Sylvia, Alexia, Pardis

Yellow Fever
Every year, 200,000 people become infected, and 30,000 people die, from yellow fever Definition and measurements of mortality -A viral disease spread by infected mosquitoes to humans and monkeys -Fatality rate after contracting the disease ranges from 5% to 50% -Symptoms  Initial stage: Headache, vomiting, aches, fever  Remission period: Most people recover fully  Toxic stage: Liver/kidney failure, jaundice, delirium, coma Spatial Diffusion Northern South America and Mid-Africa. Few cases in Central America and N. America Impact -Throughout history, yellow fever has ravaged areas in Africa, Europe, and the Americas -Prevalent in Africa (30 countries), South America (9 countries) and Caribbean islands -Current outbreak in Paraguay since February 2008: 22 cases and 6 deaths (by March 6) -Economic impacts  Threat to forest industry and agriculture: e.g. South America  Tourism, trade and business halt e.g. southern United States in the late 19th century  Riots leading to economic stagnation: e.g. Paraguay -Social impacts  Stigma against countries that use pesticides. This has lead to fewer insecticides to kill the contagious and rapid growing bugs. Potential Solutions -Immunization with the 18-D vaccine  Mass vaccination of at least 90% of the population to prevent outbreaks -Preventative measures to reduce the mosquito population  Using pesticides, destroying breeding grounds, quarantine -Finding a cure  In 2007, World Community Grid launched new project to use computer to create model of virus, to be able to stop the replication of the virus Action by Paraguay and the world -Reduction of the mosquito population  Encouraging people to eliminate potential breeding sites  Arial spraying of pesticides in areas with higher risk of transmission -Immunization:  1.27 million people have been vaccinated in Paraguay (about 1/5 of population)  Doses of the vaccine are being sent from Brazil, Peru and the W.H.O.  South American countries have agreed to work with the Pan American Health Organization in coordinating immunization along the border areas Future of Paraguay -Mass immunization campaigns to prevent future outbreaks -Possible epidemic outbreaks in more urban areas that could cause more deaths

Sylvia, Alexia, Pardis

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