Laws, Contracts and Ethics

Presented By: Leo Paulo P. Del Rosario

Presented To: Engr. Medrado Castroverde, PME

3.9 Fixed Ladders, Catwalks, Runways and Platforms:
a.) All metal parts or fittings of ladders shall be made of structural steel. b.) Fixed ladders shall be installed so that:



The distance from the back from the front of the rungs to the nearest fixed object on the climbing side of the ladder is at least 760mm. The distance from the back of the rungs to the nearest fixed object is at least 160mm. Except in the case of ladders equipped with cages, baskets or equivalent devices, there should be a clearance of at least 380mm from the center line of the ladder on either side across the front of the ladder.

working platforms or open sided floors 2. .) Catwalks.000mm. d. Landing platforms should be provided for each 9.c.) If fixed ladders are used to ascent height exceeding 9. and small platforms used for motors or similar equipment which cannot afford standing space for persons.000 mm or a fraction thereof. shall be guarded on all open sides by standard railing and toe boards. except platforms used for loading and unloading of height. 2.000 mm or more above floor or ground level. 1. The sections of the ladder should be staggered.

e. if necessary.) Catwalks used for filling of tanks. f. subject to the hazard of falling being reduced by the use of runways not less than 560 mm in width. cars or for oiling may have the railing on one side omitted. .) All runways or platforms constructed over conveyors or machinery shall be guarded on all open sides by standard railings and toe boards.

or surrounded by substantial guards. pits and other hazardous openings shall be provided with substantial covers. Walkway a.10 Yards. b. c. .) Ditches.3.Roadways. enclosed.) Plant yards shall be properly drained and graded in order to facilitate safe access to buildings and safe handling of material and equipment. Gated . and be properly covered or enclosed.) Drain pools and catch basins shall be provided where necessary.

separate entrance and exit gates should be provided for pedestrians. . f.d. g. vehicular and railroad traffic.) Where premises are surrounded by fences or walls. roadways and tracks for plant railways should be carefully laid out in such a manner as to avoid dangerous grade crossings.) Safe walkways should be constructed along the shortest lines between important points.) Walkways. e.) Gates for pedestrian traffic should be located at a safe distance from those for vehicular and railroad traffic and should be of sufficient width to permit passage of employees at rush hours.

j.) Walking along railway tracks by unauthorized persons should be prohibited.) Railings should be installed along walkways on bridges.) Walkways should not be located under the eaves of buildings where they may become slippery. bridges or under pass should be provided.) Where it is necessary for pedestrians to cross railroad tracks or vehicular roadways.h. . and the track or roadway should be fenced so as to prevent direct crossing at such points. i. k. at slippery places and at places where pedestrians are liable o injury by passing vehicles. on steep slopes.

) Substantial railings or Walls should be provided along bridges. o.) Roadways should be of adequate width. n. and where used by two way traffic. plus 1. shall be at least twice the width of the widest vehicle normally used.) Roadways for automobiles.) Where the establishment of grade or level crossings cannot be avoided. sloped and sharp curves. m. such crossings should be protected by watchman. 2500 mm. . gates or automatic signals.l. Sufficient clearance from overhead structure should be provided. tractors or other vehicles should be soundly constructed with surfaces made of good working materials.


.1 General Requirements a.4.) All heavy machinery should be supported on solid foundations of sufficient mass and base area to prevent or minimize the transmission of objectionable vibration to the building and occupied space and to maintain the supported machine at its proper elevation and alignment.) Foundation mass should be from 3 to 5 times the weight of the machinery it is supposed to support. or may be designated in conformance with Section2.2.4. b.

the total combined engine.If the unbalanced inertial forces produced by the machine can be calculated.  . c.) The weight of the machine plus the weight of the foundation should be distributed over a sufficient soil area which is large enough to cause a bearing stress within the safe bearing capacity of the soil with a factor safety of five (5). driven equipment. a mass of weight equal to 10 to 20 times the forces should be used to dampen vibration. and foundation center of gravity must be kept below the foundation top.  For stability.

) Foundations are preferably built of concrete in the proportion of the one (1) Measure of Portland Cement to (2) Measures of sand and four (4) Measures of screened crushed stones.  The machine should not be placed on the foundation until (7) days have elapsed or operated until another seven (7) days have passed.) Foundations should be isolated from floor slabs or buildings footings at least 25mm around its perimeter to eliminate transmission of vibration. Fill openings with watertight mastic. .d.  When installing machinery above grade level of a building. e. additional stiffness must be provided in the structural members of the building to dampen machine vibration.

) Foundation bolts of specified size should be used and surrounded by a pipe sleeve with an inside diameter of at least three (3) times the diameter of the anchor bolt and a length of at least 18 ties the diameter of the bolt. .) Concrete foundations should have steel bar reinforcements placed both vertically and horizontally. No foundation bolts shall be less than 12 mm diameter. g.f. Weight of reinforcing steel should be from ½% to 1% of the weight of foundation. to avoid thermal cracking.

Grout all spaces under the machine bed with a thin mixture of one part cement and one part sand. . The level wedges should be removed after grout has thoroughly set and fill wedges holes with grout.) machine should be leveled by driving wedges between the machine’s base and concrete foundation and with the aid of a spirit level.h.

73 kg/m2/m depth of foundation. The Maximum pressure on the soil is equal to the pressure due to the weight and the wind movement.566.36 kg/m2/m deep foundation plus 2.) For Stacks – Stacks and foundation become integral structures.566. .4. Allowable pressure may be taken as the sum of 2.2 Specific Requirements a.132.36 kgm2/ due to wind or a total 5.

this chimney forms an integral structure.1. Heavy foundations are necessary. 2. Guyed Steel Stack – These are used principally because of their relative cheapness. Wall thickness decreases progressively to the top of the stack. Guyed Stacks seldom exceed 1.48 m high. Reinforced Concrete Chimney – Together with its base. . Guys are usually applied in one to three seats. The success depends to a great extent upon the care with which material is selected. and the angle between wires in a set is 120o for a set of three. Less area is required than for masonry or self – supporting steel stack because of the relatively thin walls compared to masonry stacks and the elimination of the conical flare of the self-supporting steel stack. They can be erected rapidly.83 m diameter and 30. The angle between the stack and guy wire is usually 60o . mixed and poured.

Table 2.1 Approximate Weight of Guyed Stacks Per Meter of Height Thickness of Material .

82 200.13 192.66 223.16 249.27 85.35 73.19 144.46 79.Stack Diameter (mm) 2.57 mm 4.85 218.54 185.02 97.35 .76 mm 6.49 111.53 165.74 150.35 mm Weight of Stacks kg/m 750 840 915 990 1065 1220 1370 1525 1675 1830 61.50 250.39 82.62 273.95 127.83 165.43 327.65 208.15 75.29 67.00 119.58 136.45 104.75 mm 3.70 90.90 119.24 182.29 97.45 229.50 135.25 144.37 mm 4.86 301.

c. Foundations perform three functions: .62 kg /cm2 Concrete shall be 1-2-4 mixture. foundations may be designed but in event should absurdly shallow foundations be allowed.b. It should be designed to support the machine load plus the machine load plus 25% for impact. floor loads and dead loads.) Diesel Engines – Manufacturers supply foundation drawings with each engine sent out. condenser load. The maximum unit pressure of turbine and generator on the reinforced concrete should not exceed 17. In the absence of such drawing.) For Steam Turbines –Foundations should have sufficient weight and mass to hold the turbine rigid against vibration. well placed and seasoned.

the top should be covered and wet down twice dialing until the forms are removed at the end if the third or fourth day. (a) Materials. Maintain proper alignment with the driven machinery. of 1 part cement. The entire foundation should be poured at one time.1. with no interruption than are required for spacing and ramming. . The top should be level and left rough for grouting. After pouring. 2 parts sand and 4 parts broken stone or gravel (50 mm max). The foundations should be concrete. Support the weight of the engine. The engine should not be placed on the foundation until 10 days have elapsed. 2. nor operated until after another 10 days. and Absorb the vibration produced by unbalanced forces created by reciprocating revolving masses. 3.

225 kg/m2 .(b) Soil Bearing Pressure – The first objective is achieved by makings its supporting area sufficiently large. to be 3. .406 kg/m2 may be used as weight of concrete. the lower factor for well-balanced multi-cylinder engines with fewer cylinders.890 kg/m2 for alluvial soil or wet clay to 12.2 to 4. The safe loads vary from about 4. (c) Depth – The foundation depth may be taken as good practical rule. or on less firm soil. (The latter is assumed to be safe load average.2 times the engine stroke.) in computation 2.

(d) Weight – The minimum weight required to absorb vibration could be expressed as a function of the reciprocating masses and the speed of the engine. for practical purposes it is simpler to use the empirical formula. __ Wf = e x We x √ N Where: Wf = weight of the foundation in kgs We = weight of the engine in kgs e = an empirical coefficient N = engine speed . However. rpm .

Table 2.2 Values of “e” in Foundation Formulas .

of Cylinder/s 1 e 0.2 4 0.15 Single-acting Single-acting Single-acting Single-acting Single-acting Single-acting Double-acting Double-acting Vertical Vertical Vertical Horizontal Horizontal duplex Horizontal twin duplex Horizontal Horizontal with tandem 2 3 4.12 0.8 1 2 4 1.24 0.Type of Engine Single-acting Cylinder Arrangement Vertical No.6.32 0.23 0.20 .25 0.14 0.11 0.

057 Medium speed 0.065 0.080 0.114 0. the volume of concrete for the foundation may be estimated from the date in the following table: Table 2.099 0.(e) Volume of Foundation . m3/kW No.190 0.If the weight and speed of the engine are not known.152 0.095 0.095 0.076 0.3 Volume of Concrete Foundation. of Cylinders High speed engine 1 2 3 4 5-8 0.072 engine Low speed engine 0.087 .152 0.118 0.228 0.

The Upper ends are surrounded by a 50 mm or 75 mm sheet metal pipe.(f) Anchor Bolts – To prevent pulling out of the bolts when the nuts are tightened. 460 mm to 610 mm long to permit them to be bent slightly to fit the holes of the bedplate. . the length embedded in concrete should be equal to at least thirty (30) times the bolt diameter.

Section 5.0 Anti-Pollution for Industrial Building .

the buildings housing the same should be appropriately designed ors should be provided with means to achieve compliance with the standards. If impractical. 5.1 All machines/equipment which characteristically generate noise shall be provided with appropriate enclosures to control emissions so as not to cause ambient noise level higher than the quality standards set by the government agency concerned.2 Buildings intended for noisy manufacturing activities should be appropriately designed or should be provided with means so as not to cause ambient noise level higher than the standards set by the government agency concerned. .5.

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