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Use the “each element appears exactly once in each row and each column” property of group tables to fill in the group table for G = {e, a, b}, where e is the identity element for the group G. Since there is just one way to fill in this group table, there is essentially just one group of order 3 – that is, just one group with 3 elements. But wait! The set Z3 = {0, 1, 2} under the operation of addition modulo 3 is a group with 3 elements. Write its group table. Which element in Z3 plays the role of e in G? Which element plays the role of a? Of b? * e a b e a b +3 0 1 2 0 1 2

2. Use the “each element appears exactly once in each row and each column” property of group tables to fill in the group table for G = {e, a, b, c}. Note that we can fill in the diagonal entry with the heavy border with e, b, or c. First, fill in this box with c and show how to fill in the rest of the table. Then, fill in the box with b and show how to fill in the rest of the table. Finally, fill in the box with e and show the two ways to fill in the rest of the table. (Hint: Note that there are two possibilities for the next diagonal entry.) * e a b c e e a b c a a b b c c * e a b c e e a b c a a b b c c

* e a b c

e e a b c

a a

b b

c c

* e a b c

e e a b c

a a

b b

c c

©Janet L. Beery, University of Redlands, posted 2/2010

H. –1. 2. 2.3. 3} under multiplication modulo 5 5. ©Janet L. 2. of course. We have seen group tables for several groups of order 4. W = {R0. 3} under multiplication modulo 5 U(5) = Z5* = {1. 4. The groups in part 4 are. i. 4} under multiplication modulo 5 U = {1. 3. V} 4. the same group! How many nonisomorphic (= not of the same form) groups of order 4 are there? Which of your group tables from part 2 actually are of the same form? 6. To which one of the four group tables from part 2 does each of the following groups correspond? U(5) = Z5* = {1. Beery. 4. R180. What is an easy way to tell the two nonisomorphic groups of order 4 apart using their group tables? Parts 1 and 2 are from Laboratory Experiences in Group Theory. 1. 2. 3} under addition modulo 4 Group of symmetries of the rectangle. including the following groups. –i } under ordinary multiplication Z4 = {0. 2. by Ellen Parker. 3. posted 2/2010 . University of Redlands. To which one of the four group tables from part 2 does each of these groups correspond? U(5) = Z5* = {1. 4} under multiplication modulo 5 U(5) = Z5* = {1.

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