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Log Interpretation Seminar/ Workshop (14th – 16th May 2007, New Delhi) Name: _____________________________________

© 2007 by HLS Asia Limited. All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, electronic, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher.

Basic Log Interpretation

INDEX

Section – 1 Section – 2 Section – 3 Section – 4 Section – 5 Section – 6 Section – 7 BASIC ANALYSIS CONCEPTS POROSITY AND MINERALOGY ENVIRONMENTAL CORRECTIONS CLEAN FORMATION EVALUATION ADDITIONAL LOG INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUES SHALY SAND THEORY SHALY SAND APPLICATIONS

HLS Asia Limited

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Open Hole Log Analysis Notes

Basic Log Interpretation

Section 1

**Basic Analysis Concepts
**

Table of Contents

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………. Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………….…….. Formation Evaluation and Log analysis…………………………………………………………. The Basis for Log analysis………………………………………………………………………... Water Saturation of Clean formations…………………………………………………………… Archie's Equation dissected………………………………………………………………………. Essential Calculations…………………………………………………………………………….. Determining Geothermal Gradient……………………………………………………………….. Determining Formation Temperature (Tf )……………………………………………………….. Determining R m f from R m ………………………………………………………………………….. Correcting Resistivity for Temperature………………………………………………………….. Determining Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) by the Inverse Archie Method……………… Example Application of Archie's Equation………………………………………………………. Rw Calculation by Inverse-Archie Method……………………………………………………….. Sw Calculations…………………………………………………………………………………….. Permeability Indicators……………………………………………………………………………. Determining Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) by the SP Method……………………………. Detailed Procedure of SP Method……………………………………………………………….. Additional Notes about Formation Water Resistivity……………………………………………

3 3 4 5 6 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 15 16 17 19 20 21

Additional R w Calculation Example………………………………………………………………. 21 "Quick-Look" Methods in Log Analysis………………………………………………………….. References………………………………………………………………………………………….

25 27

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Open Hole Log Analysis Notes

estimate lithology of potential water-bearing and hydrocarbon-bearing zones. Objectives After completing this section. convert derived values of formation water resistivity (Rw ) to formation temperature (Tf ) for any depth of interest by equation and by chart. and qualitative permeability. calculate geothermal gradient (gG) for a particular well location by equation and by chart. A working knowledge of each of these concepts is fundamental for performing a basic well-site analysis. determine a reasonable and optimistic value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) by comparing values derived from inverse-Archie and SP methods. select appropriate values for tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m) values required for calculating formation water resistivity (Rw ) and water saturation (S w ) in zones of different lithology and/or porosity. determine values for mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf ) and mudcake resistivity (Rmc ) from mud resistivity (Rm) by chart and by equation. calculate the cross-plot porosity of a zone of interest. porosity.Basic Log Interpretation Introduction This section presents an overview of the basic concepts of open hole log analysis and provides practical examples of the techniques and methods. convert measured and/or derived resistivity values (Rm. § § § § § § § § § § § HLS Asia Limited 3 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . determine value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) in a selected clean waterbearing zone by SP method. Rmf . recognize potential water-bearing zones that are amenable to formation water resistivity (Rw ) derivation by judging their cleanliness. the participant should be able to § § § clearly identify and mark on a log the potential water-bearing zones clearly identify and mark on a log the potential hydrocarbon-bearing zones. calculate formation temperature (Tf ) for any depth of interest by equation and by chart. calculate value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) in a selected clean waterbearing zone by inverse-Archie method. Rmc ) to formation temperature (Tf ) for any depth of interest by equation and by chart.

Figure 1. define.Basic Log Interpretation § § § calculate water saturation (S w ) for a clean hydrocarbon-bearing zone by Archie equation. due to accurate depth determination and near proximity of receiver to formation. To this end.1. The decision to HLS Asia Limited 4 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . MWD Open hole logs Sidewall cores. Logging is a very small. vertical seismic profile (VSP). flood efficiency analysis. gravity mapping. calculate hydrocarbon saturation (S hc ) for a clean hydrocarbon-bearing zone by equation. and produce from a given reservoir by drilling as few wells as possible. wireline logs occupy an important position in formation evaluation. clearly identify and mark on a log potential perforated intervals based on water saturation (S w ) calculations. However. piece of the larger puzzle. whole coring. Formation Evaluation methods PHASE Exploration Drilling Logging Primary Evaluation ACTIVITY Define Structure Drill well Log well Log analysis and testing EVALUATION METHOD Seismic. magnetic mapping Mud logging. micro-rock property analysis Exploration Secondary recovery Abandonment Wireline logs are one of the many different sources of data used in formation evaluation. Formation Evaluation and Log Analysis Formation evaluation can be generally defined as the practice of determining both the physical and chemical properties of rocks and the fluids they contain. The objective of formation evaluation is to locate. and log analysis seismic calibration from log analysis results Producing hydrocarbons Water or gas injection and production logging Economic decisions Material balance analysis Production log analysis. Wireline formation testing. drillstem testing Laboratory studies Analysis Feedback Core analysis Refinement of seismic model Log calibration via core analysis results. oil companies utilize a variety of formation evaluation methods. but very important.1. some of which are outlined in Figure 1.

Water-bearing zones. fill the pore space of a formation. In most instances. The basis for log analysis is to compare the measured resistivity of a formation with the calculated resistivity of t hat formation assuming its porosity is 100% water-filled. have higher conductivity--or lower resistivity--than hydrocarbon-bearing zones. Rock matrix. This relationship is the basis for determining the percentage of porosity that is filled with formation water (water saturation) and therefore the percentage of porosity that is filled with hydrocarbon (hydrocarbon saturation).Water. The electrical current that does flow through a hydrocarbon bearing formation is forced to take a more tortuous path. will conduct electricity depending upon its salinity.g. will conduct electricity much more readily than will fresh water.Sw HLS Asia Limited 5 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . then the presence of hydrocarbons is indicated. it is impossible to distinguish them from rock matrix on the basis of resistivity. weaving around the hydrocarbon that occupies part of the pore space. the measured resistivity is significantly higher than the wet resistivity. These fluids do. Because oil and gas will not conduct electrical current. Resistivity (R) is the physical measurement of resistance and is defined as the reciprocal of material's electrical conductivity (C). however. etc. salt water has a much lower resistivity than fresh water. the most fundamental of all measurements in logging.). The overall effect of the presence of hydrocarbons is an increase in resistivity. the water present in a formation at depth will be moderately saline. NaCl. The Basis for Log Analysis Resistivity is. This implies that any current flow through a formation is taking place in the formation water. with high concentrations of dissolved solids (e. oil. and gas are electrical insulators. Therefore.Basic Log Interpretation plug or complete a well is often based upon the logs response and hence a proper and accurate acquisition and analysis of these data is a must.0 .and not hydrocarbons or the rock matrix. Salt water. therefore. Archie Water Saturation Hydrocarbon Saturation Shc = 1. They will not conduct the flow of an electrical current and therefore their resistivities are said to be infinite.. however. perhaps. All geological materials possess some amount of resistance which is inherent to the flow of an electrical current. Water saturation (S w ) for a clean formation may be calculated using the Archie equation. If. leaving less room for conductive formation water. The resistivity of a rock at 100% water saturation is referred to as wet resistivity (Ro). for a given porosity.

As porosity decreases. The formation water resistivity (Rw ). He noticed that there was some relation between resistivity and porosity.2). HLS Asia Limited 6 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . The one way in which Ro can change in a formation of constant Rw is by changing the amount of fluid available to conduct an electrical current. By rearranging this equation. changes in formation resistivity factor (F r) will occur only with changes in the overall formation resistivity (Ro).Basic Log Interpretation Water Saturation of Clean Formations Consider a formation with a given amount of porosity and assume that porosity is completely filled with saline formation water of a given resistivity (Figure 1. and core porosity from productive zones within these wells. Archie had electric (resistivity) logs from several wells. This relationship between formation resistivity and porosity was researched by G. This is accomplished through changes in porosity. formation w ater resistivity (Rw ) is defined as constant and therefore.E. is quite low. Figure 1. because the saline water is capable of conducting electrical current. formation resistivity factor (F r) is inversely proportional to porosity (Φ ). In this example. The resistivity of the formation itself (Ro. or wet resistivity. Therefore. What he wanted to know was the existence of some relationship that makes it possible to determine whether a zone would be productive on the basis of measured resistivity and core porosity. where porosity is 100% filled with water) will depend upon the formation water resistivity and some other factor referred to as the formation resistivity factor (Fr). resulting in an increase in formation resistivity (Ro). formation resistivity factor (F r) can be quantified as the ratio of the formation's wet resistivity to the resistivity of the water (Rw ) present in that formation. the amount of water available to conduct electrical current is decreased. and thus was able to identify zones of interest through the use of electric logs alone.2. Archie of Shell Oil while working on limestones in France. Model formation: 100% water saturated.

These changes are expressed by the tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m). because the formation is filled with both water and oil. Standard values for tortuosity factor and cementation exponent. Although both parameters can be determined experimentally for a specific reservoir.Basic Log Interpretation Changes in the porosity of a formation may have effects other than simply increasing or decreasing the amount of fluid available to conduct electrical current. The measure of formation resistivity in this instance--taking into account the resistivity of the rock matrix and the fluids contained--is called true resistivity (Rt). Model formation containing both water and oil. These standard values are presented in Figure 1. m = 2. With a change in porosity.0. Oil is an insulator and will not conduct electrical current. Figure 1.0). Consider now that the porous formation discussed previously is filled with some combination of conductive formation water of constant resistivity (Rw ) and oil (Figure 1. HLS Asia Limited 7 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Figure 1. the tortuosity factors and cementation exponents were always constant (a = 1.4. For the limestones of Archie's experiments. the resistivity of the formation can no longer be referred to as wet resistivity (Ro).3. there may be concomitant changes in the complexity of the pore network that affect the conductive nature of the fluids present. Furthermore.4). log analysts commonly use set values for tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m) depending upon lithology and porosity. However. this may not be the case for all reservoirs. and formation resistivity factor (F r) can therefore vary with the type of reservoir.3.

the addition of oil to the reservoir would result in the increase of that formation's measured resistivity (Rt) because some amount of conductive formation water would be displaced by the oil. the wet resistivity (Ro) of that formation can now be related to the measured true resistivity (Rt) by some additional factor. For example.Basic Log Interpretation True resistivity of a formation will only be equal to wet resistivity (Rt = Ro) when the porosity of that formation is completely filled with conductive water. because both porosity and formation water resistivity (Rw ) are considered to be constant. water saturation can be related to the physical properties of the formation and the conductive properties of the fluids it contains. the factor F' is dependent upon the relative proportion of conductive fluids (water) and non-conductive fluids (hydrocarbons) in the formation. the resulting wet resistivity (Ro) will be constant. referred to as F'.0. Therefore. but generally is assumed to be equal to 2. the only way in which measured true resistivity (Rt) of the formation can change is through the addition or subtraction of conductive fluid. In its simplest form. However." has become the foundation of the entire industry of well logging. because some of the available porosity may be filled with nonconductive oil or gas. Therefore. changes in the factor F' will occur with changes in measured true resistivity (Rt). By substitution of equations. Under the given conditions. The factor F' can therefore be expressed as a ratio of the theoretical wet resistivity of that formation (Ro) to the actual omeasured resistivity of the formation (Rt) In this example. Archie's equation is often expressed as: HLS Asia Limited 8 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . it is possible to determine more accurate values for saturation exponent. The equation for water saturation (S w ). With knowledge of the production characteristics of the formation in question. Saturation exponent may have a range of values dependent upon specific reservoir conditions. an expanded version of that presented as a footnote in Archie's 1942 publication and commonly referred to as "Archie's equation. The factor F' in the above equation represents water saturation (usually expressed as Sw) which is the percentage of pore space within a formation that is occupied by conductive formation water. Water saturation is related to these properties by the exponent n (saturation exponent).

Basic Log Interpretation where: n a Φ m Rw Rt = = = = = = saturation exponent tortuosity factor porosity cementation exponent formation water resistivity true formation resistivity It is important to realize that while water saturation represents the percentage of water present in the pores of a formation. hydrocarbons) and therefore. Nonetheless. it does not represent the ratio of water to hydrocarbons that will be produced from a reservoir. Water saturation simply reflects the relative proportions of these fluids contained in the reservoir. hydrocarbon reserves. yet produce only hydrocarbons.e. Shaly sandstone reservoirs with clay minerals that trap a large amount of formation water may have high water saturations.. it is possible to determine what percentage of porosity is filled with a fluid other than water (i. HLS Asia Limited 9 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . With knowledge of water saturation. obtaining accurate values for water saturation is the primary goal of open hole log analysis.

Basic Log Interpretation Archie's Equation Dissected Essential Calculations Log analysis calculations require values of resistivity. this practice requires that resistivities be corrected for the HLS Asia Limited 10 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Because resistivity varies with temperature. in particular mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf ) and formation water resistivity (Rw ). A single measured or calculated value of Rmf and/or R w may need to be applied over a wide range of depths.

depending upon your location. As with geothermal gradient. The more activity. and realize the potential calculation errors that may result from this assumption. then it is standard practice to assume 75?F as a value for Tms . and not the temperature at which resistivity measurements were made during the logging job (e. Mean surface temperatures for international and North America locations are presented on charts GEN-2a and GEN-2b. This is often referred to as formation temperature (Tf ). HLS Asia Limited 11 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . It may also be calculated using the following equation. activity within that region.Basic Log Interpretation appropriate temperatures at depth. If the mean surface temperature for a region is not known. Geothermal gradient may also be determined by taking pertinent information from the header and using the following equation: Note that both the chart method and the formula method require a value for mean surface temperature (Tms ). Temperature increases with depth. respectively. it is possible to determine the temperature for a particular depth. Determining Formation Temperature (T f) Once the geothermal gradient (gG) has been established. Tf may be determined through the use of charts GEN2a or GEN-2b. Bear in mind that Rmf and/or Rw must be corrected to the temperature at a certain depth if those values are to be used in calculations. then it can be determined by chart or by formula. This refers to the average annual temperature of a region. it is important to use the correct chart. Instructions and an example for using these charts accompany charts GEN-2a (international locations) and GEN-2b (North America locations). Determining Geothermal Gradient The first step involved in determining temperature at a particular depth is to determine the geothermal gradient (gG) of the region. or tectonic. If the geothermal gradient of an area is not known.. Geothermal gradients are commonly expressed in degrees Fahrenheit per 100 feet (?F/100').g. If using a chart. and the temperature gradient of a particular region depends upon the geologic. the higher the geothermal gradient. mud press resistivities).

and allows the determination of both Rmf and mudcake resistivity (Rmc ) from Rm. Rw . Therefore. Rmf . etc.Basic Log Interpretation Determining R mf from R m In some cases.) at a given temperature when the NaCl concentration of that solution is known. It may also be used to determine the resistivity of a solution at a given temperature when the resistivity of this same solution at another temperature is known. Correcting Resistivity for Temperature Resistivity decreases with increasing temperature. A more straightforward method of correcting resistivity for temperature is through the use of Arp's equation: HLS Asia Limited 12 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Correction may be applied through the use of a chart (GEN-5) or an equation (Arp's equation). Failing to correct Rw to a higher temperature will result in erroneously high values of water saturation (S w). Instructions and examples for these particular uses accompany chart GEN-5. It is vital that formation water resistivity (Rw ) be corrected for temperature. a value of mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf ) may not be available from the header. This chart requires only mud density (or mud weight) as input. Chart GEN-5 may be used to determine the resistivity of a solution (such as Rm. it is possible to calculate a hydrocarbon-bearing zone as a wet zone if the temperature correction is not applied. or there may be a question about the validity or accuracy of the measurement. and vice versa. and therefore any value of Rmf and/or Rw determined at one depth must be corrected for the appropriate formation temperature (Tf ) where those values will be used to calculate water saturation (S w ). A value of Rmf may be obtained from the mud resistivity (Rm) through the use of chart GEN-3. It should be remembered that values of Rmf obtained from this chart also require correction to formation temperature before their use.

Furthermore. Example Application of Archie's Equation The following examples are worked with respect to the log presented in Figure 1. therefore. are assumed to be nonproductive shale zones. HLS Asia Limited 13 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Two of the most common methods of determining Rw from logs are the inverse-Archie method and the SP method. Therefore. however. however. Rwa calculated in one lithology can be used for water saturation (S w ) calculations in a zone of different lithology. and Pe curves.Basic Log Interpretation Determining Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) by the Inverse Archie Method Determining a value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) from logs may not always provide reliable results. sections of higher porosity (8515 and 8710) should be of more interest than those with lower porosity (8610). This estimate should be accomplished by quick-look means using a combination of the gamma ray. For example. Once a clean and porous wet zone is located. provided that the necessary temperature corrections have been made. porosity. Areas with low resistivity (8535 and 8710) are more likely to contain conductive formation water. falling between the zones of interest. Formation water resistivity calculated by the inverse. Rwa may be determined in a sandstone. and this value may then be used in the Archie equation to calculate water saturation (S w ) in a limestone. It is necessary. This is one of the many assumptions that must be made in log analysis applications. in many cases logs provide the only means of determining Rw . By first observing the resistivity log.Archie method (Rw a) depends upon lithology.5. It is assumed that any zones of interest are limestone. The inverse-Archie method of determining R w works under the assumption that water saturation (S w ) is 100%. The flat-line areas. that the inverse-Archie method be employed in a zone that is obviously wet. one can infer that the areas of high resistivity (8515 and 8610) indicate zones containing hydrocarbons. lithological assumptions must be made about that formation in order to select the appropriate values of cementation exponent (m) and tortuosity factor (a) to use in the equation. These axioms are not always correct because high resistivity in a formation may also be caused by a lack of porosity. it is desirable to calculate Rw from the inverse-Archie method in a clean formation with relatively high porosity.

Lithology of the zones of interest has been given as limestone. In this case.Basic Log Interpretation For optimistic values of Rw to be obtained. this upper wet zone (8535) may contain some hydrocarbons because both the wet zone and hydrocarbon zone occur in the same porous lithologic unit. The Rw value of this wet zone probably closely matches the Rw value of the hydrocarbon zone because they occur at virtually the same depth. for limestone. a = 1. Figure 1.5. This zone should have low resistivity and relatively high porosity. Because two wet zones are present. for all calculations.0 and m = 2. There are two obvious zones fitting these criteria (8535 and 8710). and the lesser of these two values should be used in order to obtain more optimistic water saturation (S w ) results. The zone at 8710 has higher porosity. however. a zone most likely to produce 100% water should be chosen for calculations. Example log. On a more pessimistic note. HLS Asia Limited 14 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .0. the zone at 8535 is in close proximity to the hydrocarbon zone just above it at 8515. Therefore. however. the appropriate values of cementation exponent (m) and tortuosity factor (a) must be assumed. values of Rwa should be calculated for both.

In any case where R w may be calculated in different zones or by different methods. It could also be the result of the water at 8710 having a completely different salinity than the water at 8535. This value. therefore no temperature correction is necessary. All of the conditions discussed above should be considered. This is a critical assumption! For the purposes of this example. the temperature variation between the top and bottom of the log is only 2?F. Once a reasonable value for Rw is established for a zone or groups of zones. the lowest value of formation water resistivity from 8710 (Rw = 0. the lowest calculated value of R w (within reason) should be used in order to obtain more optimistic (lower) calculated values of water saturation.038 ? -m) will be used. it should be temperature corrected for depth. The lesser of the two values (at 8710) may possibly be the result of a cleaner wet zone. the higher value (at 8535) results from the fact that the wet zone probably contains residual hydrocarbons from the overlying zone. The decision of which value of R wa to use in water saturation calculations should be based on experience. This is accomplished by using either GEN-5 or Arp's equation. More than likely. HLS Asia Limited 15 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . In this particular example. depending upon the differences in depth between its origin and its implementation. common sense. and logical deductions.Basic Log Interpretation Rw Calculation by Inverse-Archie Method There are several possible explanations for the variance in calculated values for Rw a. will produce more optimistic values of water saturation. because it is the lesser of the two.

High resistivity and high porosity typically characterize hydrocarbon-bearing formations. The zone at 8610 has very low porosity. There are two zones illustrated in Figure 1. HLS Asia Limited 16 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . its high resistivity results from the fact that there is little pore water available to conduct current. it is desirable to select a single depth rather than averaging values across a zone. Because the zones in the example log are so well defined. When taking measurement values from a log for use in the Archie equation. The zone at 8515 has good porosity (~28%). an analyst may choose several depths at which to calculate water saturation (S w ). In any single formation.5 that fit these criteria--8515 and 8610. and warrants further investigation. Through the course of actual interpretation there may be many appealing formations. only two calculations are required--one in each zone.Basic Log Interpretation Sw Calculations Potential hydrocarbon-bearing zones may now be evaluated using the value for Rw that was previously established. again because of the nonconductive behavior of oil and gas.

The SP will often respond in such a way that it reflects the same trend as the porosity device. Mudcake can only be present opposite a permeable formation. Likewise.Basic Log Interpretation Permeability Indicators Scanning a log in search of zones with high porosity and high resistivity may yield a number of appealing formations. The Micronormal curve will read a higher resistivity than the Microinverse curve because of the effects of mudcake (Rmc ) on the resistivity measurements. Permeability refers to the ability of a formation to transmit the fluids it contains through the existing pore network. however. and is a fundamental requirement of a productive reservoir. A permeability indicator (in this case the SP response) for the log presented in Figure 1. the presence of high porosity and high resistivity does not necessarily mean that a formation that contains hydrocarbons will actually produce those hydrocarbons (especially without stimulation or hydraulic fracturing). Depending upon the geology and the type of tool used to indicate permeability. Whereas the presence of negative SP deflection may be an indicator of permeability in a particular zone. quantitative estimates of permeability are lacking. The Spontaneous Potential. The Microlog indicates permeability when there is separation between the Micronormal (or Normal) and Microinverse (or Lateral) curves.6) are indicated at 8500 to 8535. Some standard open hole logging services provide several means of getting a qualitative estimate of a formation's permeability. may also be used to determine a value of formation water resistivity (Rw ). therefore the presence of this separation is used as a qualitative indicator of permeability. hydraulic fracturing or other formation treatment methods may be necessary to produce hydrocarbons. Permeable zones in this example log (Figure 1. this does not mean that it has less permeability than the deeper of the two formations. because the zone at 8500 exhibits less SP deflection than the zone at 8700.6. Negative deflections of the SP curve are used as qualitative indicators of permeability. 8595 to 8610. The zone responsible for the most SP deflection (8700) is not necessarily the zone with the most permeability. If permeability is not evident on a log.5 might appear as the curve presented in Track 1 of Figure 1. and 8680 to 8720. the absence of any deflection does not indicate an absence of permeability. However. The most commonly used permeability indicators are the Micro Electric (or Microlog) and the Spontaneous Potential (SP) tools. Locating permeable zones using SP response is an important first step in any "quick-look" analysis program. this is not always the case. evaluation of the porosity and resistivity curves can still result in low water saturation calculations. apart from providing a qualitative estimate of permeability. HLS Asia Limited 17 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Without data from a Formation Tester or Magnetic Resonance Imaging log.

6. HLS Asia Limited 18 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Example log illustrating permeability indicator (SP curve) in Track 1.Basic Log Interpretation Figure 1.

However. determination of formation water resistivity (Rw ) is in order.7. These procedures are outlined in Figure 1. the SP method gives best results in clean and relative porous formations. because virtually anything and everything affects the SP measurement it sometimes does not yield reliable results. Rw can be calculated by rearranging the Archie equation and assuming a water saturation (S w ) of 100%. and permeability indicator responses. porosity. Steps involved in determining Rw by the SP method. The SP method may be advantageous in certain circumstances where porosity data are not available. An additional method of assessing Rw is through the use of an SP versus Rmf chart (SP-4).Basic Log Interpretation Determining Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) by the SP Method Once zones of interest are located by observing trends in their resistivity. HLS Asia Limited 19 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Figure 1. and is referred to as the SP method. As discussed previously. Several steps are involved in determining Rw from the SP response. As with the inverse-Archie method.7.

Differentiate Between SSP and SP Re-enter SP-4 on the Y-axis at 62mV. Water saturation (S w ) calculations using these two values would result in differences of less than 1%.037 Ω -m). This minor difference is in support of the fact that both measurements likely represent accurate values of formation water resistivity (Rw ).40 Ω -m at 159oF. Plot R mf and Determine SSP Plot Rmf = 0. This plot should fall on a value of Rw = 0. There is a 0.037 Ω -m. Determine R m f Plot Rm = 0. With the value of the mud resistivity (Rm = 0. HLS Asia Limited 20 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Using this value. Project a horizontal line to intersect the interpolated imaginary line representing Tf = 159oF. determine the geothermal gradient (gG = 1. use GEN-3 to determine Rmf = 0.Basic Log Interpretation Detailed Procedure of SP Method Determine Formation Temperature (T f) From chart GEN-2b. the deflection at 8710 is -70mV. Following this salinity curve to the formation temperature of the zone of interest (Tf = 159oF) results in a mud resistivity (Rm) value of 0.22 Ω -m and Rmc = 0. This results in a salinity value of 7. From this point.000ppm NaCl.75 Ω -m at 8710.88 Ω -m versus Rm reference temperature (70oF) on GEN-5. Project a vertical line upward to an interpolated imaginary line representing Tf = 159oF (slightly less than half-way between 150oF and 175oF). Determine R w From the intersection determined in the previous step.038 Ω -m and RwSP = 0. project a vertical line downward to the X-axis. extend a horizontal line to the Yaxis to find SSP = 132mV. Determine SP Deflection Assuming the SP base line to be the second division from the right of Track 1.40 Ω -m) at the proper formation temperature (Tf = 159oF).001 Ω -m difference between the Rw values determined by the inverse-Archie method and the SP method at 8710 (Rwa = 0.14oF/100') and formation temperature (Tf = 159oF) from the chart or by the appropriate equation. locate the mean surface temperature (Tms = 60oF) for the Midontinent.22 Ω -m on the X-axis of SP-4.

When possible. A zone that is assumed to be 100% water saturated may. Bolivia 3.600 meters 60 deg. and is an ideal choice for Rw calculations assuming 100% water saturation. The worldwide average for formation water resistivity without correcting for temperature is 0. it is usually beneficial to pick the lowest value (within reason) of formation water resistivity (R w).8. Furthermore. it is best to calculate formation water resistivity (Rw ) using a variety of methods at several different depths. a zone of this nature may still be of interest to the client. This misinterpretation will result in compounded errors in the process of log analysis. Given Location: T.900 ppm Calcium 2.: B. making it a likely candidate for a hydrocarbon-bearing zone.: Mud weight: Santa Cruz. and has both lower resistivity and lower porosity than the zone at 2815m. and usually not as straightforward as presented in these examples. The presence of hydrocarbons may suppress any SP deflections. HLS Asia Limited 21 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . It may be assumed that any zones of interest are sandstone.D.H. and should be evaluated. Because the SP response may be suppressed by the ratio Rmf /Rw . The objective is to determine an appropriate value for Rw from the log. Additional methods of evaluating formation water resistivity will be discussed in later sections of this text. The zone at 2900m exhibits no indication of permeability.000 ppm Chloride 4. The lower zone (2815m) has high resistivity and high porosity.500 ppm Define Zones of Interest The only worthwhile SP deflection occurs from 2775m to 2830m. not be. in actuality. clay minerals may result in abnormally low resistivities. resulting in erroneous calculations.T. In an effort to be optimistic in water saturation (S w) calculations. The results can then be ranked and compared to reveal a "best pick" for the reservoir.000 ppm Magnesium 2.05 Ω -m.Basic Log Interpretation Additional Notes on Formation Water Resistivity Determining an accurate value of formation water resistivity (Rw ) from logs is often quite difficult. in a slightly shaly formation. Perhaps the most dangerous situation is assuming that a particular zone is wet when it actually contains hydrocarbons. Within these limits there are two definite zones of interest. The upper zone (2790m) has low resistivity and high porosity. Additional Rw Calculation Example The log for this example calculation is illustrated in Figure 1. C 13 lbs/gal Drilling Fluid Constituents: Sodium 3.

After establishing a base line. HLS Asia Limited 22 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . and project a horizontal line from the right of the TD (3600m) on the Y-axis. Figure 1.25oC/100m). The intersection of these two lines should fall on a line representing the geothermal gradient (gG = .Basic Log Interpretation Determine Formation Temperature (T f) From chart GEN-2a. determine the mean surface temperature (Tms = 15oC) of Santa Cruz. Following the geothermal gradient line upward to the depth of the zone of interest and descending from that intersection to the X-axis yields a formation temperature (Tf ) of 50oC at 2790m (wet zone). project a vertical line upward from BHT = 60oC on the X-axis.8. Example log from Santa Cruz. region. Bolivia.

29 Ω -m) at 2790m. Determine R m f Using GEN-3.Basic Log Interpretation Determine Equivalent NaCl Concentration The equivalent NaCl concentration can lead to an estimated value of mud resistivity (Rm) at the zone of interest. Cl. use the top and bottom scales of GEN-5. chart GEN-4 must be used. the SP deflection at 2790m is roughly -62mV from the baseline.13 Ω -m on the X-axis and extend a vertical line upward to the proper formation temperature line (Tf = 122oF). Add the concentrations of the four ionic constituents to obtain a total ion concentration. Enter GEN-4 on the X-axis at a value equal to this total concentration. determine Rmf = 0.596ppm. To determine this concentration. Determine SP Deflection From the log. use chart GEN-5 to obtain a mud resistivity (Rm = 0. Determine R m at Zone of Interest With the estimated total solution of NaCl = 12. To convert between oF and oC. From the projected intersections. extend horizontal lines to intersect the Y-axis. Plot R mf and Determine SSP Using SP-4.13 Ω -m at 2790m. plot Rmf = 0. The Y-axis values represent corrective multipliers for each constituent. Na). Project a vertical line upward to intersect with the lines corresponding to each of the particular constituents (Ca. Differentiate between SSP and SP HLS Asia Limited 23 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Mg. Project a horizontal line from this intersection to the Y-axis and obtain an SSP value of 98mV.

Determine R w from the Inverse-Archie Method Because the lithology of formations of interest is given to be sandstone and the porosity of the zone at 2790m is greater than 16%.091 Ω -m. Comparison of R w Results The values of Rw calculated by different methods for the zone at 2790m differ by 0. and will have detrimental effects on calculated values of water saturation (S w ). and should be used in future calculations to obtain more optimistic values of water saturation (S w ). The decision as to which value to use should be based on experience as well as information taken from the log. extend a vertical line downward to the X-axis. Determine R w From the intersection established in the previous step. The SP method has yielded a more reasonable and optimistic value of formation water resistivity (Rw = 0. Project a horizontal line to the interpolated 122oF line representing formation temperature (Tf ).Basic Log Interpretation Plot ∆SP Re-enter chart SP-4 on the Y-axis with a value of 36mV. This plot should fall on a value of Rw = 0. the Humble values of tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m) may be assumed. HLS Asia Limited 24 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .035 Ω -m.034 Ω -m). This is a major difference.

it is necessary to scan a log and locate favorable zones that warrant further investigation. What value will be used for R w ? What are the lithologies of the zones of interest? Are the hydrocarbon-bearing zones "clean" (shale-free)? Is there sufficient porosity in the zones? Is there satisfactory resistivity in the zones? Are the zones permeable? The particular methodology by which an individual approaches the "quick-look" analysis may vary. "Quick-look" log analysis employs scanilizing to locate potential zones of interest. and these responses may indicate whether a zone is water-bearing or hydrocarbonbearing. When performing a "quick-look" analysis--which should be the first step of any detailed investigation--six questions must be asked when considering whether a zone is potentially productive. This is often referred to as ”scanilizing" a log. Microlog. yet should address all of the questions posed above. Therefore. Caliper. and even resistivity invasion profiles.Basic Log Interpretation "Quick-Look" Methods in Log Analysis Before water saturation is calculated for any zone. This should always be the first step of a "quick-look" analysis. regardless of whether they appear waterbearing or hydrocarbon-bearing. Locate a relatively clean waterbearing zone of sufficient porosity and determine Rw using the inverse-Archie and/or SP methods. particularly with High Resolution Induction (HRI) logging suites. the water saturation values obtained during "quicklook" analysis may not be as accurate as those determined through in-depth and detailed log analysis and interpretation. Determine Formation Water Resistivity (R w ) If the customer provides this data. If HLS Asia Limited 25 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . It is important to remember that in "quick-look" analysis environmental corrections are not applied. Mark on the log all zones that exhibit potential permeability. Identify Permeability Indicators Scan the appropriate permeability indicators presented with the log. then it may be necessary to calculate Rw from the logs. but water-bearing zones as well. then the source is defined. There are certain responses that should be looked for. The objective in performing a "quick-look" analysis is to quickly produce values of water saturation for zones that appear interesting on a log. There should be some order and consistency to the method. If not. These may include the SP. A suggested "quick-look" approach is outlined in the following paragraphs. This is true not only for potential hydrocarbon-bearing zones. and also employs the basic concepts and procedures thus far considered in this text.

Once lithology of the zone is determined. These curves should be considered together. and not without respect to one another. Both of these curves reflect formation porosity. A quick determination of cross-plot porosity may be made by estimating "two thirds" porosity. the curves most useful for lithology determination are gamma ray. Most porosity logs will present two porosity curves--density porosity (Φ D) and neutron porosity (Φ N). The Archie equation provides for only one value of porosity. limestone. All types of formations--sandstone. Additional discussion of cross-plot porosity is included in later sections of this text. porosity and resistivity curves should be checked to see if the relationship between them indicates the possible presence of hydrocarbons. the necessary parameters (a & m) may be selected for water saturation calculations. and a combination of neutron porosity and density porosity. the use of visually estimated "two-thirds" porosity is sufficient for making water saturation calculations. then Rw should be calculated for all zones. it is possible to misidentify a tight zone as being potentially productive.Basic Log Interpretation more than one water-bearing zone is located. In general. Determine Formation "Cleanliness" An additional concern is the "cleanliness" of the formation which refers to the amount of shale present. Pe. remembering that lower values of Rw (within reason) produce more optimistic values of water saturation (S w ). This is done by visually estimating two-thirds the distance between the minimum-porosity curve and the maximum-porosity curve. For "quick-look purposes. and dolomite--may contain clay minerals ("shale"). Therefore. The presence of these clay minerals effects the responses of certain tools--namely. resistivity and porosity tools--and may result in a productive formation being overlooked as waterbearing The degree of shaliness of a formation can be judged from the gamma ray response. Determine Porosity and Resistivity of Zones Once a permeable zone is located. For "quick-look" purposes. without considering all the data. the lower the 26 HLS Asia Limited Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . therefore it is necessary to calculate cross-plot porosity before calculating water saturation. Tabulate the results and select the lowest value of Rw for future calculations. resistivity. Determine Formation Lithology Lithology identification can be accomplished in several different ways. Cross-plot porosity is a weighted average of the two values. the most basic of which is to examine the responses of various curves. Recall that it is entirely possible for a zone to exhibit an increase in resistivity because of a decrease in porosity. and is calculated by the equation below. but the differences in their values depend upon the different ways in which the respective measurements are made.

216 p.. p. and a later section of this text addresses more detailed methods of shaly sand analysis. Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell Publishing. Tulsa. Basic well log analysis for geologists: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. There are no safe guidelines for determining what constitutes "good" and "bad" values for water saturation. OK. B. R.Basic Log Interpretation gamma ray response of a porous zone. Calculate Water Saturation Water saturation may now be calculated for those zones that appear to be hydrocarbon-bearing. 1982. OK. Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC Publishers. Dewan. Halliburton Energy Services. 1983. 361 p. This judgement calls upon experience and local knowledge. 146. Boston MA. HLS Asia Limited 27 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Bateman. 1942. E. J. Log Interpretation Charts. 647 p. Remember that this value is not a reflection of the ratio of water to hydrocarbons that will be produced from the reservoir. M. Asquith... G. T. the lesser the amount of shale ("clean formation"). 64-62. The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristics: SPE-AIME Transactions. v. Tulsa. It is simply the relative proportion of water to hydrocarbons in the porosity of that formation. 1994. This judgement requires some amount of experience and knowledge in the area. G. References Archie.. 1985.

. Complex Reservoir Mineralogy…………………………………………………………………... Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks………………………………………………………………….. Complex Lithologies………………………………………………………………………………..Basic Log Interpretation Section 2 Porosity and Mineralogy Table of Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………. 29 29 30 30 30 31 33 33 33 34 35 35 36 36 36 41 HLS Asia Limited 28 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes ..... Cross-Plot Porosity………………………………………………………………………………… Cross-Plot Porosity and Lithology from Chart………………………………………………….. References…………………………………………………………………………………………. Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………………. Clastic Sedimentary Rocks………………………………………………………………………. Mineral Identification Plots (MIP Plots)…………………………………………………………. Cross-Plot Shale Effect…………………………………………………………………………… Sonic Tool Cross-Plot Charts……………………………………………………………………... Limitations of Cross-Plot Porosity (CP) Charts………………………………………………….... Cross-Plot Porosity and Lithology (CP Plots)…………………………………………………. Two-Thirds Porosity………………………………………………………………………………. Cross-Plot Gas Effect……………………………………………………………………………..

determine two end-member lithology of a formation by Cross-Plot (CP) chart using a combination of neutron. determine cross-plot porosity of a formation by Cross-Plot (CP) chart using a combination of neutron. recognize the effects of shale on Mineral Identification Plots (MIPs). calculate cross-plot porosity of a formation by equation. density. recognize the effects of gas and shale on Cross-Plot (CP) data plots. and/or sonic data. Examples illustrated in this section will make frequent references to this Log Interpretation Charts manual. and/or sonic data.Basic Log Interpretation Introduction Determining accurate values of porosity (Φ ) and describe lithology of a formation based on log responses is one of the vital step in any log analysis. This section presents an overview of the different methods available for determining porosity and lithology as well as methods for determining complex lithology composition. density. To effectively use this section. determine three end-member lithology of a formation by Mineral Identification Plot (MIP) using a combination of neutron. and/or sonic data. apply the appropriate correction on a Cross-Plot (CP) chart to compensate for the effects of the presence of gas. Assumed values of tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m) necessary to calculate water saturation (S w ) are dependant on these determinations. the participant should have a copy of the Halliburton Log Interpretation Charts manual. Objectives After completing this section. HLS Asia Limited 29 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . the participant should be able to § § § § § § § § visually estimate "two-thirds" porosity from neutron-density data. density.

Once density and neutron porosity values are corrected for environmental effects. this approximation should be made with caution where anhydrite is present. This method may be used regardless of which matrix (e. Two-Thirds Porosity One method of visually estimating a value of porosity for use in the Archie equation is referred to as "two-thirds" porosity. sandstone. This method simply involves estimating two-thirds the distance between the lowest porosity reading and the highest porosity reading. Fortunately.g. Which one to be considered for rational saturation evaluation? This is a big dilemma and requires a step to move forward. This limitation should be kept in mind when applying the method. negative). any averaging routine may contain error. HLS Asia Limited 30 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .Basic Log Interpretation Cross-Plot Porosity and Lithology (CP Plots) Two of the most important uses of log data are to provide porosity and lithology Information to the geo-scientific community and use it for calculating water saturation (S w ). This is because of Natures heterogeneity. Regardless of matrix choice. Averaging methods. Furthermore. density and neutron porosity partially compensate one another. limestone. Archie water saturation calculations require only one input value for porosity.. dolomite) was used to calculate porosity. two -thirds porosity may be assumed to reflect the approximate porosity of a formation of any lithology. will result in a value of formation porosity that is too low. Porosity is a vital input to Archie equation. and taking that value as input into the Archie equation. An important limitation in the estimation of two-thirds porosity is the presence of gas. Because gas affects neutron porosity more than it does density porosity. A knowledge of lithology is also helpful because it empowers the analyst make a reasonable determination to choose appropriate value of tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m). the analyst has two values of porosity--neutron porosity and density porosity. Porosity measurements taken from an individual logs are rarely adequate for use in calculating water saturation. The reason for taking twothirds the distance between porosity readings rather than a simple average is to more closely approximate the value that would be calculated by the cross-plot porosity equation (discussed below). Cross-Plot Porosity Another method of obtaining a single value for porosity from density porosity and neutron porosity data is through the use of the cross-plot porosity equation. Some analysts prefer to take a simple average of the two measurements. in the presence of gas. therefore. density porosity will often read too low (in some cases. Because of the high bulk density of anhydrite (ρb = 2.98g/cc).

Basic Log Interpretation The value obtained from this equation likewise may be assumed to represent the actual formation porosity. However. This condition may necessitate that crossplot porosity be determined from chart. one if run on a limestone matrix. refer to the example worked in blue on the CPDSN-II-1a chart. dolomite) that may have been used to calculate density and neutron porosity. To illustrate the use of the neutron-density Cross-Plot Porosity (CP) chart. this assumption is in error because the porosity values do. Compensated Neutron (CNT-K).. Each of these chart sections contains Cross-Plot Porosity charts for oil-based muds (ρfl = 0. Again. Dual Spaced Epithermal Neutron (DSEN). a formation consisting of 70% limestone and 30% dolomite might have two possible porosities. and saltwater-based muds (ρfl = 1. An added benefit of this method is that a basic lithology of the formation in question is also obtained. The chartbook differentiates between five types of neutron tools: Dual Spaced Neutron (DSN).0g/cc). This chart fits the conditions where a Dual Spaced Neutron (DSN) tool was logged in an oil-based mud (ρfl = 0. In cases where density porosity reads negative values (common in anhydritic dolomite reservoirs). The proper Cross-Plot Porosity (CP) chart is determined first by tool type. freshwater-based muds ( ρfl = 1. depend upon what matrix was used in calculating porosity.15g/cc). and. These circumstances will create a situation in which the value of crossplot porosity is not an accurate approximation of formation porosity. Sidewall Neutron (SNL). in fact.85g/cc). neutron porosity is cross-plotted with bulk density (ρb). Example Data for Chart CPDSN-II-1a Φ N = 17% on limestone matrix (environmentally corrected) Φ D = 20% on limestone matrix (ρb = 2.85g/cc). Neutron porosity may also be cross-plotted with interval transit time (∆t). an important limitation in the use of this method is the presence of gas and anhydrite. and second by the density of the drilling fluid. Hostile Dual Spaced Neutron (HDSN). some analysts prefer to use a simple average of density and neutron values as illustrated below. and another if run on a dolomite matrix.34g/cc) HLS Asia Limited 31 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .g. limestone. or bulk density and sonic measurements may be cross-plotted together without implementing a neutron measurement at all. On these charts. regardless of which matrix value was used during logging. Cross-Plot Porosity and Lithology from Chart The cross-plot porosity equation is assumed to be correct for any particular matrix (e. sandstone. For instance. This weighted average results in values similar to those obtained by visually estimating the two-thirds porosity of a formation.

However. a mixture of sandstone and limestone. It is therefore necessary to obtain a second value for cross-plot porosity assuming that the formation consists of a mixture of sandstone and dolomite. Extend a vertical line upward to intersect a horizontal line that represents either the bulk density (? b = 2. Notice that the plotted point also falls between the matrix division lines of sandstone and dolomite. Neutron porosity may be converted from one lithology to another through the use of chart POR12. and present the results of each. the point plots along a line representing a cross-plot porosity of 19% if that formation is. Furthermore. will require a different approach. this is not the only possible solution for the plotted data. it is important to ensure that environmental corrections have already been applied to the recorded porosity measurements. calcite. Relative proportions of the two end-member lithologies (sandstone and limestone) may be estimated by normalizing a scale along the solid blue line between the two matrix division line with each division line representing 100% of that particular lithology. cross-plot porosity differed only slightly between the two possible lithology combinations. and dolomite. it is impossible to determine from the log which lithology mixture is correct. In this particular example. relative proportions of the two end-members (sandstone and dolomite) may be estimated by normalizing a scale along the dashed blue line between the two matrix division lines. Without previous knowledge of the reservoir. Again. In other instances. This is accomplished in the same manner as above by extending a straight line (dashed blue line) between equal values of porosity on both the quartz and dolomite matrix division lines. however. Cross-plot porosity is relatively insensitive to the mineralogy mixture provided that the lithology is composed of two of the three common minerals: quartz.Basic Log Interpretation To correctly use this chart. In this example. HLS Asia Limited 32 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . For the assumed sandstone-dolomite mixture. If these conditions are not met. the difference may be more significant. Assuming that the formation consists of a mixture of sandstone and limestone. The plotted point represents a mixture of approximately 70% quartz and 30% dolomite (dolomitic sandstone). When different porosity values and different lithologies are obtained from Cross-Plot charts. enter the chart with the environmentally corrected value of neutron limestone porosity (17%) on the X-axis. cross-plot porosity is 20%. notice that both density and neutron porosity values are in units of limestone porosity. it is advisable to calculate formation water resistivity (R w ) and water saturation (S w ) for both situations. indeed. then the use of the chart will not yield accurate results. to interpolate cross-plot porosity extend a straight line (solid blue line) between equal values of porosity on both the quartz and calcite matrix division lines (the black lines at the top of the red shaded regions). The resulting plot falls between the sandstone and limestone matrix division lines. Using the example data above. The presence of other minerals.34g/cc) or density limestone porosity ( ? D = 20%). The point in question plots at approximately 65% calcite and 35% quartz (sandy limestone).

the cross-plot lithology determination was based upon only two measurements (neutron porosity and bulk density). Because gas tends to pull points up and to the left. In reality. etc. it is entirely possible for a 100% dolomite gassy formation to plot along the matrix division line representing 100% sandstone. the point may also fall somewhere between the quartz and calcite matrix division lines. certain effects that tend to mask the apparent lithology of a formation. the presence of gas may be corrected for by drafting a line parallel to and in the same direction as the "Approximate Gas Correct" arrow. Apart from the difference in resulting cross-plot porosities.Basic Log Interpretation Do not base an interpretation on a single chart or a single method. The primary concern on a neutron-density CrossPlot chart is the characteristic high porosity reading of the neutron tool. a shaly sandstone could HLS Asia Limited 33 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Cross-Plot Shale Effect The presence of shale will also adversely influence the interpretation of the plotted point. the properties of shale (to be discussed in more detail later) affect all logging responses to some degree. tool response in non-gassy zones. core samples. At best. causing density porosity to be overestimated. however. the Cross-Plot method can differentiate between only two minerals. The base lithology. or from a single chart or evaluation technique. In the previous example. There are. The high porosity response of the neutron tool together with the relatively high bulk densities typical of shales will push the plotted point of a shaly formation to the bottom right of where it would fall if it were clean. The previous example data presented two possible solutions: sandy limestone or dolomitic sandstone. Because the tool measures hydrogen index. cementation exponent (m) and even saturation exponent (n) may need to be altered. giving the impression that dolomite is not present at all. For that matter. the values for tortuosity factor (a). of course. For example. The presence of gas may cause tremendous problems in resolving lithology from a Cross-Plot chart. If gas is present. An errorfree evaluation can seldom be made from one curve. should be logically determined from cuttings. the low hydrogen density of gas (compared to hydrogen density of liquids) causes the neutron tool to underestimate porosity. then the base lithology of the formation of interest must fall somewhere to the lower right of its plotted point. Cross-Plot Gas Effect The presence of gas in a formation has a profound effect on the neutron porosity measurement. thereby making their evaluation more difficult. Although not a precise method by any means.. This line should extend from the plotted point of interest to the nearest lower-right matrix division line. Limitations of Cross-Plot Porosity (CP) Charts The choice of basic lithology is obviously quite important. Gas also affects the density measurement.

For now. Porosity is commonly calculated with the Wyllie-Time Average equation illustrated below. correction for shale would therefore be up and to the left. and how sonic porosities were calculated from those logs. This response is based on the premise that the travel time through a porous formation will remain unchanged irrespective of pressure variations.50g/cc Because the presence of shale tends to pull plotted points down and to the right. The choice of equation for computing sonic porosity should be left to the customer. HLS Asia Limited 34 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes ." or curved. lines represent the response from a combination of data gathered by Raymer-Hunt and Halliburton. The "empirical.Basic Log Interpretation feasibly have a point which plots along the matrix division line representing 100% dolomite. Because the customer is aware of other wells in the same region and reservoir. These charts may be used as an alternative to the neutron-density cross-plots. How far to the left and at what angle the correction is to be taken would be determined by the characteristics of that particular shale. The "Time Average" lines represent the response of the Wyllie-Time Average sonic porosity equation. This is a purely emperical calculation based upon comparisons of transit times with core porosities and porosity as derived from other types of logs. this happens when the formations have reached the terminal velocity. The use of "Sonic versus Neutron Porosity" Cross-Plot charts can help refine the estimate of lithology obtained from the neutrondensity Cross-Plot charts. When two different methods converge to a particular solution it gives adequate weight to derived conclusions. it is sufficient to realize that the presence of shale can cause dramatic misinterpretations about the lithology of a formation when using Cross-Plot porosity charts. A 100% pure shale will typically plot within an area defined by the following limits: 30% < Φ N < 40% 2. Sonic Tool Cross-Plot Charts The "Sonic versus Bulk Density" and "Sonic versus Neutron Porosity" charts may be interpolated or extrapolated in the same manner as the "Bulk Density versus Neutron Porosity" charts previously discussed. or as an additional method for providing solutions to the constraints that exist on lithology front. The Raymer-Hunt equation for sonic porosity is illustrated below.35g/cc < ρb < 2.

superficial veneer on the surface of the earth.and gas-bearing formations are composed of sedimentary rock. is composed of different types of sediments that have been deposited at some type of accumulation point. By volume. This combination of similarities (origin) and differences (grain size) produces formations containing combinations of both sandstone and shale. In many forms of sandstone." HLS Asia Limited 35 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . feldspar. are transported. and granular size of the individual sediments of a rock are among the factors that determine the rock's identity. Because shaliness affects both formation characteristics and log responses. as opposed to igneous and metamorphic rock. The composition. sedimentary rocks are estimated to constitute only 5% of the known lithosphere (the 10 mile-thick outer shell of the earth). sorted. quartz constitutes over 90% of the detrital fraction of the rock. as its name implies. and mica. Their deposition is normally in successive horizontal layers. sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the total land area on continents. whereas igneous and metamorphic rocks account for 95%. sedimentary rocks can be subdivided into two primary categories: clastic and carbonate. The tectonic forces imposed upon these layers results in compaction and cementation of the loosely consolidated sediments into a sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rock. These particles.Basic Log Interpretation Complex Reservoir Mineralogy Most oil. many charts refer to sandstone formations simply as "quartz. it will be discussed in detail later in the text. For this reason. Clastic sedimentary formations are typically sandstones and shales. having been derived somewhere other than the accumulation point. and dolomites. many such layers of sediment may accumulate. These categories comprise the three most common producing reservoir rock types: sandstones. possibly an ancient ocean basin or river channel. Sandstone is composed primarily of quartz. Apart from differing in composition. with igneous and metamorphic rocks covering the remainder. After some period of geologic time. limestones. these two rock types also differ dramatically in constituent grain size. and modified by moving fluid such as water or air. It is evident. therefore. For the purposes of this discussion. Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Clastic sediments are those produced by the weathering and breakdown of preexisting rocks. that sedimentary rocks must form only a thin. However. place of origin.

anhydrite. therefore the direction of increasing dolomite content may be a favorable direction for further exploration. Lithology distribution across a field may reveal preferential directions for the locations of future offset wells. the Cross-Plot methods discussed previously can identify only two end minerals.. In this discussion. The methods are fairly accurate provided that the rock matrix is composed of two of the three common minerals: quartz. halite etc) a more rigorous method of mineralogy identification (Mineral Identification Plots) may be used. and ρmaa versus ∆tmaa. therefore. Accurate lithology determination may be necessary for a variety of reasons: § Porosities may be near cut-off values (~5%). Pe). for example. Optimization of this operation requires knowledge of the formation lithology.g. a clastic may have lime marter making it calcarious sandstone and similarly carbonate rocks. Tight (low porosity) formations often require acidizing or acid fracturing to stimulate production. two techniques of "trimineral plots will be considered: U maa versus ρmaa.. Dolomite composition is:(CaMg(CO3)2).may contain high percentage of marl commonly termed as shaly limestone. § § HLS Asia Limited 36 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . but effective porosity is computed differently for each case. the presence of accessory minerals may cause further confusion when determining lithology from a Cross-Plot chart.g.g. coals.. For example. Complex Lithologies Subsurface formations may be heterogeneous e. The primary difference between these two types of rocks is the chemical composition. calcite. The term "dolomite" implies substitution of Ca with Mg. The term "limestone" is used for rocks containing predominantly calcite: CaCO3. a more accurate evaluation can be ascertained.g. These constituents are produced within the region of accumulation. By using a chart that handles a third measurement (e. In addition. Productive carbonate formations typically include limestones and dolomites. there are techniques through which mineral identification can be tried. At best. and dolomite. ρb and Φ N. clays. and are not derived form weathering or breakdown of pre-existing rocks. Mineral Identification Plots (MIP Plots) When complex lithologies are suspected and accuracy is of the utmost importance inverse technique (ULTRA) is the only solution. Dolomite and shale.Basic Log Interpretation Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks Carbonate formations are usually marine in origin and composed primarily of skeletal grains and/or seawater precipitates. In the previous examples of Cross-Plot chart data from two logging measurements (e. To address the problem of the possible presence of other minerals (e. However. cause similar separation between limestone-based neutron and density porosity curves. or Φ N and ∆t) may be used to identify lithologies limited to only two end-members. the most accurate values obtainable from logs are desired. ρb and ∆t. dolomitization is often accompanied by increased permeability.

These calculated X and Y coordinates then are introduced into the respective Mineral Identification Plot (MIP). For example.0g/cc.. Again. HLS Asia Limited 37 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Notice that this chart is developed for a fluid density (ρfl) of 1. it possible to estimate the apparent matrix density (ρmaa) from these data (Step 1). Umaa Versus ρmaa MIP Method The Umaa versus ρmaa MIP method of lithology determination requires a Spectral Density (SDL. For the purposes of illustration. Utilization of this method requires three steps: 1. the three tool responses must first be incorporated into simple X-Y coordinates. may be made using chart POR-12. according to the particular type of neutron tool being used. Notice that the X-axis and Y-axis coordinates of these charts are not values that can be taken directly from logs. Mineral Identification Plots (MIPs) have an advantage over Cross-Plot (CP) charts in that they resolve three end-member lithologies. CDL versus BCS) can also be utilized for determining simple lithologies. respectively). Combinations of two more basic tools (e. The "Apparent Matrix Density (ρmaa)" and "Apparent Volumetric Photoelectric Factor (U maa)" must first be determined using separate charts (MIP XXX-4 and MIP XXX-6. The use of three different types of log responses is the next logical step in the goal of increasing accuracy and reliability of lithology identification. if necessary. therefore this same chart will also apply for oil-based mud and saltwater-based mud conditions. by being able to determine Cross-Plot lithology of a formation from charts using neutron and density data.g.0g/cc (freshwaterbased drilling fluid). The Mineral Identification Plot charts are labeled MIP XXX-8. Because the manipulation of a three-dimensional chart (X-axis. and the complex mineralogy resolved. the conversion of another neutron lithology to limestone. and Z-axis) would be rather cumbersome within the confines of a two-dimensional chartbook. a point plotting directly on the limestone matrix division line of a neutron-density Cross-Plot chart could possibly be the response of a dolomitic sandstone. However. There are no charts available for use in those conditions where ρfl _ 1. Umaa determination (chart MIP XXX-6) 3. Furthermore. notice that neutron porosity must be in limestone porosity units. DSN versus CDL. ρmaa determination (chart MIP XXX-4) 2.Basic Log Interpretation Spectral logging tools (Spectral Density and Spectral Gamma Ray) can be used individually to determine simple lithologies in "pure" formations. However. such "two tool cross-plots" can be very misleading. Y -axis. the chart MIP DSN-II-4 will be referenced here. when used in complex lithology situations. it is impossible to know an exact value of matrix density (ρma). ρmaa versus Umaa MIP plot (chart MIP XXX-8) ? maa Determination Without having actual core samples of the formation of interest. with Pe curve) and neutron for implementation.

Basic Log Interpretation Use of the MIP DSN-II-4 chart is identical to the use of the neutron-density Cross. a formation consisting of 50% sandstone and 50% limestone does not necessarily have a Pe value of 3. and dolomite). calcite.675g/cc. Again. and enter the Y -axis with a bulk density (ρb) of 2. 2. To illustrate the use of this chart. respectively). however. notice that chart MIP DSN-II-4 is simply a standard neutron-density Cross-Plot chart with matrix density values interpolated between the three primary matrix division lines (e.. enter the chart with the environmentally corrected value of neutron limestone porosity (17%) on the X-axis.g.81 and the Pe of limestone is 5. considering the use of the DSN-II in our example data. Example Data for Chart MIP DSN-II-4 Φ N = 17% on limestone matrix (environmentally corrected) Φ D = 20% on limestone matrix (ρb = 2. and 2. Umaa Determination The photoelectric (P e) response is not linear with changes in formation composition. and limestone are identical to the matrix division lines of the Cross-Plot charts.34g/cc) Pe = 2.71g/cc. The volumetric cross section (U) is a product of the electron density (ρe) and photoelectric factor (or cross section).41 Φ XPLOT ≅19% (as determined from CPDSN-II-1a) Using the example data above. By substituting bulk density (ρb) for electron density.08. calcite. This equation is the foundation for all MIP XXX-6 charts. given that the Pe of sandstone is 1. In fact. a value of Apparent Volumetric Photoelectric Factor (Umaa) can be calculated by the equation illustrated below. The non-linear response of the Pe requires that a volumetric conversion be considered (Step 2) if Pe values are to be used in lithology determination. requires the use of chart MIP DSN-II-6.65g/cc. The resulting value of apparent matrix density (ρmaa) may be thought of as the matrix density of the formation that is "seen" by a combination of the neutron and density tools. For example. In this case. The result plot of the example data yields an apparent matrix density ( ρmaa) of approximately 2. regardless of the type of neutron tool used. the red lines representing quartz. This step.Plot charts discussed previously. the objective is to determine the apparent matrix density (ρmaa) of the plotted point with respect to the known matrix densities of those three minerals (2.87g/cc. the same example data used previously in the CrossPlot charts will be used here as well. quartz. HLS Asia Limited 38 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .44.34g/cc.

in fact. From this point. enter the lowermost scale on the X-axis with a bulk density (ρb) of 2. The results of the MIP method are strikingly comparable.g. This would appear to correspond with one of the possible combinations obtained from the Cross-Plot method illustrated earlier: 70% quartz and 30% dolomite (dolomitic sand). quartz. calculating cross-plot porosity by equation.7. and have been able to distinguish the difference between the two carbonate end-members (calcite and dolomite) present in the formation. By comparing these results with those of the Cross-Plot method discussed previously. Mineralogy Determination (ρmaa versus U maa MIP Plot) For the DSN-II tool. Mineralogy of Example Data Quartz = 72% Calcite = 21% Dolomite = 7% Compare these results with those determined for the quartz-dolomite possibility from the Cross-Plot chart (70% quartz and 30% dolomite).Basic Log Interpretation Using chart MIP DSN-II-6. dolomite).34g/cc. Therefore proclaiming the formation of interest “dolomitic sandstone” as have been concluded above.0. it is now possible to state with greater confidence that the formation of interest is a dolomitic sandstone. Enter this chart with the previously derived matrix information ( ρmaa = 2. Cross-plotting a Volumetric Modified Photoelectric Factor (Um) value of 5. extend a vertical line upward to intersect a horizontal line representing a value of Apparent Total Porosity (Φ ta).7 with an Apparent Total Porosity (Φ ta) value of 19% results in a plot that falls on the line representing an Apparent Volumetric Photoelectric Factor (Umaa) of 7.B. These apices represent 100% of a particular mineralogy (quartz. The relative position of the plotted point with respect to these normalized scales yields a more detailed assessment of the mineralogy of the formation of interest. normalized scales may be constructed along lines connected the apices of the triangle. Carbonate and clastic deposition cannot take place at the same time and same place.41) on the Modified Photoelectric Factor scale to a point that plots on the bottom Xaxis of the graph. e. Cross-plotting these data yields a point that plots in the vicinity of the triangle apex labeled Quartz.675g/cc and Umaa = 5. The value plotted on the bottom Xaxis of the graph represents the Volumetric Modified Photoelectric Factor (Um). and should be approximately 5. implying that the predominant constituent of the formation is.7). From the CrossPlot charts worked previously. A value for Apparent Total Porosity ( Φ ta) is obtained by either estimating two -thirds porosity. From this point on the bottom X-axis of the graph. doesn’t make sense to HLS Asia Limited 39 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . While proclaiming the conclusions. the next chart to use in determining mineralogy (Step 3) is MIP DSNII-8. extend a line through the value for Pe taken from the log (2. caution must be applied considering geological constraints. or by the Cross-Plot charts. Using the same method as that with the neutron-density Cross-Plot chart. this value was determined to be approximately 19%. (N. calcite.

the presence of gas typically causes variance of the plotted data within the confines of the triangle. A new triangle may then be drawn connecting the Quartz. The "Apparent Matrix Density (ρmaa)" and "Apparent Matrix Transit Time (∆tma)" must be determined using separate Cross-Plot charts (MIP XXX-4 and MIP XXX-5. points plotted on the MIP charts will move up and slightly to the left in a gas bearing formation. HLS Asia Limited 40 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Calcite. Therefore. This new triangle may be segmented accordingly. neutron. The Mineral Identification Plot charts are labeled MIP XXX-7. according to the particular type of neutron tool being used. The presence of shale will shift the points in the plot anywhere within or outside the triangle. The correct choice should be based on clients input. respectively). The same techniques are used to manipulate these charts as with the previous Umaa versus ρmaa MIP charts. Notice that the X-axis and Y-axis coordinates of these charts also are not v alues that can be taken directly from logs. there is no correction technique for gas effect. Further MIP Considerations As was the case with the neutron-density Cross-Plot charts.Basic Log Interpretation geologist. gas and shale likewise affect the results of the Mineral Identification Plots. and sonic tool for implementation. these points plot farther and farther away from the triangle. With increasing percentage of shale. The measurement at any one particular depth may or may not be representative of the entire zone. Analyzing a thick formation using the MIP charts with data points every foot would be rather time consuming. with no Pe curve). Unlike the neutron-density Cross-Plot charts. The important point of using this additional sonic method is that different results may be obtained from different methods. and so log analyst become the subject of ridicule All interpretation therefore must take into consideration geological inputs. Therefore. and relative proportions of these three new end-member lithologies may be determined. Apparent Matrix Density (ρmaa) and Apparent Matrix Volumetric Photoelectric Factor (Umaa) will both decrease in the presence of gas. In shaly sandstone situations. However. falling in between the triangle and the "Muscovite" point. picking tool responses at a particular depth and assuming those responses to be representative of the entire formation is acceptable. it may be extremely helpful to plot several points on the MIP chart representing "typical shales" within the logged interval. Computer-generated MIP plots are products offered by Halliburton Reservoir Decision Centers as total analysis packages such as ULTRA.) ρmaa Versus ∆tmaa MIP Method The ρmaa versus ∆tmaa MIP method of lithology determination requires a Compensated Density (CDL. A thorough evaluation of the zone of interest requires the plotting of multiple points. and "Shale" points. and n ot practical for wellsite lithology determination.

R. HLS Asia Limited 41 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .. MA. 1983. Boston. 1975. Dewan. OK. Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell Publishers. 1985.Basic Log Interpretation References Bateman. Tulsa. M. 361 p. 1994. Log Interpretation Charts. Sedimentary Rocks: Harper & Row. J. J.. 647 p. F. Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC Publishers. Pettijohn.. Halliburton Energy Services. T.

.. 48 Resistivity Environmental Corrections…………………………………………………………. 45 Gamma Ray Borehole Corrections (GR-1)……………………………………………………. 44 SP Bed Thickness Correction (SP-1a. 43 Importance of Environmental Corrections………………………………………………………. 58 HLS Asia Limited 42 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .. SP-1b)…………………………………………………. 46 Density Environmental Corrections (POR-1)…………………………………………………… 46 Neutron Environmental Corrections……………………………………………………………... 52 Additional Notes on Environmental Corrections……………………………………………….Basic Log Interpretation Section 3 Environmental Corrections Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43 Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………………... 58 References…………………………………………………………………………………………..

Examples illustrated in the section will make references to this Log Interpretation Charts manual. perform open hole environmental corrections on neutron porosity measurements. including MSFL mudcake correction. § HLS Asia Limited 43 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . perform open hole environmental corrections on High Resolution Induction/DFL and Dual Laterolog/MSFL measurements. Furthermore. before these data are used for basic calculations. and borehole pressure corrections. some of the important questions are answered. including mudcake thickness.Basic Log Interpretation Introduction Very rarely do open hole logs directly provide answers to the questions posed. Objectives After completing this section. However. perform bed thickness corrections on SP measurements. For instance. mud weight. This section stresses the importance of environmental corrections and demonstrates their use and application. induction and laterolog borehole correction. borehole salinity. the effects of environmental conditions on the measurements must be accounted for. perform borehole corrections on gamma ray measurements. induction and laterolog bed thickness corrections. To effectively use this section. by using these data to calculate porosity and water saturation. the participant should be able to § § § § recognize the need and importance of performing environmental corrections on open hole logs before their use in calculations. and invasion corrections. the participant should have a copy of Halliburton Log Interpretation Charts manual. Log data must be subjected to a number of assumptions and rigorous calculations before they are useful. neutron porosity and resistivity alone provide no useful information about the productive capabilities of a reservoir. borehole temperature. DFL borehole correction.

the amounts of their respective corrections may be quite different. mud weight.Basic Log Interpretation Importance of Environmental Corrections In actual logging conditions. and other properties of the logging environment and formation. porosity (Φ ) and the "true" resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt) cannot be measured precisely for a variety of reasons. Several types of corrections and the tools for which these corrections are necessary are illustrated in Figure 3. their usefulness and limitations will become apparent. For instance. In this case. It should be recognized that corrections may differ between tool types.1. the charts used to make environmental corrections on High Resolution Induction measurements are not the same charts used to correct Dual Laterolog measurements. Factors affecting these responses may include hole size. the effects of certain conditions will be so small that they do not warrant correction. As familiarity with the charts is gained. The use of environmental correction charts will not always be necessary. Many of these effects have strong impacts on analysis and evaluation and must be corrected for prior to evaluating the formation. The corrections listed in Figure 3. depth of invasion. Furthermore. although the charts provided by different service companies may appear similar. correction to neutron porosity HLS Asia Limited 44 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . appropriate charts are selected to workout solution. For example. bed thickness. In some situations. Depending on the tool type and other borehole or formation conditions.1 reference charts for a particular tool type. The proper matching of tool type and environmental conditions to the appropriate correction chart is critical. applying environmental corrections for a DSN-II neutron in an 8-inch borehole drilled with 9 lb/gal fresh water drilling mud at a depth of 2000 feet would be an exercise in futility.

1. it is assumed that the ratio of Medium to Deep resistivity was greater than 1. The intent of charts SP1a and SP-1b is to correct the SP response in these situations.. it is assumed that there is no invasion. then it is safe to assume that invasion is greater than twice the borehole diameter (use SP. the deeper the invasion.g. The determination of which chart to use is made through an estimation of the diameter of invasion. In formations where the Medium and Deep curves stack (e. However. therefore. however. shale). In this example. then bit size from the header may be used as a rough estimate.1.1. The following rule of thumb applies: the greater the separation. it can be estimated by the separation between Medium and Deep resistivity curves. The diameter of invasion (di) is estimated by taking a ratio of Medium to Deep resistivity. Realize that this is an estimate of the diameter of invasion.1b). until a working knowledge of the charts and the applicability is gained.Basic Log Interpretation would be negligible. borehole diameter is 7. the SP response in the thin formation of interest may not attain its full deflection because of the adjacent shales.875 inches Estimating Diameter of Invasion Diameter of invasion (di) is one of the unknowns determined during invasion correction of resistivity responses. Performing SP Bed Thickness Correction (SP-1b) The first step of the correction procedure requires borehole size. Example Data Observed SP deflection: Thickness of formation of interest (h): Invaded zone resistivity (Ri): Mud resistivity (Rm) at Tf : Borehole diameter: . If this ratio is greater than 1. If this ratio is less than 1. the 7-7/8 inch hole diameter X-axis scale can be used as a starting point. Where no caliper is logged.70 mV 11 feet 90 Ω -m 1. HLS Asia Limited 45 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . In this example.5 Ω -m 7. and that differences in borehole size and fluid type may change the results. This information is best obtained from the caliper measurement. and therefore SP-1b (moderate to deep invasion) will be used to illustrate the process of SP correction. SP-1b) In relatively thin beds (1 foot to 22 feet). corrections should always be applied. The SP deflection of the formation of interest should actually be greater than is exhibited on the log.875 inches. This is particularly true in sand/shale sequences where sandstones are overlain and underlain by shales. the deflection of the SP curve is suppressed because of the influence of underlying and overlying formations. In cases such as this. then invasion is considered to be less than twice the borehole diameter (use SP-1a). SP Bed Thickness Correction (SP-1a.

Standard DITS gamma tools have an 46 HLS Asia Limited Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . the amount of gamma radiation received by a large diameter tool will be greater than that received by a smaller diameter tool because the amount of mud surrounding the larger tool is less. Both of these conditions affect the amount of natural radiation that is measured at the gamma ray detector.4mV Notice that through this correction the amount of SP deflection has been increased from -70 mV to -106 mV. In many cases. and the entire log should be considered. Each curve in the chart represents a ratio of invaded zone resistivity (Ri) to mud resistivity (Rm).g." Recognizing the baseline on a log can be rather tricky. and. In a hole of given diameter. The resulting ratio Ri/Rm is 60. 2) the density of the mud filling the borehole. Ri = 90 Ω -m and Rm = 1. Bed thickness is best determined by choosing the break points (or deflections) of the tool having the smallest vertical resolution. To correct the SP deflection for the effects of thin beds. the SP correction factor is multiplied by the SP deflection exhibited in the formation of interest.52. move horizontally to a bed thickness of 11 feet. Gamma Ray Borehole Corrections (GR-1) The environmental correction charts provided in the Gamma Ray section of the chartbook correct for two separate effects: 1) the distance between the tool and the borehole wall. Resistivity of the invaded zone is generally approximated by the measurement of the intermediate resistivity curve.106. It is vital that the value of mud resistivity (Rm) be corrected to the formation temperature of the depth at which the correction is being applied. this is the shallowest reading resistivity device (e. From this intersection. MSFL). extend a line vertically to intersect an imaginary interpolated line representing the resistivity ratio of 60. The corrected value of -106 mV more closely approximates what the actual SP deflection of the formation of interest would be if it were substantially thicker than 11 feet. From the 11 feet bed thickness mark on the X-axis.5 Ω -m at formation temperature. DFL.52 = . The resulting SP correction factor is applied to the amount of SP deflection in the formation of interest with respect to the "shale baseline. In this example.70 X 1. In this example.Basic Log Interpretation Using the 7-7/8 inch X-axis scale of SP-1b. SPcorrected = SP Deflection X Correction Factor SPcorrected = .. the SP deflection within the zone of interest is given as -70 mV. extend a horizontal line to the Y-axis to determine the appropriate SP correction factor of approximately 1. Tool diameter and tool position are both important factors to consider when using GR-1.

diameter) and tool position should be confirmed from the header information. enter the 4 inch diameter section of GR-1 on the X-axis with a borehole diameter of 10 inches. Furthermore. note logarithmic scale) is then multiplied by the observed log response to correct for the effects of borehole size and mud weight. With a centered tool there is still attenuation of the received gamma rays. These effects are accounted for through the use of separate tool position reference lines on chart GR-1.2). This correction factor (approximately 1. This is to compensate for the attenuating effects of the heavy mud in the borehole.5. GRcorrected = GR X Correction Factor GRcorrected = 90 X 1.. so the solid black lines representing mud weight will be used. a gamma ray tool with an outer diameter of 4 inches was pulled. Furthermore. however. it is possible for the resulting correction factor to be negative. HLS Asia Limited 47 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . To correct the gamma ray response. the tool was centralized. Performing Gamma Ray Borehole Correction (GR-1) Before determining which section of GR-1 is applicable. In this case. but it is much more regular in nature. In smaller hole sizes. then some gamma rays will be attenuated by the thicker shield of mud on one side of the tool (Figure 3.e. if the tool is eccentered. Extend a vertical line upward to intersect an imaginary interpolated line representing a mud weight of 12 lb/gal (from header) for a centered tool (solid black lines). therefore the upper left section of GR-1 applies.Basic Log Interpretation outer diameter of 3-5/8 inches. tool type (i. Draw a horizontal line to the Y-axis to obtain a correction factor for the gamma ray response.5 = 135API Notice that after correction the gamma ray measurement increased.

HLS Asia Limited 48 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . The zero correction point. Borehole curvature corrections do not need to be applied to SDL responses under normal circumstances. In order to use these charts. As borehole size and fluid density vary. then neutron porosity will be in error and the Archie equation will not yield accurate results. The pad section of the SDL is 3. It is unlikely that the presence of mud will cause an observed gamma ray response to read too high. therefore.Basic Log Interpretation negative gamma ray corrections are seldom applied. most importantly temperature. Older logs may have been run with the Compensated Neutron (CNT-K). is an 8-inch borehole filled with fresh water. and correct values already appear on the logs.25 inches in diameter and is not designed to fit flush against any particular diameter borehole. but rather bulk density (ρb). The SDL is calibrated to read the correct bulk density (ρb) in an 8-inch borehole filled with fresh water. bulk density may either be taken from the log (if presented) or by calculating ρb from density porosity ( Φ D). while the CNT-K is corrected with chart POR-6a. Neutron Environmental Corrections Some of the most important and most complex environmental corrections include those required for neutron porosity measurements. The neutron tools most commonly seen on modern Halliburton logs are Dual Spaced Neutron (DSN-II) tools. Following both of these main charts is a collection of other charts used to correct for a variety of borehole and formation conditions. Notice that input into POR-1 is not in units of density porosity. provided that fluid density (ρfl) and matrix density (ρma) are known. Realize that this real-time correction is rarely requested. and then usually only in cases where gamma ray will be used as an estimate of the volume of shale (V sh). The following equation may be used to derive bulk density from density porosity. It is important to note that when correcting porosity values from a CNT-K. with neutron corrections. The open hole environmental correction chart for the DSN-II is POR-4a. it is vital that the appropriate chart be used for the particular type of tool run. Neutron porosity is affected by a number of factors. Also. gamma ray borehole corrections are required. For quantitative estimates of Vsh. If these effects are left uncorrected. This is the case with many correction charts. Density Environmental Corrections (POR-1) The inclusion of the SDL Borehole Curvature Correction chart (POR-1) in the chartbook is often confusing to engineers and customers alike. environmental corrections (POR-1) become more critical as the amount of drilling fluid between the pad and formation varies. An identical gamma ray correction can be applied with the logging software (result mnemonic. These corrections are performed real-time by the logging software. GRCO).

then this section of the chart is used by entering the top X-axis with the measured value of neutron limestone porosity (32%) and extending a vertical line downward to intersect a horizontal line representing borehole size (10. Again.Basic Log Interpretation the borehole temperature correction should not be performed because it has already been applied by the logging software.5 inches). another line is plotted downward--following a curvature relative to that of the nearest curved spine--to the red baseline. Performing Open Hole Borehole Diameter Correction (POR-4a) In most situations a caliper tool is pulled in combination with the neutron tool.5 inches). Under these circumstances. From this intersection. The resulting value of caliper-corrected neutron limestone porosity (29%) is then carried to the next correction step. It is important to note that in most cases. the borehole diameter correction (or caliper correction). the caliper corrected value is 29%. If the caliper correction was not applied during logging for some reason (as is the case in this example). extend a vertical line downward to intersect a horizontal line representing mudcake thickness (0. this correction is not required if a working caliper was used to correct the neutron porosity measurement real-time. the caliper correction was not applied real-time. Starting on the upper X-axis with a caliper-corrected neutron porosity of 29%. In this example. From the baseline.5%).5%) indicates the magnitude and direction of mudcake thickness correction required (-0. is applied real-time by the logging software and it is not necessary to use this section of POR-4a. Performing Mudcake Thickness Correction (POR-4a) The mudcake thickness correction requires input of caliper-corrected neutron limestone porosity (29%). another line is plotted downward—following a curvature relative to that of the nearest curved spine--to the red baseline. In this example. From this intersection. another vertical line is extended downward to the bottom X-axis to read the caliper-corrected value of neutron porosity. The difference between the original value (29%) and the resulting value (28. mudcake thickness correction will result in a change of no more than 2% porosity. Mudcake thickness can be estimated by the following equation: HLS Asia Limited 49 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .

Performing Borehole Temperature Correction (POR-4a) The borehole temperature correction is the most significant correction applied to the neutron porosity measurement. In this example. In this example." drilling mud. another vertical line is extended downward to the bottom X-axis to read the amount of correction necessary. From the baseline.8%. the amount of correction is approximately +0..000 ppm NaCl. From this intersection. In cases where other neutron corrections (e. From the baseline. and the other for non-barite.g. Notice that the amount of correction increases dramatically (particularly at high borehole temperatures) for higher values of neutron porosity. It is important to note that correction factors from each step of the process are not carried into the next correction section.Basic Log Interpretation Performing Borehole Salinity Correction (POR-4a) Borehole salinity may be determined from the value of the drilling mud resistivity (Rm) and use of chart GEN-5.5%. salinity is given as 100. the amount of correction is approximately +1.) are considered negligible. the amount of correction is approximately +0. In this example. another vertical line is extended downward to the bottom X-axis to read the amount of correction necessary. From this intersection. To use this section of POR-4a.following a curvature relative to that of the nearest curved spine--to the red baseline to read the amount of correction necessary.6%. Extend a vertical line downward to intersect a horizontal line representing borehole temperature (125oF).000 ppm salinity. mudcake thickness. mud weight. The correction proceeds just as the borehole salinity correction. Enter the top X-axis of the temperature correction section with the value of calipercorrected neutron porosity (29%). etc. another line is plotted downward-. Extend a vertical line downward to intersect a horizontal line representing mud weight (10 lb/gal. extend a vertical line downward to intersect a horizontal line representing 100. another line is plotted downward--following a curvature relative to that of the nearest curved spine--to the red baseline. salinity. HLS Asia Limited 50 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . From this intersection. natural). another line is plotted downward--following a curvature relative to that of the nearest curved spine--to the red baseline. In this example. Performing Mud Weight Correction (POR-4a) The mud weight correction section of POR-4a has two scales: one for bariteloaded mud. Beginning with a value of 29% on the top X-axis. Header information would dictate which of these two scales to use. or "natural. the temperature correction should always be applied so that water saturation calculations are not adversely effected. enter the top X-axis of the borehole salinity correction section with the value of caliper-corrected neutron porosity (29%). Enter the top X-axis of the mud weight correction section with the value of calipercorrected neutron porosity (29%).

Basic Log Interpretation

**Performing Borehole Pressure Correction (POR-4a)
**

Borehole pressure corrections are generally negligible for porosities of less than 10%, but the slopes of the correction spines suggest that the amount of correction increases with increased porosity. Borehole pressure at a given depth can be derived from the following equation:

Enter the top X-axis of the pressure correction section with the value of calipercorrected neutron porosity (29%). Extend a vertical line downward to intersect a horizontal line representing borehole pressure (2500 psi). From this intersection, another line is plotted downward--following a curvature relative to that of the nearest curved spine--to the red baseline to read the amount of correction necessary. In this example, the amount of correction is approximately -0.3%.

**Summation of Open Hole Environmental Corrections
**

Once each of the individual influences has been corrected for, the resulting correction factors must be summed in order to obtain the total effect. This is accomplished by adding the sum of the individual correction factors to the caliper-corrected value of neutron limestone porosity.

Σ CF = CF + CF ? + CF + CF + CF Σ CF = (-0.5%) + (0.8%) + (0.6%) +(1.5%) + (-? 0.3%? ? ) = 2.1%

mudcake salinity mud weight temperature

pressure

If the caliper-correction was applied by chart (as in this example), then the environmentally corrected value of neutron porosity in limestone units is obtained by the following equation: Φ nls-corrected = Φ caliper – corrected + ∑CF Φ nls-corrected = 29% + 2.1% + 31.1% If the caliper-correction was applied real-time, then the environmentally corrected value of neutron porosity in limestone units is obtained simply by adding the sum of the correction factors to the observed log response (if in limestone units). Φ nls-corrected = Φ nls from log + ∑CF It is important to note that neutron porosity must be in limestone units for this correction. The chart POR-12 can be used to convert between the different lithologies assumed in the calculation of neutron porosity.

HLS Asia Limited

51

Open Hole Log Analysis Notes

Basic Log Interpretation

**Performing Standoff Correction (POR-4b)
**

Neutron "standoff" occurs when the face of the tool is physically held some distance from the borehole wall. This may be the result of other tools in the toolstring, or misaligned tools. This type of situation will cause the neutron tool to measure the drilling fluid between the tool and the formation, thus producing a neutron porosity that is consistently high. Such standoff is usually avoided during logging by using a bowspring decentralizer. However, if a situation arises where the tool cannot be properly decentralized, standoff correction can be applied realtime by the logging software. If necessary, the correction procedure takes the open hole environmentally correct value of neutron limestone porosity from POR- 4a and proceeds in the same manner, but using POR-4b for the DSN-II tool.

**Performing Formation Salinity Correction (POR-4b)
**

The environmentally corrected and standoff-corrected value of neutron limestone porosity can now be corrected for salinity of the formation in which the measurement was made. Formation salinity may be obtained by considering the formation water resistivity (Rw ) of the zone of interest, and using this value in that section of POR-4b which coincides with the primary lithology of the zone of interest. The resulting salinity correction is added to the environmentally corrected and standoff-corrected value of neutron limestone porosity. Because this formation salinity correction is based upon formation water resistivity (which is often not a measured value), salinity corrections must be made with caution. Most analysts tend to forego this correction when Rw is not measured, is uncertain, or has been derived from logs by either the inverse-Archie method or SP method.

**Resistivity Environmental Corrections
**

Resistivity tool responses generally must be corrected for a variety of conditions; namely, borehole effects, thin beds, and invasion. Microresistivity measurements must be corrected for the presence of mudcake. Just as neutron corrections were particular to tool type, resistivity corrections also are particular to tool type. The chartbook contains correction sections for each of the following resistivity combinations. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Microresistivity (MSFL and Microguard) Dual Induction/Short Guard (Welex) Dual Induction/Laterolog 3 (Gearhart) High Resolution Induction/DFL Hostile Dual Induction Dual Laterolog A (Welex) Dual Laterolog F (Gearhart)

Furthermore, resistivity corrections must be performed in a particular order because one corrected value is used to make the next required correction. Each resistivity 52

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Basic Log Interpretation section of the chartbook is arranged in such a way that the charts appear in sequence. For any resistivity tool, environmental corrections should be undertaken in the following order: 1. 2. 3. 4. Borehole correction of the shallow device on induction tool, or mudcake correction for pad-mounted electrode tool (MSFL). Borehole correction for deep and medium devices. Bed thickness correction for deep and medium devices. Invasion correction.

The ultimate goal in performing environmental corrections is to achieve values for resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt), resistivity of the flushed zone (Rxo), and diameter of invasion (di). These three unknowns are determined in the final step of the process (i.e., invasion correction). Invasion corrections assume conditions of infinitely thick homogeneous beds and an 8-inch borehole; therefore, both borehole and bed thickness corrections must be applied to input measurements before this final step is attempted.

**Performing Mudcake Correction for the MSFL (R xo-1)
**

The resistivity measurement of the MSFL is often considered to be an accurate measure of flushed zone resistivity (Rxo). However, any measure of flushed zone resistivity by a pad-mounted device will be influenced by the presence of mudcake. Mudcake correction charts are provided in the Microresistivity section of the chartbook. Example Data Observed MSFL response (RMSFL): Mudcake resistivity (Rmc ) at Tf : Mudcake thickness (hmc ): 14.0 Ω -m 1.0 Ω -m 0.175 inches

Using the R xo-1 chart, enter the X-axis with a value of the R MSFL/Rmc ratio (14 in this example). It is important to note that Rmc must be corrected for formation temperature at the depth at which the correction is being applied. Extend a vertical line upward to intersect a horizontal line representing mudcake thickness (0.175 inches). From this intersection, extend a horizontal line to the Y-axis to read a value of the correction factor (RMSFLcorr/RMSFL = 0.88). This correction factor is then multiplied by the observed MSFL response to obtain a mudcake-corrected value of MSFL resistivity.

It is important to note that the corrected value (12.32 Ω -m) does not represent flushed zone resistivity (R xo). This value merely represents MSFL resistivity that has been corrected for mudcake. The value of mudcake-corrected MSFL resistivity should be retained for later use in the invasion correction.

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Again.41 Ω -m) does not represent flushed zone resistivity (R xo).5" standoff (preferred) 13. however. Notice that the correction was slightly positive.0-inch standoff section of HRI-1. extend a horizontal line to the Y -axis to read a value of the correction factor (RDFLcorr/RDFL = 1. Tool position can be determined from resistivity equipment data in the header. it is important to remember that the value used for mud resistivity (Rmc ) must be corrected for formation temperature.0 Ω -m Open Hole Log Analysis Notes HLS Asia Limited . each depending upon tool position. Again. This excess conductivity has been removed through the correction. this is accomplished through the use of HRI-2. The chart is divided into three sections. The value of borehole-corrected DFL resistivity should be retained for later use in the invasion correction. and therefore the boreholecorrected value of resistivity is slightly higher.0 inches Using the 0.Basic Log Interpretation Performing Borehole Corrections for the DFL (HRI-1) The DFL borehole correction (HRI-1) compensates the DFL response for the effects of hole size and mud resistivity (Rm). From this intersection. it may be estimated using bit size if no caliper is available. Performing HRI Deep and Medium Borehole Corrections (HRI-2) Deep and Medium resistivity measurements must also be corrected for the effects of borehole diameter and mud resistivity (Rm). Borehole diameter should be taken from a caliper measurement. This correction factor is then multiplied by the observed DFL response to obtain a borehole-corrected value of DFL resistivity.11). Extend a vertical line upward to intersect a horizontal line representing borehole diameter (11 inches).0 Ω -m 0. This is to account for the fact that the mud contributed excess conductivity to the observed response. It is important to note that Rm must be corrected for formation temperature at the depth at which the correction is being applied. enter the X-axis with a value of the RDFL/Rm ratio (34. For the HRI. Example Data Tool position: Observed DFL response (RDFL): Mud resistivity (Rm) at Tf : Borehole diameter: slick (no standoff) 31. This value merely represents DFL resistivity that has been corrected for borehole effects. it is important to note that the corrected value (34.91 Ω -m 11. Example Data Tool position: Observed Deep resistivity (RHRD): 54 1.07 in this example).

Correction of the Medium resistivity measurement is analogous to the procedure described for the Deep measurement.(-bh) = C meas + bh). From this point at the right edge of the graph. the correction amount read from the right Y -axis of the graph (0. a line is projected through the appropriate value of Rm at formation temperature (0. This effectively removes that portion of the conductivity signal that is contributed by the borehole. realize that the borehole contribution is being added to the measured conductivity value (C meas . The value at which this line crosses the right-side Yaxis reflects the contribution of the borehole.25 Ω -m).13 Ω -m In this particular example. there was a minor positive correction applied to the Deep resistivity measurement which is consistent with the borehole contribution being removed from the total signal (i.0 inches) and extend a vertical reference line upward to intersect the Deep 1.75 mmhos/m). a horizontal line is plotted to the right edge of the gridded graph area.25 Ω -m 14. removal of excess conductivity = addition of more resistivity). in terms of conductivity.0 inches To correct the Deep resistivity measurement (RHRD).0. Corrected CHRD = 76.e.92 .17 mmhos/m The resulting corrected conductivity value (76. In the case of smaller borehole sizes and/or higher values of Rm. HLS Asia Limited 55 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Values of borehole-corrected Deep and Medium resistivity should be retained for later use in the following bed thickness correction.75 = 76. Corrected RHRD = 13.0 Ω -m) to units of conductivity before the correction is applied.Basic Log Interpretation Mud resistivity (Rm) at Tf : Borehole diameter: 0.. to the Deep measurement (approximately 0. Because the signal contributed by the borehole is represented in units of mmho/m.17 mmhos/m) must then be converted back into units of resistivity for use in the next step of the correction procedure. and solving for the borehole-corrected value of Deep resistivity. This is accomplished through the following reciprocal equation. This conversion is accomplished by simply rearranging the conductivity equation above. Once the observed Deep resistivity is converted to units of conductivity.75 mmhos/m) must be subtracted from the conductivity measurement.5" standoff correction line (note tool position labels on lines). it is possible for the borehole contribution in mmhos/m to have a negative sign. it is necessary to convert the measured value of Deep resistivity (RHRD = 13. In these cases. From this intersection. enter the X-axis of the chart at the appropriate value of borehole diameter (14.

while the lower-left section is for the Medium correction. or shoulder beds. A vertical line is projected upward to intersect a line representing borehole-corrected Deep resistivity (13. Corrections for both the Deep and Medium resistivity measurements are made on the same chart. Example Data Borehole-corrected Deep resistivity: Shoulder bed resistivity (Rs ): Bed thickness (h): 13. it has been assumed that resistivity of the flushed zone is reflected by the shallowest resistivity measurement. uninvaded zone resistivity (Rt).2 Ω -m 13 feet Resistivity of the shoulder bed (Rs ) determines which of the two charts applies. HRI-4b) Invasion corrections are the final step in High Resolution Induction/DFL environmental corrections.0 Ω -m 1. To correct the Deep measurement for thin bed effects. HRI-3b) The borehole-correct Deep and Medium resistivity measurements must now be corrected for the effects of the resistivities of overlying and underlying formations. but uses the lowerleft section of HRI-3a. DFL). a horizontal line is projected to the left-side Y-axis to read the bed thicknesscorrected value of Deep resistivity (approximately 11.4b.Basic Log Interpretation Performing HRI Deep and Medium Bed Thickness Correction (HRI-3a.2 Ω -m) suggests that chart HRI. The upper-left section is for the Deep correction. and produce values of flushed zone resistivity (Rxo). shoulder bed resistivity (Rs = 1.3a is the most applicable. From this intersection. and resistivity of the uninvaded zone is reflected by the deepest resistivity measurement. and diameter of invasion (di)." while those used for invasion correction on laterolog measurements are referred to as "tornado charts. The charts used for invasion correction on induction measurements are known as "butterfly charts. The depth to which mud filtrate invades the formation determines the validity of these assumptions." High Resolution Induction invasion corrections are accomplished through the use of charts HRI-4a and HRI. To this point. enter the upper-left section on the X-axis with a bed thickness of 13 feet.0 Ω -m)..5 Ω -m).g. Performing HRI Invasion Correction (HRI-4a. HLS Asia Limited 56 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Bed thickness is best determined from the points of deflection on the curve with the smallest vertical resolution (e. The two chart sections on the lefthand side of HRI-3a are for shoulder bed resistivities of 1 Ω -m and 2 Ω -m. Values of bed thickness-corrected Deep and Medium resistivity should be retained for use in invasion correction. Correction of the Medium resistivity measurement is analogous to the procedure described for the Deep measurement. This type of correction is also referred to as a thin bed correction or bed thickness correction. In this example. and is accomplished through the use of HRI-3a or HRI-3b.

g.0 Ω -m DFL value is borehole-corrected Deep and Medium values are borehole. Using the plotted point. the estimated Rxo/Rt ratio is approximately 9.0 Ω -m Corrected Medium resistivity (RHRM): 22. and thereby determine which chart is applicable.Basic Log Interpretation The use of a particular invasion correction chart is determined by the relationship between resistivity of the drilling mud (Rm) at formation temperature and the resistivity of the flushed zone (Rxo). environmentally corrected values of uninvaded zone resistivity (Rt) and flushed zone resistivity (Rxo) can be entered into the Archie equation for more accurate values of water saturation (S w ).0 Ω -m Corrected DFL resistivity (RDFL): 105. The first step in the invasion correction process is to determine the Rt/RHRD ratio. Because a value of Rxo is a result of this invasion correction process. the estimated Rt/RHRD ratio is approximately 0.). estimate this ratio using the point's relative position to the solid black lines.95 Ω -m) to determine a value for flushed zone resistivity (Rxo). The second step of the invasion correction process is to determine the R xo/Rt ratio. This ratio is then multiplied by the previously determined value of uninvaded zone resistivity (Rt = 13. Following completion of the invasion correction. Example Data Corrected Deep resistivity (RHRD): 15. The third step of the invasion correction process is to determine the diameter of invasion (di).0). Using the plotted point. therefore.9. estimate the ratio Rt/RHRD using the point's relative position to the solid red lines. the diameter of invasion is approximately 63 inches. HLS Asia Limited 57 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .93. In this case. Again. etc..467 in this example) and plot a vertical line upward to intersect a horizontal line that represents the ratio RDFL/RHRD (7. HRI-4b is applicable. In this case.0 Ω -m) to determine a value for "true" resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt). This ratio is multiplied by the borehole-corrected and bed thickness-corrected value of Deep resistivity (RHRD = 15. it is necessary to use the previously boreholecorrected value of shallow resistivity to approximate Rxo.and bed thickness-corrected For this example it is assumed that the ratio R xo/Rm is approximately 100. In this example. Enter the X-axis of the chart with a value for the ratio RHRM/RHRD (1. The diameter of invasion (di) determined from this correction can be used to explain the effects of mud filtrate on other logging measurements (e. using the plotted point. porosity. estimate the diameter of invasion from the point's relative position to the dashed black lines.

" it can still be used to determine Rxo and Rt. HLS Asia Limited 58 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . the data point plotted fall within the "butterfly." but this will not always be the case. Even though a point may fall outside of the "tornado. Fortunately. it is valid to assumed that Rt = RHRD (i. a working knowledge of these charts is important from the standpoint that they provide a graphical means of explaining how environmental conditions affect logging measurements. More robust environmental corrections for conditions other than those that were used to construct the printed charts can be performed in Reservoir Decision Centers. Those conditions are often listed somewhere on the chart.value. points will fall outside of the "butterfly. and may even be influenced by the thickness of a pencil lead! When using these charts. For points that fall to the left of the Rt/RHRD = 1. If the point falls to the right of the "tornado. Most importantly. Any error may then be compounded through the use of the charts. "quick-look" log analysis problems at the well-site often do not call for the use of environmental correction charts. The R xo/R t correction lines are used to determine R xo from R t. Log Interpretation Charts. References Halliburton Energy Services. 1994. However." it can be referenced back to the nearest Rt/RHRD line. and not R xo.0 line. Sometimes.. CAUTION! Do not assume the value of R xo in Butterfly / tornado chart The initial R xo value is simply a borehole corrected shallow resistivity measurement. the corrections are so small that they have no effect on the original measurement. Very seldom will two people produce the same results from the same correction charts. In many instances. although determined values of Rxo and d i will be less accurate.Basic Log Interpretation In the example demonstrated. shallow invasion). any error in using these charts begins with how values are read from the logs." This may be the result of a poor fit between the measured Rxo/Rm value and the Rxo/Rm value used to generate the chart. also bear in mind that they were constructed for a given set of environmental conditions. Resistivity environmental corrections for Dual Laterolog measurements are analogous to those described for the High Resolution Induction corrections. but use other sections of the chartbook specific to the type of Dual Laterolog tool that was run.e. Additional Notes on Environmental Corrections By now it should be apparent that there is an incredible amount of interpretation and assumption required for the use of these correction charts.

...………….. 60 Clean Formation Evaluation……………………………………………………………………. 60 Selecting the Appropriate Logs…………………………………………………………………... 61 Exploratory Wells……………………………………………………………………. 61 Development Wells……………………………………………………………………..……………. 60 Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………. 63 Potential Water-Bearing Zones and Calculations……………………………………………… 65 Potential Hydrocarbon-Bearing Zones and Calculations……………………………………… 65 Decisions on Productive Capability……………………………………………………………… 66 References………………………………………………………………………………………….Basic Log Interpretation Section 4 Clean Formation Evaluation Table of Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………. 62 Infill Wells…………………………………………………………………….. 60 Typical Approach…………………………………………………………………….. 67 HLS Asia Limited 59 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . 63 Log Quality Assessment………………………………………………………………………….……………..

and perform environmental corrections on these data. cross-plot determinations. Typical Approach 1. and lithology identification.e.. 4. all needing environmental corrections. Determine formation water resistivity (Rw ) by available means. there are a variety of assumptions that must be made during this analysis. Clean Formation Evaluation A complete evaluation of a clean (i. This complex task can result in literally hundreds of data points. Select depth(s) at which formation water resistivity (Rw ) is to be determined. Objectives After completing this section. The purpose of this section is to provide the participant with a basic outline of the steps and procedures of clean formation evaluation. Perform detailed log quality assessment. This is especially true when one realizes that calculations are typically performed at intervals of one to one-half foot throughout the zone or zones of interest. which an analysts should accomplish when analyzing a clean formation. the participant should be able to § § § recognize the importance of an orderly analysis. The number of steps involved and the order in which the steps should be performed makes it difficult to remember at times. 5. then this process could result in maddening hours of tedious calculations or shoddy interpretations based on misread data points and flailing approximations. Locate potential water-bearing zones and determine their lithology. formulate a reasonable and efficient approach to evaluating a clean formation. This section provides guidelines in a frame of an orderly sequence. 2. Additionally. shale-free) formation involvs many different and complex calculations and adopt right techniques suitable to the conditions. 3. If evaluated one depth at a time. and the order in which these steps should be accomplished. invasion corrections. recognize the importance of having array of data when making a decision to set pipe and perforate versus abandon a well.Basic Log Interpretation Introduction The idea of compiling all of the information necessary for a complete analysis may seem a bit overwhelming at first glance. HLS Asia Limited 60 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Select the appropriate logs.

LIS. There are no safe guidelines for determining what constitutes "good" and "bad" values for water saturation. and fluid saturations. Consider the log responses and any other information that might be available to conclude about production ability of the formation.g. reservoir porosity. Remember that water saturation is not a reflection of the ratio of water to hydrocarbons that will be produced from the reservoirs. equipment availability. 7. Exploratory wells typically require a comprehensive logging program. The types of log run also strongly depend upon the well type. and geophysicists desire additional information for further exploration. Correct formation water resistivity (Rw ) to formation temperature of zone(s) of interest. ACSII) has vastly increased the utilization of data recorded with comprehensive logging programs. Values of water saturation (S w ) should not be the sole determining factor. reservoir engineers. 8. HLS Asia Limited 61 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . all of the available information should be considered. These situations typically demand a comprehensive logging program to gain information about subsurface e. It is simply the relative proportion of water to hydrocarbons that exists in the pore space of that reservoir. hole size and deviation. Selecting the Appropriate Logs The choice of logging combinations will depend upon a variety of factors. When making a decision on the productive capability of a potential hydrocarbon bearing zone.e. completion of the well and input to other facilities. Select depth(s) at which water saturation (S w ) is to be calculated. Locate potential hydrocarbon-bearing zones and determine their lithology. completion engineers. The use of computers in formation evaluation and the availability of logging data in a variety of formats (i. Exploratory Wells In exploratory (or "wildcat") wells. rig time and cost. completion and production facilities down the line. All of this information is used to streamline further exploration plan and order for drilling. Additional logs may be required in cases where geologists.Basic Log Interpretation 6. Calculate water saturation (Sw ) of the potential hydrocarbon-bearing zone(s). including: mud system. previous knowledge of the reservoir. is known about the reservoir. In many cases a sonic log may be necessary for correlation to seismic sections. and the type of information desired. whereas infill and development wells may only require basic services. formation type. evaluation. Make a decision on the productive capability of the potential hydrocarbon bearing zone(s) based on all of the available information. and perform environmental corrections on these data.. 10. 9. Formation tester and sidewall cores may also be necessary to gain better insight into the formation. LAS. very little information.

or Circumferential Acoustic Scanning Tool-Visualization Formation Tester Sidewall Coring Development Wells Development wells are those that immediately follow exploratory wells. Electrical Micro Imaging. or Dual Spectral Density/Dual Spaced Neutron Magnetic Resonance Imaging (with increasing development of a discovered field. logging suites for development wells typically are more limited than those for exploratory wells. their purpose being to "develop" a field that has recently been discovered. Although acquisition of data pertaining to the characteristics of the formation is still a priority. The information that is gained may be "correlated" back to the data acquired on the associated exploratory wells for a better picture of the overall field. Typical Logging Suites for Medium-to-Soft Rock Fresh Mud Development Wells § § § High Resolution Array Induction/Short Guard Induction. and to identify the limits of the field. Most wells drilled can be classified as development. MRIL may become the log of choice for gaining information about porosity and fluid types within a reservoir) HLS Asia Limited 62 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Fresh Mud Exploratory Wells § § § § § § § High Resolution Array Induction/Short Guard Spectral Density/Dual Ray/Microlog Full Wave Sonic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Six Electrode Dipmeter. Spectral or Dual Neutron/Compensated Gamma Typical Logging Suites for Hard Rock or Salt Mud Exploratory Wells § § § § § § § Dual Laterolog/Micro-Spherically Focused Log (or equivalent induction survey if mud salinity marginal) Spectral Density/Dual Spaced Neutron/Compensated Spectral Gamma Ray Full Wave Sonic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (for optimal borehole conditions) Six Electrode Dipmeter. or Circumferential Acoustic Scanning Tool-Visualization Formation Tester Sidewall Coring Induction.Basic Log Interpretation Typical Logging Suites for Medium-to-Soft Rock. Spaced High Resolution Induction/DFL. Electrical Micro Imaging. High Resolution Induction/DFL.

the typical logging suite becomes even smaller. porosity and permeability with a single tool. Magnetic Resonance Imaging has a tremendous application here because of its ability to gain insight on fluid types. perhaps by the drilling of numerous wells. are typically logged with only very basic services.Basic Log Interpretation § Sonic Porosity. however. Formation Tester. The first step in any analysis problem should be to scan the HLS Asia Limited 63 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . and accurate data are vital to the decision making process and future success/failure of a well. It should be realized that the limited amounts of data typically gathered during logging of infill wells is generally insufficient for any type of postprocessing analysis applications. Six Electrode Dipmeter. Typical Logging Suite for Medium-to-Soft Rock Fresh Mud Infill Wells § § High Resolution Array Induction/Short Guard Induction. or Dual Magnetic Resonance Imaging Typical Logging Suite for Hard Rock Salt Mud Infill Wells § § § Dual Laterolog/Micro-Spherically Focused Log Magnetic Resonance Imaging (for optimal borehole conditions) Sonic Porosity As is the case with any logging program. Log Quality Assessment Quality of the recorded data should be of the utmost concern to both the field engineer and the customer. something that required multiple tools and possibly multiple runs in the past. Very expensive decisions about the future of a well are based on log data. The decision about which logs to run is typically made well before the field engineer becomes involved. the types of logs run must be tailored to the conditions that exist and the types of information sought. and Sidewall Coring as required Infill Wells In situations where a reservoir has been very well defined. and Sidewall Coring as required Typical Logging Suite for Hard Rock or Salt Mud Development Wells § § § § Dual Laterolog/Micro-Spherically Focused Log Spectral Density/Dual Spaced Neutron/Compensated Spectral Gamma Ray Magnetic Resonance Imaging (for optimal borehole conditions) Sonic Porosity. Six Electrode Dipmeter. Infill wells. High Resolution Induction/DFL. situations may arise during a job in which additional services should be offered to the customer for their consideration. Formation Tester. or those drilled to "fill in" the areas between previously drilled development wells.

however. In addition. logs of offset wells may provide a ballpark figure of expected values. Furthermore. a repeat may be affected by time-based phenomena such as changing degree of invasion. Other possible causes of poor data may include: rugose boreholes. non-porous lithologies such as halite. it should not be the only method of quality control. or limestone can be used to verify the accuracy of log readings. Keep in mind. tool rotation. anhydrite. In some instances. HLS Asia Limited 64 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . it also is one of the most difficult to assess. that these are by no means accurate references. In development and infill situations there is typically sufficient well control to assess the correctness of depth data for a particular well. The most obvious of these is equipment malfunction. however. Overall Technical Quality Many conditions beyond human control may adversely affect the quality of logging data. Every effort should be made to insure that proper depth control is practiced on every well. Depth Control Depth control is only one of the many vital components of quality data. Preventative maintenance programs are the best way to minimize equipment malfunctions and the possibility of poor quality logs. it may be necessary to make another run. All service companies and many customers have very detailed log quality assurance programs in place. deviated wells. In exploratory situations. and engineer error. Comparing repeated log sections is an important step in assessing the quality of log data. Each of these possibilities should be kept in mind when assessing the quality of log data. Known formations consisting of pure. Will he or she be able to obtain accurate and reliable information from the log? If an affirmative answer to this question is ever in doubt. However. sticking tools. Repeatability Many of the previously mentioned factors affecting quality of a log might also apply to repeatability. and to general knowledge of the region's geology. excessive logging speed. Absolute Log Values ("Markers") Comparison of log readings with known absolute values is seldom possible. then making another run with a different toolstring or pursuing some other alternative should be considered. Casing may also be used to check the accuracy of caliper and sonic measurements. poor centralization or eccentralization. There are four main areas of concern that should be addressed with any log quality assurance program. searching for any anomalous or otherwise strange looking log responses. however. perhaps with a different tool string. log acceptance should always be determined from the point of view of the customer. Log quality control is the responsibility of the service company performing the logging job. some assurance can be maintained from comparisons of log depth to driller's depth and casing depth. However. but these values can vary dramatically between wells.Basic Log Interpretation logs. this positive check should be performed where it is possible.

Basic Log Interpretation

**Potential Water-Bearing Zones and Calculations
**

Locating a potential water-bearing zone should be approached by qualitatively assessing intervals in terms of their porosity and resistivity, and considering any permeability indicators presented with the logs. This "visual sifting" of data is usually accomplished by first considering porosity. If a zone is porous, then there are fluids present within that zone. Next, resistivity of the zone must be considered. Because hydrocarbons are electrical insulators, porous zones containing them will have relatively high resistivities. Porous water-bearing zones, on the other hand, will have relatively low resistivities. This process is also aided by recognition of the various resistivity invasion profiles associated with different types of resistivity logs. Do not hesitate to mark logs or highlight intervals to make them more noticeable. A practical method of doing this is to use a yellow highlighter pen to color from the middle of Track 1 left to the Gamma Ray curve. This provides a good visual image of potentially porous formations; those possibly containing water or hydrocarbons. Where a Spontaneous Potential curve is present, the process of locating potentially permeable formations (again, regardless of fluid types contained) is much faster. Those impermeable zones that lack any SP deflection will be of less interest than those with deflection. Keep in mind, however, that the SP response is only a qualitative indicator of formation permeability. Once a potential water-bearing zone is located, several necessary calculations are in order. The formation temperature (Tf ) of the interval should be determined. Furthermore, resistivity measures such as Rm and Rmf should be corrected to formation temperature for the purpose of determining formation water resistivity (Rw ). Before determining formation water resistivity (Rw ), the lithology of the formation of interest should be determined. This may be done by quick-look, or by use of one of the lithology charts. Determination of lithology will assist the analyst in determining the appropriate values of tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m) for inverseArchie Rw calculations. In a quick-look analysis, environmental corrections are typically not performed on any log measurement. However, to be more precise in an analysis, the various influences of borehole and invasion should be corrected before using any log measurement to determine formation water resistivity (Rw ). Every reasonable effort should be made to obtain an accurate and valid value of formation water resistivity (Rw ) from the logs. If the required data is available, then both the SP method and inverse-Archie method of determining Rw should be pursued. Keep in mind that determining Rw from log data does not always yield accurate results. When analyzing any log, the potential for error created by using an impractical value of Rw should always be considered. Always use the lowest value of determined R w , within reason, for obtaining more optimistic values of water saturation (S w ).

**Potential Hydrocarbon-Bearing Zones and Calculations
**

Locating a potential hydrocarbon-bearing zone should also be approached by qualitatively assessing the porosity and resistivity of zones, and considering HLS Asia Limited 65 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes

Basic Log Interpretation permeability indicators. Again, if a zone is porous, then there are fluids present within that zone. Porous zones containing hydrocarbons will have relatively high resistivities because of the poor electrical conductivity of those hydrocarbons. As was the case with water-bearing zones, permeability indicators should also be considered to determine the priority with which a certain zone will be evaluated. The most important thing to consider is that the value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) determined in a water-bearing zone must be corrected to the formation temperature (T f) of the zone in which it is to be used to calculate water saturation (S w). Failing to correct Rw for temperature at greater depths will result in water saturation values being too pessimistic (too high). It is therefore possible, and in many cases a potential hydrocarbon-bearing zone may be overlooked as being wet if R w is not corrected to formation temperature. This will, of course, require that formation temperature (Tf ) be determined for each potential hydrocarbon-bearing zone. Before calculating water saturation (S w ), the lithology of the formation of interest should be determined. Again, this may be done by quick-look, or by use of one of the lithology charts. Knowledge of lithology will determine the appropriate values of tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m) for inverse-Archie Rw calculations. Again, in a quick-look analysis, environmental corrections are typically not performed. To be more precise, environmental corrections should be applied to any log measurement before calculating water saturation (S w ). For clean formations, it is assumed that the Archie equation is applicable. Bear in mind, however, that there are certain instances (such as when clay minerals are present in a shaly sand) that alternative methods of calculating water saturation will be more appropriate. Some of these methods will be discussed in the Shaly Sand Analysis sections of this text.

**Decisions on Productive Capability
**

The most difficult process in the basic evaluation of a clean formation has now been reached; the decision of whether to set pipe and perforate or consider abandonment still hangs. Calculated values of water saturation (S w ) only provide the analyst with information about what fluids are present in the formation of interest. In many cases, water saturation is not a reflection of the relative proportions of fluids that may be produced. Therefore, when making the decision to set pipe or abandon, all available information should be taken into account. Water saturation (S w ) should be the basis for this important decision, but other factors also enter into the decision making process. These factors include: volume of shale (V sh) of the reservoir, irreducible water saturation (S wirr ) and bulk volume water (BVW), moveable hydrocarbons, etc.. In many instances, much of the decision revolves around a "gut feeling"; however, in all cases, there is no substitute for experience in a particular region when making the choice. Some additional methods that may be used during the decision making process will be addressed in the Additional Log Interpretation Techniques section of this text.

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Basic Log Interpretation

References

Asquith, G. B., 1982, Basic well log analysis for geologists: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, 216 p. Bateman, R. M., 1985, Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC Publishers, Boston, MA, 647 p. Dewan, J. T., 1983, Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell Publishing, Tulsa, OK, 361 p.

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Open Hole Log Analysis Notes

76 Barrels of Oil in Place……………………………………………………………………. 69 Objectives……………………………………………………………………..….. 77 References……………………………………………………………………. 75 Coates and Dumanoir (1973) Method…………………………………………………………… 75 Calculation of Reserves……………………………………………………………………. 76 Cubic Feet of Gas in Place…………………………………………………………………….… 73 Log-Derived Permeability (KL) …………………………………………………………………… 74 Wyllie and Rose (1950) Method…………………………………………………………………. 77 Recoverable Gas (Cubic Feet) …………………………………………………………………...Basic Log Interpretation Section 5 Additional Log Interpretation Techniques Table of Contents Introduction……………………………………………………………………. 69 Moveable Hydrocarbon Index (MHI) …………………………………………………………….…….. 70 Ratio Water Saturation (Swr) ……………………………………………………………………. 71 Ratio Formation Water Resistivity (Rwr) ………………………………………………………… 72 Bulk Volume Water (BVW) ……………………………………………………………………....…………………..…………………… 78 HLS Asia Limited 68 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .…………………….………. 76 Recoverable Oil (Stock Tank Barrels) ………………………………………………………….

and if so.Basic Log Interpretation Introduction Calculating water saturation. whether there are economical recoverable reserves. calculate moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI) of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation and estimate whether hydrocarbons were moved during invasion. Objectives After completing this section. Analysts would also like to know whether hydrocarbons within a reservoir are moveable and capable of being produced. calculate in place and recoverable reserves for oil. calculate ratio water saturation (S w r) of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation. the participant should be able to § § § § § § § § § calculate flushed zone water saturation (S xo) of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation. This provides an estimate of the relative proportion of water and hydrocarbons contained in a particular reservoir. However. calculate ratio formation water resistivity (Rw r) of a water-bearing formation. is the primary goal of open hole log analysis. calculate bulk volume water (BVW) of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation. HLS Asia Limited 69 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . estimate pore type of a carbonate reservoir from bulk volume water (BVW). whether by the Archie equation or one of the many shaly sand equations. This section introduces some of these additional evaluation methods and illustrates how they may be used in combination with a basic analysis. whether water saturation is low enough for water-free production. calculate log-derived permeability (K L). There are numerous other basic calculations that may be extremely helpful in evaluating the productive capability of a reservoir. whether a particular zone is permeable.and gas-bearing reservoirs. estimate grain size of a clastic reservoir from bulk volume water (BVW). interpretation of log data does not necessarily end with a result for water saturation.

then hydrocarbons were likely moved during invasion.Basic Log Interpretation Moveable Hydrocarbon Index (MHI) One way to investigate the moveability of hydrocarbons is to determine water saturation of the flushed zone (S xo). When the moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI) is equal to 1. it may be compared with the value for water saturation of the uninvaded zone (S w ) at the same depth to determine whether or not hydrocarbons were moved from the flushed zone during invasion. an estimate of Rxo may be obtained. This is accomplished by substituting into the Archie equation those parameters pertaining to the flushed zone. then this is an indication that hydrocarbons were not moved from the flushed zone during invasion of mud filtrate. and even then its measurement should only be taken to reflect R xo after all environmental corrections have been applied. The only tool that measures an accurate value for resistivity of the flushed zone (Rxo) is the Micro-Spherically Focused Log (MSFL).6 HLS Asia Limited 70 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . By environmentally correcting the measurements of shallow resistivity devices such as the DFL or Short Guard. and the reservoir will produce. An easy way of quantifying this relationship is through the moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI). § § sandstones moveable hydrocarbons indicated if MHI < 0. Empirical studies have resulted in some guidelines that should be used with caution.0 or greater.7 carbonates moveable hydrocarbons indicated if MHI < 0. If the value for Sxo is much greater than the value for Sw . Once flushed zone water saturation (S xo) is calculated.

we m ust assume some relationship between Sw and Sxo so that the Sxo term in the above equation can be eliminated. Once ratio water saturation (S w r) has been calculated. we are interested in obtaining a value for water saturation of the uninvaded zone (S w ). or R t may be too high because of very deep invasion. Rt. or Rocky Mountain method after the geographic region in which its use was popularized. and di) are indicated to be correct. Furthermore. Therefore. Sw (Archie) ~ Swr (Ratio) All values (S w . the following relationship holds: By substituting this relationship into the MHI equation above. This is known as the ratio method. and the assumption of a step invasion profile is correct. it may be compared with the value of Archie water saturation (S w ) at the same depth to gain even more information on the formation of interest. In most cases where formations are moderately invaded. the following results: Ratio water saturation (S w r) represents water saturation of the uninvaded zone calculated independent of porosity. a transition invasion profile is HLS Asia Limited 71 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .Basic Log Interpretation Ratio Water Saturation (Swr) Another use of the moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI) equation is to determine water saturation of the uninvaded zone (S w ) when no porosity logs are available. The following observations--which also should be used with caution--have been made between ratio water saturation (S w r) and Archie water saturation (S w ) of the uninvaded zone. Rxo. Sw (Archie) > S w (Ratio) Rxo may be too low because of very shallow invasion. The moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI) equation may be rewritten as follows: In using the ratio method.

If reliable values for Rt and Rxo are available and a valid mud test reading of Rmf is available. The premise behind this method is the assumption that in a 100% water saturated zone (S w = 100%). then a value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) can be determined. or Rt may be too low. The only true Rxo device is the Micro-Spherically Focused Log (MSFL). HLS Asia Limited 72 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . where Sxo represents flushed zone water saturation). If deep and shallow resistivities have been invasion corrected to Rt and Rxo. then a value of formation water resistivity (Rw ) can be determined. This resulting value should be compared to other results in an effort to determine which is reasonable and optimistic. Sw (Archie) < S w (Ratio) Rxo may be too high because of the effects of high resistivity adjacent beds. realizing that shallow reading Rxo devices may be dramatically effected by the invasion of mud filtrate. An annulus invasion profile may be indicated in this situation. Values for true formation resistivity (Rt) and flushed zone resistivity (Rxo) must be determined from the appropriate tornado or butterfly charts for resistivity devices. the invaded portion of the well is also 100% water saturated (S xo = 100%.Basic Log Interpretation indicated. Archie water saturation (S w ) should be considered the more accurate value. In some instances. respectively. and the necessity of a Spontaneous Potential curve. and if reliable and accurate Rmf data is available from a full mud press. All other "shallow" resistivity devices will require invasion correction to obtain a reliable value of Rxo. analysts will take approximate values directly from the logs. Ratio Formation Water Resistivity (Rwr) An alternate method of determining a value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) from logs is the ratio method. This technique is rather easy to use because it eliminates the need to know porosity and lithology of the wet zone.

1). If a reservoir is at irreducible water saturation. when a reservoir is determined to be at irreducible water saturation. BVW may be calculated at several depths. therefore. Realizing the potential for error. this may be taken as an indication that the reservoir is at or near irreducible water saturation (S w irr). This condition implies a reservoir in which a substantial amount of water may be trapped and unable to move. Reservoirs that exhibit variation in values for BVW are typically not at irreducible water saturation and. Within a particular reservoir. HLS Asia Limited 73 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . then the water present within that formation will be immovable and production will--theoretically--be water-free hydrocarbons. Bulk volume water has several important applications. this approximation may also be used in reservoirs that are not at irreducible water saturation.Basic Log Interpretation Bulk Volume Water (BVW) Water saturation simply represents the fraction of porosity in a reservoir that is occupied by water. This is expressed as bulk volume water (BVW). resulting in higher capillary pressures. Irreducible water saturation is the value of water saturation at which all water within the reservoir is either adsorbed onto grain surfaces or bound within the pore network by capillary pressure. the diameters of pore throats within the reservoir will decrease. As grain size decreases. Where values for BVW remain constant or very close to constant throughout a reservoir. values for bulk volume water (BVW) may be used to estimate the average grain size of that reservoir (Figure 5. it may be beneficial to know the fraction of rock volume that is occupied by water. Therefore. at least some water production can be expected. Irreducible water saturation is related to the grain size of a reservoir. In some instances.

permeability has been discussed only in qualitative terms. however. it is virtually impossible to derive a reliable and accurate value for reservoir permeability from standard open-hole logging data. represents the relative proportion of fluid within the reservoir that is bound by capillary pressure. logderived permeability may be calculated. and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logs (MRIL) make another step in getting closer to an accurate value of permeability. then a logderived estimate of permeability can be made. The presence of clay minerals in a reservoir also has an impact on values of irreducible water saturation (S w irr ) and bulk volume water (BVW). Microlog and Spontaneous Potential responses may be used as qualitative indicators of permeability. If a reservoir is deemed to be at irreducible water saturation (S w irr ). HLS Asia Limited 74 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .Basic Log Interpretation Bulk volume water (BVW) should not be confused with "bulk volume irreducible" (MBVI) which is a reservoir parameter determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging (MRIL). Log-Derived Permeability (KL) Thus far. Formation tester data may help to further evaluate permeability. BVW represents the percentage of rock volume that is water. As the volume of clay minerals in a reservoir (V sh) increases. Once this determination is made. Constant to near-constant values of bulk volume water (BVW) within a reservoir indicate that reservoir is at (or at least near) irreducible water saturation. both Sw irr and BVW will increase because of the inclination of clay to trap interstitial formation water. on the other hand. MBVI. Two of the possible methods are discussed as follows.

The use of these constants is one reason why this calculated value of permeability should be used only as an estimate . HLS Asia Limited 75 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .Basic Log Interpretation The constants used in the Wyllie and Rose method (250 and 79) are used to account for the effects that hydrocarbon density (whether it be medium gravity oil or dry gas) has on permeability.

. Barrels of Oil in Place Most of the information required for this calculation is readily available from the logs or from simple calculations. A basic part of any evaluation should be to at least estimate the volume of hydrocarbon that may be produced from a particular well. Recoverable oil. may be estimated by the following equation: HLS Asia Limited 76 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . and production characteristics (e.e. dimensions of the reservoir (e. logs do not give any indication about the drainage area of a particular reservoir. water saturation. Recoverable Oil (Stock Tank Barrels) The amount of oil calculated to be in place does not reflect the amount of oil that can be produced from the reservoir.e. in stock tank barrels.g.Economics are therefore brought into play in the analysis. It is very easy to obtain information about reservoir thickness from logs. drainage acreage.. then the variable A can be assumed as the allowed well spacing within the field. The percentage of oil that can feasibly be recovered from the reservoir (i. recovery factor) and the shrinkage experienced by oil as it comes to the surface (i..g. However.Basic Log Interpretation Calculation of Reserves The decision of whether to set pipe and perforate versus abandon a well can be made easier if there is some estimate of the possible recoverable reserves. "shrinkage factor"). thickness). The volumetric constant 7758 refers to the number of barrels in a 1 acre by 1-foot thick volume.. Unless information regarding the areal extent of a reservoir is available. Calculation of reserves requires information about the petrophysical characteristics of the reservoir (e. recovery factor.g.. porosity). formation volume factor) must also be considered.

gas will be evolved from solution. For a typical case where a reservoir is produced by flowing or by pump (primary recovery). it is safe to assume a recovery factor of 20% to 30% (RF = 0. Rarely will recovery factors exceed 50%. and the production mechanism. For oil.2. As oil moves toward the surface during production. the initial hydrocarbon saturation of that reservoir. a recovery factor of 40% may be more applicable. it is safe to assume a shrinkage factor of approximately 1.3). This equation yields the amount of gas existing in place at formation temperature (Tf ) and formation pressure (P f ). and by the following equation: The volumetric constant 43560 refers to the number of cubic feet in a 1 acre by 1. but will not be produced.Basic Log Interpretation The recovery factor (RF) deals with the fact that not all of the oil present in a formation is capable of being produced. In cases where a reservoir is under water flood or other secondary recovery methods.foot thick volume. or otherwise immovable contributes to the volume of oil present in a reservoir. The deviation factor (Z) and recovery factor (RF) account for this volumetric difference. This results in a volumetric difference between the amount of oil in place and the amount of oil existing in stock tanks at the surface. trapped by capillary pressure. The variable B ("shrinkage factor" or formation volume factor) takes this volumetric difference into account. Cubic Feet of Gas in Place The amount of gas in place in a reservoir (in cubic feet) may be estimated in a similar manner as with oil. and are employed in the following equation to estimate recoverable gas: HLS Asia Limited 77 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . even in the case of advanced recovery techniques such as steam or CO2 flood.2 to 0. the amount of gas calculated to be in place does not reflect the amount of gas that can be produced. Recoverable Gas (Cubic Feet) As was the case with oil. Oil that is "dead". This recovery factor depends upon reservoir type.

Dewan. B. the result of the equation will be cubic feet of gas at average surficial conditions (60ºF and 14. it is not necessary to multiple the results by the conversion factor (CF) to yield cubic feet at standard temperature and pressure. The conversion factor is an integral part of this equation... 647 p. 216 p. Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologists: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. G. Thus. Bateman.. 1983. Tulsa. R. References Asquith. J.7 psi). HLS Asia Limited 78 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . 361 p. 1982. Boston. Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC Publishers. Tulsa.Basic Log Interpretation When using the above equation to estimate cubic feet of recoverable gas. OK. OK. MA. 1985. Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell Publishing. M. T.

80 Shaly Sand Analysis……………………………………………………………………. 89 Combined Effect of Porosity and Resistivity Responses……………………………………… 90 References……………………………………………………………………. 82 Assumptions Involved in Shaly Sand Analysis………………………………………………….…………………… 91 HLS Asia Limited 79 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .…………………… 80 Objectives……………………………………………………………………. 84 Bound Water in Shaly Sands…………………………………………………………………….…………… 88 Neutron Porosity…………………………………………………………………….. 88 Resistivity Response……………………………………………………………………. 86 Porosity Response…………………………………………………………………….………….……….. 81 Modes of Occurrence of Clay Minerals…………………………………………………………..……………... 87 Sonic Response…………………………………………………………………….…………………….Basic Log Interpretation Section 6 Shaly Sand Theory Table of Contents Introduction……………………………………………………………………. 84 Log Responses in Presence of Clay Minerals…………………………………………………. 88 Density Response…………………………………………………………………….……………......………… 81 The Nature of Clay Minerals and Shale………………………………………………………….

therefore. discuss the effects of clay minerals on resistivity measurements. and neutron porosity. discuss the effects of clay minerals on sonic. This is the field of shaly sand analysis." or clay minerals. The application of specific shaly sand techniques are addressed in the following Shaly Sand Applications section of this manual. discuss the effects of clay minerals on calculated values of water saturation(S w ) and how shaly sand analysis "modifies" these results. This section introduces the theory and need for shaly sand analysis. What happens to the analysis if the formation of interest is not clean? Suppose.Basic Log Interpretation Introduction To this point the discussion of log analysis has focused on clean formations in which the Archie equation may be used to evaluate water saturation (S w ) of the uninvaded zone. define the different types of bound water associated with clay minerals/shales. Objectives After completing this section. These clay minerals will have an effect on particular log responses and. density." list the different modes of occurrence of clay minerals and discuss how each may affect reservoir properties such as porosity and permeability. the participant should be able to § § § § § § define the term "clay mineral" and how it relates to "shale. that the formation contains some amount of "shale. HLS Asia Limited 80 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . instead. the analysis will be in error unless the presence of these clays in accounted for. perhaps one of the most confusing aspects of open hole log analysis.

because of the increased surface adhesion and capillary pressures associated with such small particle sizes. Clay minerals are very fine grained (< 4?m) hydrous aluminum silicates with minor amounts of potassium (K)." The Nature of Clay Minerals and Shale "Shale. Field engineers and log analysts should be able to recognize the effects of clay minerals and be able to correct for their presence to yield more accurate values of water saturation. then. However. is a sedimentary rock consisting of both siltsized and clay-sized particles that were deposited in a low energy environment. "shale") in a reservoir may either be good or bad in terms of reservoir quality. On the other hand. however. the clay-sized fraction of shale is extremely important because it is these very fine grained particles that may be found within the pore spaces of a potentially productive reservoir." The presence of clay minerals in a reservoir may seriously affect some log responses. Because of this. iron (Fe). particularly resistivity and porosity.Basic Log Interpretation Shaly Sand Analysis The presence of clay minerals (i.emerges how much clay is present. This emphasizes the need for "shaly sand analysis.. and other elements. The end result is an erroneously high value of water saturation. magnesium (Mg). Clay minerals may be classified on the basis of their crystalline structures. and what effects does it have on the reservoir (and the logs)? All lithologies--including limestones and dolomites--may potentially contain some amount of clay minerals. The result can be virtually water-free hydrocarbon production from reservoirs of relatively high calculated water saturation (S w ). log analysts typically make reference to the "shaly sand problem." in the most basic of definitions.1). Shale itself is of little interest in log analysis because it typically is not a reservoir rock. and in some cases a productive reservoir may appear to be wet. HLS Asia Limited 81 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .e. A question. the presence of a large amount of clay may result in the porosity and permeability of the reservoir being reduced to the point where the reservoir becomes non-productive. and each type of clay mineral has particular properties that may influence wireline logs in different ways and to different degrees (Figure 6. Small amounts of clay minerals within the pore space of a reservoir may. More commonly. clay minerals are found associated with sandstone reservoirs. trap interstitial water.

authigenic clays have the ability to trap interstitial formation water. For example. and dispersed clays to refer to the distribution of clay minerals within a reservoir. be aware that "shale"--although it is a rock in its own right--is often used to refer to minor amounts of clay minerals within a formation. a trait that may be either good or bad. However. even if an induction tool cannot resolve an individual shale lamination that is 1 inch thick. Authigenic clay minerals. During the deposition of other sand sediments nearby. the terms "shale" and "clay" are often used interchangeably. Detrital clay minerals are those that were deposited in low energy environments as a component of shale. the overall resistivity of that zone will be reduced because of the presence of that shale. These clays are detrital in origin. This practice is confusing and should be avoided when possible. Furthermore. Laminated shale (Figure 6.2) refers to thin layers of clay minerals--from a fraction of an inch to several inches in thickness--that are interbedded with thin intervals of sandstone. on the other hand. clasts.. Both detrital and authigenic clays may influence the productive capability of a reservoir as well as the log responses within that reservoir. Shale laminations are typically so thin that they are far below the resolution limits of wireline tools. are deposited within the pore space of an existing reservoir as the result of some chemical reaction. it is necessary to consider clay minerals in terms of their morphology. influence log responses because their petrophysical properties are averaged in with the rest of the formation. The presence of laminated shale tends to reduce the porosity and permeability of a reservoir. HLS Asia Limited 82 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . log analysts use the terms laminated shale. however. sand grains) of a reservoir. and were deposited at the same time as the sand grains of the reservoir. Modes of Occurrence of Clay Minerals For the purpose of log analysis. They do. or mode of occurrence. structural clays. In log analysis. Typically. however. authigenic clays tend to cause the most problems because of their ability to partially restrict or completely block pore throats. and can be thought of simply as a ductile material that has been squashed between the framework grains (e.g. these shales may be ripped up and deposited as laminations. Proper reference should be given to each. or even individual grains along with the sand grains.Basic Log Interpretation Clay minerals may either be detrital or authigenic in origin.

This type of clay typically has little impact upon reservoir quality because it does not restrict or block pore throats. however. clasts. structural clay is usually present in such small quantities that it is considered to be of little importance. In small amounts. When present. these types of clays can actually migrate through the pore network of a reservoir causing disastrous completion and production problems. Dispersed clay (Figure 6. structural clays will have an influence on log responses in a similar manner as that of other clays because their petrophysical properties are averaged in with the petrophysical properties of the framework grains. Furthermore. Dispersed clays are much different than laminated shales and structural clays in that they are authigenic in origin. because of their disseminated fibrous and plate-like morphologies. These types of clays precipitated in situ as the result of some chemical reaction. Furthermore. may be very damaging to reservoir quality. dispersed clays may block pore throats and reduce effective porosity and permeability.2) refers to detrital clay minerals that exist as individual grains. Because of the fact that dispersed clays HLS Asia Limited 83 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .Basic Log Interpretation Structural clay (Figure 6. These types of clays.2) refers to very fine grained particles that exist within the pore space of a reservoir and actually replace fluid volume. or particles along with the framework grains of a reservoir.

authigenic clays were derived by some chemical reaction that was entirely independent of any adjacent shale. it is necessary to assume that their petrophysical properties are identical to those of adjacent shales. Bound Water in Shaly Sands Much of the confusion in shaly sand analysis revolves around misconceptions about what constitutes "bound water" within the reservoir. Mg.3 illustrates the crystalline atomic structure of the clay mineral smectite. the overall resistivity of a formation may be lowered by the presence of clay. Figure 6. modes of occurrence. Nothing is known about the clays' chemical compositions.. however." and that each type may have a different degree of influence on log responses. For a complete understanding of the problems that logging tools encounter in these formations. because of their size. it is necessary to assume that the petrophysical properties of a clay measured by a log are simply averaged in with the rest of the formation. is the type and amount of clays in a reservoir known before that reservoir is logged. Therefore. because clay minerals are so small and cannot be measured individually by a log. it is necessary to assume that all clays are equal in the eyes of a log. This assumption is usually valid provided there are detrital clays within a reservoir. and Fe. and within the large "interlayers" separating tetrahedra sheets there may be H2O molecules along with other HLS Asia Limited 84 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . their effects on log responses may be quite significant. For example. muscovite and biotite). Clay minerals are hydrated sheet silicates and are very similar in crystalline structure to mica minerals (i. when dealing with dispersed clays. but often necessary for lack of core data to prove otherwise. Bound within the crystalline structure of smectite are hydroxyl ions (OH-). it is necessary to recognize that there are different types of "bound water. if ever. However. or effects on log responses unless core data is available. so it must be assumed that its resistivity is the same as that of a shale (Rsh) either above or below the formation of interest. and these tetrahedra are linked together in layers ("sheets") several Angstroms thick which are separated by other cations such as K. Therefore. The basic building block of a clay mineral is the silicon tetrahedron.Basic Log Interpretation are capable of trapping large quantities of formation water due to their large surface-tovolume ratios. they are far below the resolution limits of logging tools. In addition. Assumptions Involved in Shaly Sand Analysis One problem with shaly sand analysis is that it is based upon two rather dubious assumptions. the assumption that their properties are identical to adjacent shales is invalid. structural clays. Rarely. and dispersed clays influence log responses to different degrees. It is impossible to measure the resistivity of that clay mineral with any logging tool. Ca. Regardless of what clay types are present.Laminated shales and structural clays were likely derived from the shale below the formation or interest. Laminated shales. or had a similar source.e.

In the dry state. they will be hydrated by several HLS Asia Limited 85 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . The typical conception of "bound water" within a shaly sand involves what may be referred to as capillary bound water and clay bound water.Basic Log Interpretation cations (Ca. A thin film of water will adhere to the surface of the clay of high surface tension ("adsorbed water"). Additionally. clay minerals are often left with a net negative charge (Figure 6. Mg. Adding to this negative charge are broken chemical bonds along broken crystal edges of clay platelets. In their migration the water in the mineral because Na+ counterions away from the clay surface. When clay minerals exist within a solution such as water. is that water which is bound to the surface of clay minerals by electrostatic and chemical forces. Clay bound water. This increase in hydrogen abundance will produce misleading neutron porosity responses. Because of ionic substitutions within the crystalline structure of clay minerals (mainly Mg2+ for Al3+). The counterions will not migrate far from the clay surface because they will still feel the attractive force of the negatively charged clay crystal. on the other hand. because the are now existing within a solution. and may be a characteristic of both very fine grained clean sandstones as well as shaly sandstones. Capillary bound water exists because of increased capillary pressures in very small diameter pore throats. etc. These Na + counterions temporarily occupy what are referred to as "exchange sites" on the surface of the clay minerals.). this negative charge is balanced by the attraction of positively charged Na + counterions to the clay's surface. these counterions are allowed to migrate a short distance from the clay's surface because the dielectric permitivity of that water will weaken the Coulomb forces binding them to the clay." but adding hydrated clay minerals to a reservoir does increase the hydrogen index of the formation because of these hydroxyl ions and water molecules. and are referred to as structurally bound water.3). however. This is not what is typically thought of in terms of "bound water. a tremendous surface area is exposed to formation. These hydroxyl groups and water molecules are part of the crystalline structure of the clay mineral. and are capable of exchanging themselves for one another as well as with other ions on a charge-percharge basis.

For instance.4. even though authigenic dispersed clays actually reduce the porosity of a reservoir. and clay bound--that causes problems when analyzing a shaly sand using the conventional Archie approach.Basic Log Interpretation water molecules. capillary. Log responses may reflect a condition entirely different from that actually occurring in the reservoir. It is the combination of these three types of "bound water"--structural. HLS Asia Limited 86 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . sonic and neutron logs exhibit an increase in porosity. The Archie equation treats all water the same. The attractive force of the negatively charged clay mineral that acts to restrain the free migration of the Na + counterions will therefore bind this additional later of "water of hydration" to the clay surface. Another method of calculating water saturation is needed in shaly sands. Archie water saturation (S w a) does not distinguish between bound water and free water. and treats all water as the same. and does not distinguish between what is bound and what is free to move. Log Responses in Presence of Clay Minerals Even more confusion in shaly sand analysis revolves around the fact that the effects of clay minerals in a reservoir are typically not accurately represented on the logs. These phenomena of electrostatically and chemically bound clay bound water are illustrated in Figure 6.

5). Furthermore. the clay minerals will occupy a volume that was formerly occupied by fluid (100% water). and this requires an understanding of the physical and chemical properties of clay minerals. it is best to begin with a model formation consisting of a clean sandstone of given porosity at 100% water saturation. A possible limitation to using the Archie equation in even a clean sandstone is if the grain size is so small that a high percentage of the water within the formation is bound by capillary pressure. Again. 100% water). all of these porosities will be equal to the effective porosity of the reservoir. By adding clay minerals to the model formation. or which is available to free fluid (in this case. In this situation. and neutron) will be equal. the Archie approach does not distinguish between bound water and free water. It is vital to understand how each measurement (sonic. Furthermore. the Archie equation generally holds true and may be used to calculate a reasonably accurate water saturation of the reservoir. and therefore producible water saturation would be overestimated. and neutron) is influenced. but in this case some amount of clay minerals has been added. In this situation. In such a formation. Some fluid in the reservoir (in this case. density. through the addition of clay minerals the porosity of the reservoir has decreased. 100% water) will be "bound" by the clay minerals and will be immovable. if porosities are calculated for sandstone. HLS Asia Limited 87 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Effective porosity refers to the pore space that is interconnected. The amount of porosity available to free fluids (Φ effective) together with the porosity associated with "bound" fluids represents the total porosity of the reservoir. its total porosity has been reduced. each porosity measurement will be influenced to different degrees by the presence of clay minerals. density. Therefore. They may actually exhibit an increase in porosity (Figure 6. then all porosities (sonic. porosity logs may not reflect this decrease in porosity.Basic Log Interpretation Porosity Response In order to understand how clay minerals influence log responses. Now consider that same model sandstone formation at 100% water saturation. However. and some clays may not have as profound an effect as others.

5 µs/ft) together with the clay minerals (70 – 140 µs/ft). this is not the case. The sonic tool "sees" each grain in the reservoir as a grain of sand (55. This results from the fact that clay minerals are hydrated and contain structurally bound hydroxyl ions (OH-) within their crystalline structure. however. porosity) decreases. In a shaly sand. as a result.65 g/cc). The overall result is that the sonic tool "sees" a much higher "averaged" ∆t when clay minerals are present. 2. the absolute value of density porosity is often misleading. It follows then that as the amount of water in the formation (i. the actual ρma of the formation will be some volumetric combination of the density of the clay ( ρclay ) and the density of the sand grains (ideally. Neutron porosity actually increases when clay minerals are added to the reservoir.65 g/cc). Neutron Porosity The response of the neutron tool is not as straightforward as that of the sonic and density tools. This translates as a reduction in the amount of pore water.. HLS Asia Limited 88 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . density porosity may be underestimated or overestimated when calculated for a sandstone. neutron porosity (Φ n) will also decrease. By adding clay minerals to the clean formation. The resulting porosity will be underestimated. Through the Wyllie Time-Average equation.Basic Log Interpretation Sonic Response When clay minerals are present in a reservoir. ∆t of that grain will be equal to 55. On the other hand..5 µs/ft. this increase in ∆t translates as an increase in sonic porosity. In those instances where ρclay = ρma.e. density porosity will be overestimated because the actual formation ρma will be less than that which was assumed to calculate porosity. there may be a significant effect on ∆t measurements. the porosity of the formation is reduced. then the actual ρma of the formation will be higher than that which we assume to calculate porosity (i. ∆t changes dramatically. Depending upon the density of the clay mineral present (ρclay ). the hydrogen index of the formation will decrease and. Density Response Adding clay minerals to a clean sandstone will be correctly reflected on the density log as a decrease in porosity. However. The neutron tool reflects this additional hydrogen as an increase in porosity even though the structurally bound water is not a part of the pore space of the reservoir. For an individual grain of quartz sand in a clean formation. there will be no appreciable effect upon density porosity.e. When ρclay > ρsand. The reason for this error lies in the assumption of matrix density (ρma). where ρclay < ρsand. When clays are added in a shaly sand situation. 2.

For a clean sand and shaly sand containing the same formation water (constant Rw ). be less than that of a clean formation. The graph in Figure 6. the clean sand will still exhibit higher resistivity.e. one clean and one clay-bearing. However. resistivity might be expected to increase. At some point a water salinity is reached such that there exists a linear relationship between formation conductivity (C o) and water conductivity (C w ) in both the shaly and clean sands with shaly sand HLS Asia Limited 89 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . the conductivity of the shaly sand increases more dramatically than would be predicted by the increase in formation water conductivity (Ro = Fr ? ? Rw . when the amount of pore water available to conduct an electrical current decreases (in this case by the addition of clay minerals).Basic Log Interpretation Resistivity Response The presence of clay minerals in a formation also has a strong effect on the measured resistivity of that formation. depending on the amount of clay minerals present. hence. After all..6 illustrates that for two formations of identical porosity and identical water salinity. the resistivity of that formation will increase. The interesting part of this graph is the non-linear relationship between shaly sand and clean sand conductivities (C o) at lower values of formation water conductivity (C w ). The change results from a specific property of the clay minerals. the clay-bearing formation will exhibit a higher conductivity (i. lower resistivity). Within the range of low conductivity formation waters. this is not the case in shaly sands. Because of the fact that porosity decreases when clay minerals are added to a clean formation. This change does not result from a change in formation water resistivity (Rw ). Co = (1/F r) X Cw ). The measured resistivity of a shaly sand will.

there remains the condition that for all values of moderately saline formation waters (as expected in most reservoirs).. between exchange sits on separate clay crystals. clays are present. As discussed previously. Ultimately. shaly formations will exhibit higher conductivities (i. however. then the analysis may be undertaken by conventional means (i. any analysis of a reservoir should be approached from the standpoint that clays are present. CEC may also be used to quantify the volume of clays within a reservoir. the greater the excess conductivity. the migrating counterions are provided with a more energetically feasible path of least resistance. Thus. an equilibrating salinity of formation water will be reached such that a further increase in salinity will have little effect on the mobility of the counterions. Without prior knowledge of the existence of clays in a reservoir. As the salinity of the formation water increases. however. HLS Asia Limited 90 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . then modified equations must be used to evaluate water saturation. Clay minerals with high CEC values (see Figure 6. As a result.. If clays are subsequently determined to be absent. This added conductance produced by the clay minerals may be quantified in terms of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of a particular clay.Basic Log Interpretation conductivity remaining consistently higher than clean sand conductivity. The migration of these counterions produces a potential that contributes to the conductivity of the formation. Combined Effect of Porosity and Resistivity Responses The combined effect of the decreased resistivity and typically increased porosity exhibited on logs in the presence of clay results in erroneously high values of water saturation (S w ) calculated by the Archie equation.. then those clay minerals must be the source of the excess conductivity (i. The purpose of shaly sand analysis is to correct for these effects and thereby reduce water saturation to what it would be if clays were absent. lower resistivity). If. Nevertheless.e. Archie equation). The dramatic increase in formation conductivity with increasing water conductivity can be attributed to the mobility of the charge-balancing Na + counterions. Migration of these counterions may take place between exchange sites on one clay crystal.1) result in lower formation resistivities than those clay minerals with lower CEC values. values of volume of shale (V sh) calculated from log responses are commonly used as a substitute. lower resistivities) than their clean counterparts containing waters of identical chemistry.e. Beyond this value of salinity.e. or through the formation water. and the formation conductivity will continue to increase at a faster rate than does water conductivity. Where core data is absent. the dielectric permitivity of the water will allow these exchange counterions to migrate. it must be assumed that clays are present. conductivity of the shaly sand will increase linearly with increase in formation water conductivity. The greater the clay content. Because the only difference between these two formations is the presence of clay minerals. CEC must be determined from core data. Because the ionic concentration of the bound water is proportional to the volume of clay bound water. the conductance produced by these counterions will increase even more.

Coates. Dewan. shaly sand analysis should be used with caution. G. Tulsa. 2.. H. if the presence of clays is not corrected for. M. R. J. If a reservoir is falsely assumed to contain clay. 1983. For these reasons. 24.Basic Log Interpretation The danger in assuming that a reservoir contains clay minerals is that the resulting value of Archie water saturation (S w ) is expected to be too high. 1985. Boston. Asquith. B. M. and not as a substitute for knowing everything possible about the formation of interest. G. then the resulting water saturation value will be too high and a potentially productive zone may be bypassed. no. Waxman. Clavier. 216 p. this value of water saturation is reduced. 153-168.. By the same token. and L. Tulsa. 1985.. p. G. SPE-6859. SPE-1863-A. 361 p. v. M. and J. 1968. Smits. Electrical conductivities in oil-bearing shaly sands: Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal.. 1982. References Asquith. 1977. Log evaluation of shaly sandstones: a practical guide: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Continuing Education Course Note Series No. 59 p. p. HLS Asia Limited 91 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . 647 p. Theoretical and experimental bases for the Dual-Water Model for interpretation of shaly sands: Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal. Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell Publishing. OK. 31. Basic well log analysis for geologists: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Shaly sand analysis may potentially lower the water saturation of a reservoir to the point that a wet zone appears to be productive. J.. v. OK. Tulsa.. 8. MA. no. By performing shaly sand analysis. Dumanoir. then it is entirely possible to lower the water saturation of a zone to the point that a water-bearing zone appears to contain hydrocarbons. T. Bateman. 107-122. OK. Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC Publishers. B. 2. C.

. Vsh from Neutron-Density Logs…………………………………………………………………..………………… Objectives…………………………………………………………………….... Fertl Method…………………………………………………………………….. 93 93 Procedures of Shaly Sand Analysis…………………………………………………………… 94 Determining Volume of Shale (Vsh) …………………………………………………………… Vsh from Gamma Ray…………………………………………………………………….……….......………………….……… Vsh from Spontaneous Potential……………………………………………………………….……………….…… Dual Water Method……………………………………………………………………..…………………. Selecting the Appropriate Method……………………………………………………………. Fertl Method……………………………………………………………………. Simandoux Method…………………………………………………………………….Basic Log Interpretation Section 7 Shaly Sand Applications Table of Contents Introduction……………………………………………………………………...……….... Simandoux Method……………………………………………………………………. Effective Porosity from Neutron-Density Combinations…………………………………….………... Comparison of Vsh Results……………………………………………………………………. 97 97 98 99 100 101 102 105 105 105 105 105 106 HLS Asia Limited 92 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes ..………………. References…………………………………………………………………….…… Dual Water Method……………………………………………………………………... Determining Effective Porosity ( Φ e) …………………………………………………………… 94 94 96 96 97 97 Effective Porosity from Sonic Logs……………………………………………………………. Dispersed Clay Method…………………………………………………………………….. Determining Effective Water Saturation (Swe) ………………………………………………. 97 Effective Porosity from Density Logs………………………………………………………….………. Dispersed Clay Method…………………………………………………………………….

HLS Asia Limited 93 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . the participant should be able to § § § § list the three basic steps of shaly sand analysis. This section presents several methods whereby these values can be determined from conventional open hole logging data.Basic Log Interpretation Introduction The Archie equation often produces a value of water saturation (S w) that is too high in formations that contain clay minerals. Dispersed Clay. the Archie equation must be modified to yield more favorable results. the effective porosity ( Φ effective) and effective water saturation (S we ) of the reservoir must be known. Fertl. and Dual Water methods. calculate effective porosity (Φ e) from a standard suite of open hole logs. Objectives After completing this section. calculate volume of shale (V sh) from a standard suite of open hole logs. Therefore. calculate effective water saturation (S we ) from a standard suite of open hole logs using the Simandoux. Where clays are known to be present.

Realize that the overall goal of shaly sand analysis is to essentially lower the value of water saturation (S w) to what it would be if clay minerals did not exist in the reservoir. 2. There are many methods that are used to determine this. 94 HLS Asia Limited Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Each method discussed below is designed to give either a good estimation of Vsh in conditions favorable to the particular tool. GR = A + N + V sh This condition is usually not the case. Correcting porosity for the presence of clays (determining effective porosity of the zone of interest). These three steps include: 1. Determining Volume of Shale (Vsh) The first step in shaly sand analysis is to determine the amount of clay minerals present in the formation. then it is safe to assume that clay minerals are not having a significant effect on log responses. of clay minerals within a reservoir. 3. Archie equation). although none of them is consistently reliable. or to give an upper limit of V sh. and do not consider the type of clay present or its distribution.e. When the volume of shale (V sh) is determined to be less than 15% of the bulk rock volume. By using the Gamma Ray Index as an indicator of clay content. Determining effective water saturation (S we ) of the zone of interest (water saturation of the effective pore network). Vsh from Gamma Ray In a formation containing clay minerals or shale of a constant radioactivity level and no other radioactive minerals. Determining volume of shale (V sh) in the zone of interest. and several are discussed below. and an alternative method of determining Vsh must be used. used either alone or in combination with others. Each of these three processes will be examined in more detail in the paragraphs that follow. the volume of shale (V sh) is expressed as a linear function of the borehole-corrected gamma ray response.Basic Log Interpretation Procedures of Shaly Sand Analysis The process of shaly sand analysis consists of three main steps. or percentage. Where Vsh exceeds 15% bulk rock volume. This alternative method requires that the Gamma Ray Index (IGR) be calculated. and analysis may be pursued by conventional means (i. we are simply normalizing the gamma ray response to estimate the percentage of shale present in a reservoir. each of which should be accomplished in a specific order. Many types of logs. It should be remembered that these determinations are simply estimates of the volume. shaly sand analysis should be performed to obtain more accurate values of water saturation.. are used to indicate shale content.

then the Clavier equation should be considered. For great increases in bulk density. Tertiary sands such as those encountered along the Gulf Coast are unconsolidated. This is the same type of approach used in determining Gamma Ray Index (IGR) itself. if the bulk density (? b) of the clean formation did not change as clay minerals were added. it is more common for analysts to calculate Vsh using the Western Atlas equations illustrated below. Formations of other ages may be considered consolidated. but none of these is universally accepted. Generally speaking. If the addition of clay minerals resulted in an increase in bulk density. the resulting ratio reflects the percentage of clay minerals contained in the reservoir. Some analysts prefer to use Gamma Ray Index (IGR) as a shale indicator in all types of shales. Typically. however. Therefore. HLS Asia Limited 95 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . when this ratio exceeds 15%. the Steiber equation should be used.Basic Log Interpretation Using Gamma Ray Index (IGR) as a linear expression of Vsh is most suitable for laminated shales. then the linear equation will work. then it should be assumed that the formation is indeed a shaly sand and that the Archie equation should be abandoned for a technique that will yield better results of water saturation in the presence of clay minerals. but can be a very difficult and confusing task. the relationship between IGR and Vsh becomes non-linear for both structural clays and dispersed clays. The choice of which equation to use depends mainly upon local knowledge. Notice from the previous paragraph that choosing between the Clavier and Steiber equations requires that bulk density of the clay-bearing formation be referenced back to the bulk density of that formation if it is considered to be clay-free. In this case. Again. A summary of these non-linear relationships is illustrated below. There is a wide variety of non-linear relationships between G I R and Vsh.

Though this equation works best for laminated shales. Pseudo-SP (PSP) represents the amount of SP deflection in the zone of interest. it is commonly employed where reservoirs contain structural or dispersed clays as well. Vsh should not be determined from the neutrondensity method. the volume of shale (V sh) determined from the SP method may very easily be overestimated. Shaly sands may exhibit extremely suppressed SP responses where there is very little difference between the SP response in the shaly sand and the shale baseline. When using the SP response to determine Vsh. whereas Static-SP (SSP) represents the maximum SP deflection in a clean formation. HLS Asia Limited 96 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Vsh may be calculated from the SP response by using the equation below. Vsh from Neutron-Density Logs Another common method of estimating Vsh in a potentially clay-bearing formation is to use a combination of porosity measurements from neutron and density logs as follows: Recall that neutron and density responses are both influenced by the presence of clays.Basic Log Interpretation Vsh from Spontaneous Potential In water-bearing sandstones of low to medium resistivity. In this situation. the limitations of the SP measurement should be kept in mind. When gas is present in a formation. neutron and density responses tend toexaggerate the influence of kaolinite and chlorite. When used in estimating Vsh.1). Kaolinite and chlorite have high neutron porosities in comparison to montmorillonite and illite (Figure 6. Gas will not equally affect the neutron and density responses.

it has been found that the gamma ray method of determine Vsh provides useable results. volume of shale (V sh) should be determined from as many methods as possible. or determining porosity of the formation if it did not contain clay minerals. This is analogous to correcting porosity measurements for the presence of clay minerals. The three most common methods of correcting porosity measurements for the presence of clay are outlined as follows: HLS Asia Limited 97 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . and the lowest resulting value should be used in subsequent equations for determining effective porosity. Because clay minerals within a formation represent a volumetric fraction of that reservoir. the calculated estimation of Vsh will be used to "correct" the measured porosity. Determining Effective Porosity (Φe) The second step of shaly sand analysis is to determine the effective porosity of the formation.Basic Log Interpretation Comparison of V sh Results Just like formation water resistivity (Rw). Realize that in using these equations each may yield significantly different values of Vsh depending upon how the particular tool response is affected by the presence of clay minerals. In majority of cases.

these methods of determining effective water saturation (S we ) in a shaly sand should only be used if it has been determined that Vsh is greater than 15%.e. Just as there has been a transition toward more sophisticated logging tools. the amount of calculations required necessitates computers in order to speed the process. density.. Determining Effective Water Saturation (Swe) There are many different equations by which effective water saturation (S we ) of a claybearing formation may be calculated. note that each equation relies heavily upon the assumption that the clay minerals in the formation of interest are identical in character to the clay minerals in adjacent shales. Early methods of shaly sand analysis used only input from gamma ray. SP. HLS Asia Limited 98 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . structural. and resistivity logs. whereas total water saturation (S wt) refers to the percentage of total porosity occupied by water.Basic Log Interpretation Notice that each of the above equations (sonic. To apply these techniques in a clean formation is to risk lowering the calculated water saturation of a zone to the point that a water-bearing zone may appear to be productive. laminated. Effective porosity is that porosity available to free fluids in the reservoir. The choice of which method of shaly sand analysis to apply will rely upon the following: § § § local knowledge the availability of certain logging suites whether or not the distribution of clays (i. dispersed) is known The equations involved with each of the different methods of shaly sand analysis were developed around the logging tools that were available at a particular time. so too has there been a transition toward more complex equations. Also. Effective water saturation simply refers to the percentage of effective porosity occupied by water. In some cases. Again. and neutron-density) simply subtracts the amount of clay porosity from the amount of total porosity measured by the log to result in a value of effective porosity (Φ e).

and the decades during which these methods were popular.Basic Log Interpretation With the growing popularity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) logging. Figure 7. there has been a renewed interest in shaly sand analysis. Because of the growing popularity of these tools. Only the most commonly used methods will be considered for discussion here. The Simandoux equation uses input from a typical open hole logging suite: resistivity. in many instances. and most of them are still in use today. Therefore. and neutron-density porosity. HLS Asia Limited 99 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . shaly sand analysis will continue to be an area of interest for years to come. Now there is a new and accurate method of determining the effective porosity (Φ e) of a reservoir. and it remains popular even today with service companies.1 illustrates some shaly sand methods developed for certain logging suites. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Simandoux Method One of the most commonly used shaly sand water saturation techniques during the 1970s was the Simandoux Method. the process of determining effective porosity by considering Vsh has been replaced by an actual log measurement.

While this may be true in case of laminated shales and structural clays. The most apparent limitation in using the Simandoux equation lies in the fact that it depends upon the resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rsh).Basic Log Interpretation Effective porosity (Φ e) used in the Simandoux equation is calculated using the Combination Neutron-Density porosity correction equations. Fertl Method The Fertl Method of calculating effective water saturation in shaly sands also relies only upon resistivity and neutron-density porosity data. HLS Asia Limited 100 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . This implies that the petrophysical properties of the clay minerals within the formation of interest are identical to those of adjacent shales. but is not the case with authigenic dispersed clays.

Basic Log Interpretation The Fertl Method has two advantages over the Simandoux Method when calculating effective water saturation (S we ). and present porosity as a sum of the volumetric fraction (total porosity. on the other hand. Sonic logs "see" dispersed clays within pore fluids as a slurry. Dispersed Clay Method The Dispersed Clay Method of calculating effective water saturation (S we ) was developed during the 1960s with the advent of density logs. HLS Asia Limited 101 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . "see" only water-filled porosity. it is still not eliminated because porosity correction algorithms require measurements taken from adjacent shales. the Fertl equation does not require a value for resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rsh). the Fertl equation is simpler and easier to calculate than the Simandoux equation. the resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rsh) is usually higher than the resistivity of a shaly sandstone (Rt). Density logs. ∆t). The fraction. of the clean-sand intergranular pore space that is occupied by clay is defined as the shaliness factor “q”. First of all. In most instances. Although the reliance upon adjacent shales has been reduced in using the Fertl equation. therefore. Furthermore. but it remains today a commonly used technique.

One advantage of using this method in conjunction with the MRIL is that now there is a method of determining effective porosity (Φ e) rather than obtaining this value by correcting conventional neutron-density and sonic measurements. Both volumetric fractions of pore water will have their own discrete values of water saturation (S b.2. CEC necessitates availability of core data and laboratory facilities for its measurement.. water saturation of free water). Both of these volumetric fractions of pore water will contribute to the measured resistivity (or conductivity) of the shaly sand.Basic Log Interpretation Notice that the Dispersed Clay Method does not require a value for resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rsh) or volume of shale (V sh) within the formation of interest. This free water of resistivity Rw occupies effective porosity (Φ e) of the reservoir and therefore has its own characteristic water saturation (S wt). thereby reducing the reliance of the equation upon adjacent shales. The reduced dependency on the petrophysical parameters of adjacent shales makes this method convenient for determining effective water saturation (S we ) in reservoirs that contain dispersed clays. The bound water of resistivity Rb and saturation Sb is closely associated with the clay minerals that. This is because the shaliness factor (q) is determined within the shaly sand itself (based on the different responses of the sonic and density tools). 1982). As an answer to Waxman-Smit. The Dual Water Method assumes that pore water is partitioned into both bound water and free water. HLS Asia Limited 102 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . The commonly used Waxman-Smits model was developed so that CEC could be implemented in Swe calculations rather than Vsh. but was difficult to use without laboratory data. A graphical representation of this partitioning of water components is illustrated in Figure 7. This water is considered to be immovable because of the high surface tensions and capillary pressures associated with the very fine grained clay minerals. The remainder of the water filling the formation is free to move. and therefore. in this case. CEC is a much better measure of clay minerals' compared to Vsh.2 Partitioning of fluids in Dual Water Method (after Asquith. lie in pore cavities. both components are said to have their own discrete formation water resistivities (Rb and Rw. Dual Water Method During the 1980s a transformation occurred in the field of shaly sand analysis in which analysts attempted to use cation exchange capacity (CEC) rather than volume of shale (V sh) in determining effect water saturation (S we ). and. respectively). water saturation of bound water. Swf. the Dual Water Method was introduced as an effective water saturation (S we ) calculation method based on CEC. however. Figure 7.

Basic Log Interpretation HLS Asia Limited 103 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes .

the Dual Water Method is a desirable choice where MRIL logs are run. HLS Asia Limited 104 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . Notice that many of the steps involved are not necessary if MRIL data are available. but it may be desirable in certain situations. Therefore. the Dual Water Method might also be applied to clean sand where water is bound by capillary pressure rather than the presence of clay minerals.Basic Log Interpretation The Dual Water Method is a very time consuming technique of calculating effective water saturation (S we ). In these instances.

the choice of method will be determined by historically accepted method in the region. In other situations. More often than not.4 times the resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rclay = 0. When resistivity of the dispersed clay in the reservoir is known by laboratory measurement. and resistivity of this dispersed clay is known to be approximately equal to the resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rsh). The equation assumes that Rsh >> Rw. In some cases. When clays are dispersed. or it is assumed that the resistivity of the dispersed clay is equal to 0. there is no substitute for experience. In this case. The following are some guidelines to follow when deciding which method to utilize.1 Ω -m. Dual Water Method § § § When clays are laminated. § When dispersed clays are suspected in a reservoir or the distribution of the clays is unknown. and resistivity of this dispersed clay is known to be approximately equal to the resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rsh).4 X Rsh).4 times the resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rclay = 0. HLS Asia Limited 105 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . then it is desirable to use either the Dispersed Clay Method or Fertl Method for calculating effective water saturation (S we ). there may not be a single method that applies to the particular circumstances.4 X Rsh). and then compare the results with actual testing data. the method must be used with caution. Dispersed Clay Method § When clays are dispersed or their mode of occurrence is unknown. Fertl Method § § When clays are dispersed or their mode of occurrence is unknown.Basic Log Interpretation Selecting the Appropriate Method The choice of which method or equation to use for calculating effective water saturation (S we ) in a shaly sand can be quite confusing. Realize that it may be favorable to use more than one method. In ambiguous situations a judicial choice must be exercised that resembles testing data. Because so many assumptions are involved in shaly sand analysis. When resistivity of the dispersed clay in the reservoir is known by laboratory measurement. When clays are dispersed. but this may not be the case in shaly sands with high Rw values. Simandoux Method § § § § When clays are laminated. more than one method may be recommended. When Rw > 0. When laboratory data on cation exchange capacity of the clays are available. or it is assumed that the resistivity of the dispersed clay is equal to 0.

. HLS Asia Limited 106 Open Hole Log Analysis Notes . C. no. 647 p. Coates. Dumanoir. v. Boston. B. SPE-6859. OK.. OK. B. Basic well log analysis for geologists: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.. 1983. and J. Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC Publishers. 1985. SPE-1863-A. J. M.Basic Log Interpretation References Asquith. G. 216 p. R. no. Tulsa. Tulsa. 153-168. T. 107-122. 2. J. Theoretical and experimental bases for the Dual-Water Model for interpretation of shaly sands: Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal. and L. v. Dewan. 1968. Electrical conductivities in oil-bearing shaly sands: Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal. Log evaluation of shaly sandstones: a practical guide: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Continuing Education Course Note Series No. 31. M. 361 p. p. 8. Smits. 59 p. Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell Publishing.. G. OK. Waxman. 24. 1985. Asquith. M. Clavier.. 1982.. Bateman. p. MA. H. 1977. Tulsa. G. 2.

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