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Proposed Western Engineering Green Building Preliminary information and design concepts
THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Proposed Western Engineering Green Building “Designed by Students for Students”
Preliminary Research Report and Proposal July 2004 Prepared by Rebecca Brownstone Co-op Student, A.B. Lucas Secondary School firstname.lastname@example.org Patricia Medina Volunteer Architect email@example.com Jon Schlemmer Second Year Civil and Environmental Engineering Student The University Of Western Ontario firstname.lastname@example.org James Skutezky Third Year Civil and Environmental Engineering Student The University Of Western Ontario email@example.com Faculty Advisor and Project Supervisor Dr. Ernest K. Yanful, P.Eng. Professor and Chair, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering The University Of Western Ontario firstname.lastname@example.org
Table of Contents 1. 2. INTRODUCTION THE CONCEPT OF “GREEN” 2.1 2.2 Overview of The “Green Concept” of Building Design Examples of Existing Green Building Chicago Center for Green Technology York University Computer Science Building Mountain Equipment Co-op Incentives - Commercial Building Incentive Program (CBIP) LEED and C2000 Rating Systems
2.3 2.4 3.
REVIEW OF GREEN TECHNOLOGIES AND BUILDING FEATURES 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 Displacement Ventilation Green House Radiant / Passive Heating Day Lighting / Passive Lighting Computerized Windows Smart Lighting/ Power Saving Electronics Photo Voltaic and solar panel system Wind Turbine Green Roof Water Use Reduction Rainwater Collection System
3 4. 7.5 4.4 4. 11. Introduction The Proposed Biosphere Students Designed and Engineered Advantages of a Western Engineering Green Building Envisioned Features of the Proposed Green Building Proposed Location of Green Building Summary of Building Use Possible Students’ Design and Research Topics PLAN FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN BUILDING 5. FUNDING CONCLUSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES LISTING OF SOFTWARE FOR ANALYZING GREEN BUILDINGS CONTACTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS APPENDICES 4 . 9.2 5.1 5. 8.1 4. 10.7 4.6 4.Table of Contents Cont’d 4.8 5. PROPOSED WESTERN GREEN BUILDING 4. 12.2 4.3 Waste Recycling Recycled Materials Preliminary Budget Estimates 6.
state-of-the art building. Over the years. it is not only a time to celebrate how far the institution has come. the building deteriorated further and currently has many problems associated with its operation. but environmentally friendly. Electrical. because the year 2004 is the 50th year of existence. including a leaky roof and poor insulation and hence poor energy efficiency. located behind the current Spencer Engineering building (shown in Figure 1). The number of faculty has also grown exponentially. and research. but it is also a time to look ahead to where Western might be 50 years from now. The Bio-Engineering Building is a one-storey building that was originally expected to be in use for only three years. During this period. the Bio-Engineering Building was not built to the same standard as other buildings at Western. It is also an exciting time for the Faculty of Engineering. The current student population stands at 1560 full-time undergraduate students and 380 graduate students. During the last 125 years Western has grown into a large university with numerous buildings that provide the institution with the necessary and state-of –art facilities for teaching. given the current pressure on space dues to the unprecedented growth in the Faculty of Engineering in the last five years. In the future there will be a need for more spaces to meet the increasing number of students.1. Mechanical. or a Green Building. However. because of the growth mentioned above. which has inevitably contributed to increasingly high maintenance and operational costs. While in the 125th year of the University’s existence. As a result. the Faculty has grown from a non-departmentalized engineering school to a full-fledged engineering institution with six accredited programs in Chemical. The Bio-Engineering Building. Civil. the building is in constant repair. After the wind tunnel units were moved to their current location the building was not torn down. 5 . it has become necessary to tear down the building and replace it with a new. Integrated. and Software Engineering. Space is particularly a major problem for the Faculty of Engineering. was built some 30 years ago to provide temporarily housing (three years) for Western Engineering’s large wind tunnel units while the permanent Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel was built. Since it was originally only intended to last three years. but was converted into laboratory space and office accommodation for faculty and students engaged in research in biochemical engineering. INTRODUCTION This is an exciting time in the life of Western (The University of Western Ontario).
(Figure 1) – Bio-Engineering Building behind the Spencer Engineering Building. Many people and organizations are coming to the conclusion that the average person’s daily energy consumption in North America will not be sustainable in the future. The world’s population has grown exponentially since the second world war. As leaders of innovation and knowledge dissemination. the nonrenewable fossil fuels. We can reduce our 6 . Proposed site for a Western Engineering Green Building 2. developing and implementing new practices that will help to alleviate the burden on our planet. and there is currently pressure on available land and natural resources. and designing environmentally friendly buildings. As a society. One of the growing areas of interest for many North American universities and colleges is the implementation of green technologies when constructing new facilities in order to produce buildings that are more energy efficient and have less impact on the natural environmentally during operation. These environmentally friendly buildings are also known as “green” buildings and have been in use for over 30 years in North America since the birth of the environmentalists’ movement in the 1960s. recycled materials. There are many ways in which these organizations are taking steps to reduce consumption such as developing new types of vehicles.1 THE CONCEPT OF “GREEN” Overview of “Green Concept” in Building Design There are large amounts of materials used and energy consumed during the construction and operation of an average building. we will eventually be faced with the depletion of our most widely used source of energy. energy sources. 2. Canadian Universities are one of the most logical places to start researching.
and generate energy on site using environmentally friendly means.ci. but the increased efficiency of a green building can offset this cost over the lifetime of the building. Ontario. 2.2 Examples of Existing Green Buildings To illustrate the benefits of integrating green concepts in building design. Some technologies may have a higher initial cost than the conventional alternatives. produce oxygen.html) In 1999 the Chicago Department of Environment embarked on an ambitious project known as The Chicago Centre for Green Technology (CCGT). These examples also help to answer the question “what is a green building?” These building examples are relatively close to London.il.chi. Figure 2 . The University Of Western Ontario has much to gain from exploring green concepts in the design and construction of new buildings with the goal of decreasing the University’s demand on energy and non-renewable resources. U.dependence on fossil fuels and other resources by constructing buildings that use recycled materials in their construction. Chicago.A. The Chicago Centre For Green Technology (CCGT). This has the effect of lowering energy costs and reducing dependence on the local utility. purify pollutants. a few examples of green buildings are provided. construction and operation.The Chicago Centre for Green Technology (http://www. so they experience similar climates. One of the major benefits of green buildings is that they require less energy to operate.S. are more energy efficient. The Department gathered a team of architects and engineers who produced the final designs and oversaw the construction of a building that would serve as an example for companies and 7 .us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.
homeowners all over North America. water.ci.il. The idea was to design a building that would reduce the demand on natural resources and energy while decreasing the production of pollution and waste. 40 000 ft2 building.html) Purpose: to reduce fossil fuel emissions released when electricity is produced. CCGT design includes: ● ● ● ● Photovoltaic cells. The teams design focuses on four major areas: lighting. thus lowering electricity requirements.Solar Panels on CCGT (http://www. Smart lighting. The following is a brief summary of the compilation of green technologies used in Chicago.chi.4 million was spent renovating an existing two-storey. Passive light designs including a green house with heat absorbing tiles and skylights. and air. Lighting Figure 3 .us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about. Motion-sensitive lights that turn themselves off when the room is empty. 8 . The project team incorporated many of the most advanced green technologies available at the time in the design of the CCGT. An amount of $5. which adjusts the electrical lights according to the available natural light. earth. The building was to do this without forcing occupants to change their habits drastically. that was to be converted into a green building.
il. CCGT design includes: ● ● ● Green roof (with succulent plant stores water in its roots and leaves and therefore does not need to be watered during drought) Cisterns (holding tanks used to collect rain water) Disconnected downspouts (drain to soil not sewer) 9 .us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.ci.chi.html) Rain Water Run Off Cistern (figure 6) Purpose: To reduce pollution due to stormwater run off water and to reduce the demand on the municipal sewer system.Water Figure 4 .Green roof (http://www.
wood. 10 .us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.chi. CCGT Design includes: ● ● ● Air Promotion of alternate forms of transportation by providing bike racks. and minerals. Use of recycled materials in the furnishings in the building Figure 6 .Ground Source Heat Pump (http://www.● Bioswales (ditches with water-loving plants which filter pollutants) Earth Purpose: To reduce the demand on natural resources provided by such as oil. electrical outlets in the parking lot for electric cars. and close to major bus routes. showers.ci. Demolition waste was recycled when possible.il.html) Purpose: Reduce air pollution and the need for heating and cooling using non-renewable resources.
that lowers heating and cooling costs. Use of natural gas to heat the building Use of local materials in the construction and operation of the building.html 11 .ci. Further information about the Chicago Center for Green Technology can be found at http://www. Use of less harmful chemical products both for the construction and for the maintenance of the building.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about. ● ● ● ● ● Farr Associates was the leading architectural firm involved in the design of the Chicago Center for Green Technology construction and design. The liquid is used to regulate the temperature in the building.CCGT design includes: ● A ground source heat pump and pipe system that carries a (non-toxic) liquid similar to antifreeze through a series of looped pipes 200 feet (61 m) below ground level. Highly effective insulation. The green roof atmospheric carbon dioxide to oxygen through the natural process (photosynthesis) of the plant life.il. The roof also absorbs rainwater and thus reduces the amount of water released into the city’s sewer system. including the green roof.chi. This reduces pollution related to transportation and helps the local economy.
and air conditioning system (HVAC) as much as possible. they used an open concept design with a central atrium and exhaust columns to allow natural venting and natural lighting. As a result the temperature can be maintained more easily and the natural light lessens the need for electric lighting in the middle of the day. has a number of additional “green” features. This type of natural ventilation is possible because of the “thermal chimney effect”. ventilation. is a good example of what can be done with a university building in Ontario’s extremely variable climate. Green Features of Note: The building was designed to be energy efficient in the winter and summer by being highly insulated and having lots of natural light. The . The architects who designed the York computer sciences building wanted to reduce the reliance on the heating. Toronto The York Computer Science Building. The hot air is replaced by fresh air. three-story 9.282m2 building designed mainly for energy efficiency. located in Toronto Ontario. To do this end. it naturally floats up to the ceiling if there is other cooler air available to take its place. produced by rising hot air.The York University Computer Science Building. As the air in the building warms during the day. This efficient design allows the building operators 12 . which is collected at ground level on the shaded north side of the building. At the ceiling the warm air is siphoned off using fans at the top of the exhaust columns and by computerized windows at the top of the atrium.
A large atrium in the centre of the building brings light into the centre of the building and houses tropical plants which flourish all year. Substantial perimeter glazing on the windows makes it easier to control the heat in the building in warm seasons. Additional Building Features: ● The York Computer Science Building’s roof is almost completely covered with natural vegetation that requires very little maintenance and is irrigated with collected rainwater. The designers’ attention to the climate control has resulted in an energy consumption rating that is 50% less than the ASHRAE requirements of 600 MJ/m2/yr. HVAC system is 50% smaller than is typically required for this size of building. The lit oval area in the ceiling is one of the exhaust columns that vents hot air and lets natural light into the building. for a building of its size. Natural lighting accesses many parts of the building There are manually operable windows throughout the building. This green roof is used by faculty and students as a recreational area. when the external temperatures are relatively moderate. 13 ● ● ● ● ● . This image shows one of the halls in the York University Computer Science Building.to turn off the HVAC system during most of the spring and fall days.
the university has taken many large steps towards sustainability. The building is acoustically sealed to diminish echoes and noise. Personal communication with York University tour guides and a computer science student during a visit indicated that there have been a few problems with the operation of the building. Carinci Burt Rogers (Electrical) York Computer Science Building green roof 14 . These include: ● ● ● Workers find maintenance of the building challenging because many of the building’s operational mechanisms are unique and require extra attention. however the moisture levels have since been reduced. overall. York has subsequently decided that all future construction on campus will be done using 50% fly ash concrete. The south side is very warm and the north side is very cold. The York University green building may have a few minor problems with is operation but. The building’s temperature varies greatly depending on what side of the building a reading is taken. Architect: Busby and Associates Architects and Van Nostrand di Castri Architects Engineers: KEEN Engineering (Mechanical). Yolles (Structural). which are programmed for efficiency but can also be adjusted manually. covered bicycle racks and shower rooms are provided. The basement was reportedly “very musky” when the building was first opened. (This is an issue for an open concept design with an atrium or large lecture halls) To promote alternate transportation. 50% fly ash concrete was used instead of standard concrete.● ● ● ● Computer-controlled wind and temperature sensors control the windows. because of the large amounts of glass.
the MEC retail store is built from 50% recycled materials and has a green roof. so they began constructing new stores one after the other. MEC has since built green buildings in Ottawa. and was set up as a non-profit. Most of the Co-op’s owners believe that. it is an ethical endeavour because green buildings are good for the community’s heath and preservation of resources. 15 . The outdoor enthusiast’s equipment chain is working to ensure all their stores are located in green buildings.York University Computer Science Building atrium Mountain Equipment Co-op The Mountain Equipment Co-op (MEC) was founded in 1971 by a group in B. The owners of MEC decided that they would like to house their stores in environmentally friendly buildings. The Toronto store was the first of MEC’s green buildings. and Vancouver. although building an environmentally friendly building may not always be have a low initial capital cost. Montreal. Located at 400 King Street in Toronto.C. Co-operative organization that provides products and services to customers interested in wilderness oriented recreation. The store chain is a demonstration that green technologies can be unobtrusive.
solar panels. thermal siphoning. consisting mostly of volcanic ash. This is a Canadian green building rating system discussed in Section 2. reducing the “Heat Island” effect. structures. for the most part. A computerized building management system (BMS) is in use. Finally the roof top garden converts carbon dioxide into oxygen and reduces the heat in the city. Vegetation and soil help to filter rainwater runoff and to increase the amount of time taken to reach storm sewers. The interior. moss. The carpet is made from recycled carpet that can be sold back to the manufacturer when it becomes worn out.4. insects and birds. Below the poured concrete of the underground parking garage is a gravel bed that was made from the previous foundation. The building mechanics ventilation pipes. The building is Canada 2000 or C2000 compliant. Every effort is made to reduce the amount of materials used in construction. Material Considerations Constructed from 50% recycled material.The Toronto MEC green building features include a green roof. Volatile Organic Compounds or VOCs) while drying. The green roof is not open to the public. The MEC building’s green roof has 4” of soil. 16 . The concrete aggregate is made from recycled concrete. Additional Building Features: ● ● ● A small solar panel mounted on the roof is used to run lights in the store or charge a large battery when the lights are not in use. The roof top garden promotes wildlife such as ducks. In the winter the layer of soil on the roof helps to insulate the building. wires. allowing the company to save materials by using a lightweight roof. The green roof’s temperature is 20 – 30˚C in the summer. and topsoil because these growing mediums are light. which was crushed on site. compared to a normal tar roofs temperature of 30-50˚C. is left unpainted because many paints emit harmful compounds (for example. and lights are all exposed. and a computerized building management system. environmentally friendly large buildings. MEC building stairs are made from recycled car metal and the wooden beams were reclaimed from waterlogged and sunk logs from the Ottawa River.
and a small green house. 17 .Toronto MEC building green roof Toronto MEC building interior 401 Richmond This building in Toronto is not a green building but it may be worth mentioning because of its roof top garden that serves as a public eating area. benches. It includes tables.
401 Richmond roof top garden 401 Richmond composting tumbler 18 .
cagbc.ca/PDF/NRCAN_tax_incentives. The program will began in April of 1998 and will run until March of 2007. The program will award up to $60 000 to any building project that meets certain requirements.Further Case Study resources are available in the resources section 2.ca/building_rating_systems/leed_project_registration. Certain expenses. Additional information may be found at: http://www.cfm?PrintView=N&Text=N 2.3 Incentives The Canadian Government offers tax incentives designed to encourage the use of green technology in new buildings.4 LEED and C2000 Rating systems LEED Accreditation http://www. These areas are: ● ● ● ● ● Sustainable Site Planning Safeguarding Water and Water Efficiency Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Conservation of Materials and Resources Indoor Environmental Quality 19 . This is a program defining and rating green buildings.php In the United States the most prominent green building accreditation program is the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. The cost of the equipment is up to 30% tax deductible.energyalternatives. A Canadian equivalent rating system is currently under development. It is expected to focus on the same major areas that the LEED rating system does. such as the cost of site analysis.ca/newbuildings/cbip-pebc/index_e.nrcan.gc.pdf Commercial Building Incentive Program (CBIP) The CBIP is a program run by National Resources Canada. The Government allows an accelerated write-off rate for expenditures related to green technologies. cost of negotiations and cost of site approval may also be eligible for these tax benefits. The following web link provides additional information: http://oee. Investors can write-off costs associated with sustainable building practices.
org/text_pdf/pope. The checklist and rating system information for the American LEED program can be found at https://www. USGBC and Canada 2000 (C2000) programs may be found at: https://www.greenbuilding.ashrae-mtl. Additional information on the LEED.ppt http://www.ca/C2000/abc-2kpd.htm#PERF-REQ 26-32 points 33-38 points 39-51 points 52-60 points 20 .asp#cert www.org/LEED/Project/certprocess. Drawback Application for a LEED assessment costs the builder extra money and it does not change the building once it is built.xls The United States Green Building Council (USGBC) uses the LEED checklist to rate a building.1.greenbuilding.usgbc.The LEED rating system awards points for how a building’s design deals with specific solutions for the above-mentioned issues. The rating also gives designers’ a method of comparing new designs to old designs in order to determine their success. a rating for the building is awarded as follows: Certified Silver Gold Platinum Benefits The benefits of receiving a rating from LEED include increased publicity and promotion of high quality design.usgbc.usgbc.htm https://www.org/Docs/LEEDdocs/LEED-NC_checklist-v2. Depending on the total points achieved for solutions related to the above areas.org/Docs/Resources/usgbc_intro.pdf http://www.ca/C2000/abc-2kpd.
The atrium houses growing plants and water features. The atrium also acts as a route for air within the building. Introducing fresh air at floor level. Stale. Air moves slowly enough that it does not displace dirt from the floors. Resources: Advanced Buildings. The glass ceiling allows daylight to filter down through the levels of the building. During the day the floors and walls absorb heat produced by the sun. reducing lighting expenses. the air rises as it warms until it reaches exhaust ducts at the ceiling. rises to the ceiling level. hot air flows into the atrium. Technology and Practises Web Page Canadian Architect Web Page Healthy Buildings International Web Page 3. Drawbacks: This system is fairly complicated to install and may be difficult to incorporate with other systems. Fresh air is circulated through the building making for a more comfortable working environment. Benefits: Excess heat is removed from the building efficiently. 3. Resources: York Computer Sciences Building 3. Any air pollutants that are produced within the building are not re-circulated. Air pollutants are removed from the environment.2 Atrium A greenhouse atrium may be incorporated in a green building. and so that very little energy is wasted. the tiles release the heat energy retained from the day. An example of a green building with a greenhouse atrium is the York University Computer Science Building. The incoming air must be maintained at approximately the same temperature as the room to avoid excessive cooling/heating. 21 .3 Radiant / Passive Heating Radiant solar heating is a way to save on heating costs within a building. In this system dense tiles or concrete are used as flooring or as wall paneling.3. where it is readily exhausted. As the building cools at night. Heat is transferred from outgoing air to incoming air.1 REVIEW OF GREEN BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES Displacement Ventilation A displacement ventilation system uses 100% outdoor air to ventilate the building. The atrium allows natural light to penetrate the core of the building.
Technology and Practises Web Page Lower Manhattan Development Corporation Mountain Equipment Co-op Store York Computer Sciences Building 22 . shades can be put into place during the summer to block direct sunlight and reduce heat into the building. and therefore slightly increases air conditioning expenses. Daylighting also improved the light quality within the building.A passive heating system would greatly reduce heating expenses within the building for a little extra initial cost. Costs for blinds vary by material. If cheaper windows are installed the building will not be as energy efficient because windows may allow in extra heat. Also. Also shades will be needed so that rooms can be made dark for presentations. Blinds can be purchased for CAN $30100/m2. This reduces the building’s demand on natural resources and save money.squ1. Large amounts of natural light also produce glare that may be uncomfortable to the building’s occupants. Benefits: Daylighting reduces reliance on electric lighting. the two systems work together to reduce energy consumption while providing ample light to the occupants of the building. steps need to be taken to reduce glare. while daylight brings the full light spectrum into the building giving better illumination of spaces. this is a minor concern because the heat is released at night when the building is cooler. electric lights only produce a partial light spectrum. Drawbacks: Shades will need to be installed to reduce direct sunlight penetrating the building in the summer causing the building to heat up. This system increases the building’s temperature in the summer. Expense Estimate: Inert Gas filled windows (Argon/Krypton) cost CAN $3-5/m2 of window. Resources: Advanced Buildings.4 Day lighting / Passive Lighting A green building would typically have many large windows that maximize the amount of light admitted into the building. However.com/ Chicago Centre for Green Technology 3. Resources: Square One http://www. style and size. Also studies are available that show increased productivity for people working in naturally lit buildings. reducing the cost of electricity in the long run. Passive lighting works well with smart lighting. and during the summer the building is not as extensively used as in winter.
The reduction in energy implies reduced electricity costs. Also the sensors may increase security in the building. Drawback: increased initial cost of the devices. The cost of the sensors can be expected to payback in approximately two years.5 Smart Lighting/ Power Saving Electronics Smart lighting and power saving electronics are a simple way to save energy. Also this system is not yet standard and can be a challenge for maintenance personnel. Computerized windows are often installed above large atriums and open to allow hot air to escape from the top of the building. Smart lights have photo sensors that read how much natural light is in the building and dim electric lights when there is substantial natural light. Wiring Devices and Accessories http://www. Technology and Practises Web Page Mountain Equipment Co-op Store 3. Drawbacks: Computerized window systems have slightly high initial costs. Power saving electronics shut down after not being used for a set amount of time. Resources: Douglas Lighting Controls http://www. These devices are designed to shut down when not in use. as they must learn how the new system operates.com/ Advanced Buildings.com/ Pass & Seymour. Smart lights are often equipped with motion sensors so that when there is no one in a room the lights automatically shut off. 23 . Benefits: Computerized windows reduce air conditioning costs as the windows open automatically when the building becomes too hot.douglaslightingcontrol. The major benefit to smart lighting and power saving electronics is the reduction in energy consumption.passandseymour.6 Computerized Windows Computerized windows add to the HVAC system by opening automatically when the building reaches extreme temperatures. Expenses: Infrared occupancy sensors cost CAN $75-200. Fans are not needed to push the air out because this system takes advantage of the natural motion of air within the building.3.
24 . lighting. unlike solar generators. The greatest challenge to all energy production is its impact on the environment. It also applies to space heating and cooling systems. and the roof. The value of the photovoltaic-generated electricity is equal to the avoided cost per kWh of the grid electricity that is saved (i. to equipment that have built-in power management features. produces no emissions during use and is completely scaleable from very small to very large electrical generators in a totally modular way. It is therefore the only form of electrical energy generation that has the potential to be placed at the far end of the electricity distribution chain. foundation.7 Photo Voltaic (PV) Cells. Any excess not used within the building is exported to the electrical supply network (grid).Expenses: cost of heat sensors. Benefits of Photovoltaics Unlike any other known forms of electricity production. Mounting photovoltaic cells on buildings means there are is additional cost for installation. is noiseless. transmission and distribution losses are avoided. Energy-efficiency applies to everything from the building skin or shell. because the system does not include batteries that would need to be replaced. and the ac electricity is fed into the building's main electricity supply. solar power has no effect on the environment. As the electricity is generated where it is consumed. which includes energy efficient windows. photovoltaics. mechanical window openers and computer system. Nearly all photovoltaics in buildings (PVIB) systems are grid-connected. The dc electricity from the photovoltaic array is converted into mains-compatible ac by a special inverter. Energy efficiency can also apply to water heating. improved duct systems. ventilation. and solar panels Energy efficiency in photovoltaic system means using the building's individual components to do the same job as less efficient components for less money over the longterm. combined with water-efficient appliances. Resources: Mountain Equipment Co-op Store York University Computer Sciences Building 3. which can be improved using solar panels. whose efficiency may be improved by automated controls. higher than the normal buying price of a utility). Solar power is one of the friendliest ways of producing electricity. or PV has no moving parts. insulation. In grid-connected systems.e. Battery system. which reduces the utility's capital and maintenance costs. and other advanced technologies.
Use of photovoltaics on buildings Modern architecture increasingly attempts to combine aesthetic. An air gap is provided between the modules and the roof to aid module cooling. Sloping roofs can be fitted with standard size framed photovoltaic modules and with a special mounting profile. Architecturally well-executed and integrated photovoltaic systems lend themselves ideally for this purpose. Normally this involves modules with special frames and matching mounting profiles. Mounting methods: Photovoltaics are normally mounted over walls using standard module sizes and specially developed mounting structures.e true building integration) and the need to fit into closely defined dimensions often means that special size photovoltaic modules are required. or special laminates that are mounted on standard building profiles. outside wiring is preferred. Designing photovoltaics as architectural features into new buildings often presents a challenge. which can be attached to the facades or be part of windows. Sloping roofs of new buildings. Examples of situations where photovoltaic elements can be incorporated into a new building are: ● ● ● ● ● Non-transparent facades forming the wall structure of a new building. especially with the new thin photovoltaic films. while for a roof. Here the photovoltaic elements are required to fit into the building skin itself (i. Wiring options for a facade are inside or outside wiring. Cell spacing is normally between 10 and 100 mm. Glazed atria / daylighting areas of new buildings which require some transparency. This reduces the module operating temperature and increases the working efficiency. As part of windows. Roofs may have an area where the normal roofing material is replaced by photovoltaic modules. ecological and technical issues. where the photovoltaics are required to form part of the weatherproof roof. Sun shading over windows. 25 .
Improvements in the technology have also made it more worthwhile to collect even weaker rays of sunlight. Constructed of a polyester mesh in the shape of two hyperbolic paraboloids (one of the basic building shapes of tensile architecture). to provide increased light transmission.Integration of special glazed roofs and atria into new buildings require large glassglass laminates that fit into standard building profiles. the pavilion's membrane both diffuses sunlight into a fine. thin-film PV panels. manufacturers began producing a new breed of PV panels that employed a thin film of silicon and lightweight conductors fused onto materials such as sheet metal or glass. To accomplish this. takes advantage of a thin-film PV on a flexible metal substrate. at the edges. Normally the cells are spaced more widely than in normal photovoltaic modules. This approach has become feasible in part because thin-film PVs are far less expensive than crystal PVs. blocking. which can withstand the high temperature necessary to prepare the silicon coating. a combination that. water. patterning. which range in density from opaque to semitransparent. and not just the strongest rays. Film Photovoltaics Solar Electric Modules Film photovoltaics solar electric modules were born with the idea of creating structures in which the same surface would both provide shelter and power. PVs will only continue to become cheaper and more efficient. so far. PVs are also approaching standard building-module size. is produced by only one manufacturer (Iowa Thin Films). become design elements themselves. Borrowing a technique developed in the production of silicon chips for the computer industry. Here. snow. The power is produced by thin-film amorphous-silicon panels on a flexible stainless-steel substrate bonded to a PVC coating on the mesh. orientation of the panels at various angles allows the structure to harvest energy from all sunlight. As an example of this new technology. boxy structure. a single panel cost approximately $1. They may also include an insulating air gap and/or laminated back glass. the price of PVs is now comparable to that of conventional building materials and less than that of a material like granite. the first pavilion in the Cooper-Hewitt Garden in the United States. The dispersion of the panels over the pavilion's curved surface also represents a shift in philosophy from the days of the flat PV array.000. stippled pattern and allows air to vent. and filtering light while simultaneously producing electricity to power an air-conditioning unit for example. 26 . As sunlight enters its translucent. The near-seamless integration of the PV panels into the curvilinear form evinces the versatility of the advancing technology. Attention is needed to avoid profiles that can build up dust. Thirty years ago. the buildings should integrate photovoltaic (PV) panels into their design.
Provides thermal insulation on the roof or walls. Reduces maintenance and capital costs. Benefits: By designing a building that uses less energy and has less power demand. just as tinted glass is. Decreases heating and cooling energy costs. it is possible to achieve robust of the building as well as power grid for the building. extending roof life. Whole-building design takes into account the building structure and systems as a whole and examines how these systems work best together to save energy and reduce environmental impact. Protects the roof from weather and UV radiation. PV Systems: An important first step when considering the purchase of a photovoltaic system for an institutional building is whole-building design because it can save time and money. Reduces environmental impact. PVs can be used. which translates into cost savings. However. If done correctly. Consequently the dependence on fossil fuels and impact on the environment will be lower. engineers. and 27 .As an alternative. to filter or deflect sunlight from entering a space. A smaller air-conditioning system needs less electrical power to operate. it is essential that the design team be fully integrated from the beginning of the design process. Whole-building design can also be beneficial by improving comfort for occupants. allowing for a smaller air conditioning system. The building design team can include architects. Using a lot of natural light reduces electricity and release of thermal energy given off by lighting fixtures. whole-building design need not cost more than a building designed using conventional systems. because all the pieces must fit together. fewer solar panels will be required for cooling the building. Passive solar features incorporated into a building design can have a significant impact on a building's energy consumption. with the obvious advantage of using that same sunlight to create energy for the building's systems rather than "wasting" it and relying on energy generated by outside sources. It can even eliminate or reduce unnecessary building space and reduce construction costs. Other possible benefits of photovoltaic whole-building design include: ● ● ● ● ● ● Reduce energy use by 50% or more. and therefore.
roofing materials sell for about US$23.57 per Wp. The useful lifetime of an inverter is probably around 10 years. Prestige facade materials (e. and inverters) are included. If one considers the avoided cost of the marble. Performance One peak kW of amorphous silicon photovoltaic is about 25 square metres. This is about the same cost per sq metre as an expensive over cladding system (e. it is essential to bring energy consultants into the design process from the beginning and keep them involved throughout the process so they can advise how changes to design will affect a building's energy performance. Per square metre. A vertical facade (South facing) will produce around 75-90 kWh/sq m per year (crystalline) or 2530 kWh/sq m per year (amorphous). Costs The cost of a simply mounted photovoltaic system using standard photovoltaic modules (including modules.6 to US$236 per square metre. worldwide.g. and the fact that solar electricity is essentially free of charge. Energy payback time How long does it take a photovoltaic system to produce more energy from the sun than what went into its manufacture? Estimates vary widely.5 square metres. double glass). It should be noted that the above ‘maximum’ figures can be quite severely reduced by shadowing from nearby buildings and trees.20 years for specially encapsulated aSi facade module. but using averaged published data. and cladding. For comparison. cables. materials. cabling and inverter) is approximately US$6. Normally. mounting. and 15 .specialists in areas such as indoor air quality. Often the East and West facing walls produce nearly as much as the South wall. 6 to 7 years if the other components (mounting structure. One peak kW of crystalline silicon photovoltaic is about 8 to 8. Tilted arrays (eg roofs at optimum tilt) can produce 100-200 kWh/sq m per year (crystalline) or 30-70 kWh/sq m per year (amorphous).g. more or less. For institutional buildings. the following energy payback times are quite typical for vertical facades in the Nordic countries: ● ● 5 to 6 years considering the photovoltaic modules alone. A crystalline silicon grid-connected photovoltaic system costs between US$ 7081062 per square metre. then it is easy to make an economic case for using photovoltaic systems.6-59 per square metre and normal wall materials range from about US$82. marble or other dressed stone) cost US$708 to US$1416 per sq m. They could be replaced at about the same price by crystalline silicon photovoltaic. These figures apply. the expected useful life is at least 20 – 30 years for a crystalline module. and energy use. an a-Si BIPV system costs around US$354 per sq m. 28 .
” made from semi. for photovoltaic systems mounted at more favourable tilt angles. and block the harshest solar rays while allowing the most pleasant daylight to stay in a building’s interior. That takes into account the emissions associated with manufacture of the photovoltaic system.The above energy payback times would be reduced for sunnier locations at lower latitude. The DSWS system is made of clear plastic panels that fit in between two glass panes. also embedded in 29 . embedded in the walls or roof. Sensors. or “modules. Reduced emissions The issue of reduced CO2 emissions due to the use of photovoltaic systems is quite complicated. One peak kW of photovoltaics system mounted on a building in a Northern country can result in elimination of CO2 emissions of up to 1 tonne per year. as there are many other factors that have to be considered for each system. If the photovoltaic-produced electricity were replacing electricity that would be otherwise generated by fossil fuels such as coal or oil. This could save utility costs and significantly reduce the need for fossil fuels. ensure that the units are always facing the sun to capture all incoming rays while at the same time deflecting harsh. On each panel are dozens of small. and for future thin-film photovoltaic technologies. then the ‘CO2 payback time’ for a photovoltaic facade system in the Nordic countries would be approximately 4 .5 years. The system can be incorporated into new buildings or into existing buildings. Each unit holds a miniature photovoltaic (PV) or solar-cell device used to collect light and heat that is then transferred into useable energy to run motors. This type of emission reduction projection is probably too simplistic. cool. pyramid-shaped units. integrated window system. Other examples of Photovoltaics: New Solar-Powered Window: Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed the first solarpowered. unwanted rays from a building’s interior. Thus each installation must be evaluated on its own merit.translucent focusing plastic lenses that track the sun’s motion. Designed to function as a shading system. and artificially light the same office building. the Dynamic Shading Window System (DSWS) uses a newly developed solar-energy technology to convert sun’s light into storable energy that can be used to efficiently heat.
air conditioning. that is.55 million will be paid through a rebate from the California Public Utilities Commission to the university through Pacific Gas and Electric. by enabling it to generate its own power especially during the summer months when electricity prices are the highest and the grid is most constrained.600 square feet. This is the largest solar electric system at any university in the world and one of the largest solar energy systems in the United States. These emission reductions are equivalent to planting 2.the building’s interior walls. which is being financed over 15 years through utility savings from the project. Over the next 25 years. which are no longer hidden by a standard shade or obscured by penetrating glare. The system will give the university a hedge against the fluctuating costs of energy and related supplies and will lower annual maintenance costs and increase the life of the buildings. for example. The cost of the new solar energy system to the university will be approximately $3. Another $3. with the superior lighting. The $7.700 tons.260 solar tiles will be laid. California State University.700 cars from highways. Hayward. a university building. non-polluting system that will reduce their electricity bill by $200. The surplus energy can be directly and automatically distributed through wires inside a building’s walls. leveraging the area's abundant sunlight.11 million project will generate roughly 1. or can be stored in a group of batteries. Hayward. and will feature rooftop arrays on four of the university's largest buildings.450. The solar generation system will deliver approximately 30 percent of the campus' peak electricity demands. A total of 5. California State Hayward's solar system will cover more than 75.450 acres of trees or removing 1. 30 . producing enough electricity in the daytime to power more than 1. California. This solar-powered technology can provide institutional buildings. the solar-generated electricity will reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by nearly 8.55 million. The 1. reliable. costeffective source of electricity. and artificial lighting. It will allow for better views outside the windows.05-megawatt solar electric system will provide a clean. natural daylight. California State Hayward will have a costeffective. With this solar electric installation. California. The remaining energy is used for heating.000 homes. A good example of PV use: An example of beneficial uses of photovoltaic systems is available at the California State University. for later use. reliable.000 kilowatt hours annually. Solar energy will provide the university with operational flexibility.000 annually.
orientations of up to 20 degrees away from this optimum have little impact on performance.solarbuzz.com “Pv for Buildings”. Water heating accounts for about 7% of institutional energy use.etela-karjala. ● Controllers may require servicing during the life of the system. USA.htm http://koulut. 31 . However.fi/kimppe/pv-system/BIPVwhitepaperENG. Benefits ● ● ● ● Provides a large proportion of a building's water heating requirements. http://www. A solar water heater uses glazed collectors that are roof-mounted and connected to a preheat storage tank. especially between the hours of 9AM and 3PM when the sun's rays are most intense. Reduces the use of electricity or fossil fuels. Ideally collectors are mounted facing south and sloped at an angle equal to the location latitude. ● Solar collectors should perform well for more than 20 years. Application Solar water heaters are best suited to buildings with high hot water loads. Systems can be easily retrofitted to existing buildings although flat roof buildings will require a support rack to angle the collectors towards the sun. Reduces energy costs. A backup water heater is installed in series with the preheat tank to maintain the desired water temperature during extended cloudy periods. Limitations ● A conventional backup system is needed to boost the water temperature during the night and/or on cloudy days. A typical system will provide 50 to 75% of the water-heating load.pdf http://www.com/News/NewsNAPT40.metropolismag. and returned to a heat exchanger where heat from the fluid is used to heat the water in a preheat storage tank. Operates at minimal cost.htm Solar Panels (water heating) Solar Water Heating Solar water heating panels are a system that uses the sun's energy rather than electricity or gas to heat water. Fluid is pumped to the collectors where it is warmed by the sun is energy. It is essential that the collectors are not shaded.com/html/content_0598/ma98bd. ● Storage tank and the pump may need to be replaced after 10 years. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).Resources: www.fortum.
A solar water heating system is efficient. Hot water counts for as much as 40% of the energy requirements of an average house. The entire system cost $32. institutional and industrial applications. Solar energy is environmentally friendly. even 100% for a cottage. the solar system should have one square metre of collector area for every 50 L/day of hot water usage and the storage tank should have 50 L/m2 of collector. 32 . The payback on solar heating systems ranges from 7 to 20 years depending on the cost of fuel displaced and the complexity of the system (For example. Example Buildings The Landmark Condominium in Kingston Ontario has installed a solar hot water system that provides the building's 150 apartments with hot water. Experience Solar water heating systems have been used in a number of institutional buildings in Canada. An excellent application for solar energy is producing hot water. easy to install. The RETScreen computer program can be used to quickly assess the economics of a proposed installation. renewable and sustainable. friendly and virtually maintenance-free. Solar water heating systems can drastically cut the costs for heating hot water by 40 to 60%. whether support racks and storage tank are needed). Solar hot water has excellent commercial. Additional tanks have been installed to store excess hot water gathered during particularly sunny days. Cost The cost of solar water heating systems has dropped over the past 20 years.000 to install and returns annual energy savings of around $3. The installed cost of commercial systems is about C$500/m2. The REDI program of Natural Resources Canada provides an incentive of 25% to reduce the inital cost of the system. This corresponds to 4 m2 of collector for every apartment suite in multi-unit residential buildings and 1 m of collector for every five office workers in an office building. The systems require an annual maintenance check of the controller and pump operation and the pH level of the glycol solution (if used).As a rough guide. clean. In most cases the systems have performed reliably.600.
universities are one of the best potential applications for commercial or institutional solar water heating. It can even be a direct circulation system with no heat exchangers. primarily because they are a low temperature application. the method of heat transfer. There may be a problem with dirt building up on the collectors in some regions. The source of heat is available when there is a demand for it and there is little requirement for storage. which provides protection from freezing. For example. draindown and thermosiphon. The passive solar or thermo siphon system utilizes the density difference between the warm water in the collector and the cooler water in the tank mounted above the collector.The Canadian solar industry offers a range of systems and configurations. Generally. Applications for solar water heating include manufacturing or process heat applications. The most suitable applications for institutional solar systems are those using low temperature water. Many institutional applications have site specific needs that lend themselves to a good solar application. drainback. The solar system ties into the existing hot water tank to preheat the domestic hot water used for washing dishes. A hot solar panel must not be washed with cold water. The distinction between different systems is in the working fluid. Financing of solar water heaters can be arranged so the interest costs less than the savings. however as soon as the first snow comes along in winter. They need warm water somewhere between 90°F (32°C) and 100°F (38°C) and not at 140°F (60°C). Institutional applications that do not really require hot water are the most costeffective because the solar panels will operate more efficiently. In the fall if there is not much rain. Commercial Solar Hot Water Systems: The solar collectors are located where they are exposed to the sun all day. which keeps the costs down. typically on a roof. Maintenance: The collectors may get dusty but rain will wash them off so it is not usually a problem. 33 . the snow will accumulate on the collectors for a time but will then slide down and clean off the collectors when the sun comes out. A fluid is circulated between the collectors and a heat exchanger or water storage tank where the heat is utilized or stored. which may make it necessary to wash them a few times through the summer. Institutional systems are similar to large residential systems in their basic form. The closed-loop antifreeze solar heating system has a solar loop containing antifreeze. all designed to utilize solar energy and to produce hot water at high efficiency and low cost. The roof may be at a suitable angle so the panels can be installed without the need for a special rack. the larger the system the less expensive is the unit cost of energy delivered. clothes and baths. and control strategy resulting in technical terms such as closed loop.
which means it does not qualify for most applications. Generally.1 CCA of the Income Tax Act for manufacturing and processing (M&P) industries. industrial and institutional applications such as car washes.1 CCA for fish processing plants and for milk processing plants or slaughterhouses (manufacturing and processes).1 CCA for many of the applications. Tax considerations: The Income Tax Regulations were revised in February 1994 to encourage business and industry to reduce energy waste and to use alternative and renewable energy sources.1 CCA without exception and solar energy is sometimes under Class 43. renewable energy was under Class 34 at 50%. Wind energy and small hydro plants and most other renewable energy technologies are under Class 43. with the half-year rule this was 25% in year 1.1 CCA without exception.1 at 30% if they are larger than 3 kW but anything less than that is written off under Class 8 CCA at 20%. There are applications for solar water heating in manufacturing or process heat. commercial.Expected performance: There is no well-defined standard performance to be achieved but there are typical performance figures. Solar water heating is not included under 43. Wind energy and most other renewable energy technologies are now under Class 43. The lifetime of the equipment will be the same for all these applications. Solar water heating is included under 43. Solcan installed a solar water heating system at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto in 1987. although most of these technologies produce electricity. it may be financially attractive. The long-term investment must be considered rather than payback. and have only 4% CCA. the solar fraction of institutional solar hot water systems is usually between 10 to 35%. such as solar air and water heating. but when used in manufacturing or processing have 30% CCA. The system includes 24 solar panels (72 m2) mounted on the penthouse 34 . Previously. Solar heating is included under 43. There are also the environmental benefits. but there are many more commercial. The same equipment can be used in the latter applications.1 CCA. nursing homes or apartment buildings. Funds have been allocated to Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to stimulate a domestic market for Canadian solar products. Some of the money will fund a 25% contribution for businesses that invest in solar heating. because they are considered part of the building. 50% in year 2 and the remaining 25% in year 3. Photovoltaic systems are under Class 43. industrial or institutional. The Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative (REDI) is a federal government program introduced in 1998 for renewable energy applications that are not eligible under class 43.1. If a solar hot water system is installed on a new building and included in the mortgage.
More information can be found at www. There is a Provincial Sales Tax Rebate on all solar equipment sold in Ontario.ca. say London Hydro.gov. Cost Estimates: Cost can vary depending on the size of the system. This would provide the user with approximately 8 000 kWh/year of electricity.000.$300 000. although it may need a new pump during that time. A photovoltaic system would also reduce emissions of green house gases. Benefits: A building saves electricity costs from producing it’s own electricity (approximately $100/year for a 10 KW system). An agreement may be made with the local utility provider. Also. which are very hot when in use. an independent consultant verified that the system was delivering over 60. the system can be grid connected so that the electricity company buys surplus electricity generated. do not over heat. After commissioning. The total cost of equipment and installation was $40. depending on the type of cell. and whether the system is grid connected or has a battery unit to store surplus energy for later use. This 35 .fin. The annual maintenance cost is about $150 per year averaged over ten years. In the winter the cooling system would rarely need to be turned on because snow will act as a coolant. if the utility company would allow. A 10kW system will cost CAN $100 000 .5 hours per day of useful sunlight in winter. Panels from ARISE Technologies can supply panels that have a 20 or 25 year warranty. Snow melts off the panels quickly because the panels reach high temperatures when in use. It was designed to deliver 210 GJ (58. Drawbacks: A photovoltaic system can be rather costly to install initially.000 kWh per year. In the London area the cells would receive 5-6 hours per day of useful sunlight in summer and 1.trd. to buy surplus electricity produced by the solar cells. Also a cooling system would need to be installed so that the panels. Grid-Tied PV System A grid-tied photovoltaic system takes energy produced in solar cells and converts the energy into electricity that can be used either within the structure or can be fed into the electricity grid.on. The system should last 20 years before it needs a major overhaul. type of photovoltaic cells used.and supplying heated water to the hot water storage tanks nine stories below.380 kWh) of energy per year. Ontario: PST Rebate (Dec 2003).
Green roofs tend to last longer than standard roofing. including installation. A wind turbine will increase the insurance costs of the building.7 cents/KWhr for < 750 KWhr per month. A 50-kW turbine would not only provide power to the proposed Western Engineering Green Building. Also. if the green roof is made accessible to the occupants of the building certain safety precautions need to be taken. Green roofing has a higher initial material cost than the cost of a standard roof.e. green roofs slow storm water run off. They are an efficient. taking load off municipal storm sewers during rainy seasons.9 Green Roof Introduction: An effective green roof system is lightweight. A green roof also improves air quality around the building. 50kW wind turbine would cost C$150-161 000. or can be left inaccessible to the building’s occupants. Expenses: A new. They do not use up natural resources and do not produce greenhouse gases. Drawbacks: green roofs have certain maintenance requirements that must be met to insure a successful green roof. low cost and low maintenance. 3. This rate has been frozen until 2006. and acts as a habitat for local birds. The cells have an expected life of 50 years. clean way to produce energy. 3.5 cents/KWhr after that.8 Wind Turbine Intro: Wind turbines are powered by the wind to produce energy. Drawbacks: Wind turbines are rather site-specific. Conclusions: A site study should be performed to see if a site has enough wind to make a turbine a feasible option. A small irrigation system would also need to be installed to ensure that the plants get enough water to stay alive. A cement contractor would need to be hired to pour a platform to mount the turbine on. and 5. Green roofs slow the urban heat island effect. A green roof has low maintenance plants and can be accessible as a rooftop garden. A green roof would save energy because they increase the insulation of the roof. If there is enough wind at the site then a wind turbine is an inexpensive way to produce energy for the building. PV cells). the plants and soil could be used in research. Benefits: The green roof could serve as a research centre for botany students. the components can last up to twice as long as conventional roofing.warranty guarantees that the cells will produce at least 80% of original efficiency during the aforementioned 20/25-year period. Knowledgeable maintenance staff would need to be hired to keep it in good condition. 36 . the provision of guard rails. but could also send surplus electricity into the Thompson and Spencer buildings as well. Benefits: Wind turbines are relatively low-cost when compared to other green technologies (i. an extensive site study would need to be performed to determine if winds are constant and strong enough to make a wind turbine worthwhile. for example. Current electricity rates in London are 4. Also.
The urinals rarely breakdown. that release different amounts of water for either liquid or solid waste.falconwaterfree.Water Use Reduction Waterless urinals are urinals designed with a non-stick coating that eliminates the need to flush after use. these fixtures pay back their initial cost in water savings.facilitiesnet. the liquid trap must be changed.waterless. Drawbacks: These urinals are slightly more expensive than classic models and so will have a higher initial cost than lavatories fitted with flush urinals. so repair costs are negligible. Benefits: 37 .soprema. Expenses: The cost of each urinal is approximately $250-350 per unit. Cartridge replacements cost approximately $30-40 each depending on how many are bought at a time.greenroofs. After approximately every 7. Resources: Green Roofs for Healthy Cities: http://peck. Resources: No-FlushTM Urinals: www.000 uses.50-11. Rental of a urinal costs approximately $6.ca/ 3.10 . The urinal has a trap in the base that contains a light liquid. they breakdown much less often.ca/grhcc/Greenbacks. based on a five year contract.com/ms/feb04 Dual-Flush Toilets are Australian innovated fixtures that have two buttons. The liquid creates a seal between the pipeline and the facility. The seal is designed to prevent bacterial growth and odours. Benefits: These urinals use no water and therefore result in a 100% savings in water.pdf Soprema: http://www.ca/grhcc/ Greenbacks from Green Roofs. There are no moving parts in these fixtures.Expenses: Cost to install a green roof is CAN$80-100/m2.com FacilitiesNet: www. Also. there are no handles that can potentially transmit bacteria between users.com Falcon Waterfree Technologies: www. therefore. Status Report: http://www. Within a few years.50 per unit per month. These urinals require the same daily maintenance as flush urinals. since these urinals do not need to be flushed. The installation is optional.
There are also many environmental benefits such as less stress or load on municipal storm sewers and less demand on freshwater resources.com/ Aerated Faucets Aerated faucets use a simple screen at the faucet to add air to the water stream increasing pressure and lessening water consumption. The water can be used to water the rooftop garden. 38 .11 Rainwater Collection A rainwater collection system is a simple way for the operation of a building to conserve water use. dual/low-flush toilets and aerated faucets are well known ways to reduce water use. resulting in up to a 67% savings in water.36 Caravelle 305 US $445.environmentalhomecentre. Waterless urinals. Benefits: A rainwater collection system if installed. The rainwater would be collected as it runs off the building and would be stored in cisterns until it is needed. Expenses: Cost of fixtures: Caroma dual-flush toilets by model Caravelle 270 US $484. This results in an average flush volume of approximately 3.pdf Environmental Home Centre: http://www. The fixtures investigated above are a few of the many possible ways to decrease the amount of fresh water the proposed Green Building will require.gc.16 Fixtures will require the same daily maintenance as standard facilities.cmhc-schl. Resources: Caroma Industries Ltd. Expenses: Faucet aerators on average cost less than $5 each.au/ Research Highlights. Dual-Flush Toilet Testing: http://www.ca/publications/en/rh-pr/tech/02-124-e.These toilets use 6L of water for solid waste and only 3L for liquid. This can be compared to older models that can use up to 13L/flush or newer low-flow models that use on average 6L/flush. Benefits: Aerated faucet heads can potentially slow water from up to fifteen gallons per minute down to less than three gallons per minute.8L/flush. These fixtures use substantially less water and so.com. they would pay back their cost in water savings. would reduce water use and utility bills. 3. There are many different ways to reduce water consumption.: http://www. within a few years of installation. or treated for potable uses within the building.22 Tasman 270 US $280. Drawbacks: These fixtures cost more than traditional models depending on the quality and make of the toilet.caroma.
The building will be used as a Western Engineering Students Centre with new facilities to meet the needs of current and future students.2 The Proposed Biosphere The centrepiece of the Green Building will be a beautiful glass-domed “green” garden atrium featuring growing plants. conversely.1 PROPOSED WESTERN ENGINEERING GREEN BUILDING Introduction As previously mentioned. 4. the existing Bio-Engineering Building is very old and inefficient. reading room and cafeteria. 4. For example a 20 000 gallon cistern. classrooms. It is expensive to operate and maintain since the building continues to be in constant repair. the system could be shut down during the winter months. library.rainwaterharvesting. Expenses: The rainwater collection system would have to be designed and built to suit needs. state-ofthe-art. It has a leaky roof and poor climate control as well as being old and unattractive. and design studios for support of teaching and learning needs in all disciplines of Engineering at Western. The cistern alone can cost as little as $6 000 (USD). running water and tranquil ponds. The close proximity of the classrooms.Org: http://www. laboratories. combine with garden atrium area. will provide students with an environment that supports the pursuit of individual academic excellence and effective team buildingmaking for a superior educational experience at Western Engineering.Drawbacks: The system would need to be highly insulated if it is to be kept in working order during the winter months. This common area will not only provide a stimulating natural environment conducive to student 39 . this seems somewhat impractical because winter is the time of year when the building would be getting the most use. environmentally friendly and energy efficient building. The goal of the proposed Western Engineering Green Building project is to demolish the existing Bio-Engineering building and replace it with a modern. will offer a wide selection of nutritious foods within a conservation-minded. A complete Cafeteria Facility. The building will feature state-of-the-art undergraduate student laboratories. A dedicated Engineering Library and Reading Room – complete with wireless Internet connectivity – will provide students with an ideal place to study and conduct library-based engineering research. paperless and waste-free environment. with a pump and purification system can cost up to $15 000 (USD). The cost of cistern construction ranges by size and material type and whether or not a purification system is installed to make the water potable. Resources: RainwaterHarvesting. managed and run in part by the students.org/ Canadian Architect Web Page International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association Web Page 4.
In order to allow engineering students to produce design proposals for the new building.socialization and study. The students will have faculty advisors and professional advisors from the architectural and engineering fields associated with environmentally friendly building design. they will learn what it means to create efficient and ecologically sustainable integrated engineering designs. with the initial design work to be performed by students as part of their 4th Year Design Project course. students will study and learn how the engineering design of the building itself impacts the fragile natural environment. The Western Green Building conceptual design will have many new environmentally friendly features that the old Western buildings do not have. to tackle the structural.3 Student Designed and Engineered The fourth year Engineering design projects will outline the technical requirements of the proposed Green Building. natural lighting. 40 . The Western Engineering Faculty would use this project outline to present an alternative option for the fourth year design projects. research references. There is also the option of awarding prize money to the group members who produce the top designs. and technical requirements for this specific project. prepare a final proposal. and present this proposal to a panel of judges in order to receive their grades for the course and for their design to be considered in the final design of the Green Building. Within this mini-biosphere. mechanical and electrical requirements. thermal energy. including architects and engineering consulting firms. open water. The conceptual design phase of the three-year project will begin in September 2004. The centre will be connected to the Thompson Engineering Building via a 2nd floor passageway. The Centre is tentatively scheduled for completion in late 2006 and will be located adjacent to Western’s main Spencer Engineering Building and the new Thompson Engineering Building. greatly enhancing ease of movement between key areas of Western Engineering. a comprehensive fourth year project outline would be necessary. This would provide Western with its student designed green building proposals. The students will be required to complete extensive research. and other studies. and wood incorporated into an open concept design. The design may have more vegetation. The Building will represent the only facility of its kind on a university campus in Canada designed by students for students. As students conduct water management. but will also provide a unique educational opportunity. supervised students will conduct detailed integrated design work in collaboration with industry. 4. The outline could include: green technology history. as well as energy saving features and renewable energy producers. biochemical. to the engineering students from each discipline. In 2005. However the textures and features on the outer walls of a future Green Building should coincide with the original styles present on both the Spencer Engineering Building and the Thompson Engineering Building to fit in with the classic stone and ivy “feel” of Western’s campus.
This is a tool. Efforts should be made to maximize the use of local businesses and local materials. There are a large number of new and innovative technologies. This will promote growth in the emerging green technology sector. if the technology works very well. which analyzes the sustainability of a university. through fourth year 41 . Simply having a building as distinctive as this would promote the quality of Western’s engineering program. directly on campus. For example. sponsors. Technology used in this building can be employed with the goal that some of it could eventually ‘filter down’ to the other areas of construction. and increase environmental awareness. environmental materials. students. Many Canadian universities already have green buildings or residences well into the design process.4 ● ● ● ● ● ● Advantages of a Western Engineering Green Building The project will allow students from each engineering discipline to work together in an integrated effort on a real project. from the source of energy that is used in the physical plant to the packaging of cafeteria food. which will be beneficial to the local community. The final product will be a building that is more energy efficient and less harmful to the environment. it will likely be considered in the construction of future campus buildings. One of the advantages of this project is that it will educate all Western engineering disciplines about green buildings. and faculty. based on hundreds of factors. This building could serve as a test site for energy efficient technologies that could be employed in other parts of the university in future construction or retrofits.4. thus improving the student’s quality of life. This will result in a sizeable compilation of research data that have to be organized and analyzed so that the most technically feasible and cost-effective design recommendation can be made. Western’s Green Building could be used as a student activity centre. and future buildings in the community at large. This project is an opportunity to employ the resources of the City of London and area as well as those of the University. In fact this assessment tool could conceivably be integrated into the MacLean’s ranking of universities. and aesthetic design considerations and equipment supplies that must be reviewed. A Western engineering green building could be a catalyst to prompt other forms of environmentally friendly activities on campus. Sustainability on campuses is fast becoming a significant issue. Constructing a green building would enhance Western’s reputation for leadingedge innovation. This Green Building Project requires an immense amount of research and planning in order to fully maximize the efficiency and economic gains of such a complex system. and its buildings. The Green Building project could benefit Western by attracting extra donations. There are presently students creating a Campus Sustainability Assessment Framework for Canadian schools.
4.5 Envisioned Features of The Proposed Green Building: Technical Requirements • Three Floors • 1048 m2 Per Floor (11275 ft2 Per floor) • The Green building will be joined to the existing Spencer Engineering Building. air circulation. design studios. which is used as a place to eat work and interact • Connection between the new Thompson Engineering Building and the UWO Green Building. workshop or design shop for Sunstang/Formua SAE. • Design should incorporate the “chimney effect”. and thermo siphoning. machine shop. • The building is to be connected to the Thompson Engineering Building. heat sink. (To integrate nature with the structure itself and to purify any runoff) • Open concept design to help with natural lighting. The road running between the Thompson Building and the future Green Building will remain. 42 . Non-Visible Features Washrooms on every floor Elevator at the back of the atrium Stairs at the front or the atrium No Basement First Floor – 11275 ft2. • Covered bike racks and seating. and future building use changes. materials lab. and a cafeteria that opens to the atrium (greenhouse/biosphere). • Building should be designed to facilitate future construction at its northern face. (Possibly a second floor walk way to allow cars to drive in between the two buildings and park at the Boundary Wind Tunnel) • Natural lighting • Windmill • Photovoltaic cells shading windows (with or without batteries) • Vegetation and Bioswales surrounding building. which is to the south. aesthetics.design projects similar to the existing City of London design projects in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Visible Features • Water cistern • Green Roof/Roof top garden • Biosphere or Green house.
reading rooms with low-flux lighting. Sunstang and Formula SAE) Other features • Computerized access and operation (for example. and ‘green’ materialbased construction 43 . Student clubs. fax machines. or biomass treating system for toilets and sinks • Recycled Materials used in construction • Incorporate wood into the structure of the building The design of the new building should focus on the following key green principles: Use of integrated design process. zero stormwater release and hence minimum impact on municipal stormwater sewer system. composting. lounge with wireless Internet access. photocopiers. conservation. efficient indoor air quality control. rain and snow harvesting. energy efficiency. faculty. use of renewable energy sources. etc. elevators.Second Floor – 11275 ft2. The building should perform as a “cold climate” insulated building in the winter and like a naturally ventilated “tropical” building in the summer. Concentric seating lecture theatres with and advanced laptop computer access for taking lecture notes. academic offices. and administration offices. State-of-the art library. Third Floor – 11275ft2. • Waterless. and students activity offices (for example. waste recycling and reuse. offices for library staff. etc. minimal ecological footprint. low flow. eco-friendliness. highly insulated. that go into power saving mode when not in use) • High Efficiency HVAC.) • Geothermal energy regulating temperatures • Wastewater and grey water treatment • Smart lighting (with automated dimming and motion censors) • Smart electronics (computers.
It will also house a light-duty students’ machine shop for individual/group projects.4. Thus the building will contain: • • • • • • Offices Laboratories Cafeteria Student study area Atrium/biosphere (interactive green house) Lecture theatres (possibly in a concentric style) 44 . and other engineering projects such as Sunstang and Formulae SAE. certified students working part-time. introduction to engineering design and innovation. engineering statistics. and design studios for first and upper year courses in all branches of engineering.7 Summary of Building Use The Green Building will be a Students’ Activities Centre. It will have three stories covering approximately 3144m2 (33825ft2). The main floor will house laboratories for undergraduate courses. such as materials. The machine shop will be operated by trained.6 Proposed Location of Green Building 4.
highly insulated. The building should perform as a “cold climate” insulated building in the winter and like a naturally ventilated “tropical” building in the summer. etc. wheelchairs and elevator) with a public building efficiency viewing station) Geothermal energy regulating temperatures Wastewater and grey water treatment Smart lighting (with automated dimming and motion censors) Smart electronics (computers. low flow. Waterless. that go into power saving mode when not in use) High Efficiency HVAC. or biomass treating system for toilets and sinks Recycled Materials used in construction Incorporate wood into the structure of the building 45 . fax machines. composting.• • • • • • • • • • • Meeting rooms Computer labs Computerized access (for example. photocopiers.
biosphere (green house) and a hypothetical windmill. 46 . The Spencer Engineering Building is in the background.A conceptual rending of the proposed Green Building is as shown in the two figures presented below: Proposed Green Building showing green roof.
in terms of: efficiency. and availability of manufacturers. climate. What is the Effect of having live plants and lots of windows) ● Can UWO’s Green Technology Building be certified by a green building rating system? ● What is the effect on the environment? 47 .Proposed Green Building showing the second-floor passageway to the Thompson Engineering (left) 4.4 Possible Students’ Design and Research Topics The following is a list of topics and questions that the fourth-year students design groups may want to consider in their projects: ● Are there “environmentally friendly” materials that are economical to use in construction and maintenance of the building? ● Can we reuse or recycle waste from the old building? ● Can we find sponsors to supplement the cost of the building? ● Are there any tax incentives or Government subsidies that can be acquired? ● Is Green Technology practical here in London. ● Are there any situations where Green Technology has failed and why? ● What are the Safety codes and safety issues associated with this new technology? ● Analyze the aesthetic and psychological factors involved with the design (Ex. cost. maintenance. ● An analysis of the building site may be performed.
Compare intangible benefits. Universities are a concentrated area of experts in various fields. This project could also be a basis for new direction and new courses. a team of electrical engineers could design a system that adjusts the artificial light in a room in accordance with the amount of natural light that is present. Prepare a final Western green building design and present it. There is a trend recently towards various people with different skills collaborating on large projects. help the environment. or environmental benefits that may be gained from this project. Therefore this building could be an ongoing platform for student projects over the next several years. For example. the need for environmental engineers versed in the latest technology is only going to increase. One of the advantages of having an ongoing project of this type is the potential for engineering students to play a role. Recycling material can save money. construction. it would be prudent to use the skills of many different people toward a common goal. 48 . The funding for some features may not be available right from the beginning of the program. 5. The building does not have to be completed all at one time. and research. The project impacts engineering students by providing interested environmentally conscious students the chance to work on a real project in the areas of design.Possible Tasks ● ● ● ● ● Produce a detailed comparison of individual energy savings between a standard building and a green technology building. and increase the chance of receiving a positive green building rating. It would be the fourth year students’ design responsibility to determine what could be recycled from the old Bio-Engineering Building and to include their choices in their proposals. such as any promotion. The emphasis should be on cooperation. good communication and integration of the respective disciplines. With new environmental requirements arising. taking it beyond wastewater. In a project of this magnitude and complexity. Calculate and present a comparison between the cost of the green building design over its lifetime and a standard building. Students would be pleased to see their efforts employed usefully as well as leaving their mark on their school. Develop a realistic timeline for the Western green building project. emissions and solid waste management. which could supplement the environmental engineering program.1 PLAN FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GREEN BUILDING PROJECT Waste Recycling Every time a new green building is built the designers find new ways to recycle the demolition waste. 5. recognition.
Energy Star Roof program (www.fscus.org).greanseal.buildinggreen. site analysis. Demolition Cost: 11650ft2/floor @$ 80/ft2 = $ 932 000 Scrap metal from the demolition can be recycled and sold at $275/tonne.org). Estimated cost of construction (Hard Cost): $240/ft2 Estimated cost of demolition.5.carpet-rug. shipping recycled materials from far away can defeat the purpose or trying to be environmentally friendly.3 Preliminary Budget Estimates The estimated budget for the proposed Western Engineering Green Building is approximately $7 million. Building Green Inc. Forest Stewardship Council (www.org).com). The choice of what materials to use often depends on availability as much as anything else. Estimating for a 3-storey building with 11 650 ft2 per floor. Carpet & Rug Institute (www. green building designers often tend to use recycled materials in the new construction or renovation of a green building. 5.2 Recycled Materials As well as recycling demolition waste.scs1.energystar.org).org/Docs/LEEDdocs/LEEDfaq-materials2. The list of recycled materials is always growing and the products them selves are becoming less expensive. (www. Because of the energy used.gov) and others.220 000 *Note: This does not include the cost of green technologies Estimated furnishing cost: $700 000/11650ft2 Engineering students designs at no cost 49 .usgbc. China is a hot market for scrap metal. This estimate includes the demolition costs for the existing building and costs of ‘green technologies’. Resource on Materials: https://www. Green Seal (www.com). permit: $80/ft2 Estimated furnishing cost: $700 000/11000ft2 Total Building Cost= ($320/ft2)*(11000ft2) + $700 000 = $4.pdf Environmental and health claims can be certified or reviewed by organizations such as Scientific Certification Systems (www. design.greenguard. Green Guard (www.
Professional engineering costs Architectural costs Construction/demolition cost Furnishing Maintenance costs Some of the environmentally friendly technologies are more expensive to install on a building than it would be to exclude them from the building design. However in most cases, through energy savings and tax exemptions, they pay for themselves throughout the lifetime of the building. For example, solar panels add to the initial cost of the building by approximately $100 000 for a 10-kW system, but at current Ontario electricity prices, the solar panel array has would have an payback period of 50 years. (Research communication with personnel at ARISE Technologies Corporation, Kitchener, Ontario.) It is also worth noting that although it may be more work to design a building that is energy efficient and uses recycled materials, through making these changes there are great benefits to the environment and a decreased demand on utilities. Western stands to benefit from this type of research when it considers future building designs. The goal of the project is to design a building that is energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective. Fourth year engineering students will compete to submit designs for the proposed Western Engineering Green Building. If a student design is chosen because it successfully meets the criteria mentioned above, then the costs associated with energy consumption of the building will be lower than a comparable building on campus. Another large saving for Western comes from the fourth year engineering design project, which has engineering students producing the preliminary designs at no cost to the Faculty of Engineering. It may also be possible to get environmental design companies from the community to volunteer some professional time in advising the students design groups. Enermodal, a Green Building design firm, and Arise Technologies, a solar panel system supplier, have already discussed the possibility of volunteering personnel time to help Western in its efforts to design an environmentally friendly building. 6. FUNDING
Given the potential visibility and positive environmental effects of a Green Building project, there should not be great difficulty in finding alumni and philanthropists that may be interested in making donations to help fund the project. A fundraising incentive would have to be undertaken by the University to secure funding for the project. A preliminary budget of $7 million in 2004 is proposed.
The savings that a green building can offer will be different for each design. There are many types of available software or design firms that can analyze a design to estimate savings. The forth year engineering student will have to be creative and innovative to produce the best alternative. 7. CONCLUSIONS
In Canada, companies, governments, and citizens in general, are becoming more aware of the potential dangers facing humans if resources are consumed and wasted at the rates they are today. As a result it is likely that there will be a move towards designing more efficient buildings and communities. The University of Western Ontario will benefit greatly from any research that is done now in the areas of constructing energy efficient buildings and adopting environmentally friendly construction practices. Through beginning research now UWO can sooner reduce its energy expenses, as well as any negative impact it may impose on the environment. One area that Western can focus its effort on and improve is to move in a more environmentally friendly direction by decreasing the Universities dependence on energy and resources and by decreasing the amount of waste produced. The engineering faculty would benefit in many ways if given the opportunity to research, design and eventually construct a new building that not only adds to the quality of life of the students but also employs many of the latest Green Building technologies. A Western green building will serve as an asset to UWO in other ways, it can be used to promote Western and to draw out new sponsors and donations. A green building would be a great way to boost Western’s environmental engineering program’s profile. Any design would draw on the talents and expertise of all disciplines of engineering and would be a great learning experience for the students. Currently the engineering cafeteria, computer labs, and study room are completely packed at peak times of the day, forcing students to look elsewhere for areas to do their work. A Western green building would provide space to meet the demand on classroom and study areas caused by the increasing numbers of students coming to UWO every year 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES
The Chicago Centre for Green Technology (http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html) Chicago Center for Green Technology home page, http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html
Cover Logo - www.ggrhba.com/ about_issues_green.htm Figure – 1 UWO Engineering Home Page, http://www.engga.uwo.ca/ Figure 3 – 8 Chicago Center for Green Technology home page, http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html Stats Canada http://www.statcan.ca Chicago Center for Green Technology http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html LEED Web Page http://www.usgbc.org/leed/leed_main.asp International http://www.oja-services.nl/iea-pvps/cases/ita_01.htm Canadian http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/highperformance/case_studies/overview.cfm?Proje ctID=44 Examples of Green Buildings Very good green resources from USGBC http://www.usgbc.org/Resources/links.asp http://www.cstctd.org/CSTwhatsnew.htm http://www.energyefficiency.org/eecentre/eecentre.nsf/internetE/B1D61EAA4874658385 2569B800564275?opendocument http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/ http://www.advancedbuildings.org/index.htm http://www.city.london.on.ca/Planning/Building/buildingcode.htm http://www.sustainable.doe.gov/buildings/gbprogrm.shtml http://www.greenbuilder.com/
ec.org/ Arise Technologies Corporation http://www. S.org/env/ http://www.com/businessdirectories/ http://www.ca/envhome.org/ American Society of Heating.ca/ Danish Wind Industry Association http://www.canwea. 76 (2004) 33-43 http://www. Goswami.ashrae.city.com/ 53 .html http://www.gc.cagbc.edu/energy-design-tools/ http://www.usgbc.london. Tamm New and emerging developments in solar energy Solar Energy. Vijayaraghavan.org/ Lower Manhattan Development Corporation http://www.com/ LEED Green Building Rating System (Version 2.renewnyc.com/ Canada Green Building Council http://www.com/ International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association http://www.http://www2. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers http://www.ca/ http://www.org/ Healthy Buildings International http://www.on.ca/ Canadian Architect http://www.arisetech.habitat.org/Resources/links.ucla. S.com/ Canadian Wind Energy Association http://www.1) Solar Panel Resources D.aud.Y.ledc.windpower.asp Advanced Buildings Technologies and Practises: http://www.ircsa.cdnarchitect.healthybuildings. Lu and G.advancedbuildings.arisetech.
Being often complex in their design.Pass & Seymour. the concept of daylight coefficients and the Perez sky model.gon. improve indoor and outdoor environmental quality.passandseymour. improve living and work environments. Daysim (Dynamic Daylight Simulations): from the (IRC –Canada). thermal. The tools are based on the RADIANCE raytracing engine. lower our fuel bills. and improve economic competitiveness by reducing energy imports.ca.nrel.pdf?N ID+3 9.cansia. Through field-monitoring and computer simulations. to generate more precise engineering data and economic analysis.fin./ http://www. Some of this programs can be downloaded for free. LISTING OF SOFTWARE FOR ANALYZING GREEN BUILDINGS Benefits: Advanced green buildings technologies reduce energy use. atriums have been reported to have high overall energy consumption. while maximizing the atrium delighting. Measured data will provide information on the field performance of existing daylighting technologies and the basis for guidelines for proper installation and calibration in Canadian buildings. IRC investigates ways to reduce these energy costs. acoustical and smoke performance.ca/solarheat.org/main_t_plumbing_solar_dhw.gov. 54 .htm http://www.ca/userfiles/page attachments/Rsie f0298. Description and source code for various validated and easy-to-use daylight simulation tools to predict the annual daylight availability and artificial lighting demand in a building. Atrium Performance: from the (IRC –Canada).html http://www.trd.on. Daylight-linked Lighting Control Systems: from the (IRC –Canada). Detailed Performance: Once preliminary viability for green buildings has been established.advancedbuildings. it will eventually be necessary to evaluate system performance. Atrium buildings combine attractive aesthetics and delighting features and are proliferating in new and renovated buildings in Canada. IRC investigates the effect of manual and automatic venetian blinds on the performance of two types of automatic lighting control systems: on/off and continuous dimming. Following you will find a list of possible software to be use accordingly with your needs. Wiring Devices and Accessories http://www. There is much more software which can be find in the web.com/ http://www. This can be accomplished based on hourly simulation software or by hand correlation methods based on the results of hourly simulations.
and transparent. engineers and builders to integrate solar technologies and energy efficiency features into the design of commercial and institutional buildings SERIRES: a simulation tool from (NREL)/USA. SkyVision: SkyVision is a new WINDOWS software tool from the IRC –Canada. engineers and architects. flexible. designers. the software is a useful tool for engineers. STEM: a short term monitoring method from (NREL)/USA. COPE will look at the effects of open-plan office design (e. Helps to build comfort. This evaluation takes into account the thermal effectiveness of the building and its components. to assist in the design of passive solar residential buildings. Strengths: Offers a unique blend of environmental science. partition height) on the indoor environment and occupant satisfaction. One outcome will be a software tool to enable designers to perform cost-benefit analyses on different design options. that is being adopted as the industry standard. for builders. decision science. environmentally preferable building products. Cost-effective Open-Plan Environments (COPE): from the (IRC –Canada). and economics. architects or building designers. It uses life-cycle concepts. workstation size. to calculate the optical and daylighting performance of various shapes and types of conventional and tubular skylights. Currently available for beta testing. for verifying building performance in the field. 55 . BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability): Powerful technique for selecting cost-effective. Energy-10: a user-friendly computer software program from (NREL)/USA.Adeline: lighting software in simulating the daylight distribution and the electrical lighting consumption of an existing atrium building. BESTEST: a building energy software test method from (NREL)/USA. Weaknesses: Includes environmental and economic performance data for only 200 building products covering 23 building elements. the passive solar heating owing to the location of the building and the operation and performance of the building's ventilation. designed to make it easier for architects. Tool from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA). Lighting is just one of the indoor environment aspects addressed in this multidisciplinary project. heating and cooling systems.g. sustained energy performance and lower operating costs into new buildings and major renovation construction projects. HOT2000: Is an energy analysis and design software. is designed to be practical. Up-to-date heat loss or gain and system performance models provide an accurate way of evaluating building designs.
monthly parameter variation. System Types: Water storage heating.com 10.html http://www.architectureweek. Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant (FRESA): Developed by NREL-USA.buildingsgroup.bfrl.nist. passive direct-gain. passive collector-storage wall. domestic Water Heating.ca/software/hot2000_e. available from the University of Waterloo . It is able to evaluate many renewable technologies including solar hot water. WATSUN-PV: software. photovoltaics.USA. weather data for over 300 locations. weather data can be added. english and SI units. CONTACTS List of Western Contacts Sue Mark. this Windows-based software tool screens federal renewable energy projects for economic feasibility.asp?CaId=174&PgId=989 http://www. Mechanical engineer at UWO specializes in environmental technologies. and wind.Canada.html http://www. available from the University of Wisconsin. Used to simulate behaviour of solar heating systems. Features: Life-cycle economics with cash flow.canren. http://www.gov/documents/building_energy.gc. available from the University of Waterloo -Canada.daysim.gov/oae/bees. renewable energy systems. Used to simulate behaviour of solar photovoltaic.Swift: is a design tool from canREN (Canada).nrcan.com/cgi-bin/wlk?http://www. building storage heating.gc. cogeneration.html http://www.nrel. pebble bed storage heating. WATSUN: software. the fuel cost savings available from its operation and the economics of investing in it. available from the University of Wisconsin . It may also be used to estimate the cost of the system. low energy buildings and HVAC systems. FCHART: correlation method.ca/prod_serv/index. TRNSYS: software. that uses an hour-by-hour energy balance to calculate building ventilation loads and predict the thermal performance of one or more solar wall system planned for the building. Main applications include: solar systems (solar thermal and photovoltaic systems). 56 . 2-D incidence angle modifiers. fuel cells TRNSYS has become reference software for researchers and engineers around the world.
– Plans for UWO Buildings Orlando Zamprogna.ca BEE SOFTWARE. Architect John Hampson.: (613) 954-3733 E-mail: IE. Ontario K1A 0R6 Tel. Contact: Barbara C. Maryland 20899-8603 Telephone: (301) 975-6133 fax: (301) 975-5337 e-mail: BLippiatt@nist. Physical Plant – Special Projects: Joe Dolezel. Office of Applied Economics.gc.ca Professor Anand Prakash Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Professor Moncef Nehdi Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering List of External Contacts Indoor Environment Program Institute for Research in Construction National Research Council of Canada Ottawa. Building and Fire 100 Bureau Drive.: (613) 993-9580 Fax. Lippiatt National Institute of Standards and Technology. UWO Services building Email Ggalberg@uwo. Stop 8603 Gaithersburg.Dave Riddell. 88880) Room 102. CAD Operator UWO Sunstang Office Room 1067 Engineering building 661-2111 (Ex.EI@nrc-cnrc. Facilities Engineering Physical Plant& Capital Building 1-519-661-2111 (Ex. 88312) Flemming Galberg.gov 57 . Director.
Phone: (416)-366-0220 ARISE Technologies Mr.. 206 Fax: 416-487-9766 Toll free 1-888-HALSALL www.Sc. ON M4P 1E4 Phone: 1 – 416-487-5257 ext.Eng. Ontario 416-340-2667 www.com/ Enermodal Engineering Limited 650 Riverbend Drive.Sc.ca 2 Story Green Building Contact: Dave Robinson KEEN Engineering Co Ltd. President Email: scarpenter@enermodal. 27 Fax (519) 743-8778 Contact: Steve Carpenter. B.com Jeff Westeindy – Quantum http://www. Kitchener.ca/ 58 .Halsall.com Web Page: http://www.quantumgroup. Dave Elzinga http://www. M. P.com/ Joanne McCran.arisetech. Gerry A. Email: JMcCran@halsall.A.mec.com Halsall Associates Limited 2300 Young Street Toronto. M. Ontario Canada N2K 3S2 Phone (519) 743-8777 Ext.Tech. Faubert.Stone Kohn McQuire Vogt Architecture 400 King Street West Toronto. CET (Principal) Toronto Ont..enermodal.
ca Green Roof Manufacturer: Soprema Inc.O. East Canada Contact JMG Waterfree. N6A 1A8 Tel: 519-672-5561 Waterless Urinal Distributors: Falcon.com Wind Turbines: Canadian Wind Energy Association Suite #750. L4K 3M9 Tel: 905-738-9195 Fax: 905-738-9721 Photo Sensor Manufacturer: Douglas Lighting Controls 4455 Juneau St. ON. 151 York St. ON. Tom Cummins P. 207-286-3666 E-mail: info@jmgwaterfree. Wiring Devices and Accessories 448 North Rivermede Rd. QU. J2C 5P7 Tel: 1-800-567-1492 Local Sales Office Soprema Inc. (Head Office) 1675 Haggerty St. BC. Drummondville. K1P 6E2 Tel: 1-800-9-CANWEA (1-800-922-6932) E-mail: info@CanWEA. London. Burnaby. Box #305 Biddeford. Inc. ON. 130 Slater St. ME 04005. Ottawa.com 59 .Smart Lighting Occupancy Sensor Manufacturer: Pass & Seymour. USA Tel: 207-286-3733 Fax. V5C 4C4 Tel: 514-342-6581 Fax: 514-342-0133 E-mail: Lighting@DouglasEast. Concord.
They would like to acknowledge the tremendous support of the listed Western staff and faculty and external contacts who shared their knowledge about existing buildings and future green building technologies.C.com Caroma Dual-Flush Toilets. an 60 . ON.ca Bill Ruth. ON.pebc@nrcan. 331 Trowers Road. Chantal Gloor and Lonnie Wickman for supporting the initial phase of this exciting project. 18th Floor Ottawa. 3240 Lenworth Drive Mississauga.. K1A 0E4 Tel: 1-877-360-5500 Fax: 613-947-0373 E-mail: cbip. at Tillmann Ruth Mocellin Architectural firm 11.. L4L 6A2 Tel: 1-800-668-4420 Fax: 905-850-9100 E-mail: Canada@waterless. M. Bill Ruth and Patrick Trottier of the architectural firm. Ruth and Mocellin (TRM) have been particularly helpful. ON. Canada Contact Matrix Environmental Partners Inc. Ottawa. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors and their supervisor would like to thank Dean Franco Berruti. K1A 0L5 Tel: 613-957-8953 Fax: 613-957-2088 Commercial Building Incentive Program Office of Energy Efficiency Natural Resources Canada 580 Booth St. L4X 2G1 Tel: 905-238-8448 Tax Incentives: Income Tax Rulings and Interpretations Directorate Revenue Canada 25 Nicholas St. Canadian Distributor: Armco Agencies. B.No-Flush. Tillman.Arch. Suite #3 Woodbridge. Inc. Mischa Schlemmer.I.R.A. ON.gc.
3 % 24.3 % 7. TRM developed the beautiful conceptual rendering of the proposed Green Building.4 % 33.architectural student contributed a lot of possible ideas for the proposed building.9 % 0.on.6 % 0.577 petajoules Total end-use and losses – 553 petajoules http://www.ca/html/en/abouttheoeb/statsandmaps. APPENDICES ELECTRICITY ONTARIO’S ELECTRICITY ONTARIO’S END-USE GENERATION 2001 ELECTRICITY DEMAND 2001 By source (percentage of total) By source (percentage of total) Nuclear Coal Hydro Natural Gas Other Oil 41.oeb.2 Commercial % 32.htm 61 .3 % 25.gov.2 Residential % Transportation 0. 12.2 % Industrial Total end-use demand – 497 petajoules Total input energy – 1.6 % 34.
org/Daylighting Guide for Canadian Buildings Final6.http://yosemite.nsf/0/85256d7a00686a5a85256bfe0057a212? OpenDocument http://www.advancedbuildings.epa.pdf 62 .gov/oar/globalwarming.
htm http://www.http://www.edu/programs/nlpip/tutorials/photosensors/comp.rpi.advancedbuildings.lrc.org/_frames/fr_t_vent_displ_vent.asp 63 .
ca/grhcc/ http://peck.ca/grhcc/ Daylighting Model 64 .http://peck.
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