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The capture of Emilio Aguinaldo marked the end of the Filipino-American war as far as as the Filipino elites and the Americans were concerned. Filipino masses continued the resistance. Three sector perspectives of resistance: Christian Muslim Tribal Katipunan Inertia General Miguel Malvar(Batangas) General Vicente Lukban(Samar) Macario Sakay--> tried to put up his own “Tagalog Republic.” Dominador Gomez- persuaded Sakay to surrender. Luzon, 1905 Disturbances reported in Cavite and Batangas. 1907--> Strong mass movement led by Salvador Felipe (‘Apo Ipe’) -->Santa Iglesia movement (which means crusade of the “Holy Church”) 1910-->weakening movement in Nueva Ecija led by Simeon Mandac Bicol, 1902 Simeon Ola(Guinobatan, Albay) --> led the resistance in Bicol --> has been suggested as the last Filipino general to surrender (on September 25, 1903) in place of Malvar. (from wiki) Together with the “insurrectos” (rebels) Col. Harry Bandholtz- noticed Ola’s significant role in the American resistance in Bicol but regarded Ola as a notorious ladron. Reconcentration system (March-October 1903) -->Food and accommodation are inadequate and deplorable. -->300,000 casualties Governor Luke Wright and Dr. Pardo de Tavera-->went to Albay to persuade the people to surrender Ola. September 22, 1903--> Col. Bandholtz signed agreement with Ola promising the latter immunity and “other things.” Later, the Americans denied promising Ola anything. Late October-->Ola surrendered joined by about 500-600 followers. Ola turned state witness against those who joined him.
The Continuing Resistance Hand-out



1904.) In Samar “Tauiran Affair” -->One of the serious incident --> July 10. They burned the flag and the teniente. Some were sentenced under Vagrancy Law. 1906. “Cantaguic Affair” -->led by Juliano Caducoy -->the police lieutenant and others were killed. Misamis(May 1903). Vice Governor Henry C. By 1906-->situation has not been changed and thousands of people joined the pulahan movement. Clark. -->after the killing. Curry and the pulahanes reached an agreement which the latter were to surrender on March 24. in the village of Tauiran.the resistance is unlike in Surigao because real insurrectos were part of the resistance. Kerosene was poured on him and he was taken into the town square. 1903--> Howard Taft reported that a group of “outlaws” entered the town of Surigao and attacked the Constabulary under Capt. others under the Sedition Law. Ola was given 30 years in prison for turning state witness. The captain was killed and the attackers. Visayas. 1903 March 23. the disturbance began in June 1906 Governor Jaime de Veyra--> “most obnoxious Anti-Americans” Mindanao. they went to the town hall where the teniente was seized and the American flag was put around his head. Several towns had the same fate as Tauiran and Cantaguic. he ordered Governor Curry of Samar to solve the problem. 4. Caducoy warned the people that that same fate awaits those who served the flag. 1902 Pulahanes--> name given to the insurrectos (because of the red garments and because they leave a certain place that is on fire. More serious cases were disposed of under Brigandage Act which carried death penalty. Then they cut off the teniente’s lips. The Continuing Resistance Hand-out 2 czap . Ide-->became Acting Governor-General on Nov. Instead of surrender 30 pulahanes under Nasario Aguilar attacked the garrison. town of Gandara -->100 houses were burned and 21 people killed. burned the barrio and took away 50 captives. In Leyte.Several followers were freed. 1905.

-->Sultan of Binidayan was suspected by the American being involved in the Tungul Affair. 1903 -->Sulu’s most colourful leader from the masses. (Tausug version) (English version) -->The treaty clearly provides for the establishment of American rule in Sulu and the acceptance of American sovereignty by the Sultan and Datus. Panglima Hassan. the local leaders agreed to allow the Americans the freedom to trade and engaged in commerce as well as the right to fly their own flag. Bates -->August 20.Muslim Struggle “Moro Resistance” Lanao Resistance June 1902-->Datu Tungul of Onayan attacked Camp Vicars. In 1906-->he again defied the Americans. peace & order. trade. He was arrested and ran amok(run riot or go in rampage) when he failed to convince the Americans of his innocence. Hughes Scott-->captured Hassan. especially the Sultan. 1908-->he attacked Dansalan. -->Datu Ampuanagus defied American troops. except matters referring to religious practices and customs. 1907-->military contingents engaged Amapuanagus at Didaganan. foreign relation. His death triggered unrest among the Lanao Muslims. the Americans agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the people in case of disputes and conflicts. Peace negotiations led to Ampuanagus surrender. -->It allowed the American to interfere even in the resolution of disputes concerning matters related to slavery. Sulu Resistance Bates Treaty--> signed by Sultan Jamalul Kiram and Gen. Finally ending the Lanao resistance. The Continuing Resistance Hand-out 3 czap . In Taraca-->May 1903 -->John Pershing stated campaign against the Lake Moros. 1899 Under the treaty. Only 3 Muslims escaped and 1 American soldier was seriously wounded. Col. In Maciu-->led by Sultan Ganduli & Sultan Tanagan -->150-200 Muslims fought furiously against Americans. -->defied American threat when he showed non-compliance with the American demand of at lest a nominal recognize. taxes. John C. Likewise. General Leonard Wood-->persisting campaign against Hassan. to act in consultation with the local leaders. commerce.

Col. Dat Julkanain. Example is Pala--> he organize his own band and defied American rule from 19051906. March 5. -->caused by a rumor that American intention was to wipe out the Jolo Muslims. -->his notoriety was based not only on the killing of victims and carting away of value but also on his obsession to get beautiful women. Jikiri. two feet wide. With this. Prominent leaders of Patikul were tapped as peace emissaries.S where the anti-independence forces in Congress tried to blow up the Muslim attitude to American rule as an evidence of lack of preparedness for self-government. John White were ordered to poceed to Jolo with 50 men. Hassan’s death did not end Sulu’s resistance. 1906-->the battle began up to March 8 The effect of Dajo massacre on the Filipino independence movement was to blunt the Filipino parliamentary struggle in the U. Three small tracks. The crater has fresh water and stocked with food resources.Datu Kalbi. on the third day they returned to Jolo to report their pointless mission. Hassan escaped. Sulu Gov. 1906 -->Hundred of Muslims trekked towards the crater of an extinct Volcano. Scott ordered immediate assault on Dajo. His obsession to beautiful women to some psychological caused or heightened by ugly facial features nature given him since birth. For two days. Hugh W. Scott (Zamboanga Constabulary) & Capt. the emissaries tried to persuade the defenders to abandon their resistance. Bud Dajo. Others were inspired by Panglima’s exploits.-->deceived by Hassan to stop in his hideout. Wood ordered troops to move to Bud Bagsak the next day. The Continuing Resistance Hand-out 4 czap . -->American authorities denied the truth of the rumor -->Bud Dajo is formidable and strategic. Bud Dajo. suppose to pick up his wife. Moro informers confirmed Hassan’s location in the crater of Bud Bagsak. & Panglima Bandahala.1907 -->native of Jolo -->began his piratical attacks on trading vessels early in the American period. led to the crater about 15 acres.

Presbyterian missions contributed to health. The Continuing Resistance Hand-out 5 czap . In Visayas( particularly in Negros and Iloilo). Pershing tried to convince them that American intention was not to resort to final use of arms but rather to persuade them to surrender their arms for the sake of peace. they opposed the Spanish elements. 1912 -->with 300 followers -->movement concentrated in Buldon & Upper Cotabato. 1903 -->defy American offer of peace and persuade Maranaos to join the Anti-colonial movement. -->Gen. Highlander’s Reaction Back to Tradition Tribal groups although not joined with Aguinaldo.1906--> he was cornered ny American troops under Fank McCoy. Negotiations were made between American and Filipino officials and they finally convinced Alamada to surrender. He offered two plans in arresting or killing Alamada. -->ended with pax Americana dawning in Sulu as over 500 rifles were gathered from the island. Datu Alamada. March 1906-->Americans assaulted his fort in Serenaya. October 31-->13 of his followers were killed including him and 3 of his sons. sanitation & education. H. In Mindanao. Tribal communities in Luzon were won over by Americans Episcopal missionaries and bay medical missions and schools. Cotabato Resistance. 1913 -->Lati people took their stand at Bud Bagsak.Battle of Bud Bagsak. killed several Muslims and capture Datu Djimbangan(Ali’s brother) and held hostage to force Ali to surrender. 1909 Only violent disturbance reported in Mindanao was among he Subanons. But Ali refused. Subanun Affair. 1903-1912 There were only two significant events marked Maguindanao’s resistance. Datu Ali. Datu Inik collaborated with the Americans.H. -->”fight” on November 28 at the sitio of Bobhoran between gov’t forces under Capt. Elarth and about eght to nine hundred Subanuns and Moros. But he opted to surrender to a fellow Filipino rather than an American official. October 22.

hence getting the attention of attention of American authorities. -->In 1905. -->Nationalistic play that indicted American rule and indicted the outbreak of violent Filipino resistance to further American intrusion. and in 1912. Literature of Resistance Tagalog writers expressed resistance through zarzuela and drama.Before the encounter.000 fine. Juan Abad-->wrote the play Tinakalang Ginto. Aurelio Tolentino-->Kahapon. -->the play was shown in various theatres in the country. -->Because of this. -->De Veyra and Palma were regular contributors. Zarzuela-->Spanish comic operetta. he was arrested and tried for sedition and was given maximum sentence of life imprisonment. El Renaimiento-->founded by Palma -->exposed American anomalies and abuses in the government. Ngayon at Bukas. The Continuing Resistance Hand-out 6 czap . Worcester summed up in libellous editorial entitled “Aves de Rapiña”(Birds of Prey). --> continued to write seditious plays including Isang Punlo ng Kaaway. Forbes. Although it was reduced to 15. he was punished by the court for sedition and sentenced to two years imprisonment and $2. especially in Manila. -->was translated to Bikol and Pampango. and then 8. Jaime C. De Veyra of Leyte Sergio Osmeña of Cebu Rafael Palma of Manila El Nuevo Dia-->founded by Osmeña -->known for its nationalistic fervor. -->most famous cases was that of Interior Secretary Dean C. he was pardoned by Governor William C. it was reported on November 1 that thousands of Subanuns were leaving their homes and were heading towards the mountains of Dapeok and Malindang on the “call of two boy prophets” who told them that the end of the wold was coming. Newsmen and Journalists were also active in articulating the value of independence.