This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Articles 1-4 5-11 12-35 36-51 51A 52-151 152-237 238 239-241 243 A-O 243 P-ZG 244-244 A 245-263 264-300A 301-307 308-323 323A-323B 324-329 330-342 343-351 352-360 361-367 368 369-392 393-395
Parts of the Constitution Areas The Union & its Territories Citizenship Fundamental Rights Directive Principles of State Policy Fundamental Duties (42nd Amendment) The Union Government The State Government Dealt with states in Part B of the First Schedule. Repealed in 1956 by the Seventh Amendment. Union Territories. Article 242 repealed. The Panchayats The Muncipalities The Scheduled & Tribal Areas Relations between the Union & the States Finance, Property, Contracts & Suits Trade, Commerce & Intercouse within the territory of India Services under the Union & the States Administrative Tribunals (42nd Amendment 1976) Elections Special Provisions (Reservations of SC, ST, Anglo Indian etc) Official Language Emergency Provisions Miscellaneous Provisions (Immunity of President, Legislature etc) Amendment of the Constitution Temporary, Transitional & Special Provision Short Title, Commencement, Authoritative
Schedule I Schedule II Schedule III Schedule IV Schedule V Schedule VI Schedule VII Schedule VIII Schedule IX Schedule X Schedule XI Schedule XII
Schedules of the Constitution Deals with territories of the 28 states & 7 union territories Salaries allowances of president, V.P, Speaker, Judges, CAG etc. Various forms of Oaths & affirmation which various incumbents have to take. Seats allotted to various states & UTs in the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) Administration & Control of scheduled areas. Administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya & Mizoram Subjects in the three lists – Union, State & Concurrent List of 22 regional languages Certain acts & regulations dealing with land reforms & zamidari system abolition. ((Added by first constitutional amendment). Disqualifications on grounds of defection. (52nd Amendment) 29 subjects on which panchayats can legislate. (73rd Amendment) 18 subjects on which municipalities have control. (74th Amendment)
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Indian Constitution Borrowed Features Parliamentary form of Government, Rule of Law, Law making procedure, Single Citizenship; Institution of Speaker, doctrine of pleasure tenure of civil servants. American Constitution Judicial System, Fundamental Rights Canadian Constitution Federal System with a strong central authority; Residual powers, Centre State Relation. Irish Constitution Directive Principles, Election of the President of India Australian Constitution Concurrent list; Freedom of Trade & Service within country Weimar Constitution Emergency Provision Soviet Constitution Five Year Plans; Fundamental duties Govt of India Act 1935 Office of the governor, powers of the federal jury. South African Amendment of Constitution. British Constitution Important Cases of the Constitution Preamble not a part of the constitution Supreme court held that the Parliament had no power to amend any of the provisions of Part III (Fundamental rights) The Indira Gandhi government in 1971 carried out the 24th Amendment with a view to assert the right of the parliament to amend any part of the constitution. Preamble was a part of the constitution & can be amended by Parliament under Article 368. Parliament can also amend the fundamental rights (Against Golaknath case) but ruled that the parliament cannot destroy the basic structure of the constitution. The 42nd.amendment carried out in 1976 gave asserted that parliament had unlimited powers to amend the constitution & tried to accord precedence to Directive principles over fundamental rights. But in the Minerva Mills Case the Supreme court struck down those provisions Right to live is not merely confined to physical existence but includes within its ambit the right to live with human dignity
Berubari Case Golaknath Case 1967
Keshvanada Bharti Case
Minerval Mills Case 1980
Maneka Gandhi Vs Union of India
Preamble We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign socialist secular democratic republic and to secure to all its citizens : Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation. In our constituent assembly this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution.
* Italicized word added by 42nd amendment
MLAs do not participate in impeachment. Charan Singh. In the event of his death the council of ministers stand automatically dissolved. Vallabhbhai Patel. Devi Lal & L. U.000.B Chavan. Morarji Desai. Appoints finance commission. Vice President Name seconded by at least 25 members & security deposit of 15. If the prime minister is taken from Rajya Sabha he cannot part in voting when a vote of no confidence is under consideration. 7. Tripura & Manipur raised to the status of a state Sikkim admitted as a state. Rajasthan. M. Oath before the president or some other person appointed by him. 3. state & deputy ministers get sumptuary allowance of 2000. Delhi.P & West Bengal.. If there is no party with clear cut majority the president can use his discretion. MLAs & members of both house of the parliament vote in the election. Punjab. K.P. Y. More than 35 years of age. Collectively responsible to parliament but individual Ghanshyam Thori 3 Indian Polity . Kerala. The president submits his resignation to the Vice President. The president enjoys suspensive veto powers & it applies only to the non money bills. President can promulgate ordinances when the parliament is in recess only on matters in the union & concurrent list. States . Not a member of Rajya sabha only an exofficio chairman. He cannot declare any emergency on his own. The ordinances must be approved by parliament within 6 weeks. Disputes in connection with the election of President are decided by Supreme Court. J&K.1. Meghalaya created out of Assam. 1960 1963 1966 1969 1971 1975 1986 1987 2000 Reorganization of States 14 States & 6 Union territories formed. Can act as president for a maximum 6 months period. Advani have served the office. UTs – Andaman & Nicobar. Elected by the members of Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha at a joint meeting. Nominated members can also participate but they do not participate in the election of president. Madras. All money bills originate on the recommendation of the President. Nagaland formed Punjab & Haryana formed out of Punjab & hill areas merged with H. Vote of no confidence Ministers against any minister leads to resignation of entire council. Present the budget before the parliament. Prime Minister Gets the same salary & allowances as MPs but additional sumptuary allowance of 3000 per month. Mysore. Bihar.Andhra Pradesh. 8. Laccadive. 1956 Act 2. Mizormam & Arunachal Pradesh (UTs till then) given status of state Goa created by separating it from the UT of Daman & Diu. The cabinet.P (UT then). Deputy PM Position not known to the constitution although 7 persons have occupies this post. With regards to constitutional amendments president has no veto powers. 9. Impeachment can be initiated by either house of parliament (2/3 majority). Minicoy & Amindivi Islands. 5. Orissa. 1000 & 600 respectively. In case the office becomes vacant fresh elections within 6 months. 10. Himachal Pradesh. Council of Should be a member of either house or do so within 6 months. Can summon both houses separately. Manipur & Tripura The states of Maharashtra & Gujarat created by bifurcating the state of Bombay. Chattisgarh. Bombay. Jharkhand & Uttaranchal Various Political/Non Political Offices of India President Name proposed by 50 electors & security deposit of Rs 15000. Himachal Pradesh. 4. Jagjivan Ram. Assam. 6. Oath by Chief justice of India.
Draws 36000. The maximum membership can be 1/3rd that of Legislative Assembly but in no case less than 40 members. Nominates one member of Anglo Indian community to the legislative assembly. Minimum 30 years of age. No candidate can contest elections from more than 2 constituencies. Remunerations as the General governor may determine.Adresses first session of state legislature after elections. 30 years of age. Administrative Incorporated by 42nd amendment through addition of articles 323A & 323B. The joint session is called if a bill passed is rejected by other house or no action is taken. teachers Council (1/12th). 25 Assembly years of age. High Court To become a judge – advocate for 10 years or held judicial office in Indian Territory for a period of at least 10 years. In case of SC/ST it has been increased from Rs 250 to Rs 5000. There is no provision for joint sitting here. Strength of Lok Sabha fixed at 543 plus 2 nominated members of Anglo-Indian community in 1976. He is permitted to act without the advice of the council of ministers unlike president. Oath before president or some person appointed by him. The security deposit has been increased from Rs 500 to Rs 10. Hold office till the age of 65. The salaries of chief justice & other judges are 33000 & 30. Impeachment requires 2/3rd majority in the two houses of the parliament. Can vacant seat by writing to speaker. It is not subjected to dissolution. Chief justice gets 30. university graduates (1/12th) & nominated by governor (1/6th). Advocate Person who is qualified to be a judge of the high court. Original Jurisdiction (Centre-state & fundamental rights). The speaker continues in the house even after the dissolution of the Lok Sabha till a newly elected Lok Sabha meets. The retirement of chairman & VC at 65 & others at 62. Makes laws through ordinances.000. Rajya Sabha 238 elected & 12 nominated. Mizoram. Legislative Its members are elected by legislative assembly (1/3rd) local bodies (1/3rd). Seat vacant if absents from meetings for 60 days without intimation. Appellate jurisdiction (Only if high court certifies or the high court has awarded death sentence after reversing judgement or after withdrawing case from lower court & Advisory jurisdiction. Appoint one sixth members of legislative council. The decision of CAT can be challenged in a high court. Pondicherry have only 30 members.000 & other judges 26000. The constitution does not contain any provision for his impeachment. any bill pendin in the Rajya Sabha but not passed by Lok Sabha does not lapse. 62 years of age. Reserve a bill for president’s consideration. Legislative 60 to 500 members according to population but Sikkim has only 32 members. Speaker presides over joint sessions. Can grant pardon but not in case of death sentence. 35 years of age. In the event of dissolution of Lok Sabha.000 respectively. Minimum 25 years of age. Supreme Court 5 years as high court judge or 10 years as advocate. MPs are entitled to a monthly salary of Rs 12000 & pension of 3000 which increases according to the number of years served. 10 electors should propose. CAT is Tribunals located at Delhi. The legislative council can delay an ordinary bill for 3 months & a money bill for 14 days. Elected by members of state legislative assemblies on the basis of proportional representation through a single transferable vote. Lok Sabha Ghanshyam Thori 4 Indian Polity . Governor Oath before chief justice of high court of that state. Ordinance issued by him remains in force for a maximum 6 months. The pension of the high court judges is charged to the Consolidated fund of India.ministers responsible to President. Judge Address their resignation to president. Goa.
Panchayat is responsible to gram sabha. The election commission of India appoints the ‘Returning officers’ for the state assembly elections to help conduct fair elections. advice president on any matter. Two commissioners with equivalent power. Salary of 30. Chairman & 8 members. Functions:recommend distribution of taxes between centre & states. PM can nominate 6 ministers of cabinet rank. The Commission works through its various divisions. Statutory body. Qualified to be appointed as judges of the high court or special knowledge of finance & accounts of government. Comprises of PM & CMs of all states & UTs.P. 6 years or till the age of 65 years. The states of M. Zilla parishad elects its chairman called ‘Pradhan’ form amongst its members. the general body of villagers comprising all adults. The CM of the state where the zonal council meets is the ex-officio chairman. CM of each state in the zone. Submits report to President who in turn places it before parliament. Orissa & Bihar are obliged to appoint a separate minister the welfare of SC/ST/OBC. Job also includes delimitation of constituency to ensure same number of people in each. Ghanshyam Thori 5 Indian Polity .Inter State Council Zonal Council UPSC Comptroller & Auditor General Attorney General Election Commission Finance Commission Planning Commission NDC Minorities commission NHRC Panchayat Panchayat Samiti Zila Parishad Created on the recommendations of the Sarkaria commission although constitution provided for it. Seven members. Set up under state reorganization act 1956. Programme Administration Divisions Extra constitutional & extra legal body.000. Depends entirely on state government for grants. President can issue orders for the removal of the members of the UPSC only after supreme court makes such recommendation on the basis of an enquiry. Members appointed for a 6 year term or till they attain 65 years of age. Its chairman called ‘Pradhan’ is elected from among its members. Consists of Union minister nominated by president. Meets atleast 3 times a year. Gets a share of cess of land revenue from the gram panchayat & Zilla Parishad Consists of representatives of panchayat samiti. two ministers from each state nominated by governor & one member per UT. members representing SC/ST/Women/cooperative bodies. local members of state legislature. Its recommendations are binding in nature as per convention. The state can restrict the fundamental rights of civil servants. Appears before supreme court & various high courts involving the Government of India. Non-statutory body which formulates 5 year plans. Comprises chairman & four other members. grant-in-aid to states. The president can remove CAG only after recommendation of the two houses of parliament. of which there are three kind: General Planning Divisions. He only conducts audit. Members have same requirements as MLAs except lower age of 21. Members usually range from 5 to 31. Appointed by president. The state election commission is a single member commission comprising SEC. Members not eligible for employment by the government after retirement. 5 before & 6th added in 1972 called NE council. Responsible to gram panchayat as well as gram sabhas. Advises on disputes between various states. Can legislate on 29 subjects which are listed in XI schedule Genearlly comprises of the sarpanches of village panchayats under the block. Qualification same as judge of supreme court. Special Planning Divisions. Election of local bodies comes under state election commission. members of parliament. Period of 5 years.
etc. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles [Repealed] Saving of laws in respect of anti-national activities Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part [Repealed] Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces. sex or place of birth Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment Abolition of Untouchability Abolition of titles Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour Prohibition of employment of children in factories. incidental and consequential matters Citizenship Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens Continuance of the rights of citizenship Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law Fundamental Rights Definition Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights Equality before law meaning ‘equality of treatment within a class’ Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion. caste. race. boundaries or names of existing States Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedule and supplemental. practice and propagation of religion Freedom to manage religious affairs Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions Protection of interests of minorities Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions [Repealed] Compulsory acquisition of property Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates. Freedom of conscience and free profession. etc. Protection in respect of conviction for offenses Protection of life and personal liberty Right to education.Part I Article 1 Article 2 Article 2a Article 3 Article 4 Part II Article 5 Article 6 Article 7 Article 8 Article 9 Article 10 Article 11 Part III Article 12 Article 13 Article 14 Article 15 Article 16 Article 17 Article 18 Article 19 Article 20 Article 21 Article 21A Article 22 Article 23 Article 24 Article 25 Article 26 Article 27 Article 28 Article 29 Article 30 Article 31 Article 31A Article 31B Article 31C Article 31D Article 32 Article 32A Article 33 Constitution of India (Upto Part IV) The Union and its Territory Name and territory of the Union Admission or establishment of new States [Repealed] Sikkim to be associated with the Union Formation of new States and alteration of areas. Ghanshyam Thori 6 Indian Polity . etc. etc.
It acts as a watch dog of expenditure. Examines working Committee on Public Undertakings of public undertakings 1. Speaker is head. to education and to public assistance in certain cases Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief Living wage. Assisted by Public Accounts Committee Comptroller & Auditor general.Ps & 7 R.Ps & 5 R. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections Article 47 Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health Article 48 Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry Article 48A Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life Article 49 Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance Article 50 Separation of judiciary from executive Article 51 Promotion of international peace and security Article 51A Fundamental Duties Parliamentary Committees Business Advisory Committee 15 members. 12.P Committee on Subordinate Legislations Committee on Welfare of Scheduled Castes 30 Members. 2. & Scheduled Tribes Committee on Government Assurances 15 members. How far assurances given by the ministers have been implemented Committee on Absence of Members Examines leave applications of members 30 members. 11.Ps & 10 R. 15 members. etc. Resolutions Classifies bills according to importance. 15 M. 6. 10. Speaker is chairman Committee on Private Members Bills & 15 members. 4. 3. Ghanshyam Thori 7 Indian Polity . 10 M.S.. Examines Annual Estimates & Estimates Committee suggests alternative policies 22 members. Rules Committee 15 members. 7. 13.S. Violation of Privileges of M. Committee on Petitions 15 members. 9. 8. 5.S. for workers Participation of workers in management of industries Uniform civil code for the citizen Provision for free and compulsory education for children Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. 20 M. Select Committees Constituted for considering different bills. Rules of House Committee on Privileges 15 members. Deputy Chairman is chairman.Article 34 Article 35 Part IV Article 36 Article 37 Article 38 Article 39 Article 39A Article 40 Article 41 Article 42 Article 43 Article 43A Article 44 Article 45 Article 46 Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while marital law is in force in any area Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part Directive Principles of State Policy Definition Application of the principles contained in this Part State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State A Equal justice and free legal aid Organisation of village panchayats Right to work.
Electoral Reforms. education. marriage & divorce. commerce. unstarred (written) & short notice question. 3. The notice must be signed by at least 3 members 6. There is no mention of zero hour in the rules of the parliamentary procedure & the term was coined by press in the early 1960’s. the speaker can put the matter to vote even without concluding discussion. 11 by Speaker & 6 by chairman of Rajya Sabha 1.S & 5 R. books & printing press. 9. transportation.S. the council of ministers have to resign. currency. Token Cut. factories. To save the security candidates should secure at least 1/4th of valid votes. If the motion is passed in the Lok Sabha. 10 nominated by speaker & 5 by the chairman of Rajya Sabha. preventive detention. sales tax & octroi. prisons. banking. Cut Motion Motions to reduce the amount of demand for grants. Members raise matters which cannot brook any delay.K Dhar committee JVP committee Shah Commission Tarkunde Committee Dinesh Goswami Committe Ghanshyam Thori . 8 Indian Polity 1. Pattabhi Sitaramayya (same as above) Punjab Reorganization Act Electoral Reforms. 10 L. inter-state trade. Lists Union List (99) Defence. Calling Attention A member with prior attention of the speaker may call the attention of a Notice minister to a matter of urgent public importance. newspapers. relief of disabled. 2. 17 parliamentary committees were constituted. 8. [Originally 66 items out of which 5 transferred to concurrent list]. 4. highways. Joint Committee on Salaries & Allowances 15. The questions consist of starred (oral). social insurance. Voting age to be reduced to 18 years (61st amendment). 5. 4. sanitation. atomic energy. They are of 3 types: Disapproval of policy cut. communication. [Originally 47 but 5 items transferred to this list from state list] Commissions/committees & their Purpose Reorganization of states on linguistic basis Jawahar. electricity. Economy cut. Short Duration Private members can also bring matters of urgent public importance to the Discussions notice of the House. [Originally 97 items – one deleted. 3. Zero Hour The hour after the question hour. Guillotine When the discussion cannot be completed within stipulated time. aerodromes. 3 added] State List (61) Health. local government. Voter councils to be formed. 2. 15 members. S. Censure Motion At least 50 members support it & speaker should admit it.14. Foreign affaris. drugs. Only if 50 members support it & speaker grants permission. forests. Parliamentary Subject Committees 15 members. agriculture. public order. 7. By Elections To fill up the seat rendered vacant due to death. stamp duties. 5. liquor. taxes on entertainment & wealth. Question Hour Parliamentary Terms First hour of every sitting in the two houses of the parliament is devoted to asking & answering questions known as Question hour. Concurrent list (52) Criminal law. Joint Committee on Offices of Profit 16. Vallabh. railways. Adjournment Motion Moved to draw the attention to a recent matter of urgent public importance. trade unions.
The preamble was proposed before the drafting committee by J. 5. Associated with declaration of law as unconstitutional & void by the courts. The constituent assembly set up 13 committees for framing the constitution. 2. In 2003 a new law was passed which permits PIO residing in 16 countries to have dual citizenship status. Part A states comprised of nine erstwhile states under the government of British India. Balwant Rai Mehta Ashok Mehta Committee Rajamannar Commission Recommendations approved by NDC. Rajasthan first adopted 3 tier structure. Part C of five centrally administered areas & Part D comprised of Andamans & Nicobar. Part B comprised of five princely states with legislatures. B. a draft of the constitution was prepared by a seven member drafting committee under the chairmanship of Dr. 7.6. Ghanshyam Thori 9 Indian Polity . However they cannot participate in elections. Pith And Substance Doctrine of Severability Principle of Harmonious Construction Miscellaneous Facts Select Political Doctrines & Principles Idea that when the legislature wants to do something that it cannot do within the constraints of the constitution.N. Working of panchayati raj institutions. On the basis of the reports.L. followed by Andhra Pradesh & Bihar. 8. Rau acted as the constitutional advisor to the constituent assembly. Recommended abolition of IAS & the IPS The Doctrine Of Colourability. B. viz. Ambedkar. B. While dealing with the reorganization of princely states. the constitution provided a four-fold distribution of states. 1. R. A. This will enable them to participate in economic activities & real estate. 3. C & D. Nehru. Dr. Certiorari (meaning ‘to be informed’) can be issued only after the final order has been made. Interpretation used to determine under which head of power a given piece of legislation falls. The citizenship act of 1955 was first amended in 1986 & later in 2003. Concerned with the relationship between the fundamental rights & the directive principles. 4. it colours the law with a substitute purpose which will still allow it to accomplish its original goal. The writ of Prohibition is available during the period when the proceedings are pending & the final order is not made. Now it is a constitutional right. The doctrine is primarily used when a law is challenged on the basis that one level of government (be it provincial or federal) has encroached upon the exclusive jurisdiction of another level of government. The idea of a constituent assembly to frame a constitution for India was first mooted by the Swaraja Party in 1928. Sachhidanand Sinha was the Provincial president of the assembly that drafted the Indian constitution later Rajendra Prasad took over. The right to property (Article 31) eliminated from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment in 1978.
6. 17. 19. In 2002 the 84th amendment extended the freeze up to 2026. In UTs with legislative assembly the right to legislate on subjects enumerated in the state list & concurrent list vests with the assembly but for other UTs parliament enacts the laws. In 1976 the delimitation of constituencies was freezed on the basis of the 1971 census upto 2001. 15. Vote of Account is a provision to meet the expenses due the gap between the presentation & passage of the budget. publishing in gazette. 13. Right to education is granted by the 86th amendment carried out in 2002. 7. 14. J&K. Lok Adalats (under State Legal Aid & Advice Boards) & Nyaya Panchayat are other judicial bodies. The right to information has been granted to the citizens under the information act 2002. 16. 20. Karnataka.P are the only states with bicameral legislature. The government is collectively responsible only to the Lok Sabha. Rajya Sabha can delay money bill only by 14 days. Maharashtra & U. The constitution has made special provision for the administration of scheduled areas in a state other than Assam. Family Courts. The stages of bill introduction are first reading. committee submits its report with recommendations (amendments can be introduced here) & third reading involving formal voting to accept or reject the bill (No amendments possible here). The final decision whether a bill is a money bill or not rests with the speaker. Ghanshyam Thori 10 Indian Polity . The administrators are known as lieutenant governors (Daman & Pondicherry). Meghalaya. Under this the government shall provide free & compulsory education to all children from the age of 6 to 14.) if the legislatures of two or more states recommend to parliament (c) For the implementation of treaty with foreign powers (d) during emergency. referred to committee. The right to declare any area as scheduled area rests with the President & is subject to legislation by the parliament. Comptroller & auditor general looks after the accounts of both the centre & the state. second reading. The court appoints its officer & servants in consultation with the UPSC. Bihar. 8. 11. Chief commissioners (Andamans & Chandigarh) & as administrators (Lakshadweep) 18. The Parliament can also legislate on subjects in the state list if (a) the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by 2/3rd majority (b. 12. 10. Normally vote of account is taken as two months for a sum equivalent to one-sixth of the estimated expenditure of the whole financial year. In the appointment of the judges of the Supreme Court & the high courts. the president is bound t act in accordance with the opinion of the Chief Justice of India who would tender his opinion after consulting his colleagues. Tripura & Mizoram. 9.
Gujarati. No emergency except that due to war/external aggression can be automatically extended to the state. Santhali & Dogri were added to the eighth schedule raising the number to 22. Declared more than 100 times. Emergency was form 1962-68 & 1971-78. sparing use of article 356. Once it has been approved it remains in force for a period of 6 months. national emergency cannot be declared on grounds of internal disturbances. High court of J&K enjoys very limited powers & cannot declare any law unconstitutional or issue writs except for enforcement of fundamental rights. Kannada. Assamese. 24. 22. Marathi. Initially the constitution recognized 14 regional languages which were Hindi. To extend further election commission should certify & still maximum period is 3 years. In 2003 four more languages – Bodo. Telugu. Punjabi. Manipuri & Nepali were added by 71st amendment. 27. Ghanshyam Thori 11 Indian Polity . Assembly consists of 100 members & legislative council 36 members. The court can strike down emergency if found unconstitutional & revive the dissolved state assembly. In 1992 three additional languages – Konkani. Oriya. Bengali. Fundamental rights except guaranteed in article 20 & 21 cannot be suspended. The life of Lok Sabha can be extended upto one year at a time & up to the period not exceeding beyond six months after the proclamation ceases to operate. President can reduce salary of judges of all courts & ask all money bills passed by state legislature to be reserved. 23. Tamil. governor post/All India services/NDC to continue. National Emergency: The proclamation of emergency should be approved by both houses within one month of the date of issue & passed by 2/3rd majority otherwise ceases to operate in one month. The maximum period is 3 years. 1957. After approval valid for 6 months. Maithili. Sindhi was added through 21st amendment. Sanskrit. It can be extended by parliament for a further period of 6 months. After approval 6 months. Residuary powers rest with the state government. 26. However according to 44th amendment. In case the law is passed by the state legislature & received the approval of the President before the enactment of law on the same subject by the Parliament. The constitution was adopted on November 17.21. first time in Punjab. The V & VI schedule of constitution regarding scheduled areas & scheduled tribes not applicable. Special Provisions for J&K: Directive priniciples & fundamental duties do not apply. Malayalam. Kashmiri. Urdu is official language. 25. Urdu. Sarkaria commissions recommendations included inter-governmental council formation. Emergency due to constitutional failure in state: Ceases to be in operation after the expiry of two months unless approved by each house. Financial Emergency: Remains in force for a period of 2 months unless approved. the former prevails.
30. A member of the panel of chairman announced by the speaker presides over lok sabha if neither the speaker nor the depty speaker present. 33. Contingency fund is at the disposal of President & was constituted in 1950 by parliament. Regional party only six percent in a single state or at least 3 seats in the Assembly. 32. The concept of PIL originated in U. The 52nd amendment added tenth schedule to the constitution which dealt with anti-defection. fresh loans. Amendment normally needs at least two-thirds of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha to pass it. The number of judges of high court is determined by the President. the amenment bill is lost. Money can be spent out of this fund only after approval of parliament. Expenses should be subsequently authorized by parliament. repayment of loans. 35. If panchayat is dissolved before 5 years. The final decision rested with speaker regarding defection. 39. 40. The procedure of election of the President can be modified through an amendment passed by twothirds majority by both the houses & be ratified by legislatures of at least half of the states. 38. The recommendation of creation of new all India services is the exclusive power of Rajya Sabha. Proportional representation with single transferable vote is followed in the elections of President. fresh elections should be held within 6 months. though it can be challenged in court. Ghanshyam Thori 12 Indian Polity . 37. 34. When Rajya Sabha disagrees with the proposals. 29. Vice President & Members of Rajya Sabha. This is not the case with chief justice of India & election commissioner. 42. 30 seats are reserved for STs in the Lok Sabha.K. judges etc. V. 41. National party if it secures more 6 per cent of the votes polled in any four or more states.28. The government of India instituted Bharat Ratna & Padma Shri under Article 18 of the constitution. 73rd amendment gave constitutional status to panchayati raj. 6 all India party & over 40 regional parties. Auditor general.000. 36. 31. In addition it must win at least four seats in the House of the People or should have at least 2 percent of the Lok Sabha seats from at least three different states (ie 11 MPs). Finance bill & appropriation bill are presented along with the budget. The salary & emoluments of the president are exempt from income tax. State govt contingency fund is with governor. Money comes to consolidated fund of India from revenues. sums payable due to court award & salaries of CAG.P Singh resigned after loosing vote of no confidence in the Lok Sabha.000 & for reserved seats 5. Expenses charged on this fund include debt charges of GOI. The security deposit for general elections is Rs 10.
Disputes regarding the age of the judge of a highcourt shall be decided by the president in consultation with the Chief Justice of India. Essential Extra Reference • Important Amendments Ghanshyam Thori 13 Indian Polity . VP. 51. Elections & fundamental rights came later on 26th January 1950. A bench consisting of five or more judges is called a full bench of the supreme court. 49. 45. When the three lists come in conflict. The following enjoy the rank of a cabinet minister: deputy chairperson of planning commission. 48. Leader of opposition in Lok Sabha.43. Only when president’s rule is imposed. 46. Further List III has priority over List II.K has no written constitution. Lok Sabha enjoys the powers to pass vote on account. List-I has priority over both List II & List III. votes of credit & exceptional grants. Armed rebellion does not cause the suspension. 47. The following are special voters in the elections to the lok sabha & the assemblies – Presidnet. National commission for SC & the State Election Commission are not statutory body. 50. Governors & Judges of the supreme court & high courts. 44. U. The expression ‘Judicial review’ is not explicitly stated in the constitution & is implied. Only war & external aggression can lead to suspension of fundamental rights under article 19. the parliament gests the exclusive authority to legislate on a subject under state list. President of India is an integral part of the parliament. and Chairman of Finance Commission. Speaker of LS. New Zealand was the first country to grant franchise to women. Keeping the units of Indian union under control & serving as the agents of the central government is not the purpose of All India services. Provisions regarding citizenship & provisional parliament were given immediate effect from 26th November 1949.
Chapter II Parliament Constitution of Parliament Composition of the Council of States Composition of the House of the People Readjustment after each census Duration of Houses of Parliament Qualification for membership of Parliament 14 Indian Polity Article 79 Article 80 Article 81 Article 82 Article 83 Article 84 Ghanshyam Thori .Annexure . and to suspend. or connected with. or during the absence.I Other Articles of the Constitution Part V Chapter I Article 52 Article 53 Article 54 Article 55 Article 56 Article 57 Article 58 Article 59 Article 60 Article 61 Article 62 Article 63 Article 64 Article 65 Article 66 Article 67 Article 68 Article 69 Article 70 Article 71 Article 72 Article 73 Article 74 Article 75 Article 76 Article 77 Article 78 The Union The Executive – The President & the Vice President The President of India Executive power of the Union Election of President Manner of election of President Term of office of President Eligibility for re-election Qualifications for election as President Conditions of President's office Oath or affirmation by the President Procedure for impeachment of the President Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of resident and the term of office or person elected to fill casual vacancy The Vice-President Of India The Vice-President to be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office. etc. etc. the election of a President or Vice-President Power of President to grant pardons.. of President Election of Vice-President Term of office of Vice-President Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies Matters relating to. remit or commute sentences in certain cases Extent of executive power of the Union Council of Ministers Council of Ministers to aid and advise President Other provisions as to Ministers Attorney General of India Attorney-General for India Conduct of Government Business Conduct of business of the Government of India Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President.
or to act as. of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof Salaries and allowances of members Legislative Procedure Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases Special procedure in respect of Money Bills Definition of "Money Bills" Assent to Bills Procedure in Financial Matters Annual financial statement Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates (1) So much of the estimates as relates to expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be submitted to the vote of Parliament. and removal from. and removal from.. but nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the discussion in either House of Parliament of any of those estimates. or to act as Speaker The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker Secretariat of Parliament Conduct of Business Oath or affirmation by members Voting in Houses. the office of Deputy Chairman Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of. the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of. Appropriation Bills Ghanshyam Thori 15 Indian Polity . Chairman The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People Vacation and resignation of. Privileges. etc. prorogation and dissolution Right of President to address and send messages to Houses Special address by the President Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses Officers of the Paliament The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States Vacation and resignation of. Priviledges & Immunities of Parliament & its Members Powers. power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum Disqualification of Members Vacation of seats Disqualifications for membership Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified Powers.Article 85 Article 86 Article 87 Article 88 Article 89 Article 90 Article 91 Article 92 Article 93 Article 94 Article 95 Article 96 Article 97 Article 98 Article 99 Article 100 Article 101 Article 102 Article 103 Article 104 Article 105 Article 106 Article 107 Article 108 Article 109 Article 110 Article 111 Article 112 Article 113 Article 114 Sessions of Parliament.
etc. etc. of Judges Appointment of acting Chief Justice Appointment of ad hoc Judges Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court Supreme Court to be a court of record Seat of Supreme Court Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court [Repealed] Executive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard to questions as to constitutional validity of Central laws Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Court in certain cases Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to civil matters Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court Review of judgements or orders by the Supreme Court Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs Transfer of certain cases Ancillary powers of Supreme Court Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery.. additional or excess grants Votes on account. Power of President to consult Supreme Court Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court [Repealed] Rules of Court. Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court Interpretation Comptroller and Auditor-General of India Comptroller and Auditor-General of India Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General Form of accounts of the Union and of the States Ghanshyam Thori 16 Indian Polity . etc. votes of credit and exceptional grants Special provisions as to financial Bills Rules of procedure Procedure Generally Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business Language to be used in Parliament Restriction on discussion in Parliament Courts not inquire into proceedings of Parliament Legislative Powers of the President Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament The Union Judiciary Establishment and Constitution of Supreme Court Salaries.Article 115 Article 116 Article 117 Article 118 Article 119 Article 120 Article 121 Article 122 Chapter III Article 123 Chapter IV Article 124 Article 125 Article 126 Article 127 Article 128 Article 129 Article 130 Article 131 Article 131A Article 132 Article 133 Article 134 Article 134A Article 135 Article 136 Article 137 Article 138 Article 139 Article 139A Article 140 Article 141 Article 142 Article 143 Article 144 Article 144A Article 145 Article 146A Article 147 Chapter V Article 148 Article 149 Article 150 Supplementary.
Article 151 Part VI Chapter I Article 152 Chapter II Article 153 Article 154 Article 155 Article 156 Article 157 Article 158 Article 159 Article 160 Article 161 Article 162 Article 163 Article 164 Article 165 Article 166 Article 167 Chapter III Article 168 Article 169 Article 170 Article 171 Article 172 Article 173 Article 174 Article 175 Article 176 Article 177 Article 178 Article 179 Article 180 Article 181 Article 182 Article 183 Article 184 Audit reports The States General Definition The Executive – The Governor Governors of States Executive power of State Appointment of Governor Term of office of Governor Qualifications for appointment as Governor Conditions of Governor's office Oath or affirmation by the Governor Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies Power of Governor to grant pardons. of and removal from. prorogation and dissolution Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses Special address by the Governor Rights of Ministers and Advocate Officers of the State Legislature The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly Vacation and resignation of. remit or commute sentences in certain cases Extent of executive power of State Council of Ministers Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor Other provisions as to Ministers Advocate General of the State Advocate-General for the State Conduct of Government Business Conduct of business of the Government of a State Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor. etc. Speaker The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council Vacation and resignation. or to act as. the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of. etc. The State Legislature Constitution of Legislatures in States Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States Composition of the Legislative Assemblies Composition of the Legislative Council Duration of States Legislatures Qualification for membership of the State Legislature Sessions of the State Legislature. Ghanshyam Thori 17 Indian Polity . and to suspend.. and removal from. the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of.
or to act as.. additional or excess grants Article 206 Votes on account. privileges. etc. power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum Article 190 Vacation of seats Disqualification of Members Article 191 Disqualification for membership Article 192 Decision on question as to disqualifications of members Article 193 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified Power. votes of credit and exceptional grants Article 207 Special provisions as to financial Bills Procedure Generally Article 208 Rules of procedure Article 209 Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business Article 210 Language to be used in the Legislature Article 211 Restriction on discussion in the Legislature Article 212 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature Chapter IV Legislative Power of the Governor Article 213 Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature Chapter V The High Courts in the States Article 214 High Courts for States Article 215 High Courts to be courts of record Article 216 Constitution of High Courts Article 217 Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court Article 185 Ghanshyam Thori 18 Indian Polity . Privileges & Immunities of State Legislatures & their Members Article 194 Powers. of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof Article 195 Salaries and allowances of members Legislative Procedure Article 196 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills Article 197 Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills Article 198 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills Article 199 Definition of "Money Bills" Article 200 Assent to Bills Article 201 Bills reserved for consideration Procedure in Financial Matters Article 202 Annual financial statement Article 203 Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates Article 204 Appropriation Bills Article 205 Supplementary. Chairman The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration Article 186 Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy Chairman Article 187 Secretariat of State Legislature Article 188 Oath or affirmation by members Conduct of Business Article 189 Voting in Houses.
etc.. etc.Article 218 Article 219 Article 220 Article 221 Article 222 Article 223 Article 224 Article 224A Article 225 Article 226 Article 226A Article 227 Article 228 Article 228A Article 229 Article 230 Article 231 Chapter VI Article 233 Article 233A Article 234 Article 235 Article 236 Article 237 Part VII Part VIII Article 239 Article 239A Article 239AA Article 239AB Article 239B Article 240 Article 241 Article 242 Part IX Article 243 Article 243A Article 243B Article 243C Article 243D Article 243E Article 243F Article 243G Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge Salaries. authority and responsibilities of Panchayats Ghanshyam Thori 19 Indian Polity . delivered by. and judgments. etc. certain district judges Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service Control over subordinate courts Interpretation Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates [Repealed] The States in Part B of the First Schedule The Union Territories Administration of Union territories Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories Special provisions with respect to Delhi Provision in case of failure of constitutional monarchy Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories High Courts for Union territories [Repealed] The Panchayats Definitions Gram Sabha Constitution of Panchayats Composition of Panchayats Reservation of seats Duration of Panchayats. Disqualifications for membership Powers. of Judges Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another Appointment of acting Chief Justice Appointment of additional and acting Judges Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts Jurisdiction of existing High Courts Power of High Courts to issue certain writs [Repealed] Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 226 Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court Transfer of certain cases to High Court [Repealed] Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of State laws Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States Subordinate Courts Appointment of district judges Validation of appointments of.
the Municipalities Finance Commission Audit of accounts of Municipalities Elections to the Municipalities Application to Union territories Part not to apply to certain areas Committee for district planning Committee for Metropolitan planning Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters The Scheduled and Tribal Areas Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor Relations Between the Union and the States Legislative Relations Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts Residuary powers of legislation Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the National interest Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by the legislatures of States Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State Legislation for giving effect to international agreements Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures Ghanshyam Thori 20 Indian Polity . Disqualifications for membership Powers. Power to impose taxes by. etc. and Funds of.Article 243H Article 243I Article 243J Article 243K Article 243L Article 243M Article 243N Article 243O Part IXA Article 243P Article 243Q Article 243R Article 243S Article 243T Article 243U Article 243V Article 243W Article 243X Article 243Y Article 243Z Article 243ZA Article 243ZB Article 243ZC Article 243ZD Article 243ZE Article 243ZF Article 243ZG Part X Article 244 Article 244A Part XI Chapter I Article 245 Article 246 Article 247 Article 248 Article 249 Article 250 Article 251 Article 252 Article 253 Article 254 Powers to impose taxes by. authority and responsibilities of Municipalities etc. and Funds of. the Panchayats Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position Audit of accounts of Panchayats Elections to the Panchayats Application to Union territories Part not to apply to certain areas Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters The Municipalities Definitions Constitution of Municipalities Composition of Municipalities Constitution and composition of Wards Committees. Reservation of seats Duration of Municipalities. etc.
etc. Contracts and Suits Finance Interpretation Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States Contingency Fund Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the States Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States Taxes levied and collected by the Union and distributed between the Union and the States Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union [Omitted] Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products Prior recommendation of President require to Bills affecting taxation in which States are interested Grants from the Union to certain States Taxes on professions.. Property.. Contingency Funds and moneys credited to the public accounts Custody of suitors' deposits and other moneys received by public servants and courts Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation Restriction as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods Exemption from taxes on electricity Ghanshyam Thori 21 Indian Polity . etc. Finance Commission Recommendations of the Finance Commission Miscellaneous Financial Provisions Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues Custody. trades. on States in certain cases Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union [Repealed] Armed Forces in States in Part B of the First Schedule Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India Public acts. records and judicial proceedings Disputes relating to Waters Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys Co-ordination between States Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council Finance. callings and employments Savings [Repealed] Agreement with States in Part B of the First Schedule with regard to certain financial matters Calculation of "net proceeds".Article 255 Chapter II Article 256 Article 257 Article 257A Article 258 Article 258A Article 259 Article 260 Article 261 Article 262 Article 263 Part XII Chapter I Article 264 Article 265 Article 266 Article 267 Article 268 Article 269 Article 270 Article 271 Article 272 Article 273 Article 274 Article 275 Article 276 Article 277 Article 278 Article 279 Article 280 Article 281 Article 282 Article 283 Article 284 Article 285 Article 286 Article 287 of States Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of procedure only Administrative Relations Obligation of States and the Union Control of the Union over States in certain cases Assistance to States by deployment of armed forces or other forces of the Union Power of the Union to confer powers. of Consolidated Funds. etc.
assets. Liabilities. assets. rights. liabilities and obligations in other cases Property accruing by escheat or lapse or as Bona vacantia Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union Power to carry on trade. Contracts Suits and proceedings Right to Property Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law Trade. commerce and intercourse Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade. liabilities and obligations in certain cases Succession to property. Rights. commerce and intercourse among States Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies [Repealed] Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304 Services Under the Union and the States Services Interpretation Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State Dismissal. etc. rights.Article 288 Article 289 Article 290 Article 290A Article 291 Chapter II Article 292 Article 293 Chapter III Article 294 Article 295 Article 296 Article 297 Article 298 Article 299 Article 300 Chapter IV Article 300A Part XIII Article 301 Article 302 Article 303 Article 304 Article 305 Article 306 Article 307 Part XIV Chapter I Article 308 Article 309 Article 310 Article 311 Article 312 Article 312A Article 313 Article 314 Chapter II Article 315 Article 316 Article 317 Article 318 Article 319 Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain cases Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds [Repealed] Borrowing Borrowing by the Government of India Borrowing by States Property. commerce and intercourse Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard to trade and commerce Restriction on trade. Contacts. removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State All-India services Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services Transitional provisions [Repealed] Public Service Commissions Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States Appointment and term of office of members Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be Ghanshyam Thori 22 Indian Polity . Obligations and Suits Succession to property. Commerce and Intercourse Within the Territory of India Freedom of trade.
direction and control of elections to be vested in an election commission No person to be ineligible for inclusion in. race.Article 320 Article 321 Article 322 Article 323 Part XIVA Article 323A Article 323B Part XV Article 324 Article 325 Article 326 Article 327 Article 328 Article 329 Article 329A Part XVI Article 330 Article 331 Article 332 Article 333 Article 334 Article 335 Article 336 Article 337 Article 338 Article 338A Article 339 Article 340 Article 341 Article 342 Part XVII Chapter I Article 343 Article 344 Chapter II Article 345 Article 346 such members Functions of Public Service Commissions Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions Expenses of Public Service Commissions Reports of Public Service Commissions Tribunals Administrative tribunals Tribunals for other matters Elections Superintendence. or to claim to be included in a special. caste or sex Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters [Repealed Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after fifty years Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian community National Commission for Scheduled Castes. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes Control of the Union over the administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes Scheduled Castes Scheduled Tribes Official Language Language of the Union Official language of the Union Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language Regional Languages Official language or languages of a State Official language for communication between one State and another or between a Ghanshyam Thori 23 Indian Polity . electoral roll on grounds of religion.
Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language Special Directives Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage Special Officer for linguistic minorities Directive for development of the Hindi language Emergency Provisions Proclamation of National Emergency Effect of Proclamation of Emergency Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356 Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies [Repealed] Application of this Part to the State of Punjab Provisions as to financial emergency Micsellaneous Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures [Repealed] Rights and privileges of Rulers of Indian States Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties. etc. Bills. Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts. etc. or to give effect to. etc.Article 347 Chapter III Article 348 Article 349 Chapter IV Article 350 Article 350A Article 350B Article 351 Part XVIII Article 352 Article 353 Article 354 Article 355 Article 356 Article 357 Article 358 Article 359 Article 359A Article 360 Part XIX Article 361 Article 361A Article 362 Article 363 Article 363A Article 364 Article 365 Article 366 Article 367 Part XX Article 368 Part XXI Article 369 Article 370 Article 371 Article 371A Article 371B Article 371C State and the Union Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State Language of the Supreme Court. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and Privy purses to be abolished Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes Effect of failure to comply with. directions given by the Union Definitions Interpretation Amendment of the Constitution Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor Temporary. High Courts. agreements. Transitional and Special Provisions Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland Special provision with respect to the State of Assam Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur Ghanshyam Thori 24 Indian Polity .
Commencement. authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions of the Constitution Provisions as to Judges of High Courts Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India Provisions as to Public Commissions Special provisions as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly [Article 379-391 Repealed] Power of the President to remove difficulties Short Title.Article 371D Article 371E Article 371F Article 371G Article 371H Article 371I Article 372 Article 372A Article 373 Article 374 Article 375 Article 376 Article 377 Article 378 Article 378A Article 379 Article 392 Part XXII Article 393 Article 394 Article 394A Article 395 Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh Special provision with respect to the State of Goa Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation Power of the President to adapt laws Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive detention in certain cases Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council Courts. Authoritative Text in Hindu and Repeals Short title Commencement Authoritative text in the Hindi language Repeals Ghanshyam Thori 25 Indian Polity .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.