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Microprocessors, also called computer chips, are made using a process called lithography. Specifically, deep-ultraviolet lithography is used to make the current breed of microchips and was most likely used to make the chip that is inside your computer. Lithography is akin to photography in that it uses light to transfer images onto a substrate. Silicon is the traditional substrate used in chip making. To create the integrated circuit design that's on a microprocessor, light is directed onto a mask. A mask is like a stencil of the circuit pattern. The light shines through the mask and then through a series of optical lenses that shrink the image down. This small image is then projected onto a silicon, or semiconductor, wafer. The wafer is covered with a light-sensitive, liquid plastic called photoresist. The mask is placed over the wafer, and when light shines through the mask and hits the silicon wafer, it hardens the photoresist that isn't covered by the mask. The photoresist that is not exposed to light remains somewhat gooey and is chemically washed away, leaving only the hardened photoresist and exposed silicon wafer. The key to creating more powerful microprocessors is the size of the light's wavelength. The shorter the wavelength, the more transistors can be etched onto the silicon wafer. More transistors equal a more powerful, faster microprocessor. Deep-ultraviolet lithography uses a wavelength of 240 nanometers As chipmakers reduce to smaller wavelengths, they will need a new chip making technology. The problem posed by using deep-ultraviolet lithography is that as the light's wavelengths get smaller, the light gets absorbed by the glass lenses that are intended to focus it. The result is that the light doesn't make it to the silicon, so no circuit pattern is created on the wafer. This is where EUVL(Extreme Ultraviolet Lithogrphy) will take over. In EUVL, glass lenses will be replaced by mirrors to focus light and thus EUV lithography can make use of smaller wave lengths. Hence more and more transistors can be packed into the chip. The result is that using EUV lithography, we can make chips that are upto 100 times faster than today’s chips with similar increase in storage capacity. ECE Department, JSSATE Bangalore Page 1

Lithography is the most challenging technology in the semiconductor industry. The most promising next generation lithography technology is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). EUVL was proposed long ago, in 1988, but its implementation has been postponed several times. Presently, most ―showstoppers‖ are gone, but there are still several challenges that need to be addressed. The semiconductor industry is now getting ready to use EUVL in a pre-production phase, and EUVL might be implemented for 32 nm and 22 nm technological nodes. High volume manufacturing EUVL printers will be delivered to multiple end-users from 2010.. In many respects, EUVL may be viewed as a natural extension of optical projection lithography since it uses short wavelength radiation (light) to carry out projection imaging. In spite of this similarity, there are major differences between the two technologies. Most of these differences occur because the properties of materials in the EUV portion of the electromagnetic spectrum are very different from those in the visible and UV wavelength ranges. The purpose of this paper is to explain what EUVL is and why it is of interest, to describe the current status of its development, and to provide the reader with an understanding of the challenges that must be overcome if EUVL is to fulfill its promise in high-volume manufacture. Over the next several years it will be necessary for the semiconductor industry to identify a new lithographic technology that will carry it into the future, eventually enabling the printing of lines as small as 30 nm. Potential successors to optical projection lithography are being aggressively developed. These are known as ―Next-Generation Lithographies‖ (NGL’s). EUV lithography (EUVL) is one of the leading NGL technologies; others include X-Ray lithography, ionbeam projection lithography, and electron-beam projection lithography.

ECE Department, JSSATE Bangalore

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Currently. ECE Department.5 nm). JSSATE Bangalore Page 3 . which is the determining factor in keeping pace with the quest of the electronics industry to shrink ICs and other related products even more. the wavelength of the exposure light had to be reduced several times. X-ray (0. With the progress of technology and the reduction of the feature size. known as next generation lithography (NGL). the 193 nm lithography combined with immersion and double patterning technology is the state of the art. The original lithography used light of the visible g-line (436 nm) and the ultraviolet i-line (365 nm). extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light (e. known as integrated circuits (ICs). 13. has been studied in order to produce IC with even smaller features. since the wavelength range of EUV and soft X-ray is not sharply defined (the former lays approximately between 50 nm and 5 nm. When the IC feature size was reduced to about half a micron (500 nm). and c) the mask fabrication. the g-line and the i-line could no longer be used.2 nm).4 nm). However. NGL uses shorter ultraviolet light (157 nm). and therefore deep ultraviolet 248 nm KrF and 193 nm ArF excimer lasers were introduced. b) photoresist technology. and the even shorter wavelengths of electron and ion beams. and the latter between 5 nm and 0. Lithography is a patterning method that creates an IC layout on a resist layer of a silicon wafer or other semiconducting substrate.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY CHAPTER 2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Nearly all of today’s electronic devices rely on key internal semiconductor components.g. It mainly consists of three parts: a) the pattern printer. this technology in 1994 came to be known worldwide as EUVL. Lithography technology was introduced to the semiconductor industry when ICs were invented in 1958. ICs are manufactured through a critical process known as lithography. Back in 1988 a technology named soft X-ray projection lithography was proposed. which was easily produced with a mercury arc lamp. Shorter wavelength lithography.

e.g. electron projection lithography (EPL).1: ASML Alpha Demo Tool. ECE Department. The UV light source (based on a discharge-produced plasma DPP) is placed on the left. Figure 2. research and development of EUV technology has cost several billion US dollars worldwide.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY Compared with other NGL methods — e. Due to its remarkable optical convenience — it is accepted as the natural extension of optical lithography — the development of EUVL technology has been relatively fast and since 1999 it has been the most promising NGL technology. The sketch re-presents a developmental full-field EUVL scanner re-cently developed by ASML. we must keep in mind that a single EUV exposure tool is very costly.g. To this day. about US$ 70 million. JSSATE Bangalore Page 4 . and ion projection lithography (IPL) — EUVL is a relatively new member of the NGL league. In order to understand this. proximity X-ray lithography (PXL).

In Europe. Mo 2. industrial consortiums. the thickness of a pair of layers should be about half the wavelength: for 13.1 nm). and Oxford Instruments. EUVL technology includes EUV resist technology.4 nm EUV. At the same time. EUVL studies in ECE Department. inspection. and Asia. Mo/Be thickness is 5.One important aspect to bear in mind is the fact that all available materials are strong absorbers of EUV light and no material is transparent enough to make use of refractive optics (e. for 11. and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). to continue work on EUVL. EUVL uses masks with four-fold image reduction. and defectivity controls. through state sponsored programs. SNL.. which makes mask fabrication feasible with current technology.5 nm EUV is the leading candidate.7 nm and Si 4. was formed by Intel. In 1997.7 nm (Mo 2. in abandoning 157 nm lithography. the Extreme Ultraviolet Concept Lithography Development System (EUCLIDES). many studies on EUVL have been conducted in North America. the Virtual National Laboratories (VNL) was also formed by LLNL. However. and individual companies. was formed in 1998 by ASM Lithography (ASML). Carl Zeiss. EUV aligners or printers. While most other NGLs require one-fold image reduction membrane masks. To date.4 nm). Europe. Therefore. the Mo/Si multilayer for 13. creating complex challenges across the board.g. measured on an annual revenue basis of several billion US dollars. and Advanced Micro Device (AMD). Theoretically. Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). and LBNL to conduct a program sponsored by EUV LLC.3 nm and Be 3. lenses). In the early and mid-1990s. JSSATE Bangalore Page 5 . an industrial consortium.5 nm EUV light. The map of worldwide research Since 1988. Since then. as well as metrology. the EUV LLC.75 nm (e. Motorola.g. an industrial consortium. as well as AT&T Bell Laboratories and several universities. and EUV masks. the industry has created a technological jump from 193 nm to 13.5 nm wavelength. the Mo/Si thickness is approximately 6.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY This can only be supported because global lithography production itself is a large-scale industry. systematic research was mainly performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

Toshiba. Intel. Figure 2. including SEMATECH in US.2: The Moore Law of lithography. In Japan. and publications were found dating from 1989. launching its EUVL program in 1998. EUVL studies are conducted mainly by industrial consortiums and companies. Selete in Japan. and IBM. original studies in EUVL were performed in NTT LSI Laboratories. JSSATE Bangalore Page 6 . Hynix. Today. The Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association (EUVA) was established in 2002. The Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies (ASET) was established in 1996. ECE Department. Other EUVL pioneer work was carried out by Nikon and Hitachi around 1990. with ASML leading. IMEC in Europe. as well as Globalfoundry.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY Europe have made significant progress. Samsung. TSMC.

The reasons for these changes can be understood from the following equations that describe two of the most fundamental characteristics of an imaging system: its resolution (RES) and depth of focus (DOF). Until recently.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY CHAPTER 3 WORKING PRINCIPLE 3. In practice. These equations are usually expressed as RES = k λ / NA (1a) 1 and DOF = k λ / (NA) . however. Historically. These equations show that better resolution can be achieved by reducing λ and increasing NA. JSSATE Bangalore Page 7 . however. values for k and k greater than 0. other factors that have nothing to do with the camera also play a role. is that the DOF is decreased. it has been necessary to extend imaging technologies to ever better resolution by using smaller values for k 1 ECE Department.1 WHY EUVL? In order to keep pace with the demand for the printing of ever smaller features. the DOF used in manufacturing exceeded 0.5 um. and NA is the numerical aperture of the imaging system (or camera). Camera performance has a major impact on determining these values. which provided for sufficient process control.6 have been 1 2 used comfortably in high-volume manufacture. lithography tool manufacturers have found it necessary to gradually reduce the wavelength of the light used for imaging and to design imaging systems with ever larger numerical apertures. The case k = k = ½ corresponds to the usual definition of diffraction-limited 1 2 imaging. (1b) 2 2 where λ is the wavelength of the radiation used to carry out the imaging. however. Such factors include the contrast of the resist being used and the characteristics of any etching processes used. The penalty for doing this. the acceptable values for k and k are determined 1 2 experimentally and are those values which yield the desired control of critical dimensions (CD's) within a tolerable process window. Recently.

Problems associated with small k 1 1 values include a large iso/dense bias (different conditions needed for the proper printing of isolated and dense features). Figure 2. Of course.5. in the very near future it will be necessary to utilize k values that are considerably less than 0. The "Comfort Zone for Manufacture" corresponds to the region for which k > 0. nonlinear printing (different conditions needed for the proper printing of large and small features). where the values for k1 and DOF associated with lithography using light at 248 nm and 193 nm to print past. these techniques are not generally applicable to all feature geometries and are difficult to implement in manufacturing. poor CD control. However.1 also shows that the DOF values associated with future lithography will be uncomfortably small. and magnification of mask CD errors. This scenario is schematically diagrammed in Figure 2.6 and DOF > 0. Also shown are the k 1 1 and DOF values currently associated with the EUVL printing of 100 nm features.1. present.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY and k2 and by accepting the need for tighter process control. The degree to which these techniques can be employed in manufacturing will determine how far optical lithography can be extended before an NGL is needed. resolution enhancement techniques such as phase-shift masks. As shown in the figure. JSSATE Bangalore Page 8 . and future CD ranging from 350 nm to 100 nm are shown. which will be explained later. and optical proximity correction can be used to enhance resolution while increasing the effective DOF.5 um. modified illumination schemes. ECE Department.

5 um or longer. JSSATE Bangalore Page 9 . The solid red line shows the locus of points for which the DOF is 0.2. in the region to the left of that line the DOF values are larger.5 um. Consider Figure 2.1:The k and DOF values associated with 248 nm and 193 nm lithographies for 1 the printing of CD values ranging from 350 nm down to 100 nm assuming that k = k 2 1 and NA = 0. Figure 3.5 um or better. The solid circle shows the parameters used in current imaging experiments. As shown. The dashed black line shows the locus of points corresponding to a resolution of 100 nm.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY Figure 3. the region to the right of the line corresponds to even better resolution. and the DOF is 0. and the NA of the imaging system must be less than 0. ECE Department. the wavelength of the light used for imaging must be less than 40 nm.2: The region between the lines shows the wavelength and numerical aperture of cameras simultaneously having a resolution of 100 nm or better and a DOF of 0. to be in this favorable region. Points in the region between the two lines correspond to situations in which the resolution is 100 nm or better.6 EUVL alleviates the foregoing problems by drastically decreasing the wavelength used to carry out imaging.

5 um and larger. Thus EUVL imaging systems are entirely reflective. ECE Department. Most of these differences arise because the properties of materials in the EUV are very different from their properties in the visible and UV ranges. Foremost among those differences is the fact that EUV radiation is strongly absorbed in virtually all materials. near-contact printing technology As explained above. Ironically. surfaces must be coated with multilayer. Nonetheless. EUV imaging must be carried out in a near vacuum. most EUVL work is carried out in a wavelength region around 13 nm using cameras that have an NA of about 0.2 EUVL TECHNOLOGY In many respects. For example. JSSATE Bangalore Page 10 . In order to achieve reasonable reflectivities near normal incidence. and new resist and processing techniques will be required for application in EUVL. The best of these function in the region between 11 and 14 nm. such as lenses and transmission masks. thin-film coatings known as distributed Bragg reflectors. Early in the development of EUVL. which places the technology well within the "Comfort Zone for Manufacture" as shown in Figure 2.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY Light having wavelengths in the spectral region from 40 nm to 1 nm is variously referred to as extreme UV. vacuum UV. EUVL retains the look and feel of optical lithography as practiced today. the EUV reflectivity of individual materials at near-normal incidence is very low. even gases. EUV absorption in standard optical photoresists is very high. 3.1 by the data point farthest to the right. Projection lithography carried out with light in this region has come to be known as EUV lithography (EUVL).1. in other respects EUVL technology is very different from what the industry is familiar with. Absorption also rules out the use of refractive optical elements. EUVL is capable of printing features of 100 nm and smaller while achieving a DOF of 0. the basic optical design tools that are used for EUV imaging system design and for EUV image simulations are also used today for optical projection lithography. or soft x-ray radiation. but that name was dropped in order to avoid confusion with x-ray lithography. the technology was called soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL). which is a 1:1. Currently.

Sandia National Laboratories. Once the plasma is created. primarily on mask fabrication and photoresist development. LLC (the LLC). The light travels into a condenser. electrons begin to come off of it and it radiates light at 13 nanometers. When the laser hits the xenon gas. A representation of one level of a computer chip is patterned onto a mirror by applying an absorber to some parts of the mirror but not to others. ECE Department. A laser is directed at a jet of xenon gas. Intel has formed a consortium called the EUV. the mirrors that comprise the camera will be required to exhibit an unprecedented degree of perfection in surface figure and surface finish in order to achieve diffraction-limited imaging. there are a number of new technology problems that arise specifically because of the use of EUV radiation. The work described in the following sections was carried out within this program. 3. Recently. to support development of these EUV-specific technologies. 4. This creates the mask. JSSATE Bangalore Page 11 .EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY Because EUVL utilizes short wavelength radiation for imaging. The pattern on the mask is reflected onto a series of four to six curved mirrors. reducing the size of the image and focusing the image onto the silicon wafer. and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. primarily by workers within the VNL. 3. Each mirror bends the light slightly to form the image that will be transferred onto the wafer. Participants in the VNL are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 5. Clearly. Development work is also carried out by LLC members. 2.3 HERE'S HOW EUVL WORKS 1. then. which currently also includes AMD and Motorola. which is too short for the human eye to see. The bulk of this development work is carried out by three national laboratories functioning as a single entity called the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL). which gathers in the light so that it is directed onto the mask. additional support for some of this work has come from Sematech. Fabrication of mirrors exhibiting such perfection will require new and more accurate polishing and metrology techniques. it heats the gas up and creates a plasma.

3:working of extreme ultraviolet lithography. and they provide a resonant reflectivity when the period of the layers is approximately λ /2. On the other hand. and fabrication of EUV cameras. 3. analysis. . JSSATE Bangalore Page 12 . the resonant behavior of ML's complicates the design. Without such reflectors. These coatings consist of a large number of alternating layers of materials having dissimilar EUV optical constants. the reflecting surfaces in EUVL imaging systems are coated with multilayer thin films (ML's). EUVL would not be possible.4 MULTILAYER REFLECTORS In order to achieve reasonable reflectivities. ECE Department.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY figure 3.

4 nm. The range of angles of incidence over a single mirror surface must also be considered. the angular ranges are small enough that ML's with a uniform period over the surface can be used. ECE Department. JSSATE Bangalore Page 13 . the periods of the ML's applied to the various mirrors must be different so that all the mirrors are tuned to reflect the same wavelength. There are optical designs in which the angular ranges are so large that ML reflectors can not be utilized. As a consequence. the angular ranges are so large that the ML period must be accurately varied over the surface in order to achieve uniform reflectivity. and light falls onto the various mirrors over different angular ranges. Proper matching of the peak wavelengths is crucial for achieving high radiation throughput and good imaging performance. This resonance behavior has important implications for EUVL.4:Curve showing the normal incidence reflectivity and phase upon reflection of an Mo:Si ML as a function of wavelength.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY Figure 3. In other designs. A typical EUVL camera is composed of at least four mirrors. the coating was designed to have peak reflectivity at 13. For some optical designs.

The primary perturbations of the wavefront transmitted by the camera are described as a simple tilt and defocus. Three of these cameras have been fabricated and have been shown to perform well. This camera will become part of an "engineering test stand." This camera has been used extensively in our early investigations of EUV imaging. JSSATE Bangalore Page 14 .4." so it is called the ETS camera. while the full. This camera was designed so that it will perform well with uniform ML coatings. (Examples of the imaging performance of these cameras are shown later in this paper.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY The effects on imaging performance due to the variations of ML reflectivity and phase with wavelength and angle have been extensively modeled.5 EUV CAMERAS Designing an all-reflective camera that achieves lithographic-quality imaging is more difficult than designing a refractive imaging system because mirrors have fewer degrees of freedom to vary than do lenses. The effects have been shown to be minimal for cameras of interest to us. and grading requirements of EUVL cameras currently of interest. 3. A schematic of a four-mirror camera that the VNL is in the process of fabricating is shown in Figure 2. uniformity. The detailed reasoning that leads to this conclusion was first discussed in 1990.5 mm. The mirror segments shown in blue are the pieces actually being fabricated. As a result. ECE Department. most of the mirrors in an EUVL camera will have aspheric surfaces. is a prototype lithography camera with a ring field of 26 mm X 1. microstepperlike design that utilizes two mirrors and that images with a reduction factor of 10. The VNL has demonstrated the ability to achieve the ML matching. currently being fabricated. Two types of EUV cameras are fabricated.) The second camera. The first is a small field. on-axis "parent" mirrors are shown in red. We call it the "10X camera. One of the mirrors in this camera requires a strongly graded ML coating.

In actual operation. Because short wavelength radiation is used to carry out the imaging. as done in current DUV step-and-scan systems. with the mask moving four times faster than the wafer. ECE Department. JSSATE Bangalore Page 15 . the root-mean-square (rms) wavefront error of the camera must be less than 1 nm.1 and is designed to be used with Mo:Si ML's at a wavelength of 13. * It images with a reduction factor of 4.4 nm. *The departures of the aspheres from a best-fit sphere are less than 10 um. Mirror 3 is spherical.5: Schematic diagram of the 4-mirror ETS camera It has an NA = 0. Some of the most important features of this camera are as follows: * Its resolution is better than 100 nm over a 26 mm x 1. The camera is intended for use in a step-and-scan lithography system.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY Figure 3. The design of this camera has been optimized so that the effective distortion when scanning (about 1 nm) is considerably less than the distortion obtained for static printing (15 nm).4 nm. the mask and wafer are simultaneously scanned in opposite directions. ring-shaped field.5 mm. Assuming that the surface errors on the mirrors are randomly distributed. and the other three mirrors are aspheres. the surfaces of the mirrors are required to exhibit unprecedented perfection. In order to achieve diffraction-limited imaging at 13.

Light scattered at such angles is typically scattered out of the image field and represents a loss mechanism for light. the MSFR must be 0. Until recently.2 nm rms. Typically such surface errors are described and measured statistically. aspheres are much more difficult to fabricate than are spheres.7 nm rms. For a given surface roughness. Because the effects of scatter scale as 1/_ . Furthermore. JSSATE Bangalore Page 16 . even for spheres. We have been working closely with optics fabricators to address this issue. or better. We require HSFR to be less than 0. We define surface roughness as surface errors with a spatial wavelength scale shorter than 1 mm.5 angstroms!) rms. and it causes large angle scattering off the mirrors.25 nm (2. Stringent requirements must also be placed on the roughness of the surfaces. we define surface figure errors as those errors that have a spatial wavelength scale of 1 mm or longer. Roughness with spatial wavelengths less than 1 um is called high-spatial-frequency roughness (HSFR). For our purposes. We define roughness with wavelengths in the range of 1 mm through 1 um as mid-spatial frequency roughness (MSFR). such errors are typically measured deterministically using instruments such as interferometers. The manufacturer we have ECE Department. Roughness in this frequency range causes small-angle scattering of light off the mirror surfaces. or less.4 nm is approximately 340 times larger than that at 248 nm. The figure of a surface refers to its basic shape. The challenge for a fabricator of optics for EUVL is to achieve the desired levels of figure accuracy and surface roughness simultaneously. the deleterious effects of flare are becoming more evident as the wavelengths used for lithography continue to be reduced. This scattering is often called flare. In order to keep flare to manageable levels in EUVL. Optical fabricators have for some time been able to use "super-polishing" techniques to produce surfaces with HSFR even better than this. even the best surfaces exhibited MSFR of 0. and dramatic progress has been made over the last 18 months.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY this means that the surface figure (basic shape) of each mirror must be accurate to 0. A well-polished silicon wafer also exhibits such HSFR. Until recently.1 nm rms. the amount of scattering at 13. This scattering causes a reduction in the contrast of images because it scatters light from bright regions of the image plane onto regions intended to 2 be dark. achieving this kind of surface figure accuracy was out of the question.

As a measure of the progress that has been made. the first copy ECE Department. JSSATE Bangalore Page 17 .EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY been working with has made exceptional progress in this regard.

[3] In this version of a "point-diffraction interferometer. However. Two very significant advances have been made in the measurement of figure.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY of Mirror 3 has been completed.44 nm rms * MSFR: 0. small pinhole. no tools existed that could measure figure to the accuracy we require. An accuracy of 0. Previous to these advances. JSSATE Bangalore Page 18 . which uses visible light to achieve unprecedented accuracy. ECE Department." the wavefront to be measured is compared with a highly accurate spherical wave generated by an optical fiber or by an accurate. Interferogram stitching algorithms have been developed that allow aspheric surfaces to be measured without the need for null optics.25 nm rms has already been demonstrated. which are typically the weak link in such measurements. and its surface has been measured and found to have the following characteristics: * Surface figure: 0.31 nm rms * HSFR: 0. The first of these innovations is the Sommargren interferometer.14 nm rms This result demonstrates excellent progress towards the surface specifications that is to be achieved 3. and an engineering path exists for improvements down to one half that value. Four versions of the interferometer have been supplied to our optics manufacturer for use in the fabrication of the four individual mirrors of the ETS camera.6 METROLOGY The progress made in optics fabrication described above could not have been achieved without access to appropriate metrology tools. The interferometer can also be configured to measure the wavefront quality of an assembled camera. Some of the required tools were recently developed by workers within the VNL.

EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY visible light does not interact with ML reflectors in the same manner as EUV light. JSSATE Bangalore Page 19 . Thus it is of great importance to be able to characterize an EUV camera using light at the ECE Department.

To this end. JSSATE Bangalore Page 20 . Figure 3.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY wavelength of intended operation.6: Phase shifting diffraction inferomet ECE Department. The relevance of these measurements was verified by making detailed precision measurements of the magnitude and angular dependence of EUV scattering off of surfaces characterized with the other instruments. Several commercial instruments have been used to measure surface roughness. An interference microscope was used to measure MSFR. and an atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure HSFR. an EUV interferometer has been developed which will be used to characterize the wavefront quality of assembled EUV cameras and to guide final adjustments of the camera alignment.003 waves at the EUV wavelength! Its accuracy is far better than needed to qualify an EUV camera as diffraction-limited. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the direct scattering measurements and the predictions based on the measurements of MSFR and HSFR. [4] This system has been shown to have an innate rms accuracy of better than 0.

thus damaging the chips' complex circuitry The reflectance spectrum of the mask must be matched to that of the ML-coated mirrors in the camera. Since masks must be free of defects. 3. or printed. The PSDI is now a reliable production tool for measuring the overall surface shape of those aspherical optics that have a specification of 0. They consist of a patterned absorber of EUV radiation placed on top of an ML reflector deposited on a robust and solid substrate.15 nanometers.1/cm .50 nanometers or less and has successfully measured errors in the surface shape down to 0. It is anticipated that EUVL masks will be fabricated using processing techniques that are standard in semiconductor production. a much cleaner deposition system that uses ion-beam sputtering has been constructed. many EUV optics have been measured using this interferometer. A reduction of about 1000 in the density of defects 2 larger than 130 nm. The foremost is the fact that there is no known method for repairing defects in an ML coating. the size and placement accuracy of the features on the mask are achieved relatively easily. has been obtained with this system. there are a number of serious concerns about mask development. Because a 4:1 reduction is used in the imaging. One key requirement is to produce a mask with essentially no defects. As a result. in the lithography process onto the computer chips being manufactured. and it is all but certain that the density of defects printable with EUV Page 21 ECE Department. not transmissive. JSSATE Bangalore . Nonetheless. a technique must be developed for depositing defect-free ML reflectors. including both concave and convex spherical and aspherical mirrors and completed projection systems. The Livermore metrology team is upgrading the system so that it can be used to measure errors in the overall surface shape as small as 0.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY Over the past three years.7 MASKS AND MASK MAKING CHALLENGE EUVL masks are reflective. but far too high for mask blanks. such as a silicon wafer. Any small defect ends up being replicated.35 nanometers. Membrane masks are not required. Present defect detection techniques use visible light. The defect densities in ML coatings produced by magnetron sputtering have been found to be adequate for camera mirrors. to a level of better than 0. but further improvement will certainly be required.

and the proper tools for detecting EUV-printable defects are currently being developed. ECE Department. refractory bi-layer resists. JSSATE Bangalore Page 22 . The use of pellicles in EUVL will not be possible because of the undesirable absorption that would be encountered. Initially it will be necessary to inspect the mask blanks using EUV radiation.8 SOURCES OF EUV RADIATION A number of sources of EUV radiation have been used to date in the development of EUVL. 3. pellicles are used to protect masks from contamination. Our work has used a succession of continually improved laser-produced plasma sources. and tri-layer resists. Resist types being actively worked on include silylated single-layer resists. The absorption depth in standard organic resists used today is less than 100 nm. in current practice. A resist sensitivity of 10 mJ/cm is our goal since it represents a good compromise between the need for high throughput and the desire to minimize the statistical fluctuations due to photon shot noise.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY light is higher.9 RESISTS The main problem to be confronted in developing a satisfactory photoresist for EUVL is the strong absorption of EUV radiation by all materials. it is hoped that experience will show that adequate inspection can be carried out with commercially available visible-light and e-beam inspection tools. Radiation has been obtained from a variety of laser-produced plasmas and from the bending magnets and the undulators associated with synchrotrons. Other methods for protecting EUV masks are under development. 3. A resist acceptable for high volume manufacture must exhibit high contrast for printing in combination with a sensitivity that will yield an acceptable 2 throughput. Work is also being done on the development of discharge sources that might be able to provide adequate power in the desired wavelength range. In the long run. Finally. Eventually a source will be required that reliably provides sufficient power to yield adequate wafer throughput in a manufacturing tool. Defects can take the form of amplitude or phase perturbations. EUV resists will most likely be structured so that printing occurs in a very thin imaging layer at the surface of the resist.

08. these experiments have been used to investigate various resists and masks and to help us understand a number of system issues. As shown in the lower part of the figure. Three cameras have been built for this system.07 or 0.7: schematic of 10X EUVL camera ECE Department.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY 3. all of which image with a 10X reduction. Figure3.10 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Our imaging experiments to date have been carried out using the 10X EUVL microstepper. A schematic diagram of this camera is shown in Figure 2. we used off-axis portions of the full mirrors to avoid obscuration of the light by the mirrors. the NA used was 0. The imaging performance also correlated well with the camera wavefront as measured directly with the EUV interferometer.5. These experiments have allowed us to evaluate the EUV imaging performance of the camera and to relate it to the measured surface figure and surface roughness of its mirrors. The camera itself is a simple Schwarzschild design and is comprised of two spherical mirrors. JSSATE Bangalore Page 23 . Additionally.

EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY The cameras were originally aligned using visible interferometry. Figure 2. and 100 nm. From a series of measurements like this it is possible to demonstrate the excellent linearity of the printing.10 shows the cross-sectioned profiles of dense lines and spaces printed in resist with the 10X camera. As can be seen. the width of the resist image is equal to the intended size as written on the mask. Not all camera designs allow for alignment with visible light. the resist profiles are well defined. Figure 3. 150 nm. JSSATE Bangalore Page 24 . 150 nm. The figure shows resist profiles of lines and spaces with widths of 200 nm. Subsequent EUV interferometry revealed that the at-wavelength measurements yielded nearly identical results. and 100 nm That is.7 demonstrates excellent linearity for dense lines and spaces from a line width of 250 nm down to 80 nm. ECE Department. Figure 3.8: Resist profiles of line and space patterns imaged by the 10X camera for line and space widths of 200 nm.

Figure 2. As seen.9: Linearity of printing by the 10X camera in resist for line and space patterns with linewidths from 200 nm down to 80 nm Exposures such as the above can also be used to demonstrate the large DOF inherent in EUVL. the line width only changes by about 5% as the wafer is moved from best focus to a position 2 um away from best focus. This observation is in reasonable agreement with the behavior predicted by Equation 1. ECE Department.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY Figure 3.10% or better. it is desired to control the critical line widths to +/.8 presents the data from such a series of exposures: it shows how the line width of a 130 nm line (the remaining resist) varies as the camera image is defocused on the wafer. JSSATE Bangalore Page 25 . In manufacturing of high-performance IC's.

we look forward to the ompletion of the ETS camera so that we can explore EUV imaging with a camera of the kind needed for production . in Figure 2. we show cross-sectioned resist images of 80 nm lines and spaces (with a line space ratio of 1:2). ECE Department.9.type lithography. Figure 3. This demonstrates the resolving power of the 10X camera and our ability to print such fine features in resist.11: Printing of 80 nm lines and spaces (with a 1:2 pitch) by the 10X camera While the 10X camera has been of great use in our program. the Finally.10: Variation in the size of 130 nm dense lines as a function of feature size varies by only 5% as the wafer is defocused by 2 um defocus. JSSATE Bangalore Page 26 .EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY Figure 3.

4. 5. The low thermal expansion substrates provide good critical dimension control and image placement. FUTURE OF EUVL Successful implementation of EUVL would enable projection photolithography to remain the semiconductor industry's patterning technology of choice for years to come. All elements of EUVL technology have been successfully demonstrated in a ―full-field proof of Concept‖ lithography tool. EUVL leverages much of the learning and supplier infrastructure established for conventional lithography. The robust4X masks are patterned using standard mask writing and repair tools and similar inspection methods can be used as for conventional optical masks. EUVL technology achieves good depth of focus and linearity for both dense and isolated lines with low NA systems without OPC. JSSATE Bangalore Page 27 . Even though continued technology development and improvement will be required as the technology moves from the demonstration phase to production. ECE Department.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY EUVL ADVANTAGES 1. 3. This demonstration dramatically reduces the technology and implementation risks associated with the development of commercial tools. there are no known showstoppers that will prevent EUVL from becoming a manufacturing reality. Experiments have shown that existing DUV can be extended for use with EUV. 2.

industry consensus is that 193 nm lithography will have to do the job. much work remains to be done in order to determine whether or not EUVL will ever be ready for the production line. it was assumed that an NGL would be needed by around 2006 -07 in order to implement the 0. the time scale during which EUVL. However. even though it will be difficult to do so. and in fact any NGL technology. and it should be interesting to watch! ECE Department. It thus becomes crucial for any potential NGL to be able to address the printing of feature sizes of 50 nm and smaller! EUVL does have that capability. Furthermore. Currently. has to prove itself is somewhat uncertain. There has recently emerged talk of using light at 157 nm to push the current optical technology even further. which would further postpone the entry point for an NGL technology. The battle to develop the technology that will become the successor to 193 nm lithography is heating up. JSSATE Bangalore Page 28 .EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY CONCLUSION Successful implementation of EUVL would enable projection photolithography to remain the semiconductor industry's patterning technology of choice for years to come.1 um generation of chips. Several years ago.

T. N. 2006 IEEE/SEMI Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Conference. 391–394 (2006).Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena. JSSATE Bangalore Page 29 . ICOPS 2002. on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems. Yang et al. 50-56 (2006). Sato. 1996 IEEE Annual Report . pp. 4.. H.Abstracts. IEEE Spectrum: A New Light Source. Plasma Science. 2.EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY REFERENCES 1. Matsuyama et al. pp. The 29th IEEE International Conference on Digital Object Identifier ECE Department. 5. Shimizu and H.. 2002. 787–790 (1996). 3. Proceedings of the 1st IEEE Intl. Conf. IEEE Conference Record .