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mc lc

A. nhng kin thc c bn v gi tr tuyt i


Tran
g
3
I: Cc nh ngha
II: Cc tnh cht
B. cc dng bi ton v gi tr tuyt i trong ch-
ng trnh THCS
Ch I: Gii phng trnh, h phng trnh
cha du gi tr tuyt i
I. Kin thc cn lu
II. Bi tp in hnh
Ch II: Gii bt phng trnh cha du gi
tr tuyt i
I. Kin thc cn lu
II. Bi tp in hnh
Ch III: th hm s cha du gi tr
tuyt i
I. th hm s y = f(
x
)
II. th
y
= f(x)
III. th y =
) (x f
IV. th y =
( ) x f
V. th
y
=
) (x f
Ch IV: Tm gi tr ln nht, nh nht ca
biu thc cha du gi tr tuyt i
I. Kin thc cn lu
II. Bi tp in hnh
c. p n
d. ti liu tham kho
e.kt lun
f. gio n thc nghim
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Phn I: Li ni u
Gi tr tuyt i l mt khi nim c ph bin rng ri trong cc
ngnh khoa hc Ton - L, K thut,...Trong chng trnh Ton
bc THCS, khi nim gi tr tuyt i ca mt s c gp nhiu
ln, xuyn sut t lp 6 n lp 9. lp 6, hc sinh bt u lm
quen vi khi nim " Gi tr tuyt i" qua bi 2: " Th t trong
Z", hc sinh nm c cch tm gi tr tuyt i ca mt s
nguyn v bc u hiu ngha hnh hc ca n. Nh sch
gio khoa dn dn a vo cc quy tc tnh v s nguyn ri
n s hu t. lp 8, tuy khng c trong chng trnh ging dy
song bi: " Gii phng trnh c cha du gi tr tuyt i" c
rt nhiu gio vin quan tm v trang b y cho hc sinh
nht l cc hc sinh kh gii. n lp 9, khi xt cc tnh cht ca
cn thc bc hai, khi nim gi tr tuyt i li c thm ng dng
mi( a mt tha s ra ngoi cn, a mt tha s vo trong cn,
kh mu ca biu thc ly cn,...)
Gi tr tuyt i l mt khi nim tru tng v quan trng v
n c s dng nhiu trong qu trnh dy Ton THCS cng nh
THPT v i Hc,...Vic nm vng khi nim ny bc THCS s l
nn tng c bn cn thit cc em c th tip thu nhng
kin thc cao hn cc bc hc sau.
Trc nhu cu nng cao kin thc ca bn thn cng nh nng
cao kin thc cho ngi dy cng nh ngi hc v khi nim " Gi tr
tuyt i", chng ti quyt nh chn ti: " Gi tr tuyt
i trong trng THCS".
Ti mong rng ti ny ca ti s gip cho gio vin cng nh
hc sinh trong qu trnh ging dy v hc tp ca mnh.
V hon thnh trong mt thi gian ngn nn ti cn
nhiu hn ch, thiu st. Ti rt mong nhn c s quan tm,
ng gp kin ca thy c gio v cc bn ng nghip.
2
A. nhng kin thc c bn v gi tr tuyt i
I. Cc nh ngha
1. 1. nh ngha 1
Gi tr tuyt i thc cht l mt nh x
f: R R
+
a a
vi mi gi tr a R c mt v ch mt gi tr f(a) = a R
+
1.2. nh ngha 2
Gi tr tuyt i ca mt s thc a, k hiu
a
l:
a nu a 0

a
=
-a nu a < 0
V d1:
15 15

32 32

0 0

1 1

17 17
*M rng khi nim ny thnh gi tr tuyt i ca mt biu thc
A(x), k hiu
) (x A
l:
A(x) nu A(x) 0

) (x A
=
-A(x) nu A(x) < 0
V d 2:
2x - 1 nu 2x- 1 0 2x - 1 nu
2
1
x
1 2 x
= =
-(2x - 1) nu 2x - 1 < 0 1 - 2x nu x <
2
1
1.3. nh ngha 3:
Gi tr tuyt i ca s nguyn a, k hiu l
a
, l s o( theo
n v di c dng lp trc s) ca khong cch t im a
n im gc 0 trn trc s ( hnh 1).
Hnh 1
V d 1:

a
= 3

3
3
a
Do ng thc cho c nghim ng bi hai s tng
ng vi hai im trn trc s ( hnh 2)
3
-a 0 a
-a a
-3 0 3
Hnh 2
Tng qut:

'

>

b
b
a
b
b a
0
;


b
b
a b a
V d 2:
a 3 nu a 0 0 a 3

a
3

-3 a 3
-a 3 nu a < 0 -3 a < 0
Do bt ng thc c nghim ng bi tp hp cc s ca
on
[ ] 3 ; 3
v trn trc sd th c nghim ng bi tp hp cc
im ca on
[ ] 3 ; 3
( hnh 3)
Hnh 3
V d 3:
a 3 nu a 0 a 3 nu a 0
a
3

3 a hoc a 3
-a 3 nu a < 0 a -3 v nu a < 0
Do bt ng thc c nghim ng bi tp hp cc s ca hai
na on (- ; 3] v [3; + ) v trn trc s th c nghim
ng bi hai na on tng ng vi cc khong s . (hnh 4)
Hnh 4
Tng qut:


b a
b a
b a
bi tp t luyn
Bi 1. Tm tt c cc s a tho mn mt trong cc iu kin sau:
a) a =
a
b) a <
a
c) a >
a
d)
a
= -a
e)
a
a
f)
a
+ a = 0
g)
b b a +
4
-3 0 3
-3 0 3
Bi 2:Tm cc v d chng t cc khng nh sau y khng
ng:
a) a Z


a
> 0
b) a Q


a
> a
c) a, b Z,
a
=
b

a = b
d) a, b Q,
a
>
b

a > b
Bi 3: B sung thm cc iu kin cc khng nh sau l
ng
a)
a
=
b

a = b
b) a > b


a
>
b
Bi 4: Tm tt c cc s a tho mn mt trong cc iu kin sau,
sau biu din cc s tm c ln trc s:
a)
a
1
b)
a
3
c)
a
- 6 = 5
d) 1 <
a
3
Bi 5:
a) C bao nhiu s nguyn x sao cho
x
< 50
b) C bao nhiu cp s nguyn (x, y) sao cho
x
+
y
= 5
( Cc cp s nguyn (1, 2) v (2,1)l hai cp khc nhau)
c) C bao nhiu cp s nguyn (x, y) sao cho
x
+
y
< 4
II - mt s tnh cht v gi tr tuyt i
2.1. Tnh cht 1:
a
0 a
2.2. Tnh cht 2:
a
= 0

a = 0
2.3. Tnh cht 3: -
a
a
a
2.4 Tnh cht 4:
a
=
a

Da trn nh ngha gi tr tuyt i ngi ta r thy c cc
tnh cht 1, 2, 3, 4.
2.5. Tnh cht 5:
b a b a + +
Tht vy: -
a
a
a
; -
b
a
b

-(
a
+
b
) a + b
a
+
b
2.6. Tnh cht 6:
a
-
b

b a b a +
5
Tht vy:
a
=
b a b a b b a b b a + +
(1)
b a b a b a b a b a b a + + + + ) (
(2)
T (1) v (2)

pcm.
2.7. Tnh cht 7:

b a b a
Tht vy:
b a b a
(1)

b a b a b a a b a b a b ) ( ) (
(2)


) ( b a
b a
b a
(3)
T (1), (2) v (3)

b a b a
(4)

b a b a b a b a b a b a + + ) (
(5)
T (4) v (5)

pcm.
2.8. Tnh cht 8:

b a b a . .
Tht vy: a = 0, b = 0 hoc a = 0, b 0 hay a 0, b= 0

b a b a . .
(1)
a > 0 v b > 0


a
= a,
b
= b v a.b > 0

b a b a b a b a b a . . . . .
(2)
a < 0 v b < 0


a
= -a,
b
= -b v a.b > 0

b a b a b a b a b a b a . . . ) )( ( . .
(3)
a > 0 v b < 0


a
= a,
b
= -b v a.b < 0

b a b a b a b a b a b a . . . ) .( . .
(4)
T (1), (2), (3) v (4)

pcm.
2.9. Tnh cht 9:

) 0 ( b
b
a
b
a
Tht vy: a = 0

0 0
b
a
b
a
b
a
(1)
a > 0 v b > 0


a
= a,
b
= b v
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
>0
(2)
a < 0 v b < 0


a
= -a,
b
= -b v
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a

>0
(3)
a > 0 v b < 0


a
= a,
b
= -b v
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a

<0
(4)
T (1), (2), (3) v (4)

pcm.
6
bi tp t luyn
Bi 6:
in vo ch trng cc du
,
, = khng inh sau ng
a, b
a)
b a +
...
a
+
b
b)
b a
...
a
-
b
vi
a


b
c)
b a b a . . .......... .
d)
b
a
b
a

Bi 7:
Tm cc s a, b tho mn mt trong cc iu kin sau:
a) a + b =
a
+
b
b) a + b =
a
-
b
Bi 8:
Cho
3 < c a
,
2 < c b
Chng minh rng
5 < b a
Bi 9:
Rt gn biu thc:
a)
a
+a
b)
a
- a
c)
a
.a
d)
a
: a
e)
3 2 ) 1 ( 3 + x x
f)
) 1 4 ( 3 2 x x
7
B. cc dng ton v gi tr tuyt i trong chng trnh
THCS
ch i: gii phng trnh v h phng trnh cha du
gi tr tuyt i
I. cc kin thc cn lu
1.1 A(x) nu A(x) 0
) (x A
= ( A(x) l biu thc i
s)
-A(x) nu A(x) < 0
1.2. nh l v du ca nh thc bc nht ax + b (a 0)
Nh thc bc nht ax + b (a 0) s:
+ Cng du vi a vi cc gi tr ca nh thc ln hn nghim
ca nh thc.
+ Tri du vi a vi cc gi tr ca nh thc nh hn nghim
ca nh thc.
Gi s x
0
l nghim ca nh thc ax + b khi :
+ Nh thc cng du vi a x > x
0
+ Nh thc tri du vi a x < x
0
1.3. nh l v du ca tam thc bc hai
Xt tam thc bc hai: f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c (a 0)
- Nu < 0, th f(x) cng du vi a x
- Nu 0 th:
+ f(x) cng du vi a x nm ngoi khong hai nghim
+ f(x) tri du vi a x nm trong khong hai nghim
Hay
- Nu < 0

a.f(x) > 0 x
- Nu 0

f(x) c hai nghim x


1
x
2
nu x
1
< x < x
2

a.f(x) < 0
nu x x
1
hoc x x
2

a.f(x) > 0
Nhn xt: Gi tr tuyt i ca mt biu thc bang chnh
n( nu biu thc khng m) hoc bng biu thc i ca
n( nu biu thc m). V th khi kh du gi t tuyt i ca
mt biu thc, cn xt gi tr tuyt i ca bin lm cho biu
thc dng hay m( da vo nh l v du ca nh thc bc
nht hoc nh l v du ca tam thc bc hai). Du ca biu
thc thng c vit trong bng xt du.
II. cc bi tp in hnh
2.1 Rt gn biu thc A = 2(3x - 1) -
3 x
Tht vy:
+ Vi ( x - 3) 0 hay x 3 th
3 x
= x - 3
+ Vi ( x- 3) < 0 hay x < 3 th
3 x
= -(x - 3) = 3 - x
8
ta xt hai trng hp ng vi hai khong ca bin x
+ Nu x 3 th A = 2(3x - 1) -
3 x
= 2(3x - 1) - (x - 3)
= 6x - 2 - x + 3
= 5x + 1
+ Nu x < 3 th A = 2(3x - 1) -
3 x
= 2(3x - 1) - (3 - x)
= 6x - 2 - 3 + x
= 7x - 5
2.2 Rt gn biu thc B =
1 x
-
5 x
Tht vy
Vi x-1 0 hay x 1th
1 x
=x-1
Vi x-1<0 hay x<1th
1 x
= -(x-1)=1-x
Vi x-50 hay x5 th
5 x
= x+5
Vi x-5<0 hay x<5 th
5 x
=-(x-5) =5-x
p dng nh l v du ca nh thc bc bc nht ta c bng
xt du sau:
X 1 5
x-1 - 0 +
+
x-5 - - 0
+
T bng xt du ta xt ba trng hp ng vi ba khong ca bin x
Nu x<1 th B =
1 x
-
5 x

=1-x-( 5-x)
=1-x-5+x
= - 4
Nu 1x<5 th B =
1 x
-
5 x
=(x-1)-(5-x)
=x-1-5+x
=2x-6
Nu x5 th B =
1 x
-
5 x
=(x-1)-(x-5)
=x-1-x+5 = 4
2.2 Rt gn biu thc B = /x
2
- 4x + 3/-5
Tht vy: Xt tam thc bc hai: f(x) = x
2
4x + 3

f(x) c ' = 4 -3 = 1 > 0

x
1
= 1; x
2
= 3
Vi 1 < x < 3

1.f(x) < 0

f(x) < 0
Vi x 1 hoc x 3

4f(x) > 0

f(x) > 0
Vy ta xt hai trng hp ng vi ba khong ca bin
Vi 1 < x < 3 th B = -(x
2
- 4x + 3) - 5
= - x
2
+ 4x - 3 - 5
= - x
2
+ 4x - 8
9
Vi x 1 hoc x 3 th B = ( x
2
- 4x + 3) - 5
= x
2
- 4x + 3 - 5
= x
2
- 4x - 2
2.3. Gii phng trnh
1 3 2 1 + + x x x
Tht vy:
p dng nh l v du nh thc bc nht v lp bng, ta xt 3
trng hp ng vi 3 khong.
+ Nu x < 1 ta c phng trnh: 1 - x + 2 - x = 3x + 1

3 - 2x = 3x + 1

5x = 2

x = 2/5 < 1 ( l nghim)


+ Nu 1 x < 2 ta c phng trnh: x -1 + ( 2 - x) = 3x + 1

x = 0

[1, 2] ( khng l nghim)


+ Nu x 2 ta oc phng trnh: x - 1 + x - 2 = 3x + 1

x = - 4 < 2 ( khng l nghim)


Vy phng trnh c nghim duy nht x = 2/5
2.4. Gii phng trnh
5 1 2 x
Tht vy:
p dng nh ngha gi tr tuyt i ta c:
5 1 2 x



) 2 ( 5 1 2
) 1 ( 5 1 2
x
x
Gii 1:




) ' 2 ( 6 2
) ' 1 ( 6 2
6 2 5 1 2
x
x
x x
Gii 1':
8 8 6 2 t x x x
( l nghim)
Gii 2':
4 6 2 x x
x khng c gi tr
Gii 2:
4 2 5 1 2 x x
( khng c ngha)
Vy phng trnh c hai ngim: x = 8 hoc x = -8
2.5 Gii h phng trnh

'

+

3 2
1
y y x
y x
Tht vy:
Phng trnh th nht a n tp hp hai phng trnh:



1
1
y x
y x
hay

+

) 2 ( 1
) 1 ( 1
x y
x y
Vic phn tch phng trnh th hai a n tp hp 4 phng
trnh theo cc khong xc nh.
Theo dng ca phng trnh th 2 ta thy d dng l
1 x
3 v
3 2 y
, t - 2 x 4 v -1 y 5
Vi - 2 x 1 ta c:
Vi -1 y 2, 1 - x + 2 - y = 3 hay l x + y = 0 (I)
Vi 2 y 5, 1 - x + y - 2 = 3 hay l y - x = 4 (II)
Vi 1 x 4 ta c :
Vi -1 y 2, x -1 + 2 - y = 3 hay l x - y = 2 (III)
10
Vi 2 y 5, x -1 + y - 2 = 3 hay l x + y = 6 (IV)
Gii 8 h phng trnh bc nht:
H (1; I)
2
1
;
2
1
0
1

'

+

y x
y x
y x
, l nghim v n thuc khong xc
nh.
H (1; II)

'



4
1
x y
y x
khng c nghim
H (1; III)

'



2
1
y x
y x
khng c nghim
H (1; IV)
2
5
;
2
7
6
1

'

+

y x
y x
y x
l nghim v n thuc khong xc
nh.
H (2; I)
2
1
;
2
1
0
1

'

+

y x
y x
y x
l nghim v n thuc khong xc
nh.
H (2; II)

'



4
1
x y
y x
khng c nghim
H (2; III)

'



2
1
y x
y x
khng c nghim
H (2; IV)
2
7
;
2
5
6
1

'

+

y x
y x
y x
, l nghim v n thuc khong xc
nh.
Vy nghim ca h phng trnh l:
x
1
= 1/2; y
1
= -1/2 x
2
= 7/2; y
2
= 5/2
x
3
= -1/2; y
3
= 1/2 x
4
= 5/2; y
4
= 7/2
11
Bi tp luyn tp
Bi 10: Tm x trong cc biu thc
a)
5 3 2 x
b)
7 3 5 x x
c)
1 3 1 + x x
d)
1 2 1 + x x
e)
3 2 1 2 + x x
f)
0 1 2 1 + x x x
g)
1 3 3 + x x x
h)
3 2 1 + x x
Bi 11: Tm x trong cc biu thc
a)
2 1 1 x
b)
2
) 3 ( 3 x x
c)
2 1 1 + x x
d)
4 2 2 + + + x x x
e)
1 3 2 + x
f)
2 3 2 3
2 2
+ x x x x
g)
2
1 x x
h)
0 2 3 2 1 4 + x x x
Bi 12: vi gi tr no ca a, b ta c ng thc:
) 2 ( ) 2 ( b a b a
Bi 13: Tm cc s a, b sao cho:
b a b a +
Bi 14: Gii cc h phng trnh sau
a)

'

+
+
3
2
y x
y x
b)

'

+

4
2
y x
y x
c)

'


+ +
0 7 2
0 9 5 3
y x
y x
d)

'

+
+ + +
5 3 1
4 1 3
y x
y x
Bi 15: Gii phng tnh sau:
3 2 1
2 2
+ + x x x x
Bi 16: Tm x
a a x a x 3 2 2 +
( a l hng s)
ch II: gii bt phng trnh cha du gi tr tuyt i
I. cc kin thc cn lu
1.1. Cc php bin i bt ng thc
a b

a + c b + c
a b

a.c b.c ( c > 0 )


a b

a.c b.c ( c < 0 )


12
1.2 Cc dng c bn ca bt phng trnh
+Dng 1:
a x f ) (

-a f(x) a a: s thc khng m


f(x): hm s mt i s
+Dng 2:
) (x f
a

f(x) a hoc f(x) -a a: s thc


khng m
f(x):hm s mt
i s
+Dng 3:
) (x f
g(x)

) ( ) (
) ( ) (
x g x f
x g x f
f(x), g(x): hm s mt i
s
+Dng 4:
) (x f
g(x)

-g(x) f(x) g(x)


f(x), g(x): hm s mt i s
+Dng 5:
) (x f

) (x g

[f(x)]
2
= [g(x)]
2

f(x), g(x): hm s mt i s
II. bi tp in hnh
2.1 Gii bt phng trnh:
7 5 2 x
Tht vy:

7 5 2 x

-7 2x - 5 7

-2 2x 12

-1 x 6
2.2 Gii bt phng trnh:
10 5 3 x
Tht vy:

10 5 3 x



3
5
5
5 3
15 3
10 5 3
10 5 3
x
x
x
x
x
x
Vy x 5 hoc x -
3
5
2.3 Gii bt phng trnh:
1 2 2
2
x x
Tht vy:
1 2 2
2
x x

1 2 2 1
2
x x x
2
-2x-21 v x
2
-2x-2-1
T 0 3 2 1 2 2
2 2
x x x x
Da vo nh l v du ca tam thc bc hai

-1 x 3
T 0 1 2 1 2 2
2 2
x x x x
Da vo nh l v du ca tam thc bc hai

+

2 1
2 1
x
x
Kt hp li ta c cc nghim ca h l:

2 1 1 x

; 3 2 1 + x
13
2.4 Gii bt phng trnh:
1
2

+
x
x
2
Tht vy: TX:
1 x
Cch 1:
1
2

+
x
x
2

2
1
2
2
1
2
x
x
x
x
+ Vi
2
1
2

+
x
x


4 1 0
1
4
0 2
1
2

+
x
x
x
x
x
+ Vi
2
1
2
<

+
x
x


1 0 0
1
3
0 2
1
2
< < <

< +

+
x
x
x
x
x
Vy bt phng trnh c ngim: 1 x 4; 0 < x < 1
Cch 2:
Theo nh ngha v tnh cht ca gi tr tuyt i, ta c:

0 1 2 2
1 2 2 2
1
2
2
1
2
> +
> + >

+
>

+
x x
x x
x
x
x
x
p dng nh l v du ca nh thc, ta xt 3 trng hp:
+ Nu x -2 th - x- 2 -2(1 - x) > 0

x > 4 > -2 ( khng l


nghim)
+ Nu -2 x < 1 th x + 2 - 2(1 - x) > 0

3x > 0

x > 0
Kt hp vi iu kin ta c nghim: 0 < x < 1
+ Nu x > 1 th x + 2 - 2(x - 1) > 0

x < 4
Kt hp vi iu kin ta c nghim: 1 < x < 4
Vy bt phng trnh c ngim: 1 x 4; 0 < x < 1
Cch 3 :
Theo nh ngha v tnh cht ca gi tr tuyt i, ta c:
1 2 2 2
1
2
2
1
2
> + >

+
>

+
x x
x
x
x
x

(x + 2)
2
> 4(x - 1)
2

x
2
4x + 4 > 4(x
2
- 2x + 1)

3x
2
- 12x < 0

3x( x - 4) < 0

0 < x < 4
Kt hp vi TX

1 < x < 4; 0 < x < 1


III Bi tp luyn tp
Bi 17: Tm x trong cc bt ng thc
a)
5 1 2 x
b)
9 4 3 2 < x x
c)
7 3 2 x
d)
10 5 2 3 > + x x
Bi 18: Tm x trong cc bt ng thc
a)
4 2 3 < x
b)
1 2 3 + < x x
c)
5 1 3 > x
14
d)
1 1
3
+ + x x
Bi 19: Tm x trong cc bt ng thc
a)
3 1 > + x x
b)
3 2 1 + > x x
c)
8 5 1 > + + x x
d)
8 1 3 < + + x x
e)
0 2 x x
f)
0 7 3 5 2 + x x
Bi 20: Tm x trong cc bt ng thc
a)
1
2
1
2
<
+

x
x
b)
2
1
5 2
2

x
x
c)
10 3 1 3 < + + + x x x
d)
8 7 4 1 < + + + x x x
e)
8 1 5 2
2
< + + x x
f)
3 3 5 2
2
+ < x x x
Ch III: th hm s cha gi tr tuyt i
I. th hm s y = f(|x|)
1.1. Kin thc cn lu :
Ta thy f(
x
) = f(
x
) .Do hm s y = f(
x
)l hm chn
nn th ca hm s i xng qua trc Oy

Cch dng :
- Dng th hm s y = f(x) i vi x > 0
- Dng phn th bn tri i xng vi trc bn phi qua Oy
1.2 V d:
Dng th hm s y = 2|x| - 2
Tht vy:
th ca hm s y = 2x - 2
vi x = 1

y = 0

(1, 0) thuc th
vi x = 0

y = -2

( 0, -2) thuc th
15
O
-
1
1
-
2
y
x
Hnh 6
Phn th in m( Hnh 6) l th hm s y = 2|x| - 2
II. th hm s y = |f(x)|
2.1 Kin thc cn lu
Nhn xt

f(x) vi f(x) 0
y =
-f(x) vi f(x) < 0

Cch dng:
- Dng th hm s y = f(x)
- Phn th nm di mt phng Ox ngha l y f(x) < 0

ta dng phn th i xng vi phn th qua Ox.


* Ch : th hm s y = |f(x)| + k c xem nh th hm s
y = |f(x)|tnh tin theo ng thng ng mt on bn k ( k l
s thc)
2.2 V d:
Dng th hm s y = |x - 2|
th hm s y = x - 2
x = 0

y = -2

( 0, -2) thuc th hm s
x = 1

y = -1

(1, -1) thuc th hm s



Hnh 7
16
O
-
1 -
2
1
y
x
Phn th in m ( hnh 7) l th hm s y = |x - 2|
III. th ca hm s y = |f(|x|)|
3.1 Kin thc cn lu
Ta c: f(|x|) vi f(|x|)

0
y = |f(|x|)|=
- f(|x|) vi f(|x|) < 0

Cch dng
a) Dng th hm s y = |f(|x|)|
+ Dng th hm s y = f(x) vi x > 0
+ Dng phn th bn tri i xng vi phn bn phi qua Oy
b) Phn th nm mt phng di Ox nghi l y f(|x|) < 0

ta dng phn th i xng vi phn th qua trc Ox.


( Hay bin i cc phn ca th nm trong na mt phng
di nn na mt phng trn i xng qua trc Ox)
3.2 V d: Dng th hm s y = |1 - |x||
Tht vy:
th hm s y = 1- x
x = 1

y = 0

( 1, 0 ) thuc th hm s
x = 0

y = 1

( 0, 1) thuc th hm s
th hm s
y = 1 - x vi x

0
a)
th hm s
y = 1 - |x|
b)
Hnh 8
thi hm s
y = |1 - |x||
c)
Phn th in m trong phn b ( hnh 8) l th hm s
y = |1 - |x||
17
1
1
O
y
x
x
-1 1
O
y
x
-
1
1 O
y
IV. th ca |y| = f(x) vi f(x) 0
4.1 Kin thc cn lu
Ta c: y = t f(x) vi f(x) 0

Cch dng:
- Dng th hm s y = f(x) vi f(x) 0
( Phn th ca hm s y = f(x) pha trn trc honh )
- Dng phn th i xng vi phn th thu c qua
trc Ox.
4. 2 V d
Dng th hm s |y| =
1
1
2
x +
Tht vy:
th hm s y =
1
1
2
x +
x = 0

y = 1

( 0; 1) thuc th
x = -2

y = 0

( -2; 0) thuc th
Hnh 9
Phn th in m ( hnh 9 ) l th hm s |y| =
1
1
2
x +
V. th ca hm s |y| = |f(x)|
5.1 Kin thc cn lu :
Theo nh ngha v gi tr tuyt i, ta c: y = t |f(x)|

Cch dng:
- Dng th hm s y =|f(x)|( hon ton nm na mt phng
trn)
- Dng phn th i xng vi phn th thu c trn qua
trc Ox.
5.2 V d:
1. Dng th hm s |y| = |x - 3|
Tht vy:
th hm s y = x - 3
x = 0

y = -3

( 0; -3) thuc th
x = 3

y = 0

( 3; 0) thuc th
th hm s
y = 1- x vi 0
th hm s
y = 1- |x|
th hm s
y = |1- |x||
18
O
-
1
-
2
-
1
O
x
y
3 O
x
y
3 O
x
y
3

a)
b)
Hnh 10
c)
Phn th in m trong phn c) (hnh 10) l th hm s
|y| = |x - 3|
VI. m rng
i vi mi dng th hm s gi tr tuyt i u c mt cch
dng ring tng ng vi n. Tuy nhin trong thc t c th c cc
hm s gi tr tuyt i khng ch mt dng nu trn m n l
s kt hp ca nhiu dng khc nhau. i vi trng hp ny chng
ta c th dng hm s bng cch kt hp nhiu cch dng nu
trn, ngoi ra ta cn c th dng hm s bn cch dng
chung. Cch dng ny c th p dng cho tt c cc dng th
hm s gi tr tuyt i.
Cch dng chung
- B du gi tr tuyt i bng cch xt theo tng khong ca
bin ( xem ch 1)
- Mi khong ta u thu c mt hm tng ng

Dng th
theo tng khong ang xt.
V d 1: Dng th hm s y = |x - 1| + |x - 3|
Tht vy:
Xt theo tng khong ca bin x ta thu c:

4 - 2x nu x 1
y = 2 nu 1 x 3
2x - 4 nu x 3
th hm s
y = 4- 2x vi x 1
th hm s
y = 2 vi 1 x 3
th hm s
y = 2x - 4 vi x 3
19
O 1
2
4
y
x
x
O 1
2
4
y
3
x
O 1
2
4
y
3
a) b) c)
Hnh 11
Phn th in m trong phn c) (hnh 11) l th hm s
y = |x - 1| + |x - 3|
V d 2. Dng th hm s y = ||x| - 2|
Tht vy: -2 - x nu x -2
Vi x 0, y = |-2 - x| =
x + 2 nu x -2
-2 - x nu x -2

y =
x + 2 nu 0 x -2
x - 2 nu x 2
Vi x 0, y = |x - 2| =
2 - x nu x 2
x - 2 nu x 2

y =
2 - x nu 0 x 2
Vic dng th c thc hin trong 4 khong
-2 - x nu x -2
x + 2 nu -2 < x 0
y =
2 - x nu 0 < x 2
x - 2 nu x > 2
THS y= -2 -x
x -2
a)
THS y= x +
2
-2 < x 0
THS y = 2 -
x
0 < x 2
THS y = x -
2
x > 2
20
O
-2
y

x
O
-2
y
x
O -2
y
x
2 O -2
y

x
2
b)
c) d)
Hnh 12
Phn th in m trong phn d) (hnh 12) l th hm s:
y = ||x| - 2|
VIII.bi tp luyn tp
Bi 21. Dng th ca cc hm s
a) y =
1
2
3
x
b) y = 3 - 1.5|x| c) y = 1 - |x|
Bi 22. Dng th ca cc hm s sau:
a) y = 2|x - 3| b) y = |x + 2| + 1 c) Y = -|X - 1|
Bi 23. Dng th ca cc hm s sau:
a) y = |2|x| - 3| b) y =
1
1
x

Bi 24. Dng th ca cc hm s sau:


a) |y| = 1 - x b) |y - 1| = x c) |y| = x
2
+ 1
Bi 25. Dng th ca cc hm s sau:
a) |y| = |x| b) |y - 2| = |x| c) |y - 1| = |x - 2|
ch IV: tm gi tr ln nht, nh nht ca cc biu thc
cha du gi tr tuyt i
I. cc kin thc cn lu :
Cho A, B l cc biu thc i s.
1.1 |A| 0 ( ng thc xy ra khi A = 0 )
1.2 |A + B| |A| + |B| (ng thc xy ra khi A.B 0 )
1.3 |A - B| |A| + |B| (ng thc xy ra khi A.B 0 )
1.4 |A - B| |A| - |B| (ng thc xy ra khi A.B 0 )
1.5 ||A| - |B|| |A + B| (ng thc xy ra khi A.B 0 )
1.5 ||A| - |B|| |A - B| (ng thc xy ra khi A.B 0 )
II. Cc bi tp in hnh
2.1 Tm gi tr nh nht ca biu thc: B = 2|3x - 1| - 4
Tht vy:
Ta c: |3x - 1| 0 x
21

2|3x - 1|- 4 -4 x

GTNN ca B = -4

3x - 1 = 0

x = 1/3
2.2 Tm gi tr nh nht ca biu thc: C =
6
3 x
vi x

Z
Tht vy:
Xt |x| > 3

C > 0 |x| > 3


Xt |x| < 3 th do x

|x| = { 0; 1; 2}
Nu |x| = 0

C = -2
Nu |x| = 1

C = -3
Nu |x| = 2

C = -6

GTNN ca C = -6

|x| = 2

x = t 2
2.3 Tm gi tr nh nht ca biu thc: D = |x - 2| + |x - 3|
Tht vy:
Cch 1: p dng nh l v du ca nh thc bc nht v lp
bng ( ch I), ta c:
* Xt x < 2 th D = 2 - x + 3 - x = 5 - 2x
Do x < 2 nn -2x > -4

D > 1 (1)
* Xt 2 x 3 th D = x - 2 + 3 - x = 1 (2)
* Xt x > 3 th D = x - 2 + x - 3 = 2x - 5
Do x > 3 nn 2x > 6

D > 1 (3)
So snh (1), (2), (3) ta c minD = 1

2 x 3
Cch 2:
Ta c: D = |x - 2| + |x - 3|= |x - 2| + |3 - x| |x - 2 + 3 - x| = 1
Do minD = 1

(x - 2)(3 - x) 0

2 x 3
Cch 3:
Ta c: D = |x - 2| + |x - 3| | (x - 2) - (x - 3)| |x - 2 + 3 - x| = 1
Do minD = 1

(x - 2)(3 - x) 0

2 x 3
2.4 Tm gi tr ln nht ca biu thc: E = ||x - 1|- |x - 5||
Tht vy:
Cch 1:
Ta c: E = ||x - 1|- |x - 5|| |(x - 1)- (x - 5)|= |x -1 +5 - x| = 4
Do max E = 4

(x - 1)(x + 5) 0

5 x hoc x 1
Cch 2:
Ta c:
E = ||x - 1|- |x - 5|| = ||x - 1| + | 5 - x|| |x -1 +5 - x| = 4
Do max E = 4 khi (x - 1)(5 - x) 0

5 x hoc x 1
III. bi tp luyn tp
Bi 26: Tm gi tr ln nht ca biu thc:
a) A = 5 - |2x - 1|
22
b) B =
1
2 3 x +
c) C =
2 x
x
+
vi x

Z
Bi 27: Tm gi tr nh nht ca cc biu thc
a) A = 2|3x - 2| - 1
b) B = x
2
+ 3|x - 2| - 1
c) C = |x + 2|+ |x + 3|
d) D = |2x - 1|+ | 2x + 4|
e) E = |x
2
- x - 1|+ |x
2
- x - 2|
f) F = (0,5x
2
+ x)
2
- 3|0,5x
2
+ x|
Bi 28: Tm gi tr ln nht ca biu thc H = ||x - 2|- |x + 3||
c. p n
Bi 1:
a) a > 0; b) khng tn ti; c) d) a < 0; e) a > 0; f) a < 0; g)
a = -5; h) a = 0
Bi 2:
a) a = 0; b) a = 2; c) a = 1, b = -1; d) a = - 5, b = -2
Bi 3:
a) a, b cng du hoc cng bng 0
b) b = 0 hoc a, b cng dng
Bi 4:
a) -1 a 1; b) a 3 hoc a -3; c) a = t 11; d) -3 a < -1; 1 <
a 3
Bi 5:
a) 99 s; b) 20 cp s
Bi 6:
a) ; b) ; c) =; d) =
Bi 7:
a) Cch 1:
Xt hai trng hp:
Nu b 0 th a + b = |a| + b

a = |a|

a 0
23
Nu b < 0 th a + b = |a| - b

|a| - a = 2b

VT 0, VP < 0


ng thc khng xy ra

a 0, b 0 l cc gi tr tho mn
Cch 2:
Ta c a |a|, b |b|. Do a + b = |a| + |b|

a 0, b 0
b) Tng t b 0, a 0 hoc b < 0, a = -b
Bi 8: |a - b| = |(a + c) + (c - b)| |a - c| + |c - b| = 3 + 2 = 5
Bi 9:
a) BT = 2a vi a 0; BT = 0 vi a < 0
b) BT = 0 vi a 0, BT = -2a vi a < 0
c) BT = a
2
vi a 0, BT = - a
2
vi a < 0
d) BT = 1 vi a > 0, BT = -1 vi a < 0
e) BT = x - 9 vi x - 3, BT = 5x + 3 vi x < - 3
f) BT = 2x + 5 vi x < 1/4, BT = -6x + 7 vi 1/4 x < 3, BT = -2x -
5 vi x 3
Bi 10:
a) x
1
= 4, x
2
= -1; b) x = -1/2 c) x
1
= 5/2, x
2
= -2/3
d) x
1
= 1/2, x
2
= 3/2 e) x = 0 f) x = -1/2g) 1 x 2 i) x 2
Bi 11:
a) x = 4 hoc x = - 2 b) 1 x 2 c) 2,3 v 4 d)
1 5
2
t
e) x 1 f) -3/2 g) 0 h) 0 v 3/2 i) 2,0,-4 v -6 k)
-5,7,3,-1,1
Bi 12:
a > 0 v b < 2 hoc a < 0 v b > 2
Bi 13:
a = b = 0 hoc a > 0; b< 0 hoc a = -b
Bi 14:
a)
1 1
; 2
2 2
_


,
;
1 1
2 ;
2 2
_


,
;
1 1
; 2
2 2
_


,
;
1 1
2 ;
2 2
_


,
b) (1; 3) ; (3 ; 1) ; (- 3; -1) ; (-1; -3)
c)
2
6
7
x
;
4
5
7
y
d)
1 3
;
2 2
_


,
;
1
3 ;3
2
_


,
Bi 15:
|A| -A, du " = " xy ra

A 0

x
2
- x - 2 0

(x + 1)(x - 2)
0

-1 x 2
Bi 16:
Nu a > 0 th - a < 2a; Xt trng hp x < -a, -a x 2a, x 2a
ta c cc nghim x = -7a, x = a
Nu a 0 th 2a < -a; Xt cc trng hp x < 2a; 2a x -a, x >
-a th ta c nghim x = -a
24
Bi 17:
a) -2 x 3; b) x > -2; c)x -2; x 5; d) x > 3/2
Bi 18:
a)
3
2
2
x < <
b)
3
4
2
x < <
c)
4
; 2
3
x x < >
d) x 0, x 1
Bi 19:
a) x < 1; b) x < -1; x > 7; c) -3 < x < 5 d) x 1 e) 0 x 1
g)
2
5
x
hoc x 12
Bi 20:
a)
1 13 1 13
2 2
x
+
< < ; b)
1 15 1 15
2 2
x
+
< < c) - 3 < x <
2
3
3
d) v nghime) 1 13 1 13 x < < + f) 0 x 2 hoc x
3 21
2
+

hoc x
3 21
2

Bi 21:
a b) c)
Bi 22:
a b) c)
Bi 23:
25
x
y
-6 6
O
x
y
-2 2 O
x
y
-1 1 O
1
x
y
O
6
3
x
y
-2 O
3
x
y
-1
1
O
3
2

3
2
O
3
y
x
y
a)
1 1
b)
Bi 24:
a) b) c)
Bi 25:
a) b) c)
Bi 26:
a) max A = 5

1
2
x
b) max A =
1
3

2 x
26
O
x
y
x
1
O
y
x
1
O 1
y
x
1
O
x
O
y
x
y
O
y
O
x
2
1
c) Xt cc trng hp

max C = 3 max A = 5

x = 1
Bi 27:
a) min A = -1

2
3
x
b) min B = -1

x = 0; y = 2
c) min C = 5

-2 x 3
d) min D = 5

1
2
2
x
e) min E = 3

-1 x 2
f) t |0,5x
2
+ x| = y

min G = -9/4

y = 3/2

x
1
= 1; x
2
= -30
Bi 28: max H = 5

x 2 hoc x -3
d. ti liu tham kho
1. Gi tr tuyt i- I.I. GAIDUCOP- NXB Gio dc - 1973
2. Mt s vn pht trin i s 7- V Hu Bnh - NXB Gio
dc - 1994
3. Ton nng cao v chuyn i s 7- Nguyn Ngc m - V
Dng Thu - NXB Gio dc - 1997
4. Ton c bn v nng cao i s 7- V Hu Bnh- NXB Gio
dc 1999
5. Ton Bi dng hc sinh lp 7 - V Hu Bnh - Tn Thn -
Quang Thiu NXB H ni - 1995
6. Mt s vn pht trin i s 8 - V Hu Bnh- NXB Gio
dc 1994
7. Ton nng cao i s 8- V Hu Bnh- NXB Gio dc 1999
8. Mt s vn pht trin i s 9 - V Hu Bnh- NXB Gio
dc 1994
27
E : Kt lun chung
Vic nghin cu mt s vn gi tr tuyt i l mt trong
nhng vn tng i hay v kh. Mi mt phng php gii nh
l mt cha kha gip chng ta tm c nhng con ng i
ngn nht trong qu trnh khm ph chn l ca tri thc nhn
loi.
Qu trnh nghin cu ca ti phn no gip cho
hc sinh c cch nhn mt cch khi qut hn v gi tr tuyt i.
ti gip cho cc em h thng c cc dng bi tp v
gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS trn c s m cc em c c
tt c cc cng c khi ng trc mt bi ton cha gi tr tuyt
i.
Tm li, ti ny phn no gii quyt c nhng vng
mc c bn khi gp bi ton cha gi tr tuyt i.
Ti xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gip ti hon
thnh ti ny.
Ngy 15 thng 5 nm 2006
Ngi vit

28
Bi Dy thc nghim
Tun: 14. Ngy son:2/12/ 05.
Tit: 42. Ngy dy: 9/12/
05.
Th t trong tp hp cc s nguyn
A/ Mc tiu:
- Hs hiu v bit so snh 2 s nguyn, tm c gi tr tuyt i
ca 1 s nguyn.
- Rn k nng so snh 2 s nguyn v tm gi tr tuyt i ca 1 s
nguyn.
- Rn tnh cn thn trong so snh v tm gi tr tuyt i ca s
nguyn.
B/ Chun b:
-GV: Bng ph, thc thng.
-HS: n tp cc kin thc v s nguyn hc, thc thng.
C/ Ln lp
I/ T chc: (1

)
Kim tra s s.
II/ Kim tra bi c
? HS1:Vit tp hp cc s nguyn. Lm BT7 (SGK).
?HS2:Th no l 2 s i nhau? Lm BT 10 (SGK).
III/ Bi mi:
Hot ng ca
thy
Hot ng ca
tr
Ghi bng
?So snh 3 v 5?
? So snh v tr 2
im biu din 2 s
trn trc tia s?
-Gv a ra t/c tng t
i vi s nguyn.
? Nhn trn trc s
ri so snh?
-Gv treo bng ph ?1.
- Hs so snh: 3<5.
- im 3 nm bn
tri in 5 trn tia
s.
- Hs theo di gv h-
ng dn.
- Hs lm theo yu
cu ca gv.
- Hs trao i theo
1. S snh hai s
nguyn. (15)
+ Ta c: 3 <5
trn tia s: im 3
bn tri im 5.
+ Vi 2 a,b

Z: khi
im a bn tri
im b trn trc s
th a < b (hay b>a).
* Tng qut:(SGK).
+ m<n; a<b; m<a;
n<a .
29
O
n m a b
- Cho hs trao i
theo nhm bn ri gi
ln bng in.
- Yu cu hs nhn
xt, b sung.
- Cho hs tm hiu
ch SGK.
? Tm s lin trc
(sau) ca 1; -1; -3; 0;
-4?
-Y.cu hs tm hiu ?
2.
- Cho hs trao i
tho lun theo nhm.
-Gi hs ln bng lm.
-So snh cc s
nguyn dng (nguyn
m) vi s 0?
? So snh cc s
nguyn dng vi s
nguyn m?
- Gv treo bng ph
trc s.
? Tm cc im cch
0 mt khong bng 2
v?
-Y.cu hs tm hiu ?
3.
-Gi hs ln bng lm.
-Gv gip hs di lp.
- Yu cu hs nhn
xt, b sung.
- Gv cht bi.
-Gv nu N gi tr
tuyt i ca mt s
nguyn.
bn ri len bng
in vo bng
ph.
-Hc sinh nhn
xt, b sung.
- Hs tm hiu
phn ch SGK.
- Hs da vo trc
s tr li.
-Hs c v tm
hiu yu cu ?2
- Hs trao i theo
nhm bn ri i
din ln bng lm.
- Hs so snh theo
y.cu ca gv.
- Hs ln bng tm
theo y.cu ca gv.
-Hs c v tm
hiu ?3.
- 3 hs ln bng
trnh by.
- hs c lp cng lm
vo v.
-Hc sinh nhn
xt, b sung.
- Hs theo di v
tm hiu thm
trong SGK.
-Hs c v tm
hiu ?4.
- Hs trao i theo
nhm ri c i
+ m<0; n<0; a>0;
b>0.
?.1.
a) bn trinh
hn<
b) bn philn
hn>
c) bn trinh
hn<
* Ch : (SGK).
?.2. a) 2<7; d)
6<0.
b) -2>-7; e)
4>-2.
c) 4<2; g)
0<3.
*Nhn xt: (SGK).
2. Gi tr tuyt i
ca mt s nguyn.
(11).
2v 2v
+ im 2 v -2 cch O
mt khong bng 2
n v.
?.3.
+Kh. cch t 1 n 0
l 1 v.
+Kh. cch t -1 n 0
l 1 v.
+Kh. cch t -5 n 0
l 5 v.
+Kh. cch t 5 n 0
l 5 v.
+Kh. cch t -3 n 0
30
0 1 2 3 4
-1 -2 -3
-Y.cu hs tm hiu ?
4.
- Cho hs trao i .
? Em c NX g v
GTT ca mt s
nguyn dong (m) v
s 0?
? So snh 2 s nguyn
m ri so snh 2 gi
tr tuyt i ca
chng?
?NX g v GTT ca
2 s i nhau?
din ln bng lm.
-Hc sinh nhn
xt, b sung.
- Hs rt ra NX nh
SGK.
l 3 v.
+Kh. cch t 2 n 0
l 2 v.
+Kh. cch t 0 n 0
l 0 v.
* nh ngha: (SGK).
-Gi tr tuyt i ca
a k hiu l:
a
.
?.4.
2 2
;
2 2.
1 1;

1 1.


1 1;
0 0;


5 5.

1 1;
5 5;
0 0;


3 3.

* Nhn xt: (SGK).
IV/ Cng c:(9).
-Gv treo bng ph BT
11.
- Gi hs ln bng
lm.
- Yu cu hs nhn
xt, b sung.
-Y.cu hs tm hiu
BT 12.
- Chia lp thnh 2 na
v thi lm nhanh.
-Y.cu hs tm hiu
BT 14.
- Cho hs trao i
theo nhm.
- Gv quan st v sa
cho cc nhm.
- 2 Hs ln bng lm.
- Hs c lp cng lm.
-Hc sinh nhn xt,
b sung.
- Hs 2 na lp lm
nhanh v i din
ln bng lm.
-Hs c v tm
hiu BT.
- Hs trao i theo
nhm ri c i din
ln bng lm.
- 1 hs i din ln
bng lm.
BT11:
3 < 5 ; -3
> -5.
4 > -6; 10
> -10.
BT 12.(SGK).
a) 17; -2; 0; 1; 2; 5.
b) 2001; 15; 7; 0; -8;
-101.
BT14(SGK).
2000 2000.
3011 3011.

31
- Yu cu hs nhn
xt, b sung.
- Gv cht bi.
-Hc sinh nhn xt,
b sung.
10 10.
V/ H ng dn: (1

).
- Hc v lm bi tp y .
- Xem k cc VD v BT cha.
BTVN: BT13+15+16+17 (SGK).
BT22+23+24 (SBT)
32

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