov.

^ — ^ — ^

v..^

vy

8

v^


i

Ko/3. /?' o-e Toi

dvpaa-L

XPV p^vovra toIvvv
ctti

1024
Tp.

crxt^as Seupi riOevat rax^oiS t<x Te Trpoacfiopa Trdur'

Toi'Tots.

oiIkow Sokw
8'

a-OL
;

/iavTiKWS to ^pvyavov Tideo-dat

Kop. P' TTws

ovxi

Tt

yap
ov
(TV

(re

Tre^euy' oo-a XP') oro(^ov ; (jipoveh oTTocra xp^oSv ecTTiv tov <y€>

avSpa

Tt S'

o-o<^v^

SoKipov ^pevl

TTO/Di/iO)

T€ ToXp^rj ;

Tp.

))

o"Xt{'a

yovi' evi-jppkvq tov 2TtA/3t8r/v Trie^et,
ol<Top.ai,

1032 Kat
Kop.
/?'
Ti's

Tijv T/3a7re^ttV

Kai 7rai8bs ov

Seryo-fi.

ovv av

oi'k

eTraivecreiev

dvSpa tolovtov,

octtls ttoXX'

dvarXas
;

ecwve

rr]v

lepdv ttoXlv

1037
1023
in cod.

wo-T

ot'Xt p^]
:

iravcrei

ttot'

mv

IprjXwTus ctTrao-iv.

dvpaa-i Schol.

dvpai.(jt.
:

1029

eo-Ttf

Hermann

:

eo-rt

^e Triclinius

B

1033 oiv tv Dindorf

hv ovv or hv

MonostropMc dyad. A = ABC (939-42, 943-9, 950-5). a in the two diiambic tetrameters with a strophe = aba, 4 4 4, mesodic triad A in the antiSee 739. logaoedic-anapaestic tetrameter as mesode. a b = abb, 8 4 4, proodic triad See 771. strophe = abc, 3 4 4. logaoedic-anapaestic octameter with diiambic close (colon 10) as proode See 738. c = ab, 8 4, pericopic dyad to two diiambic tetrameters. in the strophe a diiambic octameter and a tetrameter composed of a diiambic dimeter and an acephalous Pherecratean, but in the antistrophe
: :
:

acephalous Glyconics are substituted for diiambic dimeters in cola 1 6, The attempts to 'emend' the text of these cola in the 17, 18. See 51. antistrophe are neither necessary nor felicitous. See the metrical scholium on Pax 939 ff. with the notes.

584.
cola,

The following ode
is defective.

is

composed

solely of

acephalous

but the text

266

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY
Fax 1329-55^
Strophe
T/3.

584

(Exode).

/.

(1329-32).
802

Sevp

S>

yvvai

€ts

ayphv

- - ^ o - w ^ _ ^
^ _ ^ w ^ - ^ - 6^
2^

^wTTcos /uer' e/Aov Ka\y]
KaXu)<i /caraKetcret.

<CY[jir)V '^Yfxkvai

S>y.

2^

Strophe 11. (1333-5).
'H/x. a'

Stro2)he III.
Hfi. /3'
'H/x. a
"^Hyx. /?'

(1336-9).
;
;

w

rpts /JLaKap' w? SiKai-

T6
Tt

SpdcTOfiev avT'qv
SpdcrofJiev avT'qv

ws Taya^a vvv * * *
'YfiTjV '^YfxevaL
'Yfii]v 'Yfjievai'
(S,
S>.

exetS-St

Tpvyqa-Ofiev avT-qv,
rpvy-qa-ofxiv avTrjv.

'H/i. a'

Strophe IF. (1340-3).
'HyM.

Strophe V. (1344-7).
'H/x. a' oi/C7y(T€Te

^'

dW
rov

dpajxevoi

(jtepo)-

yovv KaA.ws

[xiv 01

~poT €T ay [JikvoL
oji'Spe^i.

ov Trpdy/Jiar' ^xovre'; dk-

vvfxcfiiov

Xd (TVKoXoyovvTes.
^YfXTjv 'Y/Aevat' 'YfiTjv '^Yfj.kvai
ai,
S).

'YyM7)v *Y/X€Vai' w,

'Yymryv 'Y/tevat'

(3.

^S^^rayie

7^/.

(1348-9).
/cai

Strophe

VII (1350-2).

'H^.

/?'

tot} /xev /xeya

Traxi'.

*
Ttj's

*
8'

*
-^Sv

*

oivov re Triyi ttoXvv.
•5<-

TO crvKov.
&,
c3.>

*

*
w,
w.

*

<CYfjLrjv ^Y/xevai'

'H/x. a' Yfx,y]v '^Y/xevai'

'Y/xr^v 'Y/A€i'at'

'HjU. /?'

'YjU.ii)v'

'Y/icvat'

>S'^ro297ie

T///. (1353-5).
)(^aipeTe

Tp.

<L

yaip^r' dv^vv€Trr](r6k [xoi
eSecrOe.

Spes,

Kav

TrXaKovvras
< Hfx.

a

'Yfxi^v

Yfxevai' w,
w.>

'H/z. /3' '^YfXTjV 'YjU,€vat'

1341 vpoTerayixivoL Bentley

:

TrpocTTeTay/j.&OL

Cola had been lost from this ode even in the time of Heliodorus, and certain other cola in his text (1336-9) did not conform to the
All the strophes are printed in cola, in order to facilitate comparison.

ij

585

AEOLIC VEESE
his

267

scheme of structure. What this scheme was is easily gathered See the metrical scholium. commentary. The ode was monostrophic, originally perhaps an oKras fj-ouoEach strophe (except perhaps III.) contained five cola, two :rTpo(f)iKi]. an .K^atalectic and three catalectic, i.e. A = abb, 6 2 2, proodic triad ucephalous-Glyconic hexameter as proiide to two acephalous PhereProbably the pair of subordinate periods in all the strophes crateans. (except III.) consisted of the invocation Y/xryi/ 'Y/xevat' w repeated. Cf. 1340-3, 1344-7, of which the structure is intact. On this assumption the period in 1329-32 is easily restored, and in general the equivalence It will be observed that as they stand 1348 of parts is apparent. and 1351 end in a 'variable syllable.' This final syllable was doubtThe less lengthened by the opening of the following colon, now lost. The text third strophe (1336-9) now seems to be hopelessly corrupt. preserved in the MSS. still extant was the reading Heliodorus had In some texts, he says (Schol. 1336-9), the haple occurs before him. after each of the four catalectic dimeters, to indicate that they were taken alternately by the two half-choruses in other copies of the
"general

from

:

'

;

ra fxeTpa, i.e. because the Heliodorus metres failed to correspond to the general scheme. gives the text of these four cola, but expresses no opinion, at least in the commentary now extant and consistently with this says, on 134455, that he gives the text as transmitted (ws 8k (peperai, Kal evravOa There is an ea-Tiv), although the pentacolic structure breaks down. intimation in a scholium under the last line of the text in V ( Ypp ovtws 'HAtoSwpos) that he suggested the refrain should be 'Yfj-evai' &
text the dimeters are not given at
'
'

all

Sta

;

:

added

at the end.

It does

not follow from the lack of agreement in

1336-39 and the other strophes that Aristophanes With that suppleness of did not compose these cola as they stand. invention which characterizes him everywhere, he may have substituted
structure between

quadruple refrain of acephalous Pherecrateans for a period of normal form. See Enger, Ehein. Mus. ix. (1854), 580 f. Schrader, lihein. Mus. Westphal, Prolegomena, 20 fT. Schroder, Aristoph. xxi. (1866)", 93 ff. Zacher-Bachmann, Aristoph. Pax, 104 Cant. 29
this
; ; ;
;

fi",

585.

Av.

904-53 (Scene

III.).
eftect.

Aristophanes uses Aeolic rhythm in parody with excellent

His own practice is so conservative that when he allows himself the freedom found, for example, in Euripides, the contrast with his ordinary manner is glaring. This contrast is marked in the first part (904-914) of the scene in the Aves in which he
introduces the Beggar Poet as representative of the melic poets
in general, as Cinesias in a later scene in the play (569) represents
specially the dithyrambists.

:


§

268

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY
508, 510, 574 rav €v8aifiova kXtJctov m

585

904 ^€cf)£XoKOKKvyi,av

___^^_^_
-v.^-^-.-v^--5^
v^

^^

-

_ ^ _

2^

906

Movcra reais

ev vfj,v(av dotSats.

518

iii.,

519

908 910

€ya> /yteAtyAwcrcrcav eTrewv

tets

519

— w
v^

-_-

ciotSav Movo-dojv depdiriov
oTprjpos,

5195
512

^ w

^

^ — v^—

6-^

Kara rov

"0/y.?/pov.

w^—
^ —
v^

v>2^

Two
913 Mouo-awv
oTprjpoL,

Trimeters.

OepoLTTOVTis

Kara rov

"Ojxrjpov.

512

v^

^ w

2^^^

w>^— w2^

There is here hardly a colon in which our poet does not do violence to his ordinary form. The fifth colon is brachycatalectic,
but
its last metre assumes, by a slight change in the words of the song, ordinary catalectic form in the seventh colon. On the clause Kara rov "Op-r^pov, which is wrongly omitted in some editions of the play, see the Editor's Scholia on the Aves, 174 (Schol. Av. 909).

The subordinate periods that
fourth, are in simplified logaoedic

follow, except the second

and

rhythm (392

ff.),

but logaoedic

cola predominate

924 dAAa
oiairep

Tis WKeta

Movadwv

(fidns

395, 206
iTnrwv dp,apv-

507 517

10

-WWww—
^-

- w - — ww — - ^ - 4

- w w

3^^

yd, (TV Se " Trdrep KTicrrop AtVi/as

- w

-

927

(adiiov lepwv o/xcuvv/Ae," 36s ip.lv o tl irep

929 Tea /ce^aAd

6e\rjs

379 570
ip.lv

^-^- w-w^
w - w w w w - w -

w^^w-3

930

TTpOcfipUiV

86p€V

T€IV.

508, 510 Five Trimeters.

- w -

936 ToSe pev ovk deKovaa
TV 8k Tea
(jipevl

cftcXa
'

Mouora ToSe Swpov Sexerai

383 15^^-w— ^^ — w -^ — 383 383

— —
^^

^^

^^

—2^ — 2*^

pdOe Jliv8dp€Lov eVos

^^

- ^

w - w

-

^

w

3^'^

Tri'meter.

941 "

vopd8e(r(TL

yap

ev

^Kvdais dAdrat SxpaTcov,

379
943

os" v(fiavTo86vaTov eV^os "oi' —eTrarai

379

^-^- w-w- .-w^__- w-w- w
"

6<^

§

586
" aKAer)? 8' efSa
"

AEOLIC VERSE
crTToAas avev
x'Twi'Os'.

269

945

" ^vves o rot Aeyw,"

379 395

20v^-^.-^^

^^^—
2-

w -

v^

3^^

>^

— w

Four

Trimeters.
"""^^

950

kAtjct-ov

w

xP'^'^^^P^^^

Tpofj.€pav

Kpvepdv

383 952 vi(f)ofSoXa TreSiairokvTTopd r 393 395 953 i)XvOov dXaXdv.

- ^ ^^ -^ _ ^ -^ ^ -^ ^v^ww2^ - v^ -^ w - 2-^

__

3^

The scholiast on Av. 926, 941 ^ tells us that certain of these periods are parodies of one of Pindar's hyporchemes, and quotes them
^t'l/e?

:

o Toi Aeyoj,
6fJHovvfJ.e

-^
.^-^

^ad^wv Upwv

irdrep KTicrrop AtVva?
vouaSeo-o-t

yap

ev 2Ki'6^a65

aAarat crTpaTwr

o? a{xa^o(popr)Tov oiKov ov 7r€77arai,
aK-Aer/s <S'>
e'ySa.

w — v^ — — ^^ — v/ — ^^^2 2 w — — w ^ — >^— w — ^^— .— v^ — >^— ^^ — ^^— ^ v^ - w - 1
^•

v^


o

Cf. Schol. Find. Pi/th.

ii.

127,

iN^e//;.

vii.

1.

The hyporchemes

of Pindar,

if

one

may

judge from meagre extant

remains, were written in simplified logaoedic rhythm, with Aeolic Comvariations such as cola 10, 11, 13, 14 in Aristophanes's parody. pare the three imitations of hyporchemes at the close of the Lijsistrata. The intervening trimeters naturally mark the divisions of the There is no sure indication, poet's rhapsody into intermediate periods.
in the metrical correspondence of subordinate periods, of repetition of any part of the melody, which varied from period to period ^vith
lively effect.

586. Aristophanes's Aeolic

manner

in

parody

is

well illustrated

also in the following direct travesty of Euripides.

Ban. 1309-28 (Episode
In the
first

II.).

part of the scene in which these verses occur

Euripides charges Aeschylus with cribbing the dactylic cadence with which, as he alleges, the odes of Aeschylus uniformly end, Aeschylus weakly concedes See 349 ff. and adduces proof.
the

point

and

attempts

a

defence

{Ban.

1298

ff.),

but im-

mediately

and makes a savage counter-charge in kind. The source of his own inspiration was at least noble, but Euripides drew his from the bawdy-house, the carouse, the dance-hall and the wake
rallies
!

^

See the Editor's Scholin on the Aves, ad

loc.

'

270

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY
The
song,
therefore,

§

586

that

Aeschylus
plays that

sings

in

illustration

of the villainous art of Euripides

must have been
in

largely

com-

posed
or

of

quotations

from

his

sentiment, form,

melody suggested sources familiar to the audience. These were strung together with only specious regard to grammatical connexion. Unfortunately only one quotation can now be with certainty, vv. 1317, 1318, borrowed from identified Euripides's Eledra 435 i. See the Scholiast on sources no
longer extant.

The metrical form

of the song

may

be submitted with some

confidence to the test of the comic poet's

own
is

practice.

With

the exception of a single colon (5) the
dXKVoves,
OaXdcra-qs

rhythm

Aeolic.

Alcrx-

ai."

Trap'

uei'aots

518
1310

i.,

519, 802

-^^-^^^-^--3""
— ^

Kvixaa-L o-Tpw/iuAAere,

508

Teyyov(rai voTtots Trrepoiv
pavLCTL

___^ ^_^_
..

— w

v^

2^^'

XP^^

Spocri^ofievai

510
ai,'

^ ^
V.

- w ^ ^

4H

6'

vTru)p6(f)ioi

Kara ywvtas

383
€t€t£ieiAtcr(TeT€

5

- w -

^

-

^-

v^

-

3-^

SaKxi'Aois (^aAayye?

518
1315 laroTova
Tn^via-jxaTa,

ii.

Av

508, 510

KepKiSos dot,8ov fj-eXeras,
tv'

— ^^ ^ — — -^v^—

^ - ^ - w - w — ^ ^ 2*^^ — w^/ — ^ _ ^ _v^ — w —

3^^

6 <^iAavAos CTraAAc SeX-

512
({As

^^

irpwpats KvavepLJSoXoi'i, 10

[xavreia Kal crTaStovs,

574

1320

oivdvOas ydvos dfXTreXov,
jSoT/Dvos

- ^ ^ — — ^ w


v^

-^

-^

v^

— —

eXiKa

TT aver LIT ovov.

510
TTepifSaXX'
c5

TCKVOv aiAevas.

511
OpttS

TOV TToSa

TOl'TOl'

/

Opw.
15

^^^^ - ^ ^ ___^ w-^^ ^___
v^

Tt

Se

;

TovTov opas

;

— opw.
511

^ ^ - ^

1325

TOtanTi ixkvTOi (tv ttoiwv 802
ToA/xas rdp-a p-kXtj ^eyeiv,
dva.


20

w-wv^v^ — __^ ^_^_

— w
w
^> v^

TO SwScKap.T^x^i'oi'

v^v^

v^


26^

Kvpi^VTjs /xeAoTTOtwv;

§

586

AEOLIC VERSE

271

sixth colon begins with a musical shake (of. Ban. 1348) on the syllable il-, introducing a Phalaecean (518 ii.). Our poet never

The

peculiar musical

himself forces a syllable to do double duty, in order to secure a effect such as this. Nowhere, except in parody (569), does he resolve either long syllable of a choriamb (colon 1), nor does he use polyschematist dimeters such asv^v^^--^ — w^^-, with double resolution in the first metre (4, 13), or - -- ^ - - ^ (7), or

^
(cf.

- w
TToSa

^ — ^ —

1322), or (15) ^
to 1323), or

v^ - (11), ^ nor Glyconics such as (14) -^ TovTov in 1323 with reference to the anapaest in w (cf, tovtov in 1324 with reference

^-v^-

w - w - (16). Presumably these are forms that he condemns, but some of them at least were employed by poets of good standing, and Aristophanes's metrical strictures are not to be taken too seriously. His audience would appreciate the humour with which he has Aeschylus, in his heat, make Dionysus by the very course of the dialogue responsible for a monstrous form of Glyconic (15) that doubtless all decent poets would have condemned. The most effective feature of this genial burlesque was doubtless the music to which it was sung. Of its quality we unfortunately have but a single intimation in the trilling roulade in 1314. The melody was doubtless continuous. There is no evidence of periodic
correspondence.

^ ^ - w

CHAPTER

XIII

COMPOSITE LYEICS
587.

Many

of the sougs that have

been treated singly in

the preceding sections in illustration of particular rhythms are parts of composite lyrics of several strophes, such as Vesp. 273-

333

(716),

Ban. 316-459 (704), and Ucd. 893-975 (717).
lyrics that follow will

588.

The two

serve as special illus-

trations of this form of composition.

Av.

1720-65
Strophe

(Exode).
I.

Xo.

avaye

Sie^^e

Trdpaye Trapeze irepLTrerea-Oe

1722 Tov fiaKapa

[jbaKapi
TTjs

avv Tvxa.

— ^^^^^

^ — ^

-^

2^

w

(ftev

(f)ev

w/oas rov

1724 w jxaKapuTTov

crv ya.p.ov

KaWovs. 73 — ^ ^ — 509
5

--.---.-__._3
— ^ ^ —
i-^
v^
v^

rfjSe TToAet yrifxas.

Strophe II.
Kop. a p,€ydX.ai p.eydXai Karexova-i ri'xat
^^

,^

— ^^_,^_

1727

yevos opvidcDV
Sia TovSc Tov dv8p
,

^^

aAA' vpevaiois
o')8al<i

^^^

Kal

vv[x<fiL8iot(xi
Ktti

Sex^crd'

— -^— — — w^—


^^

,^__
9*^

,^___

1730

auTov

rrjv BacrtAetav.

5

Strophe
'^Hfi.a

III
570, 572

"Upa
TOV

ttot' 'OXv/XTria
i]X.i(3dr(j}V

1732

Opovaiv

— — w O — ^^
^ ^

dpxovTa

deois p.eyav

Mortal ^weKot/xtcrav
272

— ^ — w — v^ — ^ _ ^ _ ^ — ^^ o
\j

S^

1734 ^weKoi/j-iffav & 10— — w— (cf. ABCCDEF (1720-5. — ^ _ v^ — v^ — v^ — v^ ^ _ ^ — T7.Aa TTcivTa w 75 1756 ctwvo/kov TreSov Atbs TTTepo^dp' eTTi Kat Aexos ya/Ai^Aioj/. ere ra Travra Kparr^cra'i 334 Kttt TTotpeSpov BacrtAeiav Ixet Atos. Saipoviov VTreprare. Kttl aye vvv auTOV Ttts ^dovia'i KkycraTe /Spovras Tcts Tc TTvpwSeis Alos dcTTepoTTas t' Sctvoi/ apyi/ra KCpai'voi'.evat' 'Y/i^v 'Yjiievat Strophe IV.a fSpovTol 388 2-C afs oSe vw x^oi'^ a-eUi. 'YfJLTjv 'Y//.^_ 1736^ Dindort w — v^v^6 the antistrophe) Bentley : ^vveKOfiLcrav The song consists of a series of five non^ntistrophic systematic periods and a single dyad.^ . eyw. n«. Ilet. -^2 511 'Y/XTjv w 'Y/xevai' w. dAaAaAat it) Traiwv. V. 1726-30.588 1735 €1/ COMPOSITE LYRICS TotwS' vfievauo' 5 273 <CYfj. - 2'^ >S'i{ro^7ie F/._. k\6. 1745 Ixdp'nv vfMVOii.oicrti' <^{. eVecr^e vvv yap.r)v & 'Yjuevat' d). 1752 Sto. . 10^ Stroph Xo. ayafiai 5e Aoycoi'. 38. 1749 Atos auPpoTov eyxo? S) 338 TTvpfjiopov. v^w8 ^ — — v^ — .> ^ ^ . ^Oovtai jSapvax^i'i 0' 6lx(3po<f)6poL ap. 1731-6 = T .pi]v wSats. Ztjvos TTupoxos ya-iuiiv 1741 T^i t' ei'Oat/xoi'OS (5 (3 "Hpas" w. w.. dpe^ov w fiaKaipa arqv 1760 X^'/°" '^''^' rrTepQv ep-wv ai- \a(3ova-a (Tvy)(optvcrov pojv Se Kov(f)iw cr' _ ^ _ ^ — v^— . . w /xeya (5 x/^'^tr^o'' acrrcpoTr^s <^ao5._^_ 802 -v^ v^ Xo.- 2<^ 2<^ Antistrophe III.veAAa KaXXiviKos.

opfia X^P^i.). Strophe III. pvOp.w . Kal vqcrrevei. See 738. In CC. See 773.274 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY : § 589 See 717. Thesm. 209 KOv<f>a TTOcriv ay' els kvkXov. C = abb ( + ).^ w — v^ — 958 KVKXov(rav XPV X°P°^ KardcrTacnv. 8 8 6.ov — ^ -^ ^ . a aye vvv vo/JLos rjfieLS 7ratcra>/jiev airep 283 (vdd8e Ttticri yvvai^lv. final colon repeated. with iambo-trochaic opening and Aeolic close trochaic trimeter.a i. 'Hyx. 3 2 3 4-. 1743-7. St koX yevos 'OAn/iTrtW ^ewv 204 ^w - .2 2.^ - VTTaye iraxra. B is an indivisible anapaestic schematist tetrameter. 948 orav opyta wpats (refjiva deoiv Upai<s direp koI dve\^U)iJi€v.eXeiv eaiiTw. Ko/3. is an indivisible anapaestic decameter. 203 ^^ ^^ 5 . trimeter. Se Travraxy o/xfjia . 1755-65). — ^-^ Strophe II. two brachycatalectic dactylic dimeters. hymeneal refrain.2.a' a/i. fBaive KapTzaXip-oiv ttoSoiv 518 eTTio-KOTretv i. the epodic triad in iambic rhythm two protracted See octameters with an acephalous protracted hexameter as epode.. : which a Pherecratean Finally 737. _ — ^ ^^ .4. 1748-54. A = abed. 949 HavcTbyv eis a-efSerai.' v. €/f iroXXoLKLS avTolv TWl/ otpiov ^^— — — — v^ — v^ — >^— — — ^^— 5 v^— — ^^ w~ ^^ ^^ — — — ^^ — ^/<^— ^^ v^ — 4*^^ -^^ — 4*^ — Tas wpas ^vveTreyxop-evos Odp. to E = aabbcd. an acephalous-Grlyconic octameter as a proodic triad with refrain iambic See 772. See 755.-3^ ^ . 292).2. 8 2 2 ( + 2). I. and a dactylic dimeter. 1737-42.^ — ^^ — 8^' 952 TOiaura p.^ -. a monostrophic dyad. Xo. as These are integral portions of the lyric that closes the play and are melic (283. 517. 2^ 2^^ 955 x^P^ a-vvuTTTe X'^P'^i ^op^MS 519. . nonameter. brachycatalectic poly- D : proode to two Pherecrateans. 947-1000 (Stasimon Strophe I. 655 f. proodic hexad a brachycatalectic dactylic tetrameter anticipates the opening strain of the following periodic tetrad composed of a brachycatalectic dactylic tetrameter. is added. 4. pericopic tetrad. iambic dimeter. F = aab. : 589. with the 774.^ ^ — ^ — .^ ^^ .

§ 589 961 fieXire COMPOSITE LYEICS koI yepaie (jiiovrj 275 i=^w iracra yopop. X^/'O'^''''^' ^ — v^ ^ — _ v^ _ ^ — w 2^^ 975 v) TTacri rots e/xTrai^et re Kai KXySas yapiov (fivXdrreL. 'H/x.^ ^=^ ^ ^ w v^ v^ "Aprep-iv avacra-av uyvi'jv X"-'^P' oTTtt^'e <^ ^ — ^^ 6^ (Kaepyi.(a ttoSl. 'H/. — w — w=^w ii. 983 7rato-a)/x€v tS yDvatKes ola-ep vd/xos.^ 518 i. 570 5 2^^ 2^ 2^ Se 973 "Hpav re yueAi/'W/Acv tt/v reXeiav iri uxnrep eiKos. te/)<3 — ^ — ^ — v^ — 7 Strophe III. 990 evt' (3 Atdvucre ' w — w — v^ w . dAAa xpr\v lixnT(. VLKi]V.€vov 574 Kar opea vvp. v^— w 5^ Antistrophe IV.0Li 70 989 (re ({aXoxopoia-i. Xo. ^ ^ - -WW- w .av^i Tpoirio. a TTpo^aive ttoo-I toj/ evXvpav o — w>^ ^ — ^ — 970 972 p-iXTTOVcra kol tt. /i' il Se Tis TTpoaSoKa KUKm epeiv iv yvvaiKa p. Xo. j/Jjo-TeTJO/i-ev Se TravTws.v^ v^w^— w w — ev u/xvoi?. p.kX\pui.' ovcrav dvS/aa?.<fiav eparols 6^ w 2*^ w w .^ . dAA' £ta TTciAA' didarpecf)' evpv6p. 992 xopots TC/D7rd/u.w 2^^' 2^ w — v^ — v. in. 2^' — ^^ ^ — v/ — _ .- 5^ . 'Hyii. 10 >^ B/ad/xie Ktti 2€/i.v To^o(j>6pov w— ^ . 986 Topeut TTacrav <^8r)v 74 qyov 8e y' &8' avTos 988 (TV Kt(Tcro(j)6p£ BaKx^te Sea-TTOT iyw 8e K<i>p. Strophe V.(x)'i SnrXrjv X^P''^ X°P^'°^5. cfipoveZ OVK opdws Strophe III. — _ 5^— ~~— v^^^^— .i.ai koI ITava Koi Nv/Ac^as (j)iXas ctti- y€Aaoa^ TrpodvpLOiS 980 Tais qp^cTepaiCTi ypp^i'C-i-'i- \apkvTa 981 i^aipi ^Tj Trpodvp.p epyov av Ti Kawov irpwrov cvkvkXov xo/)ttas ev(f)va (JT-ijcrai /Saa-iv. Strophe IV. . . /3' 'Ep/rljv re vo/xtov avrop.€Aas Trat.

(j>t 8e (Tol KTUTretTat K-Ldaipaivios "i^X^j — -^ wv^— v^ w — — Sda-KLa Kal vdwai — ^ ^^ ^ ^ — — 2 w — — 2 _ . 2 2 5-22.v(3i. protracted ditrochaic 2 2 3 8. 4 4 8. 953-8. 969-76 = 977-84. epodic tetrad See 750. C was probably an indivisible trochaic heptameter. proodic tetrad in diiambic a trimeter as proode to two catalectic dimeters that enclose B aabc. with a c = aabaa.eXd[X(f)vXXd T oprj TreTpwSets jSpefjLovTai. : R rhythm A = abcb. 738. 959-61 = 962-5 = A = aab. 2 2 5. dimeters with a pentameter as epode. 994"* efJt' (i. epodic triad in anapaestic rhythm two tetrameters with an octameter The melody of the lively strophe B that follows. See 737. polyschematist and It is possible that the melody was See 772. abed. 995-1000). as epode.e. See 760. proodic triad: a See 773. epodic triad in diiambic rhythm two catalectic E = ABC (985-9. ei^te) Ed. ditrochaic trimeter. ei/oZ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kt^atpwi'tos Zanetti : KidapJivios The song triad consists of three non-antistrophic systematic periods. pericopic tetrad in Aeolic rhythm dimeter. See 717. D = AB (969-72. : = : as epode that repeats the melody of the preceding period.\ox6poiai Bentley vqcyrevufiev 984 vriarevoixev Beutley XaipetJ' 992 TepTrofievov Bentley repirbpLei^os 990 eCt' (i. 383 — — 995 diJ. 6 2 2.^^ — w — — 2^^ 2 952 fi4\€iv Zanetti 948 deolv Meineke OeaTv 947^ raiai Brunck rah 955^ x^pa Ed. logaoedic trimeter as epode. with a final dimeter 990-4. diiambic octameter. was probably continuous. : : In the following The division into cola follows See 754.va^ope. 518 509 ii.e. 966-8. 985-1000). ABCCCDDE (947-52. two Pherecrateans and an acephalous Aeolic pentameter. 2 2 5 3. ditrochaic dimeter. 973-6). epodic See 742. eiim) Ed. 982 x^P'" Biset ijixeripais 980 i^ixeTepaiai Hermann eKvpav Kiister 989 <pi. A = abb. monostrophic triad. aabb'c. See diiambic hexameter as proode to two acephalous Pherecrateans. ^--^^--^^-^v^ -^ 5-*^ 15 999 kvkXw 6e Trept ere kkto-os ^ — ^ ^ v/ v^ cv7r€TaAos e'AiKt 6dkkei.—3 997 fJi. which was sung by the entire chorus. . B = aab. See 737. pentad in Aeolic rhythm: a tetrad composed of two dimeters. 3 2 6 2. a protracted hexameter.: : 276 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY -^^ § 589 994 Evtov Evtov iVi a. : — ^^ y^ . x"Pa 966 XPW Bothe 9o5^ x«P' Dobree x«'P' fiiWeiv 969'' evXiipav Trocrtc iroixl Reisig 969 968 ev(pvd Brunck eiKpvi) Xp?. a and a dyad. a brachycatalectic pentameter and a third dimeter. eifiov (pi\ox6poi(nv dvaxopevuiu 996 994^ dvaxopet/w Ed.

but nevertheless falls into five serve as main divisions I. peculiar Solos manner sung by actors abound in Euripides. the Portent hypermeter in Aeschylus may followed by a IV. monodies lack strophic correspondence completely. ii. rhythm that merges. is A single hypermeter. that metrically Eealization closely connected III. sung was doubtless of the most advanced character. is closed by a Pherecratean. A paeonic-trochaic rhythm (to which the gloomy have danced a lively accompaniment !) is dactylic penthemimer and an iambic clausula. into dochmiacs followed by II.-^ 591. that the periodic basis of musical composition. ii. 538 ff. Histoire de la 11'.CHAPTER XIV MONODIES 590. 277 . 353 and on his music Gevaert. In matter True to his model. On the music of musique. and display great variety of metrical form The music to which they were and frequent shift of rhythm. . with of the preceding dimeter (800). The Purification (1338-41''). the invocation of Poseidon. in anapaestic as horror grows. 553 ff. the subject of Aristophanes's ridicule. Aristophanes see Gevaert. In the Banae Aristophanes manufactures a monody in the Euripidean manner in comic illustration of his rival's art.. Sudden (1341^—45). mainly in dactylic rhythm. a catalectic logaoedic trimeter. The Narra- tive (1346-55) begins with a bacchiac followed by a logaoedic 1 On the monodies of Euripides see Decharme's Eurijrides. in The Vision by Night (1331-37). version. A AeoHc rhythm. he assigns the part to a woman. no part of the melody being repeated. but his in monodies was an innovation and was made Generally. introduces a description of the Dream. brief invocation. Histoire. in James Loeb's and in particular 366 IT. ' ' it is incoherent. in Euripides.

" _^_. to Hecate in logaoedic.223 ff. 1331-63 (Episode II. Monody sung hy 1331 (S Aeschylus. [xeXaivas 1335 Nv/cTos \pLV. £K€lv'" TOUT tW ^WOt. periods The intervening composed successively in Aeolic. 1346 eyw 8' d TdXaiva 448 20 v^ v^ . Passionate Appeals for Aid (1356-63) are made to the Cretans in paeonic-trochaic rhythm. - ^__^_4d ^ V.-9'^ — ^n^ — >^ — 2-^ 1345 w Mavta ^vXXafSe. anapaestic and iambic rhythm.. ^^ — — — a\pvxov e. . 10-^-^ -^ .^ovTa.).^ . .€Vov. Ban. (f>6via (fiovta -^^^ 8e/3Kd/i. to Artemis in paeonic.^ .^ . SvcTTavov ovec- -_______^-^ pov 7r€/i7reis €^ dcfiavovs.avTrj'i 379 v^— w^v^ v^. Xivov fxecrrov drpaKTOv 518 ii. and the monody ends with a ' ' protracted catalectic iambic trimeter. 592.V — ^^ — TTpOTToXoV.— 2*" Ni'/z^at o/3ecro-t'yovot. V.278 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY are § 592 dimeter and ends (colon 31) with a dochmius.w 2^^ TTpoark-^ovfT ^tv^ov ep.(f)iTroXoi Xv)(vov dipare 342 1339 KaXiria-i -^-^-^--^ — w^ r e/c Trorapwv Spocrov apare.^ OipfXiTe S' v8(x)p. 383 1338 dXXd JJ. 1340 1341 0)9 dv delov ovupov dTroKXvcTM. (f>piK(jL)8r] Setvav 6- fieXavoveKvei/xova.. 'AtSa ^V)(a.OL - _-^ .v^ ^ 2^' . — ^^-w ^ _ ^ gcv TTovTie SaifjLOV. ^ 3^^ diJ. /AeyaAovs ovvxo-S e'xovTa . 570 . 338 • epyotcTL..^ a*^^ . 800 to) -^ -^-^ _^_. ^ ^ — w — v^ v^v^-v^ KOI TttSe Tepa 6ed(TocrOe' 15— — cf)pov8i^ Tov dAcKTpvoi/a w-^-v^ yuou (TVvap7rd(ra(Ta VX'VKy^.^ ---• -.^ - .. vuKTos KeAatvo^a^9 Ttva /Mot ___^ _^^_2 281 6p(f)va. TratSa.- v^ ^ .

Plant.^w— — ^ ^ — w y^ — ^ kov- K-AwcTTrypa Troiova-'. as an appropriate part of the action of his play. o7rw5 KV€(f)aio<. vile. . ff. _ ^ _ _ KaXa 432 _ ^ _ — v^^. Generally his (90). Nnh. 1342 repa L. 1356 dAA' w Kjo^T€s. SaKpva V. ra kk- v^ v^ . Ach.-W78 ^_^.. 263 . was submitted to the judgment of the public he had brought upon the scene.v^ — v^^^-w — v^^-w _ ^ _ lo'^ . not because he introduced monodies upon the stage. "I- 464 223 ff.j 593 1348 €ieiet€tetAicro-ovcra Cf. 1314 (586) -.v^ KwAd T dyUTrdAAare KkovpLeroL T'ljv 35— w— • oLKiav.-^— v^— — ^^— ^^ v^ — — v^ — v^ -^^— ^ — 8 rdi KvviaKas €)(^ov(r kXdkrw Sid hopnav 7ravTa)(rj. ff . Id ^^^_ " SaKpvd T ttTT ofipLaTWV ejSakov ijSaXov a rXapuDV. Cant. and Aristoph. TU TO^a <Te> Aaf36vTes eVa/xiVaTC._-__— v^ — 3 ejwot S' a^e' «X^" KareAtTre. 8as TCKva. Cant. 1363 oTTws dv eicreA^ovcra t^ojpdcroj. 1206 ff. monodies are of a simple type. Dindorf d : Srepa or r^para 1357 <Te> von Wilamowitz 1359 Keck : 'Apre/xis See Leo. Aristophanes himself uses this form of composition. Aristophanes arraigned Euripides. 81 147. — w^-v^ — v^<^. (TV 8' (3 Atos Siirvpovi dvexov- 379 era 40 . Ixiv.w - _-^-" Aa/A7raSas o^uraras x^/'^o'^' 'EKCira 7rapd(/)'. but eight years before the Eanae. (1905) 593. Philologus. (92). .yvov eis FAvkj/s. but because his monodies were Cf. MONODIES x^poiv /VV 279 Ran. <f}epov<r' 802 25 €ts ayopai/ oLTroSoifiai'' w — ^ — — w'^ — ^ — — 8^ 1351 6 6' di'tTTTur' aveTTTar es aWkpa ^^^ 281 (fiOTaTaLS TTTepvywv ttK/Aats • ^-^. 1359 1360 1361 d/>ia Se AtKTi'vva Trais d ^w. 77 f. Schroder.

243-49. Monody of 227 eTTOTTOTrol ttottoI the Hoopoe. 595. close of paeonic-trochaic tetrameter. 250-62). accompanied parody. The possible melodic correspondence of the first and fourth cola may justify the assumption that the first was in dochmiac rhythm. and it employs quite as great a variety of rhythms and shifts them as frequently. Some editors assume similarly that the fourteenth and fifteenth cola constitute anapaestic pentapodies. the iambic and trochaic metres are all rational. although the vowels in tlo and rpcoTo are probably all short but the very succession of short vowels in these and other cola perplexes conclusions. It is to be noted that with one exception. In two instances quantities are doubtful. but nevertheless it produces the general impression it of greater simplicity. which is improbable. which would be appropriate. by the name of the bird invoked (227-37. " 280 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 594 its an elaborate monody that must have charmed his audience by airy grace and sprightly fancy. v-* — w— ^ — y^ — v^ — w— 3^ iTw Tis S>8e Twv e/jLiav o/xoTrrepcov . 238-42. airy quality. Av.. The song closes with three paeonic-trochaic dimeters. The eighth and eleventh cola are also probably dochmiac. TroiroTroTrol ttottoi. of and the music that course. The rhythm of these bird-notes is as uncertain here as later in the play (410). His bird-song does not differ structurally in any marked way from the monody in the Ranac. This seems to suit their light and This tetrameter and the following paeonic-trochaic pentameter prepare the way for the paeonic hypermeter with which the next period opens. by none of the extravagances that must have contributed to the success of the The Hoopoe's song falls naturally into periods the which is marked by a bird-call or. in the sixteenth colon just before the bird-call. They are here analyzed as a resolved 594. was characterized. 227-62 (Parode). liO tU) ITO) ITO) IT(I) ITW. in one case. The only reasonable alternative is proceleusmatic anapaests which seem neither so likely nor so appropriate.

vera v-- evSpoaovs tottovs 6/00- v^ — — — — — w — — w — — w ^^ — — v-- €'t^€T€ Aei/AWVa T £VTa Mapa^wi/os.- eXeias Tap' avOgl'CTTO/XOVS 440 20 XQvaS T €fjLTrt. ^w. — w— 2 2^ 250 wv T £~t Trdi/Tiot/ oI8/xa daXd(T(rii]<s <f)vXa fxer dXKv6v€a-(TL TroTrjraL Sevp iVc —eiio-d/ievoi to.^ .. (f)(x)V^ 10 . w V. vewTepa.^-w^ -^^-3 — ^v^— v^v^— 2 re yev). yrj<... aTTayas uTTuyas.oAdyoji' 5^-^.. 436 437 511 w v^ - V. 30 _- - 2^ 255 I'jKeL yap tis Spcp-vs TrpicrfSvi ..aX6aKi]V levra yyjpvv.(f>i. . aoiSav ^ w.- 2d (f)vXa [xvpla KpiOorpdywv 481 o-TTcp/i. v^ w-^ ^v^ v^ — id T€ K-at" opea ra t€ koti223ff. v^ ^" 12 — ^~ — 248 OpVLS 7€ -TtpOTTOLKlXoS.^ ." 5 595 MONODIES otroi 281 230 T eva-TTOpovi dypoiKiov yuas ^ vifi€crde. V. ^ V. ^ - ^ v.d 464 S>8e w^^v^^^ld Xeirrov (SwXov dfj. 234 vera t tv dXoKi 6ap. 25— w— .^ 3 Tib Tih Tib TIO Tib Tib Tib TIO.rLTTv(3i^e6' ' rj^ofxeva.^ — — ^-^ -^-w .8as KaimO'.. .V. p. 477 Taxi' TTiTopeva.-^' vorpdya rd t€ KOfxapoipdya. w^^v^^ w^--wv^3d 238 b'cra 6' v/mCjv Kara k-qitovs tVt kkktov KActSecri TCI vofihv e^ei. . 4 241 ai'i'o-aT€ Trero/xeva Trpbs eyxav 242 243 oi' T/DIOTO T/OIOTO TOTo/3pi^ 6^' v^w-'w v^w— — — — — -^ ^^ v. TTcivTa yup ev^aSe (^uA' dBpoi^opiev otwvwv Tavaooeipwi'. 15 ^^v.

• • Tr6 TTOi • M . for example. is a monody in that in tone is not unlike the celebrated Lamachus's apprehension.282 Katvbs Kaivtav THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY yvix)iJ. the Eanae. that closes the exode of the Acharnians Commentators on Aristophanes assume that the song is a lyrical duo. roporo roporo XCKCKl^ M 596. ilTOirdt • WOirOWO WOlrOirOl : TTOirOi TTOTTOTTOt • TTOTTOt TTOTTot • H 251 TroTrJTai Cobst times iroTarai Topo 6 times + Tt| V. (83). less likely. of the seventh in the ninth . with the 597. ^TTOTToi 7r67r6 eXOTOt TTO. 1190 ff.rjv § 596 _ _ _ _ kyy^i.TrOTToT' r. monody 1196 f.: £Tro Trot Trot V. and this comports with its greater simplicity. (452) and 1008 ff. Cf. For example. and correspondences may have been introduced within the paeonic hypermeter (18-23) and the dactylic octameter (26-29). but the closing song of the Acharnians lacks the distinguishing feature of the duo.^ tto • . may . It adds to the effectiveness of the monody in the Ranae to assume that no part of the melody was repeated. (592) ' ' indeed. the melody to which the first colon was sung may have been repeated in the fourth that of the second in the third . Lamachus does not recognize the presence of Dicaeopolis. T epy(ov els 5 aXK Ir Aoyovs otTravra Sevpo Sevpo Sevpo Sevpo. The poet undoubtedly affected this form of composition. fTTO TTOI. 227 Ed. 7 times + T/7I A. 2^ 2^ • TOpOTOpOTOpoXlXlXl^.tpr]Tri<i. in this play 284 ff.. based on practical identity of the metrical form of subordinate periods. : : V VpoC. 5 Topo 4 times + \i\i\i^ RA.TTO Tr6 TTO Tr6 • • • • ^ tto ^- ^J v^w— R. furnishes the proper dramatic motive for the appearance of the rustic hero with the girls. if rendered continuously. There is. melodic . eTTOTTOt 260 RFUH 262 Ed. 35— w — w — ^^^w^^•w v^ — v^4 2^ 260 TOpOTOpOTOpOTOpOTi^ KiKKa/3av KLKKa/Bav >^w— _ ^ _ _ ^ _ . f 7r6 • tto • tto • ttoi Trot Trot • • tto TTO • 7r6 • x6 • tto • TTO'TTO'TrOl' TTOTTO TTO • TTOTTO • TTO^Ot A.Tr6 TTO Tr(5 • • TTOI. no instance in this (595) monody of of exact metrical correspondence In the monody in the Aves correspondence. It enhances the comic effect of the remainder of the lyric to assume that while Dicaeopolis. expressed in that Dicaeopolis see him and jibe at him as he is carried wounded to his house. In Ach. the music constantly changing.. and his lament. 3 times + roXtXiXtf + Tt7| MVpaCB U. in exaggerated imitation of the licence of Euripides. intimate recognition by each singer of the presence of the other. but this is there are possibilities between any two subordinate periods. burlesque echoes of Dicaeopolis omitted. but that the singer passed from strain to strain.

at 1226. marked by difference The metres used by Lamachus are those is appropriately tragedy. 1190 says of Lamachus Oprjvoov iraparpaycpSei. aTTarai aTTarat Of. Lamachus disappears from the scene. in individual experience. 1221 = 1219). the periods of Dicaeopolis with Lamachus was not demanded. and 1210 with 1211. Aa. This in of contrast of sentiment metrical form.only except repeats when he purpose (1198 = 1190. agreement in those of length. Burlesque of a Monody. and commentators who would restore verses after 1201 and 1205 are probably in error. does recognize that Lamachus the latter steadily ignores his rival's presence. Ach.§ 599 MONODIES is 283 present. a real trio of Dicaeopolis and the leaders of the half-choruses. therefore. the metres used by Dicaeopolis the warrior's tend to comic form. Compare for metrical contrasts 1191-1197 (paratragedic ^ . W^m6. play contrasts. 1208^ jxo^eph^ iy(o = 1208^ 1209^=1209^ 1217 = 1215. 598. . the joys of peace the horrors of war. the metrical form once. although half-seas-over. in a stichic period (778). See 129. 707 (289). 38. 6 Se airep e^ei iv elprjvrj j^apixoavva. 1214 with 1216. 1218 with 1220. 1190-1234 (Exode). 72 - ^J - • - '^ - 2 1191 crrvyepa. 1212 with 1213. "When the lyric dialogue passes at 1227 to Dicaeopolis and the Chorus. Setva airep eiradev. 1206 = : 1199—1202 (comic: v^ five times. The effect of this variation was probably increased by Invariable burlesque variations of of the melody. one suppressed arsis). Then follows. before the close of the play. 599. lamentations with set 1205. closed by a final strain sung by the chorus entire. three suppressed arses) with — — is comic. and continues irapaTTjprjreov he on avTnidr](Ttv av6i<i 6 jjuev ra e'/c toO iroXe/jiov : : Dicaeopolis caps Lamachus. rdSe ye Kpvipa TrdOea' rdXas iyo). The poet's purpose in this play is to ridicule the party The closing scene of the in Athens that was clamouring for war. (!) with His echoing The scholiast on lines must have produced a great effect. In 1224—1225 Dicaeopolis adopts tragic metrical form but not sentiment on his own account.

-2 Aa. At.. AtKatoTToAts ei' /a' lSol Terpoi/xevov Ka. ^ 3^ Tois Xovcrt yap tis ^v/x/BoXas eTrpaTTero Aa. § 599 1194 1196 £K6tvo S' alaKTov dv ycvoiTo fiot. . - v^ w 5^ etAiyyto) Kapa At^oj 7r€7rA7^yp.^ - . 1215 At. ^ — ^ 2 3CV drTarai aTraTal _ ^ _ (TKXrjpd Kal Kv8h)Via./ — 3 + Id . rt /xe crv SaKvets TaAas eyw ^v/xlSoXrjs (Sapeias. 10) it) Tpav/xaTiav (TrajBvvtDV.ie (TV Kwets. _ 2 dAA vvvl TT^/xepov Ilatwvta. -poa-XdjSea-e' w </)tAat. to) Ilatttv ITaiav. _ ^ _ 1199 TWV TLTOiOiV a)S (^iX-qcraTov jxe fiaXdaKm w xpvcriui TO TTcpiTrerao-Tov xaTri/AavSaAwTov. At. ov)(l ^ — 20 — _ _ . ^_^_ ^_^_3 v^— ^_^_3 v^— ^_^_3 v. Kttl (TKOToStVtO).^ 3 ^_^_ 1219 At. Trpoa-Xd/Sea-d' eyuou (3 (/>iAot ._^— . ^ w_ • v^. fxoyepos iyw.^ — v^ ^ 5° Se y£ cr^w tou Treons dfKpu) jikcrov 1217 Aa. Tov yap X'^"' T^P'^TO'i eK~iTrwKa.>^^. — — w— •— w— — .ov XafSecrOe tou o-KeAous TraTrat. 3^^' (rvficfiopa. v^ v^ X'^V^ AayuaxiTTTTiov. ^ 1205 At. Ti /. 10 v^ ..^3^ Aa._^_ Ai. At. arrvyepos eyw. rdXaiva twv e^wv KaKwi/.ev'os 25 ^— ^w— v^— ^ . .^ w . v^ — w— . A«. Xd/Secrde p. 284 THE VEKSE OF GREEK COMEDY SloWvfiaL Sophs VTTO TToXeflLOV TVTTiis.T' iyxdvoi rats efxals rv)(^aL(rLV. . — ^^— v. At. 15v^^wAa. ^_ . w - w ^ - v^ 3^^' 1202 Aa. _ v. . + Id Kayo) Ka^ei'Setv /SovXojxaL Kal a-Tvo/xat 1221 Kat cTKOTOjSivto). _ _ ^ _ w 10) iiy _ ^ _ V.

/ v./ • v. Kal irpos y' aKparov eyx'^o. Xo.- 1194 alaKTbv Person : alaKTov oifxwKTou 1210 ^vfi^oXrjs Dindorf : rrji iv fidxv See the metrical scholia on Ach. At. a Ti]V€X\a 8rJT./ KaAets y'. — _ ^ _ ^ _ ^ 4^^ y^ — ^ — -^ — — w — v> — v^ 4 ^ 40 a/xvcTTtv k^kXaxj/a. T^veAAa KaWiviKOi. 30— — v^— • ^ — ^ 5*^^ T0V5 Kpira. opare tovtovi Kevov.S v. Aoy. At. 1190 ff. (0 TTpeajSv KaAAtVtKOS.<: jxe (ftepere —ov 'crrtv 6 /3ao-iAer>?y 1225 Aa. Kop. 0)5 Traiwviaurt xepa-iv. aTToSore /xot tov oo-koi'. v^— ^' TryveAAa vvv w yevmSa w — ^wpet Xa/Swv TOV a(TKov. — — ^ — ^ — ^ 4*^^ ^ — ^— — — ^ — eTrecrOk vvv aSovres m — _ ^ _ ^ _ ^^ 4*^^ TV/veAAa /caAAtvi/cos. ^~ v^ — v^ — aAA' k-^ofxea-Qa crrjv X°-P'-^ ^"' ^ — ^ — ^ — TiyveAAa KaAAtvtKos a— v^ 6*^^ v^ — SovTes ere Kal tov acrKov. 1223 At.^ w ^^ w — w— v^ v. Kop. . At. eiTrep 5''' — — v^ — ^ — ^ — w — w4 35 w — ^— ^ — w — 4*^^ v^ — vy — v.77.(T7 rts St' €/>t7re.ye /xoi ocrreoiv oSvprd.§ 599 6vpa^e /x' MONODIES i^eveyKar' eh tov HittuXo}' 285 Aa.

the iambic form ^ — w — (29 per cent) clearly stated. first diaeresis. . separated by a tetrameter. . 153. : . . so that the dimeter. Aryan speech were a dimeter of The language but the order of longs and shorts was not yet regulated. short the final syllable remains ancipital.. v--— The combination <^ v^ v. was quantitative. It is now a commonplace of Comparative Metric that in the primitive poetic forms eight and a trimeter of eleven or twelve syllables. This dimeter where two dimeters.v^ is not found. From the table on p. and two tetrameters are united in a in the Avesia. although preferences are manifest. i. Arnold gives See 653 on the evolution of the dimeter in Aeolic Greek verse. 1 &. 14 it appears that of the sixteen possible forms of the first metre (two units in four places) fifteen occur. : This gives an iambic metre in the second half oooov^-v^i=i. it The rhythmiziug impulse gained quantities of force as operated. The facts have been ascertained with great patience and are See Oldenberg's Hymnen des Itigveda. — : : and the 'syncopated' form: ^ — ^ (11 per cent). v-- . for example. records that over ninety per cent of the lyric dimeters he tabulates ^ — ^ — He distinguishes three forms of have pure iambic close the normal form the opening as relatively common (39 per cent in lyric dimeters) . of the octosyllabic are respectively short. CHAPTEK XV OEIGIN OF THE FOEMS OF GEEEK POETEY 600. E. 601. Vernon Arnold in his Vedic Metre in its Historical Development.. predominate are. found form The fifth. The dimeter sixth and seventh syllables . may be represented is aso oooooooor>=^^^^^^^^. distich. in the order of preference. long.^ The the first metre of the Vedic dimeter remain practically unregulated. ordering of quantities appears in the Rigveda. The four that v^-^-.

with its and the division into thesis and arsis only approximately diplasic. fourth.!< 604 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY interesting detail (pp. an impressive means of dignified expression. Meirik'^. the arses ultimately of were for a long time in a state of flux. f. could not long be held is to the second half of the primitive dimeter in India and the rhythmizing influence that gave melodic form found early among those other more highly gifted men of Aryan speech who in the third millennium before Christ began to make their way from the north-western regions of the Balkan peninsula into the land which afterwards was to be known as The rhythmizing impulse regulated the order of Greece. Probably the first metrical phrase to emerge from these elements was logaoedic (375 its theses constant but ff. with its four dimeters arranged pair and pair. The odd simple syllables. but it is not Poetic impulse. elevated by its rhythmical.). 437 ft'. when poets were dealing with material that was not yet under easy control. These even places were finally developed into the theses of simple feet (664) and they remained remark- ably constant and stable (27) in all the various formations that were gradually evolved. however. LOGAOEDIC. second. 287 in much Avesta 149-174). 38-47. arses variable . They . For the trimeter one of the the and Rigveda see 611 It is many services rendered to metrical science by Rudolf Westphal that he noted many years ago the Avestan and Vedic dimeters and trimeters and pointed out their significant bearing on the corresponding Greek cola. on the other hand. 602. See Zur verglekhenden Metrik. Among the ancestors of the Ionian poets. or become two shorts they might be omitted altogether. form above ordinary prose speech. See also his Alhj. it fixed a long : syllable in the even places of the dimeter. Variability of form remained the distinctive mark of these odd places in the dimeter. This was the form that would naturally be first evolved. Ionian Verse 603. sixth o-o-o-o^. The dimeter was in ascending rhythm. IAMBIC AND ANAPAESTIC DIMETERS 604. in check. feet. quantities among these earlier Greeks in two modes which are expression also now seen to have been distinct. might be short or long. The distich of the Avesta.

o .). The constitution of the iambic dimeter (^ _^_v^_^_) seems simple. ' : ' ' element of rhythm. but while it is regular it admits variety. if the song was orchestic.^ . TROCHAIC AND DACTYLIC DIMETERS 608. two metres. with the corresponding forms in descending rhythm. with a variability parallel to that which characterized the odd places of the primitive dimeter. ^-^607. became the chief resources of Ionian poetry.i^_^_. was peeuHarly exposed. In the evolution of the anapaestic dimeter . THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY The unconscious sacrifice effort § 605 to secure regularity of order.) without that of variety which would have and the anapaestic (270 fF. dimeter in Ionian rhythm was . in verse-building rather than growth.. LOGAOEDIC. evolved two forms of the dimeter in ascending rhythm that. not enlarged.' identical in structure ^^ . like the dimeter itself. continuing for the full time of the colon. 606. the movement of men on the march. The syllable thus suppressed in the primitive dimeter was the final arsis.the unconscious effort to differentiate it from the iambic dimeter. in consequence of its position. Short syllables were fixed in only the second and fourth arses of the the first and third continued to admit either original dimeter The dimeter was now naturally felt to consist of short or long. the musical accompaniment and the dance. Catalexis is the process involves loss the natural manifestation of and results from disposition to upon the voices of the singers. but its arsis might be irrational (15). the iamb (^ -).) dimeter. ease the strain . namely the iambic (62 fif. The recognition of thesis and arsis in the metre ( ^ .o . fixed one long or two short syllables in all arses its of the original normal value of two Thus arose an isomeric simple foot. produced monotony. was isomeric (12). adapted to primary times. as a distinct .) 288 605. This metre. gradually : ^ ^ .o finally established the simple foot. reduced. dimeter and this long syllable assumed The principle prevails in Greek poetry that cola are . From this came this principle at the close of cola. and initial attrition was so constant that gradually a series of dimeters was evolved in The primitive form of the acephalous descending rhythm. in which the simple feet were diplasic (9 ii.o -. But it was the first arsis of this dimeter that.

^ .v/ . example. came to be called \rjKv0iov. was expressed for the lacking primary time ^ This happens to be identical with that part of the iambic trimeter that follows the ])enthemimeral caesura.^ -. This fact is illustrated by two forms of the acephalous iambic dimeter in early use.and cannot be united in continuous rhythm a primary time is needed The final thesis This was secured in two ways. and have trochaic scansion. two acephalous cola. When. felt to be different from that of to complete the syllable corresponding the upward beat with which the phrase began was felt to be lacking. See 38.^ _ ^ _^ catalectic dimeter. a vital change took place. after Aristophanes had perpetrated his Cf.^ . . in association with ascending rhythms. cola Wi^re united in a tetrameter in continuous rhythm./ . the melody beginning with the first downward beat. logaoedic. 882 609. \riKvdiov has no historical significance. of It is not likely that in the primitive stage the rhythm the initial these dimeters was dimeters .^ . and . and the These sometimes occur even in later catalectic. ' ^ ' 19. 1197 tf. (xA|Aa)S Se SetAbv koI fieya . and _ ^ _ ^ the ithyphallic (203). the acatalectic. . of the first phrase might be held in singing of three primary times \pi]<Tip. 1564 Ran.^ - Av. See Heph.^ as in metres and simple — the iambic dimeter (606). even places are Thus arose.^ -.^ . trochaic and dactylic hephtheniimers in descending i) rhythm . with recognition of 289 feet. 610.^ . to link them. The uame famous jest.^ : ttoXlv rjfxeTepav e^et )'] X. 1140 Av. For . aud. but generally they are associated with descending rhythms.. 5 ff.^ ^^ I _ ^ _ ^ . 14 tf.^ . 1476 f. §610 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY . two acephalous v. But generally a syllable This process was called protraction (31).v^ poetry. 6 ff.v^ . 122.v^ .: . Fmu.^ .ov : till it had the value pXv ov8iv. however. and Heph. .aLpe(f>wv vvKTepi<s prj/xaTa Kal irapairpicrixaT — ^^ — — ^ eVwv — ^^ — ^^ — w — — v^ — — ^^ — Thenn. . subject to the variability that marks the arsis. and remain iambic. but only apparently — Eelations are now apparently are reversed: of the odd the syllables the constant and stable part the phrase.^ . 18.^ . not to dwell needlessly on obvious facts.^ .

seventh) that follow the early caesura -^ ^ subnormal forms are .^ ^ varied by a subnormal form the two syllables that follow the caesura are normally short. tenth. 175-227. with found in quantities still unregulated : ooooooooooo.(36 per . .^ and . 336 The syllable was a natural interposition. Besides the dimeter of the epic distich (600 ff. | «-/ .^ . iambic. in the first metre. ninth.^ v^ . eleventh) The regular rhythm in the last four places (eighth.^ -. lyric metres (Table.^ . rhythm fF. §611 aAAci [jLi] f3o\aTe- koI yap Tvyxo-vn- . and in the last five places (eighth. v. was now felt to begin with the downward beat. Metre. and in both the principle of ordering of quantities is manifestly in operation. twelfth) of the two trimeters is respectively . the gathas. i. sixth. Acataand dactylic dimeters were developed in a Thus in dactylic rhythm similar manner.) there also occurs in the Avesta a hendecasyllabic trimetrical colon.^ .. 188). together with an acatalectic colon of twelve syllables. the rhythm was descending. less The frequently in the tenth.^ . is The normal form of the with the sixth syllable short. 42 and Arnold's Fedic The following facts are the results of Arnold's painsThe percentages here given are for archaic taking investigations. all 1 . ^ ^ ^. sometimes broken by a short syllable in the eighth place. caesura is . although preferences are distinctly manifest. The hendecasyllabic colon appears also in the Rigveda.^ -v>-^|-w -v^- Vesp. lectic Thus arose the acatalectic trochaic dimeter. The seven preceding syllables are in a state of flux.^ ^. rarely by a long syllable in the ninth. 880 ff. with disposition to iambic 612. corresponding syllables in the trimeter divided by penthemimeral v^ In both. . normal form of the three syllables (fifth.tenth. that is.290 THE VEESE OF GEEEK COMEDY ovfios vtos. Trimeters generally open with a metre of the form ^ . the latter corresponding to penthemimeral caesura in the iambic trimeter The regular iambic rhythm of the close of the colon is in Greek. ninth.. See Oldenberg's Eymnen. since it merely restored The movement the lost arsis of the second acephalous dimeter. TKIMETERS 611. logaoedic : SeivoTaTOLV (TTOfiaToiv TTop'uraa-daL p-qjxaTa | Kai Trapair pLcrfiar eTrwv ____ __ |-^-_ -^- Ran. eleventh. Trimeters are almost invariably divided by caesura either after the fourth syllable (45 per cent) or after the fifth (50 per cent).

acatalectic and catalectic and anapaestic trimeters in ascending rhythm. logaoedic. in which the thesis of a simple foot absorbed an adjacent arsis and took its time. by processes identical dimeters. iambic . trochaic and dactylic trimeters in descending rhythm. .^ - . Arnold concludes (p. and logaoedic.7T£paLvi(ras e'x^ f. ^ .Av. . The use of the monometer (dipody) as a colon probably began in this manner. In this case the long syllable assumed the value of See 31. The result of this new source of variation was greater liveliness in musical expression. Just the opposite effect was secured by the other variation denominated protraction (tovt]). >=^ 291 The 'normal' forms of the acatalectic ^ . in the second. to have arisen. From this base were developed. 17). IONIC COLA 615.^ and numerous variations occur in the first metre.. (TvvdeXo). the latter being non-iambic. The relation of trimeters to the primitive cola minor and major ionic dimeters and is not so well determined as that of the dimeters and trimeters already considered. (TVfji. as has been seen. 226) that the dominant scheme of the pre-Vedic trimeter was v^ .^ .^ (^) v^ ^ :!:1 ^-^-|ww ^-^ trimeter. here indicated by dots.^ - . but compensative lengthening of the long syllables following the suppressed arses. The acatalectic trimetrical colou appears in Ionian long syllable fixed in the even places but witli variable syllables in the odd places : verse in Greek with a o-o. §615 cent) or ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY (32 per cent). effort secure interior its variety of rhythmical metres of through within the the primitive dimeter in . would be: \^ ^ .o-o- o - o i=^. Anapaestic and dactylic trimeters in which the simple feet were in even time.^ . 851 there was no pause in singing. in the greater anaclasis unconscious expression. 614. three primary times. They appear. In certain forms of verse the thesis of simple feet might be resolved (11. to however.^ ^^ but therefore. with those that produced exceeded the length allowed to diplasic compound feet (22) and fell apart into dimeters and monometers. (^il) | 1 613.iiid especially. . Thus in the rhythmization of the iambic verse : ofioppodw.^ - ^ . which was their normal measurement.

93) and Schroder ("enoplion. (1903). .) in illustration of major ionic verse ^ irA^pT/s [xev k^aiv^r' a creXdwa- ^ ^ — ^ — ^ al 8' ws Trepl /3w/xoi' ea-Tddrjcrai' Sapph. a constant manifestation in an artificial terminal anaclasis ionic verse of the classical period (419 flf. 617. 88). v^-vy-.y-v-' came is ^ ^ descending apparently of This view supported by the fact that in 6 we see these ionic cola in process of early lyric poetry. -v. Schroder discusses some of these periods in Hermes. xxxviii. " AUgriechischer Versbau.). 84 e^ct fJ-iv 'AvSpo/JLeSa Kakav d/xoL/Sav Sapph. Similarly. 204. the other periods here 125 ff. came ^ ^ and arsis of simple feet ivithin v^v. with him. 58 ^''dTr<f)Ot Tt rav iroXvok/Sov ' A(f>p68LTav Sapph.). 53 ' Not all modern metricians agree who this classifies all Sappho 52.^ ascending ^^v^ rhythm in from -vy-vy rhythm.). Bergk has been variously regarded. xi. 59 Here iambic metres and minor ionics are combined in the same That the formative dipody is iambic is confirmed by colon. Aristofh. But no scansion of these cola is satisfactory that does not bring them and the trimeters in Sappho 53 and Alcaeus 38 under the same formula. Ionic verse. regards fragment as Glyconic {Isyllos.: : 292 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Thus from ^ . Compare the following. which are all quoted by Hephaestion (chap. quoted as ionic particular (/s^/ZZos. [Altestes Versmass. for example. is proved by found between the second and third metres of the last two fragments. was nevertheless plastic. the fact that it may be irrational. 83 V^ vy 'I. 129 n. 407) thought its component cola were a form of the Spruchvers (paroemiac). That anaclasis modern music) is a legitimate and natural operation. fragments in of early lyric poetry are extant which trochaic metres are combined with major ionics in the same colon. and as not to be stigmatize4 the and mechanical metrical process./w o-aAacrcro/xeSoicr'. Cant. each . although as generally regular. Aristophanes's famous extravaganza proves (429). (syncopation in is 616. and he was followed by Usener ( " paroemiacus. Trepicrcrov' Thus making in extant remains minor ionic rhythm — a* yap 'AttoAAwv av (xtto Avktjos Alcm." Von Wilamowitz. paarSoiv Alcm.^ in thesis § 616 iambic and trochaic development. by interchange of metre.

may begin with a short syllable in consequence acephalization. trochaic and paeonic metres are freely mingled. " «yw Se fiova KareuSw Sap ph.^ . both when used independently and when in correspondence with a trochaic metre : .: : i^ 619 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY ov yap 'ApKaSeacn XtofSa Alcaeus 38 293 Tpi^ioXerep- OeSvKe jxlv a (jeXdvva Kai IIAr^t^aSes..La Tro'pSaAis -^ ^ ^ ^ ^ -w- Lys.^ - Vesp. Aristophanes quotes from a scolium of primitive form two cola that illustrate the same process (Vesp.) ovK €0"Tiv dAojTreKi^eii'. In certain odes of Aristophanes. ' . ^ ~ — — ^ — ^^ ww— w — w v^v^ ^ _^__ — y-> irapa 8' epx^T"' ^po. 1014 in ff. 618. but of other. 1240 f. 54 €Vfiop(poT€pa Mvaa-iBiKa ras d^rdXas FvpiVvtos Sapph. The trochaic metre and the paeon may correspond and antistrophe Kttt strophe KttT avTo TouTO fiovov av8pis /xa^^i/zwraroi CKetcrc Tai<. 52 aiS' KpT^o-crat vv ttot' e/z/xeAecus 7rd5e(r(rtv MpX^jfT' aTraXoKr' TTOttS dfKfi' epoevra jSwfiov — — — — wv^— ww v^v^ w v^v^ v_/^ — v^ — w — — _^__ rkpiv dvdo'i fidXaKov /xdreia-aL Sapph. — — ^w ^ ^ — ov8' dfJL(fiOT€poicri yiyv^a-daL (fiiXov _^__ _^_ v^ — — PAEONIC COLA 619. 77 In iio ji)artial major ionic verse the initial metre of a colon. -^ww -w-^ -w^w -w-w Aristophanes even uses a ovSev ov8e ea-TL TTVp.. = = 1093 Tovs evavTious TrAecov rpiijpfa-iv -v^-w -v^^^ -wv:. 1062 The paeon may assume cretic form.Pax 589 tetrameter by line paeonic-trochaic : drfplov yvvaiKhs dfia-^byTepov. ovS' (58' dvaiSvjs ov8ep. which are fully treated in 223 ff. oTToo-oi TTttcriv yeojpytKOV J3lov eT/oi/3oyLiev • ixovrj yap r}/xas wt^eAeis S. 76 dcraporepas ovSafid irw/aara crWiv ri'^^owrav Sapph. fikaai 8e ri'xT€s.^ ' ^ .

by shortening. maintained that in such series as are quoted above from Aristophanes These the trochaic metres were reduced to the value of paeonics. with the value. each metre had The time of these periods it highly probable that was — ' approximately the rhythmical value of six primary times. and a natural step. 265. the second step the foot just touches the earth and that lifted. Rhythmik\ 141 fi". would be but a step. Sirpoxaiov) of the Greek rhy thmicians. the tendency would be arisen to reduce the original value of these metres from six primary times to five. became . and trochaic.w . J^. 622. . not of J See their Spec. origin of these ' light trochaic metres. its lighter the thesis remained constant. with thesis related to arsis in the ratio of 3 to 2. See von Wilamowitz's Orestie.t^' 8vcrKoXoi' = TOVTo fXTj (fiavXov Tw irpayfiaTi _ ^ 620.w w w to give each short its normal value of a primary time.vv ov8e vo/i. in evolution. were seeking final definition. Von Wilamowitz explains the the first . but of J J'S'. Thus would arise a new metre of five primary times.Pax 349 = 388 must have been uniform.w part still . he suggests. is less is heavy than dipody is again quickly so the second long of the trochaic differentiated from the first trochaic metre gravitated it assumed . The cretic of three syllables - ^^ -) is a later substitute for -www.294 et TL THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY K€)(^apt. a time when metres. KovK€T evpois SiKao-rr^v hpifJ. 153 f. it is _ ^ w - . in essence. were the cretics (k/jt/tikoi Kara. namely the paeonic (-www. in a continuous series of cola composed of metres of the form . In rapid dancing. See Ehythmik\ 221. in descending hemiolic rhythm.(rfj. is 621. affected only the arsis of the trochaic metre. Kossbach and Westphal first expressed the view that the paeonic metre. it .^ ^ ^ In the dance the toward paeonic form and actually Expressed in mechanical symbols.^ ( in some cases.w . The process by which -www At had from .w . It obvious that if successive periods consisted solely of metres in paeonic or cretic form.€Vov § 620 yoipiBLOv ota-da Trap ejiou ye KanSrjSoKws -wv^v^ - ^ av jx -wwv^ -www -www -wtv TwSe Pax 347 f.J^' ' /J .. -W-). was a rhythmical shortening of the trochaic But they dipody.

).) times. Among i § 225 ff. Metrik -. 625. but adds oi fikv-oi pyd/xtKol to 7rav fierpov ws fitav The scholiast on Aesch. regards the dochmius as a catalectic bacchiac dimeter (v.) 97) was uncertain whether it consisted of bacchius and ff. lav Tts avra OKTaa-fjiiui'i paivij.(ov(rt. Aristides states (39 M. 760 ff.LaKa. Metrik^. 5 that iamb or of iamb and cretic. 621 Its source and even its constitution (ix.v^ . it is composed of iamb and Hephaestion (32. 26. poetry before scenes in tragedy.).. 239. (TV T (3 Atoyeves (fnXo/iaxov Kpdro'i. 1190. but they fail to explain the process by which the paeonic metre J J" J* J" was derived from J J* J J* or J J'J^^. bacchius. with the second thesis protracted in consequence of the loss of the second arsis {^ . ovxl jSatvovrai. 103. Quintilian J. 509 ff. still subjects of discussion. 128. eo'Tiv Kal mto.. \ | ^ See Rossbach's discussion in Spec. the pressing need that tragic poets felt for a rhythmical phrase adequate to express the great excitement naturally incident to 623. 243 regards the dochmius as a hypercatalectic antispast and Westphal {Spec. quoting Av. Metrik^. he says that the rhythm is octaseme. . are 4. In dochmii in which the first two theses are both resolved. v^ Aeschylus is doubtful. in place of the lost Brambach {Metrische Stvdien zu Sophocles.) regards second arsis. Introduction. sometimes necessarily in the middle of a word. to fierpa. Among the ancients. 13 ff. H. crv^vylav Xafx/SdvovTes Soxz-itaKov 6vofjLa. Kvpl. 167) holds that the dochmius is an iambic tripody.A ||). and protraction is therefore impossible. and that such . Epitome. 738. The occurrence .) interprets this to mean antispast and a syllable. holding that divides it w -^ -^ ^ -^ any octaseme rhythm must have dactylic division (4 4). Hermann {Elementa. Se ei—ov Se (Balvrj ' pvdjxol yap elcri ' /Saivovrab 8k ol pvdfiol.i^ ^ -). 59 ff. Pickel {De versuum dochmiacorum shortened choree {y^ origine.' with anacrusis. : division as is indicated by Quintilian (3 : 5 or 5:3) is arrhythmical. Siai/Detrai On Sejpt. 5 If.§ 625 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY 295 This would account for the equivalence of the paeon and the trochaic metre.) | . the last long syllable being followed by a pause equal to two primary 76 ff. THE DOCHMIUS in Greek v^ of the dochmius. an antispastic penthemimer {kXv€lv iiaUrai). 1188. and its use is mainly Its evolution was apparently due to confined to the drama.. has similar comment: Kal Tavra 8o)(^[j. Sept. he assumes a pause.i J. and following analyzes the dochmius into ' ^ . Choeroboscus in his commentary (Heph.^ -). H. the moderns./ .(i)<. Schmidt {Metrik. 853 f.) regards it as TratW Smyi'to? ( .

from the acatalectic lesser Asclepiadean (cf. which limits variability of form by the strict He counting of syllables {Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen. Schroder {Forarbeiten.^ ^ .. is the shortest and freest Aeolic rhythm. theoretically possible forms . Thus ^ ~ Ku . clx. which dates in the time of Augustus. source of the dochmius is to be found ultimately in Aeolic rhythm {Comment Metricum. first three theses of the primitive dimeter in its iambic developfact ment. Again.and . Von Wilamowitz also believes that the Aeolic (Mogaoedic ') colon. also of the arsis of the first simple foot in each metre of the primitive dimeter as developed in iambic form in Ionian rhythm. in its disturbance of the rhythm. if the second arsis is absolutely suppressed and the number of primary Thus ^^^xy^. Crusius {Zu neuentdeckten original phrase of nine primary times. of the Each short ^ --' syllable of the fundamental This true dochmius ( - ) ^^y be long. since solution of the time. 193 If. 518 ii. The effect of this suppression. are stigmatized (even the iambic form rwd^as Sai/Awv). n. concludes that the beginning of the dochmius shows the same variability of form that characterizes The dochmius. times is thus reduced from nine to eight. Their number and variety show that the It is problem is difficult. is startling.v3-v^-. These and other theories that have been advanced have not escaped criticism. ^ . 126 ff. through the juxtaposition of two theses. The case is may form be stated as follows. perhaps insoluble. regards — ^ ^ — ^ — as the primitive form of the dochmius {Orestie. 29). 149). and assuming that the o-Tty/xvy was attached to the thesis.. ii.^ ^ . representing an first two syllables.) by fusion of ' ' its two halves.). notwithstanding the fact that resolution is alien to Aeolic metre. but certain in- disputable facts must not be ignored in any attempt to establish the relation of the dochmius to the primitive dimeter.^ - 626. he thinks.) derives the dochmius outright 189). with disThis is an entirely new effect. 296 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 626 the dochmius as a catalectic trochaic tripody with anaclasis in the Every dochmius is catalectic.). Muslkresten. continuous rhythmization by repetition of simple feet is the The name Sop^/ito? law that prevails elsewhere in Ionian verse. Now the cannot be ignored that the primitive three simple feet of the iambic form of the dimeter thus developed of the furnish all the thirty-two dochmius (460. each normally long syllable of This is true also of each of the the dochmius may be resolved. Thus ^^^^^ first ^ ^^ -. observing that the first syllables of the dochmii in the Reynier papyrus.

1117 = 1128. 370 = 381. rote yap TeXet9). Agam./ . With this compare Aesch. See 466. 1157 (ta) XKafidvhpov example. 1): 'EpaxrpoviSi] XaptXae. Compare. Eum. 419 f rpefio) S' ai/xaTr].§ 630 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY new plirase 297 its given to this seems thus to be justified by form. \prip6. The facts noted in 626 ff. Other regular rhythms are called 6p6oL 627. Agam. 971 (564). as in appears with fixed as constitution the poets of the fifth century. 1100 = 1107 (t&> Kikaiva. generally trimeters and tetra- meters. Prosodiac-F^noplic Cola 630. 569 (460). closing the strophe. Furthermore. Testimony that it is trustworthy links the prosodiac. as in Ach. In comedy also iambic is the rhythm with which the dochmius is most frequently associated. (-TToXet 745 fxeXayxtfio) Trdrpiov ttotoz/) = 1 16 8 (loi TrpoTTupyoL dvcriai irarpo'i). . by appropriate variety of form. 173 = 178 {jMLaarop' elatv ov Trda-erat). and these display. with an early form of the Ionian dimeter.^6pov<. with a dochmiac monometer. Sup. Sept. in Aeschylus. 628. 738 = avv a-rpaTm). follows. Toi yeAoTov — ^w — ^v^ — — — ^ — w — — v. for 347 = 359. Here also the two rhythms may be closely joined. Note also the much discussed colon in Ucc. that it is in origin an iambic tripody with the arsis of the second simple foot absolutely suppressed. 888 = 900. : 1156 : tu» ydjiOL ydjxoL Ila'/Dioos okidpioi (piXwv 629. as in Sept. a combination of an iambic dimeter With this compare Aesch. may indicate the true source of the dochmius. dochmiac verse is associated in the tragic poets chiefly with iamljic periods. This early simplified phrase appears the first half of a celebrated logaoedic period in Archilochus (79. namely. Five dochmii precede and an ithypliallic fiopov^ virep <f>l\(ov. between the iambic metre and the dochmius is so close that they may be united within a single colon and even joined within a word. means The of protraction relation and resolution. Less often the iambic metre follows.

Kal p-evToi Kai Toiis toi'-j avTov Svo avof/leVy ol TraprjT-ncavTo iv ry fiiTk TOV 'Kpx'ikoxov.ivT)s. Heph. the second was a catalectic iambic dimeter. Heph. fiiv ol 8i ij. he continues. had great vogue with the comic poets." lies implicit in the anapaestic hephthemimer which constitutes the first part of this tetrametrical The second half.and he explains the process at length. to e^ I^jviktjs Kal xoptaA'. avTo. el dirb airovBdov ApxoLTo. ''°'T iav fvptjaei ry TrpocrooLaKU} ((papfiofov. discussion of this important testimony see the Editor's Enoplic Metre : ^-^ g^ggj^ Comedy. as we have seen (495). yap (XTTovdeiov ixv '''ov TrpGirov. he adds. an anapaestic tripody of the form s^ ^ .' They (^-^ ' made it a real tetrameter. adopted a fixed form of the logaoedic period employed by Archilochus. 154. is the ithyphallic. Schol.scholiast's comment is significant icperifxifieph yap lafM^iKov T<p npoaoSLaK^ Tip KaBapi^ iiri.) expressly states that the prosodiac. pleased with its rhythm.^ ^^ .: 298 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY " § 631 Hephaestion (xv. and each half of each dimeter had the rhythmical value of six primary times. he says. 1 and regarding its first half not as anapaestic but as prosodiac. : probable relation of the its prosodiac to the primitive dimeter. 2 Qf. For.^ This means that Cratinus and his successors. 323. Archilochus.^ The tetrameter thus constituted was in ascending rhythm. treating S> its division with indifference Xatp fj-ey' a^peioyeAws o/^tAe rais iwi/SSais Crat. always observed the division of the two cola and admitted different forms of the anapaestic dimeter zf^ . iiyovfievot. ohv to 2a7r0oOs (82) 8e e^TJs duairaiaTovs. . oe <j\> KaXXioTu. <i'"^5'''<^^"^'°: ^'7'^ ovTwOLaipoliro. period. dvvaTai 5e Kal dvaTraiaTiKov diatpdadai. an ancient and well-known dimeter. 419 ff. t^s iwviK^s Kal ^paxeiav Ti)v eis Tplirovu dWa TrpuiTTjv 5exop. g. rds tov devrepov dvawaicrTov 5uo /Spaxeta? irpoadels rip o-woi'ddu' Troiriaecs' 'iwvLKov dnb nel^ovos. namely.^). which consists of ionic and choriamb. The statement at the close of the . ri}j rjixeripas <Tocf)La$ evdai/j. oeiovs to. 3 poj.er' avTov fief ro/iy dSia- <f>6pws expT7(rai'ro. as was each of its parts. ^v^ .^ ^ admits prosodiac division. The identification by Cratinus of a fixed form of the anapaestic tripody with the prosodiac at once suggests the . tov% ivTavda yap irpo <rv\\a^i)s.^ 631. ovx ws dvairaiaTLKov TrpoaodiaKdv./3iK^s. wavep Kparivos (323) dxp«67£Xwj 6>iXe Xalp w MH'' Tah ' iTrl^dats. 16 ff.i]TT]p iKplwv xj/o^rjan. that ^ it had rij source in the paroemiac form of this tov n-po<TOOiaKOv 'dv Kal tovto elSos. but Cratinus and the poets who followed him maintained and cultivated a fixed prosodiac form of this tetrameter. 11-17. ^^^ 5' ^^^j xop'^p-^ov. 47.oiws KaXeiTai.x4. o/xofojs to S^ rplTOV irpb Tirixi^Tai Toh 'Apxi\oxeiois. to e^ to iwviKov koI xopi-o-P-l^i-KoO avyKeifievov.oi'' ^tikt^ ffe Kpnrjs dpLCTe irdvTuiv iJ. hut gave it a tlie first half was identified with different metrical constitution the prosodiac.xiKTai kclI irpoaodiaKdv 6/j. This particular prosodiac tetrameter.

K.^ ^ . fSpurwi' ^w -wv^- -'. The first is i. 84 f. K. although he was not 633. at which Hephaestion notes The discovery length was not. ^-^^-^^-^ (603). ix. 632.). but new form a line by the clever adaptation it that Archilochus had made famous. vfivov oltto (aOeas V. xi. invention of prosodiac verse. the hypercatalectic cola and periods which of they found ready to their hands.^ ^ is ^ ^ ^ _^^_v Bacch. It to be observed that the tetrameter employed by is Cratinus and his successors not found in Pindar and in but one ode of Bacchylides general. had originated. The lyric poets did not. Nem. K. K. KOLvy yap ctt' €VTV\iaL(rL\' Eccl. ^ . v. as in the ^j-v/- appeared sporadically as a hypercatalectic syllable (488). 9 f. at Tr] the close of an acatalectic period. ^ .: 3 § 633 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY 299 arsis dimeter and was thus derived at a time the paroemiac was still when the tirst of in flux.^ ^ - Bacch. but the adoption of a prosodiac tetrameter in use.^ ^ -v^wtetrameter under consideration.ocrL /cetraf dXaOeuj.^ ^ - -|-^- ^ eirt _ Bacch. . 1 is v^ov vapa 8a[p. _^^_ ^i_^_ acatalectic : ^_ criv 8' Pind. 574 : or was lost. in syllable the various processes of verse-building. as fSaOv^MVOti v(f)dva<i (Tvv XapiTT€(T(ri ^ ^ .^ such as ^^v^ period assumes the form or . 43 f. its was either merged in the following colon. ov '^apdOeia tikt' prjyjxlvL ttovtov v^-v^w The second ii. conscious of precedents. Prosodiac verse had long been seems probable. but substituted for them. in make use of catalectic prosodiac cola and periods. from anapaestic and iambic forms of the primitive dimeter in a manner precisely analogous to that which Cratinus employed. with the same purpose of resting the voices of the singers (33). o ras deov. In final the conversion of this particular form of the paroemiac into the prosodiac. hypercatalectic e'^ : ras eparojv i(j)6/3-q(Tev TrayKparTj? "Hpa fieXdOpon' ^ ^ . as in odes in which a prosodiac used as an independent . (xix. What was the iambic element in prosodiac verse ? Two longer tetrameters antecede the catalectic tetrameter of Cratinus. of of Cratinus the of course.

236 ' The identification as an acephalous of Hephaestion's ithyphallic ' that catalectic iambic dimeter ' ' and of the corresponding clause in ii.). w Eupol.7^8' ovTin crtavTov Vesp. VLKav T ipLKvSea p-eXirer. XV.^_ — |— vy— ^_^_ ^_^_ Bacch. as a lecythium (609.^ ^ - ^|_. Bacch. and vi. by i.). f. 1 catalectic tetrameter of Cratinus.) is forbidden an acephalous hypercatalectic iambic dimeter is foreign to Ionian rhythm. 277'* = 286 xi. 636. Tov Trais Xet/awv Aarous evpvp. are successively derived by regressive revealed by certain other prosodiac periods. The in is ii. nature of this phrase as it appears in i. n. other verse trimetrical cola are derived from a primitive .: : 1 5 300 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY oSov irapa KaAAtoTras Aa>^oio-av €^o)(ov yepas § 634 v^-ww TTws 8rj . veot WW -WW. 32. n. closes iii. 9 crravTCS.a w— deols 6' w|— — |— WW WW ' — — WW— Pind. iTLTvav r h aWepa \eLpas dp. particularly affected by the may again be illustrated aKovcrov uv Acyo> aoi w SionroTa Kal rdSe vvv WW -WW.) was called iambelegus (481./3aAev vorjpia WW V. xix. viii.. _|_^^ _^^_ w Ymd. 13 f. two corresponding acatalectic trimeters (v. 75 dvSpwv re Salras Kal BaXtas p.iv — f.w|-w634.ovtaLs dperals Pind. koI tcs av8pas uAki/xovs WW The comic poets. K. XtTTov euKAea vacrov. 01. 1 dvia)(0VT€'i X'^pa'i dOavdroLS w — w- WW— ' Bacch. 190 K. for 635.e8(ov re Ilocretoav awTOV BAeiji'iaSais kiriviKov 6 ^ vii. (TT-qde(T(TL TraXivrpoTTOV e/x. Nem. i. 54 K. Prosodiac verse all is thus seen to be eminently episynthetic. by regressive reduction. Nem. iii. — WW— <3 ^|— w— ^ xiii. Bacch.vraro'i y tJv twf Trap rjp. first w- -. aAA Styad dvtcTTacro p. -wphrases pare reduction. — WW— Pind. from which were formed. The In last (vii. 45 K. and vii.) that often occur iv. from which evidently the corresponding and iii. v.aKdpwv Pax 779 Keivov crvv dvSpbs 8atp. iV^em..w|-wvi. '() fjiiiv TToXv Spip. Comtwo hypercatalectic trimeters (iv. v.

was To revert now to the tetrameter with the consideration of which began.). foregoing in which ends ' arsis. 14 ff. that the in component 637. "to OS Kal Ti'TTfts ayi'w TreAeKet TtKero cro(f)ol ^avOav 'Addvav Se Kol to [xyjSev dyav iiros aLvrjcrav Treptcrcrws -_^_ -|_^^ -V. is compound.: § 639 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY fif. Compare the follow- _^^_ . . i. appears. elements may be combined either order of arrangement.^ in the . 47 examples an syllable. ^ — ^^-^j^--^:!. but with the elements differently arranged ii_^^ ^>^ ^ . (633)..v^ . supplying 631) was either the lacking arsis. ^ . viii.-|-wThis tetrameter. triple this investigation of the iambic element in prosodiac verse a it seems certain that i. The shorter iambic phrase that appears in the first and ( c. that each phrase if initial is complete. third of the foregoing trimeters also in the following viii. The phrase joined with the paroemiac is the iambic penthemimer./ragr. being catalectic.acephalous. hut in each its subsequent occicrrences is of acephalous paroemiac.^ . the In the various processes (cf.W. -|-^^ -wv^. furthermore. and vi. might be reduced by a syllable ix.^ . 216 other hypercatalectic prosodiac periods.. 301 trimeter (611 but in prosodiac verse trimeters as well as It longer periods are compound.o in iv.) is seen avSrjfi eAata? iv IleAoTro'j ^pvyiox' Kkewoi^ dedkois ^— TlcvSapiKov — |-vyw verses : — ^ ^^ — —\-^— — Bacch. as the paroemiac. at the close of an acatalectic period.: : ' . or . the final syllable of each phrase merged or following colon. ends in a variable periods The combination of paroemiac and penthemimer into was controlled by the rhythmical law.^. of verse- building. appeared sporadically as a hypercatalectic syllable. 639. 34.i:i|_^_ i=i. in iambic penthemimer. ^ 638.-|-v^- Find. which holds without exception in all compound prosodiac periods. or lost. or . like all - Pind. (637).v^ . 16 f. K. like viii. Compare the ") quoted by Hephaestion (51. acephalous -^^-K^^-^. /JLKrdos yap aAAots aAAos ctt' epy/xacrtv dvOptoTrois yXvKis Isth.

-|-wxii. subsisting in later the final syllable of an original paroemiac or of an original iambic penthemimer.. ^1 ^2-1273 suffice for the is The paroemiac and iambic peuthemimer it constitution of all normal prosodiac periods.) . irpocnraXaicrwv ^Xd' dvrjp w. x. of the century. which versely arranged : composed of the same elements but con- vvv \pr) IlocretSai/os re UiTpaiov re/^evos KeXaSrja-at ^ - _|_^_ _|_^^ -w^' - Bacch. 59 of 640.. 51 K. 643. This composite hypercatalectic iambic dimeter occurs also as an independent period Oepfiav 8' eVt Trvewv aeAXav v^— ^^|— v^— elp'qa-eTai ttoAA' ev /Spax^crroLS w— that — |— w— — — Bacch. in Ionian verse.. we could hardly expect to find testimony as explicit as ff. ' The examples quoted ' i. acatalectic and. X. hypercatalectic. vi. vi. Find. catalectic X. in the drama.. _ Bacch. that given by Hephaestion in regard to the prosodiac (630 but once in possession of the by which. but composite. K. 22 K. iv.: : 302 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY is § 640 ing period.). of the trace. On the rhythmical value of the hypercatalectic syllable. 20 ' f. 53 b Tlvdoivi 8ia prj ko.^.-|-^641. which is has been the still subject of much discussion in recent years.-|-. This syllable. Tt fjLaKpav yXwa-crav Wx'cras eXavvo) ^_ _|_^_ _|_^_ xi. viii. To turn now to enoplic verse.km^ Trevecrdai ^. like the normal It is iambic trimeter in Ionian verse (613). xiv. primitive The enoplius was the acephalous form of the same . (cf. \py]<jr6v. we see at once the ultimate relation of the its enoplius to the prosodiac and thereby discover probable origin. all cola in descending rhythm arose from the primitive dimeter by loss of key to the general process its first arsis (608 ff.) disclose the origin hypercatalectic syllable in prosodiac verse (488). x. and fact that a striking they can be identified in the fully developed prosodiac fifth verse of poets of the 642. Find. ij/vxav 8' aKap-TTTOs. found three forms. Isth. iv. see 37. It is now in obvious the iambic trimeter also prosodiac verse was not originally indivisible. poetry. Isth.

but from this tripody in Each half normally contains six constitution (647).WW iii. these five i. ar aXeKTwp o-uyyoi'w ti}s I Trap' ecTTia 01. -WW. 61 S" dpera KarctKeiTat -rdaav opydw Find.- Paa. |-w io-jrir' (483. periods consist of a paroemiac with suppressed initial arsis. -WW. TepxpieTrei'.WW V. |-w-w|-wecrTrepas I Find. ^ ^ 1-^ \. when . (-ww- ).\a<. Analyzed 11 with reference to their origin. which are Compare the following enoplic numbered to correspond with the Kapv^ovn Aaw Bacch. n. 472 f. primary times. If described in terms similar to those used by Hephaestion in describing the prosodiac. it therefore. vlv doiSai ttuvtI . K.) Nub. i.y^at 14 ft'xe rh Spaifxa yaXrjv iv. even in early antiquity. ww an enoplius elements that constitute the prosodiac periods. aTro. 795 Isth.^ 230 f. has in fact enoplic correspondent. (0TtV6 (Tuv yepas dyXuov Find. although ultimately derived by acephalization from the same form of the primitive dimeter as the prosodiac. i. it would be said to In verse-building consist of a choriamb and minor ionic' The distinction between trochaic cola.w . with a few exceptions. xiii. 174 f. arose from the paroemiac. it is associated with prosodiac and enoplic cola is precisely that which subsists between anapaestic and dactylic or iambic and trochaic cola: prosodiac cola are in ascending.w .ww-w|-w645. and periods. and the original distinction to the retention or between prosodiac and enoplic cola was due suppression of an initial cola arsis. xii. -WW. metrical ' ' ' 644. w - ^ ^ _ - . viii. Each prosodiac colon and its period. thus also the second colon in each of the enoplic periods just quoted. iravporepiov to Se irdvTMV €vpapeiv oi'Sev yXvKv Bacch. and the same acephalous iambic phrase of the five final corresponding But just as the enoplius. 01. enoplic in descending rhythm. differs in origin a dactylic tripody of fixed form. K. is The enoplius.^^--|_w--|-wlv8op. by acephalization. -v-'v^-lw^-^. f.^ ^ ii.e. was early individualized as a distinct dimeter in descending rhythm. V.a. ^-^w-v^w-^. 41 Trpdyfiara Kdrnypac^as ttoAAwv TaXdi'TO)v -WW. numbered prosodiac periods previously quoted i.: §645 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY : 303 paroemiac from which the prosodiac had sprung the enoplius.

iropcrw _^ ix. xi. respectively.) the hypercatalectic syllable of the prosodiac period becomes the final syllable of the corresponding acatalectic enoplic period. x. Pyth.(T d(pVKTOV OKTTOV '_^ In all cases |_^_^| Eur. OS TVX9.304 this THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 646 form of verse was developed.. felt the anapaestic movement in the prosodiac and the dactylic . 634 (i. The order of arrangement might be the converse of iambic element with suppressed initial arsis begins each of the following periods. TraTrraivf. dvopias ix.ipw \pi<Ta. evSov dpirkXov KaxXd^oifrav 8p6aro) _^_^|_^ xii.. 67 ovk dpirXaKwv |_^^_ ^ ^ - ^ ^ ^ - l-v. in musical phrasing.' trochaic metre.. Pyth. X. |_^^_ ^ ^ 8' ^ ^ Eccl. Bacch. An : a^Oov-qros 8' atvos 'OAi'/xTrtoviKais Pind. 'OXvpiria _w-w|-v.^ X. catalectic trochaic ithyphallic. 15 OXvpTTLU. 646.' and as distinct and individual entities.wviii. The poets of the fifth century were probably unconscious of the relation of the prosodiac source. V. 40 K.ovos. iii. 01. 21' €i8e viKdaavTa xpvaroTraxv^ _^ pvdfjia |_^_^|_^ TWV ' Bacch. 01. eVrtv ovpavimv v8a. viii. vi.. 7 ipXerai yXtaTTrjs iirivoLa TroAtTvjv _^ vii. 01. ' as. ' and enopHus to their common To them these were dimeters. 1-^ Pind. 17 oWts al(rxvv(JiV kTrix^pia. Pyth. KdXXuTTOV qidXiOV _^_^|_^ xi. ^\- ^ ^ - ^\Aws Pind..H-^^ 8aip. Kal vxl/iirvXov Tpoias eSos Bacch.apvap. viii. 49 K. 2 lp.—v. xi. 01. must have been felt to be Poets of the fifth century at least must have regarded trochaic. vii. 574 18 Ota irapdkvoL (jitXeoiCTLV kraipat -^-s^\-^^Y/)«o"i9' Pind. 647. iv.eva Kepd'i^ev dypiowi . 01.i to. 46 K. ix. catalectic trochaic metre. Med. (fjacrydi'M re p. 2 ofSa KuX ttXovtov /xeydXav 8vvaa-iv _^ vvv 8' |_^^_ o-Te<^ai'OJcra/xevos ^ ^ Pind. vi. ^ ^ - xii. 01. iii. iii. |-w- Pind. these clauses dimeter. the opening is now trochaic that in i. Yet these poets must have as iambic and trochaic dimeters.T(av Pind. 22 eyyovwi' yeiVai/TO.- Pind. trochaic dimeter. isomeric dodecaseme feet. |_^^_ _^ ^ ^ |_^ 8' Pind.

) and in their rhythm with the The genuine found in the prosodiac and enoplius. The enoplius was xv.^ Socrates in Clouds (649 f). metr. 455 of Bacchylides. in the first extant literary reference to the enoplius. applied by Heliodorus to the prosodiac (Schol. to the smallest unit of rhythmical measurement and was regarded as a whole. complete in itself. 206). 2) might. but these are spurious choriambs and The true choriamb is Aeolic (651) and is alien to Ionian rhythm (71. ff. Taken as a whole. designate ' the metres of the prosodiac as ionic and choriambic. Fax 775 and a ' the scholiasts (cf Schol. Kleine Beitrage.§ 648 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY There is 305 in the enoplius. but in the musical phrase-building rhythmical basis was converted into an isomeric dimeter (ttow). Isth. The two were different. iii. and the first a tetrameter. difficult. In such a tetrameter as its ' ' ot fj. therefore. n.^ ^ . an uninstructed person like is and enoplic and yet so similar that Strepsiades might confuse them. instructs Strepsiades that it is important for a gentleman in society to understand the difference between dactylic verse. . of each dimeter is twelve primary Bacchylidis Carmina ^ xxxv. as elsewhere. prosodiac and dactylic himself ample and enoplius from true anapaestic Hephaestion states that Cratinus and his suc1). nevertheless. differs from the dactylic tripody in metrical constitution. o'i y^pv<rafi~VK(av ^ ^ the -w^first V. the genuine major ionic in descending rhythm (29). accidental form. process of .). Rhythms X . Find. as in the trochaic dimeter.€v TTttAai w QpaarvfSovXe (fiwres.-W- ^ - Find. 1 See Blass. as ' convenience.' naming each from ionics. but the period dimeters. 166 f. 648. -wv^- ^ ^ . it is the metrical equivalent of a dactylic tripody of fixed form. the dimeter was normally a 7r€plo8o<i. Hephaestion (ch. evidence.^ this y^ .) employ the term ff. 1 rhythm of the half of the period is is anapaestic. testifies Aristophanes the as to the enoplius. . ionics minor ionic is in ascending. The normal measure ff. normally consisted of six primary times. and the two true ionics are at variance both in their probable origin (615 ff. Their differentiation now not The enoplic dimeter. in which each half. differentiated the cola. that they cessors thus distinguished the prosodiac (630. ii. of the second iambic. 01. Here. composed of two is as certainly an isomeric 7roy<? as the second.

as the periods prove that are quoted above (633 ff. with thesis and arsis equal. quoted from Alcman. for trochaic 247. therefore. thesis and thesis. 617.. 261. for irrational outin number rational metres in all three sorts of iambic and trochaic This fact. are not feet. which is eminently dignified and But pure iambic ( ^ .^ . melic. . In of a tetrameter. See Gleditsch in 1 | The error that underlies Bursian's JahresbericM. The iambic and consequently also the trochaic elements This is prosodiac -enoplic verse are generally irrational not an abnormal manifestation that invalidates the assumption that these metres are iambic and trochaic. is See for statistics confirming it are given elsewhere in this book.^ ) stately. iambic verse 186 The general and trochaic metres in prosodiacenoplic verse is legitimate. order being arsis. illustration of ionic verse. 107. Doubt has been expressed whether the last two metres in such a tetrameter as that just quoted can properly be regarded as iambic.306 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY . 3. in early Greek poetry.) and trochaic ( . who cites some of these periods in 650.. 256. 644 ff. and Gleditsch ' ' manner in his Metrik'^ §§ 106.^ . of irrational iambic metres are by no means excluded. : therefore. only are combined in precisely this feet taken. § 649 the normal measure of each times. recitative and spoken.) feet in the same period. and it is also natural. and not the dimeter.. arsis in the enoplius in descending rhythm. 268. the in the prosodiac in ascending rhythm. for diplasic and isomeric See the periods in true ionic verse. two longs and two shorts the order of arrangement of the longs and shorts in each dimeter is determined by its rhythm. and the But ignoring difiference between the two parts is their rhythm. of such significance that is commonly overlooked or ignorfed. the objection seems fact. four longs and four shorts metre is six primary times. is the element that determines the composition this criticism is the each component dimeter in this tetrameter is isomeric. f.^ . The metres of the prosodiac and enoplius. 128 f.. Alcaeus and Sappho in 615. 1. assumption that the metre. illthis mistaken point of view for a moment. use. since this view involves the combination of diplasic ( . which verse in comedy. cxhv. Each dimeter is a unit.' and these dimeters are the best existing illustration of the essential indivisibility of the Greek dimeter. Here certainly there can be no assumption of podic stress. ' See 28. 649. comporting with the character of this verse.^ ^ ) and isomeric ( v^ . (1909).).

in four places) that the first metre These are starred in might assume are found in Aristophanes. which the poetic impulse of early Aeolian singers found satisThis factory rhythmical expression was the choriamb. . in the un- conscious attempt to give this half of the dimeter rhythmical form. w and -.: § 653 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY Aeolic Verse 307 The rhythmizing impulse regulated the ordering of mode that was distinct from that The musical number in which prevailed in Ionian verse (603). quantities in Aeolic poetry in a quantities practically unregulated (oooo -ww-) even in the fifth century. The first half is the fundamental metre (foot) in Aeolic verse.v^ w -. the following 1 list * . The principle that first prevailed. Nine of the sixteen possible forms (two units. of the primitive dimeter in which it appeared remained with 651. was exclusion in selection.

1054 ei'ddSe KtVSvvos dvelrac o"0(^ta? Nub. 43. 221 €vO' oifj.: 308 THE VERSE OF GKEEK COMEDY the first § 654 failed to regulate half of the primitive dimeter. 1 TTotKcXodpov' . Aj. Aj. 1. frag. Ti. 654. of their catalectic forms. ai ttotu KarepuiTa Sapph. 12v^-v^II. 513. Polyschematist Trimeters.. ( . 7rpoi"^€t Kal yv(o[xa.W-): Sapphic hendecasyllable.d)(av Qrja-ea Kal Soph. but half. The choriambization of the primitive colon of twelve syllables (611) produced trimeters of constitution similar to that of the three dimeters just considered. of a later age. with final cadence in the last two syllables In the third stage that had been developed in the first stage. gathering force gave choriambic form to the second In the second stage it placed the choriamb at the middle of the dimeter. frag. 5 Tov ^vyy pa(firj rov /xeXeMV iroi7]T-qv Ach. Heph. 44.^ The following trimeters begin with Glyconic movement o ^ 0-. 705 12>^-w. 599 f. the first metre finally became choriambic and the dimeter ended with the double stages. Heph. acatalectic Compare the following and catalectic trimeters I. 139 (xAAo. ff.^ . cadence developed in the two preceding All it was unconscious.G. dOavdr 'Ac^pdSira Sapph.-v^v^eyo) 8' 6 rXd/xoiv TraAatbs a^' oS xpoi/os Soph.^ ^ - ^ 1 6 Moio-ayeras /^e KaXe'i xopevcraL Pind. 956 /ra^. 11 S. 1. and see 507 511. 11 ^__^ ^--2 w ^ . 12 . Trap' otw to deiov Soph. '^ Pindaric hendecasyllable..iS' eXd'. 1151 oi'av eSrjAwcras ave/aos ai^ovos Soph.^ 116 _^^_ . 10 -v^-. O.ai Tov €ypep. Ph. final The process was natural and these dimeters were inherited by poets For illustrations of these dimeters f. Aj. forming the Glyconic.^ - efJLol ^vveir] 8id Trav-O'i ev(f)p(3)v Soph.

566 See also the trimeters quoted in 518. Ph. and it operates with singular precision.^ . 559 1168 tYftf p-vpLov a\do'i o ^DVOiKci Soph. 33. and the possible forms of the trimeter.w w . like the second metre . Heph.^ v.^ in the stage of the trimeter must be second and third stages it may be distinctively ^ . 655. are controlled is simple. Heph.^ . 32. therefore.-iii. will be either ^ _ ^ _ (by catalexis ^^ ). The choriambization of the primitive trimeter was a continuation of the process begun in the choriambization of the The law by which the different forms of the trimeter dimeter.: § 656 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY (Tapwv e's 309 /xvpi<j)v "A/ayos i'lnnov Find. The third metre of the trimeter. 941 rov T€ p. Formation develops by dissyllables. and a metre may consist only of such elements as have already been regularly formed. i. The Aeolic trimeter originated under the same choriambizing impulse that produced the dimeter. like those of the dimeter. 5 .tyaa-6€Vi] TpLatvrjs ra/xtav Nub. The followiug open with choriambo-iambic movement ov yap dvacrX€Tov tovto y' ikevdepw Ec. of the dimeter. Phalaecean.or . in the 1 second ff.(by catalexis . v. in graphic may be exhibited form OOOO— o v/^— 1 . .^ .^ ^ . 11 (W i^rjv irapa ry V€<^t KaOevSecv Ec. 21 ff. III. 938 — TjkOes (K irepaTiov yas eAe^avrtvav Alcaeus 33 \pv(roTpiaLv' Sevp' eXd' ets )(^opov t5 w Eq.w ^ o 2 3 656.or The first metre ^ ^ forms not allowed in the first stage. of the trimeter in the first stage is polyschematist. vii.^ . - Asclepiadeaii. Isth.) or The second metre in the first .

These selves cola associated with Aeolic verses are themif legitimate Aeolic cola. 809 Lys. that the poets of the fifth century did not consciously differentiate cola where they crossed. j3e/3aKe _^__ _^_^ — v-- ^ — v^— v^ — w — ^ — w — w — — Trpoa-TToXuiv KvixoX. tetrameters and pentameters such as ---. Aj.). This process.TTiSdi' Sopli. among dimeter + dimeter. O.-III. 657. as dimeter trimeter. — ^ — xeAea /j-ev Thes. ywatKas dv6paKiV€tv kX^s ewl yAwcrcra 340 1052 f.^-. o Trats o TQ X^'P' €7ra^ei€v w — ^>^ ^ ^. Other cola occur in Aeolic odes that in appearance are iambic or trochaic (TV 8' dvSpos (KTmrXrjyixevov Nub. probable. lirecr' /icAeois 'ArpeiSat? ^w-v. for example. vTTvos 8' direaTOi yXvi<vOvfJLO<. resolution and protraction (tovt]).^>_.G. 1170 f. been quoted.659. It is .^ Soph. These facts are illustrated in the examples just quoted (I. ^iAokAcwvos Vesp. and. ^^^ ^ . however. — w — 658. element even of choriambo-iambic cola In illustration of resolution and protraction in diiambic and ditrochaic (19) cola in Aeolic odes compare the following ^vvevx6fJi-e9a TJ fxkya ri [j^iTaTrea-elrai. .9ov dprita's Kexeo-jJ-hov 8' e'^wv Ach. seen that the ' iambic ' might be irrational (514). like the others. opLfidrwi' - ^^ Trap' ^ . in the third it is the choriamb. are due to choriambization. or trimeter + dimeter.:: + 657 310 it THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § always has Glyconic form. 352 = v^ — ^v-f . others.^ d(piXoii -^^_ ^_^_ fTretre 705 f. would give. but also the ' ' ' ' and Ionian namely. as have just Aeolic two other variations that characterize these forms of verse in We have the fifth century._^_ N^lb. These poets admitted into all iambic and trochaic cola not only the irrational metres found in Archilochus. carried to the length of four or j&ve metres.^ — — ^^^v^.-^. such Aeolic cola. v6i]ixa y^ <fipev6<i.-|. . : under the law just stated.w-. 1454 = 1466 v^ — w ^^ ^ — ^ v^v^ v^ — w— iriX(. and the iambic and trochaic verses of Archilochus. 620 f.

is Hybrid cola effec- are inadmissible. On the antispast Editor's Origin and Forvi of Aeolic Verse.^ : . of the is or more cola completely and Ionian Aeolic verse in Ionian metre. just as conversely the single occurrence of a long and two shorts.^ ^ - ^ ^ ^ - ^ Lys. 663. ^ . that appear in Aeolic verse are six number the fundamental choriamb. and the see autispast.^ ^ .- — v aAAd (US ({)of3ovfj. but Aristophanes abounds in diiarabic dimeters in close association with other Aeolic cola. . 326 = 340 in 661. 488. 662. ^ v^ (19). Soph.^ . further manifest. where it is form (648). example. beginning even of a spoken trimeter. Choeph. a succession of 785.^ . The effect interrelation of Aeolic still verse in the fifth century .: ' §663 ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY 311 660. generally signifies that the verse is Aeolic. The metres. Ditrochaic cola are not frequent in comedy.^w— — ^ ^ — v^ v. the other hand. counted syllables a dimeter was octosyllabic. compare ovTos ideXei Kparrjcrai 7}56/x€V'os = = 641 AeyovTt Fcsp. ditrochee. Sept. at the Cf. — . then. and when it occurs there except in the prosodiac and enoplius. Doubt whether these diiambic cola are in fact Aeolic is dissipated by cases in which they correspond For in strophe or antistrophe with undoubted Aeolic cola.ai )(^prj fiQv uo"Te/307rovs fSorjdio = TTvpl rai yMUcrapds yui'aiKas dvOpaKivetr . three others : due to the process of choriambization the carried through the diiamb.^. as has often been noted. or of two shorts and a long. rhythm of Ionian verse. It The and Aeolic verse. as in iambic verse in English. thus occur in Greek.the unregulated first metre of the polyschematist dimeter and trimeter. 303-309. a trimeter dodeca- . Pax (S^2>. Aesch. On two or more dactyls or anapaests clear indication of Ionian rhythm. Arist. . 1049.^ ^ - . The evidence of crossing of styles exhibited by ' iambic points and the ' trochaic ' cola is interesting and instructive. ^ ^ . . for it way to the differentiation of Ionian main facts are now apparent. is /ra^. 537 ToSe. ^ ^ ^ ^ and the semi-regulated first metre of the Glyconic. but a series of Aeolic cola tively varied sometimes by the introduction of one See 526. The choriamb is alien to the it is due. 547. .the . a spurious may to interior anaclasis.

). 512. but also in the polyschematist dimeter and the Gly conic and the corresponding trimeters : €7rt TO TpV<f>tOV Kttt [XaXaKOV = Vesp. 1322 fi'. not only in those that in form were identical with the normal iambic and trochaic cola of Ionian verse (see 657 f. that The primitive poetic element in Aryan speech which the regulation of quantities was a It was in this gradual development of the form as subordinate metres and simple feet took elements of the true unit of measurement. Conclusion 664.). ^^Kj— 1455 ouSevi yap oiirws ayavw = 1467 ~ ^^ ^ — TO yap rt dTToa-Trjvai. under the influence of Ionian rhythm. Aristoxenus called cola feet. contrasting two extreme types in 7roSe9 avvderot (21). Ti TTOTC TvpayfJLa yevqa-erat Ran.312 syllabic. admitted resolution in Aeolic cola generally with some freedom. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY But the poets § 664 of the fifth century. was the colon colon.) of the itself.' and Aristophanes in a merry jest refers to the Glyconic dimeter as a ttou?. 1029 v^^- KaT opea vvp-f^av iparois ev vfivois Th. in gradual process. ^^aAcTTov Vesp. 1470 w^^— 992 f. . that the colon not the metre or the simple foot. 1457 wv^ yap e/cetvos €7ri avTcXeycav Vesp. (Ban. 991 wv^— wv^ See for other examples 510. is the true unit of rhythmical ' measurement Greek poetry. probable origin of Ionian and Aeolic cola. It appears from the preceding survey (600 flf. v^ {wvTfs tot' Twv Trporepoiv Nub. 1251 <^v^ v^^v^^— — v^ — — — — — — ^^ Kjx^ — ^ ^ — wv^ — ^w — v^ ^ ^ — v^w— — ^ — — — Bpo/nie Kul Se/xeAas Trat Th.

xviii. derived its five acts from tragedy and was structurally Aristophanes. while advancing the action. on the contrary. served specially epirrhematic syzygies . - a free imitation of : See. far removed from a play of As comedy developed and to the three original lengthened. Among is these the syzygy. (1873). he set forth his own merits and personal grievances.s . and in two following topical parts expressed his views on questions of the The debate and parabasis are peculiar to comedy. and are day. 72. The oldest comedies were short ^ and A probably consisted only of parode. CHAPTER XYI STEUCTURE OF COMEDY^ 665. episodes with following to connect other divisions of the play. other divisions : were added elements prologue and exode . and parabasis. 313 . 429 f. primitive elements of a play of the Old Comedy were the parode. contending against one another as if pleaders in a court of law and the parabasis. 666. in particular. In reading this chapter. from that of a the . Zielinski's Glicdc- rungderaltattisckenKoi/iddieatnd 113. and Usener in ^A<. 13 fl'. debate.zn. in fabiilas primi earn contulerunt ita ut non excederent in singulis versus trecenos" (e libro glossarum)." to be found at the end of this book. at the close of the primitive play. J/ms.2011' Composition dcs comedies d'Aristophane. comedy of Menander. 417 ff. a division that 1 is also peculiar to comedy. different The structure of a comedy tragedy of Aristophanes of is essentially The same period. and stasima mediatnig scenes that. the debate. in which in which the poet brought in his chorus two of his players maintained and disputed the theme of his play. the student will need to consult the "Table of Structure and Rhythms. structurally individualized as by the pairing Attic of non-melic as well melic parts. See Kaibel's Fragmenta. in which.. . "sed <non> magnas.

Some of these divisions have canonical form and most them show canonical use of rhythm. is the poet's tetrameters is own address to the and . /ieXo<? avriarpocfiov (antistrophe. ff. leaving the The See Heph. spectators. fieXo^ (strophe. Heph. an i7rippr)/jbariKr) crv^vyia (Schol. 73. a drama only It is in a restricted sense. fiaKpov (Schol. {d'TTvevaTL. except in the Aves (546). and admirably illustrates in balanced speech and song. 1264). the debate and a the parabasis. 665. and the development of his theme never suffers from slavish adherence to secure to convention. and is composed. ode). except in the Vespae. wholly or partly. or melic.) was 551. Eq. Ach. complete. two important distinguished.314 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 667 the last four parts of the parabasis. the primitive distinguishing principle of the structure of comedy. A play of Aristophanes It is in many particulars a peculiar literary creation. The pnigos that and was named because 1 were rendered in an anapaestic hypermeter. AcJi. 668. when middle of the play. 659). from comedy of instrument. avrr) rj rhythm. often weaving division imperceptibly into division. dvTeiripp'qp. the pairing of non-melic as well as is melic parts. but in the it is developed comedy of Aristophanes found at about the It consists. 72. iTTippyjfjba. 11 . shifting his rhythms of special effects and subordinating form to the better development of the action. (Schol. Shakspere or Moliere by the fact that quite one-half of its verses are melodramatic. in . since the action is at a standstill during divisions. except in the anapaestic follows it Nubes (528) so these recitative. in anapaestic The parabasis proper. but always in such fashion that the fundamental He is structure and limits of the divisions are discoverable. The first three are single parts and were probably all rendered by the first corypheus the last four are paired and constitute. Ach. always flexible. 7rapd^acn<. he has complete mastery of his materials. : Pax 765) or Trviyo? (Schol. 626). was to be recited at one breath corypheus speechless. 7rapd^acrt<i. recitative. and were rendered to the accompaniment of a musical furthermore. of seven parts KOfi/jbdriov. is written in anapaestic tetrameters. the terminology of Heliodorus.a. antode). 667. 4). The parabasis ^ was originally an epilogue. The commation (293 ff. but Aristophanes is bound by neither. He varies and changes. probably a solo.

883) the chorus speaks of it as a The subject in dispute.§ 670 STRUCTURE OF COMEDY 315 strophe and antistroplie were sung respectively by the first and Their structure is elaborate and they are second half-choruses.. occurs. composed probably were rendered in half-choruses respectively. pnigos. Pao: 1127. Pan. 103 ff. sixteen in eight epirrhemata. poet's main contention in the play. 733 ff. Vesp. composed in many different rhythms. is often indicated and an ' umpire chosen at the example.' drycov. That of the Nubes lacks a pnigos that of the Peace has neither TJiesmojphoriazusae that of the epirrhema nor antepirrhema that consists simply of parabasis proper. . parabasis of the Nubes (1113 ff. .. •* Agon of the Old Conmdy. 513 is close of the preceding division. thanks to the acute investigations of Eossbach and In two plays of Westphal. Metrik". The epirrhema. see the editor's Unrecognized Actor. 179 ff. The number commonly a multiple of four. following in trochaic tetrameters and recitative by the leaders of the two The In theme they are topical. On Spec. if it number equal to of verses in the antepirrhema.) consists merely of a protracted iambic tetrameter. comedy 133 3 QUederxmg 9 ff.^ and the antepirrhema. the first half of the play.Zielinski ^ and Humphreys. of the nature of a commation. - the division of the chorus of into half-choruses and the functions of its two leaders. and it is The debate belongs 1 historically in the chorus that announces the verdict. last four This normal A tricolic trochaic period is added to the epirrhema and parts. of the Eanae of the last four parts. for LJq. name are implies. following the strophe.^ Aristophanes {Vesp. The second See Schol. 401 ff. The debate is now a recognized division of the Old Attic Comedy. never complete and generally consists of the . fi'. 670. and epirrhema . and an Even the first parabasis is not always complete. and twice ten in the Lysistrata.. 669. the two coryphei. 534. is is always that in the epirrhema. ff. Metnk?. which is generally the contest. as the the antistrophe. two periods in the first strophe and antistrophe of the parabasis of the Lysistrata have the tone of a commation. epirrhema. is Sometimes a play contains a second parabasis. antepirrhema of the Peace. twenty in the first parabasis of the Nitbcs and in the Vespae and Eanae. See. that of the Lysistrata of It is to be observed that the first these four parts doubled. Spec. The master of ceremonies the chorus.

in wliich there . however. 303 ff. single case (JEq. in seven cases in ten begins with kuI locution only once. it second half of the play. dimeters. is the only hortatory distich not recited by the leader of one of The debate proper. iJbrjv.6(. It worthy of note that and begins in fourteen instances out of nineteen with that the epirrhema.. Slight modifications of the The verdict follows. avrwhrj. mesodic tetrameters separating the two parts of the pericope. avTeiripprj/xa. 316 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY the parabasis §671 it between the parode and (665) and generally occurs there in the comedies that are extant. Thesm. KaraKe\evafx6<.). as in the Equites (761 f. antistrophe and its leader exhorts the other contestant to defend His argument also is expressed in tetrameters and his views. often addressing one or both directly. named these parts (ohrj. (549 f. both in the same rhythm as the distich. is 407 it f. as both Chremylus and Blepsidemus in the Plutus In the hortation of the Ranae (905 £) both debaters (487 f). iTTipprj/JLa. avTLKaTaKe\evafj. composed of epirrhema the half-choruses. 841 f). has this In exceptional cases both distichs may be addressed to the same debater. and in the Aves (460 f tion of the Lysistrata In the antihortais only one debater. but in two of these. (T(f)payi^. aWd The antepirrhema.. 671.) the song consists of two strophes and two antistrophes.chorus sings the melodramatic (804). which the second four are paired with It begins with a song the first four.). This are warned by Dionysus to mind their manner of speech. may occur. by the first half-chorus. The following f). the poet has transferred it for special reasons to the consists of nine parts. disposition and significance of the nine parts as just outlined tetrameters. in which the chorus is intensely partisan. the Nules and the Putnae. 548 f.. Zielinski has 7rvlyo<. following the first distich. case He proceeds ' which tail ofi' as feeling is roused into dimeters.. whose leader to argue his in two in recitative anapaestic or iambic tetrameters then bids one of the contestants open the debate. 531 hortatory. of When complete. avmrvl'yo^. is distich. Lysistrata and her companions are addressed. with two exceptions (Uq. The songs of the debate are closely connected in : theme with the following discussion they emphasize the importance of the question at issue or touch upon the abilities or characters of In a the contestants. Iambic tetrameters and dimeters rendered by a debater are Then the second half.

it 335 ff. in the Thesmophoriazusae (571 it is . often bitter tone. with Philocleon to yield..§672 STRUCTURE OF COMEDY of 317 and pnigos.. In the ff. does not consist set speeches two delivered without interruption. debate in the Nubes has an elaborate introduction in ff.) serves . when it by the second corypheus. 1437 ff. in Nuh.. is When the tone of the debate contentious and abusive.) 598 fi'.) it consists of four anapaestic tetrameters and two paired songs and two paired recitative anapaestic periods. 462 if ff. in besides the two debaters. which other speakers may take part Both epirrhema and antepirrhema are generally expressed in the same rhythm. it was probably delivered might be omitted.) it is expressed in prose. Av. as also the hortatory distich The first (539 f. The verdict proper is found in the first three tetrameters in the tetrameters. The pnigos is generally a dialogue and differs in this particular from the pnigos of the parabasis (668). now convinced. and the remaining introduction to the constitute an appropriate following In the Lysistrata the poet substitutes for the verdict two trimetrical tristichs spoken by the two debaters (608 ff. but with two exceptions {Lys. . the lines are iambic. The chorus is still divided and a verdict is not possible. Similarly in the Aves (626 after the first chorus verses scene. The verdict. has clearly it expressed its judgment in the two tetrameters. 1078 it also consists of a single hypermeter. but one may be anapaestic. In the Vespae (725 ff. antepirrhema and antipnigos. but occurred. the other iambic. as in imitation of the epirrhema and antepirrhema of the parabasis.). pleads ff. The number of tetrameters is generally approximately equal in epirrhema and antepirrhema. debate abandons his case.). but in is a dialogue. and here no more than a peremptory command to stop wrangling in the second debate in the Equites (941 f. The four trimeters 1085-8 are the only exception to the principle that the epirrhema and antepirrhema are written solely in tetrameters. begins to think of the future.). The introduction to the debate in this play (467-70-471-5) is noteworthy. first one of the speakers in each Nub. in which Cf.) prefixed to the second half. as in both debates in the Nubes. 1101^ ff. verses that follow the chorus.) of three.) debate in the Equites (457 it consists of four iambic ff. anapaestic dimeters (889 Generally a scene (679 ff. In two and in the of these is a multiple of four. Ran. cases first it is exactly the same {Eq. anapaestic or iambic. 672. £f.).

the is debate sometimes preserves canonical form. Fax 299 ' This division is in many irpoiTrj particulars singular as ' developed in Aristophanes. as ' Zielinski's definition of the comic the verses rendered by the chorus. that of the Lysistrata the discussion here also 1099 &.318 this THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY purpose. but to them it. Composition. Two plays. Ecdesiazusae. There is an exposition of the poet's main contention in the Acharnians (347—625). but in some other form. 57 tf. The parode of . in Athens. the Attic comedy (665) was probably wholly lyrical added. from the time until 1 appears in the isode fails it comes to a standstill in the orchestra.^ In the spring of 421 B. 24 f. and Plutus are not complete.) of the with 127). 673. when the poet's Fcaxe was brought out. lacking the second Peace. . not to men. To discuss in set form. in 425 B.) that is substituted for the verdict. with accompanying it first evolutions and music.C. In the epirrhema he endeavours to antepirrhema he develops his plan earliest convince the chorus of birds that sovereignty rightly belongs. but in reality not but one debater. in the for securing 674. In the Aves. but it is veiled. have half. 2 See Westphal's discussion of this statement of Aristotle (Prolegmicna. of comedy {Gliederung.' also jiarode to See Mazon. debates.. complete exclusion of the ff. § 673 The close of the debate in the . the folly of the party that insisted on continuing the war with Sparta would have exasperated the public. {Metrik^. for example. the chorus urges its continuance. 242 K. a debate but a continuous argument. in two lyrical element subsequently verses in recitative were extant plays to the (Eq. the question of peace or war needed no discussion. the in Equites and N^ibes. Debates and The theme did not allow set discussion. and the effect of its seriousness is counteracted by the intrusion of a laugh-compelling satire (393-488). 236). Banae resembles has not been brought to a satisfactory conclusion {^aXeTrov ovv epyov Siaipelv is the judgment of the chorus). Gleditsch's restattment and Zielinski's elaborate definition ." parode. The parodos in Aristotle's Art of Poetry (1452 b). each two The debates the Thesmophoriazusae. certainly does not cover definition the parode of Aristophanes. there is in canonical form are not found at all in the Acharnians On the other hand. and in a monostrophie dyad (Ban.C. 17 of Xe^t? oXt] x^P°^> whether his own or not and whether intended to apply to comedy or not.).

ff. . . are adopted in this book. Non-lyrical parts. 312 ff. of non-melic notable a feature of the debate The lyrical some plays. 366 ^. llanae). to be the end at that point in most prominent The parode would naturally seem also the action where the chorus has ceased figure on the scene. . Some previous trimeters of the prologue to some other rhythm.. . . as well as within the limits he and in two plays. in the parode Not only are (Gliedcrung.' technical sense in which he employs tliose terms. are generally paired. He assumes. to begin at that point in the play where the chorus either actually appears or its coming is definitely There is always a shift at this point from the stock indicated. and the lyrical elements are in correspondence as dyads. exceptions to the application of these principles. by the triad and octad. fif. heard before factor in comedy. Nub. Plut. appear Actors. its allusion to the chorus in the trimeters of the prologue prepares the way fl'. Their application to the debate ((?^i«o?erM?i^. Its coming is always in the parode it dominates the scene. 252 f. first corypheus of the chorus of men as hierophant. sets. naturally seem.tramcter. 223 ff. he says.. 178 ff. which are abundant in parts that is seen in the parabasis is rarely women as daduch. This is coincident with the beginning of a following division of the play of which These limits of the parode the form and use are unmistakable. 676.). §676 comprehend the the chorus is STRUCTURE OF COMEDY facts. The parode of the Ranae (316 ff. which may be The parode would purposely delayed. Vesp.). are sometimes elaborate. . Ban. then. 214 Pax 296 ff. . 225 Av. has employed the particular structure that is best adapted to carry the action forward at this important stage of It is noteworthy that the principle of pairing its development. 675. on the contrary. for the 199 268 to Eq. Zielinski proceeds from the parabasis {Glicdei-ung. but each has the same nunibei' of verses. 247 ff. 280 ff. and the preparations for its appearance. 319 the chorus.) involves the frequent assumption of pauses equivalent to a whole ti. f. intimated. 352 ff. See Ach. 349 fi'. Ecd. rendered by actors.. change in all the extant plays.^ elements. Lys. and by the leader of the supplementary chorus of ^ and is so employed in the parode. The chorus is an important it is seen. at least {Nuhes. two leaders are actors as well as singers.) is almost wdiolly lyrical. the poet In each instance The parode lacks canonical form. In this investigation. and this number the is four or a multiple of four. . 198 ff.. of course. Thesm. epirrhema and antepirrhema here discoverable. serve Zielinski endeavours to establish both in 'symmetry' and 'eurhythmy.

is under way. so that the The lyrical elements in the parode general scheme is **A**. Just when the choruses appeared in the isode in tliis play cannot be certainly determined. *AA. and it is probable that the general introit was delayed till 354. See 716.^ and leave the scene in the parodos ^ (285 ff. during which The structure of the lyrical element in the chorus is in hiding. The ff. is the Peace (299 ff.). of Socrates. are separated by a non-antistrophic mesode. In that of the Thesmophoriazusae (295 ff.). **AABBC. although extremely lively. . but the Clouds are The long anapaestic verses in which it continuous written are singularly appropriate to the character both of the chorus and 1 The - See the editor's Unrecognized Actor. The members of the chorus have gathered during the prologue. The peculiar. 108. 124 asterisk signifies a non-melic part.^ from the second half by an intermediate scene. the structure of that of the Ves2}ae (230 ff) is similar.). this lyric The discourse that follows its is subject. and after a song settles of the Plutus (253 ff. * fierd^Tacns Poll. ABB**. at the head of the also great procession.). similar situation in the Nuhes. *A*B. has been heard from afar. ' ' first parode of ff. AB*B. 427). on the other hand. lyrical Compare the See 704. namely to that part of the orchestra which lay within the wings just in front of the proscenium. in answer to the invocation Cf. in the second returns with the supernumeraries to its proper of the play. the second half is The parode of the Ecdcsiazusae is proodic. Compare with the preceding the simple structure of the first half of the This is separated parode of the Acharnians (204 ff. 323 ff. In the JVuhes there is no correspondence of lyrical parts. like that of the Equites close (247 non-lyrical. AA**. When parode (553 place.) Its song. the chorus does not appear until long after the parode (263 ff. the chorus. ff. down for the remaining business These two parts of the second parode. dyad is very long. when the hierophant entered as links to connect the songs. f.).320 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 676 See 704. and shovel away the stones under which Peace is buried.).) are pentadic. It cannot have been before 323. They return in the epiparode (478 ff. iv. she has been recovered.) elements in the parode of the Lysistrata (254 are paired. At the of the following syzygy Hermes bids the chorus and the super- numeraries 'come in' (eiaiopra. *AABBC .). of which each has the structure and employs the rhythms of the first parode.

But this new division. epirrhema and antepirrhema. In the syzygy quite one half of the strophes and antistrophes are extremely vivacious duos or trios in which the singers were actors and the leaders of the half-choruses. a primitive part of the play (665). is which the one of the Occasionally the epirrhema or antepirrhema. since six birds are named in 297-301. A**B*B**C. of spoken trimeters first which of are not equal in number.§ 677 STRUCTURE OF COMEDY two elderly men. 303. the first file. a monologue taken by an actor. Y . strophe. half-choruses. differs from the epirrhematic syzygy that closes the parabasis The strophe and antistrophe of the in important particulars. Its excitement increases when the Hoopoe repeats his fatal announcement in 320. parabasis are never amoebean. but the chorus delays It probably enters in regular formation. The Hoopoe convokes the birds in an elaborate monody. an attack ensues. The structure of this parode seems to be intricate. or both. and the number of these is the same in each they always follow strophe aud antistrophe. since it consists of strophe and antistrophe. in in order. The epirrhema and antepirrhema of the parabasis always consist of trochaic tetrameters. 677. but it is exactly adapted to the situation. they ant- frequently come antistrophe. and it is long before its hostility can be allayed and the parode brought to a close. place strophe. it. in of and they are commonly a dialogue speakers are actors (or an actor) and a leader epirrhema. closes the parode in a trio with The structure of this parode is *A*A**B. with a few exceptions which will be considered below. but were sung solely by the half-choruses. epirrhema. and they were continuously rendered in recitative respectively by . antistrophe.) is an excellent illustration of the poet's skill in devising a form suited to the theme. and six each in 302. the leaders of the half-choruses in the syzygy they consist. antepirrhema. comedy developed named syzygy by In imitation of the epirrhematic syzygy that closes the parabasis. The parode of the Aves (227 £f. epirrhema. although its structure is unmistakable. and its members run chirping and calling in confusion about the orchestra. but it breaks rank at the isode. a division which has also been appropriately Zielinski. 304. 321 dignity the of the With becoming but it chorus takes but small part in Strepsiades. or actors alone. with strophe and antistrophe always separated. its coming till 294. exclusively .

the generally simple. 403 ff.. bids . ff. 347 489 Pax 819 ff. Deviations from the prescribed form result from the natural rhythm (974-1015) breaks the Similarly in Nub. Ecclesiazusae or Plutus. as in Ach. in which the epirrhemata consist solely of trimeters. 1000 ff.322 Syzygies in in THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY four ff. canonical form and Ach. 1000 if. § 678 parts of fif. trochaic tetrameters. as he leaves. in a total of thirty-two are composed exclusively in trimeters.. 334 of the the poet imitates debate : the epirrhema . in Aves 801 ff. 460 Syzygies do not occur iu the Lysistrata. the antepirrhemata and prose. a prayer in anapaestic continuity of the antepirrhema. 611 ff. in imita- tion of the corresponding parts in the parabasis.. and in Pax 459 in which the antepirrhema ends in four iambic tetrameters and a final Yoheave-ho in the effort. as in Pax 346 ff.. iu which each half of the syzygy closes with two hortatory 922 ff. the poet has inserted a burlesque K0f^fM6<i (707—22) between the two Twenty epirrhemata or antepirrhemata halves of the syzygy. These development of the action and are Thus. which is successful.. 627 ff. women watch him with care until he lodges information with The women constituting the chorus are greatly and the syzygy there may be other men lurking near excited the the prytanes. 655 ff is the action advances rapidly. In Pax situation warrants a brief introduction in trimeters. rhythm occur Av. 1118 ff. and Ach... and Equites 611 but here it is a Song of Quest opened by recitative anapaestic tetrameters that have the ring of the commation of a . may occur. they constitute a dialogue. to bring the huge In Vesp. but the number and respectively thirty-one and thirty-eight ff. 1494 ff. the epirrhematic structure In Vesp. — ! — is prefaced by an introduction. and antepirrhema of tetrameters is are composed in trochaic tetrameters. ff. the epirrhema statue of Peace from the pit. so that the epirrhema and antepirrhema end each in a compound tristich of trimeters . ff. Mnesiiochus has been revealed and Cleisthenes.. in Eq. Ban. In the preceding scene the sex of unusually elaborate. but appropriate variations of rhythm may occur. 678. the hypermetrical period. and antepirrhema are written in anapaestic tetrameters the first two of these in each division are recited by a corypheus and are hortatory epirrhema even ends in a recitative anapaestic But no question is under discussion and The syzygy in TJies7n.

On Fan. with 801 ff. includes a prayer to . Thesm. Cf. ends with a monody in iambic rhythm and Thesm. the situation warrants The Thus Ach.. 476 ff.. Eecitative verses are introduced in four scenes: Nuh. with 627 ff. 1321 ff. Av. A lively at dance accompanies the Then the and ant- syzygy begins 667. 638 ff. Zt/s. twenty in twenty-six of them occur either before a parabasis or before a debate. up the lines of the action and bring it to the point at which it may be readily resumed after the intermission. Cf Nuh. 461 ff. with a short monody in anapaestic rhythm. further- more. 476 ff. 520 ff. 891 ff.. 664-7. special connecting It is historically links that adjust and advance the action. Fed. given to this mediating division. by its ordering of the action.... 830 ff. 765 ff.. 387 ff. 242 ff. The stock verse In of the scene is the trimeter. begins with .. There are certain divisions of a comedy that serve to mediate the parts between which they occur. Ban. scene Fax 1039 anapaestic introduces dactylic tetrameters. is fifteen cases in a total of twenty-six the scene lines composed exclusively in trimeters. begins with a hortatory anapaestic distich. Fax 428 ff. with 611 ff. 372 ff. Fax 657 with 846 Nul. an appropriate introduction to the following discussion. When. three if may include a lyric. 605 ff. written in the main in trimeters. 679.. ff. 434 ff. ff. as would be expected. including shorter iambic and anaphonemata. parabasis. three trochaic tetrameters and ends with a prose formula 'hexameters'. significant that more than half of them thus connect primitive divisions (665). This continuance of a suspended action is marked in those cases in which the same personages that are actors in the scene that precedes a in parabasis reappear in the part that follows it. in Scene I. Furthermore. 765 ff. with 738 ff. Thesm. see 709. When this connecting division occurs before a debate. begin each with two hortatory tetrameters recited respectively by the leaders of the half-choruses. ^u 638 ff. with 1122 with 819 ff. primitive parts They here gather which the action of the play stands still. but the rhythm is now trochaic. Ban. 680. 322 The name scene has been ff. feeling is women realize the bold stratagem of so intense that the rhythm shifts from trimeters to dochmii and trochaic tetrameters. Eq. Fan. Plut. Vesp. 830 ff. ^v. ff. in the epirrhema the Mnesilochus. it becomes. it.. In this again epirrhema epirrhema.§ 680 STRUCT UEE OF COMEDY 323 song.

therefore. the song of the Poet. ff. Av. Pax Ban. 1111 ff..) a stasimon that either actually occurs or is indicated in the manuscripts. 903 fif. 682.). § 681 two hortatory iambic the Muses in dactylic rhythm. 1136 A stasimon is missing in ff. AABCD {Thesm. into which they have been ff.) or of strophe. follows the episode. immediately {Ach. From the point of view of structure. structure 947 ff. episode and stasimon properly constitute a single division.. one in simplified logaoedic. 765 ff.). ^^. once with an introduction composed of verses in recitative {Lys.Av. teen cases in eighteen the strophe instances in it is rendered solely by the chorus. there are introduce each a single actor. 1105 jGf... 1143 ff.) in which an actor . The special use of the scene before parabasis and debate Twenty scenes are found somewhere m determines its position. a pericope ABAB {Ach. all preceding the first parabasis . but their places are The stasimon always severally indicated in the manuscripts. 1313 ff.).). but it may be a tetrad AAAA {Ach. dactylic ' hexameters is ' and prose. as are and antistrophe of the parabasis. Both The stasimon is never It is often a monostrophic dyad AA (seven non-antistrophic. Ran. 1151 Nuh.. In Vesp..) Besides these two cases. 836 ff. 242 ff. The action of the second half of the play is carried forward mainly in the episode. 760 &. elaborate {TJiesm. ABCCCDDE the JVuhes and no stasima occur in the Ecclesiazusae and Plutus. or it may have still more names have been adopted from tragedy. fi'. end in a lyric.. 1111 ff.324 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY fif.).). the other in paeonic-trochaic rhythm. Vesp. 973 ff. the length of the mock-trial triad for the case skilfully relieved and a prayer in recitative and its hearing. 3 V 2 tetrameters and two songs. the other six are in the second or half. a triad consisting of proode. attracted by a second parabasis {Eq.). 830 by a debate {Nub. 903 ff. cases). . a hexad AAAAAA {Eq. only two others {Eq. the first by the introduction of a lyric verse between the preparations half of the play. strophe and antistrophe ABB {Ach. 1014—42) its parts are never separated from one another by intervening recitative or spoken verses in six. Thesm. Thesm. 1321 Only two scenes before which they occur. mesode and antistrophe ABA {Av. 1265 ff. 814 ff. and the two which it is a duo {Eq.). 1313 ff. Av. 1136 ff.. as has been noted. 973 ff. 971 ff.. and in each case this is a non-antistrophic monody. Thesm. 681. which is invariably followed by 1039 K.

an extremely lively duo in composite rhythm and a short iambic monody in JVuh. melic periods and the song of Cinesias in Aves 1335 ff. The stock verse it is the trimeter. it. 627 ff. In ten cases in twenty-six is composed solely of trimeters... a song in Aeolic rhythm. the episode ending with the trochaic trial of the scales. introduced by a short lyric in rhythm which expresses great excitement.. 684. in which the chorus expresses eager curiosity poets' prologues. 719 ff. 683. 1001 ff. § 684 actors STRUCTURE OF COMEDY remain during the 325 of or rendering the its stasimon. like the tragic writers.. follows the test of the and two mock lyrics in dactylic rhythm. The prologue is that division of a comedy which Like the scene it is normally ff.. Eecitative verses and non-antistrophic songs by precedes the parode (674 trimetrical. This is always a Aristophanes. in the celebrated Battle of the Bards in Ran. 851 ff.. 1694 ff.).. .) the situation requires that the actors shall of the episode leave the scene.) have been introduced.. Flict. and the prologues of six extant plays are written exclusively in trimeters. recitative verses (Fq. 829 ff. a nonantistrophic anapaestic trio in Lys. present In three cases (Av. including In seven other cases. 846 ff. a dyadic iambic trio in Ach. 1122 ff.. strophe and antistrophe often precede the epirrhema and . 877 ff. The particulars just mentioned differentiate the stasimon from the lyric dyad of the syzygy. 860 ff. 1553 ff.. Lys. importance by leaving the chorus in sole possession of the scene during its performance. a long but closely connected episode. including short iambic lines and anaphonemata. lyric in Aeolic to learn how Euripides will establish his charge against Aeschylus. 1131 ff.. emphasized dyad . Fax 1191 ff. dochmii (Thesm... a continuous succession of songs in Ecd. 706 ff. The episode may include lyric elements. a mock rhythm and a burlesque monody are introduced into the following test of their choral rhythms. a nonantistrophic iambo-trochaic monody in Vesp.. 997 K. if the situation warrants Thus melic periods have been introduced in Vesp. Finally.). antepirrhema in they are always separated by intervening verses in half the instances of their occurrence they are duos or trios twenty-nine instances in thirty-two an actor or actors are during their rendering. auaphonemata.) or prose {Ach. 1 1 1 9 ff. 1292 ff. a parody of a scene from the Andromeda in iambo-trochaic rhythm and the echo-scene in Thesm. 1072 ff.

. dactylic period. which as transmitted consists simply of recitative anapaestic tetrameters and iambic trimeters. Nubes. . JEquites. by a sujiphimentary It seems likely that the Peace also originally ended with the singing of the hymeneal strain by half-choruses. . it follows respectively a second parabasis. but the NuhcH. in which the exode begins with a recitative anapaestic period and ends with a non-antistrophic posed in trimeters. is found in the prologue of any play. In eight of the extant comedies of Aristophanes the exode follows a stasimon. in the other three. of Zei yap KaToiriv tovtwv the chorus in the Plutus are significant ciBovra^ eTrea-Oat. latter is elaborate in a Acharnians Aves in a and five other plays end similarly: the pseudo-monody. by tlie chorus. and probably The lyrical close of the a monostrophic octad in Aeolic rhythm. in a ninth. although they are sometimes interpreted to refer to a following stock song that has not been preserved. the Ecclesiazusae in a hyporcliematic lyric. 686. The remainder of the exode in each of these three plays is com- Trimeters are found also in all the other plays except the lianac. Thesmophoriazusae and Plutus end each in an anapaestic period that is too brief to furnish sure evidence of this in its metrical form. non-antistrophic periods in sin)pliHed logaoedic rhythm. strophe that preceded it.326 actors THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY may § 685 be introduced on occasion. recitative anapaestic period and a song chiefly in ionic rhythm in the Thesmophoriazusae in the Ranae. consisting of strophe and Dactylic antistrophe. Tt seems probable that these final lines were all melic. of the plays led Dindorf to suggest that lines had been lost at the close of the Equites. a second debate and a The last lines of eight of these exodes were rendered syzygy. and the Peace. a . a melic anapaestic period in that of the Aves two recitative anapaestic periods and a melic dactylic period in that of the Peace. but since the chorus has no dyadic lyric. chiefly in iambic rhythm the the Lysistrata in three lyric of seven periods. so that the rendering of the last strophe was the same as that of the This general choral ending See 584. in which it consists of recitative anapaestic tetrameters. chiefly in dactylic rhythm. the frog-song in ianibo-trochaic rhythm 685. not yet appeared 'hexameters' occur in the prologue of the Bquites. See 292. the Lysistrata. chorus. The : iinal words. Aves. a recitative anapaestic period. . however.

syzygy. Tbe of normal elements recitative verses these three divisions are melodramatic and lyric strophes. the parabasis. yli'. and into tlie parode only in Thcsni. cussed in stasimou. and lyric strophes. and periods and Four of tlic remaining divisions. with melic close. is not bouiul by convention. and periods are admittinl into any of these trimetrical The remaining division of comedy is the parts on occasion. the episode still more freely. Trimeters never occur in the parabasis in . Nnbcs 1085-8 and 608-13. and the episode with following 687. 414-15(?). Eegarded from the point of fall vi(!vv of their classes. followinj. of trimeters and lyric strophes that are arranged iv Siex^ia in trimeters are former and Kara avvix^tav hi the latter (700) the sole normal constituent of the last two. debate and parabasis. they are irregularly admitted into the debate only LijH. the debate. but Aristophanes. 203-6. the syzygy. of use of rhythms. all normally include the trimeter. 504-13. llecitait freely. of trimeters. episode with stasimon.§ 687 STRUCTUUK OF COMEDY . and Ran. and tlie trimetrical parts of these four divisions may admit recitative verses and periods and lyric strophes. the divisions of comedy into two which The one normally excludes the trimeter. as tlie . a happy elective combination. recitative verses and periods. Four of the divisions of comedy tliat have been disthe preceding paragraphs have canonical form. The prologue and the trimetrical parts of the syzygy eschew the infusion of the lyrical element. 331-51. we have seen. 318-22. 327 in following recitative trochaic tetrameters and the Vespae an epodic triad in prosodiac rhythm.' a recitative anapaestic period and recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 337-9. scene and Tlie first two consist prologue. parode. former includes the three primitive divisions. exode. the other admits it. J'Jrcl. the scene admits tive verses .

) and paeonic.) and protracted tetrameter (189. the anapaestic tetrameter (305 rhythm. 690.). Aristophanes also uses Kara arlxov the iambic tetrameter (167 ff. indefinitely repeated without Homer. change of rhythm. cf. cf.). line. as stichic verse. Lys. as the Iliad of composed of more than one form of stichic verse.iktov Kara Secondly. is comedy extraordinarily varied. three principal forms.trochaic tetrameter (226. An ode consists of great periods. part of ireploSoL Kara arixov (778). for songs occasionally occur that are composed in be broadly classified. and then it consists the same verse. Kara arlxov. as a tragedy comedy of the fifth century (Heph. The verse of is a Trolijfia yevtKM<. Ancient metricians distinguish ^evq. just as conversely there is a class of non-melic periods (710 ff. A poem may be of written by Kara crTt'Xpv. but ff. A comedy poem is [xiKrov Aristophanes. 12 ff. 1014-35). 12 ff. o-Tt%o9. and periodic verse. 63.) and. a Finally. used by line. composed in periods. of which the strophe is a type. but the second division trenches upon the first. the trochaic tetrameter (244 ff. fiiKrov. 248-72).). of poetic composition. but may under the two divisions named above. the heroic ' ff.OHAPTEK XVII COMPOSITION OF A COMEDY 688. of these two. it is said to be /j. If it is of Pindar exemplifies the periodic form. it may be composed Kara rrepioZov. as a comedy of Menander (Heph. These are forms 328 . in combination in or of Kara yevo^ when it is written part Kara ari'^ov and in part Kara irepiohov. when it ari^ov.). the stock verse of the dialogue of comedy (95 is the principal form employed by line. in dactylic all hexameter ' (356 ff. Kara irepiohov. which combines trimeters and tetrameters. Vesp. 689. 64. The iambic trimeter.). therefore.

692. 518-62). 691. and where Trepl this fails UoiTjfiaTO'?. to comedy. and protraction.) that Heliodorus is the source of the shorter treatise Trepl Ilot^/naros in Hephaestion is important. in the investigation of the periods of comedy. both the full forms and those modified by catalexis. cover all Greek poetry from Homer to it the citharodic nomes of Timotheus. ( . on An orderly the other hand. The Heliodorean metrical other hand. 58. 128 ff. but they are too meagre and mutilated to furnish a systematic body of doctrine. Classification of Systematic Periods First Class. so far as this can be determined.) must be our chief authority in dealing with comedy. and they are indeed helpful. main Hephaestion's treatises Supplementary it is dependence may be placed on these with greater confidence.. cola that are in the same rhythm or in different rhythms and that are of the same length lengtlis. 15 ff. His needs serious modification in application In this book. 1 : Periods in antistrophic relation ff.). 12 Hense's demonstration 62.) by line. on the 693. : Kara a^eaiv. The classification and analysis of its periods. systematic period (47). from which this its or of different acephalization. see in particular Heliodorus in the older metrical scholia on Aristophanes (830 and Hephaestion irepl IToti^yaaros. scholia on Aristophanes (830 ff. therefore. since practice of Heliodorus. the periodic parts of the comedies of Aristophanes are grouped and discussed under the following order of arrangement.^ now demonand strated that Hephaestion's doctrine rests on the authority These sources. only on this basis safely may the analysis of the periods themselves be classification attempted. but in prescribed of arrangement. classification.) § 694 COMPOSITION OF A COMEDY ff. The non-melic stichic verse of comedy is its larger but simpler part. orders It combines freely. though brief.-XII. On the subject of poetic composition ff. Hephaestion's treatises. position takes and logical classification of these periods is the first consideration . Nuh. constitute the form of com- name.. involve problems of real difficulty. Such a must conform to the doctrine of Heliodorus. 694. must follow which are in the brief but valuable.)- 329 in Aeolic of Ionian verse (603 Once he uses a tetrameter the Eupolidean (528. and where he particularizes is evident that he has the lyric poets specially in mind. cf. Cola thus combined TrepLoSo^. rhythm (651 ff. Periodic verse employs all the cola described in preced- ing chapters (II. unfortunately. are not wholly satisfactory. Untersuchungen.

Schol. system. in his longer treatise. ('nrXal. Gl 6-23 = 68:3-90 the react'. 551 \t and 12G4 The stroi>lie and antistro])lu. ' 697. 1008-17 = 1037-46). lleliodorns applies the term lirst songs which laok antiatrophic correspondents. comment on 1143-73). is particularly instructive. irTi'xov. rroodic: AlUi. Ach.). Tins is tJie ayatematic period (47). of. Ach. signalized enre by Ilolio- compare Dionysius: iwiKriKol (rTpoifiijv : Kara (ulm. hexas (701) the Eqiiites is 1111-50. of. this application of the tiVf term repioSos. TTtyj/oSot of eight eola (Schol. o-iKmy/iaTot /ict/moi' and Phinudos crT/)()(/n/ Kal tWu' ti' XvfUKoi^ TTou'iiuurLV ui'Ti<rT/)o</)()S >/ kuI e7r<^i<S()s i)ri' (rr/)(></)i/ amy y irinoTif Ti. of the syzygy in the EquUcs are botli of.. Schol. Each of these in said to ho a irepioho'i of nineteen Pax 775-818. Kara TrefuoSoy.j30 TlIK I.Oc(ii\')^ . cf. 'J'lio word 'iHuiod' it. A I'. II.d I. whole strophe and antistropho in the parabasis of II'. doruB. in. division of the second general class above. in (Dc ficv die. Kakovirir On ()(.). : iiiid noii-iuilisiropliic i)cri()(lH (soin- hiiic. 696. Sixotul I.A 1'. INriropic: (U. Eq. He uses Trt/otoSo? once in the shorter designate a strophe. ])ro()de (an anapaestic hypermeter).uil. 263 If. . a ireptoBo^: (Schol. a the third slasimon of the Adiarnians (Schol. AV/.". 836-59). 971-99). a. It is to be noted that ire])hae8tion. Thus he applies to a. in Kaeh strophe of the tetras and. Ilia conniuMit on the second stasinion in the Acharnmna. N'()ii-. . Compare also the Ach. trcatiae (61.. Molic. 695. Schol. tlie 973-96 also to . 15 = 68.!. VKRSK OF (JRKKK A .A. Pax 512 IT.nd antistrophe (717). i)i' in Demosth.. [xM'iods : II.' instead of irepioBo^i to employs the term aiKm^jxa. thiit each hall' of the irefUKoirri is a period (Schol. triad that consists of three periods. cola (Sehol.A or (!()MKI)Y §695 M()ii(isl-i(i|»hic. strophe. is hove used in the first soiiso in whi(di Ilcdiodonis (Miiploys Lioii in reroreuce to the largest comlunu- of it col. Jck. fiiKTai. Eq. 1110 K. Third AiiliHliopliic. .). Cltfss.tts^. /ioharnians (Schol. Ach. 11.islr()i)lii('.. Noii-iiiolic. McHodio: A! '.) in the same sense as Ileliodorus. as to the inonody of Dicaeopolis in the. Schol.: A = A = Aor A = A = A = Aetc.. lOpclic: AA15.

* and on Uq. thereKara Sci-x^eiav Heph. /ieA.) dvraTTohiSofieva.i into rhythmical whole. to the conihiiiiitiou of two or nion* Thi. l)y Tin: j)hraseology does not happen to occur in Iho Aristophaiiio scholia nor in Hcnso . ('()MI'. 698. in I. Il(ili()(l()tus iilso applies tli(> Icnii inpto^in'i. 498-506. periods and hypermeters. (39. in the debate and says in .s is c.s restored {Unlersuchungen. The first general class comprehends systematic jxu-iods in antistrophic relation. his analysis of Jch.o<? o vttovoS) the. with other main divisions (694). Kara cr^eo-ip. sec. that ])r-oduces period. 40).ilz. in three. ra Kara avv^^eiav durairoBcSois This relation of parts found in stasima and sometimes Ikit the antistrophe elsewhere. as in the last half of the parabasis. antistrophe in 1023—38. 510). 131).§700 T€/)to8os COMTOSITION OF A {Rhet. The related parts (strophe. 12 14 7re/3toSo9. soo 728. : Thus Ileliodorus e'X^ecv commenting on Pax 939-55 Sie-^eia. the subordiiiiite [xTiod or as hyperineter For this usage. 138. in which the two iambic heptameters 929-81 and 932 I. Tlu! systematic- ])erio(ls of conuidy may bci classilied. by an inter- vening series of verses in another rhythm to which a second series corresponds. 700.' bination of such lesser lieptamoter is It the com- subordinate periods. the anapaestic decameter constituting the commation as two 'periods. or of subordinate tlu. exemplified in the 920-39 = 940-5 1.i)\- 331 (Christ's Gracr. binations of trimeter and shorter colon as a Slieolic itiid period.Ik^ ordinary a sint^lo niiuiiuir. metrical scholia. Soo Mclrische Uberliefemnr/. but i. First Class : ra Kara a'^ecnv irepioSiKu. antistrophc) ixeva} may be juxtaposed. generally separated from the strophe. od.sy/ygies.ol. as in is Pax 775-90 = 797-818. fjbev rb avriarpo^ov ev with reference to fore. v. the intoniHidiato [jcriod. IT. on the basis of their collocation with one another and parts of the phiy. and the octameter 948—51 are each called he designates each of the six comOn Ack. Hophaestion. ' On their semeiosis see 851. may be denominated ra iu Sie^eia (or Such p(U'iods. cHtablislied by the metrical scholia. 699. in comedy. tMch composed of three cola. greater oi- sysUwiiatic On an intervening stage. W.

iv Ste^eta :— Parode : 302 = 335-46. a fMovoaTpo(f)iKr) 6KTd<i. 1111—1150: fiiXof fjuovocrrpocfuKov dfxoi^alov TreptoBcov reaadpcov. 959—68. Av. Debate: Eq. Eq.ovo(TTpo^cKr] efa?. 1008-17 = 1037-46. Nub. by C£ Schol. 358-65 = 385-92. in which the arrangement and the metrical the the scholium. the song consists of strophe and antistrophe and is called /xovoarpocf^iKT} Svd^. 1060-70 = 1091-1101. Nuh. t?}? 7rpoa7roSeSofMevr)<. 334-45 = 365-78. 21 . 1058-71 = 1088-1101. Ban. 674-85 = 706-17. Lys. 6 8 3-9 ( = 616— it 23): eirerai rj avTlarpo(f)o<. crvve-)(eiav. 616-23 = 683-90. When strophe is and antistrophe are analysis into cola antistrophe. a iJiovo(TTpo<^LKr) 398—413. fii. Syzygy: Ach. Fax 1127-39 = 1159-71. 667-86 = 707-25. § 701 general class may Monostrophic.a<i Heph. 1188-95 = 1262-8. except not repeated in the metrical note on oversight. Ran. Av. 1264-73 = 1290-99. A = A = A = A = A = A. 1553-64 = 16941705. arranged Kara If four times. separated. and perhaps Fax 1329-57 (584). as in Ach. JVub. 895904 = 992-1003. form in comedy. KarafieTpecTai. f be divided into two sub-classes.. 756-60 = 836-40. 327-35 = 34351. Vesp. 563-74 = 595-606. Vesp. Parabasis Ach. : and in TeTpd<i. 737-52 = 769-84. 66.— 332 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY This 701. Thesm. Ban. If the song occurs as three times a fj. 700-6 = 804-13. 204-18 = 219-33. 851-8 = 895-902. 949-58 = 1024-33. Ban. Eq. = 797-818. 551-64 = 581-94. Hub. Av. 459-72=486-99. 416—39. 489-96 = 566-71. avve'^eLav. 1345-50 = 1391-6. 836—59. 939-55 = 1023-38. is 385-99 ( = 346-60). Paa. Av.ovocrTpo<f)CKr) in Han. : : — : . Vesp. Cf. 289-99 = 300-310. 703. is Ct Pax 775-96 kuto. 284275-90 = 298-313. 526-45 = 631-47. rpcd'i. TJiesm. first I. 534-48 = 590-604. 665-75 = 692-702. The following single monostrophic dyads occur in Aristothe phanes : Ach. and Schol. Fax 346-60 = 385-99. Eq. 702. the common <7Tpo(f)r]<. on which . Eq. comment is /xovoaTpoipiKr} TreptoBaiv e^aKooXoov Terpd<i Eq. 856-67 = 909-21. it is A = A = A. Ban. Kara avvkx^Mv Parode Eccl. In monostrophica. 814—29. 476-83 = 541-8. 451-9 = 539-47. the song consists of a single systematic period repeated one or more times. 729-35 = 7439. : fMovocnpo^tKa fiev ovv elcrlv otroaa vtto If it occurs twice A = A. 973—6 (see the comment) is a /j.

321-34 = 335-49.§ 706 COMPOSITION OF A COMEDY : 333 Parabasis Pax 775Debate: Ran. 1450-61 = 1462-73. AB* = AB*. : which Heliodorus Kara ireptKoirrjv Compare in the 1265—74 the second stasimon in the Vesfpae 1275-83=<x X x>+1284-91. Stasimon: 96 = 797-818. In : TreptoBiKa dirXd. 1470-81 = 1482-93. ylv. triads. 384-8 = 389-93. It is not in relation of antistrophic equivalence sub-classes (694). 704. Pax 1305-10 = 1311-15. itself. Lys. : Nub. after Compare the second stasimon of of monostrophica. *A*A*BB**CC**. the Achaniians: 971-5 calls + 976-85 = a av^vyia 986-9 + 990-9. Two systematic periods that are not metrically equal are sometimes united in Aristophanes into larger unit called TrepcKOTrr) dvofioiofjiep'^'i a and two such irepiKoirai may the manner stand in antistrophic correspondence {Kara ax^txiv). 1099-1108 = 1109-18. Monois a favourite arrangement of lyrical parts in tragedy. 1482-90 = 1491-9. 416-18 = 419-21 = 422-4 = 425-7 = 428-30 = 431-3 = 434-6 = 437-9. 781-804 = 805-28. A*B* = A*B*. II. 1 The asterisk (*) signifies a non-nielic part. . AA*B*B*CC*DD*EEE*FFrFFrrr*GG.AB = <A>B. 658-71 = 682-95. 1043-57 = 1058-71. dvofiotofMepi). AB = AB. strophic dyads. Monostrophic dyads may follow one another within 614-25 = 636-47. Episode Ach. as in the parode of the Eanae 317. etc. may thus be joined in comedy within 316 = the same main division. and the first debate in the Equites: 303-13 + 32232 = 382-90 + 397-406. 372-7 = 378-81. comedy a systematic period frequently stands by with any Such periods are conveniently grouped in two other period. 1303-10 = 1311-20. as in the parabasis of the Lysistrata 398-402 = 403-408 = 409-13. : : : the same main division of the comedy. Pericopic. 929-39 = 940-51. ff. 448-53 = 4549. A*A*B*B*/ and in the parode of the same play 256-65 = 271-80.) Dyads and triads are found also as parts of the groups in the third class described below (715 705. 286This 95 = 296-305. : Second Class 706. Vesp. 1189-1202 = 1203-15. iifart. 323-36 = 340-53. the second syzygy also + same play 403-14 + 415-29 = 461-70 + 471-87.

433-42. 1279-94. — — : words : " o? Alyaiov rrpoiva<i r) yXavKci'i yu-eSei?. " Ran. Av. 954-79. 659-66. 209-68. Prologue: Parode : Av. Thesm. 263-79. 310-12. fif. Detached lyrical strains of only a line or two in extent that are too small to be designated as strophes are occasionally found interspersed in the dialogue of comedy. Thesm. 676-84. 1370-77. 312-30. 1309-28. 1251-60. 1337-39. is discovered not from those of the always a song. Pan. 1238-9. § 707 The class. 1226-7. 459-65. 776-84. 1297-1322. 1410-12.. Ban. essentially in kind or constitution It is preceding general antistrophically. 709. 31416. on inspection. 1227-31. or trochaic. 707-22. Uq. Av. J^uh. in the it is same rhythm.-23. 209-22. 639-40.). II. 1415. each hypermeter . 637. 571-80. Pan. 101-29. but it is not used The following Aristophanes : single non-antistrophic melic periods occur in Ban. 904 ff. Lys. Thesm. riXjrjaev Ti<. is uncertain. Thesm. Hephaestion Cf. 6 6 4-7 probably masks an original trimeter " Hoa-eihov Whether the remaining aXo9 iv jBevdeaiv. 352-71. 628-35. 875-84. Peel. iambic. Non-melic. 710. 1264-77. Vesp. Pan. Non-antistrophic periods are found also as parts of the groups in the third class described below (715 ff. 1163-81. or rarely trimeter. Thesm. Av. Av. 1065-97. Pax 114. 1208-9. 913-15. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Melic.— 334 707. 1331-63. 1015-55. 520-30. TJiesm. if composed of more than one hypermeter. to differ I. Episode: Nub. Its close is marked by a catalectic dimeter. 227Scene: Ach. Thesm. 700-1. 678). 7 1232-5. 1528-33. Vesp. 498-506. Fax 582-600. 1284-95. Exode: Ach. varied The period consists of an indefinite by occasional trimeters or monometers. Parabasis : Ach. 1241-2. 1009-15. Lys.). ^v.. 400-33. Vesp. and. 1154-69. 1326-40. Nub. names these parts aa-rpo^a (69. 1247-72. 626-7. 4:57-75. Plut. in the same rhythm. Plut. Pax 729-33. 1190-1234. period. 1510. Debate: 708." a continuation of the quotation from Sophocles's Laocoon (see Schol. anapaestic. number all of dimeters. it With rare exceptions is hypermetrical. Pax 512-19. Av. were part of the original text of the play or not See the editors. Thesm. Syzygy: Nuh. 1372 ff. 1206-13. 1248. 62. JSccl. 510-17. 1245-7. Nub.

1 500-2 7t. 154-72. Fax 1320-8. in nearly all the main divisions of comedy. 9 f. parts of comedy two sometimes correspond to one another. Thesm. 59. Fax 339-45. iiVm. p. Debate: FJq. ex^t . Syzygy Vesj). Vesp. iVw6. e'l e^ ofiolcov. Nuh. Cf. Those more subordinate periods or hypermeters marked with a dagger. Parabasis: Fax 1156-8-1188-90. 1051-9. Debate: :Eq.. 367-81 Parode Lys. 659Scene: Vesp. Pa« 765-74. Thcsm. Parode: iVi^6. The following non-melic periods occur in Aristophanes. 523-38-61125. Hephaestion's definition of the iroLrjixaTa : /jliktu in his smaller treatise fitKTa Se oaa rj fiepo^ fiev tl he TL diToXeXvfiivov i^ ofxolcov Kara aykcnv. but it is generally assumed that the anapaestic hyper- meter ('system') is the type of what he means. Iambic: -441-56.571713. Fax 1156-8-1188-90. 715. are not explicit. Flut.napaestic 39-62t. Trochaic :— Parode 81-651-6. 723-36. 621-30-719-24. anapaestic dimeters -911— UepioSoc i^ o/moloov are found 40. that consist of two or are : — : : — : : 714. Vesp. 598-618. unfortunately. 64. ^i. 67. 736-42-749^-59. 824—35. Heph. Third Class : TreptoSiKa fMiKra. Uccl. are more definite than Hephaestion's definiThese. 382-6. 889-948. Fq. 711. ' said to consist of like ' cola. 1009-23. a fact indicated in this hook by the sign ~ but this is not a relation of equivalence. tions warrant. 1482-95. 284-302. 439-56. Uq. 911-40. 1089-1104. 358-64. 1078-98t. 18 flF. Zys.. the e^ The 6[jL0Lwv. limitations imposed above on the form and rhythm of with the purpose of securing a clearly formulated principle of classification. 971-91. 1386-90-1446-51. 547-50. Eq. The third class (694) of the songs of comedy comprises those that consist of three or more (Heph.). Prologue: Fax 82-101. 689-709. ^u 387-99. Av. iambic dimeters and trimeter. since with one exception. such periods are not of the same length and they may be in irepioSoL o/ulolov different rhythms. 1 ff. of which at least two were sung to the same melody. 712. i?a7i. Cf. 824-35. 532-38t~598-607t. 879-84. Cf. See Heph. 15 ff. 65. Exode: Vesp. Ba7i.epo<i In comedy the (60. 75. Parabasis ^cA. 12 ff. Fax 974-1015t.§715 COMPOSITION OF A COMEDY Such a period In the paired is 335 ends in the same manner. 814-29.) systematic periods. xA.

1720-65 a monostrophic dyad period. the palinodic. as a whole. used Kara (y^kaiv. 1518-37. the strophe (740 ff. is. AAB. 1143-73. Cf. as in Thesm. 121-250. ABCCDEF. The /Ae\77 development the triad.o9 eTrcphiKov rptaSiKOv. may become a pentad consisting of two such pairs Cf.). ABA. a pericope are followed has pericopic epode as well as proode. A heptad of this form occurs The epode may be in Sophocles El. fMeawScKov rpiaScKov. a dyad and a non-antistrophic In Av.eXo<. Cf. Mesodic. and note the irpowhiKov irepiohcov comment rpcMv. Phd. In this sub-class the single period separates 718. p. 717. a combination of the first and third triadic forms proode.) adds two tetradic to the three normal triadic forms just illustrated. strophe and antistrophe. irregularly expanded to two or more periods and assume the form of an anomoeomeric pericope (705). the form of the first stasimon in TJiesm. 290-321 and Vesp. epodic. AABBCCD. Ach. a strophe and antistrophe. Epodic. prevails in Pindar kutcl aykcriv. with epode. Proodic. sub-classes. ABCCCDDE. 16 ff. 273-333. ABBA. : Ach. 947-1000 in which two non-antistrophic systematic periods in the form of by a triad. . and These combinations of systematic periods do not happen to occur in comedy. AABBC. and is not uncommon in The song is generally a triad. and IJccl. the song. the single period introduces Cf. of course. that is. is not. Epodic structure Vesp. in which the epode is stichic. proodic. ABB. Hephaestion (67. antistrophe. but each form of structure is there illustrated in the combination of subordinate periods within The periodic form Both occur in tragedy. yu-eXo? eTrcoSiKov irevrahiKov. Heliodorus also /xeXo? tov 'XPpov The Vesp. ABBC. Av. In this sub-class the unpaired period follows 716. 719. strophe. 280-346. as in lyric poetry.: 336 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY is § it 716 song not repeated. Cf. 1313-34. but by easy and natural tragedy. epode. 863-90. ABBCC*DD* EEFF. yuKra of comedy may be subdivided into three and mesodic. consisting of a pair of antistrophic parts with epode. /u. 1136-59. of Cf. In this sub-class. 478-503. group of monostrophic dyads introduced into the second episode of the Ecclesiazusae (893-975) begins with proode. the periodic.eA. AABCD.

by plainly revealing the exact value of syllables. in our attempt to determine the form and relation of the subordinate periods and hypermeters that constitute a strophe. But this recourse is not sufficient. oLTfiijTa he says (69. and melodramatic periods enumerated in 710 Unhappily. and since Greek music was in general simple. recitative All systematic periods in comedy are melic except the flf.) that their division is possible.CHAPTER XVIII ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC PERIODS 720. metrical form is in Greek unusually significant. The determination. and rhythmical to close. for metric is not adequate to deal finally with all the problems that demand its solution. The original score of these melic periods. the music of none of these melic periods has been preserved. some facts remain uncertain. since the Greek language was quantitative. Nevertheless. and we are reduced. 16 tf. with rhythmical and musical notation to indicate pauses and the length and pitch of syllables. and hypermeters of which some of the melic strophes in Aristophanes are composed cannot now claim to be final. would alone suffice. of the subordinate periods 721. but that the 337 Z . metrical form and periodic therefore. to determine the poet's complete intention as structure. and the melody in song was subordinate to the words. The structure of most periods can be determined with reasonable certainty. to a study of their metrical structure. and with due reservations the analysis of the systematic period may safely be attempted. The difficulty of determining the periodology of the strophe without the sure indications furnished by the music is well illustrated In speaking of the in Hephaestion's discussion of the aTroAeAv/xeva. equations and variations in the melody.

338
poet has left
is

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

§

722

It no indications as to what his division of them was. manifest also in the practice of Heliodorus, who generally analyzes the strophe in comedy not into subordinate periods and hypermeters,
cola.

but directly into
722.
three

division of a

The systematic periods that occur within any main comedy are arranged, as we have seen (694), in
they are in antistrophic relation, or they stand

ways:

alone, or they are a combination of these

ment.

two modes of arrangeThe subordinate periods and hypermeters that constitute a This melic systematic period are grouped in the same manner. statement rests first on the direct testimony of the practice of Heliodorus and secondly on internal evidence. 723. The testimony furnished by the practice of Heliodorus in the metrical scholia on Aristophanes is meagre but conclusive.

He

generally analyzes the systematic period directly into cola,

but sometimes, pursuing a middle course, he groups the cola of which the strophe is composed, and then, in designating these groups, he uses precisely the phraseology he employs in grouping
systematic periods.
(86),

Thus in analyzing ^cA. 929-39 = 940-51 two subordinate tricolic periods 929-31 and 932-4, which are metrically equal and were arranged in his edition each in two a-Tuxoh a ixovoarpoj)LKr) Svd<;, as if they were
he
calls the

strophe and antistrophe (701).
7re/otoSo<?

Verses

935-6

constitute a third

and 937-9 a fourth.

See the scholia on Ach. 929,

946, 948.

He

here even introduces the term BnrXr] {8vo StTrXai,

851, 854), which is not normally used within the strophe (850), to indicate the separation of the different metrical groups, just
as he employs
it

in the

commation
actor,

of the Equites (294, see Schol.

Eq.

of the opening hypermeter, from the following subordinate period, which is the real beginning of the complete parabasis. 724. The partially preserved metrical scholia on the amoebean song that closes the Acharnians (599) exhibit the same use The separation of the irepioho'^ which begins of technical terms.

498)

to

mark the separation
a
retiring

addressed to

with 1210 {TaXa<i

iyo) etc.)

from the preceding period

is

indicated

by

1214-25 (1214-15 = 1216-17, 1218-19 = 1220-21, 1222-3 = 1224-5) are
SlttXt).

The three
SuaSe?
of

pairs of periods in

designated

as

Tpel<;.

To

indicate,

then, the

structural

interrelation

these periods (aa, bb, cc), Heliodorus employs

precisely the

phraseology by which normally he indicates

the

§

728
of

ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC PERIODS
strophes.

339
six

relation

See 701, 704.
calls

Each of these

sub-

ordinate irepiohoi,
725.
irepLKo-TTrj

is dicolic.

Heliodorus

of fourteen cola.

Pax 459-72 = 486-99 (302) a See Schol. Pax 459 ff. He does

not indicate the point or points of division, but probably the grouping is dyadic (459 — 66, 467 — 72), and the strophe is
regarded as a
strictly
is

irepLKoirr)

avo/jboiofjL€pr)<;

hvahiKrj, phraseology that

appropriate only to a group of unequal

systematic

periods (strophes).

See 705.

726. Heliodorus calls Ach.
as if these subordinate periods

489-96

(468) a rpia^;

/xea-wSiKT],
f.)

(489-91 =494-6, 492

were
that

a mesodic combination of three systematic periods (718). 727. Finally, it has already been noted (695, 698)

Heliodorus uses the term
systematic
that
is,

7re/JtoSo9

in

the two main senses of

period
applies

and
it

of

subordinate
to

period

or

hypermeter,
part of a

he

both

a

strophe and to a

strophe.
It thus appears (723
ff.)

that Heliodorus regarded the forms

of structure of single systematic periods as the

same

as those of

the combinations of systematic periods found in different
divisions of the play (694).

main

728. His practice, furthermore, establishes

another fact of
period.

great importance, an intermediate stage of grouping between the

subordinate period

or

hypermeter and the
in Ach.

systematic

The systematic period

284—302

(452) consists of eight

subordinate periods and hypermeters of respectively 4 5 (3) 4 12 The second half repeats the first. He calls 4 5 4 12 metres.

each half of this strophe
aTpo(f)LK')].

TreptoSo?

and the whole
is

Sva<;

fiovo-

The type
capital

of this strophe, therefore,

B

(717)

= aa,

the

small

letters

designating the

periods

intermediate

between the subordinate and the systematic periods (46), and Heliodorus, then, made three applications of the term A = abac. It might signify strophe and antistrophe Sva<i /jiovoaTpo(f)tKij. (701), or as in Ach. 1214 ff. (724) two subordinate periods, or, as we have just seen, two equivalent combinations of subordinate And he used the term TrepioSo? to periods with a hypermeter.
indicate the half of each of these combinations.

Ach.
(

204-18 =
fiovo-

219—33
<TTpo(^LKr},

(449)

is

called a /ieXo? fiovoarpocjiLKov

= Sua?

A = A).
'

Each systematic period
(

{'rreploho'i),

A, consists

of

two

'

monads

= rrepiohot).

Heliodorus does not state

how

;

340

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY
cola each
' '

§

729

many
monad
case

that the change of
or

monad contains, but there can be no doubt rhythm marks the division, and that the first
period a consists
of the four

intermediate

trochaic

tetrameters, the second b of the following paeonic cola.

In this

The phraseology of the scholium on Pa^y 85667 (580) is instructive. The first five cola (856-9) in this systematic period, which constitute two subordinate periods, are

A = AB.

Heliodorus remarks that these two groups may be regarded as arpo^rj and He means, avrta-rpoipo^ and the verses that follow as eVojSo?.
exactly repeated in the following five cola (860-3).

strophe (856-67) are arranged in an epodic group aab, as the systematic periods are generally arranged in Pindar AAB. Since the subject seems to be complicated, although in fact
of course, that the parts of this single
analysis
illustrate

proves

to be simple in practice, it may be well to the method of Heliodorus by analyzing two or three

729.

Pax 856-67 = 909-21
is

(580).

The metrical complex

856-67
three

a systematic period A, and strophe and antistrophe

together constitute a monostrophic dyad

AA.

Each
of

consists of

intermediate

periods

(856-9
:

= 860-3, 864-7
aab.

in

the

strophe),

grouped in epodic form

Each

the

equal

intermediate

periods aa consists of two subordinate periods (856-8, two acephalous Glyconics and an acephalous Pherecratean These two sub859, a diiambic tetrameter = 860-2, 863). ordinate periods are grouped after the manner of a dyadic The remaining intermediate period ab, 6 4 metres. pericope (864-7) is the epode, b, and consists of three catalectic subordinate periods (864, a diiambic tetrameter; 865-6, a diiambic octameter; 867, a diiambic tetrameter), which are grouped after Briefly aba, 4 8 4 metres. the manner of a mesodic period summarized the formula is A = A, A = aab, a = ab, b = aba. 730. The significance for the music of the exact metrical
: : :

correspondence of various parts of such a lyric as this is not to The antistrophe (909-21) has the metrical constitube doubted.
tion of the strophe

and

antistrophe

in

(856-67), and all scholars agree that strophe comedy were sung to the same music,

unless the poet has intentionally varied their constitution (51).

Correspondences within this metrical and musical complex must The air to which the first interhave the same significance.

§

734

ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC PERIODS

341

mediate period (a: 856—9) was sung was repeated in the second

The tune was changed in the final intermediate 864—7), but within this period mesodic metrical structure (aba) indicates that its first and last subordinate periods (aa) were sung to the same melody. 731. All these correspondences, whether of strophe and antistrophe or of two intermediate periods or of two subordinate periods, are of the same nature. It must be sharply observed that the metrical agreement of two intermediate or subordinate periods which, it is assumed, had the' same melody, onust be as exact as that between strophe and antistrophe. Musical correspondence of periods in different rhythms, although of the same length, is an impossible assumption,
(a:

860-3).
(b
:

period

732. Hq.

322-32 = 397-406
as

(451):

B=B

(705).

The
inter-

strophe, B, consists of

two intermediate periods (322-7, 328-32),
a dyadic pericope, ab.

which are grouped
mediate period.
A,

The
;

first

consists of three subordinate periods
;

(322-5,

a paeonic octameter

326, a trochaic tetrameter
:

327, a trochaic

tetrameter) grouped as a proodic period

abb, 8 4

4 metres.

The

second intermediate period, B (328-32), consists of three subordinate periods (328-9, a dactylic tetrameter; 330, a trochaic
tetrameter; 331—2, a protracted acatalectic diiambic tetrameter),

which are distinguished from one another by their rhythm and therefore cannot have been sung to the same melody, are grouped as a triadic pericope Summary B = B, abc, 4 4 4 metres. B = AB, A = abb, B = abc. The strophe 733. Fax 346-60 = 385-99 (232): A = A. consists of three intermediate periods (346-9, 350—7, 358-60) grouped as a triadic pericope, abc. The first, A, consists of three subordinate periods (346, a trochaic tetrameter; 347-8, a paeonic -trochaic hexameter; 349, a trochaic tetrameter), grouped as a mesodic period, aba, 4 6 4. b consists of four subordinate periods (350, a trochaic tetrameter; 351-3, a
:
:

paeonic-trochaic hexameter;

354— 5, a

paeonic-trochaic hexameter;

356-7, a trochaic tetrameter) grouped in palinodic (719) form, abba, 4 6 6 4. c consists of a single hypermeter of nine paeonictrochaic metres. A = A, A = abc, a = aba, B = abba, c = a.

Few
734.

strophes in Aristophanes have as complicated structure

as those just analyzed.

Most

of

them are comparatively

simple.

The

close of the intermediate period is generally

marked

342

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY
strong, as in the three odes just analyzed.

§

735

by a rhetorical pause, indicated in the text by punctuation that
is

commonly

This
of

fact is particularly significant, since neither Aristophanes nor the

Greek poets in general attempted thus
subordinate periods.

to

mark the

close

735.

The

correct analysis of a strophe depends
its

on the proper

observation of the close of

subordinate periods and hypermeters.

This

close

is

normally

syllable, or hiatus (43),

indicated by catalexis, the variable and no period or hypermeter ends within

a word.

Commonly

not invariably, since certain rhythms

they

may 836-41 (582).

change of rhythm indicates close, but are so concordant that Compare, for example, Ach. be joined within a word.
also*

Here

A

consists directly of three subordinate

837, 838-41), a diiambic tetrameter, a diiambic tetrameter, and an octameter consisting of three diiambic dimeters and an acephalous Pherecratean, the last diiambic dimeter and The group is arranged the Pherecratean uniting within a word.
periods (836
after the

=

manner

of an epodic triad

:

A = aab,

4 4

8.

736. Subordinate periods and hypermeters, then, that constitute a systematic or intermediate period are grouped in the

same manner
various

Examples of the See 722. be simpler, in attempting this analysis, to begin with periods of the mixed class, corresponding See 694 to the TrepcoSiKa fiiKTu of the general classification.
as systematic periods.
follow.
It will

types

and 715

ff.

TRIADIC GROUPS

Epodic Type

:

A

or A

= aab.

737. The simplest exemplification of the epodic triad occurs in Ban. 416 ff. (80), a monostrophic octad. The structure of this little iambic strophe is 2 2 3 two catalectic dimeters with an acatalectic trimeter as epode. See von Wilamowitz, Comment, Compare Thesm. metricum, ii. 31, and Leo, Plaut. cant. 63. 947—52 (589), 4 4 8: in anapaestic rhythm, two tetrameters with an octameter as epode. Nub. 949—58 (551), 4 4 11: in Aeolic rhythm, two tetrameters with a hendecameter as epode.
:

Thesm.

1136-9

(387), 2 2 2: in logaoedic

rhythm, two catalectic
Vesp.

dimeters with
(243),

a

protracted

dimeter as epode.

403—7

4 4 7: in trochaic rhythm, two tetrameters with a hepta-

§

740

ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC PERIODS
:

3-13

meter as epode. Av. 451-4 (409), 3- 3- 4 in logaoedic rhythm, two brachycatalectic trimeters with a tetrameter as epode. Thesm. 973-6 (589), 2 2 5: in Aeolic rhythm, two diianibic dimeters with a diiambic pentameter as epode. Ban. 898—904 (214), 6 6 7: in trochaic rhythm, two hexameters with a heptameter as epode. This is a large class in Aristophanes.
Froodic Type
738. Thus Pax 1329-32

:

A

or

a

= abb.

(584), 6 2 2: in Aeolic rhythm, an

hexameter as proode to two acephalous (467), 7 3 3: a dochmiac heptaEq. 303—13 (450), meter as proode to two iambic trimeters. 18 4 4: a paeonic hypermeter of eighteen metres (see 40) as proode to two trochaic tetrameters. Ban. 895-7 (214), 2 3 3:
acephalous

Glyconic

Pherecrateans.

Ach.

358-65

Eq. an anapaestic dimeter as proode to two trochaic trimeters. 322-7 (451), 8 4 4: a paeonic octameter as proode to two
trochaic tetrameters.

Mesodic Type
739.

:

A

or A

= aba.
in Aeolic

Thus Pax 864-7
tetrameters
(583),

(580), 4 8 4:

rhythm, two
as

diiambic

with

a

diiambic

octameter

mesode.

4 4 4: two diiambic tetrameters with an anapaestic tetrameter as mesode. Av. 1313-17 (406), 4 2 4: in simplified logaoedic rhythm, two logaoedic tetrameters with an iambic dimeter as mesode. Pax 346-9 (232), 4 6 4: in paeonictrochaic rhythm, two tetrameters with a hexameter as mesode.

Pax 939-42

TETRADIC GEOUPS
740. Hephaestion (66. 24 ff.) defines the epodic, proodic, and mesodic combinations of systematic periods as groups in which
a-vcrrTjfjbaacv
6/jLOioi<i
:

avofioiov

rt,

eiTK^eperai,
fiev

AAB, ABB, ABA,

and continues
'

rov rcov rpcwv apiOfiov ovK av yevoiTO re tolovtov, iirl TrXetov he ovSev avro KcoXvet ylverai, yap wairep rpta^ iirwhiKi], ovto) Koi rerpa^ iKT€LV€(x6at
StjXovoti

eV eXarrov

Ka\

irevTCL'i

kol

iirl

irXelov.

He

here

uses

the

term

rpia'^

iirwSiKT] in a general sense that includes all three groups.

He

notes two forms of the reTpd<i (67. 16

the 7rei/Ta9 and e^a?.

but does not exemplify The practice of Aristophanes, however, in
ff.),

344

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

§

741

and hypermeters within a systematic period, clearly illustrates Hephaestion's meaning when dealing with combinations of systematic periods with one
his combinations of subordinate periods

another.

See 719.

741. Tetradic

and pentadic

combinations

of

subordinate

periods and hypermeters arose by process of accretion.

Tetrads

and pentads were a growth.
accretion
is

Every tetrad reveals one of the

three triadic groups aab, abb, aba, as the underlying form. rather

The
every

a proode or epode, with a strong inclination to epodic

than
is

proodic structure.

Similarly, the

basis

of

pentad
added.
742.

a tetrad

of established

form, with proode or

epode

aab with epode.
consisted

The commonest form Thus arose
not
of

of the epodic tetrad
aahc.

is

the group
tetrad

The epode
period,

of the

one

subordinate

but

of

two,

with
strain.

amplification of the melody

by the addition of a new
:

Thus Ban. 398-402 (82), 3 3 5 3 in iambic rhythm, two and a catalectic pentameter, with the same ephymnium, an acatalectic trimeter, as epode in each of the three strophes. See von Wilamowitz, Comment, metricum ii. 31 and Leo, Plaut. cant. 63. The former would make similar analysis (4 4 6 2) of Ach. 836 ff. (582), ending the ode with the colon Keizianum, as an independent period, notwithstanding hyphenation in 840. Compare also Ran. 814-17 (346), 3 3 3- 2 two dactylic trimeters and a brachycatalectic dactylic trimeter, with
catalectic trimeters
;
:

a catalectic trochaic dimeter as epode.
743.

But the fourth subordinate period
a unit
7 of independent
:

is

often not simply a

clausula, but

proportions.

Thus

Plut.

rhythm, two tetrameters and Av. 1470—81 (215), a hexameter, with a heptameter as epode. 6 6 4 8: in trochaic rhythm, two hexameters and a tetrameter with an octameter as epode. Ach. 208-18 (449), 6 6 5 8 in
(88),

302-8

4 4 6

in iambic

:

paeonic

rhythm, two hexameters and a pentameter with an octameter as epode. Lys. 619—25 (230), 4 4 4 5: in paeonictrochaic rhythm, two paeonic-trochaic tetrameters and a trochaic
tetrameter with a paeonic-trochaic pentameter as epode.
744. If the last subordinate period reverts to the melody of

the opening period, the type becomes aaba, with simplification of

the melody.

tetrameters

Thus Lys. 614-18 (230), 4 4 6 4 two trochaic and a protracted iambic hexameter with a third
:

' .

§ 748

ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC PERIODS
The rhythm of

345

trochaic tetrameter as epode.

this intermediate

period

is

iambo-trochaic.

we have seeu (740), recognizes tetradic, and even more elaborate forms of Troi^fxara ixikto,, and he records (67. 16 ff.) two tetradic groups, the 'periodic,' ABBC, and the palinodic,' ABBA. These are both represented in the
745. Hephaestion, as
pentadic,
'

grouping of the subordinate periods that constitute a strophe. It is obvious that the form arose by accretion of a periodic
' '

proode to the epodic

triad,

forming

dibbc,

or of an epode to the
is

proodic triad, forming abhc.

In other words, abbe

a pair of

equal periods with both proode and epode.
(581), 5

Thus Mih. 1303-10

4 4 7:

in Aeolic

rhythm, a pentameter, consisting of a

diiambic trimeter and an acephalous Pherecratean, as proode, two

diiambic tetrameters, and a diiambic heptameter as epode.

Thesw rhythm, a diiambic tetrameter as proode, two diiambic dimeters, and a nonameter as epode, consist-

352-60

(560),

4 2 2

9

:

in Aeolic

ing of a polyschematist dimeter and trimeter and two Glyconics.
746.

The

last

member

of the

'

periodic

'

group just considered
abba, with
'

may

be identical with the opening
This
is

period, giving

simplification of the melody.

Hephaestion's

palinodic

group.

As

the

name

implies, it closes with the

same musical

which it begins. (Compare the group aaba, 744.) Thus Ach. 489-96 (468), 4 3 3 4: a dochmiac tetrameter as proode, two iambic trimeters, and a second dochmiac tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of the first period. Ach. 1008-17 (83), 6 4 4 6: in iambic rhythm, a hexameter as proode, two tetrameters and a second hexameter as epode. Pax
strain with

350-7

(232), 4 6 6 4:
])roode,

in paeonic- trochaic

tetrameter as

two

paeonic-trochaic

rhythm, a trochaic hexameters, and a

second trochaic tetrameter as epode.
747.

The

first

member

of the

'

periodic

'

tetrad

may
:

anticipate

the melody of the paired periods that follow and the type then

becomes aaab. Thus Ran. 534-40 (217), 6 6 6 4 in trochaic rhythm, a hexameter as proode that anticipates the melody of the two hexameters that follow, and a tetrameter as epode. The musical effect was that of a monostrophic triad with epode. Compare Pax 114-18 (345), 2 2 2 5 in dactylic rhythm, three dimeters with a pentameter as epode. Ran. 1370-7 (218), 2 2 2 10: in trochaic rhythm, three dimeters with a decameter as epode. 748. A tetradic group arose from the mesodic triad aba by
:

346

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY
in Aeolic

§

749

accretion of an epode, forming abac.

Thus Av. 676-84 (546), rhythm, two brachycatalectic polyschematist dimeters that enclose a Glyconic hexameter with a Glyconic Ach. 294-302 (452), 4 5 4 12: two octameter as epode. trochaic tetrameters that enclose a paeonic pentameter, with a
2- 6 2- 8
:

paeonic dodecameter as epode.
simplified

Av.

455—9

(409), 2-

5

2-3:

in

logaoedic rhythm, two anapaestic penthemimers that

enclose a logaoedic pentameter, with a logaoedic trimeter as epode.

749. If the last period of this tetrad repeats the

the paired periods, the type

is

abaa.

Thus Vesp. 744 and abba 746.) trochaic rhythm, two tetrameters that enclose a paeonic-trochaic
:

melody of (Compare the groups aaba 338-41 (238), 4 2 4 4 in

dimeter, with a third tetrameter as epode.

triad

second tetradic group arose from the same mesodic Thus Eccl. by accretion of a proode, forming ohcb. 478—82 (85), 1 4 5 4 an anapaestic monometer as proode to two iambic tetrameters that enclose an iambic pentameter. an iambic trimeter as proode to Thesm. 679-85 (472), 3 3 4 3 two dochmiac trimeters that enclose an acatalectic trochaic an acephalous iambic tetrameter. Vesp. 733-5 (469), 2 1 4 1 dimeter as proode to two dochmii that enclose an acatalectic
750.
aba,
:

A

:

:

iambic tetrameter.
a heptameter.

Thesm.

114-25

(429), 5

6

7

6:

in ionic

rhythm, a pentameter as proode to two hexameters that enclose

PENTADIC GEOUPS
751. Pentads arose
of the

tetrads just
is

example,
(231),

by accretion of an epode or proode to one The epodic pentad abbcd, for Thus Eq. 616-23 the 'periodic' tetrad with epode.
described.

4 4 4 2 8: in paeonic-trochaic rhythm, a periodic tetrad composed of a trochaic tetrameter, two paeonic-trochaic tetrameters and a dimeter, with a trochaic octameter as epode of the
tetrad.

Hq.

1264-73

(493),

5-5555:

a hypercatalectic prosodiac

tetrameter, two enoplic pentameters

and an enoplic pentameter
ecbccd,

of different form, with a prosodiac pentameter as epode.

752. The converse of this

is

the proodic pentad

formed

from the

Thus Thesm. 776-84 (286), 12 4 4 6: in anapaestic rhythm, a monometer as proode to a periodic tetrad composed of a dimeter, two tetrameters, and a hexameter.
'

periodic

'

tetrad

by accretion of a proode.

§

758
753.

ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC PERIODS
But the proode
(453), 6 8
is

347

sometimes not simply a brief intro-

ductory strain, but a unit of independent proportions.

Thus

Ach.

4 4 9: in paeonic rhythm, a hexameter as proode to an octameter, two tetrameters and a nonameter, Eq. 551-64 (553), 10 6 3 3 8: in Aeolic rhythm, a choriaraboiambic decameter as proode to a choriambo-iambic hexameter, two catalectic lesser Asclepiadeans and a Glyconic octameter. 754. The proode of this pentad may anticipate the first period of the following periodic tetrad, giving the form aabbc,
with simplification of the melody.

665-75

(Compare the tetrad aaab 747.)
8: in iambic rhythm, a hepta-

Thus Ach. 929-39

(86), 7 7 2 2

meter as proode that anticipates the melody of the first period of the following periodic tetrad composed of a heptameter, two

The musical effect to this anticipawas a group that consisted of two monostrophic dyads (aabb) with an epode (c). 755. From this pentad by addition of an ephymnium arises See Av. one of the two hexads found in Aristophanes, aabbcd. 1748-54 (588), 4-4-2-2-22: mainly in dactylic rhythm, a
dimeters and a heptameter.
tion

brachycatalectic

tetrameter

as

proode

to

a

brachycatalectic

tetrameter, two brachycatalectic dimeters and a dimeter, with a

Pherecratean as epode.
756. The palinodic group also became pentadic by accretion an epode, giving abbac. Thus Lys. 291-5 (370), 4 2 2 4 3: in trochaic rhythm, a palinodic tetrad composed of a tetrameter,
of

two dimeters and a second tetrameter, with a protracted trimeter ephymnium. 757. The final epode may repeat the melody of the first and last periods of the tetrad, giving abbaa. Thus Eq. 756—60 (91), 4 4 4 4 4: in iambic rhythm, a palinodic tetrad composed of a tetrameter, two protracted tetrameters and a tetrameter, with a tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of the first and fourth periods. The musical effect of this repetition was a group that consisted of a proode (a) and two monostrophic dyads (bbaa), of Av. which the second reverted to the melody of the proode. 1058-64 (455), 2 4 4 2 2: in anapaestic rhythm, a paroemiac, two tetrameters and two paroemiacs. 758. A hexad occurs in which the central pair of periods in See Lys. the palinodic group abba is repeated, giving abbbba. 793-804 (242), 822228: two paeonic-trochaic octameters
as

a trochaic tetrameter and a catalectic trochaic dimeter. Thus Ach. two logaoedic tetrameters. 761. 763. a dimeter and a tetrameter. 759. with an acatalectic dimeter as epode. periods. or ' The basis of each of the foregoing pentads is a 'periodic' ' palinodic tetrad. and epodic. arose the pentad aabaa. a tetrad composed of two paroemiacs. abb. parts in the dialogue in The evident pairing division of this hexad into two intermediate aab. with a trochaic nonameter as epode. a tetrad composed of a pentameter. a hexameter. a brachycatalectic dimeter and a catalectic trimeter. Lys. as in Ran. The epode of the foregoing pentad might revert to the melody of the first period. 1287-94 (408). aa) enclosing a mesode (b). Other tetrads familiar also underlie pentadic groups.348 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 797—800 forbids the § 759 of enclosing two pairs of trochaic dimeters. metricnm. with a hypermetrical period of thirteen metres as epode. Thus Zys. 433-42 (414). by accretion of an epode that repeated its prevailing melody. tetrad abcb The pentad ahchd arose by accretion of an epode to the Thus Thesm. 1150-61 (565). proodic. ii. tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of the repetition and fourth periods. See von Wilamowitz. a tetrad composed of two tetrameters. second. giving abcba. with a protracted trochaic trimeter as epode. 4 3 2 3 4: in simplified logaoedic rhythm. a second nonameter and a dodecameter. a second pentameter and a diiambic heptameter. Thus Pax 1305-10 final (87). tetrad 2-32: in anapaestic rhythm. a tetrad composed of a tetrameter and two trimeters that enclose a dimeter. Comment. 2 6 2 6 9: in (750). The pentad «6acd arose by accretion of an epode to the tetrad abac (748). 31. Thus from the pentad aabcdi by accretion 2 2 aabc (742) arose the of an epode. 4 4 4 2 3: in simplified logaoedic rhythm. The musical effect of this was a group consisting of two equivalent monostrophic dyads (aa. a tetrameter. 372-7 (301). . 5 4 5 7 6: in Aeolic rhythm. simplified logaoedic rhythm. 1279-86 (408). with a protracted diiambic hexameter as epode. 4 4 2 4 4: in iambic rhythm. with a first. £ys. 954-79 (287). 9691213: in anapaestic rhythm. From the variant aaba (744) of this tetrad. 760. meters that enclose a logaoedic dimeter. a nonameter. a paroemiac and two logaoedic hexa762.

may be that of a monostrophic dyad (701). and hexads found within the strophe in comedy and shows their relations aab (737) one another f. aaba. class (736 These are the structural forms in which. Other forms of strophic structure occur than those of the mixed type. The grouping of the subordinate periods in an inter- mediate period (aa) Ecd. 766. such as (indented in the table). Compare the following In one instance in Aristophanes the grouping of the .). The following to table summarizes : the triads. Thus 293-5 (578). Monostrophic Type 767. 296-9.) aahc (742 dJybc \^ aahcd (759) aaba (744) aabaa (760) ahhcdi abb (738) ahhc j (745) (751) f.— § 768 ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC PERIODS 349 with a second tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of the first period.) ^hccd (752 abba (746) aaab (747) aba (739) abac (748) aabbc (754) aabbcd (755) abbac (756) abbbba (758) abbaa (757) a&acd (761) ahcb& (762) abaa (749) ^hch (750) abcba (763) 765. In each combination. the a in constitute systematic or intermediate period appear to be of arranged periods Aristophanes. 768. are due to the same disposition to simplify musical expression. like the preceding. 764. etc. These. intermediate period in Eccl. identity metrical structure indicates that at least two of the subordinate or hypermeters were sung to the same melody with effect of simplifying the whole was sung. : A or A = aa or aaa. two acephalous : Glyconic hexameters in correspondence. are direct imitations of corresponding groupings of systematic periods. tetrads. melody to which the larger period as a The variants of the normal types. pentads. in the mixed subordinate periods and hypermeters that ff. 6 6 in Aeolic rhythm. Examples of the different types follow. abba.

trochaic hypermeter of fourteen Av. 8 6 Pax 856-9 (580). 6 4 in Aeolic octameter and hexameter. 851-8 (93). 1111-20 (571). Av. heptameter. metricum. acephalous Glyconic octameter and dodecameter. 1335-41 (371). pentameter and hexameter. paeonic octameter. Uq. rhythm. 116: in iambic rhythm. 1345-50 (576). 3 4 8: anapaestic triVesp. Thesm.350 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 769 subordinate periods of a systematic period is that of a monoThe three subordinate periods are all equal strophic triad (701). 14 9: anapaestic dimeter. 31. and even pentads. (222). In the last period these are (aaa). 4 8 4: iambic tetrameter. abed. in illustration of pericopic dyads. etc. protracted dimeter and 498-506 (294). (371). Vesp. Uccl. and trochaic nonameter. 10 7: in anapaestic (494). 4-62: . 8 4 7: metres. Nub. often constitute a pericopic Thus Mtb. Aeolic tetrameter and octameter. 952-3 (415). Uccl. On the significance of this fact. 8 12: in Aeolic tetrameter and hexameter. 4 6 14: in Aeolic rhythm. in free ionic rhythm. acephalous Glyconic hexameter and diiambic tetrameter. 2 6 6: iambic dimeter and hexameter and trochaic hexameter. rhythm. and acephalous Glyconic octameter and tetrameter. anapaestic tetrameter and paeonic heptameter. abc. irepiKoirr] dvo/juoiofiepri^ (705). a triad in which each subordinate period consists of a diiambic trimeter and an acephalous Pherecratean. 2 4: in trochaic rhythm. Vesp. There was no repetition of any part of the melody abcde. 2 Thesm. 1518-22 : tetrameter. abc. The subordinate periods and hypermeters grouped in a : : systematic or intermediate period triad. Thus. in trochaic rhythm. period abc. Uq. Vesp. forms are common. decameter and 4 6 in prosodiac rhythm. ii. Pericopic Type : A or A = ab. : connected within a word. 5 6 : rhythm. in The grouping or of subordinate periods is and hypermeters often a systematic intermediate that of a Both the dyadic. 1326-31 See von Wilamowitz. and triadic. ab. Vesp. 520-30 hexameter and hypermeter of fourteen metres. in these periods. 771. 278-80 (499). occur. see 777. Comment. 1450-61 (548). 1065-71 (455). and tetrads. Musically these are the most elaborate periods in Aristophanes. hendecameter and hexameter. 770. 769. 289-92 (578). 5 5 5 in Aeolic rhythm. 510-17 (561). tetrameter. meter. 101-6 (429).

hexameter. also Ecd. (220): a trochaic hypermeter of five and a dimeter. a monometer and a paroemiac. abed. hexameter and dimeter. and an octameter Nub. octameter. 209-22 (285): an anapaestic hypermeter of twelve dimeters. tetrameter. Nuh. simplified logaoedic pentameter. and no colon ends in a variable syllable separated from the following colon Compare dimeters. 2 3 2 2: dactylic dimeter trimeter. and hexameter. (497). with return in the last period to the melody of the first period (abcda). 6 7 5 8: (454). pentameter. 772. 863-7 an anapaestic hypermeter of three dimeters. 1206(300) : 13 (92) : an iambic hypermeter of seventeen metres. : in trochaic rhythm. tetrameter. all 773. 3 2 3 4: trochaic trimeter. and Ran. 8 12 6 2 iambic octa- meter. Vesp. 4 2 7 5: enoplic tetrameter and Pentads Thus Lys. Ban. paeonic 563-74 composed of a polyschematist tetrameter and a Priapean. iambic dimeter. (544) consists of three Glyconic dimeters and a Pherecraof five iambic dimeters. enoplic hexameter and ionic dimeter. 7-84510: in Aeolic rhythm. its cola being continuously connected 973-6 tean. 1720-5 (588). . dodecameter. Pax 358-60 (232): a paeonic-trochaic nonameter. octameter. trochaic No part of the melody : repeated. Pax 775-84 brachycatalectic heptameter. catalectic iambic Av. 1188-95 (465): Vesp. tetrameter. a dochmiac systematic period of four dimeters. 6 4 8 5 6 Indivisible Periods : A or a = a. 1265-74 (457). 893-9 a trimeter. choriambo-iambic hexameter and heptameter. a monometer and a paroemiac. last colon in is catalectic. Av. 1099-1108 (236). 321-34 (563). pentameter. Thesm. A systematic or intermediate period sometimes lacks indications of division into subordinate periods or hypermeters. 4 8 6 10: in trochaic rhythm. Thus Pax 1127-39 (558). prosodiac heptameter and enoplic pentameter. by synaphea. and decameter. Av. or even pentad. abcde. octameter. hexameter. dimeter. iambic trimeter. and Aeolic and dimeter and acephalous Glyconic. tetrameter. decameter. The subordinate periods and hypermeters grouped or in a systematic intermediate period often constitute a pericopic is tetrad.§773 ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC PEEIODS 351 hypercatalectic prosodiac trimeter. Thus Eq. occur. 384-8 (89) each or is Only the by hiatus. 126-9 (429).

8 2 2+: acephalous Glyconic octameter followed by two Pherecrateans. probable that these three cola were sung to the melody of the The third period (792). repeating the melody of the last colon of the preceding For example. But while the variable syllable and hiatus. Thus also in Ban. clearly denote that the its close.). This fact is established by the correspondence of acatalectic subordinate periods in strophe and antistrophe of which one ends with variable syllable or hiatus Thus we should connect Nub. and are therefore never to be ignored. 1251-60 (545). 6 6 4 by a Glyconic tetrameter. an intermediate period. . since they are not allowed period has reached within a subordinate period or hypermeter. abb. catalexis. a subordinate period. + The two 526-37 6 4 (566). -wv. 781-804 (242). 537) that repeat 4 6 Av. variable syllable.352 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Periods with Refrain. a dimeter of unique metrical form that (oKei. tions In the foregoing analyses (737 the close ff. song in popular form that verses is in many particulars instructive. In a few odes in Aristophanes the regular structure is broken by a short clause that seems to have been merely a refrain. 775. 1313-14 but the other does not.-v^|- 781-92. ends preceding clausula. than a refrain of the strain that ended the third period. No subordinate period or hypermeter has been assumed whose close was not marked by one of these or by a change of rhythm. may have been. . seem to be grouped as abc. type seems to be aab. in the music. hiatus (43). in Lys. are strictly regarded. with words and melody of the last repeated in the following final colon. 536. if the variable vowel in which . no more Vesp. 1731-6 (588). the final colon of the preceding period. 6 9+4. The rhythm is paeonic-trochaic. A. the with the same strain. both Pherecrateans. is apparently palinodic + two Aeolic hexameters enclosing two diiambic tetrameters. § 774 774. a tetrameter. nevertheless a combination of cola that constitute a true period may lack both these indicia (44). followed by three cola (535. is exactly repeated two Glyconic hexameters followed cola that follow (1259. 1260). the normal indica- of of the subordinate period and hypermeter. A hexameter (781-3) is followed by a nonameter (784-8) that ends with the strain rot? opeaiv -. • It seems in the three cola that follow. (581) with the following dimeters.

4 12. It is therefore possible that and many songs are some combinations of cola entered in this book as single subordinate periods or hypermeters may really have been two or more periods. in particular. A subordinate period or hypermeter the last syllable is may end in an acatalectic colon of which variable vowel. Ach. and a and fourth cola dimeter and a trimeter. 208-10 = 223-5^ of this principle. ab'a. non-antistrophic. so that the third seem to constitute a pentameter. xv. But a period that lacks the customary indicia of close should be sharply inspected acceptance. of course. 938-41 = 942-5 cola. triad. consist- 2 a . hexameters 214-15 = 229is . Ves2J. and the stanza all indications of consists of four The rhythm is Aeolic two Phalaeceans. It follows. dactylic trimeters (346). acephalous Glyconic hypermeter 827. aabc. antistrophic period must be an established form it is of verse and the systematic or intermediate period of which a In PhU. which avoids catalexis (437). each with its proper musical cadence. hexameters 30^. The third colon in Aristophanes lacks periodic close. 1731-4^ = octameters. that all indications of the close of a subordinate period or may be lacking in both strophe and antistrophe in a particular instance. (88). as in Ath. before A period thus theoretically constituted must rigidly it conform to two requirements. In Uccl. 814^=818 = 822 = 826 = 275^=2S2''-3^ euoplic tetrameters 1737-40 (588). no doubt that each colon is a subordinate is a tetrad of the form that is commonest here that 776. illustrations . ab. not marked by hiatus or repeated again and This does not often happen in lyric poetry is such as Pindar's. also Ban. evidence as to the periodic structure of the strophe. (567) Aristophanes has imitated a popular form of scolium. (499). Av. abounds in Cf. and 815^' = 819 = 823 Paeonic an acatalectic iambic tetrameter. in whose odes the strophe to again. Cf. the non- (316—21) a is apparently a pericopic dyad.§ 776 ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC PERIODS 353 the corresponding period of the strophe ends (1305—6) did not show that each verse. but in Aristophanes correspondence is generally confined two strophes (strophe and antistrophe). 694 e. pentameters (449). 316 ff. but in other occurrences of this strophe the third colon ends with variable syllable. It is just metre fails to furnish complete See 720. and there is period and the strophe in Aristophanes. but it may have been mesodic 4 8 4. part must be of normal type. 211-13^' = 226-8.

(286-90) apparently meter. 5 6 2 4 4. abc. 7. 711-22 (289). 777. (456). but it may have been an epodic triad. Examples might be multiplied.18. and an enoplic tetrameter as epode. 5 5 6. consisting of a dactylic pentameter as proode to two trimeters. (347). with a a proodic triad. but it is inherently improbable that all of therefore.dyad. 10 6. the first intermediate period of the strophe (483-8) is apparently a pericopic triad. two enoplic heptameters. was normal. consisting of two In Ran. abcde. all rhythms. probable. but it may have been a palinodic tetrad. ab. in them were of this type. which the pericopic period was sung to a melody Such a melody was specially without recurrences. but they constitute a single hendecametrical hyperas a mesodic triad a'b'a. the first five cola hexameter as epode. 276-86 . It should be observed that the melody of a strophe 4 3 4. 879-84). in Aristophanes are simple. 483 ff. consisting of a hypercatalectic prosodiac hexameter as proode. abc. (370). (85). 971 ff. consisting of two pentameters in correspondence with one another with a In Lys. which is of frequent occurrence in Aristophanes and is composed in nearly It is a normal and useful form. but it may have been a periodic tetrad. consisting of was simplified precisely as the number of its subordinate periods Many of the songs that were in correspondence was increased.364 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 777 ing of two iambic tetrameters enclosing an acatalectic octameter. In all these cases. from this point of view that the melic hypermeter. 286 ff. In Ecd. 875 ff. Compare the trochaic hypermeter in Ecd. 457 ff. but it may consist of two intermediate periods AB (875-8. abVc. but it is obvious that the process by which they are now determined is arbitrary. 7-7 7 4. The pericopic form of structure. the dactylic in Nub. the first strophe B a pericopic triad. and In Ach. 893-9 (220). the non-antistrophic period is apparently a pericopic pentad. abb'a. aa'b. (500). the anapaestic in Nul. to adapted situations that were lively or unusual and to It is sentiments that were spirited or elevated or vehement. iambic tetrameters enclosing two hexameters. (971-5) of the pericope is apparently a pericopic . the music would instantly have revealed whether Some of them seem or not the assumed correspondences existed. intermediate period b (461-75) is apparently a pericopic dyad ab. 4 6 10. the prosodiac and enoplic a trimeter. 4 6 6 4. ab'b. is to be regarded. may have been sung two syncopated iambic tetrameters enclosing In Nub. 5 3 3.

the paeonic in Eq. (1894). trochaic or anapaestic forms of recitative Ach.g. resembles the hypermeter in form. 1455-61 (548).). all paeonic-trochaic. with PI. Ran. .§ 778 ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC PERIODS oOo-ll (450)/ the ionic in Ran. verse in familiar use in comedy. meters are similarly used. and xviii. in iambic. namely. xix. 976-85 (456) paeonic and trochaic. 415-29 1275-83 1528-37 (494). particularly 593 ff. on the one hand that the subordinate periods in any given period were all sung to the same air (e. Different rhythms may be combined in the same group as in Pax 729-33 (295) anapaestic and trochaic. the choriambic in Vesp. Stichic Period melic period remains to be considered which 778. of the 'verses' thus used conThose in iambic. * Compare the long paeonic hyjtermeters in the Delphian Hymns to Apollo. (note (1893).g. in Ach. anapaestic. (457). in Bulletin xvii. These groups were often rendered by the leaders of the half-choruses or by actors or by both. (note 348). The extreme assumptions. This is the period in which periodic verse trenches A upon all stichic (689). Pax 729-33 Of. with the accompanying music by Theodore Reinach. rhythm and of trimeters in dactylic rhythm. 345 tf. trochaic. and prosodiac rhythm are Plut. are both unlikely. occur as melic systematic or intermediate periods. Ecd. dc correspondancc hdUnique 569 li". sometimes Of. Within these extremes a great variety of combinations was possible. The assump- is justifiable that the melody of hypermeters such as these was continuously sustained without recurrences from the beginning to the close. in the group found in 290-5 in impossible to determine how the subordinate periods. paeonic and prosodiac (243). Groups of paeonic-trochaic. (295). 363 H'. Vesp. 92 (85).. but is separated from the fifth by hiatus. abode). published by Weil. It is now (88). on the other that the melody to which they were sung was without recurrences (e. 204-7 (449). 355 (344). aaaaa). all of the same length. catalectic. but in reality is far removed from it. 584 fl". 4891528-33 tetra- (348).. Each stitutes a subordinate period. Groups of tetrameters. in any stichic period were grouped in the melody. 326- 36 tion (427). except which the fourth tetrameter is acatalectic.

85 fif. See Allg.. The rhythmical 779. of iambic value (31).. 445. and note the concession on p... Rhythmik^. See 33. 780. 179. in which they rightly hold that a Their theory of iambic and to establish catalectic colon is followed is by so a pause. differentiate rhythmically and they thus iambic and anapaestic from all other rhythms. Metrik^. They assume.v^ is ^ . Mdrii?. 88.^ .wi (3). but he places dependence on the evidence supposed to be furnished by the Hymns to Helios and Nemesis much less confidently in the first presentation of his theory than in subsequent editions. It is to be observed. Metrik'^. S2)ec. 177 f. They hold See {Spec.. for example. Metrik\ 7 f. 155 ff. is therefore. Metrik\ 471 ff. 7 f. anapaestic catalexis has been generally accepted that the evidence by which they endeavour it demands consideration. Metrik^. The doctrine is maintained by Westphal in the second edition of their Metrik. 272 ff. Rhythmik^. proposed the doctrine in RhyihmiB... MeiriJc^.^ first. The tone of the statement in the third edition is dogmatic. 356 . 173 ff. and that the protraction these rhythms suffer affects the long syllable that precedes the omitted primary time or times. that their general theory of protraction in iambic verse is disproved by evidence that has last edition of their 1 been made available since the publication of the Theorie der musischen Kilnste. of such a catalectic iambic trimeter as wi v^-^. 330.CHAPTER XIX VARIOUS MATTERS Catalexis EosSBACH and Westphal hold that the catalectic metres and anapaestic cola are protracted. 137 ff. Rossbach first Spec. 329 f. while the corresponding acatalectic colon complete. Allg.. Rossbach and "Westphal. Spec. not w--v>-t- ^ .^ - ^ A. See also Allg. that the catalectic metre in such a colon as this identical with the protracted metre that precedes.

2 74 -. 781.v^ i. t_ TTOiKiXwv dvOeoiv afi/3poTOi Aei/iaK€S ^ — ^ — i_v^— u. 128) to establish v^ . Farther on (p. .v^ i.as a j(p6vo^ tt]^ pvOp-oirouaf. His comment on the hypermeter is as follows iv tovtw yap oc re Trivre irpoirot. iSlo^ of greater compass than the ^(^povo^. v^ -. Metrik^..^ . iv rco rrjv he Sevrepav iv rrjv Be . • fi€yl(TT(p %/3o'z/&) KeladaL. as already This conclusion is disproved by stated. f. : .I. in the protracted diiamb u.as follows: : a>cTTe TTjv ixev Trpoyrrjv ^vWajSriv iv rw rco iXa'^lcrro).— § . so that the colon cited becomes by protrac-^^ _ ^ _ ). 781 in CATALEXIS such an iambic colon 357 179) that ')(p6vo<. asv^-v^- . that it becomes v^ an inscription from Asia Minor published by Sir William Eamsay i .but Eossbach and Westphal hold.-^- the Kev6<i (31) is taken up not by the following. the He has just the use of protracted ditrochaic metre - v^ i- . Oxyr.v^ rhythmized thus v^ . 7r6Se<i ovTM Ke')(^p7)VTat rrj Xe^et koI ttciXlv erepoi Tp€i<.therefore. 7ro8cK6<i. Papyri. to be rhythmized as vy . five cola are quoted and rhythmized as follows (Grenfell and Hunt. 'JOO tF. • - v^ A this. and /x€(T(p. Aristoxenus's Principles of Rhythm recovered in Oxyrhynchus. is to be The diiambic colon v^ . but by the preceding long syllable. 'ivda Syj 15): u. in the Bulletin de correspondance helUnique in 1883. But in the fragment of tion ^y-v^i ^-(^-^ i. v^ l_v^ — w — v^ — — /3advcrKiov irap' aAcros af^poirapOevovs w — i_ ^— v^ w — l_ w— fiuwras x^/^ous dyKaAats 8e\ovTai i— — w — ^ — ^ — — Aristoxenus's illustrated ' foot ' is here the diiambic metre. ^ -. but not fully ' See Weil. Etudes de rhythmique. 17) he analyzes the protracted diiamb i. The form is of the protracted iambic metre that occurs most frequently that is just • discussed. and in introducing the quoted hypermeter notes that. rpiTrjv .). the triseme syllable. We should expect i- under the operation of the principle manifest in .^ v^ The facts adduced completely invalidate Westphal's attempt {Rhythmik^. rj irepiexovaa ^vXKa^rj} is placed in a position the reverse of that which it has in the protracted ditrochee. : i nullify wliatever support this doctrine may be supposed to give to his theory of iambic catalexis (Ally.v^ .^ not thus ^ . second but rarer form (73) ^ - -.

with marks of the to indicate the rhythmization. protracted iambic octameter. but do not staff. Short syllables. are not marked in the inscription . long syllables. have either - or (the equivalent of i- ). here indicated by the eighth note. era. indicate the I give the transcription of M. century of the Christian acatalectic and consists of a musical setting. if not completely resolved into _i shorts in the music. mm m • . metres. but has to a much detail that scholars are not agreed as few readings.^ This is § 781 the work of a certain Seikelos.358 interpreted of the first till THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 1891. and crTty/iat on the theses so The inscription is well preserved. Eeinach. position of the notes on the in order not to distract attention from the metrical and rhythmical facts revealed by the song.

Archilochus. in 1840. 132 ff.^ — ~^ — ^^ ^ — ^^ — ^^^ — ^^ .almost solely respectively with the metres . since the equalization of slightly all Greek rhythms. with musical setting simply constituted logaoedic The fundaas follows : mental values of syllables.^ These hymns. f. 783. revealed by the \ef k.Rhythmik%(. Musici.. that the simple feet in logaoedic verse were diplasic and that the anapaest. 460 ff.\. . compare the famous dimeter of . i.here becomes v^ 'or ^^ . Hymnen. 39 ft'. by the evidence that they believe of the Hymns to Helios century of the Christian era. although the last two values are too exactly variant metres 1 stated.ndHarm(mik-.. . Bellermann. but we may here assume. v.^ ' is found in the musical score and Nemesis. a\ao\W'^t\A\9. and the J^^J and J^ J. admits variations of form indicated additional those Hymns.. which were republished by They cite this Bellermann.. Bergk. 782. it is possible to rhythmize this metre as ^ -J -. are 2 KvavwTTi 6ea dvyarep AtKas aKTii'tt Nem. consist of dimeters in ascending rhythm. and Supplem. 20 ff. 13 . dimeter is ^ With the last colon quoted. as iamb was sung as ^J. gr. and Mtisik d.). thumes. with account See of previous publications on p. in . and Mdopee. Eossbach and Westphal support their statement (779) that catalectic cola in iambic and anapaestic rhythm close and ^ ^ ^ . only approximate.Ta X^^P^ Kparovaa Nem. As we have already seen (390 f. 374 ff.. the second or ^ The first simple foot may be -. while maintaining.^xr^The inscription nowhere indicates that of the second simple foot. Lynci !. 7 ^uyov fie. § 783 CATALEXIS . 'Epaa/jiovlBr] XaplXae. Alter- ..and was. with extraordinary care. the fourth in the acatalectic and third are invariably >^ the catalectic dimeter is the logaoedic paroemiac. ^^ iroXva-rpoffiOV d/i7rAeKWi' Hel.— . ^-- . 40 ff. von Jan. Histoire. of by the words of the course. 359 . scholars are not agreed as to the manner in which isomeric anapaests and diplasic iambs were combined in logaoedic verse. Kev6<i is part or singularly ^ . — ^^— s^— ^ — ^^ — >^— w — . The music.•* xiii. 57 ft'. composed in the second evidence repeatedly. . 144 ff. 12 )(^iovo(3X€<f)dpov TTOiTep 'Aoi^s Hel. 445 ft". in in order to illustrate the melodic values of syllables in the Hymns modern musical notation. 327 ff. Supplem. fundamental to metrical values. These variations are simple and consist in attaching two tones to a single long syllable.w-"The protracted metre ^ In each case the ')(p6vo<. Gevaert.

. on the basis of syllables will be either J'JJ^^FJ ^J^JJ'J in dodecaseme time.) On Hymns. Nem. the sign A occurs between the last two notes of the musical score Five of these six cola that is set over the words of the colon. Supplem. ^ ' i * Eel. Thus I'xvecrcrt 8uoK€iS Hel. 21. the text of the third line of the second fragment of the inscription de cor. N) The sign a ordinarily signifies a pause of a primary time (33). cf. five (See the inscription of Seikelos.^ ^^J ^^J ^^J SJ The simplest - ^ ^^ variais Hymns 'SJ*S form.^ with variation of tones on the whole word 10.. 1476 f. 8 ff. ddyarpes evwXevoi. plate xxi. . tion from this in the music to which the follows Trepi : . but in each of the six instances of its occurrence in these Hymns it stands over a dissyllabic or trisyllabic word and cannot there- fore signify an actual pause. 3. In six apparently catalectic cola {Ilel.ovov (for ipi^p6/j. 1559 f. 1893. xvii. with a . in the first Hymn.) notes. are set as vwTov aTretpirov ovpavov .— 360 — THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY in : : § 784 this (Compare the remarks on the trochaic metre assumption. as in the dimeter of the following melic trochaic tetrameter XP'qo-i/JLOV : fxkv Oi'Sev. a device often met elsewhere in these Delphian Hymns. the acatalectic colon of the 228. over the second metre. bis) reads ipiPp6iJ. 9 (Cod. : 784. found at Delphi (von Jan. which was not permitted in Greek within a word. In one instance of the six. 11 The third anapaest has proceleusmatic as and the first syllable of ovpavov was sung »^^'f>J ov-ov. 8. in paeonic rhythm. but must indicate protraction. have four notes.) The A syllable in a musical score that did not would be the only means of indicating a protracted employ signs of quantity.^-^. stand over the apparently catalectic metre Se irdpoiOe ykavKa Se - Aa - va Hel.^ .ov) {Bidl. precisely as we meet apparently catalectic dimeters first in Aristophanes that are nevertheless complete. N) ^ Compare the Hymns to Apollo.For example. aXXws T€ SetAov Kol fieya {Av. 13) of the thirty-nine set to music in these Hymns. with a TTTavots VTT .).. 9. 1695 f. hell. 21 (Cod.

N) on these ten apparently catalectic cola. so that. i^ ^fe^fi J . the tone shifting.).: . Hymns four apparently catalectic cola {Hel. drawn from htooKeL^ this evidence is surely that 1. 9) Thus : Aei'/vwv VTTO a-vpjJiaa-i /aoctxwv Hel. fjbi correspond to each occurrence of this If (supra). not yXavKa Se irdpoiOe only the fourth to the ultimate. v.^i. The other four apparently catalectic cola cited above are held by Eossbach and Westphal to confirm their theory of They state that in the nature of iambic and anapaestic catalexis. by such a colon as \evKcov vtto avp/xaai must have been 1--. . but without a Nem. irravoh \ vir X')(yeaaL (supra) was ^ I ^ ^ ^M — 1— ^iid that J ^^J ^J^J. • . so that the last metre is J^^J^J"J It is clear that the four cases belong in the same ( v^ ^ i_ . It is . rft! ^. 9 {supra) But we have the testimony of Aristois ^ i. there note.. they are always different. Note in the same colon. But among the four instances now under consideration these two occur . that They hold Eossbach and Westphal seek to establish their case. 21.^ . ^. 25. and it is equally clear that.xenus that protraction affected the thesis of the simple foot in which it occurred. for example. 23.i. there are in these over the last metre. two notes are attached the same cp.^- sssspT^^not--^ conclusion overlooked.JjiJ ^P»/ J J^ffj J 786. category with the other six. 13. . is is ^M M hT^h .J ^^-i-. 23 (Cod. § 786 first CATALEXIS syllable of the first metre has syllable. six with a but with six notes over the catalectic metre. syllable. Sico/cet? in 785. four without it Kel.'.^JJ. that the protraction indicated by a found in six of the cola affects the preceding syllable. analogy with these /xoaxfov (supra) six. 361 Here the two notes : ^ as also the penultimate Furthermore.^J This I confirmed by internal evidence that has hitherto been Whenever a given note is repeated in to f^/xfi these two Hymns to always a syllable See Hel. and in the inscription of Seikelos we have direct evidence of this fact in a metre of the form ^ The only reasonable conclusion to be which was sung v^ .~ ^ekdva (supra) was fj^^ J^J^J •*/»^^ J not . that have six notes. JleL 23 (supra) and the similar cases the first three of the last four notes belong to the penultimate syllable of the colon and .

The missing element. they furnished the pauses designed to rest the voices of the singers. 11. lost by the . except Nem. has the value of a primary time. Ehythmik^. since the Hymn is without recurrences and the component ' periods are of different lengths. and this differentiation The metrical form by the Xeft?. Nem. (Hymnen. needed to complete the rhythm. N) The usage of the poet demands the division of fippc and /xcr The ascription of pp and re to the same between two syllables. 788. The seventeen paroemiac ' cola of the two Hymns are is clearly differentiated into three classes. lermann {Lyrici.* 66) and Bergk ( xiv.) last think of a leimma A ) between the two notes. is the same : of each of the cola. These are true catalectic cola.). but the stubborn fact remains that the leimma is not there. 14). that simple foot absolutely suppressed. 88. is cola protraction last 1^1 indicated by the ascription of four notes to the two long syllables. of which the score is defective. I. 19. N) Xijdovcra 8e Trap TroSa patvets Nem. 787. musical value sung as with See Rossbach. 7 (Cod. Besides the ten cola just examined. 14. melody of each These ten pauses occur at irregular intervals. as revealed 3t ^- - .^ and were shortened by hiatus or the substitution of a short vowel for a final long (43. 18. with the arsis of the last v^ith three others (Hel. the parts of these Hymns set to seven others {Eel following : music consist of twenty-two acatalectic cola and 1. 6. because the colon in that case would Belindifference or carelessness of the composer or copyist. 9 (Cod. 22. ^L <. the Xei/i/Att thesis of the last simple foot In six cola this is restored by protraction of the and the procedure is indicated by In four other placed in the position of the lost arsis. I fipp^( atyAas TroXvSepKca irayav Hel. § 787 p tj. N) Each of the seven has ten syllables and ten notes. instructive. whereby the final its long syllable is is We reject the still assumption that a primary time 1 J^J^ lacking. Neiii. 13. syllable and the assumption that the last metre was here •^^^JVV'J ^^ absolutely forbidden. 13 (Cod. 4.— 362 I ^ THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY ij. 6) such as the (CCC ic pc )(^LOvof3X€(f)dpov Trarep "^ ^ 'Aov$ Hel.

This distinction is nevertheless very real. It is the arsis of each metre that is protraction. 128.^ mind wlien he notes the i. a catalexis parallel. ^ and time of . in Ifiyllos. of the remaining seven not indicated in any manner. that catalectic. This reverses the relations found in the primitive dimeter and consequently in the iambic dimeter. fundamental relations were shifted. in catalexis the ' We is ' conclude. that they are really incomplete. this distinction that Aristoxenus has in It is precisely difference in iambic suffers between the protractions - v. a pause follows final in all other rhythms. which stressed syllable in ^ "Was ist denn mowitz on Sappho 51 stresses all all rhythms and at the rigidly puts the bar.^ of rhythm (780). It is the first metre in the trochaic anapaestic catalexis is dimeter that constitutes its thesis. anapaestic catalexis the arsis of the last simple foot is actually suppressed and that two theses are thus brought together. how substantial is apparent when one recalls that catalexis is the chief means employed by the poets to indicate the close of the combination of acatalectic cola that constitute the subordinate period.in trochaic and i. Hephaestion Aristides says that that it is last ' foot diminished. precisely as in the ionic. Disposition to accept the current theory of iambic and promoted by the practice of modern music. Any is theory of catalexis that does discredited.^ not maintain this distinction would alone condemn the assumption that the final metre in a catalectic iambic colon was rendered as ^ even if there were not additional convincing evidence for rejecting it. them beginning of the die Katalexe. This of distinction relations lost in modern music. which ignores the distinction between ascending and descending When the rhythm.' The distinction between robbed of a syllable (33). The protraction is.§ 789 CATALEXIS 363 that cola end with is without is the musical equivalent of six short syllables. in which the last metre and the last simple foot in each metre are theses. To complete the syllable. We must conclude that in iambic and and • this consideration . 789. catalectic and acatalectic cola is substantial. trochaic dimeter had developed the arsis of its last simple foot and stood forth as an independent rhythm (610). ^ ^ its . therefore. it is the first simple foot in each trochaic metre that constitutes the thesis of that metre. wenn nicht der Vers KaraXTj^et?" von Wila- . as the colon.

word. Sfx. the syllable When. anapaestic tetrameters of the it occur. i II Westphal This is asserts (AH. 742. ^ Yov the general doctrine.^ . Tvydrpcov Th. 791.^J 1 J" J J* J . along with printed in the the Hymns to Helios and Nemesis.^ J J and catalexis in the 273) that the last metre of the iambic tetrameter cannot be rendered otherwise than as w i. Before so many remaining thirty combinations of mute and liquid as all rhythms except dactylic. Trarpis Thesm. Fl. 145) to the melody of the two iambic tetrameters that begin the ^ {Histoire. 1153.^J . 29. Aristid.). [xaKpov Eq. true.-^ . 45. usage. to collections Hymn the Muse. with few exceptions. see Hephaestion. 10 ff. only in trimeters. 1019. ttotvi' Lys.. remains short in hexameters. J. KaTrviov Vesp. Mctrik^. containing the short vowel is lengthened by position. 386) in his musical setting of the part of the inscription of Seikelos. to trochaic movement. The following exceptions occur in trimeters 1468.^J . in violation of One might add that the iambic period quoted by Aristoxenus (780) cannot For it is not possible be rendered at all in the modern manner. /3X. the syllable r^v. v. 1178. See the difficulties into which Gevaert first {Mdop^e. the two single consonants are a mute and a liquid that are in the same simple word is or in the same part of a compound 7/i. All these instances show the influence of tragic or epic^ Eq. 207. Many of the remaining cases have been emended and the editors should be consulted: Spaxfiwv Fax 1201. chap. (1. Se Kva(f>ev£t Fl. however.^ bining protraction . lengthened in Aristophanes only before fj. When a double consonant is or two or more single consonants follow a vowel that naturally short. 364 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY the 1 § 790 Thus melic iambic tetrameter . 369.w-^^-in perfectly defined differences. i. 5 ff. 44 f. to restate such a period asi-v^. 151. if the tetrameter is first reduced.. Quantity of Syllables in Comedy^ 790.^ IJ. y\. 166. : -/} See the form given by Gevaert i. 859. ISpvaaa-de Fl. /J J becomes | trochaic / iJ /J / |J / J / J . Trarpwov Nub. KadtSpveevre Av. KuTrpou Lys. These exceptions are found. terms of trochaic movement and at the same time preserve the syllabic values Aristoxenus falls certifies. 1184.^J / comlast metre. 8v. vypbv Pax 140. . Kp€[xadpwv Nub.. middle mutes with or X. He.i-^. 8' 'O/Jpt/AOTrarpa (probably ^ ^ ) 833. 869. in spoken and recitative and dactylic verse. M.

691. 591._. Oepixhs 6 irXivpniiv Pax eir€LyoiJ. 249 ft'. KeKpoTTiS?. aKXijTos 983.783. 680 (498). : Eq. 3paxpyv See the editors. kuI -apa-pla-fxaT 882 (347).6Ta? i?aw. (354). 8eLvd KtKpayais 1018. . The following exceptions occur in recitative anapaestic tetrameters Trerpats Eq. 1088. Sitt TptTToSojv 1016. KeK-poTTOs 301 (344). (SaprfSpo/xov 284. Kopp's Ueher : posit io debilis. Nub. Kairvov Nub. Axatwv ^idpovov 1284. 794. Language and Verse. and in none of his dimeters. d<f)pa8iy](TL Fax 1064. 2Q i. 121 (429). Ktx^^oiv Av. oAtyoSpavees 686. 1442. yap Kara XPWH-^^' Aei-Korpixa e'o-Tiv 6 XPWI'-^'' llOlj <S TTOTVt' (woto ^^Tie) 1108. . ^]v o-oi €'<^pa(er verse Nuh. iroXvcSpiV 1068.. 773. The following instances of lengthening occur in melic dactylic 1054. 313 (344). Attrpec^r. ToSe TTporepov 1074. 212 and i^pm 216 (285). Kttt x«P' TrpdKTopi 1289 (352). oTrAdrepov 1270. KaTaKpw^ova-i 1020. eViK-pw^oi-o-i 1051. since the vowel of the syllable that seems to Ikjhmv constitute an exception to the rule is probably naturally long On all these cases see Th. x^'p' eVtTrATjo-at 975. as that of Blaydes in his exegetical note on Xi(b. d(f>pi]TU}p 1097. also Trapdpvdp. 792. 1069. Cratin.' evpvdixa Th. 814 . KpLOV Av. splenThis licence is didiore genere metri. 971. 7rpiuTL(TTa IT po(^-i]Ti]<. ei/xi ^poeti' 1276 -roxTiav Trarptois 1533 (348). 1055. 395 (of. see Kirchner's Prosopographio Some words have been brought into the discussion which do 3755. 0T6 TrporjKwi' 513 (561)." allowed in only 12 of the 1235 recitative anapaestic tetrameters in Aristophanes. dyavoc^povos 1321 (406).s Lys. tt^s epvOpds 1088.? (vulgate) Av. o-Aorepois 1271 On the other hand. 816 (346). w Kef^piovt] r]fj. not belong here. 323).§ 794 QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES 365 . . Si) Tore Xpv) 985. But the vowel is kept short in dvTiTexi'ov (346). Cf. -) 1269. 1092. 971. On . The following occur in melic verse: fiova-a f3apvf3poixo<. 1518 and KUKAoo-o/JeiTe 1523 (494). Compare the folloAving instances of lengthening HacfiXayoi'wv 199. XV Ki-Trpoyevct' Lys. cases in ^ccZ.^ Fesp.Aycrt SpaKovra Eq. in ya/i<^?. vypav 335 652. 553. 1 Their statements often need revision. lengthening before 793. dypcjv 579. 'Arpews (w and four (351).a<fi\ayo)v 1058. ^ See La Roche's Homer ische UiUerSeymour's Homeric IT. 1 sjcchungcn. Aev/vdrpixa Av. i. 198. dpyaXewv Iv ottAois 1532. uKpov 401. rUva Fesp. Ban. 551 . 320: "quod licuit in tetrametris et dimetris anapaesticis. 972. e-i^pe/zerai Ran.€T€pe KpoviSri Fesp. hpta Ach.h-q TV(f)Xd 1078. 1169 ff. r68e (ppda-crat 1058. vypa 678. 320. Aristophanes evidently inclines to Homeric usage" in the syllable containing a naturally short vowel mute and liquid in his dactylic ' hexameters. OK-pvdevTO'j 1098. 1107. TToXv^aKpvv Av. aAAa rt xP^'/i' 1080. : Trarpos dir' epc^pep. rot U.' but his Attic is disposition to keep the syllable short strong and the two tendencies about balance one another. 278. the syllables remain short iyt/3pt/ieT7.

Nub. 394.' ov in Pax 1068. 495. 53. Pax 1008. 532. 324. Eq. 375. 875 (347). Th. 406). Thus in trimeters: in anapaestic 797. 978. 688. Fesp. 1280. 599. 706 (498). 352. Nuh. oi in Nub. Fesp. and even in trimeters. 687. Nub. 944. Av. tetrameters: Eq. 1002. 1313 {iroXvavopa. Ach. 347. 1329. 1056. Nub. since there is See 43. . 346. 982. Ran. 412. 1487. Av. THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 795 A few words in Aristophanes allow lengthening of an initial short a in the thesis. 1279. 979 . 304. 355. 1080. w in Eq. Fesp. 1032. Nub. 694. Lys. Ran. 699 373.^. 798. etc. Nub. . in A^ub. 807. Av. PI. at in Nub. Aristophanes has dvi]p ( ) also. 199. Av.w ^ ) may be shortened in anapaestic tetrameters and dactylic hexameters before an initial vowel or diphthong. Aristophanes has this shortening in anapaestic dimeters only in 392. 1276. in a 'dactylic anapaest' formed by a proper name. 286. Lys. in anapaestic dimeters: Vesp. 799. of ' ' Nub..366 795. ot in Eq. 298 (344). Lys. Fesp. ai in Eq. Th. 1015. Av. oi in Eq. aKa/x. . 1329.aTos (344). Thus also. 673. Th. 714 (498). 1295 (493). 574. to he noted in rendering such verses as Ach. 763. 344. w in i. in mehc This fact is verse: Ach. Paz 740. 809. 665 (221). 1018. (344). 466 (500). 321. A final long vowel or diphthong in the dissyllabic arsis an anapaest or dactyl or in the dissyllabic (resolved) thesis of an anapaest ( . 546. oj in Eq. 365. Pax 699. 293. 810 (497). Av. 1067 (235). Nub. ei in Eq. 1027 . rSivhe fxofjurjv Vesp. 306. A final vowel short by nature is always lengthened in Aristophanes before the single consonant p at the beginning of a word. 1090 ev in Eq. 1098. 813. 602. 796. at in Eq. 1092.3. Fesp. 781. and a^avaros in melic dactylic verse. 771. 629. 687. 567 (558). in anapaestic teti'ameters. 407 (243). 1015. r. ov in Eq. Pax 1091. Av. 405 (82). 1274. 595 (558). 647. 289 rhythm. 818. 800. Fesp. 1066. as ei in Ran. 806. 1065. 687 . 1224. y in Eq. 774. 327. 700. 1146 (299). Pax 119 bis (345). t in Nub. This is sometimes called weak or improper hiatus. 977. except once in a melic trochaic dimeter. 651. Thus. 1030. 987 €L in Eq. rj in Pax 1292 . PL 528 . 1286 bis. 307 . the last three occurring in melic Cf. Pax 585 (233). 1059. Av. Ran. Pax 106. Ran. 416. 220 (285). Fesp. 660. 1058. 1007. 1300. 1090. 291 (426). 372. Nub. Ran. The latter occurs also in anapaestic verse. 51. Fesp. 784. Tlie same shortening may occur in dissyllabic combinations of short syllables and in the arsis of the trochee in melic verse. Ran. 316. as in Homer. 1298. actual loss of quantity without a compensating pause. in dactylic 'hexameters.

Pax 311. 699. oLOfiai Lys. elsewhere in trimeters. 290 (344). 590. Pax 425. 1138 (571). 1340 (592). 52. as in Fesp. Fesp. Pax 88. Of these exceptions one is ionic. Th. as in cjuXaOi^vatos in Fesp. avrau Ach. 28. § 802 QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES . Lys. 1057. Eq. 1321. 282^ (499). Ban. Pa?i. Ran. 479. -otew in Nub. as in avryji Ach. Fesp. 7. toitovl Ach. Fesp. 'in Fesp. 583. 1160. 541. 480.. Pare 1065. Ka)/iwSo7rot7yT'. the arsis of trochee. 296. Ban. three anapaestic. Compare the double shortening in the compound tvwoutos in Nub. 1008. 1086. Av. 608. Eq. 1027. -t in ovToa-i is always shortened in Aiistophanes. 1150 (387). 676 (546). Ar. 194. Av. Nub. 59. arsis of the simple foot in anapaestic verse. 801. See Clapp's Quantitative Difficulty. 40. 860. and in particular iroieu) and its compounds and derivatives: Ach.^v. Nub. 1279. 218. 1133 (571). ttoios Fesp. 5. 84. as in Ach. Nub. 271. fxovaroTrouo) Nub. Av. Eq. in Eq. Eq. 1162. 1064 (235). 1362.. 40. 760. 434. Eq. 802. at in SeiAatos ending a trimeter. 811. Nub. Nub. 512. 706 (498). 271. Lys. 1369. 165. 1053 . one enoplic. Nub. Ar. the word constituting a 'spondaic' anapaest. as at the end of a trimeter in Ach. Nub. 615. 869. Ill. 392. ravryL Eq. 342. 71. 1318. etc. 1054. 761. Fesp. Eq. 247. Thus 40. A The diphthong or long vowel within a word syllable thus shortened is may be shortened before a following vowel or diphthong in word.ys Paa.y 367 1149 (387). 01 in certain pronouns: ofos Pax 1111. Eq. 139. 667. 674 (498). Fesp. TratSoTrotew ii'c. 1046. 596. Eq. 513 (561). Lys. TToiT^Tvys PaTi. two paeonictrochaic. It should be observed that 298. 751. Nub. The first syllable of dei is sometimes long in the 719.. 491. tovtwi Eq. 1011. Ban. 160. four are trochaic. the long vowel or diphthong which immediately precedes the demon. 734 r/ in . Thesm. Botwrds Ach. Pax 744. 1149. or same the iamb or the the second syllable of the dissyllabic arsis of the anapaest or dactyl or of the dissyllabic (resolved) thesis of the anapaest. u> in Pax 122 (345). 1288. 274. 390. Eq. w in Eq. 146 (detVwv) and in other forms of non-melic verse. but generally in the arsis and short. Nub. (374). 1366. 900. 339 f. ot in other words: Boiwrta Ach. 761. Ec. 20. TotoGros Eq. 418. Pax 1280. 334. 702. Fesp. Fesp. Eq. 1089. as in Nub. six Aeolic. 774 (410). as in Ach. twelve dactylic. 246. ovToii Ach. 1473. The same interior shortening may occur in dissyllabic combinations of short syllables and in the arsis of the iamb or trochee in melic verse. and as we should expect from the dominating influence of Homer. Twwoirrovi ofa v^ — |s^ TTtTTopSas jinan anapaestic tetrameter Here belongs d^i (aUi) of which the first syllable is sometimes in the thesis and long. 568. 1135. 215. strative ! . 301. 246. 58. 1082. Pa7i. Nub.

otos in Vesp. light of day in the Acharnians is called /xeXo<. Pax 358^ (232). Vesp. 750 (410). 324. Ran. and probably in Nuh. 857 (582). such as occurs in Eq. for example. Lys. the same conditions in Ach. The iambic tetrameter is the verse of abuse in comedy. Trochaic tetrameters and hypermeters and anapaestic tetrameters It is and hypermeters were probably never thus rendered. but some trimeters in comedy must have different Lamachus's dolorous farewell to the been rendered differently. Lys. 968 1325 (586). Xe^ov Tc tS)v vecorepcov. Compare the phraseology in Nuh. rendered recitative instructive to observe that the half of the celebrated debate in . Modes 803. 552. and a vehement debate conducted in this verse. Most and melodramatic iambic tetrameters. pa EvpiTTiBov prjo-iv rtv. 1118 (571). o B €vdv<. a fact confirmed by its metrical form. arr ecnl ra cro(f)a ravra Some trimeters in comedy. 1309 (586). Nub. 451 (409). 275 (344). probably . The trimeter of comic dialogue. 1256. 849. but long in the thesis in Av. Pmu. 1528 (348). The entire passage in the and paratragedy. 1034 (583). 819 (242). 335 ff. contains in itself strong intimation of melodramatic rendering. 804. were rendered in the manner of Acharnians (1174-89) may have been thus rendered. ywat in Pax 1329 (584). 318 (577). Eq. Av.. Pax 399 (232). 917 (580). 536 (217). (287). in parody tragedy. 1308 Vesp. The narrative continues melodramatic trimeters. but some parts are in doubt. 1458 (548). iambic hypermeters were rendered melodramatically. 583 (553). Pmii.: 368 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY (581). § 803 332 (577). 322. generally delivered with the speaking voice unsupported by musical accompaniment. 547. 319. toiovtos in Pax 911 (580). otw in Lys. iroi-qr-q^ in Eq. kirivoia in Av. see 186. 405 (290). 1478 (215). 469 (500) and in the Eupolideans in Nub. was not suffice. and some were For the metrical differentiation of in recitative. See 190 S. etc. | then. etc. These are although it is expressed in trimeters (1184-5). which does not But not materially differ from that of the trimeter of dialogue. 1370 f Toaavra Xe|a9.) in which the parts of a comedy were rendered is generally not Hard and fast rules do difficult. and aces The first syllable of ad in melic Averse is short under in 1267 (412). by his attendant. 942 (86). of Eendering The determination of the modes (59 f. Ran. all iambic tetrameters in comedy are abusive.

In the Lysistrata (254 ff. ^c. the other sung. it is difficult to believe that they were rendered by 2 B . the two verses with which the half-chorus of old men enters were rendered in recitative. were rendered in recitative. and suggests that they were taken respectively in his Prolegomena.. But when we consider the contents of the epirrhemata and antepirrhemata of the parabases. now impossible to determine with certainty how some tetrameters and hypermeters were rendered. by four members of each half. has his famous blackguard in the second debate carry on in iambic tetrameters the argument which Cleon has begun in anapaests {Eq. 301 ff. 230 ff.). The dactylic mock oracles and heroics. Paa. contrast between the Good Young Man and the Bad Young Man is similarly marked in the Nuhes (961 ff. Aves 1313-36 (406) seems to be a mesodic musical number. 285 ff. Westphal 40 ff. (1854) 119 importance to the prevailing tetradic form of these parts of a comedy (668). but the corresponding verses with which the women enter (319 f) are in Aeolic rhythm. Hermann in his Epitome. of course. between the two modes may sometimes not have been great. 1036 ff. whether in song or in recitative. that one was recited.). as the Eupolideans in the Nubesl pair of verses It is possible. generally entertained.. but this single tetrameter may have been recited. with a melic iambic tetrameter between strophe and antistrophe. 247 ff. 806. states is the parabasis (668). ' hexameters ' of comedy. x.§ 806 MODES OF RENDERING 369 the Ranae conducted by Aeschylus (1006 ff. Mus. ABA. and were rendered by the whole chorus with dance (the cordax) and song.) in iambic. § that they were recited by the leaders of the two half-choruses that sang the strophe and antistrophe. Plut 257 ff). designing to out-Cleon Cleon.) is in anapaestic The rhythm.. Vesp. and it is not without significance that Aristophanes in his Eqiiites. Scholars are not agreed as to the rendering of the trochaic tetrameters of the epirrhemata and antepirrhemata of 653.. and this view now f. It is ff.chorus. used in 763 ff.). to judge from the practice in other parodes (cf Eq. Shall we con- clude that these verses were also rendered in recitative. 843 ff. and probably even the Eupolideans in the parabasis of the Nuhes (518 805.. indeed. attaches special Enger in Rhein. holds that strophe and epirrhema constituted a single lyrical number. and the distinction. that conducted by Euripides (907 ff.).

and the first requirement must have been that they should be so rendered that the audience could take the jokes. = 475 f.. Trochaic 808. 809. see the commentary) in the second debate in the Equites that was almost certainly melodramatic. Eq. 1111 ff. Schol. 807. 428 f. 1303 ff. rendering. 302. Heliodorus regards Ach. 1264 ff. full of cordax. melic with See .. Pax 339-45. contrasting of ff". stichic. doubt where the half. metrical scholia on Ach. the should expect. with the accompaniment of the These were topical addresses to the audience.. are each part of a parode. Positive evidence is lacking. we are uncertain where its singing ceased If and passed into recitation recitation. But since he applies this term passages. as we Cf. in application to a strophe that was sung. In this instance we are in Vesp. but in 403 ff. 571-81. 911-40. also Schol. Similarly he applies it to the . Pax 1127 971 K ff". single melos consisting of 204-18 (Schol.' indicate difference ff... applied to the rendering of all verse except the spoken trimeter of dialogue... two monads with shift of 204 ff. Pax 856 ff. It 651-6.chorus began to sing. 939 ff. 486 Continuous series of pro- tracted trochaic metres are not used elsewhere in recitative. yet Heliodorus Equites and Aves were rendered states that commentary on these See his each of the three in the Peace is melic.370 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY § 807 twenty -four persons in song. 284follow trochaic tetrameters. Elsewhere Heliodorus generally uses the word /icAos. 665 Eq. Nuh. 1127 ff. but it should be noted that Heliodorus differentiates the metrical ' form ' of strophe ' and as epirrhema perhaps to so sharply. we conclude that 408-14 constitute the choral part of the first half of the parodic syzygy. and that began at 415. Ach.. 551 1264 ff". and that the three trochaic periods in question were rendered in recitative.. as the preceding tetrameters. 551 ff. 387-99. Ach. 418 f. also to the iambic period {Eq. and these seems certain that those in the in recitative. 665 ff. it is probable that he uses /ieXo? as a general term.. hypermeters in Aristophanes that are strictly trochaic generally Such hypermeters are Eq. Trochaic hypermeters also perplex inquiry. local hits. we must account in for the cretics of the half-choruses f. ^v.) as a rhythm at to think that the four introductory tetrameters 208. but the opening of other parodes (cf 805) might lead one were recited by first first the leader of the half-chorus.

it 498 ff. probably in mode of rendering. as Nuh. No peculiarity of If Peithetaerus metrical form indicates that they were sung. if also 510 ff.§811 missing it MODES OF RENDERING first 371 ff. does not imply the least doubt that they were definitely and clearly determined by the poet before the actual performance. 810. to the fact that the first part of the commation was addressed to actors as they left the stage. (295). see 807. Some may have simply been half-chorus.). was due Vesp. when he attempts to play in detail cannot now . Peithetaerus those recited in 1743-7. as perhaps Ach. It must frankly be just as confessed. (294). theatre to see the play as well as to hear it were not disturbed Uncertainty in settling these points now by these questions. and that the verses that followed were a prelude to the poet's address to the audience. difference existed. 204 ff. Others must have been at least sung. first 626 ft: 811. 676 ff. where the second part probably was Similarly he applies it to Fax 571-600 as a sung as well as the first. as Av. The means of differentiating melic from recitative anapaests are stated in 282. 1743-7.. For Ach. whole. also differ as to the rendering of the Kofifidna that open the Some of the commatia of comedy must have been parabases. recited by the leader of the (296). consisting probably of a recitative trochaic hypermeter and a melic strophe. Nub. then. Hq. but we are sometimes in doubt. (561). how did he render the syncopated iambic tetrameters in that back on the probable fact Opinions lyrical number. stasimon of the Nuhes (Schol. consisting of the monody of Dicaeopolis and the four dimeters of the chorus. many questions face which modern interpreter of Aristophanes must determine the scenic presentation of a Happily the audience that gathered in the ancient be answered. The leader of the first half-chorus had the anapaests in Aves 1726-30. (546). Fax 729 ff. 889 He applies also to Ach. fall 1755-62? We aU the comedies ended with a partially melic. 1009 The (297). 263 ft". that the rendering certain parts of a comedy cannot mode of now be determined the with certainty.

ends with trochaic in the close. 12. the simple feet in the epitrite. and made the long syllables constituting a tetra- at the close of the tripody tetraseme. the final syllable of an original paroemiac (643). but manifestly the short syllable cannot carry the burden of tetraseme length. The tetrameter quoted thus becomes a pentameter with the value of thirty primary times. xiii. to give each long syllable the value of two primary times. 619 ff. K. thus See >S^ec. (-v^w=3f|^ and =3 3). The combination of tripody with dimeter and the union of isomeric 812. giving it Bockh equalizes had See the value of six primary times ( - v^ =2 I. the value of Find. Op. 98 f. . Eossbach proposed in the first edition of his Rhythmik. as in is of no avail when the tripody the following corresponding verse same ode : icrrtov apTraAews t is aeArrov I^lkovto ^kpcrov Bacch. which is unsupported by ancient evidence. xiii. 164 f. and the iambic and trochaic metres that are joined with them as third and second epitrites (Heph. each short syllable of the dactyl that of one primary time. generally been regarded by single feet (dactyls) with diplasic single feet (trochees) in such a tetrameter as eo-re^avwo-ev Weipas ev IXaveAAavtov deOXots -v/w-v^v.372 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY Pkosodiac-Enoplic Verse theories of constitution § 812 the prosodiac and enoplius have modern scholars as respectively an anapaestic tripody and a dactylic tripody. uniting a The former involves the colon tripodic difficulty with dipodic metres. the epitrite ii. But this remedy. difficult have been variously explained. This manifestation tion. The combination period is of single feet of different ^^evr] within the same likewise a difficult problem for those who make the simple foot the unit of rhythmical measurement. as one solution of the difficulty. the short not infrequent and has historical explana- syllable at the end of the tripody being. operation of |-v^ ^ Bacch. furthermore. 13-18). 1 iy2 9 ) ^he single dactyl. K. Metrik"^. Until recent years. The verse composed of these elements has therefore been named dactylo-epitritic. Westphal appreciated the meter. in fact. 107.

619 ff. a purely trochaic the dactylic and trochaic cola was not rigid dimeter. diplasic Kossbach measurement of finally {Spec. H.^ (last the minor ionic (1)^ ^ . 84 ff. says. or ' . chief exponent of this theory.v^ . ' or (3). not only ^ furthermore.' that and one-half times. now determinable. all 431 ' ff. The dactyl. Schmidt (Compositionslehre. The trochees were somehow rhythmized under the influence of Just how this was effected is not the dactyls and spondees.§ 813 PKOSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE epitrite. Metrik".(first syllable of the arsis The even (4).) by giving tetraserae value to each long syllable of the final foot of the dactylic tripody. This view was verse quoted thus measures twenty-eight times. But the process of equalizing the time of .(second syllable of the arsis irrational).and _ vy .. 41) also gives the trochee of the epitrite the value of four primary times. 130.^^ v^ (first syllable major ionic (1) ^ . The tetraWestphal four primary times (| of the epitrite the value of The See System dcr Ehythmik. syllable (3 1). . was a true dactyl in even time and controlled the period.) insists on the simple feet. but by assuming triseme length for the long times. 28) at variable). that the elements but even ^ ^ ^ . but irrational. Rhythmic and Metric.v^ .v^ ..w . regarding the prosodiac and enoplius as composed each of two distinct and separable metres and ^ ^ and believing that all these metres are ionics. 202 ff. the equivalents respectively of In prosodiac periods. he Goodell {Metric.v^ (both manifestations). are also ionics. perhaps even a dipody. who is the and the second. may have kept its own triple time. therefore. may appear as {2)yj ^^ . 813. Some modern metricians hold that the verse now under consideration is ionic. trochaic. choriambic form of the ionic mediates between the first series Otto Schroder.(both manifestations). Metrik^. the epitrite ends ' with an irrational long syllable and the dactyl is cyclic (389 ff.). 184. subsequently modified {Spec. See Rhythviik^. being found in both. 373 ' but the short syllable of the of one which was irrational. would put a stress (ictus. syllable irrational). variable). the ^ ^ and ^ w ^ ^ may appear as {2)^ . H. or (3) In enoplic periods or even (4)^ .^ designated in this book as iambic and v. varied this by giving the trochee *)• The verse quoted thus has the value of thirty-two primary J. of meter thus has the value twenty-seven times. .) rejects this absolutely..

a stimulating book. of course. ' of the choriamb. in true minor ionic The form .^ minor ionic arsis. in which it The remains to be proved that major ionic verse occurs at all. is not a minor ionic. is For the cases in Aristophanes see 71. and on the short syllables See the tabulation in his Vorarbeiten./-vy|-w ^ in correspondence in strophe and antistrophe. ^ A sporadic case occurs in Aeschylus irepivaiovTaL TraXaiSi' Supp. even in Aristophanes's tour In short. 91 " exclude. The form . namely on the second syllable of the thesis of v^ v^ thesis of w ^ and its equivalents. should be observed. 814.v^ result of terminal anaclasis (419 ff. since entire odes in this metre are found the laws governing minor ionic verse both in comedy and in tragedy. 101 ff. version. but arises ' . where the anaclastic form in the one case prevents misinterpretation of the other. 1021 = 1030. is not found among the minor ionics of Isyllus. with v^v. (429) from consideration. Thesm. Among The the choriamb. it choriamb. Schroder. occasionally allows a collocation wv^-^|-v^ and v^v^ not found in the tragedians..^ Isyllos. Vorarbeiten.). 1 . we may safely conclude. and where the normal interprets the once he has ^ ^ \~ ^ In all these cases the colon begins with true irregular form. and the instances are not numerous. that these ionic elements in prosodiac-enoplic verse must have had a peculiar Since the publication in 1886 of von Wilamowitz's development. 93. v^ furthermore. whenever it appears in deforce (429). if this theory is sound. the choriamb. nor in any ionic ode in the drama.^ But See ff. does not occur in major The form 206. a ludicrous I extravagance that exhibits with set purpose every possible licence in form. fragments of ionic verse in the melic poets are few. 85 ff. .^ then. verse. but happily can be formulated with exactness in the drama. nor. any form of Ionian verse. ionic verse in the early melic poets nor in the drama. and furnish means of complete occurs in the drama only as the comparison. in of early melic poetry on the scansion of any ionic fragment which scholars are agreed. on the first syllable of the and its equivalents. due to interior anaclasis. except that Aristophanes . but sober reflection must relegate this to proper place as the fundamental metre in Aeolic verse. It is obvious. at the other extreme.' 374 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY § 814 the middle of each metre. 1 by conversion through anaclasis or in imitation of such conThe instances of the latter are extremely rare. the search for ionics has gone on merrily and a bizarre collection these its is has been assembled.

xiii. ot/<€tats iii.^ ^ Bacch.6v tovto yap K^p^koyv VTrepTarov Bacch. 5 f. Ni'jti^ai' XovTpd /JacrTci^ets 6/xt|A4(j)V Trap' 83 f. neither resolution nor the irrational But form of the most of the metres (650) occasions difficulty. on the contrary. G9'' — w Kv8o<. j3ov(Tiv ttws . vi. K. 34'' Tavpov dpyaevra irarpl Sei^ov Twi' 8' d(f>dv'T(i}v 01. 115 B. the form ^ y^ Thus also a phenomenon not found elsewhere in Greek verse. involves resolution of an irrational syllable. but there is nothing comparable in true minor If these are ionics and represent ionic verse in the Greek poets. 60 815. 21 K. . X. K. frg. 159 B._^_M _^_. ev alva Taprdpoi Kei\Tat. 5 K.d Spiov iv<f)paive 6vp. _^ Tov yap "ISas _^ dfxcfil _^_. they must indeed have had a each the ground form v^ w But as trochaics peculiar origin and independent development . ^^M _v^_^ | Pyth. 19^* ^^ ^ ^ viii. ix. K.|_^_M _^^ 6epfJ. ! they are unobjectionable . — ^ oa-Lu — v. i.|_^_i=i _^ _^ 01. There are scores of these cola and periods in Pindar and Bacchylides. 112 41 o S* dvareivats ovpavc^ x^^P"-^ dfj^d^ovs Isth. Cola of this description may be continuously combined in periods 6pvi\xe'S : la-xvi. Tij. dpovpan 19 dKficf. TToAies a r Kv^ota- Kal Tracrav Kara 01. xiii.^ then is the equivalent of ^ y^ if. liK-eAta T avrov Trif^et Pyth..^oAaj|^eis eTpiocrev ^aAKeas Aoy^a? _^ _^ ^ ^ Nem. 22 15 f. vavcrl Trei'Ti'jKovTa crvv KpyjTwv o^tAw Baccli. ^^_. 51 f. — y^ — ^ ^ cjid(TO} ixeyio-Tov Bacch.. ^^ ^ ^^ sometimes appears as in prosodiac verse . avreiVet cradpov Nem. cri'v |_^_. dewv TToAe/xios -V. 1. irrda-a-ovTc 8' Xi0v<f)9oyyot <f)6/3oi -v. i. K. i.|_^ _^_.(a6s wKicrcrav dp>^a|yoi'S aTrop^v^Twi' dyvtdv ix. : . i.— 1^ 815 PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE 375 we constantly encounter such as follow Zrjvos cf)afu : enoplic cola in Bacchylides and Pindar €v6a\h Kol ireSov Bacch. xii.^ OS t' ^ |-v^-^ ^ . V./ |~^ Bacch.

of — w Friedlander's and — might sometimes have the two theses ("fallender Zweiheber") is v^ v. syllable. by loss of its initial arsis. For if were w — ^ — and — v^ derived from from — v. . both forms would contain three theses. Whereas the final phrases in i.^ -.^ . ignoring the sufficient explanation of this v^ found in its irrationality. is a thesis.^ and he assumes an intermediate tripody v-. which in enoplic verse. Friedlander rejects the derivation of the element .w .v^ as well as the third. on the sole ground that its final syllable is generally long. verse. But he also denies that this element is trochaic.. v. ii. reckoning in simple feet. as actually found in prosodiac verse. would become — ^ — ^ — But it is precisely this tripody which does not occur in prosodiac-enoplic verse. .. have but two. iii. 321 ff. in the illustrations quoted in 644./ — w — necessarily in each case by the loss of a final arsis. In an article recently published in Hermes (xliv./ manifestly erroneous.^ in enoplic verse are not respectively an iambic penthemimer ( — — ^ — ^ ) and a trochaic metre ( . those in iv.is regarded as equivalent to ^ metre see his But such resolution is unobjectionable in the iambic For Schroder's explanation of this phenomenon ^ Vorarbeiten. . Friedlander's ^ subsequent deductions are not tenable. whereas it is often short in prosodiac-enoplic . 816. w — v. 10 yevicrt (fiatvaiv TepeL\vav parep olvdvOas OTrwpav ^— irrational v^ ^— if ^ — — Pind.v^ . See 650. as are his statements that -. 102 ff. and iv.. thus derived. like their sources. by loss of the initial arsis. as we have seen. w ^ also involves resolution of an ^ . The intermediate colon with three theses is not found in pi'osodiac-enoplic verse in any poet. v. Nem.. . from the minor ionic. and V./ . and 1 .).I 376 THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY 6ka-(ravro.^ found in enoplic verse.w .. a final colon of the form — v^ — ^ — (with restored arsis.. Nem. v.) but are " shorter secondary forms " of ^ _ ^ and . assumption that — v^ value of a simple metre .) fails between iii. and it is unfortunate that Friedlander should have impaired the value of an interesting investigation by quoting in its support not only Aeolic periods from Pindar. It will be noticed that in the process of regressive reduction from i. has sometimes the value of three theses. have each four theses. but even part of a heavily protracted melic iambic trimeter It is a commonplace of Greek metric that cola may from Sophocles have the same metrical form and yet be unrelated. rightly maintaining that the first syllable in . Trap fSiofjibv iraTepos §816 'EAAaviou '^— ovTTO} v^^ v^^ ^ — Pind. . 1909. to v. 6 In such cases as these. He maintains that in prosodiac verse and. . ^ ./ ! . and the final syllable of each would always be long within a colon.

- Eq. for example. 100). 232 o-as aTTTo/xevos (paperpas /xt) kuk-ws TrivardaL .^ and .^ ^ _^^_|__^_ ' .). 98. These changes arose under poetic effect. may sometimes be accounted a tripody (" Ureiheber "). Zur neuesten Bewegung. If it were true that the mere Leo. Euripides and Aristophanes the period that n. . 1272 f. he admits. 11.. and make search them all.w were convertible. reckoning in simple feet. Cayit. Cant. classifies the former (Aristoph. But the mere fact of v^ . catalectic periods of the following forms OS av TTO-pa ITie/DtScov' piTTxe (TKcAos <L \d-)(r]a-i Swpa Movcrav Bacch.^ Yet the tetrameter fovmd in Bacchylides.^ - __^_ ^ . occurrence of different forms in the same place in successive 818.^ for and v^ ^^ . See 51. 159. substitution does not prove rhythmical equivalence either in this or in other rhythms. f. 1530 Tray/cyoares. is prosodiac and enoplic ("Chalcidic").and . w Tpwtas t^^XV ^raAaia rin^wvi Sta Setfias Eur. (630. which.sp. and compels their classification elsewhere. ovpdviov pe/Lt)SiK€S Vesp. certifies as prosodiac YAEIANTS FROM NORMAL TYPES The final argument that has induced many scholars to theory of prosodiachowever reluctantly. the ionic enoplic verse is doubtless that drawn from the apparent correSee spondence of certain metres in Bacchylides and Pindar. then doubtless should have to agree that. The is ' ionic theory has no explanation of this catalexis.§ 818 PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE 377 that the ithyphallic. audi Eq. Hephaestion expressly For further examples see 495. the excludes from this class a whole series of periods which belong ' ' to it. impulse to secure a special rhythmical Schroder'sclassificationof r^. Bhes. although the remainder of tlie strophe.. accept. K. 3 f. 21) 1 The question. the latter of Yet he prosodiac and euoplic periods. directly against the express testimony The latter (Aristoph. . 493) occur in odes composed exclusively. as an Archilochian tetrameter. although these It cannot account for : periods occur in prosodiac-enoplic odes. 1273 is significant. ends with a catalectic iambic trimeter. he says. eyyev€o-6(i}v xix. a name that would fit we . of Hejjhaestion. ' ' ' ' strophes proved their rhythmical equivalence. has always four theses. 1530 Both (494. ionic theory of prosodiac verse 817. the former of prosodiac. Furthermore.

that is no enoplic element introduced into any prosodiac period. suffice for building of the stately and impressive strophes found in lyric poetry and Exceptions to normal types are not numerous. Prosodiac-enoplic verse is regular and triply - simple. of few variants from normal types. and to whom therefore Greek quantitative rhythm often seems strange and difficult. now briefly submit in Bacchylides to consideration. contains about 665 prosodiac and enoplic cola that are either complete or so slightly mutilated All that their exact original metrical form is not in doubt. first published in 1897. the special rhythmical effect at which the poet aimed. is In other words. The variants follow. The question I shall issue is so all fundamental these variants and important that Pindar. never involves confusion of rhythms. Four tetra- dimeters and six all trimeters of and two compound the meters (489). These variants arose.' and these twenty-eight show. but twenty -eight of these are included among the twelve normal cola. variation at strictly limited. . and ' must be answered. among limitless possibilities. is. 378 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY is § 819 then. rhythm of either period The normal form represented by the variant is generally determined by apparent correspondence if not. it is revealed by the contiguous forms composing the colon in which the variant occurs. of the significance of these changes one of rhythm. Bacchylides is the poet There are only two in Aristophanes. as conversely no pro- sodiac element introduced into any enoplic period. of single metres ' or Such consideration may reveal even to men whose speech is not quantitative. normal form. different forms that the period takes. under poetic impulse to secure variation It is special rhythmical effect by substituting a slightly different form for one of the twelve regular cola. but even in Bacchylides there are relatively The papyrus manuscript of this poet. not by consideration even cola. by which the continuous ascending or descending respectively would be broken. the drama. as I have just said. ' only six different sorts of variation. The commonly consists in the change of a single element..^ 1 The hair-lines here indicate the division into cola. 819. quoting occasional parallels from 820. who manifests special disposition to vary his rhythms by means abnormal forms. and thus disclose the true differentiation of the slightly but of the period as a whole.

:

§

822
821.

PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE
UXevpwva
8'

379

fx-lvvvda Se /zot

^^ _^^_
TOV

^ —
I

^v\a yXvKd\a yvwv S oXiyoaOevewv ^^ — ^ ^ — Bacch. V. 151 K.

f.

WS

rSei'

'AX/C/7/i/l'tOS

6aV[Xa(TTQ<i 1/|pWS T€VX€(rt

Att/XTTO/Xei'Ol'

^^
is

^ —

^~|

^^

— ^ ^ —

Ibid. 71

Three times in this long ode the regular rhythm of the pentameter disturbed, as in the second period quoted, by the anticipation, in the second metre, of the iambic movement that follows in the
third/

Compare

in

Pindar

:

'Oy ^i^a-rUuu-iv r
o5
S'
u/x</)'

aioveira-L
)')

TreptcrTeAAwv doiSav
ItpijTai

~
i.

cte^Aots

TToXi-jxi^diV

KvSos a(3p6v

^
This

^ ^

_^^_

^ -

-

Isth.

33,

50

period (33) is normally the well-known tetrameter (489, 6).
822.

hypercatalectic

form of a

The reverse

effect is
:

observable in the following penta-

meter in descending rhythm
drJK€v

avT

ev€pye(TLav,

XnrapoJv t

aAjAcov <TT€(f)avu)V eTTip-oipov

Bacch.

i.

19

f.

K.,

157

f.

B.

_^__ _^-_ ^^_^|_^^_

oaarov av^utr) xpovov, rovSe Xd-xev

'

Ti\ fidv; dpera 8'

kTrljxo-)(do<;

v..^-- ibid.

42

f.

K.,

180

f.

B.

In this single period of the ode (v. 42 f.) the regular rhythm is varied by continuing the opening trochaic cadence into the second Thus also in a catalectic tetrameter (489, 12), in Find. metre.
Pyth.
i.

TOV

TTpoa-'epTTOVTa

')(jp6voVj 8'

S)v

e/oarai Kaiphv StSots
irpb

~
57, 77

fiurdov, ev 'EirdpTo.

epeo)

rdv

KidaLpwvo<; pa-xav
v./— Pyth.
i.

vy

wo—

^

sj


:

Compare the following heptameter
XaAxeoKpavov
S'

eTreiT

e^jetAero J^ibv

dva7rTi'[£as

(fiaperpas
8'

7rw/xa

tw

ei'tti'Tia

Bacch.

V.

74

ff.

K.

Once
1

in this ode (colon

115) a trochaic metre occurs instead of
occurs in prosodiac verse nowhere else Greek poetry. Housman's conjecture See Jebb's note. id' is, therefore, right.
in

In Bacch. xiv. 5 Blass reads 170', where the manuscript is uncertain, but ^ — this would give a variation (

-v./^-

for

v^^

-^w-)

which

:

:

:

:

,

380

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

§

823

the normal - ^ ^ -

at the beginning of the second dimeter/ due perhaps to the trochaic swing of the period." 823. The displacing element is sometimes the first half of

the prosodiac or the second half of the enoplius. pentameter in ascending rhythm
yvwfiai TToXvTrXayKTOi /SpoTwv
\

Thus in a
~

afiepa-av VTrepraTOV Ik X€ipQ,v yepas
ka-crafievoiv,

Kacrav Trap eiwSpov

Trpoyo\v(jiv

UpLafiOL

€7rei

XP^^^
f.,

Bacch.

xi.

35

119

f.

K.

Twice in this ode the regular rhythm is varied in the second metre by the anticipation of the opening movement of the Compare in Pindar trimeter that follows.
Kal TrevTo-KLS 'IcrOpiol crTe<f)avw<7dfj.€vos

Nem.

vi.

19

8ai{X(i}V

dir'

Olvwvas

eXa^arev.

crracro/xai*

oiJTOt

diracra Kf.phioiv
V.

^ —
824.

wv^j

wv^

-^

^ —

^ — ^ — Nem.

16

The reverse

effect is observable in

descending rhythm

dvdecrtv

^avdav

dvaBrjcrdfjievos
.

KicftaXdv.

_^

^ ^ -

^ ^ -

V.W-

Bacch.

X.

15

f.

K.

The tetrameter does not here end, as it would normally (489, ionic cadence 12), with trochaic movement, but continues the
' '

(Hephaestion's phraseology) in the last metre.
this cadence

Pindar

affects

Me/Avova x^XKodpav'
OVK drep AlaKiSdv
\

|

Tts

yap

icrXov T-qXe(f)OV

-'

Keap vpvcDV yeveraL

- ^ ^ The
i.

^ ^ -

.

\^ ^

^ -

Isth. V.

41, 20

Cf. Nem. first period (41) shows the normal tetrameter. and 17, Pyth. iv. 6, Isth. vi. 37. 825. The disposition to this substitution is so strong that it may be made even when it is not supported by an adjacent Thus it occurs as the initial movement metre of the same form. in a period, where the effect is equivalent to partial acephalization.

6

^

fifth

This period cannot begin with the colon of the epode, because of
in 74.

name

in a restored line, and in 170 B. where, however, the editors read i'6<r<jy
for j-oiVcov of the manuscript.

hyphenation

Elsewhere
occurs

- A trochaic metre is substituted for the first metre of the enoplius also in Bacch. i. 9 B., in a conjectured proper

in the ode the in this place.

normal

— v^v^—

:

:

:

^

826
iOiXii
S'

PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE
ai'^etv

381

(fyphas dv8p6<;, 6 S' ev t/aSojv deois

^ ^

-v^w(fitdXav
(OS-

^ ^
et'

^ Tt<j

Bacch.

i.

24

f.

K.,

162

f.

B.i

a<^i'€jds

citto

xeif)h<i

eAwv
01. vii.
1

v^w

— w — ^| — vyw—

^ ^ —

The second

as well as the first metre
fj.eTafiwvLa
drjp£v\(j)v

may have
^ ^

this

opening

aKpavTots eXvio-LV
Pyth.
|

v^^-.vyw
ilr' e<l>\kyixi]V€v

1-.^
to
(X(f)vpov

iii.

23

avTov

\

ykpovTo^ ovtos;

koI to.-^ dv /3ov-

Sid tout' 68vvi)diX<i

eiV
I

tcrws

K^lrat irvpiTnov.

|

ecrrt

ydp toioutos
Vesp.

avr'jp

---

-^--l-^-o -.--I-.
276
f.,

283

f.

This variation of rhythm thus established

may

occur even within

a trochaic series, with distinct effect of dissonance
€1 TO,

Trap xeipbs Kvj3epvd\TaL Si/caiaio-i (fipeve(ra-LV
8'

~
3

a-vfjicfiopd

ecrdXhv d[xaX8v\vei fSapyrXaTOS fioXovcra

- ^
Cf.

^v^
X.

|-w
;

-v^_^
ix.

Bacch. xiv. 10

f.,

f.

K.

Bacch.
826.

10

Find. Pyth.

41.
are

Cola occur in both Bacchylides and Pindar that
the

whoUy iambic
form.

or trochaic except for a single metre in choriambic
'

This

is

iambic

'

or

'

trochaic

'

choriamb found
"

in

iambic and trochaic verse throughout Greek poetry
VfjiVOLCTLV
{'(/)atve

vvv ev

|

Tat? TroXxjr^paTOis Ti KA€t|vbv oA/iJtais 'A-Odvaa

Bacch. xix. 8

ff.

K.

The second dimeter would normally be wholly iambic, but an
'

iambic choriamb displaces its first metre with rhythmical comparable to syncopation in modern music
' :

effect

(popfXLyy

'AttoAAcuv €7rTdyA(oo-jO-ov
vvfJi(f>eias

)(/Dvo-eaj

TrXaKTpo) StWKWv

~

_M^_
IleAAavd
t'

(OS

dpa

CTrei^pa

Kelvos ev AeKTpots 'AKacrTOV

^_|
t€

^_
e^ciKt?-

^ -

- Xem.

V.

24,

30

veavLO. yajx/Spt^ rrpoTrtjvcoi' OLKo6ev oiKaSe, 7rdy\xpv(Tov,

Kopv^dv KTedvoiV
t'

Ai'ytvd

vi\Kwvd'

iv

M€-yd/Doi|o-tv

ov^ erepov
XiOiva

Ul. vii.

4,

86

160 K. is au iambic trimeter with ionic opening, if the verse See the begins with a short syllable.
1

Bacch.

V.
'

editors,
-

'

For Aristophanes see

71, 206.

:

:

:

:

382

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

§

827

827. In descending rhythm this is the commonest form of variation of rhythm found in enoplic verse
ovXiOV dprjvov ^LcnrXk^aur' 'Addvq.

~
Pyth.
xii. 8,

ewXia
Aw/Dt'w
(Tvv

Aaoo-crowv jxvacTTTJp'

dywvwv

24


(pwvav evapfj.6^at TreSt'Aw
SiSvfJLOLS
Traia-l

^^—
5,
v^

— ^ — —

_^__

v^

~
01.
iii.

fSadv^wvov
5'

AvjSas

35


Ttv
iv 'IdOjxui StTrAda

— —
17

— ^ — —

^aAAoio"' apera

Isth. v.

For longer periods cf Nem.

viii.

2,

xi.

5

and 14,

Isth.

vi.

6.

Compare

also
d(fi66vu)V dcTTwv
I

Kcivos dvrip, cTTLKvpaaL?
7r/3os

£V

lyueprats

doiSais~

IltTdvav Se

Tra/)'

Evpa>|Ta Tropov Set crdfifpov eXOetv ev topa

- ^ ^ -

^ ^

j-v^
Spo/xo),
|

_^^_ -^
(tiiv
1/i.oi
|

0^. vi. 7,

28

Koi AvKaiov Trap Aios ^t/kc

ttoSwv ^eipcov re viKacrai ad'evti

~

auTos "OXvp-n-ov OkXas vatetv

(tvv t

'Adavaio. KeXaiveyK€i t "Apti

v^

— —

\^

— — —

\J

'I

\J

— —

— w — —

— ^ — Nem. X. 48, 84
dehs opOol
xiv.

Katpos dv8pwv epyfiari KdAjAtcTTOS*

ev epSovTa 8e Kal

_^

_^^_|_^

^ ^ -

^ ^

BaccL

17

f.

K.

Zt^vi TTapi(jTa[ikva

Kptjvets reAos d^avdTot|crtv re koi

OvaTols dperas

Baccli. xi. 5

flf.

K.

The dimeter sometimes occurs independently
yA(JO"cra iroLfxaiveLV

as a period

WeXet

01. xi.
S'

9

— ^ — —

^^
92

ev 8'

"Api]S dvdei vea>v

= Tbv

ev 'OAv'/xttw (^drvai 0?. xiii. 23,

- ^ ^ - -v^-in the last dimeter for the ^ - furnishes the key to the explanation of an unusual substitution found in Bacchylides and Aristophanes, The substitution normal - ^
oi

_^^_

-v^-for-v^v^- v^w-:
IIAeKr^evtSas MeveAaos
|

ydpvt deX^ieTrel
Bacch. XV. 48 K.

- ^ ^ This
is

^ ^

|_^^_ ^^_
the period ends in

normal, two enoplic dimeters combined, but once in a

defective line (13

K)

-

v^

-.

Compare

:

§

829
rots

PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE
|

383
tc>v

fxwv aTToAwAeKe

e/^^dSas,

17

TrpocriKoxp'

iv

|

Tw (tkotw

SaKTvXov

TTOV
e^a-n-aTMi' kuI Aeytoi'
|

~

ws (^tAa^v/vaios yy kuI

\

rdv ^d/uo tt^wtos KaTctVoi

T'esjj.

274

f.,

282

f.

The two normal dimeters
dvara dvaToicri

are found in correspondence in Pindar

TrpcTTfi

=
37

'H/OttKAei' irpoTepov Isth. v. 16,

v^

:^

m ^ _

The nature 282 is now
xiii.

of the substitution in Bacch. xv.
clear:

the dimeter - ^

v^

-

passages as the allowed substitute for

13 K. and Vesp. - ^ - occurs in these - v^ ^ - (cf. 01.

23, 92 quoted above).
828.

AU

the variations

from normal types in Bacchylides

have now been considered/ and practically all in Pindar. 829. The change involved in each of these cases undoubtedly produces temporary dissolution of the regular rhythm and is

But it is not fortuitous comparable with dissonance in harmony. nor arbitrary, but due to some special tendency which is discoverable when the rhythm of the entire period is taken into
account.
effect

Occurring but rarely in any single ode
as distinct

its

general

may have been
The

and satisfactory

as

that of the

regulated discords of modern music.
1

third colon in the strophe in Bacch.

xiii. is

probably a Pherecratean.

CHAPTER XX
THE COMMENTAEY OF HELIODOEUS
830. In the editions of plays of Aristophanes purchasable in the bookshops of Athens during the fourth and third centuries B.C. the trimeters of dialogue and tetrameters were doubtless

given each
periods.

its

own

line,

but lyrical parts were written solidly
cola
or of

as prose without indication of the limits either of

Furthermore, the musical notes, found in the author's original book of the play, were probably soon eliminated from

Even cultivated men, the copies offered for sale by the trade. therefore, as early as the time of Lycurgus, must often have felt
doubt as to the metrical form of these comic songs, although it is neither elaborate nor complex. 831. It was probably Aristophanes of Byzantium (c. 200 B.C.)

who

devised and published the colometrical editions of the tragic
that

His of our present texts. Some Alexandrian Pindar is certain. scholar must early have done the poet Aristophanes the same service, for it cannot be supposed that, when so simple a way to a better understanding of the metrical constitution of dramatic
dramatists

became the basis
of

colometrical

edition

odes

had been discovered and

applied, Aristophanes

was

left

neglected for three hundred years until the time of Heliodorus. In these colometrical editions the entire text was written in
(ni'xoL
to

and KtoXa, and
eye
certain

arjfieia

were also used
facts

to indicate quickly

the

important

relating

to

rhythm and

structure.

Sooner or later also the principle of indentation was

employed to bring into relief the relative length of lines and cola. These editions promoted the systematic study of the subject, and metrical treatises were written.
384

§

834

THE COMMENTARY OF HELIODORUS
(c.

385

832. Heliodorus

100

a.d.)

wrote a noteworthy colometry

commentary in which he analyzed the metrical structure of the plays and ventured occasional criticism. Doubtless he corrected and improved the colometrical texts of the poet which he had before him as he wrote. It is
of Aristophanes, a continuous

not likely, for the reason just stated, that he himself
stituted such a text.

first

con-

Extracts were

made from

his colometry of

Aristophanes, of which copies (ra 'HXioSiopov in the subscriptions

end of the Nubes, Pax, and Aves) were current, by the in the Byzantine period collected the scholia on Aristophanes now found in part in the oldest extant manuscripts. This scholar depended chiefly on Symmachus, practically contemporary with Heliodorus, for exegetical comment. Symmachus was not interested in colometry.^
at the

anonymous scholar who early

833. Mutilated remains of these Heliodorean extracts are found in existing manuscripts mingled -with the exegetical commentary. The
is in a deplorable condition, but nevertheless admits trustworthy restoration in most cases. Dindorf, in his Oxford edition of Aristophanes (iv. i., p. xvi.), first attributed the older metrical scholia to Heliodorus. Schneider {De schol. fordibus, 119) a little later suggested that Heliodorus had written a colometry. Thiemaim collected and published, in 1868 and 1869, the fragments of the older metrical scholia, separating them from the Byzantine metrical commentary, and in the following year Hense, in his Untersuchungen, made very substantial contributions to a better understanding of Thiemann's collections, and corrected many of his conclusions. See also a lively chapter in Rutherford's History of Annotation, 87 ff. Triclinius, who lived at the beginning of the fourteenth century, is the author of the "Byzantine" metrical scholia, as Dindorf surmised. See Zacher, Handschriften, 603 fF. Musurus incorporated the Triclinian analyses with the scholia in the Princeps. Compare the metrical commentary on the Niibes in the important Vatican manuscript Vv5 (Zacher, 628 fF.) with that of the Princeps (reprinted in Thiemann, 32 if.).

text of these remains

834.

In Heliodorus's colometrical texts of Aristophanes, the

difference in length of cola

indentation of lines.

was indicated to the eye by means of The technical term for indentation in the

commentary is etadeaif;, and the standard is the preceding line. The shorter line is said to be iv elaOeaet. If the order of length is reversed and the shorter line precedes, the position of the longer Hne is indicated by the term e/c^ecrt?, it is said to be

^

Hense, Heliodoreische Untersuchungen, 12

ff.,

interprets the subscriptions differently.

2c

:

386
eV eKdecrei.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY
The
participle eKKeifievo^
is

§

835

sometimes employed to
iteration, the state-

indicate this relation.

To prevent constant
eKdecrei,

be applied to an entire group of verses provided that no member of the group is theoretiThe phraseology cally longer or shorter than the preceding norm.

ment

iv

elaOeaei or eV

may

in this case is often etcrdea-i^

eh

or eKdeai<;

ek

irepioBov or /xe\o<;
as,

or

the

like.

All verses in a given category,
trimeter,
is

for

example,

iambic trimeters, are assumed to be of the same length.

which occurs oftener in comedy medium length, was centred on Measured by this, iambic and trochaic tetrameters and the page. Cf. Schol. Ach. 836, 204, Eq. the heroic line were iv eKOeaei. Conversely, the trimeter following any of these was ev 1015. The longest line was Cf. Schol. Pax 431, Eq. 1041. eladeaeu. Compared with any other, it was the anapaestic tetrameter.
835.

The iambic

than any other verse and

of

iv

eKOea-ei,.

(Schol. Eq.

Thus Eq. 761 f., following an iambic tetrameter 761); Pax 729 ff., following an iambic trimeter, and
a trochaic tetrameter (Schol.

Pax 734, following Schol. Pax 729 the
tetrameters
is

Pax 729

ff.).

In

difference in length of anapaestic

and trochaic

the

subject

of

special

comment.

Thus three
In fact they

categories are established.

All verses in any one of these thr.ee

categories

were estimated as of the same length.

are not, but all verses in each group began theoretically on the

same perpendicular line. 836. Measured by the standard
the longer
elcrOecrei

of the trimeter or of

any of
are
iv

lines

just

mentioned, certain shorter lines

and constitute a fourth category, as iambic, trochaic, Thus iambic anapaestic and dactylic dimeters and Glyconics. dimeters following trimeters (Schol. Ach. 263) or iambic tetrameters (Schol. Ach. 836); trochaic dimeters following trochaic tetrameters (Schol. Pax 337); anapaestic dimeters following trimeters (Schol. Pax 82) or anapaestic tetrameters (Schol. Ach. 659); dactylic dimeters following trimeters (Schol. Pax 114);
Glyconics following trimeters (Schol. Eq. 973).
837.

The

relative

positions

of

the

verses

in

the

four

categories mentioned

may

be indicated thus

§

839
838.

THE COMMENTARY OF HELIODORUS

387

The relative position of some other cola mentioned in commentary is not equally certain. Heliodorus recognizes iambic, trochaic, and anapaestic monometers as elements in hypermeters (Schol. Eq. 911, Pax oil, 82). The commentary leaves it uncertain whether they began flush with the dimeters or were set in, and thus constitute the nucleus of a fifth and final category. The hypermeter is treated as a whole and is said to
the

be eV elcrOeaeL with reference to the norm, but
follow that
all
its

it

does

not

elements began on

the

same

line.

But
he

Heliodorus has a term specially employed to indicate additional
indentation, eVetV^eo-i? (843), and
it is

at least singular that

nowhere applies it to the monometer if this was actually set in beyond the dimeter.^ Cf. Schol. Ach. 274: eV elaOeaet KoiKa
rpla ladpidfia,
oiv to, j3'

lufM^iKa BtfMerpa, to Be ev /lovofierpov.

He

does not say to Se €p

<iv

i7rei,adea€t>

fiovojxeTpov.

phrase would be equally appropriate elsewhere.
editors indent the
relative

monometer, as

also catalectic

The Most modern dimeters.^ The
formulae,
is

position

of colaria, including

brief prose

equally in doubt, as also of the various exclamations {avai^oavrjfjbaTa,

7rpoava<pcovi]fiaTa,

7rpoava(pQ)vr]cr€L<i)

that occur, generally

among the trimeters of dialogue. The former were indented when following a trimeter or longer line, but whether they were
in

the

fourth

or

a possible

fifth

category

is

uncertain.

See

Pax 433, JSq. 941 (after iambic trimeter), Pax 1104 (between hexameters). as the commentary now stands, the position of an
Schol. Ach. 43, 123, 407,
is

a catalectic

Generally,
avacfxovijfia

not indicated. Cf. Schol. Eq. 11 70, A%b. 1259, Pax 1, 173, In Pax 1291 al^ot follows a trimeter, but is not 657, 1191. said to be eV elcrdeaei. The following hexameter is iv eKdea-ei. The trimeters that follow Nub. 1170, lov lov, are eV eKdeaei,

but the analysis of the preceding ode
cf.

is lost.

With Nub. 1170

Nub. 1321 and note.
839.

Dochmiac dimeters

are in the fourth category, but the

1 The iambic monometer in Ach. 407 ev fi(T0i(T€i, but with reference to a trimeter (Schol. Ac?i. 407). Cf. the same statement in regard to an iambic penthe-

Pax
^

.512).

is

ggg jjjg Schol. on Fajc 469 ft"., Ach. for such evidence of the indentation of catalectic dimeters as is found in the

1008

mimer and an iambic

ijfjudXiov,

Zw TLatiiv

natdf. in the same position (Schol. 43, The anapaestic dnrXovy in Paz 1210). 512 is included in the same group with the following iambic dimeters (Schol.

Commentary. Cf. the iambic hephthemimer which Heliodorus read in Ach,
557, but the case is not decisive (Schol. Ach. 557 and note),

388

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY
is

§

840

position of a single dochmius
trochaic,
Cf. Schol.

as uncertain as that of iambic,
for

and anapaestic monometers and
Ach. 358, 566.

the

same

reason.

840. The position of paeonic cola is perhaps in doubt. Dirrhythma and trirrhythma following a tetrarrhythmon are iv ela-deaei, as a tetrarrhythmon after a dirrhythmou or trirrhythmon
is ev

No tetrarrhythmon described in ixOeaei (Schol. Ach. 665). the commentary happens to occur after or before a trimeter, but in Schol. Pax 346 trochaic tetrameters are said to be iv e-rreKdea-eL
(843)
cKdea-ec

with reference to a tetrarrhythmon, which is itself ev See also Schol. Pax with reference to a dirrhythmon.
Since the trochaic tetrameter
place

these

is in the second class (835), tetrarrhythmon in the third Trirrhythma would then class, along with the iambic trimeter. be in the fourth class, but dirrhythma and trirrhythma are grouped together in the commentary, like iambic, trochaic, and anapaestic dimeters and monometers and single and double

585.

scholia

the

paeonic

dochmii, and the relative

position

of the

dirrhythmon

is

as

uncertain as that of the monometer and dochmius.
841. Gly conies are in the fourth class (Schol. Uq. 973), but acephalous Glyconics, which Heliodorus regards as IwvLKa airo fiei^ovo<i, are indented with reference to anapaestic dimeters in
Schol.

Pax 1329, but
in

to restoration.
fully

in a reading {iv i'lreLaOeaei) that is due This would place acephalous Glyconics doubtclass.

a

fifth

classification elsewhere in the

There is nothing to contradict this Cf Schol. Eq. 1111, commentary.
.

Ach. 836, Pax 856.
842. A group of cola beginning a new metrical part is sometimes in the same category as to length as the preceding To indicate this, the comcolon that constitutes the norm.

mentary occasionally employs the word o/aoico?. Cf. Schol. Eq. Cf. the use of ttuXlv in Schol. Eq. 247 763, Pax 301, 337. and for a parallel use of 6ixoio<i cf. Schol. Ach. 628, Nul. 1353. 843. Hehodorus is generally content to indicate the position of a line by means of the simple terms eto-^ecrt? or e/c^eo-i?, measuring it exclusively by the preceding line, but sometimes, although very rarely, he employs two standards of comparison in The third line in a descending scale is estabUshing position. The it is additionally indented. then said to be iv iireLo-diaet,

converse

expression,

in

an

ascending

scale,

is

iv

iTreKdiaec.

I

;

§

846

THE COMMENTAKY OF IIELIODOEUS
trochaic

389

Thus a group of trimeters would be
a preceding
tetrameter
;

iv elaOiaet with reference to

shorter

hues

following

the

trimeters might then be said to be iv eireiaOeaei.

Conversely

trimeters would be iv iKdeaet in relation to a preceding dimeter
trochaic tetrameters following the trimeters might then be said
to be iv i7r€K6ecreL.
exists,

A

triple relation of this sort, in fact, often

but Heliodorus frequently ignores

of

the

modern
and

editors

the terms
€ia-6eaL(;

i7retcr9ea-t,<i

eKdeat<i

it, and the practice commentary of substituting and eVe'/c^ecrt? by conjecture for the simple whenever they might occur is not to be

of

the

approved.
consulting
Schol. Ach.
:

Compare the following instances
the

in the
:

commentary,
iTrelaOecreL
:

explanatory and

critical

notes

iv

1008, Eq. 616, 941, Pax 433, 1329, 1333; iv Fax 346, 459, 470, 553, 585, 1316. iireKeiaec 844. The position of the second line in a descending scale is sometimes indicated not simply by iv elaOeaet, but by iv elaBicet Cf. irapa followed by the name of the norm in the accusative. The prose formulae following in 433 f. are Schol. Fax 431. The phraseology iv elcrdeaei irapa designated as iv iTretcrOia-et. expresses the idea of intermediate or approximate indentation, Cf. Schol. and may be used even when no shorter lines follow. On the converse term irapeicdeaL^ Nul. 1131, Fax 657, 729. see the note on Schol. Fax 459, 464.
845. In the colometrical text of Heliodorus the relations of length were indicated, in accordance with the rules deduced above,

by
to

their position on the page. It was not necessary, therefore, Analyses of burden the commentary with technical terms.
odes,

many

indeed,

as

now

transmitted

in

the

manuscripts,

completely lack designations of position.

Heliodorus, no doubt,

used his judgment in expressing or omitting these designations. Some, to be sure, may have been lost in transmission, and he

may have been
it

careless

and inconsistent in inserting them, but
if

indeed it is possible (838 ff.), now to attempt to insert these terms, as some editors are inclined to do, in restoring the mutilated text of his commentary, in all cases
does not seem wise,

where they might be employed. 846. In the colometrical texts of the dramatic poets not only indentation, but also semeiosis, was employed to indicate certain The tokens {arjfieta) important facts quickly to the eye (831). thus used by Heliodorus were the Trapdypacfio^ and the Kop(ovi<;.

390
847.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY
He employed
—, and
the double (Trapdypacj^o'i

§

847

two forms of the irapdypa^o';, the single
BlttXt}), ^r-.

{7rapdypa^o(; difKri),

848. The double paragraph -^, placed over the beginnmg of a colon or verse, signified change of /xerpa, i.e. cola or verses

regarded from the point of view of their metrical form, as the metricians were wont to regard them, rather than of their
Cf. Schol. Fax 82, 114, 124, 154, 173, 299, etc. rhythm. This change was generally an actual shift of rhythm, as from

trimeters to anapaestic dimeters and monometers or to dactylic

dimeters (Schol.
trochaic

Fax

82,

154,

tetrameters

(Schol.

974; Schol. Fax 114) Fax 299, 383, 426), or
or

or

to

from
to

anapaestic
trimeters

dimeters
(Schol.

and

monometers

the

heroic

line

Fav 173,

1016;

Schol.

change was sometimes simply a shift The SlttXt] is thus placed in tlie another in the same rhythm. commentary over the first of a series of dimeters following
the
tetrameters.
trochaic, Schol.

124); but from one colon to

Fax

Compare, in iambic rhythm, Schol. Fq. 911, in ^^.284, Fax 651, in anapaestic, Schol. Ach. 659, Fq. 824, Fax 1320. 849. All changes of metres in this special sense were thus Colaria and marked, in non-melic parts, with one exception. exclamations were set in (838), but the fact that they were
'

'

from the preceding and following lines was not marked, except by indentation, unless they had the compass of A single BittXi] suffices two lines, when the SiTrXr} was employed. in Schol. Nuh. 1170, 1321 for both the exclamation and the With these cf. Schol. Fq. 941, Nub. 1259, following trimeters.
different fjbirpa

Fax 433.

The exclamations and colaria in the last two cases That they also (as in Schol. Fq. 941) stand between trimeters. originally had the SiTrXr) is inferable from the BittXt} attached to
the trimeters that follow in each case. strophe, on the other hand, 850.

A

was regarded
it,

as

a
it

The might be composed in
metrical whole.

StTrXT}

did not occur within

although

different rhythms, but

was placed at the

beginning both of the strophe and of the part that followed it (except as in 851), even if the first line of the song was the same
fiirpov as the line that preceded,

and its last line the same as that The strophe was thus marked off as a musical Generally there was actual change entity with great distinctness. of rhythm at the beginning, both of the strophe and of the follow-

which followed.

§

852

THE COMMENTARY OF HELIODORUS

391

ing part.
JEquites

Thus the strophe of the ode of the syzygy in the (616-623), of which the beginning and close are in trochaic and the remainder in paeonic- trochaic rhythm, is enclosed by The ZiirXrj was here set trimeters (Schol. Eq. 616 and 624). over the beginning of 616 and also of 624, but not within the The strophe in the first syzygy of the Acharnians (358song. 365), composed of dochmiacs and a trimetrical iambic distich, is likewise enclosed by trimeters and the SivrXr) was placed over the beginning of 358 and also of 366, but here 365 and 366 are
both trimeters, one melic, the other spoken.
Heliodorus regards

Fax 337-345

as a

/ieX-o9,

closing the parode, and sets the SiirXrj

over the beginning

of

and 337 are the same

/jbirpov.

337 and again of 346, although 336 The distich, however, spoken by

a coryphaeus, that frequently follows a strophe, he includes with The following line has the song and does not give it the StTrXi).
Cf. Schol. Ach. 303, the StTrXrj, even if it is the same fierpov. Uq. 761, Mtb. 476, and also Schol. Eq 409. 851. If the antistrophe in a dyadic ode immediately followed

the

the strophe (700), strophe and antistrophe were not separated by If, however, BiirXfj, but were regarded as a musical whole.

the

antistrophe was

separated from

the

strophe

(irepioSo^

iv

Ste^eta),
first

two

BtTrXat,

^ ^, were

set over the

beginning of the

the commentary.
,

colon of the antistrophe, and the reason of this is given in Cf. Schol. Pax 383 v(f ou? (383 f.) BnrXal
:

eirerai,

yap

reference to

avnarpe^ovaa the strophe, 346-360.
r)

rrj

eKKatSeKaKcoXo),
also

with

Cf.

Schol.

Fax 486,

In one instance, Heliodorus and Schol. Ach. 1037, Eq. 68o. has recorded the use of the two StirXal to indicate the corresCf. Schol. Fax 956 and note. pondence of trimeters in a syzygy.
852.
of seven parts

The complete parabasis (77 TeXela Trapd/Bacns:) consists The general rules determine the use of (668).

StTrXr) with the first three, the commation, parabasis proper and pnigos. If the commation was melic, the SiTrXrj separated it from the following parabasis proper (Schol. Fax 734:, Eq. 507); if Heliodorus did not regard it as melic, and if there was no shift

the

The hLirXi) of iierpa, the StTrX?) did not occur (Schol, Ach. 626). always marked the beginning of the pnigos and that of the
following strophe.

The

last four parts of the parabasis. strophe,

epirrhema, antistrophe, antepirrhema, constitute an iTrippvf^ariKTj This was regarded as a a-v^vyta (Schol. Ach. 665, Eq. 551).

659. Two Scn-Xai would occur over the 1143. 385. 836. 242. 985. 280. : 284. to indicate that the second half-chorus sang the 981 and 989 to indicate that the half-chorus here resumed the singing. a dvo/xoLOfi€pr)<. just as he invariably so regards a single strophe. It was employed in a continuous monostrophic ode more than two strophes to indicate that the strophes were rendered by half. § 853 The (Schol. sporadic use of the SiTrXf] in the Heliodorus Heliodorean commentary that demands attention. Similarly. . Thus in the first stasimon of the Equites (cf. and This subordinate use of 929. 1143—1173 is separated from the following strophe and 853.392 whole. 971—999). 489. Schol. 855. 854. The BlttXt]. 366. generally analyzes a strophe directly into cola. was similarly regarded Ach. 393. and its THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY parts were not separated by the BlttXtj. 973) it was written over the first part of the of following strophes. the proode of the triadic pericope Ach.) the 8t7rX?7 would occur in the Acharnians over the beginning of the following verses 204. 1150. 358. 1190. to be found at the end of this book. Eq. Uq. 929. a syzygy. 860. 1210. 1018. See 723 f. 665. He then regards these smaller musical entities as wholes. 952. 626. of course. 719. 347. On the other hand the non-antistropliic parts of irepLKoirai that were not composed Kara ax^crtv seem SiirXr}. 1174. beginning of 335. 572. antistrophe by the SittXtj (Schol. two parts by the BiTrXrj in Fax 571). 498. Ach. 1150). Under the principles stated in the preceding paragraphs (848 ff. and over first 977. the SittXt] is not recorded in the Table of Structure and Ehythms. 566. 628. but not epirrhematic. 1037. when juxtaposed (851). 1047. 497. The 'wapd^pa(^o<. is com- In these cases he sometimes irregularly places the BnrXrj over the beginning of a subordinate period which has not the same metrical constitution just as he uses it as the subordinate period that precedes. 971). or a strophe and antistrophe cf. TreptKOTrTj Kara This a-)(^eacv is (705).choruses. to separate the non-antistrophic parts of a pericope (852). to Heliodorus regarded Fax 571—600 its have been marked off by the as an amoebean anomoeomeric pericope and separated (Schol. 305. 993. 971. 1008. d-rfkri had a more limited use than SchoL AcL StTrXf]. but sometimes he designates the subordinate periods of which the strophe posed. 234. There is a second. 1000. second stasimon in the Acharnians (Ach. 263.

. 856. 848.§ 859 THE COMMENTARY OF HELIODORUS 393 separated 996. as is well-kuowu. the aTrXr) appears not to have been used unless the ode was sung exclusively Cf. BiirXq. and 854. uiroxfopvelcriaaiv ol viroKpLrai. Schol. occurred in the Acharnians over 842. at the end of the play as an It was not employed to indicate the coming exeunt omnes. 128 ff. The d7r\i) here often stands before the verse taken by a new 857. 858. Schol. The single paragraph (lineola) was not employed by Heliodorus in comedy in the manner prescribed by Hephaestion (75. Schol. in which the rhythm changed. part taken by the chorus. Pax 1329. Schol.aTO'i. . 1335. 1174. Commonly Heliodorus adds the explanation of its use. and lines the signum with the text of the first of these two cola. on eTreiaiaai. 1111. but this mode of writing is in defiance of the phraseology by which Heliodorus indicates the position of these signa and is contradicted by the evidence of the at the Heliodorus. 971 rov Schol. in place of the compendium of his name. Bpd/j. Acharnians: elaipxerai <ydp 6 x^P^'^' Schol. ' to be on alone. 365-366. in stating the position of the ScttAt} which manuscripts. to indicate in dialogue or song change of speaker or singer. Ach. Schol. 242 i^iovrcov Y0/J09 \iyei ti]v rekeiav irapd^aaiv. 5 ff. Schol. ii. 204. although. The coronis (5) intimated certain facts of the scenic i. cnrXr) the use of the aTrXrj in Aristophanes. on the return of an actor or actors after such a iv. at any point in the play to mark the coming of the chorus where the actors all retired and left the chorus in possession of : . (860). 328-330. elcriaa-L yap ol vTroKptral. Schol. Pax 1336 for further indications of Tlie 7rapdypa(f)o<.g. elaiaaLv ol viroKptrai. Cf. 1000. is difl'erent . where the song ended. . elaipx^rao yap 6 v7roKpiT7]<.). ?} 859. Uq. Schol. iii. Thiemann places the a-Ai}. on rwv viroKpiTcbv o 626. 719 i^€\d6vT(Dv rdv viroKptrMV kuI fi€vovTO<i rov xopov. by the chorus. speaker. indicates that the rhythm of the tetrameters in Pax 734 ff. there are traces of this later Hephaestionic usage in the older manuscripts of Aristophanes. Schol.. Uq. 836. Cf. 860. in the e. advTcov TOiV viroKpnoiv. at some point early in the parode It was thus used action. See Editors of Aristophanes who avail his Heliodori cohmetria. or to mark the going and immediate return of an actor who happened the scene .' and going of actors when other actors remained on the scene. themselves of semeiosis follow the same practice. Schol. and 997. and Kop^vk on the right end of the first of the two cola differentiated hy these signa.

. Originally it was a elaborate. 24 fiF. Pax Cf. ii. on the parode which {'<^' Kopwvk. plates i. 53 IF. signum was employed to denote a change of speaker.. says (Schol. 364. Ach.C. Schol. The British Museum papyrus of Bacchylides. Ach. 734) Fax 383 on the antistrophe. Heliodorus invariably first of the contrasted 860. which Korte {Menandrea. 971 v(fi' o : : See also Schol. but at the beginning of the column between the two sentences to be separated. and Schol. 142 f. Compare the fragment of a partheneum of Pindar in Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 659 (iv. 347. thus !) extreme left. begins in 301 ovs Kopwvis. Taf. is to be noted that in this use it does not stand at the end of the first sentence. v. assigned by Kenyon to the first century B. between the last colon of the strophe and the first colon of the antistrophe.).. 761. The epode is separated from the strophe of the following triad by a airXr^ combination of coronis of simple antisigmatic form and the paraThis also is placed between the cola at the graphus. and the fragments of paeans of Pindar in 841 (v.. The evidence of literary papyri for the use of the Trapaypat^o? and Kopwv6? antedates the time of Heliodorus. v. Pax 299. ii. the speakers are not named in the margin of the part of the play now extant. but the compendium of the speaker's name also is sometimes given and placed before the verse. and between the last colon of the antistrophe and the first colon of the epode.) assigns to the authors . device (ypa[xjx^] Trapdypacfio?) employed to indicate the It beginning of a new sentence and its use in prose is well known.) of the first centiuy of the Christian era. 566. i. Record of Heliodorus does not thus use it. The paragraphus is written in this manuscript in the manner just described. Remains of an interesting papyrus manuscript of Aristophanes are found among the Berlin fragments of classical {Berliner Klassikertexte.).) In both these manuscripts the coronis is of the second century. that begins with 385: vcf)' ovs StTrAat^'. preceded by tetrameters. even if the second begins in the preceding Compare Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 696 (iv.C. ti<^' oi'S SittAi] koL CK^ecrts €is avTi)v r-qv TrapdjSacrtv. which von Wilamowitz assigns to the fifth century of our era. The paragraphus has a long history. although rhetorical this use begins early. a fragment line. xviii. This contains a very considerable number of verses of the Acharnians and some verses of the Pianae and Ares. so far as is known (856). also Schol. that contains seventy verses of the Antiope of Euripides {Flinders Fetrie Papyri. In a papyrus of the third century B.394 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY : § 860 from that of the last of the tetrameters that precede.. xii. . uses the paragraphus to separate strophe and antistrophe and epode and places it. Compare also the new Menander. In the drama this of Thucydides of the first century of our era. Eq. edited by Mahaffy). but the paragraphus is placed at the left over the beginning of the verse with which the change occurs. always at the beginning of the lines. states that the signum is placed under the cola or verses.

AA. see Blass. xiv. .)/5a/Aws. KaiTOb Trpeo-fSvTepcDV Ttvwi' Eq. f. Uber die Semeiotik des HcUodorus. In the Ravennas of Aristophanes.^ 308. ISov. The dnrXij had little vogue in the use made of it by Heliodorus and has not been reported in any extant manuscript of Aristophanes. and Baechylidis carm. 1 See Conradt. For the coronis here used. a paragraphus with a simple apostrophic coronis attached 5. the paragraphus has dropped to the front of the colon and taken the place of the compendium denoting the speaker. TTovrjpoi HrjSaiJLWs fii] 8e r. joined at the left ^^eue Fragmente. 273 ff. Pax 384 f. l8ov TOV At i//x€/oas oi'^ev qSia-TOV cf)dos ea-Tai tomti Trapovcri Kol Touri Sevp dcftiKVOvp-evois. -. cricoTraT et I et TIS KtO/XwSoTTOlT/T^S PdX 733 f.§ 860 THE COMMENTARY OF HELIOUORUS 395 Examples might be multiplied. The forms As a of the 5t7r\^ and Kopwfis vary. 311. eicrei/x vTral Trrepvyon' KL^Xav Kai Koxpix^v. 970 KioXvei. eiSes w TTao-a ttoAi vi) tov (fypovifiov Ack. The conclusions to be drawn from the facts stated ^ may be illustrated as follows "jv : — €\^ofX€v /^^l' 68ov Xoyiov eLirwiMev ocra re vous ^X^'' XP^]^ TI'TTTetV TOVS pa/38oVXOV<5. KA. which is a parchment manuscript of the tenth century. qv KAewv aTToAT^rat. fourth or fifth century of our era. book. 297. . /x. two aTrXat. see Blass in von Miiller's Handhuch der AUertuvisvnssenscha/t.^.0"€Tat M^ XaKn w SecTTTod' 'Ep/u.?/. i. p/Sa/y-ws. — =. or > critical mark the SiirXij was > For the form adopted in this or < 972 ff.

Editio Princeps. Pr. 4. within • • Greek words within ( ) have been supplied by Thiemann. Editor. etc. The readings of 8. such as 8ippv6/j. V Codex Venetus Marcianus 474. H Hense.ABBEEVIATIONS AND SIGNA R Codex Ravennas 137. by Hense. . within T 1 by the Editor. • • • in a Greek quotation : signifies that intervening words are omitted. The lemma : is in heavy-face type when .oi'. attached to an incomplete Greek word signifies that it is written compendiously in the manuscript and that its original form must be determined from the context. D Dindorf. are due to Dindorf in his Oxford edition. E Codex Estensis iii. S signum. Z Zacher. but not in the critical notes. D 8. it occurs before the text of the If it is is metrical scholium. < > Ed. : The superior numeral in the text of the metrical scholium stands hejore the Greek word or phrase to which the critical note pertains. by the following scholium is marginal if it is interlinear. when it is used. • * * after or ) signifies that the metrical scholium is attached in the manuscript to a scholium on general matters.. has been silently corrected. followed by immediately followed ) the scholium The spelling of some Greek words. 15. T Thiemann. A. 9 Codex Laurentianus 140 (AF 2779). rpippvOixov. B Bachmann. After numerals within following + * * signifies that no metrical scholium on the ) without ( verses indicated by the numerals is extant. T Codex Laurentianus xxxi.

a ^kuI T€Tpdppv6p. Schol.fMepe<.ovo(TTpo4>LK .ov KO)\a e^.METEICAL SCHOLIA Acharnians ^els:^ ^ KoikdpLOv air ' iXacr- aovo<. 44-60. minor ionic hemiolion. EF fact.. 327. fjLeffii} 204-33 1 r /j. ^ y' Zippv6p. 123. but it is given in the Princeps under The existing metrical commentary fails the list of dramatis personae.. : 204-33 6 e/c iras eirou * * * Kopo)vl<. .ov irpcoTOV Kal to Tp'iTov to irepirTov.T 43 ^ r ) in E 123 ^ Ed.^ Se \oi7ra TpippvOpa./3tKov irevOrj- E Tok PaaiXc'us o^Qakiibv) 124—203 ttoXcv ev eKdiaei crri^oi lafi^iKol rpifjierpoL. 0)v tcl EF (213-8^*^) TO re Kal irdXcv Blppv6p. 1-7) occurs in no extant MS.eTa^oTiKbv : : : : E E See 449. 62-122.'^ (208— 12) eKOeaei eladea-et ^ Kol ev ^ eladeaei. In the half-line is an iambic penthemimer. * Koi eari ^ pbera^okcKov yCieXo? Bvo /MOvdSoiv fjUOVoarpocfiiKbv piev i8 kcoXwv elcrl *" ^^(^ov "^ Ta<. eiaepx^TaL yap - Yopo*? Blmkwv top ^ W/jL(f)i6eov. except as here represented by the metrical scholia on 43. -n]8e % 8' 9^1. 124.&v 7} fx^v ^ TTpwTr) : E E ^ : r6 fi^Xos ta' T ^ ^ Svddwv T ' * = T : : T : ^x«' T rpoxaiKai KaraXvuriKal E T (Kdiaei E 397 : rpla V ^° dvdpdKwv (popTiof) iu E . to account not only for 1-42. aiya KaOil^c : ev ^ eladeaec iafx... not an anaclastic Schol. 7re/3to8ou9. . ^ KOfxudnov = E T : iXdrrovo^ T E : lj. E The metrical scholium on 1-203 found in T p. &V (204—7) TratcoviKa ev eKdeaeo etra ev ev <(ni')(pi> rpo- yaiKol KaraXrjKTLKol rerpaperpOL' Koika ev. but also for the prose formula in 61. 17 (D iv. 123. Cf. Compare ttoKlp 123 /jLt. ii.

" Kal iv ra Xoittcl KO)Xa rraiavLKa BlppvOfia. BcrrXr) ' 284—302 ^ 'HpdKXeis: elra eTrerai Bva<i pbOvoarpo^iKr] BeKaKcoXov<i. 234. a paeonic pentameter. the two constituting a raonostrophic dyad. 4. yafiai " " eirerat Be roi<. 3. : hoxf-^v H : rpoxouos . in 2. (208-18). may institute a numerical comparison with the three cola (trimeters) that preceded 274-6 in the text of Heliodorus. The fieXos is fieraThe paeonic cola 4. a rroiel ^ Bo'^fiiav av^vjiav ^iv rrj rrpcorr] rreptoBw^ KOi ^iv r§ Bevrepa} 7raLwva<i rpel<i Kal (Bvo Kara) Bialpeatv. are divided in Heliodorus's which they contain respectively 3 paeonic metres. Misconception of the meaning of fiovds (intermediate period. two.: om. : kuL koX la^^oi EF irepl- 263—83 <t)aXTis Iraipe 0809 (263— 79) " /ctwXct)!' i^' rj' SlttXt] fjbe\o<. Three trimeters followed 274-6 also in his text. EF (277— 9. 3. EF (271—3) S)v * * (274—6 ^) eladeaei KcoXa rpia laapiO/xa. 2. irpSiro^ roivvv icrrlv <crTt%09> iv eKdeaei • ^elra^ Kara ro taov roL<. ^ OTC elaiacTLv vrrroKpLral. but inadvertently substitutes 336. ^ ol 'E. oBe £"' avrl rrola<i alria<. rf<i ov r)yeLTat rod viroKpnov. 302 242-62 263-83 1 ^ E : ore ^ r r. Bvcrl kcoXol^ eladecrec crrt^o? ^ rpo'^atKo<. Heliodorus regards the two intermediate periods 284-92 and 293(see 728) as strophe and antistrophe. and he considers 285. ra aWa e' ^ aKaraXr^Kra. EF See 452. e/c afxot^aia to? 6 nrepLoBovi e'^ovcra cttl'^cov t] . dpa rov rjXiKa rovBe ^cXav6paKea" ro Be rr}? B€vrepa<i " ovroi * tVot -yopiKot<. (263—70) ^7' * iv eladeaec la/xlSiKa SlfMerpa. : . ra /3' lafi^iKa Bifierpa. Tc5 Be BikcoXm rovr(p ro fxev irpSirov icrrlv " airoXet'. Lemma ^ sic /x^ar)v Xa/Si^ref {Xa^dvT " V) Stpavra Er KaToXriKTiKCv 284-302 * Pr. ^ TO ol TTpoo-0ei' : * * * ^ hnrXrj elaiv he fxera Kopco{kcl). 8e ev irpoira /xev elcriv /S'. 2.afioi^aias ^ E : rpoxaifwc reTpa/J-eTpuv T Ed. not strophe) led some corrector to read fiovoa-rpoi^LKwv. T ^ ^ T : ra lafi^eTa E. Bvo rov^ ^ rerpafxerpcov KaraXTjKTCKcov rpoj^alKOiv Kac kcoXcov arl'X^ov'i oiv /Mev v7roKptrr]<i Xeyet ra Be KcoXa o j(opo<i.. 2.. S>v rj ^ilv -n-pwrrj iB' KwXcov e'x^' ^^^ fxovo(rrpo<{iLKOv i8 kwAwv first e'x^^* (ioXiKov since the monads are in different rhythms. to quote these subordinate periods. but see 433. ro Be ev fiovofxerpov.' 398 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY ach. an anapaestic 'pentapody. with the exception of the analj^sis as in the text of R.' to He means be the metrical equivalent of 294 f. Trpoi9' (is ^ 242—62 viBo9. IffTiv ^ la/jLJieTa ^ H ^ : TrepioSoj irepiKoiry} E : kuiXov T E : rplTov T V T : KaTaXriKTiKo.. 280-3) * * * la-dpiOiJia See 90. aKaTokrjKra fiev TO Be KaraXriKTLKov.

difKoiV Be tcov rpiodv rwv Xolttwv.eXe<Tiv e| eOovi vTrdyovaiv.^iKov<i iirKfyeperai. -^9 ai piev 1) eKarepaOev BiaTLVp<. aKaraXijKTOv^. Pax 657. application of the word. ev rfj arixov."i Cf. Be p. d'/j-erpov ^ T: : EF See 468. Schol. et? tov yopov 'irevraKaXou Bo-^/xuav. means that they are equally h da-Oka-a with the six paeonic cola that ' follow 286. see 668. 347—57 (TTL'^OL efxeXXex' " apa iravTa . S'ip. SiTrXal Se Bvo. . 336 in EF 335-46 ^ in fj Sri 'E." TeA. fj<i dTTOKTevo) t)}? KeKpax^e.ovbTpoirov T : eKdiaeL's ^ E dalv iKaripuOev V T : lafi^iKr) Sluerpos . The comment may and the last part of it have read rpip-erpovs " <^e{. dochmii arranged as two cola (note n^ it should be noted. rj some preceding code. just as he uses it in Schol. 850. 407—56 aed^ fxerpovi. rr]<. : dKaTdXr]KTo<i. ' EF (364—5^) ^ eV ^ StoTt (366—84) id'.e." EF See 452. : fj. ovrcov SittXmv aev TOiv Bvo irpoiTcov.ACH.crOe(T€t " fxavop^erpov lafxjSiKov.' which he regards as 303—4 aou 8' eyw Xoyous \iyovTo%: CTrerac rrj ovaoc icrTi '^ ol- artxov.Pr. (i. o T0Z9 /j. tafj. Y " T eKdeaei : Pr. eKdecra crTt^ou? lafMJSiKOiK. : dadiaei ^ E ^^ : om. : {ireploBoi) ^ elat BUcoXoi. METRICAL SCHOLIA ' 399 He analyzes 285^.eTpov 303-4 ^ E 6td5t T Adscript to Schol. E) * ct'ixol * * * Er ^ eif T : om. For his general Nuh." yiyverai.09 8e arpoijifj Trpuirri<i ov irpoBcoaco irore.. BlttXmv Bo)(^piio}v.6arj Xapufio'^ TpLp. p^ecrrpBcKJ]. E 407-56 489-96 Ed. ^Trd. '^ 335-46 V ^PX*) " ^'^ '"ws d-n-OKTecoi rj :" * * on " rj erepa errerac 8vd^ * dvTiarpe<^ovaa Be B€VT€pa<i " rrj t^ ^ irpoaTrohehojjievr). Tpi- EF originally have covered 407-88. eKdecret ^ arl'^oi la/ju^cKol BL(TTi-)(ia Bvo v(f) BnrXrj. Heliodorus ' dochmii. ^^' ^ ^t. from the second dyad. for 285. here applies the word (Tv(vyia to the union of two two cola. : ixf)^ o BlttXt] kuI iv ^ tKdeaet lajX^LICOi Tt ^ la EF : 358--84 TrepioBov ouv Xe'yeis " BLTrXrj Kol (358-63) ^ eia6e(rL<. 889 of the union of two anapaests in a dipody. dXX' ou (Tx°^'n el<. /xera 8e pd' icrrl irpoavatfiwvijpa to 489—96 ^ Ti Spc'iaets : BiTfXi) Kol Tpia<. EF * ^ See 850. oirep rerpd- fierpov rpo-^atKov KaraXrjKTLKou.x) ^ E: aTrodi8oV fi^wTj V * ^ ^ 347-67 358-84 ^ r T T ' : aTTOKTeudv : E - dffOiaeL x°P'-'^°^' * : " : E ^ : evScKa • Y "^^"to-koKov V : '^ T! : Siv 8nr\wi> jxiv tu3v T : TO XoL-n-bf ' Lemma dXX' ^wep avr6i (avrds cm. EF o ^ See 467. as two When he says that they are Kara to iVov rots x^P'-'^^^^ ^^ StKwAw). and 342 for 294 f.eTpo<.

were Sox/^ta StTrAa. 8 a-rrXa. KaTaX')]KTtK(J}v. aXKa cktov. to to 8e Tre/XTTTov lafx^iKoi' SifMeTpov cLKaTaXrj KTov EF See 468. 2. to Be BippvBp. • fiev fjieXcKal B' (TreploBoi) elcn la S)v ^^ to. : KaTaXrfKTiKicv T ^^ : ?f Lemma " T : Pr. Heliodorus assumes that the Koppdnov is not melic.dTc6v p^eTpcov (626—/) ^ ^ (ttl'x^cov Bvo rj TCTpae'f KaTaXrjKTiKcov. EF euSaifiOfel y' cii'GpwTros : 836—59 : : (^Kopcovh). cola 4. 626— Xeyet Trjv / 18 di/r)p ciKa : e^iovTwv t')]<. Twv 8e ^ vTTOKpiTcov yopoif TeXeiav Trapd^acnv. otherwise he would have written tT]<. i^eXdovTCOV Tojv * dXriOei om. 665 ff. 8e ^iTrKpeperai^ lafi^iKrjv rrjv " aXri6e<. : TpiaKovra dvo E. ^9 Ta fiev BiTrXovv Se . OTi e7reicria(Tiv (ot Kal elai aTL'^oc lapL^iKol TpipbeTpoi aKaTdXrjKTOL eKKalBeKa. ^" aKaTaXn^KToav ^^e. 453. 719 — 34 vTTOKpiTal).vyiaL T T * : 7' T : dcrdiffei ^6 : tKdeaei. tr' F . airXovv he to reraprov.re in 557. as an antistrophe. avTrj he 7rapd/3acn'i BittXt} (628—58) ' opLoiwv (TTLy^cov EF (659—64*) koI avTo '^ "^ koI etaOeai^. & TrtTptTTTe. He does not regard this period See 851. to place Heliodorus designates the length only of the two cola necessary In his analysis 1." EF The text of Heliodorus did not contain Kal fjnapoWa. iw Ad/jiax' io> : 566—71 ohov ^ u^' o StTrXf] Kal €iaOeai<. 3. 8e TvapafSdo-ews to p^v Koppdnov kcTTi o SiTrXrj Kal avTi] etc.a. .: 400 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 557 ^ ach aXifjGes (5 'mTpnrre : * * * iv eladeaei. . ibairep Kal 9 r) KaraKXei's i" E Siafxerpov 0' Pr. : aKaraX-^KTOv ^^ E: devpo fiovcra in EF i' V iTTipyifxaTiKai <rvl. 7. the iambic dimeter. BlttXyj Kal ^^ eTTcpprip^arcKr] av^vyia.ov elTa iv eKdeaei ev Be TeTpdppvOfia Bvo Tplppvefxov. fiev TrpSiTa Tpippv6p. 719-34 1 E : 720 dyopd^eiv : * * F 2 gd. Xo! . eaTi " irapajBdaewi uva'Traia-TLKtav to p-ev K0fMp. EF (676-91 = 703-18) ** * See 296. v(f) See 852. See also 433 on . 6 the iifth. : t' e^ E. KcoXoyv ^* e' rj'i EF (665— 718 (665—75 = 692—702) TraicoviKcbv. dvaTraiaTiKov. Kal ev ^^ elcrOea-ec Tpia fiev BippvOfxa. eK evo<i ^ /caTaXrjKTiKov. iarl So'^/Mta. " opoi fxef dyopas : Kopoivh. T 557 ^ B 566-71 ^ E 6KrdK<j)Pov T dvairaiffTwv 626-718 ^ H Lemma irpbs ravra KXeuiv in : - T : avrrj ^ ^ : Pr. eh SifieTpov ^^j a'l TO KaXovp^evov jjbev Trvtyo'i. eh irepi- oKTaKoikov. Kai ^ X/3' * T EF ^ ii H : n-i'iyos to /xaKpov T T dvaTraiffTiKov.

^ brt irepcoSovi ovk 7rp6<. 573. 937-9) * * * 935—6^) (Suo) SiTrXal Koi eirerat ofiova gk tmv '^ (946-7 = eipdrj/Mifxepcov trpdiTTj. : : /3' P.ACH. : KOpO}Vl<i. : rpiQiv fxirpuv Adscript to Schol. : 952-70 Svo * ^ : ^Sv^av : E - T : €t(7deaii ^ E *'' eh om.. fxev elcriv ^ a\V ovB elal TrapeLajSariKal to ^ deaTpov. : ^ Lemma i^drj ^evuv jSArto-re : EP • koXwj Ix" ^ Ed. oiv rjyovi'Tat ari-^OL lafi^iKol rerpdfierpoi 8'. Koi avrrj recalls |x6\is y' ^ Heliodorus refers to the period in 935-6. KaToXrjKTLKol hvo Sifierpa eKdeaei. elalaat <ydp ol vnroKpLTal. EF w: y^' o Kop(ov'i<. METRICAL SCHOLIA KoX ^ 401 ^ VTTOKpCTMV ^ fjLeVOVTO'i TOV eV ^OpOV.T 5io-Ttx«s Lemma dW S. EF (948-51 ~ 937-9 "O ^hvo^ ^ B. EF See 456. and can hardly 836-59 ^ Pr. 1 : fxeWovros : - T : fiovoaTpocpLKOv Trepiodov i^dKwXov 5' ^ Pr. : dKaTdX-qKTOi 860-928 929-51 ^ o-ot : Ed. Er rrj (940-5) * * * (935-6. FiTTOJ Er See 582. Kalavroh ' T iiTTd KtDXa iraMviKa * H : p-ovoixirpov Ed. (929— /xovo(TTpo(pLK7]v SvciSa 8tcrTi^ov<.(3cKa aKardXTjKTa 'HpaKXTJsl ev laviKov fjuei^ovof T}/jbi6Xiov.Qyv Kal ei/o<? TeTpa/Jb€Tpov Tpo-^alKov KaTaXrjKTLKov. ^ovv^ (971—5 = 986—9) TratcovLKal 7rpoi]<y7]TiKal avTi)<i eirTaKcoXoi e« • ' fiovoppvOfMov Tpcpp60ficov. just as 937—9. 977 in EP T rerpaiMTpwv 2 D . 971—99 vTTOKpcTcov. . irepiohov.. Kal Tptppv0/Mov ^Kal Sippvdfiov^ BU KUK ^ rgi^o"! EF (976-85 = 990-9^): KcrTi'^ovy * * * al Be aKoXovdrjTtKal ireploBol elcn BeKaKcoXot i^ ivvea iraLWVLKOiv T€Tpappv6/J. e^j^ei rov avrov al rrepiohol '^ ari^ov. P '' Ed. (pavratriav (TTi-^LKa<i irape-^ovcra eiripprj fxaTLKri<i ^crv^vyia'. 723. ^e * * * E Er r interlinear in •* F ^ T : 5t7r\^ . KaV ^ev^ ' /jLOVOaTpO(f)lKT] TreptoScov e^aKcoXcov rerpcU. ^ €i/e'8Tjcra : 952-70 ^€69 IdjJL^OVi * * * BlttXt) Se Kal ' eKdeaL<i i6' .TrXal Kal uXXtj TOV 'xppov ia/ji^iK7] kuI avrrj e'/c rpLOiv fxev Sifxerpcov EF See 86. E 971-99 ^ : H dvo/j-oio/xeprji ^ - Ed. He Heliodorus reads at the beginning of the strophe cfSes w crSes <3. €i8es VTVO^ayprjadvrwv tmv Ta<. TrepioSo'i By ta/it/3tK7) T77 TrpwTj. Kol eaTC (Tvl^vyia " Kara e/c irepLico'TTi'iv dvofMOiofieprj. observes hiatus in the monorrhythmon ef^es w. : (iripprjfjiaTos avTi^s Ed. '^ : TiTpatiirpov : Ed. cKajioi' 860 — 928 ya rdk TuXac ^6'. dKaraXrjKTcov koi rerdprov KaraXrjKTtKOv.. 7' Koi /cat elcrOecrec KOiXa diro la/j. Kai elcriv la/xlSoL EF et? 929—51 34) 1 IkSTjcroc (3 Xwore " : BLirXP] KoX fxeTa^aai^ 6')(0vaav rd<.

lafi^iKo^ TeTpdfjuerpo^ KaraXrjKTLKo^. difiera Heliodorus's reTpd/xeTpot may lafj-PiKo. which appears as irivre in Er '" Ed. 1008-17 ^ Ed. The force of 8is (bis) paeonic metres. Regarding these as a tetrameter. Kol KoyXa Kol ^ Bvo. 303 ^ E: ^' T 5' ^ gd. to -rrpGiTov V irevTe. r. By his analysis. avrr] yap iariv rj 6fjbOio)<i tjj dvcorepa eTrTaKcoXo^ civriaTpecfjovcra. EF See 83. lafjb/3tKol ^ ^9 to Trpwrov iv elcrOecreL ~ ^elra iv iv ^ru> ojv rerpdixerpoL "* KaTaXrjKTCKol kcoXov Bvo. ^to Be^ ^^ ^' (rrly^o'i 6/jiola><. and critical note 2) and this have been written d'^erpoi (cf. It ^ dKou'ere Xew : (KopQ)VL<. ^Kal /MeXo<. may have passed into Si/xeTpa in EF mistaken by some was scribe for ws. 18-7x6. tov '^opov^ dvaiTaKjTiKr]. 1143-73 ^ T : fiF. Trapow?. ' In R. EF See 83. 3. ' Ed. 971-5 consisted of seven cola of respectively 1.402 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY ach. TrpowBiKQv TrepioBwv rptMV. ^) Siv iari irputriq EF irepi- (1150—73 080119 BiiT\r\ KoX rj TOiv ofioLOJV Bva^ to e^ovaa Td<. 1143—73 ^ ire 8tj xatpoires : Kopo)vl<. BaBeKaKOiXovi. ^ Ed. 3. SiaKovetrai. ^ E ^ Ed. ^ Ed. vTTocrKaXeve. have ignored the variable vowel at the end of 972. see 433. 67rTd(7T£X0t r ^ Lemma rbv ^vyypa<pij in E irpoudiKwv T TrpooSt/cwj' E. a/jL<poTepa>v elcrdecrei. Ach. Xeyeiv. 8 T: ylvovrai cttIxoi. the text of 1008-17 is arranged in seven cola. ^^ Ed. ^^ yiverac ^^ ojjlolo^ bvo • e^rj<. but in the colometrical text before him 1013 f. extends only over the preceding rpippvOfiov koL SippvOfjiov. iv ' mv iv elcrdeaet ^ ev o/xoiov e'f TrpcoTO) €v eTreiadecrei cttl'^o^ lapL^iKov roi? ecfidrjp^t/jLepe^. irap^Kdecrei la/x^iKa became e'... he properly says the next colon (1015) is His fifth colon (1014) is the only instance of the inev etV^eorei. o/jloloi e|' iv el<T64(reL Si ewTa arixoi E. dentation of a catalectic iambic dimeter in the extant commentary. Scbol. seem to have been written : otp^ai (re Kal tovt ev Xeyeiv TO TTvp viroa-KaXeve with indentation (here eVe/cr^eo-ts) of the second colon.' which end respectively with the words erfSovXlas. Heliodorus's iv mistaken for that of Kal. ^^ ^^ lafJL^iKoi T TeTpdfJLerpoi KaKoK-qKTiKol Ed. payecpLKm. and its symbol in turn uv Heliodorus's Kal.?. oe ev kcoXov ojjlolov tm irpdoTW. 3 On the last two. 2. : : : : : : : : : : : . otl) elaiaaiv ol viro- 1008 — 17 eindKaiXo^ eKdeaeL^ elcrdecret. then. and this arrangement Heliodorus approved. 1037—46 7reptoSo9 di/Tip di/cupifjKe : (Bvo) BtTrXai. mv (1150—3) to /9' irpSirov TrpcoTrj 'x^opcafi^tKov BifxeTpov aKaraXTjKTOV' iv fiev Trj TreptoBo) iaTiv 1000-7 ^ Prescript to 1000 in R KaTaK-qKTiKo. 1000—7 Kptral. E. 2. ^ IvjKCi CTc -riis eujBouXias : StrrXr] koI • irepioho^ a/jioi^ala. 3.

. TrevruKcoXo^i.6 D rpiaKovra /3' om. TTpQiTov iari T ^ Lemma dXX' e\pbfxec6a in T cor. eyovaat ^6/jiOlQ)<i^ TrepLoSov. Be B' ivaWd^ KaTaXrjKTCKa.. BvdBo'i dirkovv^ EF (1222-5^) e(f)dr]iLii. ^iraie: KopcovL^. " kuI troLKiXo)^ koI aa(f}(0(. ^ i^ ui/xl3ov K(ii\(OV TpifM6Tp0V Bca(j)6p(ov^ BlppvOfjiOv.? BvaZa S) Ty)<.. 1174—89 Kai 3 ^ Sfxwes : Kopavi^. o)V fiev te' ^ dfiot^ata * twv VTroKpiT&v Koi Bifierpa firfTroTe aKaTdXrjKTa. elaiv tafij^Oi rpifjierpot KaraXtjKTtKoi. : - p5"7' . mv 6 Te\evTaio<. ^to BevTepov^ lafi^LKov F (1226—31) F ey*^ * * * (1232— 4^) iv eladecrec ^^la/x^oc Bt/xeTpoi aKaTdXrjKTOC ^Bvo. EF 779 /8' 1190-1234 ^) rdTTaral dTTarall: (1190-1209) * * * (1210" BnrXrj koI aXXrj 7repioho<. BlttXi] et(x6eat<i ireploBovy 16'. \dl3eaei /jlov V ~ * T Lemma dvpa^i jx i^eviyKar wpCiTov E. TpiTr]<. to ""g^l BevTepov iraLwvLKov '^Trj<. TriveWa in T SidSos 1190-1234 : ^ T E V ^^ : ian^iKbv iv 5(\-6Xoi'S * eiadiaei * : T : _ in Ed.fiepe<.. but not in Text ^ Ed.'^ Be ^ BevT€pa<. METRICAL SCHOLIA iv ^ 403 eart Se lafi^iKov.evo<.. 1174-89 ^ T iffriv : : ia/JL^eia Tplfierpa KaToKrjKTiKa : F : te' E " ""' . Kol Kop(ov\<i text of 1) tov BpdfxaTO'i? See 599." V tmv 247-83 iTrirewv. : : : . V 247-83 ^ S Trate in V ^ d ' KaTaXrjKTiKd 284^302 S before scholium in V. T : di/xerpoi iafJL^LKoi V cor. TO " irpoa'K-d^ecrd^ (piXai. to l8u<f>aX\.. BiaTLyov TeTpdfieTpov KaTaXrjKTtKOV. TO y' lafi^LKo^ (aTl^o<. avyyeve^i rw lafji^iK(p- rptrov ')(opLaix^iicov * * €(f)d7}fMifi€pe'i TO reraprov/ E (1154-61) 'fl See 299. Be eh. . elaipx^TaL " yap tS"'. Si/xeTpov aKard\7]KTov. yvLyp. <ttl')(ol 6tl elaepxeTat ^o %opo9 kol irdXiv Tpo-^aiKol : \^ Koi .) iv eKOecrec. 8e rfj hevTepa to * TrepioScp '^opiafx^iKov. V ^ ^ TOV iafx^LKOv Ed.EQ. Equites 1—196 1 larraTaial : aTi^oL lapi^LKol aKaTdXrjKTOt tto)? " p9 S" ' . 1-196 1 S iaTTaraid^ in V ^ Pr. * Ed. EF (1214—25 Ta<i BiTrXr} koI 8vdSe<. 6 viroKpLT )'}<. XT/KTl/cd .iKov. "^^^^ The 1212 in 1210 in EF reads xaAas h p-o-xxi^ that of EEF reads m Ilaiav Ilaiav. ia-Tt to. . TO e' ^ lafi^LKo<i crTi'y^o<.Ed. 565. to B iv elcrOeaei lajx^tKov ) rj^ioXiov. BoxP'i'OV UKaTaXrJKTOV T779 fiev iKKGLfJUeVOV Kal ovv tt/ocot?. TpeU Slkoo\ov<. TeTpd/ieTpa Karafl<yl dlcrix d/cardXTj/cTa e ivaXa^ Y : : . KaTok'qKTtKOf. V <el<i 284-302 KcctXfov ^ ^ ^^aiToQavelaQov'^ TO.T oeKaKuiXos Lemma rdXas eyih iu EF Lemma Xd^ead^ fiov Xd^eade E. to irpoiTov ofMoiov tS ^ Trpo avTov.

to. V (330—2) * * * Heph. V See 450. Heliodorus read Kai KeKpaK-a in 304.ppvd/JL0v. aKaToXrjKTOv See 451. T reads -rrepiodovs : . Schol. 409—40 \^'. TO 8e KaToXTjKTLKov. in his analysis. ouToi pi' uirepPaXeio-G' ) ^ SnrXr} koI \d(3oc. Heliodorus read Kai KeKpaKra in 304. " fjv Ed. XoiTTa TTaiOOVLKa hippvOfia. On this doctrine of dactylic catalexis see T^v 10 ff. 911 if.'^ • (TTL'Xpi. V See 450. ^ la/j. In 300 Heliodorus doubtless read Kai reading of the manuscripts now extant. which has only seventeen. and again under 396.<Tei<xei. The analysis of 367-81 has been lost. " Kopcovi<i e^ekOovToov Xeyec eiTa KaTa\€L(f)6€U (3' . be ev tto-^to-et.) are said to See 840. ^' "^et?^ kcoXwv KpTjTlKOV 6 . the 303—11 trepiohov /S' <S jjLtape Kol rf<i pScWope to : BiTrXrj ^ Koi ela-Qeaa 8i. 939 f. 21. Eq. iraLwvLKov Se to eK KoX hoj^pLlOV.. Eq. is a second indication that he did not include the distich in 312 f. See 851.ipu)v : i]hew<i V yap twv (498 — 506) tov ^ 498—610 vTTOKptTwv. Trpwrov TO. 1 ft'. wepioSos /cat etcrdeais 303-11 322-32 1 Adscript to 328 f. 13. Schol. 322-32 ^ rgpa 8— o^^i. It is with reference to this that the following group of paeonic dirrhythma and trirrhythma (382 fF.vairaicTwv [?/'] : R : iir€i. This reading and the apparent loss of a metre in the antistrophe. on Eq.Ed./3iKol Mv T€\evTaio<i d\X' " dvrjp av i6i )^^a. e^ovaa TplppvOfia XoLira SippvOfxa. 6 Trjv x^P^"^ /jcev 7repi6Sov<. a trochaic tetrameter in his analysis). <^avw rots TrpvTdvea-iv.. (322-7) * * * (328-9^) to iv a'. His employment of et'o-implying that all the following cola are shorter than the preceding norm (301 f. elaOeaei y8' KcoXa /S'. BaKTvXtKa Bt/jbeTpa. H : : : Trepiodov avairalcFTuv t) . 6 {duo) a. since these verses precede each an antistrophe. tov Se TratcoviKT} kirTaKoiKo'. ^eo-ts. Cf. 761. in V 382-8 1 Ed. 498-610 ^ T eicrekdovTwv ^ Ed. but gave it separate consideration.404 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY o-e eq. dvaTraiaTLKa'i 'TrpoTrefiTTTiKTjv v<p' €T€pov TWV viTOKpLTOiv ^ : ovaav SeKUfieTpov TrevTaKOiXov. explain his failure to note the correspondence of strophe and antiProperly two SiTrAat would be placed under 381 strophe. but probably Heliodorus regarded its last verse as a catalectic iambic trimeter.. Cf. iTreiirdiaei ^ 409-40 ^ D: dnrXoi iafi^oi . 382—8 X^pov apa TTupos : onrXr] Kai iv elaOeaei ireploSo^ a'/S'y'.

'. TO tcl Be Be 6 Kol TO B' ^^ L avTicTTraaTiKov Tpi/xeTpov XocTTo. aKaTaXrjKTOV. : V x^P'^^ 616—23 to ^ /S' ^vOv ap' a|ioi'^ BnrXy] ireptoBo'i '^ tov ^OKTOi KcaXcov. ^9 TO ev elcrOeaei a TpoxaiKov ^TeTpdfxeTpov ^pax^KaTdXrjKTOv. ^ T : tlffOeffis aKaToXri . Kop-fiaTiov is illustrated in this scholium.EQ. T dvairaiffTiKbv Tpifierpa . al fxev (551—64 ' = 581—94) /S' irepioBoL Koikcov TO irpoiTov ^optafx^iKov la^jBiKrjV ofiotov ^'~ e-^ov e7nfxefj. METRICAL SCHOLIA Kara TO rrjv Trj<. ^' T xoi Lemma ei"Xo'-^ ^*' T : reTpdnerpov rpoxo-LKbv dKaraXv ^^ Kiister : 'ApiffTapxos 616-23 eirrdKii}\os w Ka\d \iyuv '' in 617 V V. iraicovLKov TeTpdppvOfxov.' Koi TO ^^ S"' CLKaTdXrjKTOV^ Kol to O/XOLOV kol TO ^" KaTaXrjICTLKOV. ) : * * BiTrXf] • eira eTrdyerai eTripprj/jLariKT) av^vyia.. StTrXr) Bevrepevovcrav • ^eaTL Be avrrj ro^ ^ ap')(eTat 'yap KaXoufxevT]<i reXeia^ 7rapa^da€(o<. 553. dvairaiO'TtKol KaTaXr)KTLKol Terpafxerpoc V ^^ (547—50) fj^eXiKol * * (551 — elai iB' 610 TJ<. to ^' 6/jlocov koI to r\ rpo^at/coz' V * * : See 231. yu. 6 Be> e' tov vTTOKpcTOv Trapepxo/jLevov. 61 1—5 u <|>iXTaT dvSpwi' : eVi Tov X^P^^ fcal ' ta/M^OC TpLfieTpoi dKaTdXrjKTOc <B'. : iiadiau . 626. : Ed. TO TratcoviKov Blppvdfiov. to TeXevralov iTripprjfia Be ^epeKpdTeiov.iy/jLevrjV aKaToXrjKTOv koL to B ^ uKaTdXrjKTOV koI to KaToXrfKTiKOV 7] 7' Ka\ to OfMOCOV Koi TO e ^Opia/x/SlKOV t. eaTl ^' V ^^ (565-80 = 595-610^^) to cttl^cov o (f)iXeL iS"' TeTpd/xeTpcov Tpo'x^al'Kcbv Kora- XrjKTLKOiv. to e' Tpoxai^nov eipdrj- fiifiepe<i. rrjv "' V ^ (507—46 *- BiirXi] (rri-^OL Kol eK6ecri<. eh * avrrju irapd^acnv. to S"' Tpox^iKov Tpl/xeTpov e(f)dr}fjLCfiepe^. Pax 729. KaToXr^KTiKOv 9. eTTTd/nerpov ^) ^ Be e<7Ti ' Ko/jUfMciTiov TeTpaKcoXov. 405 KOfM/xdrcov. Ach.a' Adscript to scholium on 551 in Kal '^ V with : lemma TO yrjffai iwwi dva^ HoffeLOov TO de i' dvawai. .TraL(TTiKT) 5t7rX^ T : etffdecriv ® Pr.') Tplfierpov 9 cor. properly all that part of the complete parabasis which precedes the parabasis in the limited sense. On the sporadic use of 8l-\ij between two subordinate periods. Cf. V V O ^ : y'/tierpov (sic. . ^ 9 : eh wepiodov ° Pr. tcl Be Xonrd iv B' iTreicrOeaet.(jTLKbv ^ovXSfxeda in V ' " T ^'^ : fxiX-q : T : dKardXr] . . 6' dva-n-atdTOL Ed. KaTaXi-jKTLKov. fji. to 7' iraKOViKov Bippvdfiov. Schol. see 854. t6 d^ ko/jlholtiov ^ TeTpd/xeTpov dvfjp ^ V : T ^^ dva. dvTiaTracTTiKd BljieTpa. 'ApiaT0(pdv7]<i. Tpla fiev TXvK(oveia. But the two regular parts (see 293) of the introductory strophe in this parabasis are so distinctly di\aded that Heliodorus regards the second as the real beginning of the complete parabasis. 5^ tls T eTTTd/xerpa Lemma el /ueV : etVi {ivrdneTpov in 5e ^ icm : 0). V The See 294.

ev y8' vuv Z-q o-e : SittXt) (756—60) (Kal (Tricot e'. On the position of the anapaestic tetrameter. - Ed. : |' : . V Kal See 231. 911—40 /LteXo? cfiou \i.o<i dvdtraiaTO'i Terpd/ji€rpo<i KaraXrjKTiKO'i " o BittXt] (763—823) et-? 6/xoLQ)<. see 835. rpifierpovi 9 * 9 : KaraX-^KTiKa 1 V V V " 911-40 941-2 1 S ifxov in T : Idfi^ov - » : T 5"' V * Ed. ^ 691 — 755 Kal \i. V : 683—90 avriarpoc^o^ ^ irdi'Ta Toi TTCTrpaYas (Suo) " StTrXat. Tpi/jueTpov : KaTaXrjKTiKov. . are not so long as the preceding anapaestic tetrameter (823). 624—82 ^ Kal fiT)!/ dKouo-ai : ^ ScTrXi] (/cal) crrL'^oi ^ la/Jb/ScKol TplfieTpoi aKaTaXrjKTOL vd' . V . ov Kar dvaTraiaTOi'i et? IdfijSov^. V {7repioBo<i) 941—2 Si/ccoXo? eu ye tov Ata BlttXt] ^ Kal Tov X^P^^ iv eaTt. e7rLTr}Be<. KaraXr] . ^a. = 756 ff. : eireio-decrei.T etadeais 691-755 1 S over 691 in V 756-823 ^ T t6 idifj-ov dnrX^ dixxwaiaTos rerpaf^er 824-35 ^ Ed. V When Heliodorus says ov Kar la-ov rots dvaTraicrTois he means that the iambic tetrameters (836 ff.Oi/3alov ra)V viroKpiTOJV fiovofxerpa. ^Terpa/xerpovi ^KaraXrjKTtKOV'? 06'.). : evarov V 9 : diaXeXv/xevus els D cm.r\v: SittXtj fe'. . On the theoretical indentation of the second colon see 840. Trochaic trimeters (Heliodorus's sixth and seventh cola) are here grouped with catalectic dimeters and paeonic dirrhythma. ort eTterai rj rrj'. e/c^ecrt<? el<i Idfi^ov? rpifiirpovi aKaraXijKTOv. the standard for the following dimetrical period. although ev kK0k(T€i with reference to the standard (835). : : T : : TeTpdfierpa V. * kcoXcov V Trdvrcov Idfi^cov. V Kal 756—823 p. ireplohov dvaTraianKrjv reTpaKaieiKOCTLiJberpov : V 836—910 u 'l(tov rol<i irao-ii' di'6pw7rois " SivrX?} Kal ^ eKde<TL<.).406 THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY eq. BiaXeXvfievr] eh tov ire^ov Xoyov Be iroXXd Kal : Trap" ^viroXiBi : creaij/xeicojueva. . rerpd/xeT /cat dKoaifierpov " 6 ^ ta/jL^iKa V 836-910 ^ T etadeai^ : rpets /JLera dKardX-rj : : .kv o3i/ : SiirXi] Kal €ccr$eai<i " eh dp. * * * SlttXtj 824—35 oTTOTai/ x'^-'^l'-i- Se Kal eLcrdeaa So)SeKdKO)\ov. Heliodorus again fails to note an antistrophe (836 ^ ff. mv 6 a Kal Kal 6 B' Kal e'f e' lafjb^oi TeTpd/xerpoc KardXrjKTiKOi. 6 8k j' Id/x^cov Zip. . . V ^ H ^ T 624-82 ^ D SiTrXot tafi^oL " T di'rrXrj 683-90 1 S before 683 in V . &v to rd Be irpMTa Svo reXevratov to rd TptaKoaTov ctj ^ e^r)<i BlfieTpa aKardXriKTa. V ^ See 91. ^ irpoanTohehofjbevrj'i.erp(ov Wv^aWiKOiv hlcmxo'i Kal e^f/9 •) elra (761—2) (TTi'^oL eV eKdeaec ia-rlv ' ^6 v(f)^ e6vp.

ehdeaei T 1040 in e 1070-9 ^ aWa raus eKacTore as lemma in ^ T: xopoO. METRICAL SCHOLIA ' 407 dicolic ' For an attempt at a metrical analysis of this made by some Byzantine grammarian and found 289. in V. * .T : dKd^ffei 1021-9 1 Prescript to 1021 in V 1037-50 ^ The entire metrical scholium is adscript to the general scholium on ^ T eirLKo. TCTapTov Kal TO SeKaTov. dKaTaXr) r. : SlttX}} koI ^ev^ ^ iKdeaei 'lafi^ot ' rpi- fierpoL dKaToXijKTOL • V : 973—96 Koi ^SiaTov <t)dos Kopo)vi<i. he S"' he rfj Xefet Kal * fiovov k.V 1111-50 ^ Adscript to 1111 ff. prose line.pri^eu 'EpcxOetSr)'' : ev eKOecrei (ttlxoI' (eVt/col) V 1021—9 ^rauTt fia ttji' Ai^ixTirpa : Kal iv ' eladeaec crTLXOt lafi^iKol 6'. V Ed. ^ r<|. the first ending 5^ 5"' Kal nera KopuvlSos. The Trapdypa(f>os that separated the six strophes was single that under the sixth was double and was joined with the coronis (855). '^ou TouTo (|)T]CTif^ : * * * iv elaOeaei 8e Mfx^oc avv ol<i Trpoava(f)(jL>vel ^ apua to : " etev.01 8oK6i A. 943—72 Kdfi.. . 8vo 8e r)p./ BcTrXrj Kal 8' iv elaOecret /u-e'Xo? dpbocl3aiov irepiohmv * ivaXKa^ tov " X^P"^ IwviKal to tov v7roKptTOv>. - . BeKUKCoXot pbel^ovo'i. ^ t) to ^epeKpaTSLov' Kopwviho<. . irj' . ev eladiaei tov %0|C»o{) e'/c efa9 ^ ^ fiovoarpo^cKr] r€TpaK(o\ou<. : 7\i. iKdiaei •• 5^ Pr. the second (S idou diaaai) beginning SlttXt) Sti eia-laaiv 1015-20 ^ Adscript to 1014 in V . SiaKeKpirai. eyovcra Ta<i 7repi68ov<. . OTt elcriacnv viroKptTai. Kai elcriv (997—1014) tafifSoi fieTpoL aKaTokrjKTOC V See 544." V ^ 1111—50 pLOvocrTpo(f>iKov <jcal w ATJixe KaXii. V ritrri 1037-50 ^ yoni"!: * * * (1037-40^) : iv " eKOeaei iiriKol Z' Kal (1041—50) eV elcrOeaei. : 1264-1315 943-72 973-96 el * 1 ^ Ti KCiXXiok' dpxofieVoiai TeTpd/xeTp - * * . V = T : IwviKQs . in V : : V . : fJ. see D IV. iv 1067—9 Tpeh. KopcovU Be.9: iv eKde . la/x^ot BeKa. o)V tcl Se elcriv a! irepiohoi diro p. 9-13..6vov ^ ctpo4>lkt] T: rerpa/cajXos o^'aa ^ Pr.io\ia. Tpi- '7rapd<ypa(f)oc 8e oi dir-Xal fiev SiirXf] fxeTO. rAiyeiST) ^pdaaai^ KucaXcjirexa iKOiaei iirtKol V ^ 1070—9 t . 1015—20 r'. : el(rd . : om.a:wi'" D : airXoc Two notes in V. : See 571. Ed. 573. BQ. i^iaa-L yap ol " viroKpirai. ii. avvrjirTaL y' VXvKOveiwv koi tov ^epeKpareiov. Pr.ev iaTcv e^OrjpupLepr)..

rd /3' = Ta dvo : ^epeKpanov ^ D irevdrifirifiepel * D : H : D : ' : note 12) .ep€S D : lis V V.. G T : daKTv\iK7Js V : 1316-34 1 T te' 1335-1408 1 T '^Kde 457-75 ^ S X^.e.' ' ^epeKpdTeiov dTeXe<i irpoaoBiaKr} irepioBo^ tu> €^tj<. 1264-1315 Tpoxo. : Tr€vdr]fMr]/xepes ^ Pr. Ed.p. ^da€Q)<i S' Tpo-^alKov Tre/u. KaraXi] aKaTdXTjKTov : .kvouTiv as an iambic hephthemimer. (see TO. : diffvW ^ . ^ Kal tj' . /jueXiKal (1264—73 = 1290—9) lafi^CKOv ^ e'/c ^ ^9 BeKaKcoXol elac.i. troBa KprjTLKov. TreploSot fjbev koX ^ eari av^vyla iTripprj/MaTCKt]. ^ o)v to ^ TrpcoTov '^opia/x^iKov av^vyiav B' to /3' ^^ dvaTraiCTTLKov ^^ irpocroBiaKov BwBeKdarjpbov' to 7' la/jb^tKov 7rev6r]/iip. ^ V (467—75 Troiei irepLoBo^ evvedKcoXo'i. . 1316—34 eu4)i]|xeLv XPT rpdfieTpoc KaToXr^KTiKol ^ • crr/^ot ev €K0€cr€t avairaLCTTLKol . to Be Tpo'^aiKi]<. ^' dvairatcrTLKr} cTVvr]7rTai BcoBeKdcrrj/jbo^. V (1274-89 = 1300-15) * * * See 493. He overlooks his third colon. ^ • crvvrjirTaL Be ^to BaKTvXiKov Kol yap to ^ TrevdTjfJii/jiepe^^ ^^ koI to to : dvairaicrTiKov ecfidrj/nt/xepe'i. tov TeXevToiov Kopcovlf rj tov BpdfiaTot.aa in V : . ff.'CKbv Tr€vdr)/j. 503 Heliodorus regards ti ko-XXlov ap'xpfx. T : to irevd-rjiirjixepis "^ ^ : Pr.epe<. ^^ Ta /3' e7ro9' 1 BaKTvXiKov " 7rep6r]/jLifiep€<i. * Pr. re- l6' V ^ : 1335—1408 " S> (jjiXrar' di'Spui' ev elaOecrei tafi^oi Tpl/jueTpoi dKaTaXrjKTOL oB' Kol fxeTo.tfiepe<... mv to to TrpwTOV Tpo'^a'iKOV Bl/neTpov aKaTdXrjKTOv' ^ to /3' Tpo'^aiKov TpLfieTpov B' 5"' KaTaXrjKTtKov' ^ to <y' BuktvXckov to e' ^ 7rev67}/xLfjbep€<i' dvairaLa-TLKov 7r€v6r]fiifi€pe<.Kal to " 7r€v6r)fx€pii f transferred from below " Ed. viroKptrai. to rj . V JVuhes ^ 457—75 fiev XtjiJia iiek TTcipeoTi : 7re/3to8o9 evBeKUKCoXof. koI to l to dWd Iu/m^ikco TrevOrj/jbifxepel' BaKTvXiKov {TptTTOVv eh) Tpo')(alov' ) 77 to la TpicrvXXa^o^ KaTo. i. H : Pr. to * Be /S' SaKTvXcKov e(f)87]/j-c/Jiepe<}' Tplirovv BicrvWa^lav. B: A separate ® avaTtaiarov O'kwXos ^.7rT0v koI ^' ^ SaKTvXiKov irevdrjfjitfjiepov'i' to S"' la/x/StKov BlfxeTpov to ofiolco'i ra to e' TO 7) ^ irpoaoBiaKov ScoBeKaarjfMov Bia^6p(o<i TrpoaeXa/Se' to i 6' avavataTLKOv' lafM^iKov TpifieTpov ' KUTaXrjKTiKov. notwithstanding the anapaests. ' • 408 i^iacn al fiev THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY yap ol nub. kol 5"' to e^rj<. : lafi^ov ' 9 : Tr.. TO ^ lafi^tKrj ^dcri<. note in V. Kol avTMV TO to TTpwTov 619 e<fi67jiu. : Tpiirovv €(pdr)iu[jLipii ^ e<pd7]pufj. but under the same signum '" D : TTpoawdtaKov ^^ by Ed.epes T : irpoodiKbv "^ 9 TpoxclxSv dKaTaKrjKTOv '^ . Kai rb j"' Kal rb v' rb in V.

KaTa/3ttcre&)9 capL^o^ 8i. Triclinian note in the Vatican manuscript.^ov XrjKTLKOf. dXkd ^ yeypaiTTai pep iv pueaw " '^opov" Kal eTrerai ev elaOea-et (TrepioSo?) dvaTrata-TCKij e^^et tmv viroKpiTOiV.' 6t9 ^da€(o<.^o'^ 8ip. ' ' . ' ' 476—7 '"dW iirdyeiv ^ cYxeipei^ : * *' * ^ et'w^e yap p-era to aaat. Tpi. - eha eladeat'i ^ eU trpoavaand is tCiv XtyofjLfvwv ^ 476-7 The note to that verse ' 804^13 1 889-948 1131-53 1170-1205 ' of which by signum S 804 in V S 889 in V 1 this : is a part is placed after 467 in V referred T Startxa . Kal e^ri<i eccrdeai^ irapd rov'. S)v Ta TrpMTa B' ^Blp^eTpa^ dvaTraiaTiKd. edos yap rds TotavVas Trepi68ov<i 8uttixov Zacher. apparently unites the choriamb with the preceding cretic in a syzygy. Vv5. T€Tpds : K0p03VL<.T diKaraKriKTOS T diau avairaiaTiKol V Prescript to 1131 in R T ra e^Tjt . peTpoL KaraXijKTLKOi. 467-75). T€TpapL€Tpov<. 631. StaTixo^- ^ : Compare the on a Heiiodorean original iiriTiOivai.tp.. a choriambic colon.p' alaQdvii: " 'xppiap. Kal Bid ra irpoacoTra ovSe reXeta? ra? <Tv^vyLa<?. The first ends.. METRICAL SCHOLIA ^e 409 koX yap ra /3 avvrjinai no e^i)'? ovtl avairaicrriKw.Ictti jLieroi.erpa K : Kal V. ^TrefXTTTT]. .NUB. elcTLOVTOiV VTTOeiat. eaTt 8e ra iravTa K&Xa 326.€pr]<i' utto '^opidp. S ioO in R : : ff. <aTi-)(ov<i> . which he analyzes separately. with oif^ofxac. as if a dyadic pericope. 889-948 \wp€i advTcov Tcav Seupt : * * * SnrXri kuI Kopo)vl<. based Iv iKdka-ei. oB' . The following statement.eTpo<i uKaTokriKTO^' diro '^opidpL^ov TplpueTpov lapi^ov' '^opcap/SLKov uKaTdXrjKTOV' ')(^oplap. Handschriften. dfcaTdXr]KTO<. 632.€Tpo^ KaToXrjKTtKO'i' et9 \'ap. Heliodorus overlooks his ninth colon. V See 562. 8e a-rixot 8vo dva-n-ata-riKol nrpa.eTpo<.fi.. to Xtyofievov ^(oipiXecov. in Handschriften. a ye crov. V See 500. cretic the second begins with oxne in his analysis. "^ : iafi^i . Trote? a-v^vyiav.p. diroxfopvhe viroKpiTOiv' pbe\o^ rod %opoi) ov tceiTat.. 503 ff.^o<i ^ S.fio<i e^drjpbLpbeprjf. elra and space R » V : ^ (erased) els R . Compare also the following note on 478.' Bip. Heliodorus divides the ode into two periods (457-66. ^(opiapL^ov' tapu^o^ hipbeTpo^.1 elra Lemma in V. 804-13 ')(oplap. yap ' ol lapb^OL TplpieTpoi loO : Ky' li 1170-1205 MoG ^ T : BittXt). V T03V See 1131 — 53 KpLTWV.^o<i 7r€v67]p.

). @ See 838. irpoava- TO lov lov. 1170 for the restoration.'' vEsr." Vespae 1—229 ia/jb/3iK0i 1 ooTOS Ti Trdcrxeis : * * . TeaarapaKOVTa V Trpay/xciTOJi' ^ : 1303 — 20 fjbeko^ otof TO Kopcovl'i Se Kol ^ fiovoaTpo(f)iK6v^ tov X^P^^ lafM^CKov o)v ^Ta'i TrepcoSovs:^ /<ca\cov ^e^ov^. V e' VR T ei^d^aei VR 1259-1302 1 S 1259 in V 2 jj(j_ 1303-20 ^ © KopuivLs ^^' q (meanaKaToXriKTov Kal om. pbekvhpLa' cItu to '' e ^ T om. 450. TpifieTpovi aKaTokrjKTov^ eiKocn Cf. . ^€t<. om. y'. RV ing to include both strophe and antistrophe) ^ Adscript to 1304 ff. *" Kol ca/ji^oi Tplfxerpot ^ \e' iv eKdead. . of the note in V : (T p. oiv TO * irpoiTov TplfieTpov uKaToX'qKTOv. .r]v 1353—85 MV TeXevTUio^. 8-9) is 1265—91 TrpoaooTTOv * ^TToXXciKts St) 'So^a ^o TroirjTrj^. KQ\a V rnxiokeiov R 6 (see D iv. t) 1353-85 1 T TeXevTolov ^ jj 1-229 1 S euros in Y j'^^jQet " 248-72 1 Pr. iirlpptjfia Kal to added by Rutherford . fxiKpov V t6 R : : . Nuh. .. 21 D iv. . ecTa etaOecri'^ et<f 1321—44 <f)a)vrj(Tiv. V. Sib SiirXr} koI aTi^oc * * * lafji^iKol Tpc/jue'-poi. ^ eZra rd avTeiripprifia R. avvTeOev €k re la/ui^iKov BifieTpov aKaTa\7JKTov koI l6v(f)a\\cKov. ii. cD Trdrep woLTep V ^ Pr. Tpel<. VE 1259—1302 KUi TO ^ loj |ioi fioi : 7rpoava(f)a>vr)/j. TTClTep V I 248 — 72 W " TTCXTCp TO §6 ^ flETpOV evTevOev rjXka^ev. O06C ye: (TTixol Ofioioi tm Bi(TTi'X<p ^7 > " €^e<p€pov av kol Trpovaxo/nrjv. ** THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY TO " lov lov. : : : : . VE© (1307-1310^)* lou See 581. but is Byzantine 1321-44 1 Ed. yap fMiKTov Pr.a to " lo) fxoi fiot" " ea. ecrTt yap fiiKTov. in RV ^ YG ^ The analysis is continued in R9 Tpia.410 (jxovTja-iv. Schol. V . Kal \s. kol eKdeai'i'^ ldfjL/3ov<. ^ Kol iv elaOeaet KwXa Tpla * * lou : to irpoiTov Icovlkov ^ ^/jioXtoi'. 569 n. The remainder not Heliodorean. fxeX^dpia R V : vapa^ariKO. TavTa Xeyei ^ airo Tov xppov' : Trapa/SaTtKa : Be to. * Tpi/Ji€Tpot ciKaToXriKTOL a(})7]Klav ^TOl' aK9' KaT (JTlxyi up^V^ Mv reXefrato? " ttoWmv * * * SiKaarTOiv ScaaKeSdv " TTTjXoi' (sic). SiTrXr). . : : : ia/x^€iKou * 1 D : 1265-91 r fx4rpov avTi\-i)KTov Kal ldv<pa\iKov the note faces 1265 in 6 : R '^ .

citing Heliodorus (</. 11-18) has confused their application and The speaker throughout is apparently the anonymous interpretation. hopeless. he says that the largest provision for disarranged lines which he himself found in any of his copies was It is worthy of note that Strophe I. would be the number of solid book of the play. Tov crnyov rov " yXcoTTOTToieiv ei<? ra iropveta eiaiovra eKuaTore ela-l TOTTOC kirra exovre^ a-Ti<yfMa<i koI aXoyov^.aT0<./3ot * ^ Taip' atpe /ial^ai'"' : tov ' Bpd/j. V ft". but if he did the lines were subsequently lost. in lost antistrophe corresponded.7/o-a') as authority for the StaAei/x/za where Antistrophe L. v7ro\a/jt. in in Dindorf ii. who. bases his metrical statements on the commentary of Heliodorus.). mv eV rrpoxetpov irkeLa-Tcov 3e V fiev ^ evpeiv tov \6yov ovk eaTi. prefixing his name to the quotation. Once (see the first note on 1275 ft'. : ^ : D : /j-w riva : ^ Signum cDv Bergk) (piperai arixov ivbs 1 1-81 ^ The note in V precedes the first general scholium on D : TeXevraLOv . but it is separate from these and is ''' : complete in over itself " elai rives in Kai TpLTov ofMoaov TrpoffiriTrrei V Bergk i-TroXa/^/Sdvw 6tl Bergk (except oi5 Ed. lines in which Aristophanes wrote Antistrophe I. Byzantine compiler of the scholia (832). non-interpretable lines in his copy numbered seven. The disorder (iv. here as elsewhere. to eleven spaces. roiv "^ *''HXto8ft)po<?' fiera evpov ^tovtoov^ evheKa. bee 457 are reported which the metrical scholia on 1275 527. now lost. may have repeated one of these attempts in his great variorum edition. as one continuous Heliodorus let this antistrophe go as musical whole in his own copy. (1265-74).' then. Trpwrot? dvTiypd(f)ot^ <^6apevTa otl tlvu fiev Toa-avTa r)v tov dpcdfiov yvaxrdrjvai. ' ' Fax 1-81 iafj. stood in the original book of the play. tovto refers = Bergk The note is placed in dvaa-raTov and 1267. -KpwTOi e? TplixeTpoi aKaToXrjKTOi ir'. V (1284-91^) fxeTCi to hLdXeipLp-a iv TroXXot? (pepovTat (TTixpi iiTTa Kol TeTpdfJieTpov. Siv TeXeurato? " iTTTrriBov tov dep The following metrical note " is to the epirrhema (1275-83) between the scholia on 1259 V added to the scholium on 1281 in V. is arranged in eleven o-Tt'xot The compiler next gives Heliodorus's ow^n both R and V. 8e ToiavTU TroXXa/ct? ov ^° ^ firjv eiTrov oTt ev toI^. Heliodorus says that the words. and he assumes that they were already in confusion in the first copies of the original 'Seven.PAX eTTLpprj/xa METRICAL SCHOLIA kol to avreirippi^^ia.. ov 6 vov'i ov TrpoaTTLTTTet. 8id\€ififia 411 liF Tovro ^(pTjcrcv'^ ^ema? cttIx'^v (1275—83) * * * /xera avaardrav elvai. which the ' ' It was later editors who attempted to heal the lines and The compiler arrange them in metrical conformity with the strophe.(3dv(o to.

299-336 1 S cl)s Tdxicrr in "V . " . elcreX- 66vTo^. ^ Z crvWd^iov ^ B. Bevp* lt irdvTe^ ev evioi^ Be dvTi. otl ^ /xovofieTpov to SeKUTov. 412 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY /xera Be eVl Tov KavOdpov. Tpip. va Xrj' eaTL KfoXdpcov ToBe " tI ^ <^r)(." (poyvrjfia to " ea ^ * ea. koI ^Tcav kcoXcov^ cKaaTOV BuktvBe. On this doctrine of dactylic catalexis see Heph.. Xeoo. ttXtjv dWd 7rdvTa<. V Ke' ^ /cat D ^ D : dvairaKXTiK 154-72 ^ S before 154 in V om. 21. ^ Kal Tts iropos ctoi -rqs 68ou y^'^'^o'^Tai BlttXtj Kal eta~ et? (TT'i')(^ov<i ^ tafi^iKov<. It is attached by a signum once to iraidi' in 111 (V^) and again 2 Si^^Xt) ^ Ed. and ire in scholium in V (pTj T : en-eciois . oiidk dvairaiarov i^x^f T€Tpa. ^ovB^^ TLV0<. '^roy? TroSa?^ BaKTv\ov<.Kw\ov V^ CLvairaicTTiKhv 5^ airb Ed. : : : . to fiev irpSnTov kol BevTepov KaToXT^KTiKov. . el<i irepiohov. 124—53 6ecn<.eTpov<i dKaTaXrjKTOvi BlttXT] \'. to B 7 kol em-el aKaToXrjKTOv. Be ^avTT)'^ TeTpuKcoXof. . ToBe " Irj li]. irepiohov dva7raiaTiKr)v tmv viroKptroiV Tpvyalov Kal e-^et tov oiKeTOv ivveaKaLTpiaKOVTa/xeTpov eiKocn kcoXcov. eh Idpu^oVi ^ pkS"'. \lk6v. Tpiwv BiavWd^cov.eTpov<. . and is misplaced both times.'ypd<f)oi'i fieTU aTl^ov<.. * Z oKTw Kal TpiaKovTd/j." V : 82—101 ^ ^ ^CTuxos Tjo-uxos SlttXtj koI eia6ecn<. TU^T/? ovK dvaTTUiaTov e^ei ^ovBeva^. CLTTo ^ dva7rac(TTiKr)v ^ Be avTrjv ov ° (f>a/j. V : 173—298 TpifjL." V TdxKTT 299-336 Us et? (7Ti')(^ov^ %as: v(f)' BiTrXij Kal (299-300) tov %o/c>oi) e/c^eo-i? y8 . TeTpdfieTpoi. 01)9 KaTaXrfKTiKov'^ ou? eVt 6 irpea^vTTj'i KopwvU.: eKaarov ¥» to fieTpoi' Y^ to ^(TTi in 118 (Vb) ^ Ed. TpoyalKov'i Xeyet- TeTpap. V eicr- 154—72 OeaL<i ei? dXV aye ni^yaae ^ : * * * Be '^ Kal TreploBov id' oifAoi dvaTraLaTtKrjv tov irpea^vTov * OKTWKai- TptaKOVTdfieTpov Kcokaiv." mv * 6 Te\evTalo<i " Kal vrjaioyTaL. : •* : : : : : : . Kal fxeTa dX\. 10 flf. first ijcrvxo! rpidKovTa fxirpov fj. V See 345.eTpos ^ ^ 173-298 T t6 TeXeuTolov Text of V : vnaiwras S oL/xot. ws in V * ^ Ed. V ^^b) TrdrepT ^ : 114—17 ecTTL ^ BtirXr] Kol 6t(j6e(Ti<.ov<.eTpov<i CO ^ ws Se'SoiKa ' BlttX-)] Kal eK6ecn<. 1 fF.oi>6/xeTpoi> On 91 V V " D : dvawaicrTiKr] D : evv^a Kal has the interlinear note to0t6 iari to d^Karov 114-17 ^ The note is given twice in V in slightly varying forms. ^ Kal (301—36) * (XTlyoL : 6iioico<i Tpo'^aiKol i^^s lafi^LKa. probably a later ^ oktQ addition 82-101 ^ S : H V * adds after ?a ia in /cat to. el<. : 13.ev. 124-53 1 eh D om.

AvKetov KOiXa XvKeiov ayadr) Bopl fiev Tv-yT)^^ (7VV dcnriBL. V ^ 346-60 ""el Y^^P Y^'^oi'TO iSelv'^ : Kal <7reptoSo9> CKKaiBeKa kcoXwv.eis V o-rtx 426-34 V. S iKireTrX^nnivoL in V. • Wf r : om. irpoiTO'i w TeXo<i " ^ BecTTTOT dyaXovfjiev rjfjb€t<.> e kcoXcov TpoxaiKcov. . - : *_ ' -a H H : : : TerpappvdfJLOs dKaraXyj iKdicreL ^ ^ . but failed to erase the beginning and close of his miswritten '^ note eKdecei TeXevra'ia * D ' : TrpooSos * T : : diffrix . BiTrXi] ^ K€Kpayevai. as X/3' lemma T in * : T : rpifx .7rXr] Kal "* iv eKdecrec (e')' Tpo-)(alKo\ TeTpdfMeTpoi KaTaXrjKTCKol ^ ecTa (426-30) (431—2) Bvo. KaraXrj Sifierpuv fj-era. to Be B' TpippvOfiov. eireTac rj'i TeTpafxeTpoi KUTaXrjKTCKol rj om Be BiTrXal yap (385-99) " fiTjBa/jum avTiaTpe^ovaa BeaTToO' 'Ep/xi}.^^ elaOeaet B TraccoviKci.." VF ^ 426-34 c7Tt%ot uiiiTepov ivrevQev: Bt. T : rpiixeT . " lav lov irapaTeXevTOv. to Be iK tov BevTepov Tpo')(^aiov Kal auTov BittXov.. Bi/xerpoov aKaraXrjKTdiv Be ^iari^ to KaraXrjKTCKOv Be rov reXevralov. * T reXevr c r of \ ^ text in the given as V. in V erasure covering two short intramarginal lines) povs ov t? fxev etc.a iKirtir\T)yfiivoi.ao£wv eKKaiSeKa : 5^ o to. V 337-45 fiev ^ ^ ^ jAT Ti Kttl vuvi * ye: SiTrXfj. » ® T T T : 'iKacrrot ^ T .. rpia BippvOfia. V. . eKKetfieva Kol ^ BevTepov iv eladea-et KOiXov TratwviKov (Bippvd^iov ^ TeTpdppvdfiov aKaTdXrjKTOv. iv " eladeaet irapd toi"? TeTpafieTpov<i aTi'^^oi lafi^cKol fiev Kav (433—4) ^ inreio-decret. fioi 383-99 iK0eaei v<f TTJ Te'tTTe' Ti TTcxCTxeT " 1 : BittXi) Kal (383-4) iv /3 crTiyoi Tpo^aiKol ^' . Ta toU Tptalv 6 kclv ' ofioia e<? eKacTTOv eKcio-Tcp kcik elra iv iKdeaei (Tvv ^ crTt. PAX METRICAL SCHOLIA rj 413 ' KaraXrjKTtKol XS"'. Y ' - T : iKOiaei. . dlpvdfJ. The lemma is in before 347 346-60 S ^ T Sevrepoi iv iKdiaei kwXwv iraMvi.'' eKKatBeKaKcoXo).T V : ayaXov dyaXXov- 7)ft. vr Following /x^Xos in V is dtro npo (then 337-45 ^ Adscript to 337 ff. kov eireKOeaet ^Kav^ iKdea-ec) <(Tri'V0O S"'. TpiTov ^KaV kmXu TpoxaiKov • e^OrjfiLfiepe'i. fiovofxerpov eaTi Be to TeXo<.^09 Tpo'x^alK6<. . mv T6\evTato<. Tpl/Merpoi aKaTaXri . The scribe probably wrote awb irpo6dov fxev etc. ^ T : rots Terpa/ieTpoii 1 : • (xrlxoi^ T T : ineKdidu V . . cTrerat " yap ' "^ /xeXo?. KwXa Bvo. D . '^ T : ^ Ed. " fiaXXov to yrjpa'i e/cSu"?.Kuiv Kal tCjv 6. : iraiuvta Siuipiko. ov tj TrpowSo'i iariv * ^ ck 8icrTt%ou ^' 6fjL0LQ)<. dLUfTpuv ft-kv Ed. dlpvdfw. wv to iK BlttXov a-irovBeiov. rpoya'CKol TCL /§' ^ /3' TeTpafieTpoi KaTaXrjKTiKor to " Be ^ MV TramvLKCL Be Xolttcl Btppvdfxa.. on> 6 fiev a ecTTC aTC'^^O'i Tpo^aiKO<. CKKeifiivov kuI iv fxev elcrOecrec <'rr€pLoBo<. 383-99 iKardXt) fiev . ^ T : eKKeifievTjs : . . ^ . to " eiXeT f)fuv V ^ See 232.

ef^r}? Tpta iv TrapcKdecrei. V . . ^9 (459—63) ra Kara e' ^ * Kara /3' kmXov. they would be ev €7reio-^eo-et. Schol.i/j. but in introducing the term eVeK^eo-ts (the only possible designation here. Buo avairaiaTiKo. nor elsewhere. lemma -rrds o^iv ov xwpei in T aKaToXrjKTOi V di/xer KaraXt) di/x V. With reference. if consistent with his catalectic dimeters. V (472 * * * ^^ iv Heliodorus classifies the exhortations in cola 1-5 and 9.op V difjL . for example. These short cola evidently but he is in doubt in regard to colon 4.^aKxei. would read 459-72 3 1 : rot e^/Js rea-o-apa ev irapeKdecreL. i^ -'» ^^ T T r om. T ' : ^KdeaLs. would be indented as deeply as any cola could be. ^° VF St/jieTpa (464-6^) ^'^ to. . avaTraiaTLKa XijKTCKov ev. in V irpoaibiro^v ^ V : " Ed. ff. ' ' previous note. : V V : in "V 1° T : eKdeaei V ^* Interlinear in V " H : : Treudrj/j. 4aTL ^° : Kara wdda as below ? * r T : adscript to 459 . 10 merely as the simple feet which the syllables seem to constitute. S ela in 463 in ^^ Adscript to 466 Ed. V . " vTTOTeive 8)] 7rd<. om. ^ V ZiirXovv . Kal eart to fMev Kal yap ^ aXXayyjv <y' TpiavWa(3a to etr] Tra\iiJL^dK-)(eiov. Recognizing the problem these very short elements present. would be Iv -apeKdea-eL. Neither above in placing cola 6-8 (464-6). The anapaestic dimeter.414 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 435—58 aireVSoi'Tes pax 8e o>v euxofieaOa : * *^ * 8f7r\r] Kal iv eKdiaec ariyoi lajx^LKol rplfjuerpoL VF Taio<. . . here and Vr iireKdiaei just Adscript to 470 in " Adscript to 472 in These two terms got transposed in transmission below. uKaraXriKTOi ^ kS'.. to TToXifM^aKxeto^. Sv Kal KaraX-i] Cf. . but he does this in treating cola 11-14 (469-72). with reference to a trimeter. V Kara crriKov iroha ^'^ (467—8^^) eiTa ev V (469 ^^) KprjriKOv.epis ^® Ed. . ^ D : : dXXd yap V By /3' : ira\ifJ. Heliodorus serves notice at the beginning of his note that he will have occasion to employ the terms eTreKOea-a and TrapeKOeans. ^'^) iv ^^ i7r€K0ea€C Sifierpa aKaTokrjKTa. an anapaestic dimeter intervening. . avairaio-- V Z : fKdiixei be KaTo. .. . V V. aKaTaXrjKTa /3' Kat Karaela decree TpicrvXka^oi <yS'> elr' ev ef^}? iKdeaei avairai- ecpdrjfitfMepi'i. if one is to be used at all) in stating the position of cola 12. and he does use them. does he differentiate a catalectic from an acatalectic anapaestic dimeter. . Se S' tjtol Tge"! SaKTvXcKov 8t7r\ov<i Sl'ttXovv rj rpo'^aiKov TrevdrjfjUfMepe'? av. Trpcorov Trpoo-oiTTOov. aKaraXr] . Pax 486 koAuiv Should this 8ti to /xev a TpicrvWa^bv error.: V has eiaOeaei. V (470— 1 ^^) to. to a trimeter. ^ . of which two are The note on these cola. following any of these. V om. in turn. avaTraioTLK 12 . 13 (470-1) he is inconsistent with himself and certainly in error. reXev- 459—72 yopov TOiv ^ w ela : BlttXt} Kal ^ TrepLKOirr} a/xoc^aicov rov Kal rov vTroKptrov irpoira e' ' ev eireKdecrei ^ Kal e-)(et irapeKOeaei. to 8e iralwv irptorof. .

va}xvr]a0ivre<5 : 571—600 ^dW TO ^ BlttXyj ~ Kal />teXo? ' TOV vTTOKpiTOV (571—81) evvea. om. ^ V ^ (585 — 92^) Kal elT iv ^" iKdeaei TTaioivtKOV TeTpdppvd/xov 7' dKaToXrjKTOv. arix Tpox ^ X^-^P^ X"V' *s lemma in V • • . iv iireKOecxei ^^ <(TTixo9> reTpd[jbeTpo<i KaTa\riKTtK0<. r S Soparlov in KaraXr) V.^' Ti\o<i Be " aX)C KwXvovcriv. TO S" Kal B cm. eladiarei aKaToXrjKTa BifMeTpa Kal iv fJuovo/ieTpov * Be to evaTov TrapaTeXevTov.Ta\r]KriKol rpoxai-'Kol T R B : d/iolo}^ ^ V V : V * it]' Z : otixx * . ov iv to. TiKov Sifierpov KaTaXrjKTiKov to a rh y. TracwviKa Bippvdfia. o)v TO. (ttixol Ka. ttKaTaA7. K(x)\a. 11 See 84. VF • (582-600 BittXtj Kal <to> x^pov. V.: o5 T: 5' : : : D: aWoiKO) . : eV ~ iireKdea-ei. H : naiuviKris H oeKavuiXa Tpoxc-LKO) V. BsKaKcoXov Tpo^aiKov. R iKd^aei. ^ (S Acifiax' dSiKcIs : SlttX}] Kal arl-^ot rpi/xeTpoc Vr <S 486—99 Trporipa TO. V . . e' rb V. " Kal Tpiaivovv ajMOL^alov Ty BiKeWr]" fiev Vr 6. ^ eta) Buo 8c7r\al. 473-85 486-99 512-19 553-70 rpoxai^K • \ (593-600) * * * * See 233. o'i e-^ovaa Kal rrjv et? cip'^r] " m ela. to Be Kat (f)aai to. =* . PAX METRICAL SCHOLIA Koi t6 8 . eirerai iB' " r]<i 'yap i) avrl(npo<^o<i rrj TreptKOTrfj dfioi/Sata KtoXoiv. to Be irapaTeXevTov lafi^iKov BifieTpov. T : cm.6vLa 9 rpoxcuot. . . otLxol ^ 5aifj. Heliodorus seems to have read (518-19): S> eta da era vvv w efa or something similar.KT0V to (3 Kal 473—85 la/jL^iKol i<y'. 415 8e. rerpappvO/jLos T (Kd^cyei. 1 ^ 1 ^ r S Cb Ad/xax in V .rdB: cm.." iras : V See 302. fxev TOV TpoxacKov ^ KaTaXrjKTLKov. V rpoxa-'CKw T : : * D T ^ : : : V. 5eKa»rwXw 5'/x KaraXr] . <ov iv eladecreiy Koika 7' TpoxalKci. 553 — 70 ^ ^ ^d)S Tdxitrr' aveu ^ SopaTi'ou .. . (TTiXpi Tpoxf^LKol KaTaXrjKTiKol Lf] (bv Te\€VTaio<. . iKdecrei crTiXp^ '') TpoxalKO^i TeTpdfjbeTpo^ KaTaXrjKTtKo^. in V ' Ed. tj SiKiWv V cm. two acatalectic dimeters. eaTi Be to '' Ttve<i <ydp> ypdcpovcnv " iBdfXTjfiev oXov Tpoj(aiKov e^dfJueTpov 7' /3' TpoxalKa <BifxeTpa> aKaToXy^KTa. : rerpa/jL . rj TrpoacoTra eX(T^ Btaipeaiv Ofioiav. Terpa^xeTpoL ^ : KaraXrjKTiKoi T : H : as lemma in V 10 T KaraXr. | eta eta Tras (Richter). TpoxalKo^' B' elT iv eladeaet. . r 571-600 ^ r adscript to 571 ff. Kal '^^^^ 512—19 KcoXcov TrpSiTov 7]' aye vOv aye a/jLOC^aicov BiTrXPj el'cr^ecrt? et9 ireploBop tov X^P^^ to B' '^^^ vtroKpiTov' to avairatcniKov Kal (to) ^' BnrXovv' ^ /d' {Kal to e') lapb^iKov €didr)fiifjiepe<i' ^ to 7' Kal to lafi^iKov BifxeTpov aKaTaXijKTOv' t)' TO S"' Kal 'to ofiotov.Ed. " T (Kd^aei . 77'. .

. dXV ovk hv e'liroi lemma in F * 1: V.ifj. dWd ^ (729—33) KOfi/xdriov /xiv ecm " rov 'XPpov ^cnixoiv S' Siv Terpd/jueTpoL {arix^c) eladecreC) KardXrjKTtKol otc ^ fxev {iv ^ he irapd ^ tovtov<. H : '^KOeais ets ixe\oi D T : (TTix rerpafj..v ouv Xcyeis : SittXt] koI " yLieX. . KaXovcriv • lap. VF (734—64 ) ^ i)^ am BiTrXij €K6ecri<i Kavrr/vy rrjv Trapd^acriv. e'^. dvairaKTTLKol {a-rlxpi) ^^ Terpd^eTpoi mv reXevrato'^ " iravp' dvidaa^^^ (765 — ^^ V 74 ^^) * * OTzep * TO ^^ SiirXrj icrrl Be Kol elcrdea-ci et? ro KaXov/xevov t fiaKpov.416 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 651—6 ^ pax Tpo')(aiK6v.- lafi/SiKov 66? "'^ Bl/xeTpov ' dKaTdXrjKTov TO T] to ^' BaK- TvXlKOV {koI to TpiTTOVV 6' Bi(TvXXa/3iaV TLve<i Tpo^alicri ySrtcrt?. K(oXcov. o Koi ecTTi djxeivov. Ta ^ • e^rj<i '* l la &)? KeKcoXiaTai. om. . i^'. ._ 729-818 1 r S Wl xatpw. Kal ylv iyKUfuoXoyiKhv eh dnrev$riij. . : ^^77 . Terpd/xeTpa KaraXrjKTtKa T 657-728 : S dW . ' Te\€vralo<i TpoxalKO<. . Be avvdiTTOvcn to '^ rj' koI ijKcofMioXoyiKov. 10 H : eTr^Kdeais ^^ Adscript KaraXr] to adscript to scholium on 775 in F ''' ^^ wv evveaKaideKa KuiXuv dnrXrj 5e F T ^x°^o-^ 5t:r\^ ^^ T -" D om. . raiJTas KaraXij V. (XtIx<^v rerpa/j. scholium on 765 in F ^^ ^'^ T : ^^ S fiovcra in V. KaraXrjKTCKol Xa! .^Tpwi' KaTaXTjKTLKwv rpo" Xai-Kwv 3 r ^ ovk in 658 iu V. <ov> kut caov rot? aWot^.K0<. flF. F irpoaoSiKT) TO id' iafi^iKdv di/xeTpov KaTaXrjKTiKov -•* ^' Z : to " idvcpaXiKov T 5eKa. . rpip. KaraXri . : ." ei? fxera * Se ecrrl VF 729—818 reXecav.. . but not in text . : : . wv • BaKTvXcKov "° irev6riiXL^epe<.' rj • Bevrepov TreploBoq koI to B' TrpocroBiaifi} evBeKdcrrj/jLO'i BooBeKaaTj/xo'i ofjboiov to ^* ^"Wv^aXXiKov ^eXeyov to • TO 5"' e "^ BcTrevOrj/jitfiepe'i. . ttTT B. in 1^ V) : 8 Adscript to 734 . Be iarcv eKOeaei ^ crTi')(o<. : . . om. ^ Ed. /juev "^ TO & ^^ 619 BLTrevdrjfii/jbep^'i koI jLveTUt. V s ^ ^^q pj. 7reploBo<. V rerpafi . reXevraiov \7}KTi. T ' ' : t6 lan^' . . eocrOe(ri<i irapa X5~' tov ld^j3ovq rpifjuirpovi 7rpoava(j)(ovr]fia to " Si w. .(Tr)ixos y i9v(pdXiKov Kal to 5' bfioiov 2" "'^ 24 j) ^ D diavXX la/jL^iffXeyou D k' Bergk Trepdrj/xifiep^s '^ ^^ D ir^ i' J) K€K6\Xi(TTai. ^ T . ri<{ reXevralov BiTrXrj ^ " dvBpo<i ro et? /jLerwTrov e^ovro'^" ^^ ^^ F a 7' (775—818^*) ^^ Koi fieTa^oXr) fiovoa-rpocfiCKrjv BvdBa to ivveaKaiBeKaKoiXovi e^pvaav to " Td<i irepioBov. Terpafxerpo^ Kara~ rpo'^aiKO'i. koI ^^ dvairaiei? GTiKO'^. V : : D : . ^^^^^^ _ _ . elcrlv dvairaLo-TLKoi. VF in : H : . iu V. .. Kdriffoi F dvairaiaTiK V./ in V q^^ yp * T iravras V. : T : V) reXevraioi rpoxaiVoi (rpoxaiK T KaTiaoi V. ^ dW 101 xaiptav : 6 X'^P^'^ fxevcov Trouel jrapd^aatv ov iv eKOecrei. ^ VF oTi 657—728 rerpd/jueTpov TdW ^ mwiras^ : SiirXf] koX o/3'. rpoxa-'iK V.09 ov S' fiev <iv elcrdeaeO iv elcrl KOiXa hifierpa aKaraXrjKTa. . lafxfiiKa Tplfxerpa V raV. dvairaio-riKr] elKoadfjLeTpo<. ^ 651-6 ' r • : S before scholium . : U .ep^s dvavaLffTLK Ed.) BaKTvXlKOV OfjbOlOV. F (tbie word stands at the beginning of the following scholium •> . V i*" : D : : .

to el<. in V TTpwTot Kal ti Kal roi vpuira V. • ra to Be tB' €Vcody]vai. KaTaXrjKTiKOi. .. VT Z B : . . 4kt7]u e^ij? BiTrXf}. (TTix • • rerpa/j. . to Be y' Iwvlkov *" kuI ' avTO la/i- •"eJra"' " S' • tov ^° viroKpcTOv B'^ (TTi'XP'i ^LKo^i ^ TeTpdfieTpo'i ^Kal irdXiv KcoXa ^ o/jioia to t9 Tol'i avcoy iv eladeaet ^ydp ^^ ecrri^ tov X°P^^ TeTpd/jueTpo'^ KOiXa y 6/jiooa avo) ^Kal aTLXO'i^ la/j. . jj e^^^^^^^s ^ « Z * : 819-55 ol {fJ. in the note is not 819—55 KoX 01 ws xaKetTQv ^ : Kop(ov[<i. 503 on 785 fF. : : H 1 : — (here .^i. in V - Ed. B : TrpQroi' - T : (Kd^aei ^ T : iuvik . viroKpiT ' .. VF See 497. ou icTTt KcoXa y' TOV x^pov. ia/x^LK rerpafi ets €'irw8ov KaraXr] 8vo oe ('"XX .Ed. reading Kai : B : om. ra 5 . 8k Z B omissions ^. '' Xr' 856-67 8' Ed. : 6fioios « T ^ iv eladiaei T ei<Ti. eKKeLfj. Kal dvTicrTpo(f)o<i. S j'tjXwtos in 860) ex in V. The mecaning of the obelized words The text is probably corrupt. ^ T adscript to 819 ff. rerpa/j. . . : Icouik . 32 eireTai . : " H: -iafx^oi 1 922-38 Adscript to 922 ff.epe'i TO ia[jb^iKov BifxeTpov KaTaXrjKTCKov. ia/Ji^iKa V aKaraXri 1 r : taa V * t.'\' to ly' ' BaKTvXiKov ^Be'^ ' 7rev67]/jLCfMepe<i avato • TratcTTLKQv Tpiirovv et? i^' TO TrevTeKatSeKUTOv BaKTvXiKov TeTpdirovv iS" BittXovv TO LT] TpicrvWalSiav. BiavWa^iav • BaKTvXiKov l9' ^^ TeTpoLTTovv BaKTvKiKov "TTevdrjiJiLp. i^'. lafi^iK i^rji els eTTojSoi' eiac 5^ tou xop Ofj-oia (sic) rois dvu ""'''XX /caraXr. PAX ^oplafi^o<. '^ Ed. . . ff. Kal ra TrpQra T ^ T Tpi/j. . . TrpCOTOl (TtI^OI lafM/SiKOl TpLfieTpOl UKaTClkriKTOt 856—67 euSaifiociKus : BlttXt]. obvious. : : • • : . . . . : . .evo<. which continues rod . o)v to TrpoiTov koI fMet^ovo<. ^Ta Be ev Xonrd e<f)d7]- iv eladecrec lafi/StKa dicaTdXriKTa Kal pbLlxeph? V ^ See 580. .ev) iafi^iK 7 . fTr({)8ov and from resulted from the transposition of the words ravra Svvarai " i« » Ed. Y. V. eireTai yap ^ /xeXo? cifMOi^alov " Tov X^P^^ '^^'' '^^^ vTTOKpiTOV. e(f>0r]p. rj/jLioXiov.Ko<i KaTaXtjKTiKO^ BevTepo<i iv (TTpo^rj eKdeaei TO. ^^ 417 "fro crvvrjTrrai rf. C'^nfusion of terms KaraXrj 5i^o Se eV eKdeaei.? e^rj<.cfj.oios roh dvu)' • ravra dwarai • • • • elvai aTpo(pi] Kal clvtIctt po(f)0% . : ^/c^etns 2 E . yap fxeXo'i D : ((pd-nfMifiepes ''' D : avW : . (ttixx i-o-fJ-^oi rerpdij. 6fj. aye 8t) 922—38 TpifJbeTpov? ti vi^v. S' ' TavTa ^^ ^Be^ BvvaTat ^kmXoov ^ elvat 5"'. . . ^ '^ TTpotaac ^ yap 01 viroKpiTai. . METRICAL SCHOLIA e(f)Or}fxc/ji€pT]<i. . BlttXi) Kal '^ eia0eat<i et? ld/jL^ov<i dKaTaXrjKT0V<i ws irafO' OCT V : 939—55 30 ay Oeos 9eXoi. Tpl/j-eTpa d/cardXT/Kra * F 5' .€prj TTpoiTa iv ^ €ca$ecrei to ^ j3' IcovLKa aTTo awTj/jb/jueva. ^" he • Bvvarac Be irpwrov \017ra avrSiv fierareOrjvac e« <TvWal3rj<. 5"'^ '^ e^rj<i ^^ eVftiSo? mv to a Kal to y' CTTixoi ^6/jboiQ}'i^ lafjL^iKol TeTpdfjieTpoc BifxeTpa. .

. 7 dvpacri. . ^ Schneider: (pipovri ^ ^ : Ed.ifj. of Oeky. . in V . Tivd<i. to (1023) " ae tol 6vpaac XPV t^^vetv ovt . Kol €0iK€v ivravda <TvvSeafio<. apparently its correspondence with the tetrameter in 942. Ack 284 and note. in ^^ S ovkovv in 950 in KaraXrj : . irporepov Trapadrjaoixai 0}<i (peperat. . but the text of the metrical scholium on 942 at this point is uncertain. ^daeaxi Kal Tpoxai^r]'. D : ffv^ V diarix . cb? ^ovv^ iaTeov. dri in 942 ^ lemma . V V ^^ D Y 1 956-73 Adscript to 956 f. 956-73 la/x^LKol ^ aye 8r) TO Kav'oui' : /3' BiTrXal Kal ev eKdecrec aTixot i^' . Koi ^ KoX TOVTO Se a/xdpTTjfid iaTCV. Note the application of the phrase a-vCvyov Tpiirow to the words vvv yap Saipiov (f^avepm {three simple feet) and see Schol. V Sifierpoi.) (variant ^^ ^^ prescript to 948 f. rpLpLerpoi aKaTdXrjKTOi V But there are in fact eighteen On this use of two ^iTrXal.epk. dvairata-TiKa Svo UfxeTpa. KaTaX7)KTtK6<.'^. . mv to a e'> hifieTpov dKaTd\r)KTOV' K\etSo<. Kal ev eladeaei <to> irpSiTOV Trpoo-oSiUKov evSeKdcrrjfxov' to /3 to he Tj dvairataTiKT] Tpiirohia' ^° 7' lafx^iKov ^^ e(f)d7jfj.' to ^' e^ la/x^iKri<. TOV X'^P^^' ^ °^ rod viroKpirov. .vairai(rriK rpiirod i" . aKardXr) . ^^ (948-9 etra ev iKOeaei tov vTTOKptTOV hi(TTixo'i 'iafi^o'i TeTpdfMeTpo<i KaTa\r]/cTCK6<.. His argument for keeping 939 a tetrameter is indeterminable. Y inroKpcT ia/x^oi rerpafi . Sioirep pax (f)€p€TaL Be (w? Sui<f)opov. (942-947') eha '^^ ev eKOeaet (ttlxo^ laix^iKO<i reTpd/jieTpa KaTaXr)KTtKo<. (950—55 lapb^iKov ) Kal ev eladeaec tov x^P^^ <Kal to ^ 8' ^^ KooXa. otl irpoiTa 7' KO)\d eVri TavTa fxev ^TavTo} (TTixo<i dX\o<. 939-65 at end of KaroK-n . D D : : dvavaLCTTiKol D : KarakTjKTLKOv ^ re • Kai . Be e^et i^rjyrjTeov. Heliodorus's text read deXoL re in 939 instead He condemns the attempt to reduce this period to a trimeter by rejecting KaTopBol. see 851. 418 o virovooi fiev THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY e^^iv rb civTicrTpo^ov ev Sie^^La. . in order to make it equivalent to the corresponding period in the His reading of that line is unfortunately now antistrophe (1023). KaraXr] S'lJ-erpoi d. ^TeTpdfi€Tpo<. jxeTO.epe<. : fier* ^ r' aXX T> : (a blurred letter or letters . .€Tpo<. rerpafi ^^ . H 'iafi^oi. to lafjL^CKOv e<p6r}fxip... . B V : (ttlxx • ta/A/3i/c . V See 583. . to Be he e S' (Tv^vyov laiM^LKOV dvairataTLKov ^^) Tplirovv. V . aKaTdXrjKTOv re ^ KaTaXrjKTiKov." (939) to " KaTopOol" irepiTreveLV koL 6 "re" irpcx. in . dW) ^ tCv as !> om. KaTalafi^iKov BlfieTpov aKard- TO TO 7' 5"' Kal ro \rjKT0v' IwviKov -{jfxioXiov. taiJi^o<i to ^ tolvvv irpwTOV twv Kal ical TptSiV KcoXwv Tov ^-xPpov (iv elaOea-ei) ^ TeTpdfi. Kal . Z : doubtfully Tlfll6\€tOV : om.

V ^ e^eXOovTcov 1127 — 90 -^Soixai y' TjSojxai Kopwvl<i <yap> : : ' T(7w vTroKpirSiv X'^P^'^ /jlovo<. (TTixiKrjv (jTi^wv. iv Ty TO ^' TrepcKOTTrj eart Kal Be to S"'^ -rraicoviKov Tpippvdfjbov (TTpocpfj • re t Kal La ^^ i/3' BippvOfxov.T 1127-90 1 T eiaeXebvTwv dfioiofj-epfj : : : ^ 2 . = 1188-90) dXXd ^"^ avTri TpiKcoXo<i Kal avrrj Be BtfieTpwv. ^'> irXeKTal ^ D : &i>tl ^ D V * •» T : : irpdjrr] ^ vpbs TTvp : SU\Kiov (1131) as ^" ^^ ' lemma Bipvdiiov in V -•" " " T H: . adscript to 1191 ff. KuiXcov. Bvo fiev aKard^^ Xr)KTa. avairaiCTTcov 7rep(. dKaTa\r}KTov<. ^ 1159—71) T^9 /3' 7rpooT7]<. TrepTeKaiTpcaKovrd/jieTpov re /3' OTi e-^ec /MOvofieTpa to Kal la Kal iS"'. T Y : om. rpipvdfjLos Ed. avrrj Be e^ei fMeXiKrjv fxev Be irpooTrjv (jrepioBoi'^ (f)iX7}Bel k(oXq)v. lou ~ : 1191—1269 974-1015 ^ Kopcovl<i.> a ^^ TraiwvtKOP ^" to Kal y fiev (Kal) e| 5"' lafi^LKri<i ^° ^daew^ Kal Kal ^to e TpoxaiKi]<i KaTarj' KXeLBo<i.PAX trimeters here. ^' . uKaTaXijKTCov. V 1105—14 cyxei 8tj Kdjxoi Kal iv eKOeaei iiriKol dXXoi l. METRICAL SCHOLIA and is 419 in general the doctrine of the equivalence of groups of trimeters very doubtful. : 9/4 — 1015 l6' (3 aefifOTciTr) PacriXeia SnrXrj ' Kal etadecrtq el<. A^ TauTi SeSparai SiirXP] Kal eKOecn^ ei9 IdjjL^ovi rpifxerpovi aKaTaXi'jKTov'i kB'. V lou See 454. rrjv Be e^KaLrecrcrapaKovrdijberpov Taur' (S /C7' kco\(ov. . elcriaai. - ^ yap ol inroKpiTai. which H 1016-22 1 Adscript to 1016 and interlinear in V 1039-62 1 Adscript to 1039 in V 1104 1 irapfiriypa^T] i] prelixed in V 1105-14 1 T eireiK . ivb'i KaTaXrjKTCKov. ^ V ^ 1104 ottovSt) o-itocSt)) iv ela-Oecret KcoXdpiov Buo cnrovBeiwv. Bvo Be KaTaXrjKTLKd.<TT0v • D : e' Kal X fiirpuv : to * V adds on ?x" fJ-ovdnerpa rpia. V Bvo (1140-55 = 1172-87) * * * icrrlv fiev i) (1156-8 TpoxaiK)]. 5e Kal in 1188 in V S T T : Ed. rrjv fxev y'. TO e' Kal rpippvdfxa.irai.68ov<. KaraXc'jrel'i " BiairepaLveraL crv- ^vjiav OV <i7ripp7)/jLaTtKr]v Kara al 7reptK07rr]v> dvoiioiofieprj rpiaBiKrjv TTVKVOi^ yevo/juevTjv.J 9— 62 ttoXiti/xiit' : BlttXt] Kal €K6ecn<^ Idfij^ov^ rpifxirpov. Svo. o^. ^ T> inploboi de S" Kai TeaffapaKOfTdfieTpov y' Kal rejects : T dv6. Kal /xev B' "^ varepav ^ rpUoiXov. Hffrepos rpi/cwXos dXXd k\u56s T: error. : 8ipv0fia in " Bv - S iroXXa ^ ol : avryj 1191-1269 first ioi/ in V. ro (1127-39 = Blppvdfiov.. w /xdXiaTa <Kal 'ApLaTO<f)dvi]<.* V et? 1016—22 10 . ly Bvo ^TplppvOfjia'^ iv rrj TpoyaiKa BlfieTpa. yap lS"' irXelarai " eTrippTj/jbariKal BvaBiKai ly elcTLV. BlppvdpLa ^ 6'. T : \ voirp-al Kal iari T .

Bl/M€rpo<. : 1329—55 ^ ^ Seup' a> yuVai ScirXi] Kal ' iv iTreicrOeaei ^6Krd<. rtva<.' Trygaeus recites verses 1316-28.weppe in V 1298-1301 ^ r S affwiSi. .cii' XPT • Koptovl^. : f.420 Kaa-TL THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY Kar ap-^rjv pax * Trpoavacpoyvrjai'i ^ ro " lov (orj'). adscript to scholium on 1283 in T ^ KaTaXrjKTiK T iKdeafL : V V : c^' 1286-7 1 S duip-qaovT in V 1288-90 1 T e/c6>e 1291-3 1 Prefixed to 1291 in 1294-7 1 S 6. KarakT^KriKol (1307). V 1288—90 1291—3 iiTLKol /3'. ^ 6 xopo^ dvd '^ • avrd . 1316—28 Kpcrai." el^?}? ^ Se CTTt^ot la/jL^CKol rpi/JLeTpoL aKaraXrjKTOL : VF crri'x^oi 1284—5 128 6—7 ^ eie>' . ^ '^<^l' laioiv ^ Kp'^Cko'y^ov iarl to Sicrrt- O'Tl'X^^ ilTLKol VF ^Kopcovl<. ^ koikiot' d-iroXoio) y'. 3 gd. ^ D ^paxewv KaroK-nKTuiv <rrpo(pi. dKard\7]KTo<i. eKopecrOec ^ /3'.K vepiobos ^ Prescript to 1334-6 in Y ^ T !rapaypa<pal and beginning eZr' iv {sic) V : Kal eXeyfiov 'Apxi-^^X^^ ^ 1305-10 ^ Adscript to 1305 1316-28 1 S KOfjill^eiv in '^"^ a-rtxoi. . iv ^ eladecreL err 1^(01 la/x^CKol rplperpoc dKardXTjKTOi aipol : V ttou? crTrofSeio? elra Kal iv ' eKOicret V ^ 1294—7 dKaraXrjKTOi. ol irpcoroL elcriaat ol iiiro- Kal (1316—19) 8'. 8vo KaraXrjKrcKMV rptwv he (pepovrat * ^paxv^ciraXjjKrcJV. ^TTuXcv^ iv irreLo-deaei rov yopov ro laov. in Y ^ Adscript to 1333 f. lov. V : elTjs . also Y . airepp€ Kal tois : Koi ~ : ari-xoi la/jb/SiKol rplfierpoL B' . .^^ ^^^^^ ixovo1329-55 1 Adscript to 1329 ff. (ttlxoi dvaTracariKol 7replo8o<i V V (1320 — 8") SlttXtj koI 6' iv ^ ^ eladeaei otl dva7raL<TTLKr} eTTTaKacSeKdfierpo'i kcoXoov eyet /xovofjuerpov ro e. Y ^ ^ - T : eiade . in Y.jLov6/xeTpov rb e ^ -j. OLKardXriKTOt. . 1305—10 Kol ^elra^ ^ tapbfio'i ^ ujxdii' TO Xotiroi' i^iovrtov tcov jB' vTTOKpi- a-TiXOt. lafx/SiKol Terpafjuerpot. 'iva (1333—5^) elra (1336—9 ^) iv rovroc^ fxepo'? Kara . V : * On 1324 . ^ V do-TTiSi \ikv /8'. eu(f>T)p.. ^. elaiv iv iireKdecrei. : 1298—1301 X^^' ra)v^. : : : . elra iv ' elaOecrec la/JL^CKol rplfieTpoi aKaraXrjKTOL ^ VF elr : GcupriCTOKT ap' : iv cKdeaet eiT i'mKoil ^' . elev om. - 'Apx'^oX<"^ (D ewiKol : ' ApxO^oxos V) iffrl rb Siarixo" /3' T : om. . V : .^ {xovocrrpo^LKr} irepiohoov ^ rrevraKcoKcov lwvikwv Sc/xerpcov. ' irapdypacpoi. T D : dicmxx • D : 1284-5 3 ^ S in V. in V Adscript to 1307 in Y ^ Adscript to 1320 ff. in Y » T eirLddiaeL V has tovt6 icrri to . V (1308—10) * * * <ydp See 87.

flf. ' Kal iraXiv ra rov avrov fiirpov rov Kal ivravda eariv. dvTiypd(f)Oi'i ov (fyeperac <f)ep€Tai ^^ rd irevraKooKa dK6\ov6u)<i. u(f>^ Adscript to 1335 error. (1340— 3 = 1344— 7 •X^opov. ox? ^Ze^ a Kop(ovl<.. ' METKICAL SCHOLIA €v 421 Bia ncnv ^he^ •) ov (jteperaL ^ra e' Kb)Xa^ tu fierpa. f. (1348—55^^) ivrevdev iv toI<. <r.> rov BpdfiaTo<.PAX Xe'777. 8 in V in » Prescript to 1340 in V J« " By in S oUrjceTe in 1334 V D ^"^ T : oi> " Adscript V Kdpov to 1355 : . Y rii See 584.

259. . . 687 682 f. 687 Scene 666. Trochaic 244-55. 238-40 recitative trochaic tetrameters. iambic penthemimers. 422 . 124-203: trimeters (200). KOpOiVL'i 857 f.— — — TABLE OF STRUCTUKE AND RHYTHMS main divisions of the plays 684. 855 f. 241 : Scene I. 234-6. 667. . Pambasis 665. 687. 687 .. Syzt/gy 666. 226. 687 . 710 f. 679-81. 710. 685 f. Trimeter ... rhythm. 62-122. Debate Episode 666. 687. See the following sections on non-melic rhythms in Aristophanes See the following Prologrie sections on the : 666. 687. 123 prose. 674-6. 667. 667. See the following sections on the use of cniixda Trapdypa(f>os SittA-t) 846-54 Trapdypa(j)o<i aTrXrj 846 f. : 204-41 204-18 = 219-33 234-7-238-41 204-18 = 219-33: : monostrophic dyad in trochaic and paeonic See 449. 44-60. 61 : : Parode I. 713 Dactylic Hexameter 356-66. 687. 687. 667. Anapaestic 305-20. 667. . 186-9 95-143.. 670-3. 677 f. 710. : Tetrameter: Iambic 167-83. 667. Trochaic 267-9. Eupolidean 528 f. Hypermeter: Iambic 190-6. 43.. Anapaestic 321-31. prose formula. Stasimon 666. 712. 237. Parode 665. 668 f. 667. 665. 667. 682. 186 f. : 242-79 263-79 242-62 . 667. ACHARNIANS Prologue: 1-203 1_42. Exode 666. : .

rhythm. See 90. See 467. : . 456'' anaphonema. in paeoiiic rhythm varied See 452. : 393-488 393-488 393-403. See 234. : 280-346 280-3 284-302 = 335-46 303-4 305-34 280-3 : non-antistrophic period in paeonic-trochaic rhythm. trochaic and anapaestic rhythm.:. : : : trimeters (94). : 303-34 recitative trochaic tetrameters. 572-77^ 577''-625 trimeters (124). 407 iambic monometer. 284-302 = 335-46 by periods in : dyad of the triad. 497-565. 405-6. 366-84 rhythm. TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS 242-62: trimeters (21). Syzygy 1 : 347-92 347-57-366-84 358-65 347-57. : = 385-92 trimeters (30). Parode II. 263-79 non-antistrophic period : 42 3 in iambic rhythm. : Syzygy 11 : 489-625 489-96 = 566-71 497-565-572-625 489-96 = 566-71: monostrophic dyad in dochmiac and iambic See 468. con- stituting the proode of a triad. : 358-65 = 385-92 monostrophic dyad in dochmiac and iambic Seem II. 408-56^ 457-88 404 iambic dimeter.

6 2 8-0 8 recitative anapaestic tetrameters. See 296. : monostrophic dyad in iambic rhythm. 626-718 626-7 628-58 659-64 r 665-75 = 692-702 = 703-18 (16) 1676-91 : (16) 626-7 non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. 736-79. Stasimon II See 86. 836-59 : monostrophic tetrad in Aeolic rhythm. 952-70 929-39 = 940-51 : trimeters (88).424 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Farabasis: ach. : 971-99 [971-75 1976-85 = 986-89 = 990-99 . 676-91. 665-75 = 692-702 monostrophic dyad in paeonic rhythm. 781-835: trimeters (115). Episode II. 703-18 : recitative trochaic tetrameters. 780 : Stasimon L : 836-59 836-41 = 842-7 = 848-53 = 854-9 See 582. : 719-835 719-835 719-34. prose. Episode I. 735. 659-64 recitative anapaestic hypermeter. : : : See 453. : 860-970 860-928 ^9-39 = 940-51 952-70 860-928.

iambic rhythm. 202-241 197-201 : trimeters (236). with slight dochmiac variation. : 1143-73 ri43-9 7150-61 = 1162-73 See 299. dactylic hexameters. 1143-9 : non-antistrophic systematic period in anapaestic rhythm. See 599. Stasimon III. 1174-89 trimeters (16). See 456. in See 456. in Aeolic rhythm. : 1069-1142 (74). 1018-36. See 565. 1008-17=1037-46: monostrophic dyad in See 83. constituting the probde of a triad. Equites Prologue: 1-241 1-196 1-196. paeonic rhythm with trochaic close. 10G9-82^ 1083-1U2: trimeters 1082^: anaphonenia. SyzygyllL: 1000-68 looVioo? 1008-17 = 1037-46 1018-36-7047-68 1000-7. 1150-61 = 1162-73 : dyad of the triad. in paeonic rhythm. 797-201 . Exode: 1174-1234 n 74-89. . Episode III. 1047-68: trimeters (49). TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS 971-75 = 986-89 : 425 first pair of strophes in a pericope.EQ. : 97G-85 = 990-99 second pair of strophes in the pericope. 202-41 : . 1190-1234: pseudo-monody : 7190-1234 in iambic rhythm.

333-4. : : : Scene L: 461-97 461-97 461-97 : iambic trimeters (37). 322-32 = 397-406 second pair of strophes in the pericope.426 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Farode: 242-302 eq. Debate I. 314-21. 391-6 recitative trochaic tetrameters. See 450. 284-302 242-83 284-302 : recitative trochaic tetrameters. : 303-460 303-13-382-90 314-21-391-6 322-32 = 397-406 333-4-407-8 335-66 (32) -409-40 (32) 367-81-441-56 457-60 303-13 = 382-90 : : first pair of strophes in a pericope. in paeonic and trochaic rhythm. See 451. 242-6 . 441-56 melodramatic iambic hypermeters. 367-81. Parabasis I. 247-83 . in paeonic and trochaic rhythm. : 498-610 498-506 507-46 547-50 i 551-64 (16) = 581-94 = 595-610 (16) [565-80 . 335-66. varied by periods in dactylic and Aeolic : rhythm. : recitative trochaic hypermeter. 407-8. 457-60 recitative iambic tetrameters. 409-40 melodramatic iambic tetrameters.

Stasimon I . 595-610 recitative trochaic tetrameters. : 427 See 294. with trochaic close. 841-2 recitative iambic tetrameters. See 231. : : : See 91. : Debate II. : : : See 553. : Syzygy : 611-755 6li-15 616-23 = 683-90 624-82 ~ 691-755 611-15. 691-755: trimeters (129). TABLE OF STRUCTUEE AND RHYTHMS 498-506 non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. 973-96 : monostrophic hexad in Aeolic rhythm. 616-23 = 683-90 monostrophic dyad in paeonic-trochaic rhythm. 624-82. 824-35 recitative anapaestic hypermeter. 551-64 = 581-94 monostrophic dyad in Acolic rhythm. 911-40 melodramatic iambic hypermeter. See 710 f. : : : Episode I: 943-72 943-72 943-72 : trimeters (30). . 507-46 recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 547-50 recitative anapaestic period.EQ. 941-2 prose.- 973-996 973-6 = 977-80 = 981-4 = 985-8 = 989-92 = 993-6 See 544. : 756-942 756-60 = 836-40 761-2-841-2 763-823 (61) -843-910 (68) 824-35-911-40 941-2 756-60 = 836-40 monostrophic dyad in iambic rhythm. 761-823 recitative anapaestic teti'ameters. 565-80. 843-910: melodramatic iambic tetrameters.

To70-9 . See 493. 997-1110 .• eq. 1030-4. 1021-9. : 1111-50 1111-20=1121-30 = 1131-40 = 1141-50 1111-50 : monostrophic tetrad in Aeolic rhythm. : 1345^: anaphonema. To80-95 1096-1110 997-1014. 1051-60. 40% 235 anaphonemata. Exode: 1316-1408 1316-34. 1037-40.enoplic recitative trochaic tetrameters.. 1300-15 : monostrophic dyad in prosodiac . 1015-20. 1. Stasimmi 11. 1274-89. . 1035-6. 1041-50. 1021-29. Parabasis 11 : 1264-1315 J 1264-73 = 1290-99 (16) 11274-89 (16)= 1300-15 1264-73=1290-99: rhythm. 1151-1263 1151-1263 1151-1237% 1238-63: 1237'': anaphonema. : . 1015-20. 1335-45% 1346-1408: trimeters (74). 1077 ^ 1096: anaphonemata. To35-6 1051-60. 1067-9. 1080-95 dactylic : hexameters. 997-1014. 223-34. 1061-6. 1061-6.: See 571. 1070-77% 1078-9. NUBES Prologue. 1030-4. 1037-40. 1097-1110: trimeters (69). 2-40% 41-221. : 1-262 (259). 236-62: trimeters 222 iambic monometer. trimeters (113). Scene II. 1067-9. 1335-1408 5 1316-34 recitative anapaestic tetrameters.428 THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY //. 1041-50.

L: 476-509 . Spygy: 627-813 627-99-723-803 700-6 = 804^13 707-22 . 575-94. in Aeolic rhythm. See 344. with anapaestic 561. : Farabasis I. with : : anapaestic close. Scene See 500. 327-438 439-56 457-75 263-74. 291-7. 476-7 : 478-509 476-7 recitative anapaestic tetrameters.NUB. TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS Parade: 263-475 429 263-74-291-7 275-90 = 298-313 314-26 . 314-438 recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 439-56 457-75 : recitative anapaestic hypermeter. : non-antistrophic period in Aeolic rhythm. See : 518-62 Eupolidean tetrameters.: 510-626 510-7 518-62 [563-74 = 595-606 1575-94 (20) = 607-26 (20) 510-7 opening. with See 558. 275-90 = 298-313 monostrophic dyad in dactylic rhythm. 607-26 : recitative trochaic tetrameters. 478-509 trimeters (32). with simplified logaoedic opening. 563-74 = 595-606: monostrophic dyad simplified logaoedic variation. : non-antistrophic period in prosodiac-enoplic rhythm.

.] : Debate 889-948 889-948 889-948 : recitative anapaestic hypermeter. See 289. recitative trochaic tetrameters (16). 700-6 = 804-13: monostrophic dyad in Aeolic rhythm. 1085-8 trimeters (4). : : : : Scene 11. : in Aeolic rhythm. Parabasis II. 707-22 non-antistrophic period iambic and bacchiac opening. with logaoedic variation. 1036-84 melodramatic iambic tetrameters. 1034-5 recitative iambic tetrameters. Episode I.1034-5 961-1008 (47) ~ 1036-84 (49) + 1085-8 1009-23.430 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY nub.: in anapaestic rhythm. [Stasimmi Introduction to I. 723-803: trimeters (154). .-Ill 3-30 1113-4 111 3-4 : .1089-1104 949-58 = 1024-33: monostrophic dyad 551. 627-99. with 814-88 814-88 814-88: trimeters (75). : See 562. See 326. Debate L: 949-1104 = 1024-33 949-58 959-60. See 959-1008 recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 1115-30 J 1115-30 : protracted iambic tetrameter. 1009—23: recitative anapaestic hypermeter. 1089-1104 melodramatic iambic hypermeter. : 1105-12 1105-12 1105-12: trimeters (8).

monostrophic dyad in Aeolic rhythm. See 474. 1353-85. anapaestic. enoplic. 1206-13 non-antistrophic period in iambic rhythm. TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS Episode II. dochmiac and trochaic. 1154-69: non-antistrophic period in varying rhythm.NUB. 12U-58. : monostrophic dyad in Aeolic rhythm. : . 1^06-13. 1259. 1446-51 melodramatic iambic hypermeters. 1260-1302: trimeters (146). 1^59-9^. iambic. Stasimon II. 1493: anaphonema. 1214-58. — 1170. 1397-8 recitative iambic tetrameters. 1770-1205. 1399-1445: melodramatic iambic tetrameters. Scene in. 1322-44: trimeters Debate 11: 1345-1451 1345-50 = 1391-6 1351-2-1397-8 r353-85 (33)~r399-1445 (46) 1386-90-1446-51 1345-50 = 1391-6: See 576. 1351-2. 1260-1302 1131-53. 431 1131-1302 n54-69 .: lT3"l-53 . : E'xode: 1452-1510 . : 1321-44 1T2I-44 1321 : anaphonema. 1510 melic anapaestic tetrameter. 1452-1509 IblO 1452-92. 1386-90. 1259'^: anaphonemata. : 1303-20 1303-10 = 1311-20 1303-10=1311-20: See 581. 1171-1205. 1494-1509: trimeters (57). : See 92. (23).

Syzygy I. 291-302 = 303-16 second dyad of the pentad. 317-33 non-antistrophic period in Aeolic and anapaestic rhythm. See 577. See 499. constituting the epode of the pentad. with iambic close. . 379-402 : paeonic-trochaic variation. 358-64 : recitative anapaestic hypermeter. enoplic rhythm. : monostrophic dyad in trochaic rhythm. : See 426. 273-80 = 281-9: first dyad in an epodic pentad. with bacchiac opening. recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 1-229 1-229: trimeters (229). in : : : : in prosodiac- ionic rhythm. : 334-402 334-45 = 365-78 346-7-379-80 348-57-381-402 358-64 334-45 = 365-78 346-57. See 499 end. 248-72 recitative protracted iambic tetrameters. 290 ionic dimeter. Parode: 230-333 230-47 248-72 273-80 = 281-9 290 291-302 = 303-16 317-33 230-47 recitative iambic tetrameters. with See 238. with ionic opening and close.432 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Vespae Prologue: vesp.

with cretic variation. ' ' : Debate: 526-759 526-45 = 631-47 546-7-648-9 548-620 (72) -650-7 18 (69) 621-30-719-24 725-8 729-35 = 743-9^ 736-42 . 430-60. 749'^^-59 recitative anapaestic hyper- 729-35 = rhythm. recitative anapaestic tetrameters. See 243. meters. 749*^ : 743-9'': 469. 648-718. trochaic rhythm. 725-8 621-30. in trochaic in rhythm. monostrophic dyad in iambic and dochmiac See anaphonema. See 243. 719-24. 546-620.VE3P. TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS Syzygy 11.749"-59 526-45 = 631-47 : monostrophic dyad in Aeolic rhythm. Scene: 760-1008 863-7 868-74 = 885-90 875-78 2 F . with paeonic-trochaic variation. 488-525 recitative trochaic tetrameters. : : See 566. 1-403-14 : 433 403-525 = 461-70 (415-29 = 471-87 430-60-488-525 403-14 = 461-70 : first pair of strophes in a pericope. 736-42. 415-29 = 471-87: second pair of strophes in the pericope.

: catalectic logaoedic trimeters. 709. period in anapaestic and trochaic See : 1016-50 1051-9 : recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 1248 : Phalaeceans. 1102-21 : recitative trochaic tetrameters. 863-7 non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. 891-1008 760-862. 1240 . : recitative anapaestic hypermeter. 1236-7. : 902". 1243-4. 1071-90. See 618. : greater Asclepiadean. 1T22-I225 . 931 anaphonemata.434 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 879-84 vesp. 1243-4. dyad of the triad. constituting See 300. 1249-64 1122-1225. 1^45-8. 1238-9 . 709. : non-antistrophic 297. 1249-64: trimeters (129). 1240. 1060-70=1091-1101: monostrophic dyad in trochaic rhythm. See 383. 891-902^ 903-30. See 568. recitative anapaestic hypermeter. 932-1008: trimeters (220). : 1122-1264 1232-5 . the proode of a triad.. See 518 ii. 1228-31. 1228-31 . 1245-7 : Aeolic trimeters. . : See 532. 709. in iambic rhythm. 1226-7. with 868-74 = 885-90 : I : dochmiac close. See 235. 1226-7 . 709. 875-8 879-84 recitative anapaestic tetrameters. : See 470. Farabasis: 1009-1121 Too'9-15 1016-50 1051-9 j- 1060-70 = 1091-1101 (20) \l071-90 (20)= 1102-21 1009-15 rhythm. 1236-7 . with paeonic-trochaic variation. 1232-5 1238-9 1241-2 709. primitive major ionic dimeter and trimeter. 1241-2. Episode I.

Stasimon II. : 1292-1449 . 1482-95 recitative anapaestic hypermeter.VESP. 1516-7 recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 129'2-1325 . : 1275-83 = 1284-91 second pair of strophes in the pericope. 7332-4 1335-40 . in trochaic rhythm. See 371. See 457. See Exode: 1474-1537 U 7 4-81 1482-95 1496-1515 1516-7 1^18-22 = 1523-7 7528-37 1474-81. See 494. : in prosodiac rhythm. 1341-1449 1292-1325. 1332-4.: 1265-91 |'l265-74 436 = [lacking] il275-83 = 1284-91 of 1265-74 = [lacking] : first pair strophes in a pericope.trochaic rhythm. in paeonic rhythm. See 457. 1335-40: non-antistrophic period in iambo. 1496-1515: trimeters : : (28). 1326-31. . Episode 11. 1341-1449: trimeters (146).: 1450-73 1450-61 = 1462-73 1450-61 = 1462-73 548. with trochaic close. 1326-31 . : monostrophic dyad in Aeolic rhythm. constitut- ing the epode of the triad. 1528-37 : non-antistrophic period in prosodiac rhythm. TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS Stasimon I. 1518-22 = 1523-7 dyad of an epodic triad. See 494.

102-13. 361-82. 154-72 recitative anapaestic liyperineters. 435-58 trimeters (26). SyzygylL: 459-519 459-72 = 486-99 473-85-500-19 459-72 . 431-2. 61-81. 114-23: non-antistrophic period in dactylic rhythm. 154-72 . See 232. : 431-2. : 428-58 428-30. 173-298 1-59. with pure trochaic variation. 508-11 . recitative trochaic hypermeter. 60 anaphonema. 301-38 . 82-101 . 473-85 . : : : Scene I. See 345. 435-58 I 428-30 433-4 : : recitative trochaic tetrameters. 82-101. 486-99 . 114-23 . 426-7 recitative trochaic tetrameters. 383-4. SyzygyL: 346-427 346-60 = 385-99 [361-82-400-25 [ 383-4-426-7 346-60 = 385-99 monostrophic dyad in paeonic-trochaic rhythm. 173-298: trimeters (248). ritualistic formulae. 400-25 trimeters (48). 339-45 299-338 339-45 : : recitative trochaic tetrameters. 512-9 . 500-7 . 124-53. 124-53 .436 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Pax Prologue: 1-298 pax 1-81 . 102-13 . 433-4. : 1 : ParodeL: 299-345 299-300 .

See 84. Parode II. Parabasis I. 508-11 recitative iambic tetrameters. : : Scene II. with trochaic close. 651-6 recitative trochaic hypermeters. 500-7: trimeters (21). : : 582-600 : non-antistrophic with pure trochaic variation. recitative anapaestic hypermeter. 601-50 recitative trochaic tetrameters. : . period See 233. 571-81. 473-85. : 520-52 520-52 520-52 : trimeters (33). with anapaestic opening. : 553-656 553-70 ~ (303-50 571-Sl -651-6 582-600 601-2 553-70. 512-9 non-antistrophic period in iambic rhythm.: 729-818 729-33 734-64 765-74 775-96 = 797-818 729-33 734-64 765-74 : non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm.PAX TABLE OF STRUCTUEE AND EHYTHMS 459-72 = 486-99 : 437 anapaestic moziostrophic dyad chiefly in rhythm. in paeonic-trochaic rhythm. See 302. : See 295. anaphonema. Scene III: 657-728 657-728 657-92% 693-728 692^ : : trimeters (72). recitative anapaestic tetrameters.

1023-38 922-38. : . 1063-76. dactylic. 1105-14: dactylic hexameters. See 710. 956-73. 868-896% 896'^-908 trimeters (79). See 583. 1016-22: trimeters (42). 1115-26 1039-62.trochaic rhythm. 1156-8. 856-67 = 909-21: monostrophic dyad in Aeolic rhythm. 1016-22. 974-1015 : recitative anapaestic period. 1140-55. 1063-1114. 974-1015. 1172-87 recitative trochaic tetrameters. with paeonic variation. Scene IF. See 454.438 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY pax 775-96 = 797-818: monostrophic dyad in prosodiac . : 1127-90 n 27-39 =1159-71 .enoplic rhythm.: 922-1038 922-38-956-1022 939-55 = 1023-38 922-38. 939-55. 1115-26: trimeters (36). with anapaestic variation. See SyzygylV. 1104: ritualistic formula. SyzygyllL: 819-921 819-55 ~ 868-908 856-67 = 909-21 : 819-55. 939-55 = 1023-38: monostrophic dyad in Aeolic rhythm. ^6-73. 580. varied by periods in Aeolic. See 710 f. See 497.1140-55 (16)= 1172-87 (16) I 1156-8-1188-90 1127-39 = 1159-71: monostrophic dyad in iambo . 1188-90: recitative trochaic periods. 713. : 1039-1 12( 1039-62. Parabasis II. and anapaestic rhythm. 1076''-1103.

194-208. 267-93 . 294-309 . 162-93. 1298-9 elegiac distich. 3T0-2 . monostrophic dyad in iambic rhythm. 1286-7 . See 584. Exode: 1316-55 r3l'6-9 . : See 285. AVES Prologue: 1-226 1-208 . 317-26 327-35 = 343-51 336-42 . 16P.AVES TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS Episode I. 1286-7. 1294-7. 1291-3 . : 1305-15 13Il-. 1294-7 1191. Parode: 227-433 227-62 263-6 . Stasimon I. 1192-1269. 1284-5. : monostrophic octad in Aeolic rhythm. 3T4-6 . 193^: anaphonemata. 1300-1: dactylic hexameters. 209-22 non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. 3T3 . 209-22 . 223-6 1-161. . 1292-3. 223-6: trimeters (212). 1T9I-I269 . 1288-90 .T r30'5-10 = 1305-10=1311-5: See 87. recitative anapaestic hypermeters. 1291 : r298-1301 1^02-4 anaphonemata. : (90). 1288-90. 1284-5 . See 365. 1329-55 1316-9 1320-8 1329-55 : : recitative anapaestic tetrameters. : 439 1191-1304 . 1320-8 . 1270-83 . 1302-4: trimeters 1270-83.

317-8. dactylic and anapaestic. See 595. non-antistrophic period in anapaestic. 327-35 = 343-51 monostrophic dyad in anapaestic and dochmiac rhythm in the strophe. See 290. paeonic. in anapaestic and paeonic rhythm in the : antistrophe. 387-99 400-33 recitative trochaic hypermeter. iambic and dochmiac rhythm. perhaps prolonged in rendering to the time of a trochaic tetrameter. ionic. trochaic. 267 anaphonema. 336-42. 319: four long syllables. See 709.— 440 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 352-86 387-99 400-33 aves 227-62 nou-antistrophic systematic period in varying rhythm. trochaic tetrameters. prosodiac-enoplic. See : : 473. : 263-6 : : trimeters (4). dochmiac. Scene I. 268-309. 352-86 : recitative 310-2. 320-6. 313. : . 314-6: dochmii. Aeolic. paeonic-trochaic. iambic.

Parahasis I. recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 895-902 876. See 410. 628-35 rbythm. 636-7: meters. : 801-902 801-50-859-94 851-8 = 895-902 . 877-9 880 881-8 889-94 872. systematic period in iambo-trochaic See Scene 11. . 723-36 recitative anapaestic bypermeters. 889-94: 819^: anaphonema. 877-9.AVES TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS recitative 441 460-522. 864-7. 859-63. 869-71. 820-50. 864-7 . 873-5. 868. 851-8 876 . 661-75 : . . 611-25 : recitative anapaestic hypermeters. . 869-71 . 801-50 . : 676-800 676-84 685-722 723-36 [ 737-52 = 769-84 (16) (753-68 = 785-800 (16) 676-84: non-antistropbic systematic period See 546. in Aeolic rbytbm. 801-19% trimeters (65). 872 . 851-8 = 895-902 monostropbic dyad in iambic rliytbm. 753-68. : : See 93. anapaestic tetra- 523-38. : non-antistropbic 372. 626-7. 873-5 . Syzygy I. 880. 881-8 prose. 737-52 = 769-84: monostropbic dyad in : : simplified logaoedic rbytbm. 785-800 : recitative trocbaic tetrameters. . 868 . 638-57 638-57. 658-60 661-75 658-60 : trimeters (35). 859-63 . 548-610. : 638-75 . 685-722 recitative anapaestic tetrameters. .

911-2. 940 . 1102-17 recitative trochaic tetrameters. 987-8: dactylic hexameters. 1040-2. Song of 904-6. 1188-95 = 1262-8: monostrophic dyad in dochmiac See 465. 1046-7. 1037-9 1040-2 1043-5 1046-7 1049-50. 971-3 97 4 . . 915-23. 904-6. : ave! 903-1057 913-4. in Aeolic and simplified logaoedic rhythm. 915-23. 986 989-1034 1035-6 1048 . 931-5. 941-5. 983-5 . 967-8 . 908-10. . 975. 931-5 936-9 . 1196 (defective)-1261 trimeters (136). : the Poet. 1035-6. 903. 967-8. 924-30. 941-5 . 977-9 . 974. 1037-9. 986. 911-2. 971-3. : : Farabasis II. 1043-5. 975 . 989-1034. 908-10. : 1072-87. 1048. 954-66. Syzygyll: 1118-1268 Tlf8-87~ 1T96-I26I lT88-95 = 1262-8 : 1118-87. 980-2 . 1051-7 trimeters (104). 969-70 987-8 . . 977-9. 913-4. (16) monostrophic dyad in anapaestic and See 455. rhythm. . 954-66 . 936-9. . 980-2. 950-3 See 585. 976. 924-30 . .442 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Scene III. 907. 983-5. 907. . Episode I : 1269-1312 1269-1312 1269-1312: trimeters (44). 946-9 976 . 1^51-7 903. 950-3 . 946-9. 969-70. 1049-50 prose. : 1058-1117 r 1058-71 = 1088-1101 = 1102-17 (16) U072-87 1058-71 = 1088-1101: paeonic rhythm. . 940.

1382-92. : 443 1313-34 1313-22 = 1325-34 1323-4 1313-22 = 1325-34: logaoedic rhythm. 1337-9 prosodiac octameter. in bastard Aeolic : 1372-4. 1416-69 1382-92. 7415 . 1398-1400. .. 1393-6.1565-1693 1553-64 = 1694-1705 1494-1552. 1415 : Song Stasimon II. 1401-9. 1661-6. 1380-1. 1380-1. 1413-4. r553-64 . 1398-1400: rhythm. 709. : 1335-1469 1335-6. 1565-1660. 1335-6. 1410-2. 709. 1667-93. 1375. 1410-1 greater Asclepiadean. 1378-9. 1376-7. 1375. 1397. 1511-52. 1323-4: triad. in simplified See 406. See 569. non-antistrophic iambic tetrameter as mesode of the See 406. See 518 ii. 1694-1705 1494-1509. Syzygylll: 1494-1705 1494-1552.AVES TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS Stasimon J. 1510: anaphonema. 1340-1^ 1342. 1553-64=1694-1705: monostrophic dvad in trochaic rhythm. of Cinesias. : monostrophic dyad in trochaic rhythm. 1337-9. 1393-4. 1401-9. : 1341^ 1395'^: anaphonemata. 1378-9. : 1470-93 M7b-81 = 1482-93 1470-81 = 1482-93 See 215. dyad of ca mesodic triad. Phalaeceans. See 216. 1416-69: trimeters (113). 1340-71. 1412. 1395''-6. 1397. 1661-6: prose. See 496. 709. 1667-93: trimeters (181). 1344-71. 1413-4. 1372-4. Episode 11. 1565-1660. See 532. 1376-7.

Lysistrata Prologue: 1-253 1-253 : trimeters (253). 1748-54 non-antistrophic period in dactylic rhythm. 1731-6 = 1737-42: monostrophic dyad in Aeolic rhythm. : 1755-65 non-antistrophic period in iambic rhythm. with Aeolic' : : close. See 588. See 588. Farode: 254-386 254-5 256-65 = 2^71-80 266-70. : : 1706-19 1720-25 1726-30 non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. See 588.281-5 286-95 = 296-305 306-18 319-20 . 1743-7 non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. non-antistrophic systematic period in iambo-trochaic rhythm. See 588. See 588.444 THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY Uxode: 1706-65 aves 1706-19 1720-25 1726-30 1731-6 = 1737-42 1743-7 1748-54 1755-65 trimeters (14). with Aeolic close. See : 588.

Scene: 387-466 387-466 387-466 : trimeters (80). . in iambic rhythm. in Aeolic rhythm. first monostrophic dyad. 286-95 = 296-305 rhythm. monostrophic dyad in iambic and anapaestic See 303. 281-5. Debate: 467-613 467-70 (4) -471-5 (5) 476-83 = 541^8 484-5 -549-50 486-531 (46) -551-97 (47) 532-8 .598-607 539-40 608-10 467-75. : second monostrophic dyad. 306-18. 484-531. See 370. See 563. 539-40 476-83 = 541-8 : (3) -611-13 (3) recitative iambic tetrameters. See 535. 532-8. 321-34 = 335-49: third monostrophic dyad. in iambo-trochaic 319-20: Aeolic tetrameters. 350-81 meters. 598-607 recitative anapaestic periods. : : : 608-13: trimeters (6). 549-97 recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 382-6 : recitative iambic hypermeter. TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS 321-34 = 335-49 350-1 445 352-81 382-6 254-5. rhythm. See 710 f. 266-70. : recitative iambic tetra- 256-65 = 271-80: See 94.LT8.

first 614-25 = 636-47: in iambo. 954-79 non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. : 1014-71 1014-42 1043-57 = 1058-71 . : : See 287. 710-1. Stasimon II. 706-9 . : : Stasimon I. 880-953.: 781-828 781-804 = 805- 781-804 = 805-28: monostrophic dyad with trochaic close. 717-69. Episode 11. in paeonic-trochaic rhythm. See 242. 980-1013: trimeters (158). : 706-80 . 777-80: trimeters (65). 770-6 dactylic hexameters. rhythm. 614-705 r 614-25 (10) = 636-47 = 648-57 (10) 1626-35 r 658-71 (10) = 682-95 = 696-705 (10) \672-81 monostrophic dyad. Episode I. 7T2-69 770-6 . 710-11 . 879 anaphonema. in trochaic rhythm. with paeonic-trochaic variation.446 THE VEESE OF GEEEK COMEDY Farabasis : lys. : = 696-705: recitative trochaic tetra- 658-71 = 682-95 second monostrophic dyad.trochaic 626-35 = 648-57. 672-81 meters. See 230. 829-953 . 716 anaphonemata. : 829-1013 . with paeonic-trochaic variation. See 241. 954-79 980-1013 829-78. 712-5. 777-80 706-9.

1279-94 . 1297-1322 1216-46. Exode: 1216-1322 1216-46 . See 239. r247-72 . iambic and Aeolic variation at the close. 331-51 . 1036-42 recitative trochaic tetrameters. 1247-72 See See 412. : 1072-1188 r072-3. See : non-antistrophic period in simplified logaoedic 413. 352-71 . dactylic. with paeonic-trochaic variation. : non-antistrophic period in simplified logaoedic rhythm. with : : paeonic-trochaic variation. non-antistrophic period in free ionic rhythm. See 428 f. recitative anapaestic period. 1^1-29 . See 240. 1074-1107. 1074-1107. See 710 f. Thesmophoriazusae Prologue: 1-294 1-38 . Episode III. 1043-57 = 1058-71 monostrophic dyad in trochaic rhythm. nOS-ll. 1295-6: trimeters (38). 130-294: trimeters (241). 63-100 . 730-294 1_38.: 1189-1215 1189-1202 = 1203-15 1189-1202 = 1203-15: monostrophic dyad in trochaic rhythm. TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS : 447 1014-35 recitative paeonic-trochaic tetrameters. : 1297-1322 rhythm. 312-30 . See 682. 7273-8 .THES. : Stasimon III. 1273-8. 1279-94 408. non-antistrophic period in simplified logaoedic rhythm. 63-100. 39-62 . lTl2-88 1072-3. 39-62 101-29 : : with Parade: 295-371 295-311 . 1112-88: trimeters (111). 1295-6 . 1108-11 recitative anapaestic tetrameters.

383-432. with anapaestic opening. : Scene II. 531-2. 372-80 . 466-519 372-80. 331-51 352-71 variation. 667-86 . 381-2 . 571-3 recitative iambic tetrameters. 381-2 433-42 : recitative iambic tetrameters. 312-30: non-antistrophic period thes. 531-2. non-antistrophic period in Aeolic rhythm. : 372-519 . 699-701 . See 237. : See 222. . 383-432 . in simplified logaoedic rhythm. Syzygy: 655-764 655-8 659-66 667-86 = 707-25 687-8-726-7 689-706-728-64 655-8 . See Scene I.448 : THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 295-311 prose. 466-519: trimeters (129). : : trimeters (21). : non-antistrophic period in simplified logaoedic rhythm. 433-42 443-58 . : 574-654 574-654 574-654: trimeters (81). See 411. 707-25 726-7 728-64 . 459-65 . . with anapaestic 560. 689-98 . with ionic variation. 533-73 period in 520-30 : non-antistrophic trochaic rhythm. 459-65 : trochaic variation. 687-8 . Debate: 520-73 520-30 . non-antistrophic period in trochaic rhythm. 702-6 . with paeonic- See 414. 659-66 . 443-58. 533-70 melodramatic iambic tetrameters.

See 221. 689-98.- 947-1000 947-52 953-8 959-61 = 962-5 = 966-8 969-76 = 977-84 985-1000 947-52 non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. recitative trochaic tetrameters (16). .- 765-84 776-84 765-75 . 2 G : : . 687-8. : trimeters (98). 916-46 846-912. with iambo-trochaic variation. 699 anaphonema.THES. 700-1 dochmii. 765-75 776-84 : : trimeters (11). See 953-8 non-antistrophic period in Aeolic rhythm. non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. 659-66 non-antistrophic period in trochaic rhythm. See Parahasis : 785-845 785-813. 726-7 recitative trochaic tetrameters. 814-29. See 472. : 846-946 846-912. Episode I. 667-86 = 707-25 monostrophic dyad in anapaestic and dochmiac : : rhythm. 913-5. See 709. See 589. 830-45 785-813 814-29 830-45 : : : recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 728-64: trimeters (47). recitative anapaestic hypermeter. : TABLE OF STRUCTURE AND RHYTHMS 449 655-8 recitative anapaestic tetrameters. See 709. Stasimon I. 916-46 913-5: dochmii. . : : : Scene III. 702-6.

ran. 1098-1135 1001-14. 1098-1135: trimeters (61). 1056-64. 1223-6: (68). 969-76 = 977-84: monostrophic dyad in Aeolic rhythm. Eanae Prologue: 1-315 . See 387. 209-68 269-315 . bacchiac opening. See 387. enoplic. : monostrophic dyad in logaoedic rhythm. with logaoedic variation. : 1136-59 1136-9 = 1140-2 ri43-7 1148-54 ri55-9 1136-9 = 1140-2 387. Exode: 1160-1231 lT60-1226 . See 387. ana- by subordinate periods in Aeolic. Episode II. Stasimon 11. 1216-22. 1227-31 3 1160-1187^ 1187''-1213. non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. 1155-9 : non-antistrophic period in logaoedic rhythm. trimeters 1213^ 1215^ 1222*^: anaphonemata. : 1001-1135 100"l-14. See 589. 1214-5. 985-1000: non-antistrophic period in Aeolic rhythm. period in See with 1143-7 : non-antistrophic logaoedic rhythm. 1065-97. 1056-64.trochaic 1015-55 : rhythm. 1065-97 varied : See 288. : See 291. See 589. 1148-54: non-antistrophic period in simplified logaoedic rhythm.450 : THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 959-68 monostrophic triad in trochaic rhythm. 1227-31 non-antistrophic period in anapaestic rhythm. 1-208. 1015-55. See 589. dactylic and See 374. non-antistrophic period in iambo. paestic rhythm towards the close.

209-68 non-antistrophic period in iambo-trochaic rhythm. Parode: 316-459 316 = 317 318-22 323-36 = 340-53 337-9 354-71 372-7 = 378-81 382-3 384-8 = 389-93 394'*-7 398-402 = 403-8 = 409-13 414-5 416-8 = 419-21 = 422-4 = 425-7 = 428-30 = 431-3 = 434-6 = 437-9 440^-7 448-53 = 454-9 bacchiac dimeters in correspondence as first monoSee 448.RAN. See 301. 16-140^ 141-207. 398-413 monostrophic triad in iambic rhythm. 440''-7 protracted iambic tetrameters. 440" anaphonemata. : See 373. 318-22. 382-3 recitative anapaestic tetrameters. 394*. See 89. in anapaestic rhythm. 323-36 = 340-53 second monostrophic dyad. 269-315: trimeters (253). 337-9. in ionic rhythm. in iambic rhythm. 394^-7. TABLE OF STRUCTUEE AND RHYTHMS 1-14. 384-8 = 389-93 fourth monostrophic dyad. See 427. varied by two subordinate periods in enoplic and prosodiac rhythm respectively. : : : : : : : 316 = 317: . See 82. 354-71. 414-5: trimeters (10). strophic dyad. 372-7 = 378-81 third monostrophic dvad. 451 140^ 208: anaphonemata. with bacchiac variation at the beginning.

in Aeolic rhythm. Syzygij : 460-604 460-533 ~ 549-89 534-48 = 590^604 460-533. : 605-73 605-73 605-63. See 579. 448-53 = 454-9 fifth monostrophic dyad. /. . : 814-29 814-7 = 818-21 = 822-5 = 826-9 814-29 close. : 830-94 : 830-74 . See Scene I. with simplified logaoedic variation. : ran. with trochaic See 346. : monostrophic tetrad in dactylic rhythm. See 80. Stasimon I. 549-89 534-48 = 590-604 217. 664-7 probably a disguised trimeter. : See 709. See 498. Farabasis 67^4-85 (20) : 674-737 r = 706-17 = 718-737 (20) [686-705 674-85 = 706-17: 686-705 = 718-737 : monostrophic dyad in prosodiac - enoplic rhythm.452 : THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY 416-39 monostrophic octad in iambic rhythm. recitative trochaic tetrameters. : monostrophic dyad in trochaic rhythm.• 738-813 38-813 738-813: trimeters (76). : trimeters (115). Scene II.668-73: trimeters (65). 875-84 885-94 .

lyric in Aeolic rhythm. 1309-28: mock variation.BAN. with trochaic See 347. Debate: 895-1118 895-904 = 992-1003 905-6. T331-63 1370-7 . iambic. : See 710 f. Aeolic. : : : trochaic rhythm. 905-6 recitative iambic tetrameters. 1370-7 non-antistrophic period in trochaic rhythm. : 1278-83. loga