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JUNE - JULY
Industrial Training Report
DIGVIJAY SINGH MECHANICAL (FINAL YR.) ROLL NO. 0621640015
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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT ON ‘ NTPC DADRI’
GAS POWER PLANT
National Thermal Power Corporation Limited National Capital Power Station - Dadri P .O. Vidyut Nagar, District Gautam Budh Nagar - 201 008 (UP)
“NTPC was set up in the central sector in the 1975.Only PSU to achieve excellent rating in respect of MOU targets signed with Govt. of India each year. NTPC Dadri station has also bagged ISO 14001 certification. Today NTPC contributes more than 3 / 5th of the total power generation in India .”
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id- singh_digvijay89_yahoo.in
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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id- singh_digvijay89_yahoo.in
www.co.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free.NO .com/fyp/ Page | 4 CONTENTS S.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.cc www. DESCRIPTION (1) (2) (3) OVE RVIE W OF NTP C SATIO N AT A GL AN CE INTR ODU CT IO N T O GAS POWER PLANT GAS TU RB IN E STARTI NG SYSTEM FUEL SY STEM SA LIE NT FEA TU RES OF NTP C DADR I GAS PLA NT OPE RATIO N HOW DOES A CO MB INED CYCLE PO WE R PLA NT WOR K? AUT OMA TI ON AN D CON TR OL PAGE NO . 3 5 6 (4) 17 (5) (6) 19 25 (7) (8) 26 30 (9) 46 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.in .
com/fyp/ Page | 5 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.www.in .final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free.cc www.co.
troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects. promoting & organizing an integrated development to thermal power in India.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. Ever since its inception.com/fyp/ Page | 6 (i) Overview of NTPC NTPC was set up in the central sector in the 1975 in response to widening demand & supply gap with the main objective of planning. NTPC has never looked back and the corporation is treading steps of success one INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.in .www.co.cc www.
NTPC Dadri. materials and operation Services have also bagged the ISO 9001 certification. Contracts.000 MW gint corporation by the end of XI plan i. NTPC is poised to become a 40. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.com/fyp/ Page | 7 after the other.e. all the operating stations of NTPC located in the National Capital Region & western have acquired ISO 9002 certification.troubleshoot4free. Lighting up one fourth of the nation. Vindhyachal and Korba station have also bagged ISO 14001 certification. of India each year.291 MW from its commitment to provide quality power.co. 2012 AD. Ramagundam.www. The service groups like Engineering. Today NTPC contributes more than 3 / 5th of the total power generation in India.cc www.in . NTPC has an installed capacity of 19.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.final-yearprojects. The only PSU to have achieved excellent rating in respect of MOU targets signed with Govt.
final-yearprojects. also it tit the best project of NTPC also known as NCPS ( National capital power station ).in . the coal based units of the station stood first in the country in terms of PLF for the financial year 1999 – 2000 by generating an all time national high PLF of 96. consistently in receipts of meritorious projectivity awards. NTPC – Dadri is committed to generated clean and green Power.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. Uttar Pradesh.www.com/fyp/ Page | 8 (ii) Station At Glance NTPC dadri is model project of NTPC . The station has protection (CENEEP) – NTPC bagged ISO 14001 & ISO 9002 certification during the financial year 1999 – 2000. The station has an installed capacity of 1669 MW of power – 840 MW from Coal based units and 829 MW Gas Based Station . The Station also houses the first HVDC station of the country (GEP project) in association with centre for power efficiency and Environment & USAUID.cc www. certified by Agency of International repute M/s DNV Netherlands M/s DNV Germany respectively INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.12 % with the most modern O & M Practices.troubleshoot4free. the station is excelling in performance ever since it’s commercial operation . Situated 60 kms away from Delhi in the District of gautam budh Nagar.co.
final-yearprojects.in . operation and maintenance of Super Thermal and Gas Based Power projects in the country. which is an economical way and quicker method of augmenting power generating capacity by natural gas as fuel in combined cycle power plant in a power deficit country like ours.com/fyp/ Page | 9 1. since independence has been predominantly through the State Electricity Boards.Introduction To Gas Power Plants Introduction The development of the sector in the country.troubleshoot4free.www. in November 1975 with the objective of planning..cc www. With this intention in mind the Government asked INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. In order to supplement the effects of the states in accelerating power development and to promote power development on a regional basis to enable the optimum utilisation of energy resources.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. With this in view. the Government of India decided to take up a programme of establishment of large hydro and thermal power stations in the central sec tor on a regional basis. commissioning. construction. the Government set up the National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. The availability of gas in a large quantity in western offshore region has opened an opportunity to use the gas for power generation.co.
www. Gas turbines range in size from less than 100 KW up to about 140. The power plant consists of gas turbine generating units waste heat recovery boilers. • Small size and weight per horsepower • Rapid loading capability • Self-contained packaged unit • Moderate first cost • No cooling water required • Easy maintenance • High reliability • Waste heat available for combined cycle application.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.000 KW. gas turbine drive generators are used.troubleshoot4free.in . The gas turbine has found increasing application due to the following potential advantages over competive equipment.co. Anta.cc www. Dadri and Gandhar Gas Power Project along the HBJ Gas pipe line. Auraiya. ancillary electrical and mechanical equipments.final-yearprojects.com/fyp/ P a g e | 10 NTPC to take up the construction of Kawas. • Low Gestation Period • Low Pollution Hazards The function of a gas turbine in a combined cycle power plant is to drive a generator which produce electricity and to provide INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. steam turbo generator. The power generated at this power station is fed over 220 KV AC transmission system associated with this project to distribute the power in the various Regions. In the Power Sector.
Deviation from the theoretical process.co.com/fyp/ P a g e | 11 input heat for the steam cycle.troubleshoot4free. Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbines) and Rankin Cycle (Conventional steam power plant) with the principal objective of increasing overall plant efficiency.cc www. Without losses the theoretical cycle process is represented by 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ In the actual process losses do occur.www.final-yearprojects. results from the fact that compression and expansion are not performed isentropically but polytropically which is conditioned by heat dissipation (expansion) and heat supply (Compression) caused INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. Brayton Cycle Gas Turbine plant-operate on Brayton Cycle in which air is compressed this compressed air is heated in the combustor by burning fuel combustion produced is allowed to expand In the Turbine and the turbine is coupled with the generator. Power for driving the compressor is also derived from gas turbine. Combined Cycle Combined Cycle power plant integrates two power conversion cycles namely.in .
singh_digvijay89_yahoo. two parameters are of greatest importance.com/fyp/ P a g e | 12 by various flow and fraction by losses.co.in .final-yearprojects. Q output )/ Q Input = 1 — Q Output/ Q Input Working capacity is also obtained from the difference between INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. In modern gas turbines the temperature of the exhaust gas is in the range of 500 to 550 0C. For the evaluation of the cyclic process. the Brayton Cycle is chosen as the topping cycle due to the high temperature of the exhaust of the gas turbine (point 4 in the P. 1) Thermal efficiency 2) Process working capacity Thermal efficiency is obtained from chemical binding energy of the fuel and mechanical energy available at the shaft of the gas turbine. diagram may indicate the amount of heat that is produced.V diagram).troubleshoot4free. In the combined cycle mode.S. Thermal efficiency ( th ) as follows: th = Energy at GT shaft Chemical Energy of fuel = (Q Input. converted into mechanical energy and extracted from this process.www. Reference to the T.cc www.
singh_digvijay89_yahoo.final-yearprojects. The initial state of the working fluid is water (point-3) which. Fig.www.cc www. at INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. This is achieved by increasing P2 that is increasing gas inlet temperature T3. In its simplest form the cycle works as follows (fig.com/fyp/ P a g e | 13 the amounts of heat supplied and removed.2).in .troubleshoot4free.1 Rankine Cycle The conversion of heat energy to mechanical energy with the aid of steam is carried out through this cycle.co.
in .co.www.troubleshoot4free.2 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. Modern steam power plants have steam temperature in the range of 500 0C to 550 0C at the inlet of the turbine. In the boiler the compressed water is heated at constant pressure (process 4-5-6-1).singh_digvijay89_yahoo.com/fyp/ P a g e | 14 a certain temperature is compressed by a pump (process 3-4) and fed to the boiler.final-yearprojects.cc www. Fig.
cc www.co. in this system the exhaust gas is used only for raising steam to be fed to the steam turbine for power generation. Types of Combined Cycles It is basically of two types.in . why not use the gas-turbine exhaust to generate steam in the Rankine cycle and save the fuel required to heat the water ? Combined Cycle does just the same.com/fyp/ P a g e | 15 Combining two Cycles to Improve Efficiency We have seen in the above two cycles that gas turbine exhaust is at a temperature of 500–550 0C and in Rankine Cycle heat is required to generate steam at the temperature of 500-550 0C. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.3. The efficiency of Gas Turbine cycle alone is 30% and the efficiency of Rankine Cycle is 35%.troubleshoot4free. so.www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. The overall efficiency of combined cycle comes to 48%. namely Unfired Combined cycle and Fully Fired combined cycle.final-yearprojects. Unfired combined Cycle The basic system is shown in figure.
co.com/fyp/ P a g e | 16 The conventional fossil fuel fired boiler of the steam power plant is replaced with a ‘Heat Recovery Steam Generator’ (HRSG). Exhaust gas from the gas turbine is led to the HRSG where heat of exhaust gas is utilised to produce steam at desired parameters as required by the steam turbine. UNFIRED COMBINED CYCLE FIG-3 In recent development.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. with the introduction of Dual Pressure Cycles more heat is recovered in the HRSG and steam with higher pressure and temperature can be generated. However.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free. But higher INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.www.in . non-reheat steam turbine is the preferred choice for adopting this type of system as usually the live steam temperature for HRSG will be solely controlled by the gas turbine exhaust temperature which is usually around 500 0C.cc www.
singh_digvijay89_yahoo. In this system the heat of exhaust gas from gas turbine is used for two purposes as described below: Heat contained in exhaust gas is used to heat feed water to a desire BOILER REPOWERING EXCHANGER SYSTEM EXHAUST HEAT Fig. 4 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.co. Fully Fired Combined Cycle Fig – 4 shows the basic schematic of this cycle.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.in .com/fyp/ P a g e | 17 capital investment and sometimes necessity of supplemental firing system makes the system complex and costly.cc www.www.
the fuel being fired in the boiler can be cut down to generate less steam by an amount equivalent to steam required for extractions and thus improving the overall efficiency due to less consumption of fuel. Selection of fuel (s) INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. Gas turbine exhaust contains about 14 to 16 % oxygen (by weight) and can be used as hot secondary air in the conventional fossil fired furnaces.com/fyp/ P a g e | 18 temperature at the inlet to the boiler. FD fan power consumption will also be reduced to a great extent. crude oils and natural gas. This leads to the reduction or elimination of the extraction steam requirement from the steam turbine. In case the steam turbine does not have the capacity to swallow extra steam available due to cutting down of extraction. distillates. So the heat required to heat the secondary air will be saved and can be used for other purposes. the steam turbine has a larger steam swallowing capacity to generate more power the amount of steam which is being extracted from steam turbine for regenerative feed heating could be made to expand in the turbine to increase its base load capacity and improve the overall efficiency. Fuels Gas turbines are capable of burning a range of fuels including naptha.in .cc www.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.www. In case.co.
particularly heavy oils. Dual fuel systems are commonly used.com/fyp/ P a g e | 19 depends on several factors including fuel availability. fuel cost and cleanliness of fuel.final-yearprojects. Dual fuel systems can also be designed to fire both fuels simultaneously. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. Liquid fuels.troubleshoot4free. which reduce performance and add maintenance costs. Contaminants. usually contain contaminants. Advantages Plants of Combined Cycle Apart from the higher overall efficiency.www.co. may leave deposits in the gas turbine.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.cc www. the combined cycle power plants have following advantages: Low installation Cost: power from a combined cycle power plant is approximately 70% of a conventional coal based power plant of same capacity. which cannot be removed from the fuel. Natural gas is an ideal fuel because it provides high thermal efficiency and reliability with a low operation and maintenance cost.in . which cause corrosion and fouling in the gas turbine. enabling the gas turbine to burn back-up fuels when the primary fuel source is not available.
A typical hydraulic starting system for each gas turbine consist of the following: INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. This is much lower than the gestation period for conventional thermal power plants. obtainable from gas turbines. two third power.final-yearprojects. Better Reliability: Combined cycle power plants are considered to be highly reliable with the reliability factor of 85-90% as compared to 60-65% for conventional coal Fired Power Plants.in . Gas System Turbine Starting The function of the starting system is to crank the gas turbine upto the required speed until : it becomes self sustaining. the GTG can be started by using a frequency converter to rotate the generator which drives the turbine for starting.e. One method of starting large gas turbine is by using a motor driven hydraulic starting system. Alternatively.co. is available within 16-18 months and the balance in next 1 month.www.troubleshoot4free.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. which is around 48-60 months.cc www. 2. i.com/fyp/ P a g e | 20 Low Gestation Period: Power from a combined cycle power plant can be obtained in two phases.
When gas turbine reaches self-sustaining speed the starting device is disconnected and shut down. which is connected to the gas turbine shaft. which forces the fluid against hydraulic starting motor. To break the inertia of the starting motor and reduce the starting current a pony motor is provided. Gas turbines of GE and WH designs are provided with starting motor system for cranking purpose. accelerating running at preset speed by starting the generator as a synchronous motor by feeding variable frequency current drawn from the connected grid.www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.cc www.troubleshoot4free. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. The torque converter receives hy draulic fluid from hydraulic and lube oil reservoir during operation. Gas turbines of ABB and SIEMENS make are provided with frequency converter s for the GT cranking and normally 2 * 100% static converters are provided for the power station.in . electric AC induction motor • Hydraulic torque converter • Auxiliary Gear • Couplings The electric starting motor drives the hydraulic torque generator through a coupling. The hydraulic torque converter is coupled to the accessory gear.final-yearprojects. The static frequency converter serves the same function of starting.co. The hydraulic torque converter consists of an impeller.com/fyp/ P a g e | 21 • Starting motor.
www. The black start system consist of a separate diesel engine or a gas turbine driven synchronous generator connected to station switch gear bus.in . 3. Fuel System Fuel System of Gas Turbine The function of the fuel system is to deliver fuel to the INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. Capacity of the black start unit should be such that it can supply the total auxiliary power required to start a gas turbine from standstill condition.com/fyp/ P a g e | 22 Black Start System To start a gas turbine in the event of AC-power failure an emergency black start system is provided. The NTPC’s Auraiya project gas turbine is provided for emergency black-start purpose and all other projects are provided with diesel generator set for the same duty.co. It can be operated manually from local or remote and also it automatically comes into operation following a black out condition.troubleshoot4free.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.final-yearprojects. It also helps in safe coasting down of the gas turbine and its auxiliaries following a ‘trip’ in the event of grid collapse.cc www.
The storage facility is dependant on such factors as the location of the site.cc www. proximity of the oil supply and the reliability of the oil supply. Fuel oil unloading pumps may not be required if the oil arrives by a pipeline. storage and distribution of the fuel oil within the plant and typically composed of the following major components: • • • • • • • Fuel oil unloading pumps Fuel oil transfer pumps Fuel oil storage tanks Flow meter Strainers Pressure and Level control stations.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. oil barriages.co.final-yearprojects. The liquid fuel storage and handling system provides means for unloading .troubleshoot4free.in . Distribution piping The number and size of equipments is site dependant. Fuel oil may be supplied to the plant by a pipeline. oil tankers.www.com/fyp/ P a g e | 23 combustion chamber(s) of a gas turbine at quantity and pressure as required by the control system Liquid fuel system The liquid fuel system consists of the liquid fuel storage and handling system. an oil barge. rail/road or high way trucks. or an oil tanker since they have their own pumps. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.
Separate drain tanks are kept at pumping stations. This pressurising is required because in the naphtha burner this fuel is mechanically atomised. etc are used for atomisation. Naphtha drain system Since the flash/fire point of this fuel is very low it is designed to drain the oil from the piping burner etc when the system is stopped. FUEL GAS SYSTEM The purpose of the fuel gas system is to take gas fuel from the custody transfer point.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. Mode of firing It is provided to fire natural gas or naphtha or in mixed mode of the fuel in the GT Combustion Chamber.in . allied filters and m easurements and recirculation system is used.cc www. which will collect these naphtha and pump back to the main storage tanks.separate pressurising system with high pressure pump. process it to the quality and pressure conditions required by the gas turbine and to distribute it and INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. For firing the naphtha is the GT.com/fyp/ P a g e | 24 Naphtha Pressurising System By the forwarding pumps. There is no other medium like air.troubleshoot4free.www.Naptha is pumped upto the GTs and kept under recirculation.final-yearprojects.co.
in .final-yearprojects. The final supply pressure required at gas turbine is a function of the gas turbine compression ratio and the control valve and nozzle pressure drops.com/fyp/ P a g e | 25 monitor its use. Large gas turbines typically require a gas supply pressure of about Kg/cm2 with pressure regulated with in +10 percent off-set point.cc www. The emergency stop valve at the in let to the station is provided to completely shut off the gas supply in an emergency.troubleshoot4free. The gas INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. Off base fuel gas System The off-base fuel gas system is typically composed of the following major components: • An emergency stop valve at the gas inlet to the plant knock out drum • Filters • Pressure-control station • Distribution piping Optional Components are • Gas metering station • Gas Heaters The need for any of the optional components is dictated by the conditions specific to each individual application.co. Fuel gas system consists of the off base system and the on base system.www.
Any solid particles carried with the gas stream are separated in the first stage . The initial stage being utilised removal of large liquid droplets and the final stage for mist separation. Impurities collect at the drum bottom and are periodically automatically purged A level controller opens a drain valve which allows the waste to Adrian tank vented to the atmosphere. The heater normally utilises INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. The separation of carried solids and liquid particles is by interception. a suitably. The liquid droplets coalesced on the surface drain on to the shell and from there to the drain pot. rated gas fired indirect heater is provided ahead of the pressure reducing station. However. The gas analysis is carefully checked from the stand point these point of hydrate formation or icing at the pressure reducing station under the worst ambient temperatures prevalent at each site.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. The gas heater ensures a gas temperature sufficiently high such that the after pressure reduction the gas temperature is at least 20” C higher than hydrate forming temperature or the gas dew point whichever is higher. The filter separators must have minimum of two stages of separation. If there is any tendency for the above. diffusion and/or inertial impaction of the droplets on the fibers. The second stage mist separator is preferably of the vans type in which liquid separation takes place by subjecting the gas path to multiple changes of direction.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free. A knock out drum will remove the free liquid and some solids from the gas stream.co. it will not separate out much of the entrained liquids. The liquids separation from gas stream takes place by decreasing the gas veloc ity in its transit through the drum. The first stage elements consist of hollow tubes of glass fibers through which gas flows radially from outside.www.in .com/fyp/ P a g e | 26 fuel then goes through a knockout drum.cc www.
acceleration and loading requirements of gas turbine operation. The condition of the strainers as well as of the filters is monitored by the differential pressure indicators and switches. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.www. The control system ensures constant temperature of the outlet gas for gas flows ranging from zero to full gas flow.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. The safety valves protect the line against the line against over pressure. The pumps are protected by the automatic recirculating valves. To ensure the standby position of the lines keep the value open. Heat from the fire tube be utilised to heat a water bath in which the U tubes for carrying the gases to be heated are immersed.co.in .final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free. Naphtha forwarding system The forwarding system is mainly remote controlled from the GT LCR and CCR.com/fyp/ P a g e | 27 natural gas for firing. By means of three way valves a tank selection is possible. Although there is a possibility to control the main devices locally by a switching the selector switch on local position in the local panel.cc www. A full capacity bypass is provided so as to enable operation of the fuel gas system is designed to deliver gas fuel to the gas turbine combustion chamber(s) at the proper pressure and flow rates to meet all the starting.
co.com/fyp/ P a g e | 28 4.troubleshoot4free. The 220/400 KV switchyard has been located in front of the power station. The central control room is located towards west of the ST hall. The transformer yard Is on the wester side of the turbine hall.final-yearprojects. The 220 KV switchyard control room is accommodated in the central control room itself.cc www. each consisting of two GTGs placed on each side of 2 STGs. Salient Features Of NTPC DADRI Gas Project DADRI GBCCPP-STAGE I (817MW) General Layout Plan In the main plant block two modules. The GAIL terminal for receiving gas is located within INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. with switchyard further down west. Nearer to main power house & convenient routing of open return channel to CW pump house. Space has been kept for liquid oil installation and oil unloading facilities.www. Induced draft cooling towers have been located considering the proper flow of cooling water.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.in .
The start up/shut down procedure for WHRB and S/T here mainly describes operating procedure for G/T bypass damper.troubleshoot4free. WHRB and S/T of each module is performed separately from the other module (except for S/T gland steam back-up and heating steam back up systems). For detail operating procedure for G/T WHRB.www. WHRB inlet damper and remote operated valve necessary for start up and shut down from G/T exhaust gas admission to WHR till rated load operation of S/T.in . S/T auxiliaries and remote operated valve following procedures are followed. 5. • Start up/shut down mode is selected freely form among those mentioned.cc www.final-yearprojects.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.co. Gas Plant Operation Steam Gas Turbine. WHRB.com/fyp/ P a g e | 29 boundary of plant site. Turbine Starting Modes Basic conditions for plant operation are as follows:• Start up or shut down of G/T. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.
Outline of each start up • Normal start up mode This mode is two unit (2G/T’s + 2WHRB’s +1 S/T) combined cycle start up mode which.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. In this mode. starts up the other G/T and WHRB and brings the output of G/T and S/T the target output of the module. and S/T is kept stand by at the initial load until the pressure control of both WHRB’S is changed to the common pressure control. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.final-yearprojects. S/T and WHRB shall be selected from among the following as a rule through various other start up modes are conceivable according to power demand and operating principle. and after the initial load is achieved.in . The timing of starting up the other G/T and WHRB is left to the discretion of the operator.co. the pressure control of HP/LP by-pass valves of both WHRB’S is changed to common pressure control and then S/T is loaded up.com/fyp/ P a g e | 30 Start up Mode The start up mode of G/T. S/T is loaded with one each of G/T and WHRB in operation.troubleshoot4free.cc www. after starting up one each of G/T and WHRB.www.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. in which the time from G/T start up to S/T loading is long. and S/T is loaded up.cc www. changing the pressure control of HP/LP by-pass valves of both WHRB’S to the common pressure control.final-yearprojects.co.troubleshoot4free. simultaneous startup is not made to reduce heat lose at start up.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.www.in . In this mode. and then the pressure control of HP/LP by-pass valves is changed to the common pressure control. In other start up modes. WHRB and S/T is in operation. This mode is used only for start up after right stop or hot start up (with vacuum). • G/T/WHRB additionally start up mode This is a mode of starting up the other G/T and WHRB one until combined cycle of G/T.com/fyp/ P a g e | 31 • Rapid start up mode This is a mode of starting up both G/T’s and WHRB’S at the same time. then loading up and brining G/T the output of and S/T to the target output of the module is achieved. the HP Steam pressure and temperature of the other G/T and WHRB are raised up those of G/T and WHRB in operation.
cc www.in . S/T unloading rate too is determined by G/T load change rate under HP/LP by-pass valves are fully closed and HP/LPCV are fully opened.www. • Individual pressure control Individual pressure control means pressure control made automatically by using HP/LP by-pass valves of both WHRB’s and detecting pressure before HP/LPCV so that HP/LP steam pressure of both WHRB’S will be the same and constant respectively.co.com/fyp/ P a g e | 32 • Single G/T/WHRB start up mode This is a combined cycle start up mode of starting up S/T with only one each of G/T and WHRB in operation.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free. The other G/T and WHRB remain stopped. • Loading of S/T S/T loading rate after HP/LP by-pass are fully closed and HP/LPCV are fully opened is determined by the load change rate of G/T.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. namely S/T load change rate increases as G/T load change rate increase. (Except for G/T/WHRB additionally start up mode). INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.
final-yearprojects.com/fyp/ P a g e | 33 6.www.in .co.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.cc www. in order to reduce noise. Turbine-Generators: INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.000 cubic feet per minute. This air is drawn though the large air inlet section where it is cleaned.How Does A Combined-Cycle Power Plant Work? Power Generation: Air Inlet The amount of air needed for combustion is 800.troubleshoot4free. cooled and controlled.
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The air then enters the gas turbine where it is compressed, mixed with natural gas and ignited, which causes it to expand. The pressure created from the expansion spins the turbine blades, which are attached to a shaft and a generator, creating electricity. Each gas turbine produces 185 megawatts (MW) of electricity. The blades are attached to a rotor, which spins the generator, and makes electricity. Think of a generator as a huge spinning magnet inside a coil of wire. As the magnet spins, electricity is created in the wire loops.
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(HRSG) • The hot exhaust gas exits the turbine at about 1100 degrees Fahrenheit and then passes through
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id- singh_digvijay89_yahoo.in
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the Nooter Erickson, Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). In the HRSG, there are 18 layers of 100-foot tall tube bundles, filled with high purity water. The hot exhaust gas coming from the turbines passes through these tube bundles, which act like a radiator, boiling the water inside the tubes, and turning that water into steam. The gas then exits the power plant through the exhaust stack at a much cooler 180 degrees, after having given up most of its heat to the steam process. About 1 million pounds of steam per hour is generated in this way and sent over to the steam turbine through overhead piping. Steam Turbine
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id- singh_digvijay89_yahoo.in
After the steam is spent in the turbine process. This INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.in .final-yearprojects. about 100 degrees.www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. Steam enters the turbine with temperatures as high as 1000 degrees Fahrenheit and pressure as strong as 2.co. producing additional electricity.cc www. It is located on top of the condenser. capable of producing up to 240 MW. about 100 megawatts per HRSG unit. across from the cooling tower.200 pounds per square inch.troubleshoot4free. the residual steam leaves the turbine at low pressure and low heat.com/fyp/ P a g e | 37 The steam turbine is a Siemens Westinghouse KN Turbine Generator. The pressure of the steam is used to spin turbine blades that are attached to a rotor and a generator.
By using this “combined-cycle” process.troubleshoot4free. One catalyst controls Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions and the other catalyst controls Oxides of Nitrogen.final-yearprojects. we can produce a total of about 600 megawatts of electricity.co. two gas turbines and one steam turbine. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. Emissions Control Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) To control the emissions in the exhaust gas so that it remains within permitted levels as it enters the atmosphere. to be turned back into water.www.cc www.com/fyp/ P a g e | 38 exhaust steam passes into a condenser. (NOx) emissions.in .singh_digvijay89_yahoo. the exhaust gas passes though two catalysts located in the HRSG.
Aqueous Ammonia (a mixture of 22% ammonia and 78% water) is injected into system to even further reduce levels of NOx.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.troubleshoot4free. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. assuring that permit limits are being met. it is continuously sampled and analyzed. As exhaust gas passes out of the exhaust stack.final-yearprojects. which is considered the “best available control technology” or BACT by the Air Board.cc www. Best Available Control Technology (BACT) Our annual average concentration of NOx is only 2 parts per million.co.in .com/fyp/ P a g e | 39 Aqueous Ammonia In addition to the SCR.www.
Environmental and health organizations recognize this technology as a benefit to the community.cc www. the height required by older power plants that use less efficient emission technology. the exhaust stack is only 145 feet high. compared to 500 feet. Transmission Onto the Grid Transformers of Generated Power INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.com/fyp/ P a g e | 40 With this kind of clean. modern technology.co.troubleshoot4free. The local chapters of the American Lung Association and Sierra Club both support the Metcalf Energy Center.in .final-yearprojects.www.
The power INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. and motors.000 volts. the power passes underground into our switchyard.cc www.000 volts and “transform” them to 230. Switchyard From each transformer.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.co. The transformers take the generated 13.in .final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free. fans. A small amount of generation is directed to “Auxiliary transformers” which “transform” the generated voltage to a lower voltage.www.000 volts. which is the required voltage needed for transmission to the nearby tower that sends power to the substation. so it may be used by the plant to power our own pumps.com/fyp/ P a g e | 41 The Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine generators produce power at 13. The Metcalf Energy Center requires 12 – 15 megawatts to operate.
singh_digvijay89_yahoo.com/fyp/ P a g e | 42 from all of the generators comes together there.cc www.in . It consists of ten cells with large fans INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects. metered and directed onto the grid.co. The proximity of the site to a large. Condenser and Cooling Tower The purpose of the condenser is to turn low energy steam back into pure water for use in the Heat Recovery Steam Generator. The purpose of the cooling tower is to cool the circulating water that passes through the condenser.www. where it is measured. existing PG&E substation makes it a good place to build a power plant and the nearest transmission tower is only about 200 feet away.
As the cool water drops into the basin. and typically a water vapor plume can be formed. one that may travel hundreds of feet in the air and be seen from miles away.cc www.in .www.final-yearprojects. The cool basin water absorbs all of the heat from the residual steam after being exhausted from the steam turbine and it is then piped back to the top of the cooling tower. hot moist air mixes with cooler dry air. before using it in our cooling tower. and a basin of water underneath.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. The California Energy Commission considered this visually undesirable in this community so we added a “PlumeINDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. inside the cone-like stacks. Normally. We process and treat the Title 22 recycled water after receiving it from the City.com/fyp/ P a g e | 43 on top.co.troubleshoot4free. hot wet air goes out of the stacks.
recycled water. then we send about one-fourth of it back through the sewer lines for re-treatment by the City. louvers along the topsides of the tower that control the air flow.co.troubleshoot4free.cc www. The Metcalf Energy Center purchases 3 to 4 million gallons per day of recycled water from the City of San Jose.final-yearprojects.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. recycled water.in . Evaporation of this water assists the City in adhering to their flow cap limits and helps to protect the sensitive saltwater marsh habitat of the San Francisco Bay environment from receiving too much fresh.www. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.com/fyp/ P a g e | 44 Abatement” feature. The cooling tower evaporates about three-fourth of the processed.
www.in . The water from the service water tank is pumped to the water treatment building where it then passes through a reverse osmosis unit.000 gallons of water to be used for drinking.000-gallon tank until it is turned into steam for making electricity.com/fyp/ P a g e | 45 Water Tanks. and mixed resin bed demineralizers to produce up to 400 gallons per minute of ultra pure water. It contains 470. The pure water is then stored in the smaller 365.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.troubleshoot4free.cc www.co.final-yearprojects. fire fighting and for the high purity water train. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. Control Room Water Tanks The largest tank is the Service Water tank. a membrane decarbonater. Natural Gas Pipeline.
in .singh_digvijay89_yahoo.www.co.cc www.000 MMBTU per hour.final-yearprojects. The pipeline was built 60 feet underground and passed under highways.troubleshoot4free. train tracks. “Horizontal Directional Drilling” was utilized with careful coordination with many local authorities. creek. and environmentally sensitive areas.com/fyp/ P a g e | 46 Natural Gas Natural gas fuels the combustion turbines. Each turbine can consume up to 2. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. less than 1 mile to the east of our site. During construction. The fuel comes from the major high pressure natural gas pipeline that runs along the east side of Highway 101.
www.troubleshoot4free.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. with the click of a mouse. the plant operators monitor and operate the facility. Control Room From the control room. flow and pressure. pressure and purity. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. Gas compressors pump the natural gas though the facilities’ fuel gas system where it is delivered to the gas turbine and the HRSG duct burners at the proper temperature.com/fyp/ P a g e | 47 The pipeline enters the site just behind the water tanks. where equipment regulates and measures the natural gas composition.cc www. via the plant’s “Distributed Control System”.in . viewing graphic representations of all MEC systems on various screens.co.final-yearprojects.
www. 7.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.final-yearprojects.AUTOMATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM AUTOMATION: THE DEFINITION INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.cc www.troubleshoot4free.co.com/fyp/ P a g e | 48 The system gives operators both audible and visual signals to keep them informed of plant conditions at all times and to determine when preventative maintenance is required.in .
singh_digvijay89_yahoo. at the correct time and in coordinated modes.cc www. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.troubleshoot4free. In this last application. such as office automation. This subsection presents the application of a control system for the automation of a process / plant.com/fyp/ P a g e | 49 The word automation is widely used today in relation to various types of applications.www. such as a power station. power generation in stable or put During plant start-up and shut-down. plant or process automation.co.final-yearprojects. sequence controllers as well as long range modulating controllers in or out of operation every piece of the plant.in . taking into account safety as well as overstressing limits. the automation actively controls the plant during the three main phases of operation: plant start-up.
During major load changes.com/fyp/ P a g e | 50 During stable generation of power. the automation system automatically redefines new set points and switches ON or OFF process pieces. AUTOMATION: THE BENEFITS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. the modulating portion of the automation system keeps the actual generated power value within the limits of the desired load demand.cc www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.co. This load transfer is executed according to pre.in . to automatically bring the individual processes in an optimally coordinated way to the new desired load demand.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.www.programmed adaptively controlled load gradients and in a safe way.
Faster sequence of control actions compared to manual ones. The increase of these two factors is achieved through a series of features summarized as follows: Optimisation of house load consumption during plant start.troubleshoot4free. via: Faster plant start-up through elimination of control errors creating delays. Figures 1 shows the sequence of a rapid restart using automation for a typical coal-fired station. Even a well.up.final-yearprojects.co.trained operator crew would probably not be able to bring the plant to full load in the same time without considerable risks.in . shut-down and operation.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.www.cc www. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.com/fyp/ P a g e | 51 The main benefits of plant automation are to increase overall plant availability and efficiency.
Prevent sub-process and process tripping chain reaction following a process component trip.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.www. Ensure and maintain plant operation. via: Coordinated ON / OFF and modulating control switchover capability from a sub process to a redundant one. Reduce plant / process shutdown time for repair and maintenance as well as repair costs.co.final-yearprojects.cc www.com/fyp/ P a g e | 52 Co-ordination of house load to the generated power output. even in case of disturbances in the control system.troubleshoot4free. via: Protection of individual process components against overstress (in a stable or unstable plant operation).in .
singh_digvijay89_yahoo. This division of the process in clearly defined groups. termed as FUNCTIONAL GROUPS. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. While the hierarchical structure is governed in the horizontal direction by the number of drives (motorised valves.com/fyp/ P a g e | 53 Bringing processes in a safe stage of operation.in . dampers.www. where process components are protected against overstress PROCESS STRUCTURE Analysis of processes in Power Stations and Industry advocates the advisability of dividing the complex overall process into individual sub-processes having distinctly defined functions.co. fans. results in a hierarchical process structure. pumps.cc www.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.
Blooming Mill Control.) in other words the size of the process..co. belong the individual process equipment and associated electrical drives. Induced Draft Control. Feed Water Control. The Function Group is that part of the process that fulfils a particular defined task e.troubleshoot4free. To the Drive Level. in the vertical direction. Thus at the time of planning it is necessary to identify each function group in a clear INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. there is a distinction made between three fundamental levels.in . these being the: Drive Level Function Group Level Unit Level. the lowest level.com/fyp/ P a g e | 54 etc.final-yearprojects. etc.g.www.cc www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.
The drive levels are subordinate to this level.final-yearprojects.in .co. CONTROL SYSTEM STRUCTURE The primary requirement to be fulfilled by any control system architecture is that it be capable of INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. The function groups are combined to obtain the overall process control function at the Unit Level. The above three levels are defined with regard to the process and not from the control point of view.com/fyp/ P a g e | 55 manner by assigning it to a particular process activity.troubleshoot4free. Each function group contains a combination of its associated individual equipment drives.cc www.
co. SYSTEM OVERVIEW The control and automation system used here is a micro based intelligent multiplexing system This INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.com/fyp/ P a g e | 56 being organized and implemented on true processoriented lines. BHEL’s PROCONTROL P®.in . meets this requirement completely.www.final-yearprojects. the control system structure should map on to the hierarchy process structure. a microprocessor based intelligent remote multiplexing system. In other words.cc www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.troubleshoot4free.
cc www.in . allows to tighten the scope of control hardware to the particular control strategy and operating requirements of the process Regardless of the type and extent of process to control provides system uniformity and integrity for: Signal conditioning and transmission Modulating controls CONTROL AND MONITORING MECHANISMS There are basically two types of Problems faced in a Power Plant INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. designed on a modular basis.www.troubleshoot4free.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.final-yearprojects.com/fyp/ P a g e | 57 system.co.
Monitoring of all the parameters is necessary for the safety of both: Employees Machines INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.final-yearprojects.www.co.com/fyp/ P a g e | 58 Metallurgical Mechanical Mechanical Problemcan be related to Turbines that is the max speed permissible for a turbine is 3000 rpm .singh_digvijay89_yahoo.troubleshoot4free. so speed should be monitored and maintained at that level Metallurgical Problem can be view as the max Inlet Temperature for Turbile is 1060 oC so temperature should be below the limit.cc www.in .
www.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.in .co.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.cc www.com/fyp/ P a g e | 59 So the Parameters to be monitored are : Speed Temperature Current Voltage Pressure Eccentricity Flow of Gases Vaccum Pressure Valves Level Vibration PRESSURE MONITORING INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.
com/fyp/ P a g e | 60 Pressure can be monitored by three types of basic mechanisms Switches Gauges Transmitter type For gauges we use Bourden tubes : The Bourdon Tube is a non liquid pressure measurement device. A typical Bourdon tube contains a curved tube that is open to external pressure input on one end and is coupled mechanically to an indicating needle on the other end.in .co.cc www. It is widely used in applications where inexpensive static pressure measurements are needed.www. as shown schematically below. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.final-yearprojects.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.troubleshoot4free.
troubleshoot4free.co.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.cc www.com/fyp/ P a g e | 61 Typical Bourdon Tube Pressure Gages Transmitter types use transducers (electrical to electrical normally) they are used where continuous monitoring is required Normally capacitive transducers are used INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.www.in .final-yearprojects.
in . INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.com/fyp/ P a g e | 62 For Switches pressure swithes are used and they can be used for digital means of monitoring as swith being ON is referred as high and being OFF is as low.final-yearprojects.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. All the monitored data is converted to either Current or Voltage parameter.www.troubleshoot4free.cc www.co.
1 % The whole system used is SCADA based INPUT 4-20 mA ANALOG INPUT MODULE MICRO PROCESSOR INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.troubleshoot4free.www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.final-yearprojects.co. ACCURACY : + .in .0.com/fyp/ P a g e | 63 The Plant standard for current and voltage are as under Voltage : 0 – 10 Volts range Current : 4 – 20 milliAmperes We use 4mA as the lower value so as to check for disturbances and wire breaks.cc www. Accuracy of such systems is very high .
final-yearprojects.www.com/fyp/ P a g e | 64 ALARM We use DDCMIC control for this process.cc www. Programmable Logic Circuits ( PLCs) are used in the process as they are the heardt of Instrumentation.co. Pressure Electricity AN D Level Level High High level Electricity OR HL switch Start low Pressure in line LL switch pump Stop Pressure Electricity BASIC PRESSURE CONTROL MECHANISM INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.in .troubleshoot4free.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.
co.com/fyp/ P a g e | 65 Hence PLC selection depends upon the Criticality of the Process TEMPERATURE MONITORING We can use Thernocouples or RTDs for temperature monitoring Normally RTDs are used for low temperatures.troubleshoot4free. Thermocoupkle selection depends upon two factors: Temperature Range Accuracy Required Normally used Thermocouple is K Type Thermocouple: INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.cc www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.final-yearprojects.in .www.
cc www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.co. We pass a constant curre t through the RTD. RTDs are also used but not in protection systems due to vibrational errors. available in a wide variety of probes. owing to its popularity. Sensitivity is approximately 41 µV/°C.final-yearprojects.www. They are available in the −200 °C to +1200 °C range.com/fyp/ P a g e | 66 Chromel (Nickel-Chromium Alloy) / Alumel (Nickel-Aluminium Alloy) This is the most commonly used general purpose thermocouple.troubleshoot4free. It is inexpensive and.in . So that if R changes then the Voltage also changes RTDs used in Industries are Pt100 and Pt1000 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.
com/fyp/ P a g e | 67 Pt100 : 0 0C – 100 Ω ( 1 Ω = 2.1000Ω Pt1000 is used for higher accuracy The gauges used for Temperature measurements are mercury filled Temperature gauges.cc www.troubleshoot4free. FLOW MEASUREMENT Flow measurement does not signify much and is measured just for metering purposes and for monitoring the processes ROTAMETERS: INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.final-yearprojects.co.5 0C ) Pt1000 : 0 0C .in .www.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. For Analog medium thermocouples are used And for Digital medium Switches are used which are basically mercury switches.
www. which measure flow rate by allowing the cross sectional area the fluid travels through to vary. so the float rises. It belongs to a class of meters called variable area meters. Floats are made in many different shapes.in .co.cc www. At a higher flow rate more area (between the float and the tube) is needed to accommodate the flow. with a float inside that is pushed up by flow and pulled down by gravity. with spheres and spherical ellipses being the most INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. typically made of glass.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free. causing some measurable effect. A rotameter consists of a tapered tube. It is occasionally misspelled as 'rotometer'.com/fyp/ P a g e | 68 A Rotameter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.
cc www. This allows you to tell if the float is stuck since it will only rotate if it is not. For Digital measurements Flap system is used.co.troubleshoot4free.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. The float is shaped so that it rotates axially as the fluid passes.com/fyp/ P a g e | 69 common.final-yearprojects.in .www. For Analog measurements we can use the following methods : Flowmeters Venurimeters / Orifice meters Turbines Massflow meters ( oil level ) Magnetic Flowmeter ( water level ) Ultrasonic Flow meters INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.
Turbine type are the simplest of all.www. accuracy and liquid to be measured so different types of meters used. VENTURIMETERS : INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.cc www.troubleshoot4free.co.com/fyp/ P a g e | 70 Selection of flow meter depends upon the purpose . They work on the principle that on each rotation of the turbine a pulse is generated and that pulse is counted to get the flow rate.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.final-yearprojects.in .
And we know that rate of flow is given by: Flow = k √ (D. or liquids) by opening.com/fyp/ P a g e | 71 Referring to the diagram. CONTROL VALVES A valve is a device that regulates the flow of substances (either gases.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. the theoretical pressure drop at the constriction would be given by (ρ/2)(v22 .www.P) Where DP is Differential Presure or the Pressure Drop.in .troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.cc www. slurries.v12). closing. fluidized solids. using Bernoulli's equation in the special case of incompressible fluids (such as the approximation of a water jet).co. or partially obstructing INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.
they are mainly used for safety purposes in steam engines and domestic heating or cooking appliances. where they play a major role in engine cycle control. military. Plumbing valves are the most obvious in everyday life. but many more are used. but usually are discussed separately.co.in . Valves are technically pipe fittings.singh_digvijay89_yahoo. Some valves are driven by pressure only.www. like in Otto cycle engines driven by a camshaft. transportation.cc www. Others are used in a controlled way. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id. Valves are used in a variety of applications including industrial.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free. commercial.com/fyp/ P a g e | 72 various passageways. residential.
troubleshoot4free.cc www. They are : INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.in . and plug valves are often quarter-turn valves.co. ball valves. They can be electromechanical actuators such as an electric motor or solenoid. Butterfly valves.com/fyp/ P a g e | 73 Many valves are controlled manually with a handle attached to the valve stem. pneumatic actuators which are controlled by air pressure. Valves can also be controlled by devices called actuators attached to the stem.www.final-yearprojects. So there are basically three types of valves that are used in power industries besides the handle valves. the valve is called a quarter-turn valve. If the handle is turned a quarter of a full turn (90°) between operating positions. or hydraulic actuators which are controlled by the pressure of a liquid such as oil or water.singh_digvijay89_yahoo.
co.www.final-yearprojects.cc www.troubleshoot4free.in .singh_digvijay89_yahoo.com/fyp/ P a g e | 74 Pneumatic Valves – they are air or gas controlled which is compressed to turn or move them Hydraulic valves – they utilize oil in place of Air as oil has better compression Motorised valves – these valves are controlled by electric motors INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY DIGVIJAY SINGH Email Id.