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bacterial growth. Entry Event #1 To the students of NT High, Every year, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) tries to identify the particular strain of flu that will strike the United States and be the dominant strain of influenza for the season. As part of the identification process, bacteria from other continents are collected and incubated at various temperatures. A particular, unidentified strain has been collected from South America during their flu season and incubated. The table below shows the results of the tests.

Temperature (degrees C) 32 35 38 40 43 47 48

Average Growth rate (%) 6 45 66 70 61 21 6

We would like you to analyze the data as best you can and develop a mathematical description of the relationship between temperature and growth rate of this bacterial. Sincerely,

The CDC

Potential Guiding Questions / Need to Knows What is the shape of this graph? What is the equation of this graph? What happens if temperature is colder than 32C or warmer than 48C? What’s the maximum growth rate for this bacteria?

At what temperature would the growth rate reach exactly 0%?

Suggested activities Students plot the data on large gridded paper and/or a graphical plotting program. Students conjecture about the form of the equation. Once students figure out the x2 part of the equation, students experiment with different exponential equations until they find one that fits the data. Class discussion of student solutions and explanations. Students present their findings in poster/power-point format and/or submit to Project Briefcase.

Notes The data are derived from the quadratic equation, ( )

By the end of this activity, students should be able to, o o note that the equation has a squared in it, note that the maximum occurs at (40, 70)

Entry Event #2 Students of NT High, Thank you for your recent work. You were able to identify that the temperature of 40 C would result in the maximum growth rate of 70%. Below is some temperature/growth rate information we collected for three other strains of bacteria by epidemiologists in South Africa, Australia, and Peru. Note that the data obtained by the epidemiologists were transmitted to us in various formats. For each strain we would like you to identify the following: The maximum growth rate. The temperature at which the bacteria achieves the maximum growth rate. The temperature(s) at which the growth rate for the bacteria reach 0%. South Africa

Temperature (degrees C) 42 45 48 52 55 58

Average Growth rate (%) 24 63 84 84 63 24

Australia Scientists in Australia sent in this graph of Temperature vs. Bacterial Growth Rate.

Peru Scientists from Peru sent this equation of their strain of bacteria. ( )

Sincerely,

The CDC

Notes Students will see quadratic equations in three different forms: a table, a graph, and an equation, and are expected to find and/or estimate the maximum and x-intercepts of the quadratics of each. Ideally, students will also be able to tell you the equation at this point. South Africa The data from the table were derived from the following equation: ( )

Note that the maximum is not given in the table. Students should be able to apply symmetry to figure out the x value of the maximum. The y-value may have to be estimated, depending on student ability. Australia The graph is a plot of the following equation: ( )

This PrBL unit does not address elements that would “flatten” or “steepen” the quadratic curve. However, it could be included in the form of an extension. Also, while it does not directly address the direction that the parabolas open, it should follow that students recognize the importance of the positive/negative signs in the vertex form of the equations. After this activity, a follow up of practice problems that include the reversing of signs is recommended.

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UsefulNot usefulActivity in which students look at bacterial growth data to model a quadratic in vertex form.

Activity in which students look at bacterial growth data to model a quadratic in vertex form.

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