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NOISE AND COMMUNICATION NOISE - Is any unwanted introduction of energy tending to interfere with the proper reception and reproduction of transmitted signals. - Noise communication system originates both in the channels and in the communication equipment. - Noise cannot be avoided completely but its effects can be reduced by various means such as reducing the signal bandwidth, increasing the transmitter amplifiers for weak signals. DISTORTION - Any waveform deviation caused by the imperfect response of the system to the desired signal. INTERFERENCE - Any contamination by extrataneous, or external signals from human sources, other transmitters, power lines, etc.
TYPES OF NOISE 1. EXERNAL NOISE - Which is property of the channel 2. INTERNAL NOISE - Which originates within the communication equipment. EXTERNAL NOISE 1. ATMOSPHERIC NOISE - Also called static, is caused by lightning discharges in thunderstorms and other natural electric disturbances occurring in the atmosphere. - Most of the energy of lighting is found at relatively low frequencies up to several MHz. - AM radio broadcasting is affected by thus type of noise during thunderstorm.
ECEG07 – PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION PRELIM. 2011. 2. EXTRA TERRESTIAL NOISE / SPACE NOISE a. SOLAR NOISE – a constant noise radiation from the sun, electrical disturbances due to solar cycle activities that repeat every 11 years like flares and sunspots. b. COSMIC NOISE (SKYNOISE) – RF noise radiated by distant stars. 3. EQUIPMENT NOISE / INDUSTRIAL NOISE - Noise is generated by equipment that produces stacks. - Examples include automobile engines and electric motors with bushes. - Any fast rise time voltage or current can also generate interference, even without a range. Light dimmers and computers fall into this category. - Note: Noise is generated in all electronic equipment. INTERNAL NOISE 1. THERMAL NOISE - Also called White, Johnson or Gaussian. - Produced by the random motion of electrons in a conductor due to heat. - The term ‘noise’ is often used alone to refer to this type of noise which is found every number in electronics circuitry. - There is equal power in every Hertz of bandwidth. - An equal mixture of noise of all frequencies. Noise Power from a Conductor
PN = KTB
Where: PN - noise power in Watts K - Boltzmann’s constant - 1.28x10-23 J/K T - absolute temperature in Kelvin, K B - noise power bandwidth in Hertz, Hz
Note: Thermal noise power exists in all conductors and resistors at any temperature above absolute zero. The only way to reduce it is to decrease the temperature or the bandwidth of a circuit (or both).
ECEG07 – PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION PRELIM. 2011. CRYOGENICS – technique used to reduce noise in amplifiers used with very low level signals. Note: Using a bandwidth greater than required for a given application is simply an invitation to noise problems. Note: Thermal noise does not depend on the type of material involved or the amount of current passing through it. Carbon composition resistors and semiconductor junctions are examples of materials and devices that produce other types of noise that depend on current. NOISE VOLTAGE, VN Thevenin equivalent of noisy resistor network
EXAMPLE: A 300Ω resistor is connected across the 300Ω antenna input of a television receiver. The bandwidth of the receiver is 6MHz, and the resistor is at room temperature 68˚F. Find the noise power and noise voltage applied to the receiver input.
ECEG07 – PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION PRELIM. 2011. 2. SHOT NOISE - Has equal energy in every Hertz of bandwidth, at frequencies from DC into the 6Hz region. - Due to random variations in current flow in active devices. - The name ‘shot noise’ describes the random arrival of electrons arriving at the vacuum tube, like individual pellets of shot from a shotgun. - Usually represented by a current source. - The noise current for either a vacuum or a junction diode is given by the equation
IN q Io B
- RMS noise current - value for frequencies much less than the reciprocal of the carrier transit time* - magnitude of the charge of an electron - 1.6x10-19 ˚C - DC bias current in the device in amperes - bandwidth over which the noise is observed from Hz
*TRANSIT TIME – the time a charge carrier spends in the device.
3. PARTITION NOISE - Similar to shot noise in its spectrum and mechanism of generation but it occurs only in devices where a single current separates into two or more paths. - Its amount depends greatly on the characteristics of the particular device. 4. EXCESS NOISE - Also cause flicker noise of 1/f noise because noise power varies inversely with frequency. - Sometimes called pink noise. - Found in tubes but in more serious problem in semiconductors and in carbon resistors. - Believed to be caused by variations in carrier identity. - Is rarely a problem in communication circuits because it declines with increasing frequency and is usually insignificant above approximately 1KHZ.
ECEG07 – PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION PRELIM. 2011. PINK NOISE - Refers to any noise that has equal power for octave rather than per Hertz. - Often used for testing and setting up audio systems.