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PHN 3: NI DUNG PHN V C

Chuyn 1: KIM LOAI, CU HNH ELECTRON


A. KIN THC TRNG TM
I. VI TRI CA KIM LOI
Nhom IA (trH), IIA, IIIA(tr B), mt phn nhom IVA, VA,VIA
Cac nhom B (IBVIIIB)
Ho lantan va actini (2 hang cui BTH)
II. TNH CHT KIM LOI:
1. Tnh cht vt l chung: do, dn in, dn nhit, nh
kim.
Nguyn nhn : l do cc electron t do gy ra
- Kim loi do nht: Au (vng)
- Kim loi dn in, dn nhit tt nht: Ag, Cu, Au, Al, Fe
nh kim: hu ht kim loi

2. Tnh cht vt l ring : khi lng ring,


nhit nng chy, tnh cng.
Nguyn nhn: do bn lin kt KL, nt khi,
kiu mng tinh th ( khng do cc e t do)
+ KLR ln nht (nng nht): Os (osimi)
+ KLR nh nht (nh nht) : Li (liti)
+ tonc thp nht: Hg (thu ngn)
+ tonc cao nht: W (vonfam)
+ mm nht: Cs
(xesi)
+ cng nht: Cr
(crom)

3. Cu to mng tinh th
Kiu mng tinh th
Lp phng tm khi
Lp phng tm din
Lc phng

Kim loi
KLK (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs), Ba, Cr, Fe
Ca, Sr, Al , Fe , Cu
Be, Mg, Cr

4. Tnh cht ho hc chung:


C tnh kh (d b oxi ho) d nhng electron tr thnh ion dng : M Mn+ + ne
(do bn knh nguyn t ln, m in nh, in tch ht nhn nh, nng lng ion ho nh)
Cng thc

KLK
(IA)
R2O
ROH
R2CO3
RCl

Oxit
Hidroxit
Mui cacbonat
Mui
halogenua
5. ng dng:
Kim loi / hp cht
Xesi (Cs)
Na, K
Tecmit (Al + Fe2O3)
Phn chua
CuSO4 khan
Pb
NaHCO3

KLK th
(IIA)
RO
R(OH)2
RCO3
RCl2

IIIA

St

Crom

R2O3
R(OH)3

FeO, Fe3O4 Fe2O3


Fe(OH)2;Fe(OH)3
FeCO3
FeCl2;FeCl3

CrO;Cr2O3;CrO3
Cr(OH)2;Cr(OH)3

RCl3

ng dng
Lm t bo quang in
Lm cht trao i nhit trong l phn ng ht nhn
Dng hn ng ray xe la
Lm trong nc
Dng pht hin du vt ca nc trong cc cht lng
Ngn cn tia phng x
Thuc au d dy, nc gii kht

III. CU HNH ELECTRON:


* Cu hnh electron nguyn t:
Nhm IA (KLK):
Nhm IIA(KLK th)

Nhm IIIA

Mt s KL khc

ns1
Li (Z=3): 1s22s1
Na (Z=11):1s22s22p63s1
K (Z=19): [Ar] 4s1
*Cu hnh ion:
He
(ns2)
Li+ (Z=3) ; Be2+ (Z=4)
B3+ (Z=5)

ns2
Be (Z=4): 1s22s2
Mg (Z=12):1s22s22p63s2
Ca (Z=20): [Ar] 4s2

ns2 np1
B (Z=5): 1s22s22p1
Al (Z= 13):1s22s22p63s23p1

Ne
(1s22s22p6)
Na+ (Z=11) ; Mg2+(Z=12)
Al3+ (Z= 13)
O2- (Z=8)
F- (Z=9)

Cr (Z=24): [Ar] 3d54s1


Fe (Z=26): [Ar] 3d64s2
Cu ( Z=29): [Ar] 3d104s1

Ar
(1s22s22p63s23p6)
K+ (Z=19)
Ca2+ (Z=20)
S2- (Z=16)
Cl- (Z=17)

Mt s ion KL khc
Cr2+ (Z=24): [Ar] 3d4
Cr3+ (Z=24): [Ar] 3d3
Fe2+ (Z=26): [Ar] 3d6
Fe3+ (Z=26): [Ar] 3d5
Cu+ ( Z=29): [Ar] 3d10
Cu2+ ( Z=29): [Ar] 3d9

B. H THNG CU HI L THUYT (Trch trong cc thi TN 2007-2012)


------------------------------------------------------------------CHUYN 2: DY IN HO CA KIM LOI
A. KIN THC TRNG TM
I. Dy in ho kim loi:
Tnh kh ca kim loi gim, tnh oxi ha ca ion kim loi tng
Li+ K+ Ba2+ Ca2+ Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ Zn2+ Cr3+ Fe2+ Ni2+ Sn2+ Pb2+ 2H+ Cu2+ Fe3+ Hg 22 + Ag+ Pt2+ Au3+
Li K

Ba Ca

Na

Mg

Al

Zn

Cr

Fe

Ni

Sn

Tc dng vi H2O H2

Pb

H2 Cu

Fe2+ Hg

Ag

Pt

Au

Khng td vi
HNO3 v H2SO4
c nng

Tc dng vi axit (HCl, H2SO4 long) mui + H2


1. Nhn xt :
(1) Tnh kh kim loi t tri sang phi gim :
Mg > Al > Fe.
(2) Tnh oxy ho ion kim loi tri sang phi tng : Mg2+ < Al3+ < Fe2+
(3) Kim loi c tnh kh mnh s p/ vi ion kim loi c tnh oxi ho mnh theo quy tc anpha
2. Lu :
Fe + 2FeCl3
3FeCl2
Cu + 2FeCl3 2FeCl2 + CuCl2
Fe + Fe2(SO4)3
3FeSO4
Cu + Fe2(SO4)3 2FeSO4 + CuSO4
Fe + 2Fe (NO3)3
3 Fe(NO3)2
Cu + 2Fe (NO3)32Fe(NO3)2+Cu(NO3)2.
Fe + FeCl2
phn ng khng xy ra
Cu + FeCl2 p/ng khng xy ra
Fe + FeSO4
phn ng khng xy ra
Cu + FeSO4 p/ng khng xy ra
Fe + Fe(NO3)2
phn ng khng xy ra
Cu + Fe(NO3)2 p/ng khng xy ra
II. Cc cht tan v kt ta lu :
1.Kim loi, oxit, baz : Tan
Kim loi
Oxit
Baz
Ghi ch
Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs Li2O, Na2O, K2O, Rb2O, Cs2O
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH
Tt c
u tan
Ca, Sr, Ba
CaO, SrO, BaO
Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
Mg tan chm trong nc lnh, tan nhanh hn trong nc nng
Be khng phn ng mi iu kin.

2. Baz, oxit v mui (mt s khc phn nhn bit)


a. St (Fe) trng xm
b. Crom (Cr) : Trng bc
CrO en
Cr2O3 : xanh thm
Fe(OH)2 trng xanh, ho nu
CrCl2
CrCl3
FeCl2
Cr(OH)2: mu vng
Cr(OH)3 : Lc xm
FeSO4
mu lc nht
CrO3 : Rn , thm , tan trong nc
Fe(NO3)2
Na2CrO4 Vng chanh
Na2Cr2O7 : da cam
Fe(OH)3 : nu
c.
ng
(Cu)

FeCl3
* Cu(OH)2 : Xanh
Fe2(SO4)3
dd mu vng nu
CuCl2, CuSO4, Cu(NO3) : dd xanh
Fe(NO3)3
CuSO4 : khan (mu trng)

CHUYN 3: IU CH KIM LOI N MN KIM LOI


A. KIN THC TRNG TM
I. IU CH KIM LOI:
1.Nguyn tc: kh cc ion kim loi thnh nguyn t kim loi : Mn+ + ne M
2. Cc phng php:
in phn nng chy
Nhit luyn
Thu luyn + in phn dung dch
Li K Ba Ca Na Mg Al
Mn Zn Cr Fe Ni Sn Pb Mn Zn Cr Fe Ni Sn Pb Cu
Hg Ag Pt Au
Dng dng in mt chiu Dng nhit cao cht kh KL ng trc y KL ng sau ra khi
kh cc ion kim loi.
mnh (C, CO, H2, Al) kh cc dd mui ca chng (tr:K, Na, Ca, Ba)
+
Li, Na, K: pnc mui oxit kim loi v kim loi. VD: VD: Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu
halogenua (RCl) hoc hidroxit Fe2O3 + 2Al t Al2O3 + 2Fe
(ROH)
CuO + CO t Cu + CO2
+ Mg, Ca, Ba : pnc mui
+pdd mui clorua (H2O khng tham
halogenua (RCl2)
gia):
Cu + Cl2
CuCl2 dpdd
+ Kim loi Al : pnc Al2O3
+ pdd mui sunfat, mui nitrat (H2O
tham gia):
Cu + O2 +H2SO4
nh lut Faraday:
CuSO4 + H2O dpdd
Cu + O2+2HNO3
m = AIt / nF
Cu(NO3)2 +H2O dpdd
F = 96500
Ch :
- Cc m : (Catt ) xy ra qu trnh kh
- Cc dng : (Ant ) xy ra q/trnh oh
o

II. N MN KIM LOI : n mn ha hc v n mn in ha hc


* Phn bit : Ging : u l p oxi ho kh
Khc : - n mn ha hc : khng pht sinh dng in.
- n mn in ha hc : pht sinh dng in.
* iu kin c n mn in ha (3 k )
* C ch n mn in ha.
in cc m (ant) : M Mn+ + ne : qu trnh oxh ( kim loi c tnh kh mnh hn b n mn)
in cc dng (catt) : 2H+ +2e H2 : qu trnh kh
* Cch chng n mn kim loi: bo v b mt (sn , m,) v bo v in ha (dng kim loi c tnh kh
mnh hn bo v kim loi c tnh kh yu hn)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHUYN 4: LNG TNH


Ho cht

Phn ng vi
Phn ng vi
Lng tnh
Axit
Kim
Al ; Zn
x
x
Khng
Cr
x
Khng
Khng
Al2O3 ; Al(OH)3
x
x
x
ZnO ; Zn(OH)2
x
x
x
Cr2O3 ; Cr(OH)3
x
x
x

HCO 3
x
x
x
(NH4)2CO3 , CH3COONH4
x
x
x
Aminoaxit (NH2-CH2-COOH)
x
x
x
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CHUYN 5 : AXIT
I. Axit HCl, H2SO4 long , HBr, H3PO4
1. Kim loi (Trc H) + Axit Mui + H2
2. C 5 kim loi khng tc dng axit Cu, Hg, Ag, Pt, Au
Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 ;
Cu + HCl Khng xy ra ; Cu + 1/2 O2 + 2HCl CuCl2 +H2O
II. Axit HNO3 v H2SO4 c
1. Tc dng tt c kim loi tr Au, Pt
2. HNO3 c ngui v H2SO4 c ngui khng tc dng Al, Fe, Cr
3. Cc cht c tnh kh u b oxy ho bi HNO3, H2SO4 c,nng: FeO, Fe3O4, Fe, Kim loi,
nhng cht c s oxi ha cha cao,...
cht c tnh kh
Kim loi

Kim loi
cht c tnh kh

HNO3loang

HNO3 c

+ H2SO4 c

Mui

NO

NO2
A

H2O

(ho tr cao nht)


A C th l: N2O,N2, NH3, NH4NO3
Mui
+
SO2
+
H2O
t
(ho tr cao nht)
(S hoc H2S)
o

Bi tp: Cn bng, cho bit tng s h s


1. Fe + HNO3
Fe(NO3)3
+
NO2 +
H2O
2. Cu
+ HNO3
Cu(NO3)2
+
NO2 +
H2O
3. Fe
+ HNO3
Ca(NO3)2
+
NO
+
H2O
4. Cu
+ HNO3
Cu(NO3)2
+
NO
+
H2O
5. Al + HNO3
Al(NO3)3
+
NO2 +
H2O
6. Al + HNO3
Al(NO3)3
+
NO
+
H2O
7. Al + H2SO4
Al2(SO4)3
+
SO2 +
H2O
8. Cu +
H2SO4
CuSO4
+
SO2 +
H2O.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------CHUYN 6 : HIN TNG HO HC
I L thuyt
1. C 4 kim loi ( K, Na, Ca, Ba) tc dng trong nc cho baz + H2
Cht rn t t tan ra, c kh bay ra.
Vd:
Na + H2O NaOH + H2
2. C 4 oxit baz ( K 2O, Na2O, CaO, BaO) tc dng H2O to baz
Cht rn t t tan ra.
Vd:
Na2O + H2O 2 NaOH

3. C 4 baz tan trong nc ( KOH, NaOH, Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2)


Cht rn tan t t trong nc
4. Al Tc dng dung dch KOH, NaOH, Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2)
Nhm t t tan ra v si bt : Al + NaOH + H2O NaAlO2 + 3/2H2
5. Al2O3 , Al(OH)3 tc dng dd KOH, NaOH, Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2.
Al2O3 + 2NaOH NaAlO2 + H2O
;
Al(OH)3 + NaOH NaAlO2 +H2O
Cht rn t t tan ra
6. Kim loi (trc H2 ) + HCl, H2SO4 to mui v si bt kh H2
* Cht rn t t tan v si bt.
Vd: Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2
7. Oxit v hidroxit tc dng HCl, H2SO4 long: Cht rn t t tan ra
II. Bi tp
1. Vit phng trnh v nu hin tng
1. Cho Na d vo dung dch FeSO4, FeCl3, CuSO4, MgSO4:..................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
2. Cho Na d vo dung dch AlCl3, Zn(NO3)2, CrCl3:.............................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
3. Cho dd NaOH vo dung dch FeCl2, FeCl3, MgCl2, CuCl2:..................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
4. Cho dd NaOH d vo dung dch AlCl3, CrCl3, ZnCl2:........................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
5. Cho CO2 d vo dung dch Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2:..................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
6. Cho CO2 d vo dung dch NaAlO2, KAlO2:......................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
7. Cho HCl d vo dung dch NaAlO2, KAlO2:......................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
8. Cho NH3 d vo dung dch MgCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3:.....................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
9. Cho NH3 d vo dung dch ZnCl2 , CuCl2, AgNO3:.............................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
2. Trc nghim:
Cu 1. Cho Ca vo dung dch Na2CO3 th thy hin tng :
A. Ca kh Na+ thnh Na, xut hin kt ta trng CaCO3.
B. Ca tan trong nc to bt kh hiro , sau c kt ta trng CaCO3.
C. Ca kh Na+ thnh Na, Na tc dng vi nc to kh H2 v c kt ta trng.
D. Ca tc dng vi nc , ng thi dung dch b c do Ca(OH)2 t tan.
Cu 2. Khi cho dd NaOH t t n d vo dd AlCl3 v khi cho dd HCl t t n d vo dd NaAlO2 th c hai
trng hp u c hin tng xy ra l:
A- Lc u c to kt ta sau b ho tan
B. To kt ta khng b ho
tan
C. Lc u khng c hin tng g xy ra, sau to kt ta keo trng
D. Khng to kt ta
Cu 3: Nu cho dung dch NaOH vo dung dch FeCl2 th xut hin
A. kt ta mu nu .
B. kt ta mu trng hi xanh, sau chuyn dn sang mu nu
C. kt ta mu trng hi xanh.
D. kt ta mu xanh lam.
Cu 4: M t ph hp vi th nghim khi nhng thanh Cu (d) vo dung dch FeCl3 l:
A. B mt thanh kim loi c mu trng
B. Dung dch b t vng nu qua xanh

C. Dung dch c mu vng nu


D. Khi lng thanh kim loi tng.
Cu 5: Khi cho dd NH3 t t n d vo dd Al(NO3)3 v khi dn CO2 t t n d vo dd KAlO2 th c 2
trng hp u c hin tng xy ra l :
A. Khng to kt ta
B. Lc u khng c hin tng g xy ra sau to kt ta keo
trng
C. To kt ta khng b ho tan
D. Lc u to kt ta sau b ho tan
Cu 6: Khi cho t t n d dung dch mui Al(NO3)3 vo dung dch NaOH th c hin tng
A. Lc u c to kt ta sau b ho tan
B. khng c hin tng g xy ra
C. Lc u khng c hin tng g xy ra, sau to kt ta keo trng D. Khng to kt ta
----------------------------------------------------------------------------CHUYN 7, 8 : TNH KH- OXI HO- NHIT PHN MUI
V MT S VN KHC
I. Tnh kh, tnh oxi ho
1. Cht kh (cht b oxi ho) : S oxi ho tng
2. Cht oxi ho (cht b kh) : S oxi ho gim
3. Tnh oxi ho - kh cc cht thng gp:
Tnh kh
Tnh kh - tnh oxi ho
Tnh oxi ho
Kim loi
Fe
FeO, Fe(OH)2, FeCl2, FeSO4, Fe3O4
Fe2O3 ; FeCl3 ; Fe2(SO4)3 hay Fe(III)
Cr
NaCrO2, CrCl3 hay Cr(III)
CrO3 ; Na2CrO4 ; Na2Cr2O7 hay Cr(VI)
II. Phn ng nhit phn:
1. Mui cacbonat : CO32+ Mui cacbonat ca kim loi kim ( nhm IA) khng b nhit phn
+ Ch c mui cacbonat kim loi kim th (kim loi IIA): b nhit phn to oxit v CO2
MgCO3 t MgO + CO2
K2CO3 t khng xy ra phn ng
t
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
Na2CO3 t khng xy ra phn ng
BaCO3 t BaO + CO2
2. Mui Hidrocacbonat : HCO3Mui hidrocacbonat ca kim loi kim v kim loi kim th u b nhit phn
VD: 2NaHCO3 t
Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O ;
2KHCO3 t K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
Ba(HCO3)2 t BaCO3 + CO2 + H2O
BaCO3 t BaO +CO2+ H2O (nhit phn n cng)
t
Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O
CaCO3 t CaO + CO2 + H2O (tng t)
Mg(HCO3)2 t MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O MgCO3 t MgO + CO2 + H2O (tt)
3. Mui Nitrat : NO3Cc mui nitrat ca kim lai
Cc mui nitrat ca kim lai hat
Mui nitrat ca kim lai hat
t
hat ng mnh (trc Mg)

ng trung bnh (Mg Cu) oxit


kim ng yu (sau Cu) t kim lai +
t
NO2 + O2
mui nitrit + O2
lai + NO2 + O2
t
t
VD: KNO3 KNO2 + O2
4Al(NO3)3 2Al2O3 +12NO2 +3O2 2AgNO3 t 2 Ag + 2NO2 +O2
t
Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO2)2 + O2
Canxi nitrit
4. Hidroxit (Baz)
* Baz tan khng b nhit phn : KOH, NaOH, Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
* Baz khng tan b nhit phn to oxit + H2O
Mg(OH)2 t MgO + H2O ;
2Fe(OH)3 t Fe2O3 + 3H2O
Ch : Nu nhit phn Fe(OH)2 ngoi khng kh: (tng t vi Cr(OH)2 )
4Fe(OH)2 trng xanh + O2 + 2H2O 4Fe(OH)3 nu . Sau : 2Fe(OH)3 t Fe2O3 + 3H2O
Hay vit gn: 2Fe(OH)2 + O2 t Fe2O3 + 2H2O
III. Nc cng: nc cha nhiu ion Ca2+ v Mg2+
Phn loi
Cha gc
Cht lm mm nc cng
o

Tm thi

HCO 3

Vnh cu

Cl- , SO 24

Ton phn

C : HCO 3; Cl- ; SO
2
4

un nng, Ca(OH)2 va , Na2CO3 hoc


K2CO3 ; Na3PO4 hoc K3PO4
Na2CO3 hoc K2CO3 ; Na3PO4 hoc K3PO4
Na2CO3 hoc K2CO3 ; Na3PO4 hoc K3PO4

IV. Thch cao (canxi sunfat): CaSO4


+ Thch cao sng: CaSO4.2H2O (dng sn xut xi mng)
+ Thch cao nung: CaSO4. H2O hoc 2CaSO4.H2O (dng c tng v b bt khi gy xng)
+ Thch cao khan: CaSO4
V. Mt s Qung:
Qung st:
Qung nhm:
Khong vt ca Ca, Mg
+ Manhetit: Fe3O4(cha nhiu st nht,him nht) (Boxit : Al2O3.2H2O )
Canxit (CaCO3)
+ Hmantit : Fe2O3
Magiezit ( MgCO3)
+ Hmantit nu: Fe2O3.nH2O
olomit (CaCO3.MgCO3)
+ Xedirit: FeCO3
+ Pirit: FeS2
VI. Hp kim:
+ Vng ty: Au-Ag-Cu
+ St ty: Fe-Sn
+ ng bch: Cu-Ni
+ Vng 9 cara: Au-Cu
+ Tn: Fe-Zn
+ ng thanh: Cu-Sn
+ electron: hp kim ca Al + Gang, thp : Fe - C
+ ng thau: Cu-Zn
VII. Mt s vn cn lu :
+ Phn chua: K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O. Khi thay K+ bng Li+, NH4+, Na+ ta c phn nhm
+ S chuyn mu ca mui cromat: C2O72+
OH
CrO42+
H+
icromat (mu da cam)
cromat (mu vng)
+ Kim loi khng tc dng vi nc nhit thng: Be
+ Trong nhm kim loi kim, kim loi c nhit nng chy thp nht: Cs
+ Hin tng xm thc v thch nh :
CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Ca(HCO3)2

CHUYN 9 : TCH HN HP - PHN BIT CHT RN NHN BIT


I Tch hn hp
Dng H2O, Ddd axit hoc dd kim
1. Tch hn hp Cu, Fe
2. Tch hn hp Ag, Mg.
3. Tch hn hp Zn, Cu.
4. Tch hn hp Al, Ag
II. Phn bit cht rn
* B1: Cho H2O vo: tch cht tan v khng tan
* B2: cho dd kim: tch cht tan trong kim
C th hon chuyn
* B3: cho dd HCl : phn bit cht tan trong axit (trc H2)
III. Phn bit mt s cht v c.
A. Nhn bit cc ion v c :
1) Nhn bit cc cation:
Cation
Dung dch thuc th
Hin tng
+
Li
Th mu ngn la
Ngn la mu
Na+
Th mu ngn la
Ngn la mu vng
+
K
Th mu ngn la
Ngn la mu tm
- o
+
Dd kim OH (t )+qu tm m
C kh NH3(mi khai), lm xanh giy qu tm m
NH 4
Ca2+
Ba2+
Mg2+
Fe2+
Fe3+
Cu2+

Kt ta CaCO3, b tan khi sc CO2

Dd CO32 v CO2
Dd H2SO4 long
Dd kim OH
Dd kim OH (dd NH3)

Kt ta trng BaSO4 khng tan trong axt d


Kt ta trng Mg(OH)2
Kt ta trng xanh Fe(OH)2 sau ho nu trong
khng kh Fe(OH)3
Kt ta nu Fe(OH)3
Kt ta xanh Cu(OH)2
Kt ta xanh Cu(OH)2, sau tan trong NH3 d to
thnh dung dch xanh m [Cu(NH3)4]2+
Kt ta, sau kt ta tan trong kim d.

Dd kim OH
Dd kim OH
Dd NH3 d

Al3+, Cr3+, Dd kim OH d


Zn2+, Be2+
2) Nhn bit cc anion:
Anio
Dung dch thuc th
n
NO3 Cu v dd axit H2SO4 long
SO

2
4
2
3

CO

Cl

S2-

Dd c mu xanh, kh NO khng mu ha nu trong KK


+

Dd BaCl2 trong mi trng H

Kt ta trng BaSO4 khng tan trong cc axit mnh

Dd H+ v nc vi trong

Kh CO2 lm c nc vi trong

Dd AgNO3

Kt ta trng AgCl khng tan trong axit mnh nhng


tan trong NH3.
Kt ta en khng tan trong axit mnh

dd Ag+ (hoc Cu2+, Pb2+ , Hg2+)

B. Nhn bit cc cht kh:


Kh
Mu, mi
CO2
Khng mu, khng mi
SO2
Khng mu, mi hc, c
Cl2
Vng lc, mi hc, c
H2S
Khng mu, mi trng
thi, c
NH3
Khng mu, mi khai
O2
NO2

Hin tng

Khng mu, khng mi


Nu , mi hc, c

Dung dch thuc th


Dd Ca(OH)2 hay Ba(OH)2 d
Dd Br2 hay KMnO4
Dd KI, h tinh bt
Dd Ag+ hoc Cu2+ hoc Pb2+

Hin tng
Kt ta trng
dd Br2, dd KMnO4 b mt mu.
Dd c mu xanh tm
Kt ta en khng tan trong axit mnh

HCl (kh) hoc qu tm t Khi trng (NH4Cl), qu tm t ha


hoc dd phenolphtalein.
xanh, dd phenolphtalein ha hng.
Que m cn than hng
Que m bng chy