Fluid Mechanics | Free Software | Patent

Fundamentals of Compressible Fluid Mechanics

Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. Ave S. E. 1107 Minneapolis, MN 55414-2411 email:barmeir@gmail.com
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Copyright © 2006, 2005, and 2004 by Genick Bar-Meir See the file copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions.

Version (0.4.2.0rc1

September 15, 2006)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

 

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ix x xi xi xii xiv xiv xv xv xv xv xvi xvii xxv xxv xxvi xxvi xxxi xxxvi xxxvi xxxvi xxxvi xxxvii xxxvii xxxvii xxxvii xxxvii

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CONTENTS 0.0.10 Prandtl–Meyer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvii 0.0.11 Transient problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvii

1 Introduction 1.1 What is Compressible Flow ? . . . . . 1.2 Why Compressible Flow is Important? 1.3 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Early Developments . . . . . . 1.3.2 The shock wave puzzle . . . . 1.3.3 Choking Flow . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 External flow . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.5 Biographies of Major Figures . 2 Fundamentals of Basic Fluid Mechanics 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Reynold’s Transport Theorem . . . . .

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3 Speed of Sound 3.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Speed of sound in ideal and perfect gases . . . . 3.4 Speed of Sound in Real Gas . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Speed of Sound in Almost Incompressible Liquid 3.6 Speed of Sound in Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Sound Speed in Two Phase Medium . . . . . . .

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4 Isentropic Variable Area Flow 4.1 Stagnation State for Ideal Gas Model . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 General Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Relationships for Small Mach Number . . . . . 4.2 Isentropic Converging-Diverging Flow in Cross Section 4.2.1 The Properties in The Adiabatic Nozzle . . . . 4.2.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Mass Flow Rate (Number) . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Isentropic Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Isentropic Isothermal Flow Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 General Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 The Impulse Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Impulse in Isentropic Adiabatic Nozzle . . . . 4.5.2 The Impulse Function in Isothermal Nozzle . . 4.6 Isothermal Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 The effects of Real Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS 5 Normal Shock 5.1 Solution of the Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 Informal model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 Formal Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.3 Speed of Sound Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.4 Prandtl’s condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Operating Equations and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 The Limitations of The Shock Wave . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Small Perturbation Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3 Shock Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 The Moving Shocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Shock Result From A Sudden and Complete Stop 5.3.2 Moving Shock Into Stationary Medium . . . . . . . 5.4 Shock Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Shock with Real Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Shock in Wet Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Normal Shock in Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . 5.8 Tables of Normal shocks, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 73 76 76 76 79 80 80 82 82 82 83 85 88 94 98 98 98 98

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6 Normal Shock in Variable Duct Areas 105 6.1 Nozzle efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 6.1.1 Diffuser Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 7 Nozzle Flow With External Forces 115 7.1 Isentropic Nozzle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 £ £ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 7.2 Isothermal Nozzle

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8 Isothermal Flow 8.1 The Control Volume Analysis/Governing equations 8.2 Dimensionless Representation . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 The Entrance Limitation Of Supersonic Brach . . . 8.4 Comparison with Incompressible Flow . . . . . . . 8.5 Supersonic Branch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Figures and Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8 Unchoked situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Fanno Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.1 Dimensionalization of the equations . 9.3 The Mechanics and Why The Flow is Chock? 9.4 The working equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.1 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Supersonic Branch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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119 119 120 125 126 128 129 130 135 137 137 138 139 142 143 146 151

vi 9.6 Maximum length for the supersonic flow . . . . . . . . . 9.7 Working Conditions . . . . . . . . . .¡£¢ . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Variations of the tube¥§length (   ¤ ) effects . . . . ¦ 9.7.2 The Pressure Ratio, ¥©¨ , effects . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.3 Entrance Mach number,  , effects . . . . . . . 9.8 The Approximation of the Fanno flow by Isothermal Flow 9.9 More Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 152 153 158 162 166 167

10 RAYLEIGH FLOW 171 10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 10.2 Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 11 Evacuating and Filling a Semi Rigid Chambers 11.1 Governing Equations and Assumptions . . . 11.2 General Model and Non-dimensioned . . . . 11.2.1 Isentropic process . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.2 Isothermal Process in the Chamber . 11.2.3 A Note on the entrance Mach number 11.3 Rigid Tank with Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.1 Adiabatic Isentropic Nozzle Attached . 11.3.2 Isothermal Nozzle Attached . . . . . . 11.4 Rapid evacuating of a rigid tank . . . . . . . 11.4.1 With Fanno Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.2 Filling process . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.3 The Isothermal Process . . . . . . . . 11.4.4 Simple Semi Rigid Chamber . . . . . 11.4.5 The “Simple” General Case . . . . . . 11.5 Advance Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 184 186 187 188 188 189 189 191 191 191 193 194 194 195 196 199 199 200 205 206 206 207 207 208 208 208 209 209 212 212

12 Evacuating/Filing Chambers under External Volume Control 12.1 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.1 Rapid Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.3 Direct Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Oblique-Shock 13.1 Preface to Oblique Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2.1 Introduction to Oblique Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2.2 Introduction to Prandtl–Meyer Function . . . . . . 13.2.3 Introduction to zero inclination . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Oblique Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Solution of Mach Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4.1 Upstream Mach number,  , and deflection angle, . . . . . . .

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1 Alternative Approach to Governing equations . . . . . . . . 14. . .4. 13. .1 Introduction . . . . . .4. . . .7 Examples .4. . . . . . . 15 Topics in Steady state Two Dimensional flow A Computer Program 261 A. . . . . . . . And Limitations 14. . . . . . 14. . . .10Issues related to the Maximum Deflection Angle . 14. . . . . .4 The Working Equations For Prandtl-Meyer Function . . . . 14. . . . .6 Appendix: Oblique Shock Stability Analysis . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .11Examples . . . . . . . . . . .8 Maximum value of of Oblique shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 221 222 224 224 225 225 226 227 229 230 242 242 242 245 245 246 247 250 251 251 252 253 254 256 259 14 Prandtl-Meyer Function 14. . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . 13. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . .2 Usage .2 Geometrical Explanation . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . .12Application of oblique shock . . . .4. . . . . . . . 261 A. . . . . . . . .4 For Given Two Angles.2 In What Situations No Oblique Shock Exist or When 13. . . . . . 264 . . . . . . . . . 261 A. .4. . . . . . . .5 d’Alembert’s Paradox . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Optimization of Suction Section Design . . . . . . 13. . . . . . 13. . . 14. . .4. . . . .3 Program listings . . . . . . . . . £ £  ¢¡ . 13. . . . . . . . 13. .5 Flow in a Semi–2D Shape . . . . . . . 13.4. .2. . . . .6 Small  “Weak Oblique shock” . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . .1 About the Program . . . . . . . . . . .9 Detached shock . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . .   . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Upstream Mach Number. . . and Shock Angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Combination of The Oblique Shock and Isentropic Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Summary . . . .7 Close and Far Views of The Oblique Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. vii .  and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Flat Body with angle of Attack . . . . .3 The Maximum Turning Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Comparison Between The Two Approaches. . . . . . . .4. . . . .CONTENTS 13. . 13. . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . .

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Derived Name(s) Products derived from this software may not be called “POTTO Project. 4. Distributing. Disclaimer of warranty of the original author You may copy and distribute exact replicas of this document as you receive it. keep intact all the copyright notices that refer to this document. under the terms of Section 1 above. No Endorsement The names ”POTTO Project” and ”Fundamentals of Compressible Fluid Mechanics” or the author of this document must not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this text (book or software) without prior written permission.2 Potto Project License This document may be redistributed provided a pointer appears in a prominent place showing clearly where the original version was published and/or was obtained. You may at your option offer warranty in exchange for a fee. in any medium. 3. You may offer instructional support for this document and software exchange for a fee. you must document the nature of those modifications in the ”Credits” section along with your name. Modification and distribution of modified material You may modify your copy or copies of this document and the attached software or any portion of it. You must have a reasonable way to contact you. The original version of this document may be found at  ¢¡£¡¥¤§¦©¨£¨£¥ ¤¡£¡£!¨¢"##¤¢$£&%'!¥ ¥¡§( ¢¡')10 £!¨¥¤&076' £¡)10 This document is derived from open content license  ¢¡¥¡¥¤¦©¨£¨#¤2#34"#3¢¡253¢¡§ LICENSE Terms and Conditions for Copying. 2. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty of the original author.0.2. Genick BarMeir.” or alleged association with this author nor may “POTTO” or “POTTO Project” appear in their name. You may distribute such modifications. Your Name and Communication With You If you wish to modify this text or software in any way. . all the material based on this original content or work. without prior written permission of the Dr. You may at your discretion charge a fee for the media and/or handling involved in creating a unique copy of this document. and information concerning how you may be contacted. and Modifying 1. POTTO PROJECT LICENSE xvii 0. 5.

either expressed or implied. including any general. Applicability of this license You are not required to accept this License.xviii CONTENTS 6. the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. No Liability In no event unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing will any copyright holder. inaccurate. incidental or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use this manuscript. distribute or modify these materials. Should this manuscript prove faulty. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. nothing else grants you permission to copy. but not limited to. If these terms and conditions are not accepted in full. 9. However. you use the book and or the software must be terminated immediately. Currently. Therefore. to the extent permitted by applicable law. special. or by deriving works here from. since you have not signed it. even if such holder or other party has been advised of the possibility of such damages. 7. the POTTO Project residence is the state of Minnesota. by distributing or translating these materials. or otherwise unacceptable you assume the cost of all necessary repair or correction. and all its terms and conditions for copying. Jurisdiction These terms and conditions are governed by and will be interpreted in accordance with the state of POTTO Project residence law and any disputes relating to these terms and conditions will be exclusively subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of POTTO Project residence. there is no warranty for the manuscript. distributing or translating these materials. . The various provisions of these terms and conditions are severable and if any provision is held to be invalid or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction then such invalidity or unenforceability shall not affect the remaining provisions. or any other party who may mirror and/or redistribute these materials as permitted above. Except when otherwise stated in writing the copyright holders and/or other parties provide these manuscripts “AS IS” without warranty of any kind. be liable to you for damages. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. The entire risk of use of this manuscript is with you. including. No Warranty Because these materials are licensed free of charge. 8.

G. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. The author believes that this book. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. Currently. and even Iran. All the models have practical applicability. will promote new re1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the field of heat and mass transfer (this includes fluid mechanics) related to manufacturing processes and design. Now. Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. as in the past. Dr. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. British industry. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. these models were used in numerical works. R. The author enjoys to encourages his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. For example. in GM. In his early part of his professional life. the critical piston velocity in a partially filled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). As the change in the view occurred. supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc.D. xix .E. Eckert. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007. books and softwares.  ¡   ' ¡ £ 0£ $   '"¡¤  Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . he spends time writing books and software for the POTTO project (see Potto Epilogue). Moreover. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers.

While he known to look like he know about many things. the author just know to learn quickly.xx CONTENTS search. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. this author believes that the book will blaze a trail of new understanding. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea officer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. A past project of his was building a four stories house. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. practically from scratch. . More than that. The author lives with his wife and three children.

3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see ). the creation of the POTTO Project. is a new idea3 . judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. The study of technical the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. However. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. like an open source. The first issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. As individuals we have to obey the law. particularly the copyright law with the “infinite2 ” time with the copyright holders. one of this author’s sages. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. As R. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). Ashcroff (see for more information) copyrights practically remain indefinitely with the holder (not the creator). $%'& "(¥ % !¨) % !¨0#"1023¨4© '5 $%'&  $ 0¨! 0¨) %36 ¥7'! 4'8¨¦ ¨'5" &@9BA@9 © 0 9C% "4'!¨D  &@9BA@9 E %79 57F'G % D  2 After ¥§¦¨¦©¨§ !#" ¥§¦¨¦© xxi . one should increase wisdom. Hence.    ¢¡   ' § ©   ¡  §   ¡ £ £ ¡     ¤£ §(¥ ¡ This series of books was born out of frustrations in two respects. Writing a book in the technical field is not the same as writing a novel. On one hand. Kook. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal firm. There is always someone who can add to the book. The POTTO Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges.

they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. The social function can have at least two components. In a way. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identified. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. The answer varies from individual to individual. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected field. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private affair. the writing of or contributing to this kind of book will serve as a social function. The desire to be an author of a well-known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the effort. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence.xxii CONTENTS material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. Thus. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. one also begins to better understand the material. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises. While one can be as creative as possible. 1989 .” American Scientist. It is not just for experts to contribute. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. contributing to this book will help one to understand the material better. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve related problems. Whatever the reasons. So when an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. Nigel R. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that specific section (even within question/answer sections).. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful ¦ ¢ " ¥¤ ¨ intelligence to carry out this attack ( see for information  ¢¡£¡¤¦©¨£¨¥£2¡  £ § § ¤ !&"0¨¤ ¨©¢&%¢ ¢  2# 6 ( £¡5)10 )4. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the first question the undersigned was asked. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. In these cases. The student’s contributions can be done by 4 see also in Franks. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. For some contributors/authors. 77:139. For some authors. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. For others.

0. 5 Data are not copyrighted.0. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book.0. Even if not complete.0 0.4 0. It is hoped that the book will be error-free. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “flesh and skin. while in other cases This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. These data (tables.0. other books contain data5 which can be A typeset in L TEX.0 Based on Eckert Tel-Aviv’notes The meaning of the progress is as: • The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in rough draft.0.1 0. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. some errors are possible and expected.0 0.0.0.2.3 0. Unlike a regular book. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: project name Die Casting Mechanics Statics Dynamics Strength of Material Compressible Flow Fluid Mechanics Thermodynamics Heat Transfer Open Channel Flow Two/Multi phases flow progress alpha not started yet not started yet not started yet not started yet early beta alpha early alpha not started yet not started yet not started yet remarks version 0. . These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the book with time (the organizer).0.01 0. But more than that.” In this process.0 0.0 0. Thus. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book.0 0. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software process. Nevertheless.0. Thus. POTTO PROJECT LICENSE xxiii adding a question and perhaps the solution. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. Thus.0 0. graphs and etc.0. These books should be considered more as a project than to fit the traditional definition of “plain” books. Additionally.

A new version is created every several years. and perhaps troff. and writing A the L TEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. • The Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active. pieces of material and data can be used by different books. However. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all of the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as mature and numerous examples for every section. and Microsoft Word software. which include the actual writing of the text. However. 6 Originally authored by Dr. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for these A writings. advanced topics.e. especially L TEX. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. i. But such a thing is hard to define and should be enough for this stage. such as OpenOffice. . 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality.. who passed way some years ago. figures. But more A than that. and special cases. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. writing examples.xxiv CONTENTS • In Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage. but it has roots in the way science progresses. Word processors. Further. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written. creating diagrams and figures. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. other definitions give merely a hint on the status. a process in which books have a new version every a few years. and • In Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form. Schlichting. Abiword. because of the open nature of this project. Again. The text processes. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. etc. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s). and all of the examples and data (tables. While some terms are defined in a relatively clear fashion. are not appropriate for these projects. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative effort of many individuals. many of whom volunteered to help.) are already presented. only L TEX. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software.

The author was asked by a former client why he didn’t insert his improved tank filling and evacuating models (the addtion of the energy equation instead of isentropic model). I am sorry will not be entertaining work for non Linux/Unix systems.000 downloaded and is encouraging to receive over 200 thank you eMail (only one from U. one of the reader ask why not one of the example of oblique shock was not turn into the explanation of von Neumann paradox./Arizona) and some other reactions. The moving shock issues are not completed and more work is needed also in the shock tube.2 Version 0. and the author is apologizing for this omission. While all these requests are important.4.A. For example.4.S. While it move earlier but the name was not changed. 0. xxv .    ¢¡%  ' § !"  £ 0£%$      ¢¡ 0. this author cannot add all the things that he was asked and want to the book in instant fashion.3 The title of this section is change to reflect that it moved to beginning of the book. Menikoff pointed to this inconsistency. For example solving homework problem from other text books became either just two mouse clicks away or just just looking that the tables in this book. Several sections were add to this book with many new idea for example on the moving shock tables. the idea of moving will reduced the work for many student of compressible flow. Nevertheless.1 Version 0. especially for Microsoft. If one want to use the software engine it is okay and permitted by the license of this work.2 It was surprising to find that over 14. Dr. I also got request from a India to write the interface for Microsoft. the time is limited and they will be inserted as time permitted. However.

it reaches to about 30% (2011). The other questions that appeared related two phase and connecting several chambers to each other. The a brief chapter on Prandtl–Meyer flow was added. This book is the second book in the series of POTTO project books. This assumption drives students from other fields away from this knowledge.3 Version 0. the connection between Prandtl–Meyer flow and oblique is an note form. . most additions of the next version will be concentrated on Fanno flow and Rayleigh flow. If the total combined variation search of terms “Fanno” and “Rayleigh” (mostly through google) is accounted. an individual asked whether this author intended to write about the unsteady section.3) several individuals sent me remarks and suggestions. extensive description of the compressible flow history was written. This premise should not be assumed. This “rejection” is especially true when students feel that they have to go through a “shock wave” in their understanding. 0. Also. Henderson and Ralph Menikoff. This knowledge should be spread to other fields because it needed there as well. At this stage. and hopefully it will be near future. This led to comparison between maximum to ideal gas model to more general model. most readers reached to www.potto. However. In the introductory chapter.4 Since the last version (0. The reason the topic of Com8 A reader asked this author to examine a paper on Triple Shock Entropy Theorem and Its Consequences by Le Roy F.4 Version 0. POTTO project books are open content textbooks. Thus. 0. The chapter about oblique shock was added and it contains the analytical solution. The only exception is the addition to Taylor–Maccoll flow (axisymmetricale conical flow) in Prandtl -Meyer function (currently in a note form). This indicates that these topics are highly is demanded and not many concerned with the shock phenomena as this author believed and expected. The fifth chapter deals now with normal shock in variable area ducts. Furthermore. In the chapter on speed of sound. At this time.xxvi CONTENTS This textbook has sections which are cutting edge research8 . The additions of this version focus mainly on the oblique shock and related issues as results of questions and reactions on this topic. The isothermal nozzle was combined with the isentropic chapter. Some examples were added to the normal shock chapter. several questions were about compressibility factor and two phase flow in Fanno flow and other kind of flow models.org by searching for either terms “Rayleigh flow” (107) and “Fanno flow” ((93). The sixth chapter deals with external forces fields. the two phase aspects were added. the questions that appear on the net will guide this author on what is really need to be in a compressible flow book.3 In the traditional class of compressible flow it is assumed that the students will be aerospace engineers or dealing mostly with construction of airplanes and turbomachinery.

This criticism will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. is because of the realization that manufacture engineering simply lacks fundamental knowledge in this area and thus produces faulty designs and understanding of major processes. Ernst Schmidt.g. it will provide a new emphasis and new angle to Gas Dynamics. In fact one of the reasons that many manufacturing jobs are moving to other countries is because of the lack of understanding of fluid mechanics in general and compressible in particular. The other issues. This situation is typical also for Compressible Flow classes. . while relatively simple topics like fundamentals of strength of material were delayed. the undersigned observed that many researchers who are dealing with manufacturing processes are lack of understanding about fluid mechanics in general but particularly in relationship to compressible flow. Who.g. and then later. there were classes during which most students had a period of confusion. His book met strong criticism in which some called to burn his book.” which demonstrates how ridiculous design and research can be. etc. aside from his research activity.4. For example. It is clear that an understanding of Compressible Flow is very important for areas that traditionally have ignored the knowledge of this topic10 . show me what is wrong”. With all the above.0. however. These unique issues of compressible flow are to be emphasized and shown.. This book offers a more balanced emphasis which focuses more on internal compressible flow than the traditional classes.G. Eckert. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E. must be taught in engineering classes. are not that crucial to the understanding of the unique phenomena of compressible flow. Instead. the lack of competitive advantage moves many of the die casting operations to off shore9 . It is assumed that the same kind of individuals who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. As many instructors can recall from their time as undergraduates. the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. The internal flow topics seem to be common for the “traditional” students and students from other fields. when the dust settled. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc). which in turn results in many bankrupt companies and the movement of the die casting industry to offshore. there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. manufacturing engineering. flow around a wing. VERSION 0. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong. Unfortunately. especially for external compressible flow (e. almost suddenly things became clear.3 xxvii pressible Flow was chosen. Compressible flow is essentially different from incompressible flow in mainly two respects: discontinuity (shock wave) and choked flow. Their applicability to real world processes is to be 9 Please read the undersigned’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design.R. wrote the book that brought a revolution in the heat transfer field of education. 10 The fundamental misunderstanding of choking results in poor models (research) in the area of die casting. Today. and their colleagues. Up to Eckert’s book. it must be emphasized that this book will not revolutionize the field even though considerable new materials that have never been published are included. e. while important.). this is the only reply.

xxviii CONTENTS demonstrated11 . and properties change effects (ideal gases and real gases) (under construction). as a traditional textbook. etc). Every chapter can be “ripped” out and printed independently. The second chapter deals with speed of sound. In the oblique shock. the Isothermal flow is introduced because of the relative ease of the analytical treatment. which is excellent tool to explain the strong. There are two advanced topics which included here: oblique shock wave. for the first time analytical solution is presented. deals with a basic introduction of thermodynamics concepts (under construction). and Prandtl–Meyer expansion will be included only after the gamma version unless someone will provide discussion(s) (a skeleton) on these topics. again under construction. is suggested to referred to this model as Shapiro flow . It is further hoped that others will contribute to this book and find additional use for this book and enclosed software. weak and unrealistic shocks. The next three chapters are dealing with three models of choked flow: Isothermal flow12 . These chapters are presented almost independently. The third chapter provides the first example of choked flow (isentropic flow in a variable area). Gas Dynamics Calculator (CDC-POTTO). Fanno flow and Rayleigh flow. The program design and how to use the program are described (briefly). The book is organized into several chapters which. The topics of filling and evacuating of gaseous chambers are presented. The fourth chapter deals with a simple case of discontinuity (a simple shock wave in a nozzle). It is hoped that this book will serve the purposes that was envisioned for the book. normally missed from traditional textbooks. is currently under construction. The last chapter deals with the computer program. Discussions on the flow around bodies (wing. The next chapter is dealing with isothermal flow with and without external forces (the moving of the choking point). First. Isothermal flow provides useful tools for the pipe systems design. The chapter on one-dimensional unsteady state. 11 If 12 It you have better and different examples or presentations you are welcome to submit them.

The free/open content of the book was created because the realization that open content accelerated the creation of books and reaction to the corruption of the court implementing the copyright law by manufacturing facts and laws. Anyone can be part of it.” Later. I do not need to explain the fundamentals.   ¢¡ £ #£%$      ¢¡ £ $ £ ¡ ¡§21 This book started because I needed an explanation for manufacturing engineers. Apparently many manufacturing engineers and even some researchers in manufacturing engineering were lack of understanding about fluid mechanics in particularly about compressible flow. Eliezer made me change the chapter on isothermal flow. Therefore. there are some chapters in this book which are original materials never published before. There is no reason why a text book which cost leas than 10$ to publish/produce will cost about 150 dollars. Therefore. I realized that people need down to earth book about compressible flow and this book was born. It was farther extended by the allegation of free market and yet the academic education cost is sky rocketing without a real reason and real competition. “Fundamentals Of Die Casting Design. It should be included because this section provides the explanation and direction on what Fanno flow model will approach if heat transfer is taken into account13 . xxix . The book 13 Still in untyped note form. I wrote to myself some notes and I converted one of the note to a chapter in my first book. I wrote notes and asked myself what materials should be included in such a book so when I provide consultation to a company. The presentation of some of the chapters is different from other books. even my 10 years old son. I realized that books in compressible flow are written in a form that is hard for non fluid mechanic engineer to understand. If a community will pull together. this book is designed to be in such form that is easy to understand. the best books can be created. He made me realized that the common approach to supersonic branch of isothermal as non–existent is the wrong approach. Therefore. For example.

The figure in cover page was created by Michael Petschauer. Unfortunately. . a program that cannot be used on new system and I had to keep my old Linux to make it work14 . I hope someone will write a new spell check so I can switch to a new system. This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). The old figures where done by grap (part the old Troff). this book was written on Linux (MicrosoftLess book). 14 If you would like to to help me to write a new spell check user interface. Grace is a problematic program but is the best I have found.xxx CONTENTS does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provide the graphical explanation of things.com). graphic designer. The graphics were done by TGIF. and is open/free content copyright by him ( happy circle@yahoo. please contact me. Of course. I did not have any access to grap and switched to Grace. the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. The spell checking was done by gaspell.

 

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Gas Dynamic Calculator, (Potto–GDC) was created to generate various tables for the book either at end the chapters or for the exercises. This calculator was given to several individuals and they found Potto–GDC to be very useful. So, I decided to include Potto–GDC to the book. Initially, the Potto-GDC was many small programs for specific tasks. For example, the stagnation table was one such program. Later, the code became a new program to find the root of¡£something between the values of the tables e.g. ¢ finding parameters for a given   ¤ . At that stage, the program changed to contain a primitive interface to provide parameters to carry out the proper calculations. Yet, then, every flow model was a different program. When it become cumbersome to handle several programs, the author utilized the object oriented feature of C++ and assigned functions to the common tasks to a base class and the specific applications to the derived classes. Later, a need to intermediate stage of tube flow model (the PipeFlow class) was created and new classes were created. The graphical interface was created only after the engine was written. The graphical interface was written to provide a filter for the unfamiliar user. It also remove the need to recompile the code everytime.

0.1

The new version

Version 4.1.7 had several bug fixes and add two angle calculations to the oblique shock. Change the logtable to tabular environment for short tables.

xxxi

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   § © £¢¥ §
 ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§©©££ £¤"!#¥§©%$ &''&)(1032¤45©6¥8739¤@7A¥§B2DC1¥FE2D0HGI!#9D£5PRQ52BSP3T 9D£5PU©VGS(W¥¤£ D © @@R739¤@XC¨(I2D£Y¥§5©`E19B6©X2Ea¥§©A¥H@U9D£3PbEcd©D@Iegf5£5Ph¥§©pic£¤1©H0A@ 2Eq¥§©`f5C1¥§32D0bG2DQ ©¤PrC(I2D£Y¥§©`E9B6©#2sEt¥§5©Xu5©¨v ¤29S0BP"egf3£5Pw¥§©`f5C1¥§32D0@B9B¤P3! © ¥¥§©H05©y©#7B2S03P¤@!R9H£5P€¥¨§©H0©b7©0©r732S03P¤@ceA  15 x A

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This book, Fundamentals of Compressible Flow, describes the fundamentals of compressible flow phenomena for engineers and others. This book is designed to replace the book(s) or instructor’s notes for the compressible flow in (mostly) undergraduate classes for engineering/science students. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some knowledge of the basics of fundamental fluid mechanics, and basic science such as calculus, physics, etc. It is hoped that the computer program enclosed in the book will take on a life of its own and develop into an open content or source project. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. For example, if you need information about, say, Fanno flow, you can read just chapter 9. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. However, this manuscript is first and foremost a textbook, and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are, rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped.16 Reading everything will, naturally, increase your understanding of the fundamentals of compressible fluid flow. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. Like all volunteer work, there is a limit on how much effort I was able to put into the book and its organization. Moreover, due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations, the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to
the power and glory of the mighty God. This book is only to explain his power. the present, the book is not well organized. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress.
16 At 15 To

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perfect them. Nevertheless, I believe professionals working in many engineering fields will benefit from this information. This book contains many original models, and explanations never published before. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book, marked with a Mata mark. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. Furthermore, I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. Incorrect language, errors, ideas for new areas to cover, rewritten sections, more fundamental material, more mathematics (or less mathematics); I am interested in it all. If you want to be involved in the editing, graphic design, or proofreading, please drop me a line. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail.com”. Naturally, this book contains material that never was published before. This material never went through a peer review. While peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. In practice, this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your idea(s). Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall17 Several people have helped me with this book, directly or indirectly. I would like to especially thank to my adviser, Dr. E. R. G. Eckert, whose work was the inspiration for this book. I also would like to thank Amy Ross for her advice ideas, and assistance. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. There are also notes in the margin, but those are solely for the author’s purposes, ignore them please. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing, editing, graphic ability, A L TEX knowledge, and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. If you have Internet e-mail access, you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail.com”.

17 Dr. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well, literature review is always good?). Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction, it brought or cause the expansion the oblique shock chapter. However, other email that imply that someone will take care of this author isn’t appreciated.

£

  &     £%$ ¡ £1¢¡ £   £¤¡ ¥ £¢

This book is not complete and probably never will be completed. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. It A is hoped the changes in TEX and L TEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. It is hoped that the style file will be converged to the final form rapidly. Nevertheless, there are specific issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. At this stage, several chapters are missing. The effects of the deviations from the ideal gas model on the properties should be included. Further topics related to non-ideal gas such as steam and various freons are in the process of being added to this book especially in relationship to Fanno flow. One of the virtue of this book lay in the fact that it contains a software that is extensible. For example, the Fanno module can be extended to include effects of real gases. This part will be incorporated in the future hopefully with the help of others. Specific missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. These omissions, mistakes, approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this

Meta ¦

ample this part.

Meta End
Questions/problems appear as a marginal note. On occasions a footnote was used to point out for a need of improvement. You are always welcome to add a new material: problem, question, illustration or photo of experiment. Material can

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be further illuminate. Additional material can be provided to give a different angle on the issue at hand.

0.0.1

Speed of Sound

Discussion about the movement in medium with variation in speed of sound. This concept in relation of the wind tunnel and atmosphere with varied density and temperature. More problems in relationship to two phase. Speed of sound in wet steam.

0.0.2

Stagnation effects

extend the applicability with examples  ¢¡ as a function of temperature (deviation of ideal gas model) “real gas”’ like water History – on the teaching (for example when the concept of stagnation was first taught.

0.0.3

Nozzle

The effect of external forces (add problems). History specifically, who and when the important of part De Level nozzle were developed. Real gases effects (only temperature effects) Flow with “tabulated gases” calculations Phase change and two phase flow (multi choking points) effects (after 1.0 version). The dimensional analysis of the flow when the flow can be considered as isothermal. The combined effect of isentropic nozzle with heat transfer (especially with relationship to the program.).

0.0.4

Isothermal Flow

Classification of Problems work on the software Comparison of results with Fanno flow Pipes Network calculation.

THE NEW VERSION xxxvii 0.0. Examples: provide categorization 0.10 Prandtl–Meyer The limitations (Prandtl-Meyer).0. The FORTRAN version will not be included.8 Evacuating and filling chambers under external forces Comparison with chemical reaction case Examples Software transformation from FORTRAN to c++.0. 0.0.11 Transient problem .0. Application Marcell–Taylor (from the notes) Examples 0.0.6 Rayleigh Flow To mature the chapter: discussion on the “dark” corners of this model. Provide discussion on variations of the effecting parameters.1.7 Evacuation and filling semi rigid Chambers To construct the Rayleigh flow in the tube (thermal chocking) Examples classifications Software (converting the FORTRAN program to c++) 0.9 Oblique shock Add application to design problems To add the note on the relation ship between Prandtl–Meyer and the weak oblique shock.0. (almost finished) Example on the above relationship 0.0.5 Fanno Flow More examples: various categories some improvement on the software (clean up) real gas effects (compressible factor) 0.

xxxviii CONTENTS .

Rather. Here one has to learn to use his intuition as a tool for future use. The main difference between compressible flow and almost incompressible flow is not the fact that compressibility has to be considered. 1 This book gradually skipping to include more material that isn’t so introductory. The shock wave and choking are not intuitive for most people. but other engineers. The first phenomenon is the very sharp discontinuity (jump) in the flow in properties. one has to realize that intuition is really a condition where one uses his past experiences to predict other situations. the difference is in two phenomena that do not exist in incompressible flow2 . Choking is when downstream variations don’t effect the flow3 . 2 It can be argued that in open channel flow there is a hydraulic jump (discontinuity) and in some ranges no effect of downstream conditions on the flow. 4 This book is intended for engineers and therefore no discussion about astronomical conditions is presented. But attempt is made to present the material in introductory level. there also are situations of choking in general (external) flow4 . the uniqueness of the phenomena in the gas dynamics provides spectacular situations of a limited length (see Fanno model) and thermal choking.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ 1 ¡    ¡#' ¥ ¡ £%  1 1. Though choking occurs in certain pipe flows in astronomy. Thus. The second phenomenon is the choking of the flow. 1 . this richness is unique to gas dynamics. Further. 3 The thermal choking is somewhat different but similarity exists. However. However. and even manufacturing engineers will be able use this “intuition” in design and even research. not only aeronautic engineers. Thus. Choking is referred to as the situation where downstream conditions which are beyond a critical value do not affect the flow. there is no equivalent to oblique shock wave. etc.1 What is Compressible Flow ? This book deals with an introduction1 to the flow of compressible substances (gases).

While there are excellent books about the history of fluid mechanics (hydraulic) see for example book by Rouse6 . This doesn’t in any way meant that the important topics such as shock wave and oblique shock wave should be neglected. and also gas turbine. most gas dynamics (compressible flow) classes deal mostly with shock waves and external flow and briefly teach Fanno flows and Rayleigh flows (two kind of choking flows). and is considered an external flow. INTRODUCTION 1. There are numerous sources dealing with the history of flight and airplanes (aeronau5 Any search on the web on classes of compressible flow will show this fact and the undersigned can testify that this was true in his first class as a student of compressible flow. In fact.2 CHAPTER 1. For instance. a problem that led to the Fanno flow model. injection molding. the control engineers who are using pneumatic systems use compressed substances. This book contains several chapters which deal with external flow as well. is injected into a mold to obtain a near final shape. Aero Engineers are not the only ones who have to deal with some aspect of compressible flow. should be considered a compressible flow. 6 Hunter Rouse and Simon Inc. 1. The above flows that were mentioned are called internal flows. the flow of natural gas in a pipe system.2 Why Compressible Flow is Important? Compressible flow appears in many natural and many technological processes. These processes include situations not expected to have a compressible flow. mostly aluminum. Clearly. etc. These processes include the flow of gas in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine.. 1957) . There are very few courses that deal with isothermal flow. Traditionally. For manufacturing engineers there are many situations where the compressibility or compressible flow understating is essential for adequate design. in a matter of milliseconds. therefore the compressibility has to be taken into account.s. a greater emphasis is on the internal flow. The air is displaced by the liquid metal in a very rapid manner. nitrogen and helium. Some aspects of these systems require consideration of the unique phenomena of compressible flow. many books on compressible flow ignore the isothermal flow5 . For instance. The cooling of some manufacturing systems and design of refrigeration systems also utilizes compressed air flow knowledge. The die casting process is a process in which liquid metal. Compressible flow deals with more than air. Compressible flow also includes flow around bodies such as the wings of an airplane. including steam. In this book. History of Hydraulics (Iowa City: Institute of Hydraulic Research. natural gas. such as manufacturing process such as the die casting.3 Historical Background In writing this book it became clear that there is more unknown and unwritten about the history of compressible fluid than known. a common method of heating in the u.

Some researchers even have suggested that compressibility can be “swallowed” into the ideal flow (Euler’s equation’s flow is sometimes referred to as ideal flow). Fanno. Jr. which are the core of gas dynamics. Cambridge. The other two models were. In the first half of nineteen century there was little realization that the compressibility is important because there were very little applications (if any) that required the understanding of this phenomenon. who was Fanno. Sometimes. for many early contributors this topic was a side issue. In fact. who was the first to “conclude” the “all” the chocking occurs at  ? Is it Shapiro? Orientally. there was no idea there are special effects and phenomena of compressible flow. This was Lord Rayleigh. unknown. For example. and two. this author did not find any reference to isothermal flow model earlier to Shapiro’s book. could not be answered by any of the undersigned’s colleagues in University of Minnesota or elsewhere. A History of Aerodynamics: And Its Impact on Flying Machines. and when did he live. 8 The only remark found about Fanno flow that it was taken from the Fanno Master thesis by his adviser. the Fanno flow and isothermal flow.3. At this stage there are more questions about the history of compressible flow needing to be answered. For example. the question. As there were no motivations to investigate the shock wave or choked flow both were treated as the same. only one contributor of the three main models of internal compressible flow (Isothermal. are not part of aerodynamics. There is no book8 that describes the history of these models. 9 Who developed the isothermal model? The research so far leads to Shapiro. for whom the Rayleigh flow was named. For instance. Mach and Flinger “stumbled” over the shock wave and choking. . it obvious that Shapiro published the erroneous conclusion that all the chocking occurred at  in his article which contradicts his isothermal model. It must be noted that researchers were interested in the speed of sound even long before applications and knowledge could demand any utilization. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 3 tic)7 . Even before Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer appeared. Mach observed shock and Flinger ¡ £ ¡©£ J.1. 1997. The early application in which compressibility has a major effect was with fire arms. the significant and importance of compressibility emerged. these questions will appear in a section with a title but without text or with only a little text. In the second half of the nineteen century. a large part of this knowledge is relatively new. Sometimes. England. Cambridge University Press. however these two fields are different. Aeronautics is an overlapping part of compressible flow. Additional example. Is there any earlier reference to this model? 7 Anderson. researchers were aware that the speed of sound is some kind of limit.. Perhaps this flow should be named after the Shapiro. respectively. The research and interest in the speed of sound was a purely academic interest. taking compressible flow as if it were incompressible flow. Here is a challenge: find any book describing the history of the Fanno model. D. Possible reasons for the lack of written documentation are one. Furthermore. they will appear in a footnote like this9 . to the undersigned. Rayleigh) was described by any text book. Thus. The technological improvements in fire arms led to a gun capable of shooting bullets at speeds approaching to the speed of sound.

1.1 Early Developments The compressible flow is a subset of fluid mechanics/hydraulics and therefore the knowledge development followed the understanding of incompressible flow. Galileo. Early contributors were motivated from a purely intellectual curiosity. an Italian scientist. 1. who discovered that sound travels in waves (1500). Other milestones in the speed of sound understanding development were by Leonardo Da Vinci. During that time.    ¡¡   £¢     .3. INTRODUCTION To add history from the work. the modern basic classes became “solidified.4 CHAPTER 1. so almost all text books in this field are written from an aerodynamic prospective. sound) was a major part of Galileo’s work. (late 1660’s). Giants like Prandtl and his students like Van Karman. Dealing with the difference between the two speeds (light. However.). Maxwell was the first to derive the speed of sound for gas as from particles (statistical) mechanics.3. Newton was the first to formulate a relationship between the speed of sound in gases by relating the density and compressibility in a medium (by assuming isothermal process). Marin Mersenne was the first to measure the speed of sound in air (1640). but some attribute it to Galileo Galilei: 166x. while most later contributions were driven by necessity. was one of the earliest contributors to our understanding of sound. Newton’s equation is missing the heat ratio. In the twentieth century the flight industry became the pushing force. The early approach to the speed of sound was by the measuring of the speed of sound.” Contributions by researchers and educators from other fields were not as dominant and significant. A possible explanation to this discovery lies in the fact that mother nature exhibits in every thunder storm the difference between the speed of light and the speed of sound. measured the choking but theoretical science did not provide explanation to it (or was award that there is explanation for it. people found that sound travels in different speeds through different mediums. 1. Therefore some referred to coefficient as Maxwell’s coefficient. dominated the field. capillary flow and phase change. as well as others like Shapiro. for a long time the question of the speed of sound was bounced around. Robert Boyle discovered that sound waves must travel in a medium (1660) and this lead to the concept that sound is a pressure change. aerospace engineering played a significant role in the development of this knowledge. Understandably. once there was a realization that sound can be measured. As a result. There is no clear evidence as to who came up with this concept.1 Speed of Sound The idea that there is a speed of sound and that it can be measured is a major achievement. Topics that should be included in this history review but that are not yet added to this section are as follows: Multi Phase flow.

At this stage some experimental evidence was needed. 12 Simeon ´ Denis Poisson. science is full of many stories of conflicts and disputes. since no Mach number was known at that time). Poisson found a “solution” to the Euler’s equations with certain boundary conditions which required discontinuity12 which had obtained an implicit form in 1808. France. Shock Compression Condens.2 The shock wave puzzle Here is where the politics of science was a major obstacle to achieving an advancement10 . Ec. He was mostly interested in experimental physics. The other kind of problem is “hijacking” by a sector. 13 James Challis. 494-499 14 Stokes George Gabriel Sir. It was easier to publish articles about the second law of thermodynamics than to convince anyone of the first law of thermodynamics. 14 (1808). Mag. French mathematician.3. The major breakthrough in the understanding of compressible flow came when Ernest Mach “stumbled” over the discontinuity.” J. 1880-1905. conservation of energy was a concept that was applied only to mechanical energy. 319-392. English Astronomer. There are even conflicts from not giving enough credit. Mathematical and Physical Papers. XXXII (1848). ”M’emoire sur la th’eorie du son. 1998. New York. like Moody not giving the due credit to Rouse. perhaps the most famous is that of Newton’s netscaping (stealing and embracing) Leibniz[’s] invention of calculus. His research centered on optic aspects which lead him to study acoustic and therefor supersonic flow (high speed.1. Springer. ”On the velocity of sound. Even on this subject. Again the “jumping” conditions were redeveloped by two different researchers independently: Stokes and Riemann. Challis had noticed contradictions concerning some solutions of the equations of compressible gas dynamics13 . it is logical to believe that his interest had risen due to the 10 Amazingly. High-press. University Press. In the early 18xx. with additional notes by the author. It is widely believed that Mach had done his research as purely intellectual research. 11 This recognition of the first law is today the most “obvious” for engineering students. these problems are more common than one might be expected. Polytech. Yet for many it was still debatable up to the middle of the nineteen century. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 5 1. He had then correctly derived the jump conditions that discontinuous solutions must satisfy. Ernst Mach studied several fields in physics and also studied philosophy. Even the undersigned encountered individuals who have tried to ride on his work. 3-65. Reprinted from the original journals and transactions. So. Neither of these groups would agree to “merge” or “relinquish” control of their “territory” to the other. Stokes in 1848 retreated from his work and wrote an apology on his “mistake. Later.” Philos. . However. Cambridge. the Aeronautic sector “took over” gas dynamics as did the emphasis on mathematics like perturbations methods or asymptotic expansions instead on the physical phenomena.3. was not sure whether or not discontinuity is only a mathematical creature or a real creature. a different group of scientists dealt with calorimetry (internal energy). Riemann. 1781-1840 worked in Paris. At first. in his 1860 thesis.” 14 Stokes was convinced by Lord Rayleigh and Lord Kelvin that he was mistaken on the grounds that energy is conserved (not realizing the concept of internal energy). It took about a century to establish the first law11 . Major material like Fanno flow isn’t taught in many classes. England UK. Matter. From Classic Papers in Shock Compression Science. 1803-1882. Poisson showed that solutions could approach a discontinuity by using conservation of mass and momentum. worked at Cambridge. Aside from the conflicts of scientists with the Catholic Church and Muslim religion. On the other side. while many of the mathematical techniques are currently practiced.

It is possible that some insight was developed but none of the documents that were reviewed revealed it to the undersigned. Later. one anecdotal story suggests a way to make money by inventing a better killing machine for the Europeans. direction of the flow. Shock was assumed to be one dimensional and mass. French engineer. He further showed that the discontinuity occurs at  realized that the velocity ratio (Mach number). II” J. and energy equations18 lead to a solution which ties the upstream and downstream properties. A need for bullets that could travel faster to overcome these obstacles was created. redeveloped independently the equation that governs the relationship of the shock wave. High-press.. While the machine gun turned out to be a good killing machine. What makes Mach’s achievement all the more remarkable was the technique he used to take the historic photograph: He employed an innovative approach called the shadowgraph. New York. At that time many inventions dealt with machine guns which where able to shoot more bullets per minute. Therefore. While Mach proved shock wave and oblique shock wave existence. Mach used his knowledge in Optics to study the flow around bullets. Shock Compression Condens. i. 1820-1872. Mach’s paper from 1876 demonstrated shock wave (discontinuity) and suggested the importance of the ratio of the velocity to the speed of sound. 160 (1870). . Mach’s paper from 1876 deals with the flow around bullets. 1998 18 Today it is well established that shock has three dimensions but small sections can be treated as one dimensional. Springer. 1998 17 Pierre Henri Hugoniot. Springer. 1851-1887. What they could not prove or find was that shock occurs only when upstream is supersonic. 277-288. Polytech. Rankine and Hugoniot. he brought confidence to the theoreticians to publish their studies. others expanded Rankine-Hugoniot’s ¡¤£ 15 The words “no known” refer to the undersigned. 245-358. Scottish engineer. no known15 equations or explanations results in of this experiments. Classic papers in shock compression science. 16 William John Macquorn Rankine.). High-press. INTRODUCTION need to achieve powerful/long–distance shooting rifles/guns. the jump conditions were redeveloped and now named after Rankine16 and Hugoniot17 . In his paper discussing ”Photographische Fixierung der durch Projektile in der Luft eingeleiten Vorgange” he showed a picture of a shock wave (see figure 1. and not the velocity. Back to the pencil and paper. Classic papers in shock compression science. defense techniques started to appear such as sand backs. He was the first to photograph the shock wave. 133-147.7). He also observed the existence of a conical shock wave (oblique shock wave).e. 1-125.” Philos. New York. 58 (1889). Nevertheless. Matter. Scotland UK. ”Sur la propagation du mouvement dans les corps et sp’ecialement dans les gaz parfaits. Mach’s contributions can be summarized as providing an experimental and proof to discontinuity. Ec. 57 (1887). he was not able to analyze it (neither was he aware of Poission’s work or the works of others. I. Mach had good understanding of the fundamentals of supper sonic flow and the effects on bullet movement (super sonic flow). Shock Compression Condens. Trans. momentum. At the time.6 CHAPTER 1. He utilized the variations of the air density to clearly show shock line at the front of the bullet. He worked in Glasgow. Thus. 161-243. part II. 3-97. is the important parameter in the study of the compressible flow. Matter. ”On the thermodynamic theory of waves of finite longitudinal disturbance.

¨ Forsch-Arb. In fact Prandtl is the one who introduced the name of Rankine-Hugoniot’s conditions not aware of the earlier developments of this condition. ub. Taylor from England as the proof (of course utilizing the second law) 21 Theodor Meyer in Mitteil. Today this equation/condition is known as Prandtl’s equation or condition (1908). No. In fact.1).3. Steam and Gas Turbine to be add to oblique shock chapter. Stodola suggested the graphical solution utilizing the Fanno line. I. The “last nail” of understanding was put by Landau. Thus.3 of this book) several equations that tied various properties/quantities. Theodor Meyer (Prandtl’s student) derived the conditions for oblique shock in 190821 as a byproduct of the expansion work. 1. page 62. The fact that the conditions and direction were known did not bring the solution to the equations. the second law has been around for over 40 years and yet the significance of it was not was well established. The probable reason that analytical solution was not published because the claim in the 20 Some add discussion about the general relationships. Berlin. Since early of the 1950 the relationship between the the oblique shock deflection angle and shock angle and Mach number was described as not possible to obtained. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND conditions to a more general form19 .1. a Jewish scientist who worked in Moscow University in the 1960’s during the Communist regimes. 19 To . view the work of G. 1908.3. the supersonic branch is missing from his understanding (see Figure 1. 7 Here. Yet.1: The shock as connection of Fanno and Rayleigh lines after Stodola. 62. A solution was found by Landau & Lifshitz and expanded by Kolosnitsyn & Stanyukovich (1984). it took over 50 years for Prandtl to arrive at and to demonstrate that the shock has only one direction20 . The first analytical solution connecting the angles with upstream Mach number was published in this book version 0. There were up recently (version 0. Fig. It was probably later that Stodola (Fanno’s adviser) realized that the shock is the intersection of the Fanno line with the Rayleigh line.

2.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 22 Since writing this book. 51. 344-349. “On the air resistance of Projectiles. The results of that analysis was that strong shock is unstable. While the actual solution all the roots are real and positive for the attached shock. Vol. The first that attempt this question where in 1931 by Epstein23 . pp. The effect of real gases was investigated very early since steam was used move turbines.. That solution ¡£¢¥¤ ¢¥© is based on a transformation of   to ¦¨§ . several individuals point out that a solution was found in book “Analytical Fluid Dynamics” by Emanuel. 1931. Vol. 974. Even all books that published recently claimed that no strong shock ever was observed in flow around cone (Taylor–Maccoll flow). recently. Carrier26 was first to recognize that strong and weak shock stable. 1948. “On the Stability of the supersonic Flows Past as a Wedge. His analysis was based on Hamilton’s principle when he ignore the boundary condition. If fact the confusion on this issue was persistent until now.F. 1955. This difference probably results in not recognizing that The boundary conditions play important role in the stability of the shock24 . Vol. “Comment on Calculation of Oblique shock waves. December 2000 (US$ 124. even this author sinned in this erroneous conclusion. 17. 26 Carrier. 25 Herivel. 24 In study this issue this author realized only after examining a colleague experimental Picture 13. F. Pt. It is interesting that transformation result in one of root being negative. For example. 179–210..90). Henderson and Menikoff27 dealt with only the procedure to find the maximum of oblique shock. INTRODUCTION famous report of NACA 1135 that there is not explicit analytical solution22 . No 5 p. 1949. pp. The question whether the oblique shock is stable or which root is stable was daunting since the early discovery that there are more than one possible solution.4 that it was clear that the Normal shock along with strong shock and weak shock “live” together peacefully and in stable conditions. S. 23 Epstein. 27 Henderson and Menikoff.” Proceedings of the Cambridge philosophical society..” published by Interscience Publishers. Emanuel just redone 36 years work (how many times works have to be redone in this field). what is new in this work is completeness of all the three roots and the analytical condition for detached shock and breaking of the model. It is amazing that early research concluded that only the weak solution is possible or stable as oppose the reality. P. Inc. “The Derivation of The Equations of Motion On an Ideal Fluid by Hamilton’s Principle. Hence. In a way part of analysis of this book redoing old work. In fact analysis based on Hamilton’s principle isn’t suitable for stability because entropy creation was recognized 1955 by Herivel25 . but no comparison between real gases and ideal gas is offered there. George. ”Triple Shock Entropy Theorem. p. The researchers understood that flow after a strong shock governed by elliptic equation while the flow after weak shock governed by hyperbolic equations. In general the mathematical treatment was left to numerical investigation and there is relatively very little known on the difference between ideal gas model and real gas. J. J. 367–378. In fact.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics 366 (1998) pp. pp. The real question isn’t if they exist rather under what conditions these shocks exist which was suggested by Courant and Friedrichs in their book “Supersonic Flow and Shock Waves. The presentation was missing the condition for the detachment or point where the model collapse. New York.” AIAA Journal Vol 2. But more surprisingly. 6. 1963. 532-547. . G. 317. similar analysis was published by Briggs.” Quarterly of Applied Mathematics. second edition.. Yet.8 CHAPTER 1.

heft 62.3. Perhaps. 31 Some of the publications were not named after Prandtl but rather by his students like Meyer. 32 Meyer. In 1908 Meyer has extend this work to make two dimensional calculations32 . 68–72. there are also other works that this author did not come crossed. Berlin 1908. “Theorie die Turbinen. 30 Zeuner. In the literature appeared reference to article by Lorenz in the Physik Zeitshr.. but did not produce any model or conduct successful experimental work.3. Yet. there was no realization that the flow is choked just that the flow moves faster than speed of sound. After the introduction of the deLavel’s converging–diverging nozzle the theoretical work started by Zeuner30 . 1. Ing. Vol 31 1898. Later continue by Prandtl’s group31 starting 1904. Ann.3 Choking Flow The choking problem is almost unique to gas dynamics has many different forms. Paris. According the thermodynamics theory (various cycles) the larger heat supply for a given temperature difference (larger higher temperature) the larger the output. The first experimental choking phenomenon was discovered by Fliegner’s experiments which were conducted some time in the middle of 186x28 on air flow through converging nozzle.-Wes. Uber ¨ zweidimensionals Bewegungsvordange eines Gases. 119.1.2: The schematic of deLavel’s turbine afby Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval in 1882 ter Stodola.-Arb. The theorical first work on this issue was done by Zeuner. “Theorie der Turbinen. The choking wasn’t clear to be observed. Vol 12. 29 Rayleigh was the first to develop the model that bears his name. 113. when it was found the significance of the choking phenomenon was not clear. Comptes R. 8 1896. Phys. No one was looking or expecting for the choking to occur. 28 Fliegner Schweizer Bauztg. erschienen in den Mitteilungen uber ¨ Forsch. Th. The first to discover (try to explain) the choking phenomenon was Rayleigh29 . Leipzig 1899 page 268 f. The problem was introduced because people wanted to increase the output of the Engine by increasing the flames (larger heat transfer or larger energy) which failed. 33 Parenty. even researcher stumbled over it. p.. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 9 1. Steam and Gas Turbine and first successful operation by another inventor (Curtis) 1896 used in steam turbine. It is likely that others had noticed that flow is choked. but after a certain point it did matter (because the steam was choked). leading to the study and development of Rayleigh flow. Theodor. as if in 1904. Vol. The introduction of the steam engine and other thermodynamics cycles led to the choking problem. page 268 f. 8. Chim. Vol. . 116. As result the invention of deLavel’s nozzle was invented Fig.. Dissertation 1907. 1897. Experimental work by Parenty33 and other measure the pressure along the converging-diverging nozzle.” Leipzig 1899.

545) that creates the maximum flow rate. As a result. in many cases the reality is somewhere between the adiabatic and the isothermal flow. No. personal experience of this undersigned shows that even instructors of Gas Dynamics are not aware that the chocking occurs at different Mach number and depends on the model.G. Namely.3. 1907. 37. In this book. INTRODUCTION It was commonly believed34 that the choking occurs only at  . At the end of the arm was the object that was under observation and study.Fig. There are two main models or extremes that describe the flow in the nozzle: isothermal and adiabatic. due to the circular motion. 36 Bendemann Mitteil uber ¨ Forschungsarbeiten. 35 These researchers demonstrate results between two extremes and actually proposed this idea.R. Later Romer at el extended it to isothermal variable area flow (1955). 34 The . Berlin.1 Nozzle flow The first “wind tunnel” was not a tunnel but a rotating arm attached at the center. Yet. that the presentation here suggests that topic should be presented case between two extremes. However. The arm’s circular motion could reach a velocity above the speed of sound at its end. £     ¡ £ 1.3.3: The measured pressure in a nozzle taken from Stodola 1927 Steam and Gas Turbines tween the turn of the century and 1947-48. the spinning arm was no longer used in testing. A different reason to study the converging-diverging nozzle was the Venturi meter which was used in measuring the flow rate of gases. models that explained choking at the throat have been built. It is so strange the giant like Shapiro did not realize his model on isothermal contradict his conclusion from his own famous paper. The actual results will be determined by the modified Eckert number to which model they are closer. this author adapts E. Ecert’s idea of dimensionless parameters control which determines where the reality lay between the two extremes. Bendemann 36 carried experiments to study the accuracy of these flow meters and he measured and refound that the flow reaches a critical value (pressure ratio of 0. in 1904 the Wright brothers demonstrated that results from the wind tunnel and spinning arm are different. The first one to analyzed that choking occurs at ¡  for isothermal flow was Shapiro (195x). when the first supersonic wind tunnel was built.10 CHAPTER 1. 1. Recently this concept was proposed (not explicitly) by Dutton and Converdill (1997)35 . Be.

It is very interesting that the isothermal nozzle was proposed by Romer at el 1955 (who was behind the adviser or the student?). The concept that the choking point can move from the throat was was introduced by38 the unknown name. “Analysis of Isothermal Variable Area Flow.3.3.2 Nozzle flow 11 Romer et al37 analyzed the isothermal flow in a nozzle. p. However. 1. In general when the model assumed ing was found as   to be isothermal the choking occurs at   .1. In Rayleigh flow.4: Flow rate as a function of the back pressure taken from Stodola 1927 Steam and Gas Turbines to insert the isothermal nozzle with external forces like gravity and to show that choking location can move depending on the direction of the force. £     £     £     1. Yet. the material reaches choking point due to heat transfer. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1.3. according to Dr. this phenomenon produces a dimensionless number similar to Ozer number and therefor the name Ozer number adapted in this book. thermal). 39 As most of the history research has shown.3.. vol. Rayleigh looked at flow without mechanical energy transfer (friction) but only thermal energy transfer. 398 December 1955. It is remarkable that chokas opposed to one (1). The tion. The model bears his name. Rayleigh was probably39 . no additional flow can occur. and Ali Bulent Cambel.3. the first to suggest a model for frictionless flow with a constant heat transfer. To find where Rayleigh did understand ¡£ that ¢ ¤ his model point flow leads to and graphical representation ¡¥¢ ¤ quesof the flow. 38 This undersign didn’t find the actual trace to the source of proposing this effect.4 Fanno Flow The most important model in compressible flow was suggested by Gino Fanno in his Master’s thesis (1904). 1. there is also a possibility that someone found it earlier. ¨ ¨ to insert information about the detonation wave and relationship to Rayleigh line. For example. Rudolf 37 Romer. 27 no 322. Therefore. Piosson was the first one to realize the shock wave possibility.3. hence term “thermally choked” is used.3 Rayleigh Flow Fig. I Carl Jr. some astronomy books showing this effect in a dimensional form without mentioning the original researcher. Rayleigh’s work was during the time when it was debatable as to whether there are two forms of energies (mechanical.” Aircraft Eng. These researchers where the first one to realized that choking can occurs in different Mach number (   aside to the isothermal pipe. . In dimensionless form. even though Watt and others found and proved that they are the same.3.

a shock wave occurs which increases the resistance. The model suggests that the choking occurs at ¡  and it appears that Shapiro was the first one to realize this difference compared to the other models. INTRODUCTION Mumenthaler from UTH University. The choking was assumed only to be in the subsonic flow. At that stage. Shapiro organized all the material in a coherent way and made this model useful. known by the undersigned.12 CHAPTER 1. No experimental evidence. the flow is choked somewhere between   to one for cases that are between Fanno (adiabatic) and isothermal flow. this flow model should be called Shapiro’s flow. Fanno attributes the main pressure reduction to friction. Isothermal Flow The earliest reference to isothermal flow was found in Shapiro’s Book. However at a Mach number above 0. the question cannot be answered yet.   Meta ¡ id Fanno realize that the flow is choked? It appears at least in Stodola’s book that choking was understood in 1927 and even earlier.3. The arrival of the Moody diagram. Without the existence of the friction factor data. which built on Hunter Rouse’s (194x) work made Darcy– Weisbach’s equation universally useful.8 (relative of velocity of the body to upstream velocity) a local Mach number (local velocity) can reach  . £   £       1. But because the actual Fanno’s thesis is not available. no copy of the thesis can be found in the original University and perhaps only in the personal custody of the Fanno family40 . but can be explained by choking at a lower Mach number. flow that is dominantly adiabatic could be simplified and analyzed. The Navier-Stokes equations which describe the flow (or even ¡ £ 40 This 41 Fanning material is very important and someone should find it and make it available to researchers. Call for others to help in this information.8 Mach or more the flow must be considered to be compressible flow.3. Thus.3. based radius is only one quarter of the Darcy which is based on diameter ¢ ¢ . This fact was evident in industrial applications where the expectation of the choking is at Mach one.). When was Gas Dynamics (compressible flow) as a separate class started? Did the explanation for the combination of diverging-converging nuzzle with tube for Fanno flow first appeared in Shapiro’s book? Meta End expanding model by others 1. In reality. the Fanno model wasn’t able to produce a prediction useful for the industry.4 External flow When the flow over an external body is about . was ever produced to verify this finding.5 If it turned out that no one had done it before Shapiro. The friction factor is the main component in the analysis as Darcy 41 was already proposed in 1845. Additionally an understating of the supersonic branch of the flow was unknown (The idea of shock in tube was not raised at that time.

However. Anderson’s Book “History of Aerodynamics and Its Impact on Flying Machines. cambered airfoils. there is no reason to teach it in a regular school. especially at the propeller tips. Later.” Cambridge University Press. He later contributed to the PrandtlGlauert rule for subsonic airflow that describes the compressibility effects of air at high speeds.3. Prandtl created his thin–airfoil theory that enabled the calculation of lift for thin. Practitioners like the Wright brothers relied upon experimentation to figure out what theory could not yet tell them. Airplanes could not yet fly fast. and the KuttaJoukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). Frank Caldwell and Elisha Fales demonstrated in 1918 that at a critical speed (later renamed the critical Mach number) airfoils suffered dramatic increases in drag and decreases in lift. Prandtl claimed that he was not aware of Lanchester’s model when he had begun his work in 1911. slide rule is sold for about 7. 44 It is like teaching using slide ruler in today school. During World War I. See for the full story in the shock section. That is the “dinosaur44 ” reason that even today some instructors are teaching mostly the perturbations and asymptotic methods in Gas Dynamics classes.5$ on the net. J. 1997 42 The English call this theory the Lanchester-Prandtl theory. After World War Two. This problem led to two consequences. Von Karman reduced the equations for supersonic flow into a single equation. Prandtl’s student. the research had continued and some technical solutions were found. He introduced the lifting line theory. This claim seems reasonable in the light that Prandtl was not ware of earlier works when he named erroneously the conditions for the shock wave. one of Prandtl’s assistants. . Briggs and Dryden showed that the problem was related to the shock wave. After First World War aviation became important and in 1920s a push of research focused on what was called the compressibility problem. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortex filaments (1858).1. 43 This undersigned is aware of only one case that these methods were really used to calculations of wing. More information on external flow can be found in . Meanwhile in Germany. simplified the shock equations so that they became easy to use. This is because the English Astronomer Frederick Lanchester published the foundation for Prandtl’s theory in his 1907 book Aerodynamics. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 13 Euler equations) were considered unsolvable during the mid 18xx because of the high complexity. which was published in 1918-1919 and enabled accurate calculations of induced drag and its effect on lift42 . Ackeret. Prandtl worked on calculating the effect of induced drag on lift. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximate solutions representing specific cases. but the propellers (which are also airfoils) did exceed the speed of sound. Some of the solutions lead to tedious calculations which lead to the creation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Today these methods of perturbations and asymptotic are hardly used in wing calculations43 . Yet. John D. thus exhibiting inefficiency. By the way. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory flow (1894). Ludwig Prandtl in 1904 explained the two most important causes of drag by introducing the boundary layer theory. Prandtl’s boundary layer theory allowed various simplifications of the Navier-Stokes equations.

Later several researchers mostly form University in Illinois extend this work to isothermal nozzle (chock and unchecked).1 CHAPTER 1. The classification of filling or evacuating the chamber as external control and internal control (mostly by pressure) was described in version 0.5: Portrait of Galileo Galilei with his family in early 1570 to Florence. Later. 1940.e. in die casting conference there was a discussion and presentation on which turbulence model is suitable for a complete still liquid. INTRODUCTION Filling and Evacuating Gaseous Chambers It is remarkable that there were so few contributions made in the area of a filling or evacuation gaseous chamber.3. 46 In 45 International .. is not sufficient in many cases and a connection by a tube (rather just nozzle or orifice) is more appropriated. There are many figures that should be included and a biased selection was required. Italy on February 15. The oldest of six children.. not realizing that garbage in is garbage out.1 Galileo Galilei Galileo was born in Pisa. and was republished by Owczarek.”45 . fact. J. The analytical solution for forced volume and the “balloon” problem (airbag’s problem) model were published first in this book (version 0. Scranton. Galileo moved Fig.3..5 Biographies of Major Figures In this section a short summary of major figures that influenced the field of gas dynamics is present. 1. i. the emergence of the CFD gave the illusion that there are solutions at hand. 1. the model has to be based on scientific principles and not detached from reality.5. The earlier work dealing with this issue was by Giffen. that model was extended by several research groups. Galileo started his studying at the University of Pisa in 1581. 1. 1564 to musician Vincenzo Galilei and Giulia degli Ammannati. Other “strange” models can be found in the undersigned’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design. In this section there is no originality and none should be expected. Since World War II considerable works have been carried out in this area but with very little progress46 . such as the Internet. He also extend the model to include the unchocked case.3 of this book. The simplest model of nozzle. the model and solution to the nozzle attached to chamber issue in his book “Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics. As anecdotal story explaining the lack of progress.35) in 2005. A. Pennsylvania.3. 1964.14 1. In 1993 the first reasonable models for forced volume were published by the undersigned.4. He then became a Textbook Co. Much information can be obtained from other resources.

. Galileo invented many mechanical devices such as the pump and the telescope (1609). Later.R.3. when Czechia was still a part of the Austro–Hungary empire. Mach’s father.1916) published Die Machanik in which he formalized this argument. Galileo was convicted after publishing his book Dialogue. and in 1918. He then turned to physics. (1602). 47 It is interesting to point out that Prague provided us two of the top influential researchers[:] E. This was one of the primary sources of inspiration for Einstein’s theory of General Relativity. was a high school teacher who taught Ernst at home until he was 14. Mach was also a great thinker/philosopher and influenced the theory of relativity dealing with frame of reference. In 1863.6: Photo of Ernest Mach then offered a position as a professor of surgery at the university of Salzburg. However. the church was not harsh with him. Galileo also proved that objects fell with the same velocity regardless of their size. he made numerous discoveries such as that of the pendulum clock. During the time after his study. 1. and he was put under house arrest for the remainder of his life.3. this relationship did not last and Marina married Giovanni Bartoluzzi and Galileo’s son. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 15 professor of mathematics at the University of Padua in 1592. Ernest Mach (1836 . There Mach wrote his thesis ”On Electrical Discharge and Induction. and in 1867 he received a position in the Technical University in Prague47 where he taught experimental physics for the next 28 years. Johann.” At first he received a professorship position at Graz in mathematics (1864) and was Fig. Einstein was greatly influenced by it. Galileo had a relationship with Marina Gamba (they never married) who lived and worked in his house in Padua. His telescopes helped him make many astronomic observations which proved the Copernican system.1. he named it Mach’s Principle. Galileo died in 1642 in his home outside of Florence. Eckert. Mach and E. when he studied in the gymnasium before he entered the university of Vienna. but he declined. Galileo’s observations got him into trouble with the Catholic Church. He graduated from Vienna in 1860.2 Ernest Mach (1838-1916) Ernst Mach was born in 1838 in Chrlice (now part of Brno). Vincenzio. where she bore him three children. however.G. because of his noble ancestry. joined him in Florence (1613). 1.5.

1. Essex. He was not able to attach the camera to the arm and utilize the remote control (not existent at that time). He graduated in the Mathematical Tripos in 1865 as Senior Wrangler and Smith’s Prizeman. Yet. In 1866 he obtained a fellowship at Trinity which he held un- Fig.7: The Photo of the bullet in a supersonic flow that most definitely nothing that Mach made.5. but it is reasonable to assume that he understood that this ratio was applied to other gases. In 1861 he entered Trinity College at Cambridge. It is amazing that Mach was able to photograph the phenomenon using the spinning arm technique (no wind tunnel was available at that time and Fig. on November 12. 1842. INTRODUCTION Mach’s revolutionary experiment demonstrated the existence of the shock wave as shown in Figure 1.3 John William Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) A researcher with a wide interest. The name Mach Number (M) was coined by J.16 CHAPTER 1. 1.8: Photo of Lord Rayleigh 48 Mach dealt with only air. 1. Note it was not taken in a wind tunnel could take a photo at supersonic speeds. Mach was the first to note the transition that occurs when the ratio U/c goes from being less than 1 to greater than 1.3. Lord Rayleigh was a British physicist born near Maldon. started studies in compressible flow mostly from from a mathematical approach. . His experiments required exact timing. At that time there wasn’t the realization that the flow could be choked. Mach understood the basic characteristics of external supersonic flow where the most important variable affecting the flow is the ratio of the speed of the flow48 (U) relative to the speed of sound (c). Mach’s contributions to supersonic flow were not limited to experimental methods alone. It seems that Rayleigh was the first who realized that flow with chemical reactions (heat transfer) can be choked. where he commenced reading mathematics.7. Ackeret (Prandtl’s student) in 1932 in honor of Mach. Mach’s shadowgraph technique and a related method called Schlieren Photography are still used today. His exceptional abilities soon enabled him to overtake his colleagues.

wave theory. capillarity. sister of the future prime minister. density of gases. flow of liquids. He published 446 papers which. reprinted in his collected works. Lord Rayleigh died on June 30.5. Lord Rayleigh’s first research was mainly mathematical. 1919 at Witham. electromagnetism. Rankine. and his other extensive studies are reported in his Scientific Papers.4 William John Macquorn Rankine William John Macquorn Rankine (July 2. a Chancellor of Cambridge University. was a Justice of the Peace and the recipient of honorary science and law degrees.December 24.9: Portrait of Rankine engineer and physicist. and as President from 1905 to 1908. covering sound. 1820 . elasticity. Rayleigh was considered to be an excellent instructor. Rayleigh’s later work was concentrated on electric and magnetic problems. Essex. 1872) was a Scottish Fig. color vision. He intervened in debates of the House of Lords only on rare occasions. Rayleigh died on June 30. He was a founding contributor to the science of thermodynamics (Rankine Cycle). the eldest of whom was to become a professor of physics at the Imperial College of Science and Technology. He received the Nobel Prize in 1904. but his later work ranged over almost the whole field of physics. As a successor to James Clerk Maxwell. viscosity. light scattering. He served for six years as the president of the government committee on explosives. never allowing politics to interfere with science. the year of his marriage. . Lord Rayleigh. he was head of the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge from 1879-1884. Rankine was born in Edinburgh to British Army lieutenant David Rankine and Barbara Grahame. Rayleigh was also a contributer to the Encyclopedia Britannica. 1. the Earl of Balfour (of the famous Balfour declaration of the Jewish state). six volumes issued during 1889-1920. and in 1887 became Professor of Natural Philosophy at the Royal Institute of Great Britain. They had three sons. 1919. Essex. He was Lord Lieutenant of Essex from 1892 to 1901. His Theory of Sound was published in two volumes during 1877-1878. Rankine developed a theory of the steam engine. His steam engine manuals were used for many decades. London. In 1871 he married Evelyn. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society (1873) and served as Secretary from 1885 to 1896. and photography.3. clearly show his capacity for understanding everything just a little more deeply than anyone else.3. concerning optics and vibrating systems. electrodynamics. and from 1896 to 1919 he acted as Scientific Adviser to Trinity House.1. at Witham. hydrodynamics. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 17 til 1871. 1.

Fanno had a cache of old Italian currency (which was apparently still highly acceptable) which helped him and his wife survive the war.” To further camouflage himself. he did not have a problem studying in a different language.D.10: The photo of Gino Fanno apand French. He married. 1. However. Clearly. Isaak Baruch Weil’s family. Apparently. During the War (WWII). Fanno was not as lucky as his brother. Fanno older brother. Switzerland in 1900 to attend graduate school for his master’s degree. was childless.5 Gino Girolamo Fanno CHAPTER 1. As were many Jews at that time. Faced with anti–semitism. the fact that his model was not a “smashing49 success” did not help. the ridicules claims that Jews persecuted only because their religion. Fanno was not part of the Jewish religion (see his picture) only his nationality was Jewish. Fanno converted to Catholicism. he studied in a technical institute in Venice and graduated with very high grades as a mechanical engineer. Fanno was fluent in several languages including Italian.18 1. Fig. When one of Professor Stodola’s assistants attended military service this temporary position was offered to Fanno. Fanno passed way in 1960 without world recognition for his model. mentioned earlier Marco Fanno is a famous economist who later developed fundamentals of the supply and demand theory. and like his brother. even though for short time he went to live in a Jewish home. he had to be under house arrest to avoid being sent to the “vacation camps. Later Fanno had to go back to Italy to find a job in industry. Marco.D. He likely had a good knowlproximately in 1950 edge of Yiddish and possibly some Hebrew. “Why didn’t a talented guy like Fanno keep or obtain a position in academia after he published his model?” The answer is tied to the fact that somehow rumors about his roots began to surface. After the war. 1888. He obtained a Ph. English. from Regian Istituto Superiore d’Ingegneria di Genova. (is this the first case in history) because his of his Jewish nationality50 . Fanno left Italy to Zurich. data about friction factor some places. Consequently. In July 1904 he received his diploma (master). 50 In 49 Missing . German. on February 1939 Fanno was degraded (denounced) and he lost his Ph. In this new place he was able to pose as a Roman Catholic.5. INTRODUCTION Fanno a Jewish Engineer was born on November 18. Fanno was only able to work in agriculture and agricultural engineering. Fanno turned out to be a good engineer and he later obtained a management position. who was able to get into academia. Additionally.3.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1.3. His interest changed when. During this time Prandtl developed his boundary layer theory and studied supersonic fluid flows through nozzles. in 1874. In 1904. with his student Theodor Meyer. his Ph. His 1904 paper raised Prandtl’s prestige. This upbringing fostered the young Prandtl’s interest in science and experimentation. It is mind boggling to look at the long list of those who were his students and colleagues. Prandtl also contributed to research in many areas. In 1925 Prandtl became the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow Investi¨ gation at Gottingen.5. Bavaria.D. Ludwig Prandtl was born in Freising. Later he sought and found a job as a professor of mechanics at a technical school in Hannover. Prandtl changed the field of fluid mechanics and is called the modern father of fluid mechanics because of his introduction of boundary layer. There is no one who educated as many great scientists as Prandtl. such as meteorology and structural mechanics. developed the first theory for calculating the properties of shock and expansion waves in supersonic flow in 1908 (two chapters in this book). He developed the Prandtl-Glauert rule for subsonic airflow. He became the director of the Institute for Technical Physics at the Uni¨ versity of Gottingen. was focused on solid mechanics.11: Photo of Prandtl scribes his boundary layer theory. he was known worldwide as the leader in the science of fluid dynamics. Germany and he graduated at the age of 26 with a Ph. Prandtl started his studies at the age of 20 in Munich. Interestingly. 1. in his first job. By the 1930s. the paper which deFig. he was required to design factory equipment that involved problems related to the field of fluid mechanics (a suction device).6 Ludwig Prandtl 19 Perhaps Prandtl’s greatest achievement was his ability to produce so many great scientists. As a byproduct they produced the theory for oblique shock. As a result.D. 1953.3. Germany (1901).1. turbulence mixing theories etc. ¨ Ludwig Prandtl worked at Gottingen until his death on August 15. His work and achievements in fluid dynamics resulted in equations that simplified . he presented the revolutionary paper “Flussigkeitsbewegung Bei Sehr Kleiner Reibung” (Fluid Flow in Very Little Friction). the young Ludwig spent more time with his father which made him interested in his father’s physics and machinery books. Prandtl. His father was a professor of engineering and his mother suffered from a lengthy illness.

His book ”Introduction to the Transfer of Heat and Mass. Prandtl’s other contributions include: the introduction of the Prandtl number in fluid mechanics. theory of turbulence.20 CHAPTER 1. During World War II. the dimensionless group has been designated as the Eckert number. airfoils and wing theory (including theories of aerodynamic interference.G. Eckert Eckert was born in 1904 in Prague. Ludwig Prandtl died in Gottingen. etc). Air Force and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics before coming to Minnesota. fundamental studies in the wind tunnel. and many are still used today. and served as a consultant to the U. he developed methods for jet engine turbine blade cooling at a research laboratory in Prague.S. Eckert developed the under. high speed flow (correction formula for subsonic compressible flows). He emigrated to the United States after the war.3.7 E. where he studied at the German Institute of Technology.5. Therefore many referred to him as ¨ the father of modern fluid mechanics.” published in 1937.R. wing-propeller. which is associated with the Mach number. is still considered a fundamental text in the field. . wing-fuselage. especially in compressible flow. INTRODUCTION understanding. His name is linked to the following: • Prandtl number (heat transfer problems) • Prandtl-Glauert compressibility correction • Prandtl’s boundary layer equation • Prandtl’s lifting line theory • Prandtl’s law of friction for smooth pipes • Prandtl-Meyer expansion fans (supersonic flow) • Prandtl’s Mixing Length Concept (theory of turbulence) 1. biplane. He authored more than 500 articles and received several medals for his contributions to science. 1. Germany on August 15th 1953.Fig. Schlichting suggested this dimensionless group in honor of Eckert.12: The photo of Ernst Rudolf George Eckert with the author’s family standing of heat dissipation in relation to kinetic energy. Hence. In addition to being named to the National Academy of Engineering in 1970.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 21 Eckert was an excellent mentor to many researchers (including this author).’s equivalent of a Ph. Therefore it is proposed to call this model Shapiro’s Flow. The undersigned believes that Shapiro was the first one to propose an isothermal flow model that is not part of the aeronautic field.B. Furthermore. in 1938 and the Sc. three years before receiving his Sc. In 1965 he become the head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering until 1974.” to transform the gas dynamics field to a coherent text material for engineers. emphysema and glaucoma. 1. While Shapiro viewed gas dynamics mostly through aeronautic eyes.3. turbomachinery and propulsion by jet engines and rockets.1.D. and he had a reputation for being warm and kindly. Shapiro grew up in New York City and received his S.5. He was also a leading figure in bringing together engineering in the East and West during the Cold War years. Asher Shapiro passed way in November 2004 51 Parts taken from Sasha Brown. In his first 25 years Shapiro focused primarily on power production. asthma. He was assistant professor in 1943. the Eckert equivalent for the compressible flow. Shapiro moved to the field of biomedical engineering where he was able to pioneer new work. Shapiro spent most of his active years at MIT. Unfortunately for the field of Gas Dynamics.8 Ascher Shapiro MIT Professor Ascher Shapiro51 . highspeed flight.D. MIT . was instrumental in using his two volume book “The Dynamics of Thermodynamics of the Compressible Fluid Flow.I.3. Shapiro was instrumental in the treatment of blood clots. (It is M.T. degree) in 1946 in mechanical engineering from MIT. Shapiro’s knowledge of fluid mechanics enabled him to “sew” the missing parts of the Fanno line with Moody’s diagram to create the most useful model in compressible flow.D.

22 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .

This material is not covered in the history chapter. Several application of the fluid mechanics will demonstraed. The flow throgh a stream tube is assumed one-dimentinal so that there isn’t any flow expet the tube opening.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦   ! '01 ¡ £) §21¡ £ ¡ $    ©   £ $¤£ ¥ ! ¡ '0£ ¡ ¥ § ¥  £0 1 £¦¥¨$ 2. ¡£¢ ¤ ¤¥¡ 23 .1 Introduction In this chapter a review of the fundamtatals that are expected from the student to know. For simplisity. In addition the basic Bernoulli’s equation will drived of incompressible flow and later for compressible flow. The mass after very shot time of £ is . it was in the tube was is assume the control volume is a fixed boundry. The flow through the opening on the left is assumed to enter the stream tube while the flow is assumed to leave the stream tube.2 2. Several terms would be review like stream lines.3 2.4 Fluid Properties Control Volume Reynold’s Transport Theorem For simplification the discuation will focused one dimensional control volume and we generalzed later. 2. The basic principles are related from the basic consrvation pricible. At the initial time the mass that .

1) .24 CHAPTER 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF BASIC FLUID MECHANICS Supposed that the fluid has a property   ¥ ¢¡¤£ ¡¤£ £  £  ¡!£ ¦¨§  ©  £  £ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¢  ¢ %$  £ ¢ $ (2.

Thus. Suddenly. My teacher was right. The engineer was well aware about the calculation of the nozzle.2 Introduction engineer that alumni of University of Minnesota.1 Motivation In tradition compressible flow classes there is very little discussion about speed of sound outside the ideal gas. 3. yes you right. 2 Pardon. The cat reply. engineer was able to predict that was a chocking point.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦   ¥  § § ¡  © ¥   '#1¢¡ 3. but a joke is must in this situation. and cat is catching the mouse. the engineer was not ware what is the effect of particles on the speed of sound. Hence. the actual flow rate was only half of his prediction. The mouse go out to investigate. Yet. the mouse hear a barking dog and a cat yelling. the particles reduces the speed of sound by almost half. The above situation is not unique in the industry. The fact that the engineer know about the chocking is great but it is enough for today sophisticated industry2 . one language is not enough today. In this chapter an introductory discussion about different situations that can appear the industry in regards to speed of sound. It should be expected that engineers know how to manged this situation of non pure substances (like clean air). A cat is pursuing a mouse and the mouse escape and hide in the hole. In recent consultation an engineer1 A design of industrial system that contains converting diverging nozzle with filter to remove small particles from air. With the “new” knowledge of the consultation the calculations were within the range of acceptable results. This author think that approach has many shortcomings. 1 Aerospace 25 . The mouse ask the cat I thought I hear a dog. As it will shown in this chapter.

Applying the mass P ρ+dρ ρ balance yields    ¡    ¤   $   ¤¢¡ $ (3. it raises the question: what is Fig. This velocity is referred to as the speed of sound. The information that the piston is moving passes thorough a single “pressure pulse.2) From the energy equation (Bernoulli’s equation).26 CHAPTER 3.4) Substituting the expression for ¡  ¥ ¤   ¤ from equation (3. the pules will be infinitesimally small.” It is assumed that if the velocity of the piston is infinitesimally small.4) yields   ¥ ¨ ¡ ¤  ¨ ¡¤£  ¥ ¡ ¤© ¤  (3. the pressure and density can be assumed to be continuous.2: stationary sound wave and gas move relative to the pulse ¤¢¡ ¤   or when the higher term is neglected yields   ¢¡   ¤ ¡ ¤   ¡¤£ ¤¢¡©¡  ¤  (3. SPEED OF SOUND The people had recognized for several hundred years that sound is sound wave dU velocity=dU a variation of pressure. 3. The ears c sense the variations by frequency P+dP P ρ ρ+dρ and magnitude to transfer to the brain which translates to voice. assuming isentropic flow and neglecting the gravity results   ¤¢¡ § $¦¥  ¥  ¤¢¡   ¤©¨ ¡    (3.2) into equation (3.5) . To answer this question consider a piston moving from the right to the left at a relatively small velocity (see Figure 3. 3. Thus.1) Fig.1: A very slow moving piston in a still gas the speed of the small disturbance travel in a “quiet” medium. In the control volume it is convenient to look Control volume around at a control volume which the sound wave c-dU c is attached to a pressure P+dP pulse. Thus.1).3) neglecting second term (¢¡ ¥ ) yield ¤ ¤©¨ ¡    (3.

  . and a function “molecular structure” or ratio of specific heats.2) is ¨ ¤©¨©¡ ¨  ©¨ ¥§¦ © $  ¨   ¤ ¨ ¡   ¤   ¤¡ ! ¤ #"%$#& ©' $ ¥   $    ¥  (3. it is considered that where is the entropy. For ideal gas ¨ is a function of two independent variables.1: Demonstrate that equation (3. Example 3. The full differential of the pressure can be ¨ ¨   expressed as follows: ¡ ¢ ¡ $ ¤©¨©¡ ¢ ¨   £££ £ ¤   ¢ £  ¢ ¨ ££ ¢ ££ ¤ ¤ (3.3.3.11) .10) 3. SPEED OF SOUND IN IDEAL AND PERFECT GASES 27 An expression is needed to represent the right hand side of equation (3.5).3 Speed of sound in ideal and perfect gases The speed of sound can be obtained easily for the equation of state for an ideal gas (also perfect gas as a sub set) because of a simple mathematical expression.8) Neglecting all the relative small terms results in    ( 12 4 )#132 ¤ ¡ ) )# ¥ $ ¤  ¥ 0) §  ) ¤¢¡  )  ) )      ¥ (3. The pressure for ideal gas can be expressed as a simple function of density. Here. S OLUTION The momentum equation written for the control volume shown in Figure (3.7) Note that the equation (3. therefore it can be written ¤¨ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¨ £££   £ ¤  £ (3.9) ¤¨¤¡  ¥ ¤   This yields the same equation as (3.6) In the derivations for the speed of sound it was assumed that the flow is isentropic. namely ¨¤¡   7 £ 5 8 ! £#"  6   (3.5) can be derived from the momentum equation. (3.5).5) can be obtained by utilizing the momentum equation instead of the energy equation.

46956 & 4 710 5 2 " §© and  ¦   : s = 6.94199 and substituting into the equation yields    ¨    £ !#"¢£ %$ "  (3. SPEED OF SOUND © £ 5   7 # £ " ¨   7£¢  ¡   5  !  5 £#" £65 8  ¡ ¡   ¤©   ¤   ¡   !  ¡   5 ¨  ¨  ¡ ¥ Remember that ¨     is defined for ideal gas as written as  £  ¢ ¢ (3.61376 & 46 At ££78¤ ¦ "¨§© and   : s = 7.8226 & ) 7(' 71032   = 7.0100 & ) 7(' 710 2   = 6.14) 9¨ ¥A@B 2 & ) 7C' 710 2 2 & 4 710 5 2 (3.  ¨ .)  ¡     ¢  2EP £¦¥  § @ 5 §¨Q £ 5 R   § G @  $ 2 @9@ £¦¥  & £I¡  2 Note that a better approximation can be done with a steam table.15) §  ¡  ¡ED  ¥   ¦ § § ¡F@G7¦ ¥H & 7  £I 2 for ideal gas assumption (data taken from Van Wylen and Sontag. and it will be part of the future program (potto–GDC).9563 & ) 7(' 71032   = 6.12) can be (3.2: § Calculate the speed of sound in water vapor at steam table (b) assuming ideal gas.28 and hence CHAPTER 3. (a) utilizes the S OLUTION The solution can be estimated by using the data from steam table3  ¡ At 710 5 2 ¥¤ ¦ "¨§£© and ¨ ¨ : s = 6. table A 8.13216 & 4 710 5 2 At ££78¤ ¦ ¨ § At ££78¤ ¦ "¨§© After interpretation of the temperature:   and : s 6. 3 This data is taken form Van Wylen and Sontag “Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics” 2nd edition .13)  ¥¤ ¦ "¨§£© and Example 3.12)  . Classical Thermodynamics.9563 6. and equation (3.

? S OLUTION The temperature is denoted at “A” as between “A” and “B” is denoted as ¥ . What is the time it take for sound to travel from point “A” to point “B” under this assumption. SPEED OF SOUND IN REAL GAS 29 Example 3.3: The temperature in the atmosphere can be assumed to be a linear function of the height for some distances. a real gas equation can be expressed in many cases as ¨©¡%$   ¢  (3. The compressibility factor represent the deviation from the ideal gas.19) .3.4 £ !  £ !  " ¡ D  $ §   (  # ¡  ¥ $ $.17) $$ This correction factor approaches one when    3.18) Speed of Sound in Real Gas is it reasonable to put a discussion here about atmosphere and other affects on the air? The ideal gas model can be improved by introducing the compressibility factor. Thus. The distance   ¡ ¡  ¢ $$¥  $ Where the distance ¢ is the variable distance.4. ¦ 5 £4 (3.16) For assumption of constant temperature the time is £ Hence the correction factor     ¢   "  $ ¥ (3. It should be noted that velocity is provided as a function of the distance and not the time (another reverse problem). For an infinitesimal time £ is equal to ¤ ¤£ ¡ P ¡  £¢   ¢ $ ¡ $ $  £¢  ¡  § ¥ ¤¢  ¢ $ D £ $$ ¡ £ ¥¤§¦ ¤¢ ¤§¨ &© ¤§¨  £  ¢ integration of the above equation yields £   (   $   ¥ ¦ 5 £4 (3. $ and temperature in “B” is ¡  .

SPEED OF SOUND Fig. the Gibbs function (3. Recalling from thermodynamics.30 CHAPTER 3.20) is used to obtain  ¤ ¡ ¤ ¥ ¤¨   (3.20) The definition of pressure specific heat for a pure substance is  ¢¡ ¢¥ ¢ ¡   ¥ ¥ ¢ ¢ ¡    ¥ ¥ (3.3: The Compressibility Chart The speed of sound of any gas is (3.22) .7). To obtain the expression for gas that obey the law expressed by (3.21) The definition of volumetric specific heat for a pure substance is  ¡  ¡   ¢ ¥ ¢£¢ ¥ ¢  ¤ ¡ ¢  ¤ (3.19) some mathematical expression are needed. 3.

27) ¤ ¡  for isentropic process results in ¤  ¡ ¤¨  ¨ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤      ¢¡ $  ¢     ¢ ¢ $ ¥ ¥¤£ (3.24)  ¥ Substitute the equation (3. However.25) to became ¡    ¥ ¤ ¡ ¥  ¢¡ ¤¦ $ ¢ ¢ $ ¥6£ ¤¨ ¡ ¤¨ ¡     ¡ ¤¦  $  ¢ $   ¢ ¥ ¤©¨   (3.3.24) into equation (3.26) Utilizing Gibbs equation (3.29) 4 See Van Wylen p. it can be shown 4 31 ¤ ¡ ¥   ¢¡ ¤   ¢¡   ¢ ¢ $ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¥ ¥¤£ ¡ (3. perhaps to insert the discussion here. SPEED OF SOUND IN REAL GAS From thermodynamics. it is more convenient to       express in terms of and       as following ¤¦  ¢   ¡ 98 $    ¢ ¤ $ ¢ ¥ A@ (3.25) Simplifying equation (3.20)  ¤ ¡ ¡ Letting ¨   ¡ ¤ ¤   ¡ ¤¨ ¨ " ©  ¢  ¢ $ $ ¤ ¨ ©  §7© ¥ ¥   ¤©¨    ¢ $   ¡ ¤ ¤¨     ¨    $  ¢ $ ¢ ¢ $ ¥ ¥  £ £ ¥ ¥ £  £ (3.28) can be integrated by parts. .4. 372 SI version.23) results ¤¥ ¡   ¡ ¤¦  ¡    ¨ ©   ¢  ¢ ¨  ¢ $ "!# # #$ ¨ ©  ' %  $ ¨ ¢ (0) 4 2 3 ) 3 ) 3 1 5 ¤¨ ¥ (3.28) Equation (3.23) The specific volumetric is the inverse of the density as ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ ¥ ¡ (¢ ¡ $ $ ¦¥¨§© ¢ ¥ ¤ 4 ¡ ¥ %& ¢ ¨   ¢ ¢     ¨  and thus ¥ ¥  ¨ ¢ ¢ ¢  ¥   £ (3.

34) Example 3.32) and when    ¥    ¥ "   $ is constant. Assume that  ¢¡ £ ¥ §¦3@  ¡¤£ ¥ §¦  ¡ ¥  2 £¨¤ ¦ "§£©   ¢ ¡ 7¨@ ¤ © S OLUTION According to the ideal gas model the speed of sound should be  ¡  ¡  £  ¢  ¡ ¡ 7@ 5 ¦    2  §7 ¥ £¨¤ ¡ £I ©   £ ¥ §¦3@ 5 § 3  ¡©£¦¥ § 9   For the real gas first the coefficient   $¢   £ ¥¦ §  5  ¥ ¢£¢  £© ¡ I § 7¨@ 5  ¦ ¡  §¨Q ¥A@ ¤ ¡   I © has .4: Calculate the speed of sound of air at and atmospheric pressure .29) results in  ¥    ¥   $ ©¨ $ 8     ¢   ¡ $  $    @ ¤ ¢  ¢ ¢  ¤ ¡ ¤¨       ¡ 8 ¢  ¢ ¢ ¥¤£ (3. and $ .31) yields ¨   ©'7  ¡  (     $ # $  $     when £  ¡  ¥ ¨§ ¥ ¨§     ¤     ¤   ¥ ¤4 (3. is defined as  ¡ Note that approach to equation (3.33) isn’t new.32) provide a tool to estimate In the same manner as the ideal gas speed of sound the speed of sound for real gas can be obtained. The integration of (3. But with the definition of in equation (3.30) Rearranging equation (3.32 CHAPTER 3. ¢£¢ The specific heat for air is . .28) and (3.31) If the terms in the square parentheses are constant in the range under the interest in this study equation (3. SPEED OF SOUND Equating the right hand side of equations (3. The relationship (3. Make the calculation based on the ideal gas model and compare these § ¤   ¦¥  ¨§ . What is different in these derivation the relationship between coefficient to was established. For short hand writing convenience.33) the similar to equation (3.    ¤©¨ ¡  ¤  $ ¢  (3.33) ¨  ¨ ¥ Equation (3. calculation to real gas model (compressibility factor).31) can be integrated.11).30) yields ¤   ¡ ¤©¨   ¨  $  $    ¡  ¤ §    ¥   § ¥ ¨   ¤  ¥ ¤ @ (3. and in–fact any thermodynamics book show this relationship.

For example.37) 5 J. as can be observed from the equation (3. and hydrostatic pressure. with an increase of 34 degrees from 0 C there is an increase in the velocity from about 1430 m/sec to about 1546 [m/sec]. . 1482 m/s at 20 C. The amount of compression of almost all liquids is seen to be very small as given in Table (3. 3.000 meters.36)  ¡   ¥ 5 £¤¡  ¡ £  ¦¦ ¦¥   ¡ £ ¥ ¡©£ § ¢  ¡   This agrees well with the measured speed of sound in water. the pressure is about . the compressibility factor. the speed of sound in sea water depends on temperature. the change of temperature can have dramatical change in the speed of sound. The fractional volume change ¥¦ ¡   is only about 1.5). At a depth of about example. salinity. Wilson’s formula is accepted by the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) USA for computer processing of hydrological information. at relative moderate pressure but low temperature common in atmosphere. However.32. Many researchers have looked at this velocity. SPEED OF SOUND IN ALMOST INCOMPRESSIBLE LIQUID 33 The correction of speed of sound of air in normal condition (atmospheric condition plus even increase of pressure) is minimal on the speed of sound. The mathematical definition of bulk modulus as following § 5 £ ¡ ¥ 5 £ ¡ § ¡   ¨ ¤ ¤  § (3. 1357.5) to calculated by ideal gas model. For § § ¥ .37).5. N 10. Soc. According to Wilson5 .8% even under this pressure nevertheless it is a change. Wilson’s empirical formula appears as follows:     ¡  ¡ ¨ $ ¡  ¢  ¤     ¥   ¤ ¥  ¡ (3. p. and for purposes of comparison it is given in Table (3. Amer.. 1960.5) The effect of impurity and temperature is relatively large. $ and which means that speed of sound is   only ¢¢ ¡£  ¡   ¡  ¥  2 £ factor (0. The compressibility of the substance is the reciprocal of the bulk modulus. For example. The ratio of the change in the fractional volume to pressure or compression is referred to as the bulk modulus of the material.35) In physical terms can be written as  ¡ For example for water I ¨ " § ££© © "  § §  I § § ££  ¡     ©©  I ¨ ¥I § §   (3. the average bulk modulus for water is ¥¤¡   ¥ 4. Acoust.3.5 Speed of Sound in Almost Incompressible Liquid Even liquid normally is assumed to be incompressible in reality has a small and important compressible aspect. vol.

6 Speed of Sound in Solids The situation with solids is considerably more complicated. & Kenneth W. SPEED OF SOUND  Distilled Water at (25 C) Water distilled  reference Cutnell. with different speeds in different directions. and  ¤ ¥ is a correction factor between coupling of the different parameters. 1997: 468. 601 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 1967-1968: E37 Value [m/sec] 1492 1496 1494 Table 3. Chicago: World Book. Speed of sound in solid of steel. 1972 In summary. and differences between transverse and longitudinal waves. Manual of Sound Recording. Young’s Modulus for a representative value for the bulk modulus for steel is 160 ¥¤ N / ¥ . Physics.. ¤ is a function temperature. Johnson.1: Water speed of sound from different sources where is about clean/pure water. 1999.34 Remark Fresh Water (20 C) CHAPTER 3. in different kinds of geometries. the speed of sound in liquids is about 3 to 5 relative to the speed of sound in gases. Ohio: Chemical Rubber Co. The World Book Encyclopedia. 3. and  is a function salinity. John. New York: Wiley.   ¢ ¡ £§ § ¢ ¥ £§    material Glycerol Sea water Mercury Kerosene Methyl alcohol Carbon tetrachloride reference 25 C  Value [m/sec] 1904 1533 1450 1324 1143 926 Table 3. after Aldred.2: Liquids speed of sound. ¥ is a function pressure. London: Fountain Press. using a general tabulated value for the bulk modulus. John D. Nevertheless. gives a sound speed for structural steel of £ ¡ . the speed of sound in solids is larger than in liquids and definitely larger than in gases.

Indeed there is double chocking phenomenon in two phase flow.38) Compared to one tabulated value the example values for stainless steel lays between the speed for longitudinal and transverse waves.7 Sound Speed in Two Phase Medium The gas flow in many industrial situations contains other particles. 3. In that case. In actuality. and liquid with some bubbles. it assumed that two materials are homogeneously mixed. John.39) . three extreme cases suggest themselves: the flow is mostly gas with drops of the other phase (liquid or solid). There can be several models that approached this problem. SOUND SPEED IN TWO PHASE MEDIUM material Diamond Pyrex glass Steel Steel Steel Iron Aluminum Brass Copper Gold Lucite Lead Rubber reference Value [m/sec] 12000 5640 5790 3100 5000 5130 5100 4700 3560 3240 2680 1322 1600 35 longitudinal wave transverse shear longitudinal wave (extensional wave) Table 3.3.3: Solids speed of sound. However. It further assumed that no heat and mass transfer occurs between the particles. Topic for none homogeneous mixing are beyond the scope of this book. Manual of Sound Recording. there could be more than one speed of sound for two phase flow. The first case is analyzed.7. For simplicity. for homogeneous and under certain condition a single velocity can be considered. The equation of state for the gas can be written as ¨ $ ¡   $¢ $ (3. about equal parts of gas and the liquid phase. after Aldred. 1972 ¡ ¡       ¡  5 £¤¡  ¡   £Q G @ 79Q¦£§ ¥   ¡ £ ¥ ¡§¨ £ § ¡   (3. London:Fountain Press.

46) into    ¡ ¡ (3.47) .40) can be approximated as is mass flow rate per gas flow rate.43) Assuming that partial pressure of the particles is constant and applying the second law for the mixture yields ¡©  £  £  ¡ ¡ " ©  ¨ ¨ 1'   ¤¦     ¡ ¤  0 ©'$  ¢ ¤¨ ¡    ¨  ¡   ¡   $¦ ¤ ¢ ¤©¨ ¨ (3.36 The average density can be expressed as CHAPTER 3. It must noticed that ¡ ¡© ! £#"  £ . For small value of equation (3.44) Therefore.45) where  Recalling that ¢©¡  £ ¡ ¡   ¡      ¢¡  ¢ ¡       (3. The gas density can be replaced by equation (3.41) ¨   ¡ £ ¢ ¡  (3.46)  ¢¡     reduces equation (3.41) where ¡ ¡ 4 4 £ £ §¥ ¨ $ ¡ £  ¡ (3.39) and substituted into equation (3.42) ¢ and yet approximate equation similar to ideal gas was obtained. the mixture isentropic relationship can be expressed as ¨  ¨  ¡  ! £#"  £ (3. If the droplets (or the solid particles) can be assumed to have A approximation of addition droplets of liquid or dust (solid) results in reduction of the same velocity as the gas with no heat transfer or fiction between the particles isentropic relation can be assumed as   ¨ $7 ¡  ! £#"  £ (3.40) is the mass ratio   of the materials. SPEED OF SOUND where   ¡¤4¦ 4£ £ ¥ £   4 ¡         $  £    ¢¡ (3.

For example. the velocity of sound in slightly wed steam can be about one third of the pure steam speed of sound. the velocity of mixtures with large gas component is smaller of of the pure gas. this analysis results in lower speed of sound compared to pure gas.6). Generally.49) § ¡ ¡ 0 ¨   ¡ ¨  $   (3.7. Hence. SOUND SPEED IN TWO PHASE MEDIUM 37 In a way the definition of  was so chosen that effective£ specific pressure heat £ % and effective specific volumetric heat are  ¢¡  £   and    £   respectively. Since the equations are the same as before hence the familiar equation for speed of sound can be applied as 44 44 It can be noticed that ¥¤ © and  are smaller than similar variables in a pure gas.48) Insert example with small steel particles with air up to 20% Meta ¦ or a mixture of two phases. ¢4  ¡ P  ¢ 4¥¤ ©  (3. speed of sound can be expressed as At this stage the other models for two phase are left for next version (0.50) Meta End .  ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨  ¡ where § is defined as ¢ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¨§ $ © ¢    (3. The correction factors for the specific heat is not linear.3.

SPEED OF SOUND .38 CHAPTER 3.

1 Stagnation State for Ideal Gas Model General Relationship It is assumed that the flow is one– dimensional.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦   ¨ $§21¡¤   £ ¥ ¡ £¢£ £ ¡ ¡§    §¢£ ! ¡% ¢¡ In this Chapter a discussion on steady state flow though a smooth and continuous area flow rate (steady state) is presented. The isentropic flow models are important because two main reasons: one. 4.1 4.g. x ical process which include temperature. The stagnation state is a theoretP Subsonic P0 ical state in which the flow is brought M <1 into a complete motionless condition in Supersonic isentropic process without other forces (e. the correction factors later can be introduced to account for deviations from the ideal state. 4. gravity force). Figure (4. and density et cetera and de.1) describes a gas flows through a diverging– converging nozzle.1. two. It has been found that a theoretical state known as the stagnation state is very useful in simpliPB = P 0 fying the solution and treatment of the flow. it provides the information about the trends and important parameters.1: Flow of a compressible substance (gas) thorough a converging diverging nozzle 39 . pressure. Several properties M >1 that can be represented by this theoretdistance.Fig. A discussion about the flow through a converging–diverging nozzle is also part of this Chapter.

2) by Now.6) Utilizing the definition of yields by equation (4. the stagnation temperature is calculated.5) (4.6) into a dimensionless form and denote Mach number as the ratio of velocity to speed of sound as ¤  ¡   (4. Recalling from thermodynamic the relationship for perfect gas ¢ and denoting  ¡   ¢¡£¢     ¢ ¡  ¢¡   ¡     (4.6)   § £ ¡ ¥ ¥ ¡  ¢ (4.4) is a specific constant. (4.2) Again it common to denote as the stagnation temperature.7) reads ¢ ¡ £     § £  ¥ (4.1) Perfect gas is an ideal gas with a constant heat capacity.1) is simplified into   ¡ .7) It very useful to convert equation (4. For perfect gas  ¢¡   ¡ ¥ § ¢ (4.5) changes into ¢ ¡ ¡ ¥¥ ¡  ¢ £   §  ¢   £  £  §  ¢¡ ¢  ¡    ¡  $ yield (4. ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW noted by the subscript “ .40 CHAPTER 4.8) into equation (4. substituting ¥  ¡  £¢    or ¡ ¥    £¢ equation (4.3) than the thermodynamics relationship obtains the form and where ¢  ¢ ¡  £ £ ¡ ¥ (4.4) and inserting it into equation (4. equation (4. Dividing equation (4.9) .8) Inserting the definition of Mach number.” First. The energy conservation can be written as  ¥ ¥  ¡§ ¡ ¥¢ ¡  ¢¡ (4.

The definition of the stagnation provides the advantage of a compact writing.15) .10) The ratio of stagnation pressure to the static pressure can be expressed as a function of the temperature ratio because of the isentropic relationship as ¨ ¢ ¡ ¨    ¢  ¢  ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤  ¨ ¡ ¡   £    § £ £ ¥  ¥ ¤ ¤  ¨ (4.13) ¨ ¨ ¢ ¡ £  § ¥ ¤ ¤    £ ¥ ¤  ¨ ¨ (4. 4. STAGNATION STATE FOR IDEAL GAS MODEL   41 B A The usefulness of Mach number and equation (4.2: Perfect gas flows through a tube the stagnation temperature as oppose to the function of the temperatures and velocities. For example.4. The special case of ratio of the star values to stagnation values are depend only on the heat ratio as following: ¢ ¡ £  ¡  ¥ ¡ §  ¢  ¢ ¥   £ £ £ (4. the energy question is reduced to ¨ ¡ ¡  ¢¡  ¢    ¢$ $¡ ¡ (4. In that case.2) of any shape can be expressed as a function of only Fig.12) A new useful definition is introduced for the case when  and denoted by superscript .2).14)     ¢ ¡ £  §    £  ¨ (4. writing the energy equation for the tube when by an external forces or energy exchange shown in Figure (4.11) In the same manner the relationship for the density ¢   ¡  ¤ ¨  ¨ £    § ¥  ¥ ¤ ¨  ¨ (4. In this example a gas flows through a tube (see Figure 4.1.9) can be demonT0 T0 P0 P0 strated by this following simple examvelocity ρ0 ρ0 ple.

if an acceptable error is of about one percent than provides the desire range.6 0. if higher power is used.5 0.  ¢¡¤£¦¥ § 4.8 0.7 0.2 0. much smaller ©¨ error results. ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW Static Properties As A Function of Mach Number 1 0.17) . In particular.2 Relationships for Small Mach Number Even with today computers a simplified method can reduce the tedious work involve in computational work.9 0.1 0 1 2 3 Mon Jun 5 17:39:34 2006 0 4 5 Mach number 6 7 8 9 P/P0 ρ/ρ0 T/T0 Fig.42 CHAPTER 4.16) In the same fashion ¢ ¡ £ ¨     7    § §    $    ¦ §7 (4. ¤ First it can be noticed that the ratio of temperature to stagnation temperature. the trends can be examined with analytical methods. ¤ is provided in power series. It can be noticed that the Mach number involved in the above equations is in a square power. Expanding the equations results according to binomial expansion to  ¥£ #£  ¢ $ " ¡©£   ¨ ¢     § £ $ ¢ § £$ ¥ ¥       £ $   § $¢ £ ¦ (4. 4. It further will be used in the book to examine trends in derived models.1. Further.4 0. Hence.3: The stagnation properties as a function of the Mach number.3 0.

it can be observed that the correction factor approaches # zero when  and then the equation (4.2 Isentropic Converging-Diverging Flow in Cross Section .23) The ratio of the area to star area is ¢ ¢ £ ¡  § £ ¥ ¦¦¥ ¤¤ ¤ ¨¨§  ¨     £  £     § £     $ §   £ $   £  ¦ ¥ (4.19) From above equation.19) approaches to the standard equation for incompressible flow. ISENTROPIC CONVERGING-DIVERGING FLOW IN CROSS SECTION 43   ¢   ¡©£    § £$ ¥     7  §    § §    $  ¦   §7 (4.  ¡¤£  £ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ D ¨     £ §   £ £     § § § § % £ ¥ ¥ £  ¥  ¦ ¥ (4.22) The normalized mass rate becomes ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢    ¢¨ ¢ ¢ ¥  ¢  ¥    ¥ ¦  ¥ (4.20) ¨ ¢ ¨   ¡    § ¥   ¦  ¥ ¥ (4.18) The pressure difference normalized by the velocity (kinetic energy) as correction factor is ¡ ¤¡ ¤©¤¡ ! £ £      ¤ ¨    ¥ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¡©£  ¨ ! 4 ¥  §  © $ ! # "  §   §      (4.21) ¢     ¡  § ¥  £ £      (4.24) 4.4.2. The definition of the star Mach is ratio of the velocity and star speed of sound (the speed of sound at  ).

Conversely. knowing the Mach number or the temperature provides all what is needed to find the other properties. is constant through the perature.9) and equation (4.11) are the same. adiabatic flow because there isn’t heat transfer. in mathematical terms. The only properties that need to be connected are the cross section area and the Mach number. the stagnation pressure is also constant through the flow because the flow isentropic.2. Thus. Examination of the relation between properties is carried out.27) yields ¤©¨    ¡ ¢¡ ¤ ©¡  ¡   (4.25) £ .27) ¤    and combining equations (4.26) ¤ ¢ ¢ ¤¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ The thermodynamic relationship between the properties can be expressed as  ¤ ¡ ¤ For isentropic process ¤¨   (4. If the right hand side is constant for one variable is constant for the other.1 The Properties in The Adiabatic Nozzle When no external work and heat transfer. the stagnation density is constant through the flow.25) with (4. and dividing by the (4. ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW The important sub case in this Chapter is the flow in a converging–diverging nozzle is considered here.4). Therefore.44 CHAPTER 4.28) Differentiation of the equation state (perfect gas). Clearly.4: Control volume inside of a converging-diverging nozzle mal model. ¨ results by the equation of state (  ) yields ¢ ¤©¨ ¡ ¤     ¨   ¢  . T ρ P U T+dT ρ+dρ P+dP U+dU ¢ 4.Fig. 4. equation (4.   continuity equation reads ¡  ¡  ¡ ¡ ¡  ! £#"  ¡ (4. and dividing the ¤¦  (4. the stagnation tem. reads ¤ ¤     ¥  ¡  ¤¡ ¢ Differentiation of continuity equation. There are two models that assumed variable area flow: isentropic and adiabatic and the second is isentropic and isother. the energy equation. In the same argument.29) . The control volume is shown in Figure (4.

33) is a differential equation for the pressure as a function of the cross section area. it can be observed that ¨ can be positive or negative deepening on the and Mach number. ¢ Now. The meaning of the sign change for the pressure differential is that the pressure can increase or decrease.33) Equation (4.32) Or in a dimensionless form ¤¨ £   ¥ ¥   ¤ ¢ (4.34).30) so that the density.4. ¨     yields ¤ ¤ ¤©¨ ¡   Recalling that ¨     to obtain ¡ ¥  ¤ ¢ ¢  ¤ ¤ ¤   ©¨ ¥   ©¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ !# # # #$ ¤ ¢ ¢   ¨¦ ¨ ©    ¤¨ (0) ) ) ) ¤ ¤©¨   1 (4.31) ¤ ¤ ¡© ¥ and substitute the speed of sound into equation (4.34) 4.28) reads ¤ from the mass balance equation (4.1 The pressure relationship to Mach number Before going further in the mathematical derivation it is worth in looking at the ¢ is always positive (because physical meaning equation (4.30) Rearranging equation (4. If Mach number is ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ .2. If the Mach ¢ number is larger than one than ©¨ has opposite sign of .31) ¤¨ £   8  ¡  ¥ ¥ @ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¥ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢ (4.2. It can be observed that the critical Mach number is one. can be replaced by the static pressure. ISENTROPIC CONVERGING-DIVERGING FLOW IN CROSS SECTION 45 Obtaining an expression for ¢¡   ¡ utilizing it in equation (4.1.26) and ¤©¨   ¡ ¥ ¨   ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¡ '   ¢¡ ¤  ¡    £  (4. It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.   .33) to obtain a variables separation form of ¤¨¤¡   ¡ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¢  ¥ (4. The term   ¡ ¥   all the three terms can be only positive).

one can observe that the density. it is possible that  thus in the diverging side is in the subsonic branch and the flow isn’t choked. Since physically ¨ can increase only in a finite amount it ¢ must that . In that case. From the speed of sound.4.   .36). Hence the pressure increase when the velocity decreases and vice versa.46 smaller than one ¨ the term    ¥ CHAPTER 4. However. not necessarily means that when that  . Note that the pressure decrease is larger in compressible flow compared to incompressible flow. if the area decrease (as a function of ¢ ) the pressure decreases. the equations are applicable for any gas (perfect or imperfect gas). the opposite.36). Conversely.36) It can be noted that the derivations of the above equations (4.28) by solving it for ¡ . the term   £ £ ¡ £ ¡ £ ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¤ ¨  £ ¡  £ ¤¨ ¨  ¤¨ ¡  This behavior is opposite to incompressible flow behavior. For   ¥ is negative and change the character of the equation. the phenomenon is different.35) From equation (4.35 . ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW £ #£ ¤ $ and have the same sign.  ¥ For the special case of  (sonic flow) the value of the term ¢ # thus mathematically ©¨ or¢ . similar to incompressible fluid. ¡  ¤ ¡  ¤ ¡  ¡ £ ¡¤£ ¤ ¡  ¤ ¡  ¤ £ ¡ ¡ £ ¤ ¡  ¤ ¤¢¡©¡ ¤ ¨ ¨ ¡ ¤ (4. Thus.It must also be noted that when  occurs ¢ only when .35) it is obvious that ¡ has an opposite sign to ¨ (since the term ¨ ¡ is positive). increases with pressure and visa versa (see equation 4. For the supersonic branch  . The relationship between the velocity and the pressure can be observed from equation (4. The second law (isentropic relationship) dictates that and from thermodynamics ¤ ¡  ¡   ¡ ¤  ¢ ¤©¨ ¨ . For the subsonic branch  is positive hence ¤ ¢ ¨©£ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¤ ¨  ¡ £ ¡  ¡ £ ¤¨ ¤¨ ¨  ¡  From these observations the trends are. an increase in area results in increase of the static pressure (converting the dynamic pressure to a static pressure). ¤ ¤   ¡  £ ¥ ¤©¨ ¤ ¡  (4. the equation of state was not used.

33) isn’t the solution but demonstration of certain properties on the pressure.26)1 .37) and the relationship of pressure and cross section area (4.38) yields ¤ ¡    £  £$ ¤ 7£¢¥    ¥ (4. state (4. ISENTROPIC CONVERGING-DIVERGING FLOW IN CROSS SECTION 47 and for perfect gas ¤¦ ¡   £ ¤©¨    ¨ (4.   ¡ ¥    £ $ ¡   ¤ ¨   ¢¡  ¦ "%$ ¦ ¡ £  7£¢ ¥    ¤ ¥ (4. why? .41) into  ¡    £¢   ¡ ¥ ¨   ©  ¢ ¥  ¡   ¡ ¥ (4.29).39).40) Combining equation (4.43) 1 The momentum equation is not used normally in isentropic process.33).33) yields The following identify.9). second law (4. the temperature varies according in the same way that Pressure does.4.37).2.40) with equation (4.2 Relationship Between the Mach Number and Cross Section Area The equations used in the solution are energy (4.1. The relationship between temperature and the cross section area can be obtained by utilizing the relationship between the pressure and temperature (4. the relationship between the temperature and the stagnation temperature. yields  ¥ ¥    © (4. The relationship between the Mach number and the temperature can be .2.38) §  ¤¦ ¢ ¡© ¤  ¢ ¡  ¡ ¤¦ £   £    £$ ¤ and simplifying equation (4. mass (4. Note.37) Thus. First stage equation (4. equation (4.39) is combined with equation (4.39) 4.41)    ¥ ¨©¡ ¢   ¥ ¨   ©' ¥  ¨ ©¥   ¡   ¨ can be proved as ¢ Utilizing the identify in equation (4.42) ¤ ¡ ¢  ¥ £ ¥  7 ¢¥   £ ¥  © ¤ (4. obtained by utilizing the fact that the process is assumed to be adiabatic Differentiation of equation (4.42) changes equation (4.37) and becomes   £ $ ¤¨ ¡   ¨ ¦   £  7 ¢¥    £$ ¤  ¥ (4.

2 Examples Example 4. ct ¡ £ io n .1: Air allowed to flow from a reservoir with temperature of 21 C and with pressure of 5[MPa] through a tube.     ¢¡ ¡ £ ¥§ S OLUTION The stagnation conditions at the reservoir will be maintained through out tube because the process is isentropic.” ¢ Again. and the cross section area at that point where the static  ¢¡     pressure was measured. This minimum area is referred to as “throat. on one hand.5). Assumed that the ratio of specific heats is . Hence the stagnation temperature can be written £ £ and ¨ £ £ and both of them are known (the condition at the reservoir). For the point where the static pressure is known. Much nubmer the Mach number is varied opposite to the cross section area. increase of the cross section decreases the velocity and Mach number (see Figure 4. In subsonic flow branch. The Fig. velocity. cr 7£¢ os s se 4. the only factor that effects relation¨¢© ¨¤¦ ship between the cross area and the ¨ Mach number is  ¥ . ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW Equation (4. On the other hand. In the case of x  the Mach number increases with cross section area and vise versa.5: The relationship between the cross section and the Mach number on the special case is when  . In equation (4. There ¤£¦¥¦§ fore.43) is very important beM. A cause it relates the geometry (area) with the relative velocity (Mach number). from the mathematical point of view. It was measured that air mass flow rate is 1[kg/sec]. the factors ¥  ¥  and ¢ are positive re   ¥ ¢  ¢¡ gardless to the values of  or . This condition imposes that internal2 flow has to pass a converting diverging device to obtain supersonic velocity. decrease of the cross section increase the velocity and the Mach number.2. the Mach number can  ¢ ¡  ! #"  ¢ ¡! #"  2 This condition does not impose any restrictions for external flow. £ £ £ ¡ £ ¤ ¡  ¡ £ ¤ ¡  ¤ ¡  A. the opposite conclusion that when implies that  is not correct because possibility of  . In external flow. For  M. At some point on the tube static pressure pressure was measured to be 3[MPa]. an object can be moved in arbitrary speed. in that ¢ subsonic branch case requires that . calculate the Mach number.43).48 CHAPTER 4. Assume that process is isentropic and neglects the velocity at the reservoir. 4.

3) or utilizing the enclosed program from PottoGDC. Also. 4 This pressure is about two atmospheres with temperature of 250[K] . Example 4.44) The tube area can be obtained from the mass conservation as ¢ ¡  ¡ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥§ Q 5 £  ¢ ¤ ¡ £ © For a circular tube the diameter is about 1[cm]. or simply using the equations shows that  ¥ 779Q9 ¢    ¥ 79Q § §   ¥ Q ¢ § § ¡ ¡£¢ ¤¤¢ 7 £ ¥  £ ££  ¥ Q ¦ ¦  ¥ Q 9Q § § ¢   ¥9   £ ¨ With these values the static temperature and the density can be calculated. and velocity can be calculated. ISENTROPIC CONVERGING-DIVERGING FLOW IN CROSS SECTION 49 be calculated utilizing the pressure ratio.2. ¡  ¥ 79Q § ¤ §  997 5  § @G  § £ $ ¡ §  § ¥ 3@GQ § ¨ ©'    ¨ ¢ 5 £  B¤ ¨  "© ¢ § ¢ 5    ¡   ¢ ¢  ¢ ¡ ¥ Q § 779 § 7¨@ ¥  & 17 0 ' ) 2 5 §£¢ ¥ § ¤§  ¥ ¡ § £¦¥ £ § ££Q ¡ ¦ £   £ © The velocity at that point is ¡ ¡  ¨ ©'    £  ¢  ¡  ¥ 797Q997 £G@ 5 ¡   £¦¥ § 5 § 73@ 5 §¨¢ § ¡   §¥¤ ¡   £I  © (4. the cross section can be calculated with all these information. Assume that the specific heat ratio and assume a perfect gas model.5[Bar]. ¡   ¡ £ ¥§ 3 Well. there is no known way to this author to directly measure the Mach number. this question is for academic purpose. The best approximation is by using inserted cone for supersonic flow and measure the oblique shock. Here it is sub sonic and that technique is not suitable. Finally.4.2) or from Figure (4. the temperature. Calculate the Mach number at point B under the isentropic flow assumption. estimate the temperature at point B. Downstream at point B the pressure was measured to be 1. In the point where the static pressure known ¨¤  ¡ ¨ ¨ ¢ ¡ © 8¤  ¨ "  ¤  ¨ "© ¤ ¤¦¥ ¡  ¥Q ¤©¨ ¤¨ § ¢ § ¢    From Table (4. With known Mach number.2: § The Mach number at point A on tube is measured to be  3 and the static pressure is 2 [Bar]4 .

ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW S OLUTION With known Mach number at point A all the ratios of the static properties to total (stagnation) properties can be calculated.3: Gas flows through a converging–diverging duct.53884934.6265306 and second subsonic M = 0. Find the Mach number at point B.2 ¨ ©'¢   £ ¥H  £§ ¡©£ ¥ § @ § ¦ ££§ . £ $$ ¦ ¢   $  5 $ 5 ¡ §¦  ¢ ¢ £ from the Table 4.2) or from Potto-GDC two solutions can be obtained.50 CHAPTER 4. The supersonic branch solution is possible only if there where a transition at throat where M=1. S OLUTION To obtain the Mach number at point B by finding the ratio of the area to the critical area.4.2 @ M = 2 ¡ ¡£¢ ¤¤¢ ¤ ¤¦¥  ¥£ § § §¢ @B7   ¥ ££BQ3@  ¥H ¢   ¢ ¤ ¨ ¤  ¨ § ¢ § §    With this information the pressure at Point B expressed ¨ ¨ $ ¢ ¡ ¨ ©'  ¨   ¨ ¢ 5 ¨ $ ¡  ¥ £ § @B7  §¨B 5 § ¥  ¡  ¥ £ @  §¦Q  § ¨   £ ¥ ¦  The corresponding Mach number for this pressure ratio is 1. The ¡ stagnation temperature can be “bypassed” to calculated the temperature at point  ¥ Q  £  £ ¡  ¥ £ @  §¦7¨@ ¡ ¨   ©  ¥   ¨  ' ©   ¡ ¢  ¡ ¡ © 5 £ 5  ¥ Q¦9 £  ££ §¤£ § @ £¦¥ § § ¤ § ©    ¡  $ 5   $ ¢ 5     ¢ ¡ §  8¤ § 3  ¥H9999BQ ¡ ¡ Example 4. This relationship can be obtained by ¢ ¢   ¡ ¢ ¢ With the value of from the Table (4.8137788 and   § ¥¥ ¦ ¢ . The two possible solutions: the first supersonic M = 1. At point B in the duct the cross section area is 40 [ ¥ ]. At point “A” the cross section area is 50 [ ¥ ] and the Mach number was measured to be 0.4. the stagnation pressure at point A is known and stagnation temperature can be calculated. Therefore. Assume that the flow is isentropic and the gas specific heat ratio is 1. § At  (supersonic flow) the ratios are ¡   § ¥  ¦   ¥ 9BQ  ¥ §   ¨ £ ¥ Q973@B from the table 4. Both solution are possible and acceptable.

47) yields ¢ ¢ £ ( £  7££ ¢ ¥   ¥ 4 7¥ ¨ ¦ ¥¤ ¤ £ ¨ §  (4. The area ratio is defined as the ratio of the cross section at any point to the throat area (the narrow area).48) by equation (4.45) to be expressed in terms of the stagnation properties as ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¨ ¢ ¡   D ¢ £ ¡ ¨¢  D   ¨ D ¢ D ¢    ¢   ¢ ¢ ¨¢     £¢  ¨ ¢¡ ¡  ¡  7 & ¨ ©'   (4. It is convenient to rearrange the equation (4.46) results in ¡ ¡ ¢ £ (    ¢ (    ¢4 £ ¢ ¨    § £ ¥  ¥ ¢ ¨ ¦ ¥¤ ¤ £ ¨ §  (4.47) holds everywhere in the converging-diverging duct and this statement also true for the throat.4. It can be noticed that at the throat when the flow is chocked or in other words  and that the stagnation conditions (i.47) obtained the form ¡ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ £  ¢ ¡ £    ¨¢4 ¢  £    § £ ¥ ¢ £ ¨ ¨§ ¦¦¥ ¤¤ ¤ ¨  (4. ISENTROPIC CONVERGING-DIVERGING FLOW IN CROSS SECTION 51 £ ¥ Q § Q9Q  H¥ B797¨@ 4.48) Since the mass flow rate is constant in the duct. The area ratio as a function of the Mach number needed to be established. The throat area can be denoted ¢ as by .49) .2. to examine the maximum flow rate and to see what is the effect of the compressibility on the flow rate. specifically and explicitly the relationship for the chocked flow.e.47) It can be noted that equation (4. dividing equations (4.3    ¥ Q¨ B ¢ Q ¢ ¥ ¨ §  £¦£ ¡ ¡ ¢  ¥  §¨97  ¥ 7Q9797 ¤¤¢ £ ¥ §§ @ §§ £ £¥ @ £ ¤ ¤ ¥ QG £@  ¥7 § ¨ @£ ¥ § § §¢ §  ¥ 7¨@@ £ ¥ § §  ¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ § § § Mass Flow Rate (Number) One of the important engineering parameters is the mass flow rate which is at any point is ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¨  ¡ ¢ (4.2.46) Expressing the temperature in term of Mach number in equation (4. pressure) do not change. temperature.45) This parameter is studied here. Hence equation (4.

That expression was derived based on the theoretical total pressure and temperature (Mach number) which does not based on the considerations whether the flow is isentropic or adiabatic.52 CHAPTER 4.53) If the Fliengner’s number as above at the every point it will be    ¡    £    § £  ¥ ¥ ¢ £ ¨ ¨§ ¦¦¥ ¤¤ ¤ ¨  (4. ¡    ¢ ¡ ¡ P  £¢  ¢ ¡ ¡  ¢ £ ¨ ¢ ¨ ¢   £  £  ¢ ¨¢  ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡  ¨ ©   ¢ £ ¦ ¨ © "  ¢ £ ¢ £ (4.47) is appropriate regardless the flow is isentropic or adiabatic. ¨ ¢  ¥ Q97 § @G 4 $©    ¢ 2   ¢ § The maximum flow rate for air (¢ ¡ 73@ ¤     ¥ § ) becomes.49).52) Equation (4. In the same manner the definition . ¨  ¥ ¥ ¦ ¥¤ ¤ £ ¨ §  ¨   ¢ (4. relates the Mach number at specific point at the duct to the cross section area.3.2. The maximum flow rate can be expressed either by taking the derivative of equation (4.52) is known as Fliegner’s Formula on the name of one of the first engineer who observed experimentally the choking phenomenon.50) § © ¡ £ ¡ ¡ £ For specific heat ratio. It can be noticed that Fliengner’s equation is actually dimensionless equation and lead to definition of the Fliengener’s Number. Carrying this calculation results at  . ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW The equation (4.1 Flow with pressure losses The expression for the mass flow rate (4.54) and the maximum point point    £  ¡      §  ¥ ¢ £ ¨ ¨§ ¦¦¥ ¤¤ ¤ ¨  (4.51) ¡ ¢ £ (4. ¡    ¢ ¡  ¥  §¦ § £7 ¨ ¢  ¢   ¡¤£ ¥ § 4$   ¡ ¡ £ ¢ ¡ ¢ D ¢    £ ¢ ¥ (4.55) 4.49) in with respect to M and equating to zero.

015 ¥ and Mach number is 1.60) Example 4.2. in a case where the flow isn’t isentropic or adiabatic the total pressure and the total temperature change (due to friction. A constant flow rate requires that   . comparison of mass flow rate at point A and point B leads to ¢ ¡  ¢ ¢  ¨ £ And utilizing the equality of ¢ £ $ ¡ $   ¨ ¢ $   ¡ ¨ ¢   ¨ ¨ ¢    $ ¡ ¢   ¢ $ ¡ ¨¢ ¢ ¢ £     £   $ ¢   (4.4.56)  ¢ ¡  ¢ ¡ $ ¡© ! #"  ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £   ¢   ¢ ¢ £  § ¥ ¤ ¤¤£ ¨ ¨     £ £  ¨ ¢ (4. and heat transfer). Mach number is 2. point B.5. £ ¢ ¡ $ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡   ¢¨ ¢ £ £ . If the mass flow rate is constant at any point on the tube (no mass loss occur) then   ¢ ¢ £ ¥  ¢ £    § £ ¥  ¥ ¢ ¨ ¦ ¥¤ ¤ ¨  §  ¡! £#"  £ ¢ £ (4.48) can be equated.01 ¥ . The second model which there is significant heat transfer but insignificant pressure loss (Rayleigh flow like). There From equation (4. ISENTROPIC CONVERGING-DIVERGING FLOW IN CROSS SECTION 53 of referred to the theoretical minimum area (”throat area”) if the flow would continued to flow isentropic manner. and the duct section area is 0. it is clear that the function ¨ two possible models that can be used to simplify the calculations.58) leads to $ $ $  ££   $  ££   ¨ ¦   ¢   $   (4. Downstream at exit of tube. Clearly.59) For a flow with a constant stagnation pressure (frictionless flow) and non adiabatic flow reads  ¢    $ ¡ ¢   8 $   $  ££   $  ££   ¦ ¢   ¢ ¨     $ @ ¥ (4. Denoting subscript A for a point and subscript B or another point mass equation (4.4: § At point A of the tube the pressure is .57) For adiabatic flow.56). The first model for neglected heat transfer (adiabatic) flow and in which the total temperature remained constant (Fanno flow like). Assume no mass lost and adiabatic steady state flow. ¤ ¡ C© ( © ¤¡ " §£© 8¤ ¨ . the cross section area is 0.5. calculated the total pressure lost.

ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW S OLUTION Both Mach numbers are known. § £ ¥H ¦  H¥  ¦     ¥ Q7 ¢ Q9Q  ¥  ¢ § ¢  ¥ §¦§ §¦§ §  ¥ ££ £Q ¡ ¡£¢ ¤¤¢ 7¢ § £ ¥ £ @BQ § ¥ Q9Q¨@ ¤ ¤¦¥ @ §¦  ¥  9  ¥ B7¨B  ¥ £  § ¥ §¢ §§ § ¤ ¨ ¤  ¨ § ¢ § § ¢ §  ¥H9§ §¦¢ £  ¥Q Q     First. thus the area ratios can be calculated.2 as ££ ££ ££ ¨ ¢ $ ¡    § ¡  £ ¥ § ¨@G7 £ §¨¢ £¤ § "¨§£© ££ ¡ ££  ¥ 97 @GQQ9 ¨ ¨ ¢ ££   ¨ ¡ © £ $   ¥   ¨ ¥ Utilizing equation (4.3   Isentropic Tables Table 4. and utilizing equation (4. the stagnation at point A is obtained from Table 4.2: Isentropic Table  ¥   ¥ ¨   ¥ §£   ¥   ¥ ¦   ¥§    ¥      £ ¥ ¢£¦   ¥ ¢£¢¢ ¢    ¥ ¢£¢©7§    ¥¢ § 9 Q  ¥ ¢ 7 ¢£¢§  ¥ ¢ Q7§  ¥  97 ¡ ¡ ¢ £ ¥  ¦  ¢  ¥ ¢£ 7¨@B ¢ §  ¥ ¢£   ¥ ¢¢ 7¦ § 7  ¥ ¢9 Q997 ¥ §§§@  ¥ 797¨ £ @ ¤¤¢   ¡¤£ ¥ §  ¥7   £ £ ¥  ¢§ § § ¥ 7¢ ¥ Q§ § ¥  £¦¥  ¢  £¦¥  §¦   ¤ ¤ ¥ £¦¥ ¦    ¥ ¢¢ ¢¢ 7 §   ¥ ¢ §    ¥¢ @ ¢    ¥ ¢ § @  ¥ 7 BQ §£  ¥7  § § § ¢  ¥7   £¦£ ¥H@ § ¥A@G7 §£ ¥ 79 7 ¢ §   ¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ § £ ¥ §£ £ ¥§ § £ ¥ £ ¥§   §§ ¥ 797 ¥ § §¨ £ ¥ § Q 7  ¥ 7 ¢§ Q ¢£¢§  A¥ @ Q9  ¥ Q9¨B §      .59) the stagnation pressure at point B can be obtained. The total pressure can be calculated because the Mach number and static pressure are known. @ §¦9¦¨@ 5 £ £¥  § 4.59) provides ¨ Hence £ @GQ £Q3@ £ 5  ¥  £ ££ ¥ § §¥¤ § "§£© ¢    ¡  ¦ £ ¥ § @G7 £ §£¢ £ 5 §£ ¥¥ Q9 9Q3@ ££7¨@  ¥  £ ¡  ¨ ¢  $ ¨ £ ¥ § @ £  ¥ § §¨ ¡ ¢    ¡  ¦ ¥ " §£© 9Q ¥  ££8¤ § ¨ ¡ § ¥ £ §Q Note that the large total pressure loss is much larger than the static pressure loss § § § (Pressure point B the pressure is [Bar]). With these information.54 CHAPTER 4.

ISENTROPIC ISOTHERMAL FLOW NOZZLE Table 4.4. The perfect .4. knowing the two limits provides a tool to examine where the reality should be expected.1    ¥ ¢¢  § 7 §  ¥ £ ¨@9§  ¥ 779Q ¢  ¥ 7Q    ¥ 799  ¥ 7¦ £  H¥ @@GQ §   H¥ @ 3 § @G7¢  H¥ @  £ 79  ¥ Q7 ¢ QQ  ¥ QQ  £ 7  ¥ Q9¨@ £  ¥ Q¦9  Q97¦§  ¥ 97 ¨ @  ¥ 999Q  ¥ §¦§ § §¦§  ¥ ¨ @ £ §  ¥ §§ 7 ¢ 7Q  ¥ 9 7£  ¥£ ¢ 7  §  ¥£ £ Q9Q9Q3@  ¥ £ §§  £7§  ¥ £ £ ¢ §  ¥£   B7  ¥  ¢§  ¢   ¥  7 § £ Q9  ¥3 @ ¨ §Q§  ¥ Q3 §@§  ¥¨  B7§ £ §¦  ¢  ¥¨   § ¢  ¥ 3 § @GQ £ ¡ ¡ ¢  ¥ 7 §¦  §3  H¥ @ ¢ ¢£ £ 97 £  H¥ @B ¢ ¢  ¥ Q7¨@ ¢ §  ¥ Q9 §  ¥ 97 £ @   ¥ 9 §¨ £ ¢£ §  ¥¨ § 7 §  ¥¨ § ¨@§  ¥ ¢ § ¢ 7  ¥ ¨9¢@B¢  ¥ § £ Q §  ¥ § 79Q97¢ ¢  ¥ § BQ ¥ ¨   ¥£ £ £ Q§¢§  ¥3  @GQ § Q  ¥ ¨ §§  9§  ¥  @GQQ ¢  ¥  £ @§¦§  ¥ £  £  §¦  ¥ ¦¨  @B97¢  ¥ ¦ £  ¥ ¦9  9Q §  ¥ ¦ § Q¢ £  ¥ ¦ £   ¥ ¦ £§ £  ¥ ¦ £ 3 @  ¥ ¦ 9 7£ £  ¥ ¦ 9  Q £  ¥ ¦  § ¢  ¤¤¢  ¢¡¤£ ¥ § § § ¢ £ ¥ £79 7 £ ¥ ¢ § £ ¥9  97 £ ¥  ¢ £ ¥   £ ¥ 9 7 £ ¥9  £ ¥9  Q9Q £ ¥£ £ £ £ ¥ §£ @GQ £¥  £ ¥ 997¢ £ ¥ § £ H¥ 99 £ ¥ Q9797 § ¥ Q9¨@ § ¥ §   Q A¥ @ ¢§  £  A¥ @ ££Q H¥ BQ §  ¥  Q ¥ 7¨@ 9 ¥  £7 @9 ¥  £ £ ¥  £ ¥ §¢  £¥  § H¥    ¥ §  §¥   ¥§  § § § § § §               ¤ ¤ ¥ §  ¥A@G7§ § ¢   A¥ @  §  ¥ Q¢BQ¦§  H¥  § £ § Q  H¥  7 7  ¥ § Q97  ¥ § £ § 9 7 ¢  ¥ 9Q  § £  ¥ § £§§ §  ¥ § @ §¦   ¥ § § § ¢@ ¥    ¥ £ @§¢©§ §  ¥ £§§ §  ¥ £ @B7 §  ¥  B7¨ 7  ¥ § @ § § §  ¥  £  £ ¢£¦£  ¥ 9  Q¨  ¥ 9  §Q  ¥  £ £7¢  ¥  £ ¨ @  ¥    Q9  ¥    97¨  ¥   § § §  ¥   £ £   ¥ ¢   £  § Q¥   § A¥ @§  § ¥  £  ¥ 9Q          ¥ £ £ 9  A¥ @G77 ¢ Q  ¥ Q97¢ £ £   H¥  § Q§   H¥  7§ 7  ¥3 §@ ¨ @  ¥§ § § ¢   ¥ 97  §7§  ¥ § 9  9Q¢  ¥ §¨¢ 9   ¥ § § ¢£ £§  ¥§ @  ¢  ¥ §  § § §  ¥§  £ £  ¥ £ BQ¨§@  ¥£ £ §  ¥ £ £ ¢ § 7  ¥9  7  ¢££7  ¥¨ @    ¥  ¨@ §§ § @  ¥  § ¢@ § £  ¥9   Q 7§  ¥9  9Q97  ¥  §§ 7 ¢ Q §  ¥  §§ £ £ 9Q  ¥ ¢  ¨ §Q  ¥ £ 3 § §@B  ¥ G £ @G £  ¥  £ 9¢  §  ¥ £ £  ¨@  ¥ £ § Q § 7 ¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ ¢ §  ¥ 979¨§@@  ¥  §   ¥ 997 3 @  ¥ 9§ 9  § ¢  ¥  §¨7¢ 7¢  ¥  7¢ ¢  ¥ 99¢  ¥ 9 @ §  ¥  § Q  ¥  §¦ §£  ¥ 9Q ¢ £7  ¥ 9Q @BQ  ¥ ¨@9@GQ7¢  ¥ 97 §  ¥  ¢§  ¢ ¢  ¥Q Q §   ¥ Q¨B § Q  ¥ Q3@G   ¥ Q¢£ 7979¦  ¥ Q ¢ 7  H¥ @ 9  7¨@BQ  H¥ @ §£ £ @B7  H¥ @ §  £ Q  H¥ @ §¨¢B7Q  H¥ @ § 9  H¥ @B ¨@  H¥ @B §£   H¥ @B¨¢@   H¥ @B    H¥ @ §¦  97  H¥ @ § £ ¢©§    Isentropic Isothermal Flow Nozzle General Relationship In this section. Eckert number is very small) is presented.4. the other extreme case model where the heat transfer to the gas is perfect. Again in reality the heat transfer is somewhere in between the two extremes.4 4. (e. So.2: Isentropic Table 55 (continue)  ¥ Q ¦  A¥ @ ¦  ¥ 7¢ ¦  ¥ ¦ £ ¥  £ ¥ §£ ¦ £ ¥ ¦ £ ¥  ¦ £ ¥ §¦¦ £ H¥  ¦ £ ¥ Q ¦ £ A¥ @ ¦ £ ¥ 7¢ ¦ £ ¥ ¦ § ¥  ¦ § H¥  ¦  ¥  ¦  H¥  ¦ § ¥  ¦ § H¥  ¦  ¥  ¦  H¥  ¦ Q ¥  ¦ Q H¥  ¦ @ ¥  ¦ @ H¥  ¦ 7 ¥  ¦ 7¢ H¥  ¦ ¥  ¦ ¢ H¥  ¦ £  ¥  4.g.

ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW gas model is again assumed (later more complex models can be assumed and constructed in a future versions). ¡  D §¢      ¨  ¨ ¨ ¨ ¥ reads (4.68) reads ¨ ¥ ¨  ¡ I ¤ ¥§¦ ¨ ¦ ¦ ¦  ¦ ¦ § ¡ ( I    ¦¨ ¦ 4 I (4.66) Transform from equation (4.69) ©"!#©%$'&)( 5 The one dimensional momentum equation for steady state is ¨¤©¨© which are neglected here.68) Or in terms of the pressure ratio equation (4.67) yields £      ¥ $ ¡ ¦¡  ¨ ¥ ¨  ¦ ¤¦ (4.56 CHAPTER 4.63) to a dimensionless form becomes £ £ £  £  £¢    ¢ ¤£ ! " ¥ %$ " ¥ ¥ §  ¥ $ ¡ ¢ ¢¤£  ! #"  ¨ ¥ ¨  ¦¥  (4.61) into the momentum equation5 yields ¡ ¢¡  ¤ ¢  ¤©¨ ¡ ¨ (4.62) Integration of equation (4. The velocity at point 2 becomes ¡ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¥ D §¢  ¡ ¨ ¥ ¨  ¡ ¥ (4. In isothermal process the perfect gas model reads ¨¤¡   ¢  £ ¤©¨©¡ ¤   ¢  (4.67) Simplifying equation (4. other effects 0 .64) The velocity at point 2 for stagnation point.62) yields the Bernoulli’s equation for ideal gas in isothermal process which reads £ ¡ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥  ¢  ¦¡  ¦¡  ¨ ¥ ¨  ¡  (4.63) Thus.61) Substituting equation (4.65) ¦¡  Or in explicit terms of the stagnation properties the velocity is ¡©¡ D §¢ ¥ § ¦¡  ¢ (4.

73) The critical point.4. The critical pressure ratio can be obtained from (4. The true critical point is when flow is choked and the relationship between two will be presented. Here the critical point defined as the point where  so results can be compared to the adiabatic case and denoted by star.76) Finally.69) to read ¡ £ ¡ £ ¨ ¨ £ ¡   ¢   £ ¡ ¥ e  ¥ ¨ ¦ ¦ ¦ §¤ (4.71) and equation (4.69) yields ¢ ¢ ¥  ¡  ( ¥ e  e  ¥ ¥  ¦ ¦ ¨ ¦ 4 ¤ ¤¦ (4.72) The change in the stagnation pressure can be expressed as ¨ ¨ ¢¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¥ ( ¨  £ £  7£¢ ¥   7£¢ ¥   ¥ 4 ¤  ¨ ¡ 8 e  e  ¨ ¦ ¨ ¦ @ ¤¦ (4.70) ¥ ¡     ¥ ¨ ¥  ¨  (4. the critical stagnation pressure reads ¨ ¨ ¢ ¡ ¢ £ I ¥ ¨  ¦ ¦ § ¤ § £      £ 7£¢¥    ¥  ¤ ¤  ¨ (4. is unknown (at what Mach number the nozzle is choked is unknown) so there are two possibilities: the choking point or  to normalize the equation. ISENTROPIC ISOTHERMAL FLOW NOZZLE As oppose to the adiabatic case ( nation temperature ratio can be expressed  ¢ ¡  ! £#"  £ ) in the isothermal flow the stag¥ ¥   57     ¢ £ £ ¢ ¡   ¢ ¥ ¡   ¥ £ ¥ ¥   ¢ ¢ ¢ 7£¢ ¥   7£¢ ¥   Utilizing conservation of the mass      ¥ £  7 ¢¥    ¥ ¡ £  7 ¢¥  ¥ ¥ ¥ ¡  ! £#"  £ to yield  ¥   (4.77) .74) Equation (4.71) Combing equation (4.4.72) is reduced to obtained the critical area ratio writes ¢ £ ¡ £ ¥ e  ¨ ¦ ¦ ¦ §¤ (4. Again it has to emphasis that this critical point is not really related to physical critical point but it is arbitrary definition.75) Similarly the stagnation temperature reads ¢ ¢ ¡ £ § £    ¥ 7£¢ ¥    £  ¥  ¤ ¤  ¨ (4. at this stage.

From the Figure 4.78) simplified to    ¥ £ ¡  £  ¡   £  (4. dividing the     .79) It can be noticed that a similar results are obtained for adiabatic flow.6: Various ratios as a function of Mach number for isothermal Nozzle Of course in isothermal process . ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW Isothermal Nozzle k=14 4 3.5 2 1. Thus. All these equations are plotted in¢ Figure ¢ (4.5 0 P/P * A/A * P0 / P0 T 0 / T0 T/T * * * 0 0.3 it can be observed that minimum of the curve   isn’t on  . The velocity at the throat of isothermal model is smaller by a factor of .5 3 2.78) Equation (4. It should be noted that the stagnation temperature is not constant as in the adiabatic case and the critical point is the only one constant.5 2 M 2.6). 4.58 CHAPTER 4.5 1 1. The minimum of the curve is when area is minimum and at the point where the flow is choked.5 1 0.5 4 Tue Apr 5 10:20:36 2005 Fig. The mathematical procedure to find the minimum is simply taking the derivative and equating to zero as following £ £ ¡  ¡ £ $ ¤ $ ¡   ¤ ¥   ¥ ¢  I ¤ ¥§¦ ¦ ¦   ¨¨§ ¥ I ¢  ¤ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¦  ¨¨§ ¡  (4.5 3 3.

74) the following relationship can be obtained ¨    ¨ ¨    ¨ ¢ ¥¤§¦¨¤©¤ £ 1$ § ¡ £ ¨ ¢ ¤¦¤©¤ £  ¥ e  ¨ £ ¦ ¦ § ¤ e e  ¢ § ¨ $ £ ¡  ¢ ¤ ¨ ¦¥ ¤¦ ¢ ¦ ¡ (4. Utilizing equation (4.4.5 1 0.5 2 M 2.5 1 1.7(a).5 2 1. It also has to be emphasized that the stagnation values . ISENTROPIC ISOTHERMAL FLOW NOZZLE critical adiabatic velocity by   59   results in ¡   1$ ¡  §£¢ ¡  ¢  (4.80) On the other hand.5 1 0. .81) ¨ ¡ ¥ Q¦9Q9   Notice that the critical pressure is independent of the specific heat ratio.5 4 0 0 1 0.5 3 3. 4.5 0 A / A iso * A / A adiabatic * P / P iso * P / P adiabatic * Comperison between the two models k=14 5 4.4.5 Distance (normalized distance two different scales) 2 Tue Apr 5 10:39:06 2005 Mon Jan 23 14:08:34 2006 (a) Comparison between the isothermal nozzle and adiabatic nozzle in various variables (b) The comparison of the adiabatic model and isothermal model Fig.5 4 M isoT M isentropic Uisntropic/UisoT 3 2. Isothermal Nozzle k=14 4 3.5 1. It is convenient to find expression for the ratio of the initial stagnation pressure (the stagnation pressure before entering the nozzle) to the pressure at the throat.5 0 0.5 2.5 3 3.5 2 1.7: The comparison of nozzle flow It should be emphasis that the stagnation pressure decrees. as oppose to the adiabatic case. the pressure loss in adiabatic flow is milder as can be seen in Figure 4.

84) the velocity ratio was obtained is plotted in Figure 4. Again. To make 0.83) It can be noticed that temperature in the isothermal model is constant while temperature in the adiabatic model can be expressed as a function of the stagnation temperature.6 two models so in actual situation can be bounded.84) Utilizing equation (4.7(b)). In the same 0 0 1 2 0. The Mach number for the isentropic is larger for the supersonic branch but the velocity is lower. In this comparison it has to be remembered that critical area for the two models are different by about 3% (for ).82) For comparison between Comperison between the two models the adiabatic model and the k=14 isothermal a simple profile of nozzle area as a function of the 1 distance is assumed.2 the entrance to the throat is normalized (to one).7(b). 4. Thus.4 senses and eliminate unnecessary details the distance from 0.5 fashion the distance from the Distance (normalized distance two scales) throat to the exit is normalized Fri Apr 8 15:11:44 2005 (to one) (it isn’t mean that these distances are the same). As can be observed from the Figure (4. The initial stagnation temperatures are almost the same and can be canceled out to obtain ¡ £ ¡ ¤ 2  ¤   £ £  7£¢ ¥   £ ¥ (4. ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW of the isothermal model are not constant. the heat transfer is expressed as ¨©¡   ¡  ¢¦  ¢¦ $ (4.5 1. using the isentropic model results in under prediction of the actual results for the velocity in the supersonic branch. This proP / P0 isentropic file isn’t ideal profile but rather 0.7(b)).8: Comparison of the pressure and temperature drop as a function of the normalized length ratio and the exit area ratio are (two scales) the same and equal to 20. The Mach number was computed for the two models and plotted in the Figure (4.60 CHAPTER 4. the isentropic for the sub- .8 T / T0 isentropic a simple sample just to examP / P0 isothermal T/T0 isothermal ine the difference between the 0. In this comparison the entrance area Fig. The ratio of the velocities can be expressed as   ¡ £ ¥§ ¡ £ ¡ ¤ ¡   ¤ £    £¢  £    £¢  £  (4. While.

Utilizing equations (4. The stagnation pressure is 5 is 27 . Two other ratios need to be examined: temperature and pressure.5: Consider a diverging–converging nozzle made out wood (low conductive material) with exit area equal entrance area. The temperature ratio of   can be obtained via the isentropic model as ¢ "   ¢ "   ¢ ¤"  ¡ £  7£¢ ¥   ¥ £ (4.7(b). To demonstrate relativity of the approached of advocated in this book consider the following example.e.87) where the z is an arbitrary point on the nozzle.4.86) and for the isothermal process the stagnation pressure varies and had to be taken into account as following ¤£  ¡ ¤ ¨ ¨ ¢ § ¤  " ¡ ¨ ¨ ¢ ¢ £ ¤  ¨ " ¢ ¨ ¢ § £ !"¨ ©1  ¨ ¨ ¢ § § (4.4. Figure 4. While the range between the predicted pressure by the two models is relatively small. should the velocity increase or decrease? what is the maximum possible increase? G " §£© ¤ ¨   ¡ £¦¥ § S OLUTION The first part of the question deals with the adiabatic model i. The meaning of this analysis is that transfered heat affects the temperature in larger degree but the effect on the pressure much less significant.8 shows that the range between the predicted temperatures of the two models is very large. Assume that the back pressure is low enough to have supersonic flow without shock and .73) and the isentropic relationship provides the sought ratio. ISENTROPIC ISOTHERMAL FLOW NOZZLE 61 sonic branch will be over prediction. The pressure ratio for the isentropic model is ¨ ¢ ¤  ¨ " ¡ ¥ £  7 ¢¥   ¥ £ ¤   ¤ ¨ (4. the conservation of the stagnation properties. with known area ratio and known stagnation the GDC-Potto provides the following table: . Thus.85) While the temperature ratio of the isothermal model is constant and equal to one (1). Example 4. Calculate the velocity at the exit using the adiabatic model? If the nozzle was made from copper (a good heat conductor) a larger heat transfer occurs. The ¤  initial stagnation temperature is denoted as ¤  . The throat area ratio to entrance area 1:4 § and the stagnation temperature respectively. The prediction of the Mach number are similar shown in the Figure 4.

then. and temperature at the exit the velocity can be calcu¢ ¢ § . the initial stagnation temperature is given § . With the area ratio by using the Figure 4.5 4.88) The exit Mach number is known and the initial temperature to the throat temperature ratio can be calculated as following:  £ £ ¡  ¥A@9@@9@@9@9@@G7 7£¢ ¥  7 ¡ £  £ 7 ¢7  Thus the stagnation temperature at the exit is mined by utilizing the following equation ¡¤£ ¥ § ¢ §     A¥ @9@9@@9@@9@B@B7 ¡¤£ ¥ ¢§ £ ¢§ 5 ¦  ¡ ¨@GQ ¥ § § . lated. the maximum velocity can not exceed the ¢ §   Q £¥ 98¤ ¡ I © 4. However. The Impulse Function is denoted here as . The exit velocity. but in the literature some denote this ¢ function as . To calculate the net forces that acting on the section shown in the Figure in the x direction the momentum equation has to be applied as   "  ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ $  ¨ ¥ ¢ ¥ ¨  ¢  (4. The exit temperature is is § ¢ § § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡    Even for the isothermal model. ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW § ¥ ¢£ §Q¨§9 ¥ §¦ ¡    ¥ ¢£¢ @ §  ¥ 9QQ § § ¡ ¡ ¢  ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ §£§¢  ¥ 7 £ ¤¤¢ § ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¥ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥  ¥ §¢ ¢§ 7¨  £ £  ¥ §   §£¢ ¢ @  ¥£ £ ¢ £  I © ¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ ¢ § With known Mach number.9).6 or using the Potto–GDC as obtains the following table is obtained     ¥ 9QQ §¦§ 5  ¦  ¡ £ ¥   ¢  ¡ ¥ §    £ ¥ § 5 7¨@ 5 £  ¥ 2 Q £ @ ¥ 8¤ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¢   £ ¥¢ ¢ £  £ ¥§ ¢ ¦ § ¢ ¡ ¢ £ ¤¦¨¤ £  ¥  £ £7 ¤¤¢ § ¥ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥  ¥£ § § § ¢ 9BQ  ¥H  ¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ §§ §  (4.89) .62 CHAPTER 4. The exit velocity deterThe exit stagnation temperature is £ ¥ ¥¤§¦¨¤ ¢ ¤© ¢ ¡ ¢  ¡ © ¤ ¡   £  ¢  ¡¤£ ¥ ¢£¢ £    £ ¥ § 5 § 7¨@ 5    ¥  ¡ Q ¢ £¦¥ § B8¤ ¡   £I © As it was discussed before the velocity in copper nozzle will be larger than velocity in the wood nozzle.1 The Impulse Function Impulse in Isentropic Adiabatic Nozzle   One of the function that used in calculation of the forces is the Impulse function.5. To explain the motivation for using this definition consider calculation of the net forces that acting on section shown in Figure (4.

4. the net force is  ¥ ¤ ¤ ¨  ¥ ¢   ¥   (4.92) ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨  ¢ ¢ £ ¢  ¥ £ ©'    ¥     £    $ £ (4. The mass conservation also can be applied ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡    ¡  ¡ ¢   ¥ ¢ ¥ ¡ ¥ (4.  and .9: Schematic to explain the signifion the Mach number creates the concances of the Impulse function venience for calculation the net forces action on any device.91) and dividing it by ¨   ¨ ¢ " ¢  £ ¡ ¨  ©    ¨ ¨ ¥ ¥ ¢ & ¨ ¢ ¢ ¥ £ £    ©     ¦ & ¥ ¨ ' ©    ¨  ¨   ¥ ¢ ¢  ¢ ¨ ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¥ ¡ ¨  ¢  (4.89) with equation (4.91) ¨ & results in ¨ ¢ ¥ £ £    ©   '  ¨ &  ¥   (4.92) Examining equation (4. 4. Thus. .90) Combining equations (4.96) ¨  §   " ¡ ¢ £ %£   $   £         £ £ . Hence. THE IMPULSE FUNCTION The net force is denoted here as to our control volume   "    63  .90) and utilizing the identity in equation (??) results in "  ¡ ¢¨ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¥ ¥  ¥ ¦  ¢¨  ¡    ¡ ¥ Rearranging equation (4.94) The ratio of the impulse function is defined as     £ ¡ ¨ ¨  £ ¢ ¢  £ ¥ £    %£    $ ¥    ¡ £ ¤ ¨$   ¦ ¨¨ ¢ © ¤ ¨ £ £ see function (4.93) £ ¢ (4.95)  ¨ This ratio is different only in a coefficient from the ratio defined in equation (??) which make the ratio function of and the Mach number.92) shows that right hand side is only function of x-direction Mach number and specific heat ratio. defining the Impulse function as         ¡ ( £   In the Impulse function when   ¡©£ ) is denoted as ¡ ¨ £    $   £ ¨ ¢ ¥ £    £  ¥ ¥  (4. if the right hand side is only function of the Mach number and than the left hand side must be function of only the same parameters.5. Defining a function that depends only Fig. Hence.

64 CHAPTER 4. 4. The the exit area is stagnation temperature is £§ and the pressure at point 2 was Fig. Utilizing Fliegner’s equation (4. ¢ ¢ ¢ $$ ¥ ¡ § ¥§ £ § £ § § § ¥ ¥ £ £  ¥¢ § ¢  § ¤ ¤¦¥ § § ¢ ¤ ¨ ¤  ¨ § ¢ § § ¥£     ¥ ¢ QQ9Q9Q    the area ratio of at point 1 can be ¡  ¡ ¡ ¢   ¡ ¡£¢ ¢ ¢ And utilizing again Potto-GDC provides ¢  ¥ ¦   5 ¡ ¥ £ £  ¥ ¦9 ¡  ¥ §§ § @  ¥ £ £¦£Q §  ¥ ¢ ¨    @9 £ ¢ ¨   ¥ ¢ ¢ 97¦ £© ¢ ¡  ¥ ¡ ¤¤¢  ¥ § §§ @ I ¤ ¤ ¥  ¥ ¢£¢ ££ § § § ¢  ¥ £G@9@§ ¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ § § ¥£ ¢ §    ¢ The pressure at point 1 is ¡ ¨ ¥ ¨ ¨ ¥ ¨  ¥ ¢ § ¢  §    ¥ ¢£¢ 97  2 § ¥A@9@BQ8¤ § "¨§£© .52). the ratio of ¨     ratio the denominator is needed to be obtained. provides the following £ ¢ ¢ £ ¨ and   5 ¦ 5 § 73@ 2 @ ¦9Q £ ¥A@GQ8¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡    ¥ ¢97  ¡ £¦¥     ¥ §¦ ¨B7   ¦   5  ¥  9 2 § ¥ £ ¥ ¨ ¥ ¡ ¨ ¢ @ ¦9  Q £ ¥A@GQ ¡ © ¢ ¢ £  ¥§ @BB  ¥¢ ¢ ¡ ¡£¢ 7 § Q   ¥¢ ¥ ¤¤¢ Q9  § § § With the area ratio of calculated.10: Schematic of a flow of a compressible sub§ stance (gas) thorough a converging nozzle measured as Calculate for example (4.6) the the net force acting on the nozzle and pressure at point 1. To obtained the ¢ ¢ ¨ is needed to be calculated. £¨¤   £I © ©  ¥  ¤¡  ¥ ¦9¥¤ ¡ © §  ¤ "¨§£© S OLUTION The solution is obtained by getting the data for the Mach number.009m2 A2 = 0.003m2 converging nozzle with a mass T0 = 400K P2 = 50[Bar] flow rate of ¦¥   the ¢ and ¥ entrance area is and ¥ . To obtain this Mach number.6: m ˙ = 1[kg/sec] 2 Consider a flow of gas into a A1 = 0. ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW To demonstrate the usefulness of the this function consider the simple situation of the flow through a converging nozzle 1 Example 4.

71) transformed equation into   ¥    ¡    ¥ £    £      ¥  ¥ ¥ (4.6.97) Utilizing the ideal gas model for density and some rearrangement results in ¥   Since ¡ ¥   (4.5.96)   65 "  ¡ ¡   ¦   5 § £ ¥ £ 5 § ¥ § 5 £ ¥ § £¡  5  § ¥ £ ¢ § ¢ ¨ ¥ ¢ ¥ ¨ ¨ ¥ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¥ #£    £  $    § ¥ ¤ ¤  ¨      ¥     £  £ ¥  ¥ ¢ QQ9QQ $ 2 Q £ §¥¤   ¡ © 4.100) 4.3: Isothermal Table  ¥   ¥   ¥ §£ ¥  ¥H §§¨7¢©§§ 7  H¥  ¢£¢£  H¥ B £ § §  H¥   § ¡ ¢ ¡£¢ ¥ £ ¥ 9Q § £ ¥9 Q§ £ ¥9 Q§ £ ¥9 Q§ § ¢¥ § ¢  ¥   ¢ ¢ ¢ ¥ § § ¥ ¦ £ ¥ B § § §   ¤ ¤¦¥ £¥ ¥  £§ ¥ £  ¥ ¢   § §¥ § B7 £ ¥   ¥  £  ¥   ¥  ¦   ¤ ¨ ¤  ¨ § ¢ § Q § ¥§ §  7 ¥ Q§ §§ ¥ §  ¥§         .98) ¢  ¡ ¨ ¥ ¢ ¢ ¨  ¥  £ £   ¦¤ ¦  ¨¤ ¦ © ©  (4.98)  ¡    ¥ and the ratio of equation (4. the definition of the Impulse function is reused.4. The ratio of the impulse function for two points on the nozzle is   ¥    ¡   ¨ ¥ ¢ ¢ ¨  ¥ ¥    ¥ ¡ ¥ ¥      ¡  ¢ ¢ ¥  (4. As previously.6   Isothermal Table Table 4. The same is done here for the isothermal nozzle flow model.2 The Impulse Function in Isothermal Nozzle Previously Impulse function was developed in the isentropic adiabatic flow. ISOTHERMAL TABLE The net force is obtained by utilizing equation (4.99) At the star condition (  ¡©£ ) (not the minimum point) results in ¥ ¥ ¡  £ ¥ £  £      ¥     £ (4.

66 CHAPTER 4.7    ¥ 9Q ¢§  §  ¥ 97§ 7¨  ¥ Q Q9Q¨  ¥ Q3@G9 7  H¥ @B § §@B7  ¥ 7¦  7  ¥7 ¢  ¨ §7 £ ¥ ¦§  £ ¥ §£ 7 £¥ 7£ £ ¥¨ §Q§ £ ¥ Q 7£ £§ ¥ ¢§  ¢ ¥ ¨ § § ¥ Q¦9 7  ¥    ¥  §¦ §¢ ¥ £ £ § § ¥ Q £ ¢ ¥ §§£¢£ §¦ ¥ § 7¥ £ § £ ¥  § § ¥7  § ¥ ¢  §§ 7 ¥  £ ¥§   § § ¥    ¥ §§   ¥   @ H¥ @   £ ¥£  § £ ¥Q  § § § ¥  §                         ¡£¢ ¡ ¢¥ £ ¥ 9Q9§ £ ¥9 Q¢ £ ¥  £ ¥  9 £ ¥ 3 §@ £ ¥9  9 Q £ ¥ § £ £ ¥    ¥ ¢¢ @G3@GQ  ¥¢ § £ 3 §@ ¥ 9  ¦ §  ¥ 7B7¨B  ¥7 9 7§§  A¥ @B¢B § §¢  ¥ Q §¦ §  ¥ Q9 ¢§ @GQ  H¥ BQ  §  H¥ § 9 § Q  £7  ¥ 77 £  ¥¨ @G £ @B97  ¥ £ £ § 9§ £G@  ¥  § £  ¥   £  £ ¥§ £   ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥   § ¢¥ § ¢ £ ¥A@GQ¢ £ ¥ 97 £ ¥ £ 7 £ ¥9 ¢£Q¨   ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ Q3@  ¥ ¢ @ §£ £ 9Q ¥ @ @§ £ ¥  ¦ £ ¥ 9 £ ¥ § £§ £ ¥ §¢ ¢ @ £ ¥ ¢ ¢ £ H¥  £ ¥ 79Q § § ¢ ¥  § ¥ Q9Q¨  ¥§ @ £ § ¥9  7 ££ A¥ @G7 ¢  ¥ £§ § @ H¥   ¢ ¥£   £ ¥Q   § ¥  Q £ ¥§  7 @ ¥  ¢  ¥  £ £  ¥Q   £ 7 ¥  £ £ £ ¥7   £7 § ¥ §  §§  ¥   £ ¥ §§  §§¨¢Q £¥                              ¤ ¤ ¥ £ ¥7 £ £ ¥ 7¦¢  £ ¥Q  £ ¥ 9Q  £ ¥ §§ §¨¢ £ ¥ 7¨§@ £ ¥£ § £ ¥ ¦  §£¢  ¥ 7Q9 ¢©  H¥ @B § ¢ §  ¥Q  £ Q ¢  ¥ £ 9 Q  ¥§  £ Q97Q  ¥  9 §  ¥ §§ Q9Q9 § ¥ 9 7¨ §Q  ¥£ £ Q§ § ¢   ¥£ § ¨ §Q¢  ¥  B §  ¥ ¦9  ¨@  § ¥ ¦ 9  7  H¥ @9  £ ¥§ £ Q  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥     ¢§ §¥ § ¥ 9 ¥   § ¥ ¦  £ ¥ QQ¨ @ £ ¥ §§ §¨¢ £¥  ¤©¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ § £ ¥ £¦£ £ £ ¥ ¦   ¥¢  ¢  ¢  ¥ 79¢© 9  H¥ @BQ §§¨¢  H¥ @ £§  ¥ QQ9 QQ¨@  ¥ Q §  §   ¥ 9797 §  ¥ 9 BQ  ¥  § Q §  ¥   ¦   ¥ §  ¦   ¥  99  ¥ §§ 7¨@ £  ¥ §§ ¦   ¥ § §§ §  ¥  ¦ §  ¥£ £7£ £7  ¥£ £ Q9QQ¨@  ¥ £ B 7  ¥ £ § § 79Q  ¥£ £ 9 9 §  ¥£     ¥ £¦£ @BQ  ¥ £¦£ £¦§£ £  ¥£   Q  ¥ £  ¦   £ ¥HB Q§ £ ¥ § §@9 £ ¥£  £ ¥  §¦§ £ ¥  §  ¥ ¢¢ 73@B¢   ¥ 73@ Q £ ¥  ¦  £ ¥ §  £ ¥  § ¢@ £ ¥¨ @ £ ¥£ £ § £ ¥ ££¢9 £ ¥ §£ § £ ¥ § 3@ £ ¥ 7§ £ £ ¥ 7 £ ¥ ¨§@9 £ ¥ Q ¢ £ ¥ 797 § ¥ £Q£ § ¥ §  7 § A¥ @ £ £7  ¥ § ¦  ¥ 7 §¢  H¥ BQ  ¥ 79Q § ¥ £¨ § § ¥ §  ¢£ § A¥ @ £  ¥ §¨3 @ ¥ ¢Q  H¥ B7Q  ¥ 7¨@9    The effects of Real Gases To obtained expressions for non–ideal gas it is communally done by reusing the ideal gas model and introducing a new variable which is a function of the gas properties like the critical pressure and critical temperature. Thus.3: Isothermal Table (continue)  ¥  ¥§  H¥   ¥Q  A¥ @  ¥ 7¢ ¥ £ ¥  £ ¥ §£  £¥  £ ¥  £ ¥ §¦ £ ¥H  £ ¥Q  £ A¥ @  £ ¥ 7¢  £¥  § ¥  § H¥    ¥    H¥    § ¥   § H¥     ¥    H¥    Q ¥   Q H¥    @ ¥   @ H¥    7 ¥   7¢ H¥    ¥   ¢ H¥    £  ¥  4. ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW Table 4. a real gas equation .

To carry the integration of the right hand side the relationship between the pressure and the density has to be defined. that for perfect gas the is substituted by .4. THE EFFECTS OF REAL GASES 67 can be expressed in equation (3. the differential of enthalpy is calculated for real gas equation of state as ¥  ¥    ¡ $ ¨ ¥ (4.104)   ¤ ¡ ¤¦    ¥ ¤ Equations (4.103) First.19) and dividing by equation (3.107) ¡ ¥ § ¡ ¥  ¤©  ¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥©¨ ¥   ¢ £  ¨ ¨ ¢ ¥ ¦ ¨ ¤¨ (4.19).108) . Gibb’s equation (4.102)  ¤ ©¨ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¤ ¡  ¡ $ ¥ ¤ ¡ ¤¦ ¢ ¢ The definition of pressure specific heat is Maxwell relation hence. With integration of equation (4.106) when using relationship which is defined in equation (4.27) is reused to related the entropy change to the change in thermodynamics properties and applied on non-ideal gas.106) At the stagnation the definition requires that the velocity is zero.19) yields ¤¨ ¡ ¤ $ ¨ $  ¤     ¤¦  (4. The enthalpy is a function of the ¥ ¥ temperature and pressure thus.27) and (3.107) results  ¢ ¡  ¨ ¨ ¥ ¦ ¨ ¢   ¥ (4. Since and utilizing the equation of the state ¥ ¨     . Differentiating equation (3.19) are combined to form    ¥    ¡ $  ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤  ¡ £    ¢ $ ¢ ¥ ¥¤£ ¤¨ ¨ (4.  ¥ ¥ ¡    ¡ ¨ ¤   ¥ ¥      ¤ and second derivative is ¢ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢   ¢ ¢ (4. ¨ and full differential is  ¥ ¥  ¥ ¥ ¥ (4.105) The mechanical energy equation can be expressed as  ¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ § ¡ ¡ ¤©¨   (4.7.101) Again. The following power relationship is assumed     Notice.

112) ¢ £ Where   is the density at the throat (assuming the chocking condition) and the cross area of the throat.111) It must be noted that is a function of the critical temperature and critical pressure.34) to defined the Mach number as  ¡ ¥ ¦ Integrating equation (4. ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW ¥ ¡ Substituting relation for stagnation density (3.110) For the integration becomes ¡©¡ ¡  $ ¢ ¢  ¢ ¦ §  ¡  ¨ ¨ (4.19) results ¡ ¥ § ¡ For  ¡ £  ¡¤£ ¥  § $ ¢¢  ¢ ¨ ¢  ¨ ¨ ¢  ¥ ¦ ¨ ¤©¨ ¥ (4. the mass flow rate in our properties £ is ¢¢  ¢ For the case of  ¡¤£ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¢ £ $ ¨ ¢ ¤ © ¨ ¨ ¥ ¢ ¦ ¨ ¨ ¡ ¡ ¢    $ ¢¢ ¢  £ £ 8 § ©   ¨ ¨ ¥ ¢   ¦ ¦  ¨ $ @  (4. The mass flow rate is regardless to equation of state as following  ¡ ¡ ¡   £ ¢ £ ¡ £ (4.113) ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¢ £ $ ¨ ¢ ¢¢  ¢ ¤ © ¨ ¨ ¥ ¦ ¨ ¨  ¢ ¡   §$¢¢  ¢ ¦   © £ £ ¡  ¨ ¨ ¢ ¥  (4.116) . Thus.68 CHAPTER 4.115) results  ¥    ¥ ¨ ¢ $ ¢ ¥ ¥ ¤¨ ¨ ¥ (4.109) the integration results in ¡ ¡©¡ ¢ ¡    $¢¢  ¢  £ £ 8 ¨ ¨ ¢ ¢ ¥  ¦ ¦  ¨ $ @ (4.105) when ¡ ¤ ¦ ¨   ¡ ¤ ¢ ¤¦ ¡  ¡ ¤ ¡  $    $¦ ¢ £  (4.114) The Mach number can be obtained by utilizing equation (3.

117) After integration of the velocity ¤¢¡ § ¥ ¡ ¥¡  ¥   ¢   ¤  ¨ ¨ ¥ ¢ (4.119) When  ¡ £ or when £ ¡E  § $ ¢¢  ¢ § ¦¥  ¨ ¨ ¢ £ ¥ (4.120) ¢ £ £ The mass flow rate for the real gas ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ And for  ¡¤£   $¢¢  ¢ D ¢ £ ¨ ¢  §  £   ¨ ¥ ¦ ¨   ¨ ¢ £  ¡  ¨ ¨ £ ¢ £ (4.4.124) ¨ ¢ ¢ .7.33) is applicable some ranges of relative temperature and pressure (relative to critical temperature and pressure not the stagnation conditions).122) The Fliengner number is in this case is    ¡ ¡ ¨ ¢ ¢ D   £ ¡ ¥ ¦ ¨   ¢ £ ¢ ¥ ¥ ¦¡  £  ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ £ ¢ £ (4.116) looks at Bernnolli’s equation which is ¡ ¤¢¡ § ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤©¨     (4. THE EFFECTS OF REAL GASES 69 To carryout the integration of equation (4.123) The Fliengner number is in ¡    ¡¤£ §  ¨ is £ £  ¡ ¡ ¨ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ £ ¥ (4.121) ¡ ¡ ¡   $¢¢ ¢ D ¢ £ ¨ ¢  § £    $¢¢  ¢ ¦ § ¨ ¨ £ ¨ ¨ ¢ ¥ (4.118) It was shown in Chapter (3) that (3. ¡ ¡©¡ ¢ ¡   $ ¢¢  ¢   # ¡  §  £ ¥ 8 £   ¨ ¨ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢  ¨ @ (4.

125) ¢ ¡ £   e (4.127) The power of the pressure ratio is approaching £ $ $ ¢   ¨ ¨ ¢ ¥ 7£¢ 7  ¨ when z approach 1. ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW The critical ratio of the pressure is  £ ¡ £ or more generally when  # £ this ratio approach When  ¤ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¢ ¡ £  § ¥ ¦ ¦  ¨ (4.130) The pressure ratio at any point can be expressed as function of the Mach number as for  ¡¤£ ¢ ¡ £    £ ¥  £  ¦ ¦  ¨ $¤ §  £ £ $¦¤ & ' © (4.128) ¦ ¦ The Mach number at every point at the nozzle can be expressed as  ¡ ¢  ¡ § ¥     £ ¡   $ ¢¢ £ $  8  ¨ ¨  ¥ ¨ ¦ ¦ @ (4.133) .131)  ¢ ¡ e    ¡ ¢ £ ¦ ¤ £ ¤  ££ §$ ¤3© § & ' ¦ ¦ § (4.70 CHAPTER 4.116) can be integrated ¢ ¡  ¢ ¡  ¡  ¡¢   ¡ ¤ £ ¤  £ £ ¥$ ¤ © ¨ ¢ ¥ § & ' ¨ (4. Note that (4.129) For  ¡¤£ the Mach number is D § $$ ¢  ¢ § ¦¥  ¨ ¨ ¢ £ ¤ (4.132) The critical temperature is given by  $ ¨ £ §    ¤ ¥ £ ¤  £ £ $§¤3© & ' (4. equation (4.126) To obtain the relationship between the temperature and pressure.

and temperature £§ . The stagnation pressure and the stagnation temperature. Calculate area ratio between the point and the throat.135) ¨ the mass flow rate is ¡ ¡ " §£© ¤ ¨ ¨ ¢  e  ¢ ¢ £     £  § £  ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ £  ¨ (4. S OLUTION 1. The solution is simplified by using Potto-GDC for   ¢¡ £ ¥ §¦ § ¥ Q £ ¦    ¥§ §  ¨ ¡ ¡£¢ § @ ¨  ¥ £¦£ @GQ £ ¤¤¢ ¡ § ¥Q £  ¥  § § § § ¢¢ the results are § ¢ ¥ 9QQ ¤ ¤¦¥  ¥ £ §9QQ ¤ ¨ ¤  ¨ § ¢ § 2. the stagnation pressure is constant for isentropic flow. The stagnation pressure is obtained from ¢ ¡ ¢ ¨©¡ § ¥ Q ¢ £ 2 ¨  ¥ §  § " §£©  § ¥7  § ¤§ ¨ § The stagnation temperature is  ¢ ¡   ¢ ¡  ¥ § ¦§    § @ 2 @ £ £  ¥7 § 3. . ii. i.7: A design is required that at specific point the Mach number should be  § § the pressure .  ¦ ¡ § ¥Q £ .4.7. Of course. THE EFFECTS OF REAL GASES and for 71 &  ¡¤£  ¡ ¢ £   £ ¤ £ ¥ $¤ © e¢ ¤  £ § ' (4. iii. Is the stagnation pressure and temperature at the entrance are different from the point? You can assume that .136) Example 4.134) The mass flow rate as function of the Mach number is For the case of  ¡¤£ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢¢  ¡ ¨     £  ¦  §  £   ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ £ ¨  ¨ (4.

ISENTROPIC VARIABLE AREA FLOW .72 CHAPTER 4.

  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦   ¢  ) £ ¡ ¥  "¥ ¡ In this chapter the relationships between the two sides of normal shock are presented. 73 . This assumption is no longer valid in the case of shock. left and right of the shock. c. the flow is assumed to be in a steady state. In this discussion. In fact. Here. without any abrupt changes. The second is when many sound waves “run into” each other and accumulate (some referred to it as “coalescing”) into a large difference. The conditions. the sound wave can be viewed as extremely weak shock. In the speed of sound analysis. 5. A discussion on the shock thickness will be presented in a forthcoming section1 . but it also can viewed as a one dimensional shock wave low pressure side. and the membrane is burst (see the discussion about the shock tube). A shock can occur at least in two different mechanisms. The first is when a ¡£¢ flow direction large difference (above critical ©¨  ¤¦¥ §£ value) between the two sides   of a membrane exists. the relationship for a perfect gas is constructed. and the gas flows from left to right.1) a control volume for this analysis is shown.v. and the thickness of the shock to be very small. are assumed to 1 Currently under construction. Of course. which is the shock wave (piston relatively fast moving). it was assumed the medium to be continuous.1: A shock wave inside of a tube. In Figure (5. the shock travels from the high pressure to the Fig.

74

CHAPTER 5. NORMAL SHOCK

be uniform2 . The conditions to the right of the shock wave are uniform, but different from the left side. The transition in the shock is abrupt and in a very narrow width. The chemical reactions (even condensation) are neglected, and the shock occurs at a very narrow section. Clearly the isentropic transition assumption is not appropriate in this case because the shock wave is a discontinued area. Therefore the increase of the entropy is fundamental to the phenomenon and understanding. It is further assumed that there is no friction or heat loss at the shock (because the heat transfer is negligible due to the fact that it occurs at a relatively small surface.). It is customary in this field to denote ¢ as the upstream condition and  as the downstream condition. The mass flow rate is constant from the two sides of the shock and therefore the mass balance reduced to

  © ¡ ©

¡
  © ¡

    ¡
 

(5.1)

In the shock wave, the momentum is the quantity that remained constant because there are no external forces. Thus, it can be written that

¨ © ¨

 

¡
¥

 

¥

    ¡ © ¥ 

(5.2)

The process is adiabatic, or nearly adiabatic, and therefore the energy equation can be written

 ¢¡ ©  

¡ © ¥ §

¡

 ¢¡ 

  

¡ §

 

¥
(5.3)

The equation of state for perfect gas reads

¨©¡  

¢ 

(5.4)

If the conditions upstream are known, then there are four unknown conditions downstream. A system of four unknowns and four equations is solvable. Nevertheless, one can note that there are two solutions (because of the quadratic of equation (5.3). These two possible solutions refer to the direction of the flow. Physics dictates that there is only one possible solution. One cannot deduce the direction of flow from the pressure on both sides of the shock wave. The only tool that brings us to the direction of flow is the second law of thermodynamics. This law dictates the direction of the flow, and as it will be shown, the gas flows from supersonic flow to subsonic flow. Mathematically the second law is expressed by the entropy. For the adiabatic process, the entropy must increase. In mathematical terms, it can be written as follows:
 

©

¡ 

(5.5)

2 Clearly the change in the shock is so significant compared to the changes in medium before and after the shock that the changes in the mediums (flow) can be considered uniform.

75 Note that the greater–equal signs were not used. The reason is that the process is irreversible, and therefore no equality can exist. Mathematically the parameters are ¨ ¡ and   , which are needed to be solved. For ideal gas, equation (5.5) is

¡ ¡ ¡

¦¡   

©

  

 

£$

¨ ©

¨

 

¡ 

(5.6)

It can be also noticed that entropy, , can be expressed as a function of the other parameters. Now one can view these equations as two different subsets of equations. The first set is the energy, continuity and state equations, and the second set is the momentum, continuity and state equations. The solution of every set of these equations produces one additional degree of freedom, which will produce a range of possible solutions. Thus, one can instead have a whole range of solutions. In the first case, the energy equation is used, producing various resistance to the flow. This case is called Fanno flow, and the Chapter (9) deals extensively with this topic. The mathematical explanation is given there in greater detail. Instead of solving all the equations that have been presented, one can solve only 4 equations (including the second law), which will require additional parameters. If the energy, continuity and state equations will be solved for the arbitrary value of the   , a parabola in the – diagram will be obtained. On the other hand, when the momentum equation is solved instead of the energy equation, the degree of freedom now is energy i.e., the energy amount “added” to the shock. This situation is similar to frictionless flow with the addition of heat, and this flow is known as Rayleigh flow. This flow is dealt with in greater detail in chapter 10.  

Since the shock has no heat transfer (a special subsonic flow case of Rayleigh flow) and supersonic flow there isn’t essentially moT mentum transfer (a special shock jump case of Fanno flow), the intersection of these two curves is what really hapRayleigh Fanno line line pened in the shock. In Figure (5.2) the intersection is shown and two solutions are obtained. Clearly the increase of the entropy determines the direction of s flow. The entropy increases from point ¢ to point  . It Fig. 5.2: The intersection of Fanno flow and Rayleigh flow produces two solutions for the shock wave is also worth noting that the temperature at  on Rayleigh flow is larger than that on the Fanno line.

¨©©©

 ¢¡¤£ 6 4 589 7 @ 1(203

&('0) 

!#"$!#"%!

¥¢¦¤§

¡ £

76

CHAPTER 5. NORMAL SHOCK

5.1
5.1.1

Solution of the Governing Equations
Informal model

Accepting the fact that the shock is adiabatic or nearly adiabatic requires that total   . The relationship of the temperature to the stagnaenergy is conserved, © tion temperature provides the relationship of the temperature for both sides of the shock. 

¢ ¡ ¢ 

© ¡
 

£ ¡ ¤ £ 

¢

¤  ¡ ¤   ¤ ¢ 

7£¢ ¥   7 ¢¥  

© ¥
 

¥

(5.7)

All the other derivations are essentially derived from this equation. The only issue that is left to derived is the relationship between  © and    . Note that Mach number is function of temperature, thus for known  © all the other quantities can be determined at least numerically. As it will be seen momentarily there is analytical solution which is discussed in the next section.

5.1.2

Formal Model

The equations (5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) can be converted into a dimensionless form. The reason that dimensionless forms are heavily used in this book is because by doing so simplifies and clarifies the solution. It can also be noted that in many cases the dimensionless questions set is more easily solved. From the continuity equation (5.1) substituting for density,   , the equation of state yields

¢
Squaring equation (5.8) results

¨ © 

© © ¡

¡ ¡

¢ ¢

¨ 

¨ ¥

   

¡
 

(5.8)

¢

¨ © ¥ © ¥ ¥  © ¥ ¡

  

¥
 

¥ ¡
 

¥

(5.9)

Multiplying the two sides by ratio of the specific heat, k provide a way to obtained the speed of sound definition/equation for perfect gas, ¥ to be used for Mach definition as following, 

¡  £¢  

©   ¢   ¨ ¦ ©

¨ © ¥ 

© ¥ © ¡

¢

¡  ¨  £¢   '  ¨ ¦ ©
   

¥ 

 

¡
 

¥

(5.10)

Note that the speed of sound at different sides of the shock is different. Utilizing the definition of Mach number results in

¨ © ¥ 

© 

© ¥

¡ ¨
 

¥

  

 

¥

(5.11)

5.1. SOLUTION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS Rearranging equation (5.11) reads

77 

© ¡
  

¨

¨ ©

 

¥ ¥  


©

 

¥ ¥
(5.12)

Energy equation (5.3) converted to a dimensionless form as ¥  ¥  ©     §    ¥ §  © ¥ 

£

 

£

¡

£

 

£

(5.13)

It can be also noticed that equation (5.13) means that the stagnation temperature © . Under perfect gas model   ¡ ¥ is identical to ¢¨  ¥ because is the same,   

¢ ¡ ¢

  ¡ ¥

©  ¤ ¨  ' ¨ ©  ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨   £¡ ¢   £¢  ¡  ¢¨  '¨ ¦ ©
( ) ) !# #$

¦

  

1 

§

(5.14)

Using the identity (5.14) transforms the momentum equation (5.2) into

¨ ©  ¢  ¨© ©¥
Rearranging the equation (5.15) yields

¡
¨

  

¢¨
 

  

 

¥

(5.15)

¨ ©

¨

 

¡ ££     

© ¥ 

 

¥

(5.16)

The pressure ratio in equation (5.16) can be interpreted as the loss of the static pressure. The loss of the total pressure ratio can be expressed by utilizing the relationship between the pressure and total pressure (see equation (4.11)) as

¨ ¨

¢ ¢© ¡
 

¨ ©
¥

¨

 

¥

£ £ 


7£¢ ¥   7£¢ ¥  

 

¥ 

¤ 

¤ ¤

© ¥ 

¤ 

¨ ¨

(5.17)

The relationship between the  © and    is needed to be solved from the above equations set. This relationship can be obtained from the combination of mass, momentum, and energy equations. From the equations (5.13) (energy) and equation (5.12) (mass) the temperature ratio can be eliminated.      ¥ ¥  © ¥  ¨  ¥  (5.18)    ¥ ¨ ©  ©  ¥ 

¡ ££

7£¢ 7¢

Combining the results (5.18) with equation (5.16) results   ¥ ¥  ¥ ¥ ¥ © ¥    ©  © ¥   ¥   ¥         ¥ 

£   £  

¡

£

7£¢ £ 7£¢

(5.19)

78

CHAPTER 5. NORMAL SHOCK

Equation (5.19) is a symmetrical equation in the sense that if    is substituted by  © and  © substituted by    the equation is remains the same. Thus, one solution is 

 

¡ 

©

(5.20)

It can be noticed that equation (5.19) is biquadratic. According the Gauss Biquadratic Reciprocity Theorem this kind of equation has a real solution in a certain range3 which be discussed later. The solution can be obtained by rewriting equation (5.19) as polynomial (fourth order). It also possible to cross multiply equation ¥ ¥ (5.19) and divided it by       

$

£ 

 
§

£
¥ 

 

¥  
 

¥ 

  

 

¥ 
 

¥

¡ 

(5.21)

Equation (5.21) becomes 

 

¥

¡

¥  7 £ ¢ ¥7  © ¥ £ 7¢ 

© ¥ 

(5.22)

The first solution (5.20) is the trivial solution in which the two sides are identical and no shock wave occurs. Clearly in this case, the pressure and the temperature   ¨ © ¨   . The from both sides of non–existent shock are the same i.e. © second solution is the case where the shock wave occurs. The pressure ratio between the two sides can be now as a function of only single Mach number, for example,  © . Utilizing equation (5.16) and equation (5.22) provides the pressure ratio as only function of upstream Mach number as 

¡  ¡

¡

¨ © ¨   ¨ ©

¨

 

   ©¥ ¡    £§ ¡©£       £
¥

§

  

    £
© ¥

£ £ 

(5.23)

The density and upstream Mach number relationship can be obtained in the same fashioned to became

      ©

¡
¡

¡
   

¡
§ 

  £ $  © ¥    £$ ©¥
¥   ¥

(5.24)

Utilizing the fact that the pressure ratio is a function of the upstream Mach number,  © , provides additional way to obtain additional useful relationship. And the temperature ratio as a function of pressure ratio is transfered into 

© ¡
  

¨

¨ ©

 

¥

( 7£ 7¢ £

£  77 ¢  



£  ¥    ¥ ¢

¢

4

(5.25)

3 Ireland, K. and Rosen, M. ”Cubic and Biquadratic Reciprocity.” Ch. 9 in A Classical Introduction to Modern Number Theory, 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 108-137, 1990.

5.1. SOLUTION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS

79

In the same way the relationship between the density ratio and pressure ratio is

  ©    

¡

£

£ £ 7 

£ £ 7 


7£¢

7£¢ 

 

£

£ 



¥   ¥
¢

¥

¥  
¢ 



(5.26)

5.1.3

Speed of Sound Definition

There can be several definitions of speed of sound that associated with the shock wave. 5.1.3.1 The Maximum Conditions The maximum speed of sound is when the highest temperature is achieved. The maximum temperature that can be achieved is the stagnation temperature
Shock Wave relationship
My and P0y/P0x as a function of Mx 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 My P0y/P0x

¡

4 $© ¡ D
  ¢ ¡ 

§

 

My

£¢ ¢

(5.27)

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 1 2 3 Fri Jun 18 15:47:34 2004 0 4 5 Mx 6 7 8 9 10

The stagnation speed of sound is

P £  ¢ ¢

(5.28)

Based on this definition a new Mach number can be defined

¢ ¡ ¡ ¢

(5.29)

Fig. 5.3: The exit Mach number and the stagnation pressure ratio as a function of upstream Mach number

5.1.3.2 The Star Conditions The speed of the sound at the critical condition also can be a good reference velocity. The speed of sound at that velocity 

¡
£

 £  ¢ 

£ £

(5.30)

In the same manner additional Mach number can be defined as 

£

¡ ¡

(5.31)

35) gives ¡  ¡ ¥ Or in dimensionless form  £ ¡ £ £ ¥ (5. The questions that appear are what should be the Mach number (upstream or downstream) for given pressure ratio or density ratio (velocity ratio).3).2 Operating Equations and Analysis In Figure (5. This kind of question requires examining the Table (5.35) After rearranging and diving equation (5. It also can be noticed that density ratio (velocity ratio) also have a finite value regardless to the upstream Mach number.32) The jump condition across the shock must satisfy the constant energy. Note that the    has minimum value which depends on the specific heat ratio.1. The working equations are presented earlier.34) results in £      £ §  £ ¥   § £ ¡  £  ¡  ¡   ¡ ¥ £      § £ £ ¥   § £ ¡ ¥ £  ¡ ¥ (5.    and the Ratio of the total pressure.4 Prandtl’s condition It can be easily noticed that the temperature from both sides of the shock wave is discontinuous.   ¥ £  ¡ ¥ § ¥ ¡   £ £  §¥ ¡ £ §   £   £ $  £ ¥ (5. ¨     ¨ © are plotted as a function of the entrance Mach number.33) and (5.36)   ¥ ¡ £ ¥ (5. NORMAL SHOCK 5. It is therefore convenient to define the star Mach number that will be independent of the specific Mach number (independent of the temperature).1) for or utilizing ¢ ¢   ¡ £ ¥§ . Therefore the speed of sound is different in these adjoining mediums.80 CHAPTER 5.  £ ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡  ¡   £ £ £  (5. the Mach number after the shock.33) Dividing of the mass equation by momentum equation and combining with the perfect gas model yields     ¡  ¥ ¡   ¡  ¥ ¡    ¡¥ ¥  ¡ ¥ (5.37) 5.34) Combining equation (5. The typical situations in which these equations can be used include also the moving shocks.

For finding the Mach number for § pressure ratio of 8.0 50.0 100. i.0 20.0 10.0 30.30879 and is only a few mouse clicks way to following table. pressure. the known informa. total pressure and velocity downstream of the shock.e.0 80. © of the shock § © and £§ . © the velocity can readily be calculated.0 110.1: Air flows with a Mach number of  © . Py/Py.0 40.4: The ratios of the static properties of the two sides tion  © .0 0.   ¡ £ ¥ § § ¥A@ § §¨      ¥ § @GQ § §   ¡ ¥ £¦£ £  120. ¥  ¢ ¤£ ¨ © § §§   § § § © ©    ¡ ¡  @G ¡ £ ¥H ¤ ¦ "¨§£© ¢  £¦¥   ¥  @ 3@ ¡ 9   ¥ £¨¤ ¦ "§£© 5 5  ¡    £¢  ¡   £ ¥ § ¨ 7 @ @G ¡ 9   £¦¥ ¡ £I   ¥  ¦      ¡ © ¡  ¥ @ ¨@  ¥ § ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ©   ¡   ¡  ¥ 7¨@ £§ ¨ Now the velocity downstream is determined by the inverse ratio of   . Example 5.2. Using these data.0 90. The relationship that was calculated will be utilized to ob¥ ¢ § § § tain the ratios for downstream of the normal shock.0 ¡£¢ ¡ ¤ ¥  ¥ ¢ Q  ¤¤ ¢ ¤ 7 ¥ ¦9797 § ¢¤ §  ¥ 7 £  ¢ § ¢¢ ¢¤ § To illustrate the usage of the above equations.2). at pressure of 0.5 [bar] and temperature 0 C goes through a normal shock. the total pressure can be obtained (through an isentropic relationship Table (4. ¨ © is known). Also with the temperature. an example is provided. OPERATING EQUATIONS AND ANALYSIS 81 Potto-GDC for or value of the specific heat ratio.   ¡  ©  ¥ § @B £ ¢ 5 © ¡  5 ¡     ¡  ¥ Q3@ ¢   ¥ 7¨@ £ £¦¥ § ¡ ¢ ¢  ¥ Q8¤ ¡   £I © § ¡£¢ ¡ ¤ ¥ ¤¤ ¢ ¤ £  ¥ 99 § ¢¤ § § ¢¢ ¢¤ § 7 §     © ¡ ¢ ¡     ¥ Q  G ¥ 7¨@ £ § ¡ § ¨@ ¥ Q8¤ ¡   £I  © ¥ ¨ ¢ 5 ¨ ¢ © ¡ ¥  § 79 § 5 9 ¥ £¤ ¦ "¨§£© ¡¤££7 ¥  ¢ ¤ ¦ "¨§£© © ¨ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢   . 5.Fig. ρy/ρx and Ty/Tx as a function of Mx Shock Wave relationship Py/Px Ty/Tx ρy/ρx  ¡  7 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 5 6 S OLUTION Mx Fri Jun 18 15:48:25 2004 Analysis: First.5.0 60.0 70. Calculate the temperature.

3). The strength of the shock wave defined as ¡ £ ¥ £¢ ¡ £¢ ¨   ¨ © ¨ © ¡ ¥ ¨ ¨ ©   £ £  (5.38). . it refers to a case where only a “small shock” occurs.16) and utilizing the limit that was obtained in equation (5. this technique mostly has usage in obtaining analytical expressions for simplified models.2. In this case. The limits of of the pressure ratio can be obtained by looking at equation (5.39) Using the equation (5.41) 5. This issue has very limited practical application for most students. Now.2. The most common definition is passing a tangent to the velocity at the center and finding where is the theoretical upstream and downstream condition are meet. This approach had major significance and usefulness at a time when personal computers were not available.22) is limited by    ¥ ) ¦ 1¡  ¢ ) ¢  ¥) &   ) # £  )£ 7 ¡ ¡  §  £   ¢  ¦ ¥7 ¢ 7£¢         ¢ (5. during the writing of this version of the book. 5.2 Small Perturbation Solution The Small perturbation solution referred to an analytical solution in a case where only small change occurs. This technique also has academic value. The shock thickness has several way to defined it. the downstream Mach number (see equation (5. and therefore will be described in the next version (0. which is up to  © . however.45) here for completeness.5 series).82 CHAPTER 5. to have the student convinced that indeed the assumption of very thin shock is validated by analytical and experimental study.40) Or utilizing equation £¢ £ ¤  ¥7 ¤© £  7 £ ¢ ¡ ¥ £ ¤¤   £ 7¢  £ ¢ (5.2.38) This results is shown in Figure (5.39) into §   ¡    £  © ¥ (5. the issue must be presented.23) transformed equation (5. NORMAL SHOCK 5.1 The Limitations of The Shock Wave When the upstream Mach number becomes very large.3 Shock Thickness The issue of the shock thickness is presented (will be presented in version 0.

The reluctance to deal with the most general case because it is rather specialized and complicated beyond what even early graduate students work. For this analysis. This liquid (metal) is pushing gas ACBEDFA@G `ba (mostly) air which creates two shock stages. and the tools developed in this chapter can be employed. Here. the steady state is obtained in the moving control value. After the first shock moving a second shock is created in which its velocity is dictated by the upstream and downstream velocity. to the stationary case when the coordinate are attached to shock front. In cases when the shock velocity can be approximated as a constant (the majority of the cases) or as a nearly constant. the previous analysis equations. There is further more generalFig.5. It has to be mentioned that the direction of the shock alone doesn’t determine the “upstream” side of the shock. which is common in die casting process.5: Comparison stationary shock ized cases where the moving shock is created which includebetween a change in the physand moving shock in ducts ical properties which this book will not be dealing (at this stage). In such case. The reason the deviation from 4 Later on the dimensional analysis what is suddenly .. the shock can move downstream or upstream. This kind of situation 0 direction 3 1 2 ¥ £ ¤ ¨© is arisen in many industrial applica"$#&% ')(   tions. THE MOVING SHOCKS 83 5. treme when suddenly valve is opened Stationary Coordinates or a membrane is ruptured a shock occurs and propagates downstream (the opposite direction of the previous case). The last situation is the most general Moving Coordinates case which this section will be dealing with. On the other exc. 5. In these changes (for examples.e. the prime ’ will be denoting the values of the static coordinates. In these cases. i. opening value and closing valve on the other side) create situations where different shocks are moving in the tube. In case where two shocks collide into one shock which can move upstream or downstream is the general case.3. Note that this notation is contrary to the conversion notation in the literature. c.v. the coordinates move with the shock. The determining factor is the relative velocity of the flow to the shock.v. the problem can be reduced to the previously studied shock. As specific example. For example. the shock wave flow  ¢¡ ¢ ¦ § isn’t stationary. In some industrial applications c&dReCfTdhgpi q HPIRQCSTIVUXW Y a liquid (metal) is pushed in two rapid stages to a cavity through a pipe sysrtsFu 46587@9 tem.3 The Moving Shocks  ! In some situations. when a valve is 4 suddenly closed and a shock is propagating upstream. As a general rule.

NORMAL SHOCK the common is that this choice reduces the programing work (especially for object oriented programing like C++) and still use the notation that were used before.44) Where ¡ £ is the shock velocity which is moving to the right. The upstream prime Mach number can be defined as  ©£  ¡ ¡   ¡ £ It can be noted that the additional definition was introduced for the shock upstream Mach number. The downstream prime Mach number obtained the form ¡   © ¡ © ¡ ¡ © £    © ¡  £©  © (5. additional definition was introduced of the shock downstream Mach number.47) Similarly to previous case. (refer to Figure (5.50) .45) The speed of sound on both sides of shock depends only the temperature and it is assumed constant.  £   .6)) the velocity measured by the observer is ¡   ¡ £ ¡ ©¢  (5.  £ © ¢ .84 CHAPTER 5. The relation between the two new shock Mach numbers is  £©  ¡ £  ¡ ©  ¡ D  ©  £ ¡ £ ©         (5.48) The “upstream” stagnation temperature of the fluid is  ¥ © ©  §  © ¥  ¢ ¡ ¡ ¨ © £   £ (5.43) Assuming that shock is moving to the right.46)     ¡ £    ¡ ¡ ¡   £    ¡  £      (5. Observer moving with the shock will notice that the pressure in the shock is ¨ ©¡  ¡ ¨ © ¨     ¡ ¨   (5. The “downstream” velocity is ¡   ¡ ¡ £ ¡   (5.42) The temperature measured by the observer is  ©   ¡  © ¡ ©      ¡    (5.49) and the ”upstream” prime stagnation pressure is ¨ ¢©  £    § £  © ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤  ¨ (5.

at a very high velocity. and is “converted” or added into the total temperature.56) can be transformed into simpler equations when  © is zero and ¡ £ is positive values.5.52) And according to equation (5.51) It should be noted that the stagnation temperature (in the stationary coordinates) rises as opposed to the stationary normal shock. the shock velocity “downstream” is ¡£ . 5.3. The sudden closing of the valve must result in a zero velocity of the gas. In such case.3. this difference in the moving shock is expected due to fact that moving material velocity (kinetic energy) converted into internal energy. THE MOVING SHOCKS 85 The same can be said for the “downstream” side of the shock. for example. This situation arises in many cases in the industry.53) Again. This shock is viewed by some as a reflective shock.51) leads to ¢     ¢ ¡ ©    ©   © § £  £© §  $ ©  § £  £      $ ¥ (5. This information propagates upstream in which the gas velocity is converted into temperature.54) . This difference can also view are results of unsteady state of the shock. The difference between the stagnation temperature is in the moving coordinates is ¢    ¢ © ¡ (5. In many such cases the steady state is established quite rapidly.42) to (5. The equations (5.1 Shock Result From A Sudden and Complete Stop The general discussion can be simplified in the extreme case where the shock is moving from a still medium.v.   £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ © ©      £         £©  ©    § § ¢ ¢ ¡  £   £  ¡    ¨ ¤  £    ¤  ©         £   £ § ¢ £     ¥ ¥   ¥     £     § £  £   §    $ © ¨  ©  £ ¡ £ ©'   § £  ©¢  ¥   ©  £©   § £          £© §  $ § (5. The rise of total temperature is due to the fact that new material has entered the c. a sudden and complete closing of a valve. The “upstream” Mach number reads  © ¡ ¡ £  ¡ © © ¡  £©   © (5.

For very small values of upstream typical methods is of “smart” guessing of  ¤ . The relationship between the Mach number on two sides of the shock are tied through equations (5. or  £   instead the velocity because it combines the temperature and velocity into one. Only one real solution is possible. Moving Coordinates  $¥ ¡   £  7£¢ 7  ¥ ©    ¥  ©    £ ©  ¥ ¡   £©  ¥  7£¢ ¥  £ (5. The upstream is on the left of the shock.54) and (5.6: Comparison between stationary shock and moving shock in a stationary medium in ducts And substituting equation (5. ¡ ©¢  and for a given specific heat ratio.58) can be obtained by several numerical methods. the shock is moving to the left but in the moving coordinates.86 The “downstream” Mach number reads     ¡ £    CHAPTER 5. 5.58) but it seems very simple to utilize numerical methods. that analytical solution can be obtained to (5. The ¢ .57) Fig.58)and the rest of the right hand side show clearly that  £ © has four possible solutions (fourth order polynomial for £ © has four solutions).56) ¡ £  £  £ § § ©   ¢ ¢ ¡     £  $     £  $ The prominent question in this situation is what the shock wave velocity for a given fluid velocity. Stationary Coordinates X`YbaWcdY6e8f g B1CED¥F UWV SAT G6HPI$GRQ c. The difficulty lays in the jump from the stationary coordinates to the moving coordinates. The “upstream” or the “downstream” Mach number are not known even if the pressure and the temperature downstream are given. The observer (with the shock) sees the flow moving from the left to the right.v.v. Note. The stagnation temperature increases by  © ¥   © ©  §  ©     (5. it turned out that it is very useful to use the dimensionless parameter  £ © .55) Again.55) by 46587    ¡ ¢ £¥¤  9A@ !#"$% ¦¢§  ¨© &¥')(1032 c. NORMAL SHOCK ¡    ¡  £   (5.48) results © ¡  & ¨ ©    ¢     © ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢     7£¢ 7  ¥  ©    £ ©  ¥  ©     ¥ £©   7¥ ¢ ¥  £ £ (5.57) into (5.58) The temperature ratio in equation (5. The solution to equation (5.

 ©¡  ¥ (the coefficient is only approximated as 0. ¡ £ ©   to the given  ©   .5) as it shown in Figure (5. engi2 neers who are dealing supersonic flow when installing the nozzle and pipe systems for gaseous medium under1 stand the importance of the reflective shock wave. for Much number close to one.5. Here no such device is Msy needed! Luckily and hopefully. Two numerical methods and 0 the algorithm employed to solve this 0. For example. that to achieve superShock in A Suddenly Close Valve sonic velocity (in stationary coordik=14 3 nate) requires diverging–converging Msx nozzle. result in about double sonic velocity of reflective shock.7).   Thu Aug 3 18:54:21 2006 (b) Using shock table or Potto GDC to calculate temperature ratio and    . Note. 5.  ¢   (b) Using shock table or Potto GDC to calculate temperature ratio and  (c) Calculate the  (d) Check if new  calculate  © . Some times this phenomenon can have tremendous significance in industrial applications. and adjust the new guess The second method is successive substitution which has better convergence to the solution initial in most ranges but less effective to higher accuracy. which easily can be obtained in Fanno flow.58) provides that  £ © Mach number. © ¡  ©     ¤ ¤¡ ¢    © approach the old  © if not satisfactory is the new ¡¤£   ©£  return to part (b).3.  ©   to .1 1 Mx problem is provided herein:  2¡  2 £   87 ¡©£   (a) Guess  © ¡ £. THE MOVING SHOCKS   ¥ and  £   equation (5. From Figure also it can be noted that high velocity can results in much larger velocity of the reflective shock. (a) Guess  © ¡¤£ ©  . (c) Calculate the  Fig.7: The moving shock Mach numbers as results of sudden and complete stop © ¡  ©   ¤ ¤¡ ¢    (d) Compare to the calculated   © accordingly.

NORMAL SHOCK 5. 5.3. Converting the moving shock to a coordinates system that attached to the shock results in a stationary shock when the flow is moving to left.1 Moving Shock Into Stationary Medium General Velocities Issues When valve or membrane is suddenly opened a shock is created and propagate the downstream.59) The “downstream” Mach number is    ¡ ¡ £    ¡     ¡  £      (5. The “upstream” is on the right (see Figure (5.v. The stagnation temperature (of moving coordinates) is  ¥  ¥ ¥ © © ©       ¥   (5.3.60) Note that in this case the stagnation temperature in stationary coordinate changes (as in the previous case) where the thermal energy (due to pressure difference) is converted into velocity. With the exception of a close proximity to the valve.8: The reflective shock into close end pipe coordinates Similar definitions of the right and the left side shock Mach numbers for are utilized. ©"! §©¨  ¢¡¤£¦¥  #%$ c. 7%8@9A57%B E©FHGIPE%Q¦RSE©F 021435026 c.8)). The “upstream” Mach number is  © ¡ ¡ © £ ¡  £© (5. the shock is moving in a constant velocity (see Figure (5. &¢'¤(¦) CD (a) The reflective shock into close end pipe in stationary coordinates (b) The reflective shock into close end pipe in moving coordinates Fig.61)   £    § § ¢ ¢ ¡  £   £  $  £   £    $ ¡  After similar rearrangement as in the previous case results in ¢      ¢ ©   ¡    £    § £ ¥ §  £      ¥  ¥ ¥ (5.62) .88 CHAPTER 5. It has to be noticed that the “upstream” and “downstream” are the reverse from the previous case.2 5.v.8)).2.

THE MOVING SHOCKS Shock in A Suddenly Open Valve k = 1 4. My’ = 0.75 0 Number of Iteration Wed Aug 23 17:20:59 2006 Wed Aug 23 17:46:15 2006 10 0 5 10 Number of Iteration 15 Mx My Ty/Tx 89 Shock in A Suddenly Open Valve k = 1 4.5.63) can be solved. If it satisfactory stop or  ¥ To illustrate the convergence of the procedure consider the case of      and      . One of such method is successive substitutions.3 20 (a) The number of iterations to    & achieve the results for  ¢¡ ¤£ ¥ (b) The number of iterations to    achieve the results for  ¢¡ §¦¨£ ¥ The same question that was prominent in the previous case appears now. © against the old one. It is common practice to solve this equation by numerical methods. what will be the shock velocity for given upstream Mach number? The relationship again between the two sides is  £   ¡  ¡    ¢ ¡   Since  £ © can be transformed to  £   theatrically equation (5.3 1.3.63) © ¡¤£¦¥   (b) Calculate the Mach number  (c) Utilizing  utilizing the tables or Potto–GDC © ¡ © D   ©   £           calculate the new “improved”  (d) Check the new and improved  return to stage (b).25 2 1. My’ = 1. This method is done by the following algorithm: (a) Assume that  7 ¥¢ 7    £  ¥ £©  £ $ ¥  7 £ ¢ © $¥ £ (5.5 0.5 1.5 3 2.5 1 1 0.5 Ty/Tx 4 3. The results show that the convergence occurs very rapidly ¡ £¦¥  ¡ .75 Mx My 1.

5.75 least from the model point of view). This is the point where no matter what the pressure difference be. One can view this as the source for   the shock chocking phenomenon. NORMAL SHOCK (see Figure (5. In other words is there point where the moving shock is fast enough to reduce the “upstream” relative velocity below the speed of sound.25 earlier in nozzle flow and will ap2 pear in the nozzle flow and in other 1. what is the maximum velocity that can be approached before this model fails. according to equa§ tion (5.25 ous case of suddenly and complete 1 closing of valve results in no limit (at 0. for most practical purpose sufficient results can be achieved after 3-4 iterations. is approaching to .38).5 The spesific heat ratio. The larger value of the      the larger number of iterations is required to achieve the same accuracy.5 It must be noted that in the previ1. k To explain this phenomenon look at the normal shock.75 pipe flows models (later chapters). the downstream Fig.23) to this situation yields y y(max) ¡     £$   Maximum My’    £© ¡   £   § £   ¡  ¨ © ¨   £   £     ¥ (5.5 M phenomenon that will be discussed 2.64) From the mass conservation leads into     ¡ £      ¡ D   © ¡           ¡ ¡ £   © ¥ ©      £ ¡ £  © ¡ £  © (5.9: The Maximum of Mach number of “down ©  £© # stream” as function of the specific heat Mach number.90 CHAPTER 5.2 Supersonic Issues of Moving Shock Assuming that gas velocity is supersonic (in stationary coordinates) before the shock moves.3. 1. 0.2. To study this limit consider that the maximum Mach number is obtained ¥   when the pressure ratio is approaching infinity ¥ ¢ # . 5.65) . Yet. Consider when Thu Aug 24 17:46:07 2006 the shock wave approaches infinity. This shock chocking pheShock in A Suddenly Open Valve Maximum M ’ possible nomenon is similar to the chocking 2. the shock velocity cannot be increased.9(b))). Applying equation (5.

3.5.3. Or.2: A shock is moving at a speed of 450 [m/sec] in a stagnated gas at pressure of 1 [Bar] and temperature of 27 C. Example 5.66) When the pressure ratio is approaching infinity (extremely strong pressure ratio)      ¡   §     £$ (5. The Mach number is reduced to the maximum value very rapidly.65) results in 91      ¡  £ £  ¨ © ¨   ¥ ¡ ¡ ¢   ¥ ¥   ¢ 7 7 £ 5   77 £ ¢  ¥£ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ £   £ £ 7  £ £ 7   7£¢ 7£¢    £ £ ¥   ¥ ¥   ¢ ¥   ¢   (5. Compute the pressure and temperature behind the shock.   £ ¥   ¦ £ ¥ §¦ ¦ £ H¥   ¦ £ ¥ Q  ¦ £ A¥ @  ¦ £ ¥ 7¢  ¦ £ ¥  ¦ § ¥   ¦ § ¥ £  ¦ § § ¥  ¦ § ¥   ¦ § ¥ §¦ ¦ § H¥   ¦ £ ¢¨@B ¥     § 7  ¥ 7¨  ¥  7¨@G ¥  ¢ 799 ¥ Q §£ 7  £ ¥ @9@G ¥  § @B§¨¢ ¥ ¦ @ ¥ 9Q§ @ £ £ ¥Q Q ¢  ¥H@ § Q97 £ ¥ 9Q Q9Q97 ¥ 7 £ ¢§ § §   ¥ 9 Q9 7  ¥ ¨@@ ¢§ @  ¥ §¦ 7   ¥ §   £  ¥¨ § 9¨@§  ¥3 § @ £§ £  ¥ § 7Q9Q¨@  H¥  ¦    H¥  § £¦£ @9@  H¥  § §   H¥ B  £Q£  H¥  §  9 Q  H¥  § @9@ § ¢   ¡ ¥ Q¨ § £ ¥ 797 ¢ 7 £ ¥ Q9  £ ¥ §§¨¨ §§ £¥ ¢Q§ £ ¥ £ @B7 £ ¥9 7£ £ £ ¥ ¢ ¦    ¥ ¦  §7  ¥ 7¨@ 9 ¢  ¥7 G £ @G79Q  A¥ @9@ £ ££  A¥ @G¦ §¨¢ § §   ¡   ££Q 7¢ § §§ ¥ ¢§¨¢ ££797 7§ ¥ Q §  § £ § ¥ 79Q § £ Q¨ ¨   @ ¥   §§ ¢£¢  Q ¨ 7 @  £ ¥ § ¨@  §§ ¥ ¢ ¢ § § 9 A¥ @  §  ¦   ¥ Q § § 997979 A¥ @G7¢ § Q £¦£ £ @ ¥  §  Q 9  7  ¦¥ 9Q § @ ¦9   £¥ § § § @G79Q £¥ 7 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ Table of maximum values of the shock-chocking phenomenon.67) What happened when a gas with Mach number larger than the maximum Mach number possible is flowing in the tube? Obviously the semi steady state described by moving shock cannot be sustained. And similar phenomenon to the choking in nozzle and later in internal pipe flow is obtained. Assume the specific heat ratio is 1.  S OLUTION It can be noticed that the gas behind the shock is moving while the gas ahead the . THE MOVING SHOCKS Substituting equations (5.25) into equation (5. a stationary shock occurs as it will shown in chapters on internal flow.26) and (5.

At this stage the reflecting shock velocity is unknown. "¨§ £I ©  ¢¡¤£¦¥ § S OLUTION The first thing which is needed to be done is to find the prime Mach number  ©   §¨¢ . the temperature behind the shock is   ¡  ©  © ¤ ¡ £¦¥ Q¦ § 5    2 §7 £¦¥ § §   In same can be done for the pressure ratio as following ¨   ¡ ¨     ¡ ¨ © ¨ © ¨   ¡ § ¥¢ B 5 £¦¥  2 § ¥ ¢ " §© B¥¤ § ¨ The velocity behind the shock wave is obtain by utilizing the mass balance as ¡     ¡  ©   © ¡ £ ¥ £ § 5 7@ 5 ¦  2 3  @G7 ¥A@ § & £I¡  2   £ ¥ 5 § 3  §3 ¥¤ ¡ Example 5. the prime properties can be found. The gas is brought pressure at the tube is and (static) temperature of into complete stop by a sudden by closing a value. Simply using the Potto-GDC provides for the temperature and velocity the following table: £¥ Q£ ¡ § ¥  § §3      ¥ 9Q ¢ ¢   ¡  £ ¥ §¨¢ Q £  ¥          ¡   £ ¥H@ § § ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¥ § ¥H@ £  § ¢¤ §  ¥A@ ¦  ¢ § ¢¢ ¢¤ §  ©   to be 1. Then using the Table (5. The specific heat ratio can be assumed to be .3:   Gas flows at supersonic velocity in a tube with velocity of . Calculate the velocity and the pressure behind the reflecting shock. Thus it is the case of shock moving into still medium (suddenly open valve case). detail is not sufficient enough that simply utilize the iteration procedure described earlier and obtain . NORMAL SHOCK shock is still.4) one can obtain the following table § ¥ £ § Q      ¥  § §§   ¥   ¡       ¡       § ¥¢ B  ¥ Q9 § ¢¢ ¢¤ § ¢  Using the above table. Then. If this Or if you insist on doing the steps yourself find the upstream prime Mach.2961. The static § § § . First the Mach velocity ahead the shock has to calculated.      ¡    £¢  ¡ ¡   £ ¥ 5 £ ¥ £   ¡   § §3§   7¨@ 5 ¦  2 £ ¥ Q¦ § ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ £ ¥ §¨¢ Q § ¢¤ § Utilizing POTTO-GDC or that Table (5.2) you can find the the proper  © .92 CHAPTER 5.

THE MOVING SHOCKS   93  ¥ ¦  ¦  £§¦¥ ¦  ¥ ¦   ¥ ¦  § ¥ ¦    Q§ ¥  § § ¥  §¨ § § §£¢ § § ¥     ¥ § § ¥ § §  ¥ 9 §73@  ¥ ¨@ ¢£§¢   ¥ 9Q ¢£¢ §  ¥ 9Q ¢£¢   ¥ 9Q    ¡ £ ¥ ¢ §¨ § £ A¥ @ § £ A¥ @ §§ § £ A¥ @ § § £ A¥ @ § ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥  ¥   ¡   The about table for obtained utilizing Potto-GDC with the iteration request. A piston is pushing air flowing in tube with Mach number of  ¡  ¥H . this is semi close valve case in which the ratio of prime Mach number is half (the new parameter that add in the general case). A gas is flowing in a pipe with Mach number of 0.3).6: Open question to be addressed in the next version. Hint. Calculate the speed of the shock when a valve is close in such a way that the Mach number is reduced to half.4: What should be the prime Mach number (or the combination velocity with the temperature.4.5. Potto-GDC provides for this temperature ratio the following table § ¥ ¨@§          ¥   ¡ § @9@B7 § ¥ ¦ ¦ © ¡£¢ ¡ ¤ ¥ which means that the required  table provides ¡ § ¥ ¨@ §  ¥   ¡    ¥ ££979 ¡ ¢ § ¤¤ ¢ ¤ Q ¥  £Q9Q ¡ ¤ § ¢¤ §  ¥ B7 § § ¢¢ ¢¤ § using this number in the moving shock § ¥ ¨@§  ¥H §   ¡ @9@G7  ¥H@B7 ¢©§ 7       ¥  ¦ Q ¥ £ @ § ¢¤ §  ¥ B79¦ § ¢¢ ¢¤ § Example 5. those who like extra step) in order to double temperature when the valve is suddenly and totally close? S OLUTION The ratio can be obtained from from Table (5. Example 5. S OLUTION Example 5.5: Open question to be addressed in the next version. It also can be obtained from the stationary normal shock wave table. The piston .3.

Initially the gas from the driver section is coalescing of small shock waves into a large shock wave. A cylinder with two t1 chambers connected by e wav ck a diaphragm. This is the same case as was study in suddenly open valve described before. The temperature has known to reach several thousands for very brief time. The velocities in the expansion chamber are varied between three Co nt ac t Su rf ac e back fr on t . 5. Calculate what is the velocity of the shock created by the piston in the  air? Calculate the time the shock it take to reach to the end of the tube of length. Assume that there is no friction and Fanno flow model is not applicable.e. it is assumed that this time is essentially zero. the explanation waves are moving into the high pressure chamber i. Due to the assumption that the shock is very sharp with zero width. ¡ ¥ which can be supersonic or subsonic in stationary coordinates. NORMAL SHOCK is accelerated in very rapid way and air adjoint to piston is flowing in Mach number .10: The shock tube schematic with pressure ”diagram” gas from the high pressure is flowing into the low pressure section.4 Shock Tube expansion front The Shock tube is a 5 1 4 3 2 study tool with very little practical purposes Diaphragm which is used in many t cases to understand certain phenomena.94 CHAPTER 5. The high pressure chamber referred in the literature as the driver section and the low section is referred as the expansion section. ¡  ¥7 £ ¥ ¡ S OLUTION 5. When the diaphragm is rupture the Fig. When the pressure is high enough shock is created that is travels to the low pressure chamber. In this analysis. driver section. Zone 1 is undisturbed gas and zone 2 is area where the shock already passed.e what reference temperature is used used) and the medium behind shock is also moving but in velocity. In one sho side the pressure is high while the pressure in the other side distance is low. On the other side. Other reflective situations can be exsome where shock reflective wave wave amined and extended from this phenomena. In the back of the shock expansion waves occur with reduction of the pressure. The shock is moving in supersonic speed (depend on the definition i.

68)  £  ¨    2    §¦ £ ¤¡ © ¡    ££     £ £ £ Rearranging equation (5. The properties in the different zones have different relationship. The expansion front wave velocity is larger then the velocity at the back front expansion wave velocity. The pressure ratio between the two sides of the shock is  § ¥ ¨ ¥ ¥ (5. The boundaries of the zone 4 are defined by initial conditions. The expansion front is moving at the local speed of sound in the high pressure section. In zone 3 is original material that was in high pressure chamber but is in the same pressure as zone 2. The following equations were developed earlier and are repeated here to clarifies the derivations.).68) becomes  ¡ D   §   £    §     £ ¨ ¥ ¨  (5. The material in zone 2 and 3 is moving in the same velocity (speed) but the temperature and the entropy are different. in the expansion chamber and the front are moving to the left while the actual flow of the gas is moving to the right (refer to Figure (5. Zone 4 is where the gradual transition between original high pressure to the low pressure occurs. SHOCK TUBE 95 zones. § The shock tube has relatively small length and the typical velocity is in the range of speed of sound. while the pressure in the two zone is the same. The pressure and the temperature amount other properties in zone 4 isn’t constant and are continuous between the conditions at zone 3 to conditions at zone zone 5.69) Or expressing the velocity is ¡ £ ¡  £   ¡£ D   §   £ ¡   ¥   ¥   § £   ¥ ¦ ¨ ¥ ¨  (5. thus the whole process take only a few milliseconds or less. A typical design problem of shock tube is to find the pressure to a achieve the desired temperature or Mach number.5. Thus. The relationship of the different properties were discussed earlier and because it is a common problem and it provides the a review of the material so far. In zone 5 the velocity is zero and the pressure is in its original value. this kind of experiments require fast recoding devises (relatively fast camera and fast data acquisitions devises. The relationship between zone 1 and 2 zones is of the moving shock in to still medium (again this is the case of suddenly open chamber that was discussed in the previous section).71) .4. The zone 4 is expanding during initial stage (until the expansion reach to the wall).10)). The expansion back front is moving at the local speed of sound velocity but the actual gas is moving in the opposite direction in ¡ ¥ .70) And the velocity ratio between the two sides of the shock is ¡  ¡ ¥ 7 £¢  ¥©¨ £  7£ ¡ 7 £  ¥¥ ¦¨ 7£¢  (5. In fact.

  ¡ ¤ $¡  ¤  ¡   ¤¢¡  (5.74) ¡ ¥   ¡    ¨ ¥ ¨  £ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¢   7 ¥ £ 7£7 ¢ £  7 (5.80) . NORMAL SHOCK ¡ ¥¡  ¡ ¡ £ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¡ §   ¡ £ £ ¡ ¥ ¡ £ ¥ (5.78) Equation (5.77) ¨ ¦ From equation (5.96 The fluid velocity in zone 2 is the same CHAPTER 5. it follows that ¡ ¥ ¡ £      ¥ (5. applying the isentropic relationship (£¢  ) yields 7£¢    ¡ D     ¡    ¥       ¥    ¤  ¦ ¨ (5.76) it follows that ¤¢¡©¡ ¡  ¤  ¡  ¡ ¤   ¤  ¤ (5. taking the derivative of the continuity and diving by continuity equation results in equation.72) From the mass conservation.79) The results of the integration are ¡   §  £ £ (    ¥ £   ¤   ¦ 4 (5.75) On the isentropic side.76)   Since the process in zone 4 is isentropic.78) can be integrated as ¥¤  ¢ ¤¢¡ ¡ ¤ ¤  ¡ £ 5 ¤5    ¥      ¦ ¨ ¤  ¨ (5.74) After some rearrangement equation (5.73) ¡ ¥   ¡ D   §   £       £ ¨ ¥ ¨  ¢ ¡ ¡   £ £ ¥§¦ ¥ ¨  © 77££¢     77 £¢ ¥§¦ ¥©¨  ¥¥ ¦ ¨  (5. on zone 4.

83) Or in terms of Mach number of the  £  ¨  ¨  £   ¡       £  £   £  § £ £ ¥ 8 £ ¨ 7£ 7 £¢   ¤  ¥  £  £ £  ¢ ¤ @ ¦¤ ¨  (5. hence equation (5. Find what is the shock velocity.85) Utilizing the isentropic relationship for zone 3-5 results in £ ¡   ¨ £ ¨  ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤  ¤ ¨ ¡ ( ¥§¦ ¥©¨ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¨ 4 ¤ ¤ ¤  ¤ ¨ (5. temperature behind ¥ ¤ the shock.81) § As it was mentioned earlier the velocity at points   and 3 are identical.82) transformed into ¨  ¨  ¡ ¨ ¥ ¨  !# #$ £    £ $  ¤ §   D §        ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¤  £$ 5 £ £ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¨ (0) ) ¢  £ ¥ 1 (5. what will be temperature behind the shock if the pressure ratio is ¥©¨ ?  ¢   ¢  ¦ S OLUTION .86) Example 5.82) After some rearrangement equation (5.5.81) and equation (5.4.75) can be combined to yield §    £ £ (  ¨ £ ¨  ¥ ¤ ¦¤  4 ¡    ¨  ¨ ¥ ¨  £ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¢   ¥§¦ ¥ ¨  © 7 ¥ £ 7£7 ¢ £  ¦¤ ¨ ¤ 7 (5.84) Utilizing the Rankine–Hugoniot relationship and the perfect gas model results in ¥ ¡ £  £   77 ¨¨ £¢ 77 ¨¨ £¢  ¥¥ ¦¨  ¨  ¥©  ¥ ¦ (5.7: ¥ ¤ A shock tube with initial pressure ratio of ¥ ¨ ¥ and the initial temperature of £§ . SHOCK TUBE Or in-terms of the pressure ratio is 97 ¡ £ ¡   £ £ ¨ § (  ¨ £ ¨  ¥ ¤ ¦¤  ¨ 4 (5.

98

CHAPTER 5. NORMAL SHOCK

5.5 5.6 5.7

Shock with Real Gases Shock in Wet Steam Normal Shock in Ducts

The flow in ducts is related to boundary layer issues. For a high Reynolds number, the assumption of uniform flow in the duct is closer to reality. It is normal to have a large Mach number with a large Re number. In that case, the assumptions in construction of these models are acceptable and reasonable.

5.8

Tables of Normal shocks,
      ¡ ¡ ¢

 ¢¡ ¤   £¦¥
¤

Ideal Gas
§ ¢¤ § § ¢¢ ¢¤ §

Table 5.1: The shock wave Table for k = 1.4

£¦¥ ¦ £¦¥ ¨  £¦¥ £  £¦¥ §£  £¦¥ §  £¦¥  £¦¥ ¦ £¦¥ ¨ £¦¥ §  £¦¥ 3 § £¦¥   £¦¥  £¦¥ Q¦ £¦¥ Q¨ £¦H¥ @  £¦H¥ @9 £¦¥ 7¦ £¦¥ 7¨  £¦¥ ¢¢  £¦¥  § ¥ ¦ § ¥¨  § ¥ £ § ¥£  § § ¥  § § ¥ 

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5.8. TABLES OF NORMAL SHOCKS, §

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IDEAL GAS

99

Table 5.1: The shock wave table for k = 1.4 (continue)

   
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¢ ¢ ¢ 



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CHAPTER 5. NORMAL SHOCK
Table 5.2: Table for Shock Reflecting from suddenly closed end (k=1.4)

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5.8. TABLES OF NORMAL SHOCKS, §

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IDEAL GAS

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Table 5.3: Table for Shock Propagating From suddenly open valve (k=1.4)

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CHAPTER 5. NORMAL SHOCK
Table 5.3: Table for Shock Propagating from suddenly open valve (k=1.4)

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Table 5.4: Table for Shock Propagating from suddenly open valve (k=1.3)

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5.8. TABLES OF NORMAL SHOCKS, §

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IDEAL GAS

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Table 5.4: Table for Shock Propagating from suddenly open valve (k=1.3)

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§ ¢¢ ¢¤ §

NORMAL SHOCK .104 CHAPTER 5.

In case. the shock can occur only when there is a supersonic flow. the study of the normal shock in converging–diverging nozzle is presented.1: The flow in the nozzle with different back presthe pressure ratio. 6. the flow in this special range of pressure ratios is presented.1) the reSupersonic duced pressure distribution in  b the converging–diverging nozdistance. when Fig.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦   ¢   ) £ ¡ ¥   "¥ ¡ £ 1 £¢£ £ § £ $ ¡ ¡   ¡%§ & ' ¥ ¡ In the previous two chapters. In the previous Chapter. In this Chapter. the flow in a variable area duct and the normal shock (discontinuity) were discussed. the flow in a convergent– divergent nuzzle was presented when the pressure ratio was above or below the special range. the gas has to pass trough a converging–diverging nozzle to obtain a supersonic flow. x zle is shown in whole range pressure ratios. ¨ B is besures tween point “a” and point “b” the w ic flo subson shock a after 105 . As is was presented before. It is inc teresting to note that a normal ¡ a ¡£¢ ¤£¥§¦¨¤©  Subsonic shock must occur in these situations (pressure ratios). d In figure (6. As it was shown in Chapter 5. A discussion of the occurrences of shock in flow in a variable is presented. Thus.

On the other hand. Only in one point where ¨ B ¨ ¡ continuous pressure ¡ exist. Nevertheless. In the literature. ¡ $ Example 6. First example is pressed for academic reasons. some refers to a nozzle with area ratio such point b is above the back pressure and it is referred to an under–expanded nozzle. no continuous pressure possibility can exists. when the nozzle exit area is too large a shock will occur and other phenomenon such plume will separate from the wall inside the nozzle. NORMAL SHOCK IN VARIABLE DUCT AREAS flow is different from what was discussed before. As conclusion. Obviously if the back pressure. this example provides an demonstrax y tion of the calculations for re%'&¤(!)10 2436587 A 9 8 @ D B F C E I G H¦P1Q R4S6T8U quired location even it isn’t realistic. once the flow becomes supersonic. Calculate the back pressure and the temperature of the flow (It should be noted that the temperature of the surrounding is irrelevant in this case. this example provide the fundamentals to Fig. In comparison of nozzle performance for rocket and aviation. Nozzle throat area is 3[ ¥ ] and the ¥ exit area is 9[ ]. This nozzle is called an over-expanded nozzle. ¨ B . ¨ B is smaller than ¨ a discontinuous point (a shock) will occur. is lower than the critical value (the only value that achieve continuous pressure) a shock occurs outside of the nozzle if needed. only exact geometry can achieve continuous pressure flow. the nozzle doesn’t provide the maximum thrust possible.1: A large tank with compressed air is attached into a converging–diverging nozzle at § pressure and temperature of . The shock occurs in a location where the cross section area is 6[ ¥ ].106 CHAPTER 6. In this case. ¡ §¥¤ "¨§£© ¡  ¤ £ © ¡ S OLUTION Since the key word “large tank” was used that means that the stagnation temperature and pressure are known and equal to the conditions in the tank. Therefore. If the back pressure. The location of the shock is determined by geometry to achieve the right back pressure. In the under–expanded case. It has VAW X`Y acb!d1e fhg6iFp troat to be recognized that the shock wave isn’t easily visible (see  ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§ © for Mach’s photography techexit ¤!"#$ point "e" niques). is that over-expanded nozzle is worse than in the underexpanded nozzle because the nozzle’s large exit area results in extra drag. .2: A nozzle with normal shock explain the usage of the tools (equations and tables) that were developed so far.) Also determine the critical points for the back pressure (point “a” and point “b”. If the back pressure is within the range of ¨ to ¨ ¡ than the exact location determined in a such location that after the shock the subsonic branch will matches the back pressure. 6.

107 First, the exit Mach number has to be determined. This Mach number can be calculated by utilizing the isentropic relationship from the large tank to shock (point “x”). Then the relationship developed for the shock can be utilized to calculated the Mach number after the shock, (point “y”). From the Mach number after the shock,    , the Mach number at the exit can be calculated utilizing the isentropic relationship. It has to be realized that for a large tank the inside conditions are essentially the stagnation conditions (This statement said without a a proof, but can be shown that the correction is negligible for a typical dimension ratio that is over 100. For example, in the case of ratio of 100 the Mach number is 0.00587 and the error is less than %0.1). Thus, the stagnation temperature and ¢ pressure are known § £§ and ¨ . The star area (the throat area), , before the shock is known and given as well. 

¢ ¡  7

¢ ¡ §¥¤ "¨§£©
¢

£

¢ ¢

©
£

With this ratio   utilizing the Table (5.1) or equation (4.49) or the GDC– Potto, the Mach number,  © is about 2.197 as shown table below:
£ 

¢

¡ §$
¡ ¡ ¢

¡ 

Q

¡

§

the subsonic branch can be evaluated for the pressure and temperature ratios. 

¥ ££7 §¨Q9 § ¥  ¦   ¥  ¢  ¢   ¥ ££7¨@B7¨@ § ¢ § With this Mach number,  © ¡ ¥ £ @ the Mach number,  can be ob2¡  H¥  3 tained. From equation (5.22) or from Table (5.1)  §@ § Q . With these values,
§

 

¥£ ¢

@§ 

¥  97¨@@

¤¤¢

¤ ¤¦¥

§ § ¢

¤ ¨ ¤  ¨ § ¢ §
 

 

§

¥£ ¢
 

   

@§ 

¥  §3@§¨
¡ ¡ ¢

  ¡

£ ¥ 7¨ §¦§

¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¥

§ ¢

¥ § @§
¤ ¤ ¥

¤¤ ¢

¤ 

¥ §¨QBQ 
¥ 7 ££BQ7
£

§ ¢¤ § 

¥ Q §¨¢ § £
¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ § §

§ ¢¢ ¢¤ §

From Table (??) or from equation (4.11) the following table for the isentropic relationship is obtained 

¥H §  @ § 

¥ ¢ § §3 

¥ 7Q §3@

¤¤¢

£ ¥ § 9797
¢

§ § ¢

£ ¥

Q7

Again utilizing the isentropic relationship the exit conditions can be evalu¢ ¢ ated. With known Mach number the new star area ratio,     is known and the exit area can be calculated as
¢ ¢
£

¡

¢ ¢  

5

¢   ¢

£

with this area ratio, tionship as

$$   ¡ £ ¥ 79797 § , one can obtain using the isentropic rela-

¡ £ ¥ § B77 5

Q

¡¤£¦¥ 7797

§

108

CHAPTER 6. NORMAL SHOCK IN VARIABLE DUCT AREAS 

¥

 
§

Q¨ £ 

¥¢ @ ¢ £ §

¡ ¡ ¢ 

¥ ¢ §79Q
§

¤¤¢

£ ¥ 7797
§

¤ ¤ ¥ 

¥

§ § §¢ ¢

797 §

¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ §

£ ¥A@B997

Since the stagnation pressure is constant as well the stagnation temperature, the exit conditions can be calculated.  ¥  ¥    ¥  © ¥ ¨ © ¤ ¨ ¨ ¨ ©  ¤ ¨ ¨

¡  ¥ ¢§ 797 § 5  ¥ 7 £ £ BQ7 5  ¥ §QQ 5  ¥  ¢ § 5 § 2¡ § ¥  § ¤ § "¨§©
The exit temperature is

¡

¨

¢ 

¨

 

¢

¨ ©

¥

¨

¢

¢ 

© ¤ 

¢  ¥ ©  ¢  ¢ ¡  ¥¢ 7 £ £ 9 5  ¥ ¢ £  £ 5 £ ¥ 7 § 5  ¥H  ¢ 5   7 2¡ §¨¢£¢ ¥ ¢ § ¡
     

© ¤ ¥  

¢

¥  

¥  

© ¥

For the “critical” points ”a” and ”b” are the points that the shock doesn’t occur and yet the flow achieve Mach equal 1 at the throat. In that case we don’t have to go through that shock transition. Yet we have to pay attention that there two possible back pressures that can “achieve” it or target. The area ratio for both ¢ ¢ cases, is   In the subsonic branch (either using equation or the isentropic Table or GDC-Potto as
£

¡  

§ ¥ £ ¢ @ §¨ ¥ Q¨@ §

  

¥ ¢£¢©§ §§ Q  ¥§ £ £7 
¨ © ¤

¡ ¡ ¢ 

¥ ¢ 7 ¨@@  ¥ £¦£ £ 
¥ ¨ © ¤ ¨ ¨

¤¤¢ 

¥ ¦ ¦  ¥ ¦ ¦

¤ ¤ ¥

@B  £7  ¥  § @G  
¥

§¢ ¢§

¥ £   ¥ £§ £ ¢ 

¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ § ¢ §¢

¡ ¡ 

¢

" §£© ¢ ¡  ¥ ¢£¢©§ § Q 5 § 2¡  ¥ ¢ @ ¤ § ¨

For the supersonic sonic branch  ¥ ¨ © ¤ ©  ¤ ¨ ¨

¨

¢

¢ ¡  ¥ § ££7 §  5 § 2¡ £¦¥ Q3@ § 7¥¤ § "¨§©

109 It should be noted that the flow rate is constant and maximum for any point beyond the point ”a” even if the shock is exist. The flow rate is expressed as following

¡ ¡
¡

 
£

¢
£

¡©¡

¤ ¨ ©'  ¨   ©   ¨

¨ © 
!# # #$

¥ 

(0) ) )

¨

¨

¢

£ 

¢

£ 

¡

¢¨¢
£

1 (0) )

¢

¨ ©'  

¢
!# #$
£ 

¢   ¢ ¨ ©
£

 £  ¢

£
¥
£ 

¡

¢
£

¥ 

¨ ¢  ¤  ¤  ¢ 
¢

D  £¢  ¢  ¢
£

¤ 

1

The temperature and pressure at the throat are:  ¥ 

¡
£ £ 

5  97 ¡  ¢  ¢ ¡ ¥ 79 ¦
§
£ 

BQ ¥A@ §

The temperature at the throat reads  ¥

¨

¡

¨

¨

¢
§

¨

¢ ¡ ¥H § 7 5 § ¡ § ¥ £ £¥¤ § "¨§©

The speed of sound is 

¡

 

£ ¥§ 5

7¨@ 5 § 9  Q ¥A@ ¡  § £ ¥ £ § ¤ ¡   £I ©
¡ £

And the mass flow rate reads

¡ ¡
¡

§

5 £  ¢   5  § £ ¥ £ § ¡  ¥ ££8¤  ¦¥   £I  ©  5 7@ 9 ¨  Q ¥A@
§ £ § 

It is interesting to note that in this case the choking condition is obtained (  ) when the back pressure even reduced to less than 5% than original pressure (the pressure in the tank). While the pressure to achieve full supersonic flow through the nozzle the pressure has to be below the 42% the original value. Thus, over 50% of the range of pressure a shock occores some where in the nozzle. In fact in many industrial applications, these kind situations exist. In these applications a small pressure difference can produce a shock wave and a chock flow. For more practical example1 from industrial application point of view. Example 6.2: In the data from the above example (6.1) where would be shock’s location when § § the back pressure is ?

" §£© ¤ ¨

1 The meaning of the word practical is that reality the engineer does not given the opportunity or determined the location of the shock but rather information such as pressures and temperature.

110

CHAPTER 6. NORMAL SHOCK IN VARIABLE DUCT AREAS

S OLUTION A solution procedure similar to what done in previous example (6.1) can be used here. The solution process starts at the nozzle’s exit and progress to the entrance. The conditions at the tank are again the stagnation conditions. Thus, the exit pressure is between point “a” to point “b”. It follows that there must exist a shock in the nozzle. Mathematically, there are two main possibles ways to obtain the solution. In the first method, the previous example information used and expanded. In fact, it requires some iterations by “smart” guessing the different shock locations. The area (location) that the previous example did not “produce” § § the “right” solution (the exit pressure was . In here, the needed pressure § § is only which means that the next guess for the shock location should be with a larger area2 . The second (recommended) method is noticing that the flow is adiabatic and the   mass flow rate is constant which means that the ratio of the ¢ ¢   (upstream conditions are known, see also equation (4.56)). ¨ ¨  

¤

"¨§£©

¥ £ ££8¤ "¨§£©

¢5

£

¡

¢ 5

 

£

¨ ©

¨ © ¤

¢ 5

¢ ¢

© ¤ ©
£

¡
¨

¨ © ¤
 

¢ 5

¢ ¢

© ¤
 
£

With the knowledge of the ratio which was calculated and determines the exit Mach number. Utilizing the Table (??) or the GDC-Potto provides the following table is obtained

$ ¥  $ 
¥

¡ § 5

§

5

¢ 

§ § ¢

¡ £ ¥H ¤ ¢ 

©£¨

RI  © 
  

¥ 97¦9 §  ¥ ¢ @ £ £ 797  ¥ ¢  £ ££7 £ ¥ Q¨@B

 

¡ ¡£¢

¤¤¢

¤ ¤¦¥ 

¥ ¢    £ ¥    

¤ ¨ ¤  ¨ § ¢ § 

¥A@B ££B7

With these values the relationship between the stagnation pressures of the shock are obtainable e.g. the exit Mach number,    , is known. The exit total pressure can be obtained (if needed). More importantly the pressure ratio exit is known. The ratio of the ratio of stagnation pressure obtained by

¨ ¨

¢ ¢© ¡
 

¨   ©    ¥
¨ © ¤ ¨

¡

¢

¢ ¤©

  

¥ ¨ © ¤ ¨ ©

¢

¡  ¥ 

£ ¢

5

§ ¡  ¥H9
§

§  

¥H9 §  
§ ¢¢ ¢¤ §

Looking up in the Table (5.1) or utilizing the GDC-Potto provides

§

¥ 3@ 
¢

    

¥H § Q
§

  ¡

7
§

¥ £ § 7

¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ £ 

¥ £G@B

¤¤ ¢

¤

Q ¥  ¢ £§

§ ¢¤ §

With the information of Mach number (either  © or    ) the area where the shock (location) occurs can be found. First, utilizing the isentropic Table (??).
2 Of

course, the computer can be use to carry this calculations in a sophisticate way.

6.1. NOZZLE EFFICIENCY

§

¥ ¨@  ¢
¢

  

¥§ @ ¨  @BQ ¡
¢
¢

¡ ¡ ¢ 

¥ £  § 
§
¢
£

¤¤

111

¢

¥ 9

¤ ¤ ¥
¢

Q 

¥ 3@ ££97

§ § ¢ 

¥ ££Q¨@ §3@

¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ §

Approaching the shock location from the upstream (entrance) yields
¢

¡ § ¥ 9
¢

Q 5  2¡ @ ¥  £778¤  ¡ ¥ ©

Note, as “simple” check this value is larger than the value in the previous example.

6.1

Nozzle efficiency

Obviously nozzles are not perfectly efficient and there are several ways to define the efficiency of the nozzle. One of the effective way is to define the efficiency as the ratio of the energy converted to kinetic energy and the total potential energy could be converted to kinetic energy. The total energy that can be converted is during isentropic process is

where ¥ used is

¡ ¥¢
 

¥ © ¤ £

(6.1)

© ¤  £ is the enthalpy if the flow was isentropic. The actual energy that was

¡ ¥¢
 

¥ © ¤

(6.2)

The efficiency can be defined as

 

¡
¥

¥

¢

¢

¥ © ¤ ¥ © ¤ £

¡

¡

$   G$ © ¥ © ¡ ¤" $ ¥
¡ 

(6.3)

The typical efficiency of nozzle is ranged between 0.9 to 0.99. In the literature some define also velocity coefficient as the ratio of the actual velocity to the ideal ¢ velocity, 

¢ 

¡  
¡ ¡

 

(6.4)

There is another less used definition which referred as the coefficient of discharge as the ratio of the actual mass rate to the ideal mass flow rate.   © ¡   © (6.5)

" ¡ ¡ $ ¤ " $ $ ¡

6.1.1

Diffuser Efficiency

112

CHAPTER 6. NORMAL SHOCK IN VARIABLE DUCT AREAS
P01
h

The efficiency of the diffuser is defined as the ratio of the enthalpy change that occurred between the entrance to exit stagnation pressure to the kinetic energy.

P02 P2
01 02
2

P1

¢¡
 

§ ¥  £

¡ ¥

¥ 

$

¡
¥

¥

¢ 
$

£

¥ ¥ 



(6.6)

1

s,entropy

For perfect gas equation (??) can be converted to

 

¡

§

 ¢¡ 

¡ ¥

£

Fig. 6.3: Description to clarify the definition of diffuser efficiency

(6.7)

And further expanding equation (6.7) results in

£ ¤ ¥ 7 ¢    £ ¤¤ 5¨ £  £ ¤ 5¨ £   7 £ 7 ¢  ¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ ¥  ¥  
§
©

§ 


¥ 

 

£$

(  


£

¥ 

¤ 

¤

¨

£4

(6.8)

Example 6.3: A wind tunnel combined from a nozzle and a diffuser (actually two nozzles connected by a constant area see Figure (6.4)) the required condition at point 3 are:  § and pressure of and tempera§ ture of £§ . The cross section in area between the nuzzle § ¥ . What is and diffuser is area of nozzle’s throat and what is area of the diffuser’s throat to maintain chocked diffuser with subsonic flow in the expansion section. can be assumed. Assume that a shock occors in the test section.
nozzle 1 Diffuser 3

 ¢¡¤£

2

¥§¦ ¨

4

¡ " §£©  ¥   ¥A@ ¤ ¨   ¥ ¤¡   ¡ £ ¥§

capacitor

Compressor cooler

heat out

S OLUTION The condition at 

¡ 

¡ ¡£¢

Fig. 6.4: Schematic of a supersonic tunnel in a continuous region (and also for example (6.3)

is summarized in following table 

¥  ¦ 

  

¥ ¨@ £§  ¥ 3@GQ
§

¤¤¢ 

§ ¥ §  §Q

¤ ¤ ¥ 

¥

§ § ¢

§ § §

@ 

¥ £¦££

¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ § §

7  ¥ Q 9 § Q 

 

5: An inventor interested in a design of tube and piston so that the pressure is double in tube when the piston is suddenly moving. First the stagnation behind the  ¥  ¦  ¢ £      ¥ § @B £ ¢   ¡ § ¢ " ¡ ¨ ¢ "" " 2 § £  ¥   §3@ 2  ¥  £§¥¤ ¡ £ © ¨ ¢  ¥  7 § £ ¥ Q3@ ¢  ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤  ¥ 7¨@ £ ¤¤ ¢ ¤ £  ¥ 99 § ¢¤ § 7 §   ¡ £ ¥ Example 6.002 . NOZZLE EFFICIENCY The nozzle area can be calculated by ¢ £ 113 ¢ " ¡   ¢ ¢ ¡  ¥  §   § ¥ §  §Q ¡  ¥   § @ ¤ ¡ ¥ ©  ¥ § ¢¢ ¢¤ § § In this case. The imaginary gas conditions are § § ¢ ¤   ¦¥ § and temperature is £§ and pressure is and (Butane).6. Calculate the condition behind the shock wave. what the piston velocity should be?  ¦ £¤ "¨§£© S OLUTION Example 6. ¨  ¤ ¤ ¡ "¨§© © ¢ ¡ £§¥¤   ©   ¡ £ ¥ £ S OLUTION .4: The speed of the a shock is moving at 2000 [m/sec] in pipe with gas with .6: A flow of gas is brought into sudden stop. The mass flow rate of the gas is 2 £ [kg/sec] and cross section is A = 0. pressure of 2[Bar] and temperature of £§ . ¨ shock will be ¢ ¢ £ is constant (constant mass flow).   S OLUTION Example 6. The propagating piston is assumed § to move in temperature of £§ and about atmospheric pressure of . If the steady state is achieved. Calculate the condition after the shock.1.

114 CHAPTER 6. NORMAL SHOCK IN VARIABLE DUCT AREAS .

The two models produces slightly different equations.1 is already large number 115 . The equations results in slightly different conditions for the chocking and different chocking speed. If you want to contribute and add any results of experiments. The simplified models that suggests them–self are: friction and adiabatic. Ec=0.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦   ¢  ¢¡£¡ ¡ § ! ¡% ¢¡ £¡¤ ¥¤"¡ §(1 £ ¡ !   ¥ § $ ¤ This chapter is under heavy construction. isothermal. These models can served as limiting cases for more realistic flow. You can help especially if you have photos showing these effects. The effects of the gravity of the nozzle flow in two models isentropic and isothermal is analyzed here. Insert dimensional analysis. for example. and point out that Ec number is relatively small and. seem the most applicable. In the previous chapters a simple model describing the flow in nozzle was explained. Flow in a vertical or horizontal nozzle are different because the gravity. Please ignore. In cases where more refined calculations have to carried the gravity or other forces have to be taken into account. to this chapter. Moreover. please do so. The isothermal nozzle model is suitable in cases where the flow is relatively slow (small Eckert numbers) while as the isentropic model is more suitable for large Eckert numbers. the working equations are also different and this author isn’t aware of material in the literature which provides any working table for the gravity effect.

figure The energy equation for isentropic nozzle provides external work or potential difference.e.6) And further rearranging yields £ ¥   ¤¡ ¡  ¥ ¤ ¤¢  ¡ ¤¢ ¢      ¢  $ ¡ (7. into equation (7.4) ¡ ¤¢¡ ¡  ¥ £ ¤¢¡ ¤¢  ¡ ¤ ¢       ¤ ¢  ¢   £    ¢  $ ¢  $ ¡ (7.5) yields ¤¡ ¤¢  ¡ ¥  ¥ ¡ ¤ ¤ ¢    ¢ ¥ ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢   £  (7. NOZZLE FLOW WITH EXTERNAL FORCES 7.2) moving   to the right hand side. $ ¤ ©¡ Utilizing equation (4.2) when the   £ For the isentropic process ¨ at any point of the flow.1)   (7.3)   ¢ The continuity equation as developed earlier (mass conservation equation isn’t effected by the gravity) ¤  ¡ ¤   ¢ ¢  Substituting       from equation (7.4).27) when ¤ ¡ leads to ¤©¨  ¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢  $ ¤ ¢    ¡ ¢¡     ¤¥ 5 ¨ ¢ ©  $ ¢  ¤ (7. ¥ i.5) Rearranging equation (7.2) becomes ¨$ " ¨ ©'  "   ¡ ¤ © "¥ 7¢ ¤  ¤ ¡¤! 5   £ ¨ ©  ©  ! £ ¡ ¨     7   ¨   7 £ 7     ¤       ¤  £¢  ¤    ¡ ¡ ¤ ©¡  ¨  ¡ ¢¡ ¥ ¤ ©¡    ¤     ¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ ¡©¡      ¡ ¢¡ ¤ ©¡   ¢  $¤ ¢  $¤ ¢   (7. The equation (7.1 Isentropic Nozzle ( ¡ ¡)   ¢ put cv.116 CHAPTER 7. and diving by ¢   yields ¤ ¤¢¡ ¡  ¡ ¤ £ ¤ ¤¢ ¢   (7.7) .

For  ¨ (the subsonic branch) the term  ¥   ¦ is positive and the treads determined by gravity and the area function. one should be aware of value of Ozer number for large magnetic fields (astronomy) and low temperature.8) ¡     ¢  ¡     and   is the nozzle length ¤© ¡ £ ¤ ¢ %£  ¥ $   ¢ £ ¤  ¢ ¤¢  ¢  '   ¨ ©     ¢ $ 5 (7. Nevertheless.   ¢ ¢ ¢¡  © & ¤  ¢ ¥  ¡ %£ §  ¥ $   ¢ £ ¤ ¤ ¢  ¥ ¢ $ £ (7. ISENTROPIC NOZZLE ( ¨©¡ )   117 Equation (7. The dimensionless number.11) ¤¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¢      ¥ ¢ $ £ ¡ ¢ & is negative and     ¢   £ . the denominator £  ¥ ¡ .10)   ¥ & £ 5 £  £ ¦  ¦  ¥£ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¢ & ¤ ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ £ £      ¥  $ £ ¡  ¡¤£ ¤   ¥ $ ¡  or conversely. here the Mach number is discussed and not the pressure as in the previous chapter.10) dimensionless form by utilizing ¢ ¤¢¡ ¡ £ ¥ ¤ ¢ $ ¥ ¤   # £  ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢      ¢  $ ¡ £ 2 3 3 (7. Consequently. As it was shown in chapter ?? the flow is chocked (  ¡©£ ) only when ¤     ¢ $ ¡ ¥ (7.7) can be rearranged as Equation (7. two zones must be treated separately.9) And the final form of equation (7. In such cases.   ¢ For the case of  therefore ¡ £ ¢  ¢     (the supersonic branch) the term  ¥   ¦    ¢ $ ¨  ¡¤£ ¤   ¥ $ ¨  ¥ £  ¡¤£ ¤   ¥ $ ¨  For the border &  ¡¤£ .7. sometimes referred as Ozer number determines whether gravity should be considered in the calculations. is zero either ¤   ¥ $ ¡ $"!© ¢ ¡ ¥©¦ case $ "% or &   2 ¡  And the ¤  is indeterminate. As it was shown before the transition must occur when  .1. First. the gravity effect can be considerable.10) is ¤ ¥ ( %) The term ¦ is considered to be very small   ¨ ¢ ¡ ¥© ¦ for “standard” situations.

The ability to manipulate the location provides a mean to increase/decrease the flow rate. the critical point happen at converging part of the nozzle (before the throat) and if ¢ is a negative function the critical point is diverging part of the throat.g.11) reduced into !© that was developed previously. sonic point is ¡© If ¢ is a positive function.2 Isothermal Nozzle £¥¤ ¡§¦©¨! . Meta End This condition means that the critical point can occurs in several locations that satisfies equation (7. the critical point. Further.    $    $ $"%$ ¢¡ ¡     $ ¡ 7. Yet this ability since Ozer number is relatively very small. e. For example consider the gravity. "%" $   ¡  $ Meta   o work out the example: Calculate the location of the flow rate when the gravity is taken into account. NOZZLE FLOW WITH EXTERNAL FORCES look for experimental picture demonstrating this point by changing the direction of the flow from experimental to vertical It should be noticed that when ¢ is zero.11). The nozzle dimensions are shown in the attached figure. the equation (7.118 CHAPTER 7. ¢ ¥ a flow in a nozzle vertically the critical point will be above the throat. horizontal flow.

Therefore. For a long pipe. the density is inverse of the pressure (it has to be kept in mind that the gas undergoes a isothermal process. where natural gas is used for heating. the pressure difference reduces the density of the gas. Such situations are common in large cities in U. as a constant. 119 .).1 The Control Volume Analysis/Governing equations Figure 8.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦   ¨ $  ¢¡  § ) £ ¡ ! ¡% ¢¡ The gas flow throw a long tube has a applicability in situations which occurs in a relatively long distance and where heat transfer is relatively rapid so that the temperature can be treated. the study of the isothermal flow above this point is academic discussion only.1 describes the flow of gas from the left to the right. 8. the heat transfer. The heat transfer up stream (or down stream) is assumed to be negligible. To maintain conservation of mass. the energy equation can be written as following: ¤¨ ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡  ¤ ¡ ¥ § ¡ ¡¤ ¢ ¦ (8.S. ¢¡ £ .1) 1 This explanation is not correct as it will shown later on. Close to the critical point (about. Hence. in a perfect gas. is relatively high and the isothermal flow model is not valid anymore. It is more predominate (more applicable) in situations where the gas is pumped for a length of kilometers. At critical point the velocity reaches the speed of sound at the exit and hence the flow will be chocked1 . For instance.A. The high speed of the gas is obtained or explained by the combination of heat transfer and the friction to the flow. This model is applicable when a natural gas (or other gases) flows for a large distance. for engineering purposes. the velocity increases inversely to the pressure. To put discussion when the “relatively fast” means.

ISOTHERMAL FLOW    ! #%$&# ' $& ')(¦0¨1 $2& 1 3 c.1: Control volume for isothermal flow The momentum equation written as following ¢ ¢ ¤¨ @9BA ¤ ¢ wetted area ¡ ¡ ¤¡ ¡ (8.2) Perhaps more quantitative discussion about how “circular” the shape should be. where is the cross section area (it doesn’t have to be a perfect circle a close enough shape is sufficient. equation of state expressed as following: ¨¤¡   ¢  (8.5) 8.v. The second of thermodynamics reads A " $ $     ¡ ¢ ¥  ¢¡  ¡ ¦¡    ¥    £ ¦¥  ¨ ¥ ¨  (8. First it must be recalled that the temperature is constant and therefor.120 flow direction   ¡¢¤£¦¥¨§© 768 " 465 CHAPTER 8. The shear stress is the force per area that acts on ¢  the fluid by the tube wall on the fluid.). 8.4) Again it is assumed that the gas is a perfect gas and therefore.2 it seems obvious to write this equation perhaps to consult with others. The ! is the area that shear stress acts on. equation of state reads . Dimensionless Representation In this section the equations are transformed into the dimensionless form and presented in a dimensionless form. Fig.3) The mass conservation is reduced to ¡ ¡ ! £#"  £ ¡ ¡ (8.

12) ¤  ¥ $ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¥ $  ¥ ¡ ¥ Now it can be noticed that  ¤  ¡ ¥ (8. thus ”Fanning f” values are only 1/4th of ”Darcy f” values.8) Substituting equation (8. DIMENSIONLESS REPRESENTATION ¤©¨ ¡ ¤   ¨   121 (8.9) and utilizing the identify for perfect gas  yield: ¢  ¥ ¥ ¥ ¡   ¡ ¥   ¢  ¨ (8. this factor is a dimensionless friction factor sometimes referred to as the friction coefficient as following:   ¡     ¥ ¥ ¡ 9A (8. as a function of the Mach number have to substitute along ¤ Meta hould this material presented? ¡ ¥ ¡  £¢   ¥ ¥ (8. the Fanning friction factor2 is introduced.2.8) into momentum equation (8. ¡ .10) § ¤    ¢    ¢¨ §  ¡  ¢¨  ¡ ¤¡ Now the pressure.7) Now. instead of Diameter friction equation.11) yields ¤  ¡ ¥ $ ¡  £¢  ¥ ¤¦   ¤  ¥ $  (8.6) It is convenient to define a hydraulic diameter  ¡  5 ¡ § Cross Section Area wetted perimeter (8. ¨ with velocity.11) Differentiation of equation (8.13) ¤ ¡ for isothermal process and therefore ¤   ¥ $ ¡ ¤  ¡ ¥$ ¡ § ¡ ¤¢¡ ¡ § ¤¢¡ (8.14) ¥ ¡ ¥ ¡ should be noted that Fanning factor based on hydraulic radius.9) Rearranging equation (8.2) yields ¤©¨ ¤©¨ ¨ §¤    ¢ ¢   £ §   ¡ ¥ ¥ ¡ ¨   ©  ¡   ¨£ ¤¢¡ ¥ (8. 2 It .8.

There are 4 unknowns (  ¨   )3 and with these four equations 3 Assuming ¡ ¡ ¡ the upstream variables are known. state are described above.18) Rearranging equation (8. energy.21) The four equations momentum.15) Differentiation of the isotropic (stagnation) relationship of the pressure (4. ISOTHERMAL FLOW Meta End The dimensionalization of the mass conservation equation yields ¤     where is the stagnation equations? put them in a table put explanation how to derive this expression.16) Differentiation of equation (4.122 CHAPTER 8.19) Utilizing the momentum equation also requires to obtain a relation between the pressure and density and recalling that in isothermal flow ( ) yields ¤¨ ¡ ¤     ¨ From the continuity conservation leads ¡  (8.11) yields ¤©¨ ¢ ¡ ¤¨ ¨ ¢ ¨  ( 4 ¤© £  7 ¢¥   ¥  ¥     ¥ (8. There is no change in the actual temperature of the flow but the stagnation temperature increases or decreases depending on the Mach number (supersonic flow of subsonic flow).9) yields:  ¥ ¥   §  ¤¦ ¢ ¡ ¤  £ ¤¦ ¢ ¡ ¡    £    § £ ¤© ¥ (8.17) Notice that in isothermal flow.18) yields ¤¦ ¢ ¡ §    £ $  7 ¢¥ ¢ £  £ ¥ ¥   ¤   ¥ (8. . continuity (mass). Substituting for equation (??) yields:   7¢ ¤  ¢ ¡  £ ¢  ¥ 7£¢ ¤   ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥    ¥ ¥ ¥ (8.20) ¤   ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ § (8. ¤¡ ¡ ¤     ¡  § § ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¤ ¡ ¤     ¤§ ¡ ¥ $  ¡  ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ (8.

6) to became ¤©¨ ¡ ¨ ¤©¨ ¨ ¤¢¡ ¡ §  (8. Mach  number larger from  makes the right hand side integrate negative. ¡£¢ The distance friction. the side has to be positive as well.15) when combined with the equation (8. These different solutions are super sonic and subsonic solution.  # Further it can be noticed from equation (8. One can noticed that there are two possible solutions (because the square power).23) can be rearranged into ¤¨ ¡ ¤   ¡   ¨ ¤©¨ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¢ § ¤¢¡ ¡ ¡ § £ ¤   ¥ ¥ ¡ ¤¢ § £    ¥$   %      (8.27) ¡ ¡   7 ¡ 7   £ ¡   ¡ £     7 .8.22) Substituting the velocity (8.22) into equation (8. To obtain this restriction  value  is the limiting case where from a mathematical point of view.24) can be separated to obtain integrable form as follows ¢  (the initial velocity It can be noticed that at the entrance for which  ¡£¢ ¤ to tube isn’t zero.24) Similarly or by other path the stagnation pressure can be expressed as a function ¡£¢ of   ¤   #£      ¥  ¥ ¥ £ £$ £ ¥ ¥ 7 £¥    7 ¢¥   ¥   ¥  ¢ § ¤    (8.10) and one can obtain ¢  ¥ ¥ § ¤    ¢    ¢¨ ¡  ¢¨ §  ¥ ¨ ¨ ¥ ¤ (8.26) that when  the value of right hand side approached infinity ( ). thus. is selected as the choice for the independent variable. Thus.26) The variables in equation (8. The Physical meaning of this value similar to  chocked flow which were discussed in a variable area flow Chapter 4. The term   is positive for any ¢ . Thus. the term on other  ¥ . The density is eliminated from equation (8.   ¤ .). the equations need to be obtained in the form variable as a function ¡£¢ of   ¤ . Since the stagnation temperature § ¤¢ ¡ ¢   ¢     ¡ $ 7 £   § ¦   § ¤   ¥ (8.2.25) ¤¢ ¡ ¢ § ¡   £   $  ¥ 7 ¢¥   ¥$ £  £ ¡  ¥  ¢ § ¤    (8.23) Equation (8. DIMENSIONLESS REPRESENTATION 123 the solution is attainable.

34) And the stagnation temperature at the critical point can be expressed as  ¥ §  ¥  ¥ ¥    §   ¥ 7¢ ¢ ¡  £ £ 7 ¢7 ¢  £ £ ¡     £ £   £ (8.32 ) and rearranging yields ¥ ¤ ¨ ¨ ¢ ¡ £  §  ¢     ¦  £ £ £ £  ¨  £    § £ ¥  ¥ ¤ ¤  ¨  £ (8.27) yields   ¡£¢ ¤   ¢ ¤¦ ¢ ¥   § ¢ ¡ £      ¥  ¦¡     ¥ (8.35) These equations (8.29) Rearranging equation (8.30) Utilizing the continuity equation provides ¡ ¨ ¨   ¡ ¡  ¡¤£ £ £     £ ¡     £  £  (8. Integration of equation (8.124 CHAPTER 8.35) are represented on in Figure 8.31) Reusing the perfect–gas relationship £ ¡   ¨   £ ¡     (8. A more appropriate model is an adiabatic flow model.2 . Denote the supper script of symbol for the above condition and one can obtain that  ! £#"  £ ¡  £¢  ¡ £  ¡    ¢  ¥ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £¡    ¥ £ (8.32) Now utilizing the relation for stagnated isotropic pressure one can obtain ¨ Substituting for ¥ ¥ ¨ ¢ ¢ ¡ £ ¨ £ 8 £  7£¢ ¥   7 ¥¢ 7  £  £ ¤ ¥ @ ¤ ¤  ¨ (8.28) ¡ ¥   Using definition for perfect gas of  ¥ and noticing that   can be used to describe the relation of the properties at  .29) transfered into ¡   ¡ £ ¡      (8.33)  equation (8. ISOTHERMAL FLOW # ( ) has a finite value which means that . Heat transfer have a limited value therefore model of the flow must be changed.30)-(8.

The denotation of 1 and 2 represented the condition at the inlet and exit respectably.8. ρ/ρ and T0/T0 as a function of M 1e+02 4fL  D P or  ρ  * ∗ P ρ T0/T0 P0/P0 1 * * * * * 1e+01 0. temperature relationships as a function of the Mach number for isothermal flow 8.3.24)   ¤ ¡£¢ ¤ Meta ¡   ¡£¢ ¤   §£¢ ££ £   ¡£¢ ¤   § ¢ ££ £¥ ¡ £        ¥  ¥ £       ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥   ¦¡     ¥ ¥ (8. 8.2: Description of the pressure.3 The Entrance Limitation Of Supersonic Brach ituations where the condition at the tube exit have not arrived to the critical conditions are discussed here.1 Fri Feb 18 17:23:43 2005 0. It is very useful to obtain the relationship between the entrance and exit condition in this case.1 0. From equation (8. THE ENTRANCE LIMITATION OF SUPERSONIC BRACH 125 Isothermal Flow P/P .01 1 Mach number 10 Fig.36) ¥ Meta End .

one should expect that the isothermal flow to have similar characters as the flow of incompressible flow. To obtain similar expression for the isothermal flow.39) discuss why the pressure ratio must be greater then kM2 Because is always positive there is only one solution to above equation even though M2. ¨  mathematics.43)   . the pressure loss is expressed as follows   Meta ¨  ¨ ¥ ¡   ¤ ¡£¢ ¡ ¥ § (8.42) ¡    £  §    ¦¥  ¥ ¥ (8. ISOTHERMAL FLOW 8. a relation between  ¥ and  and pressures has to be derived.4 Comparison with Incompressible Flow he Mach number of the flow in some instances is relatively small. by some ¡  ¨ ¥ ¨  ¨  ¨ ¥ (8.38) yield   ¤   ¡ ¢ ¡    £  ( ¥ £  ¨  ¨ ¥ 4  ¦¥  ¨ ¥ ¨  ¥ ¥ (8.40) Now equation (8. In these cases.39) can be transformed into   ¤ ¡£¢ ¡      ¤ ¡ ¢ £  ( ¥ £ ¥  ¨   ¨  ¨  ¥ ¥ 4  ( ¦¥  £ ¥ ¦ 4 ¥ ¨ ¥ (8.126 CHAPTER 8.38) Substituting this expression into (8. denote   ¨ ¥   ¨  . Expending the solution for small pressure ratio drop.37) one can obtained that  ¡ ¡ ¡£¢ ¥ ¡   ¨  ¨ ¥ ¥ ¥ (8. For incompressible flow. In case the no solution and in case only one solution to M2.37) Now note that for incompressible flow ¡  ¡ ¥ ¡ and   ¤ represent the ¥ ratio of the traditional  ¥ .41) ¡      ¤ ¡ ¢ £ £ £ ¥ ¥ %£   $¥ ¥  ¦¥  £ £ £   £   ¥ ¥ (8. From equation (8.

48) in cases that is small ¡£¢ when chi is small provide discussion     ¤      ¥ ¡ § %£     ¥ $ ¥ £      ¥    £ (8. COMPARISON WITH INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW now we have to expend into series around     127 and remember that ¡  ¢ $ ¡    $       $¢       ¢ ¥  $ §  ¥ ¢ £  (8.45) ¢ ¡ ¡  $ ¡ £ equation (8.50) The larger value of the solution is not physically possible because Meta End .46) rearranging equation (8.44) and for example the first derivative of %£   $¥ ¢ 5 ¡ § $ % £   ¤ ¤    ¦¡  similarly it can be shown that approximated as   ¤ ¡£¢ § $ ¢ £¤£  £ $ ££   (8.49) The¡£pressure difference can be plotted as a function of the   for given value ¢ of   ¤ .49) can be solved explicitly to produce a solution for   ¡ ££      ¥    ¥   £    £    ¥    ¥ £       ¥  ¤   ¥ ¡£¢ (8.43) now can be         £ £   ¥ ¥ ££ ££ £   ¢ ¡ £ £ § ¡    ¥      ¥  $ ¥ §     ¥     ¥   £  (8.46) yield   ¤ ¡£¢ ¡         ¥ ¡§   $     ¥ §   $£    ¥   £  (8.8.4.50) A few observations can be made about equation (8. Equation (8.47) and further rearrangement yield   ¤ ¡£¢ ¡     ¥   ¡ § %£     ¥ $ £     ¥  ¥    £    ¥   £  (8.

¡£ over hundred of meters per ¢ the required Mach second.0). So. This relatively small tubes with   ¤ requires that the entrance length to be larger than the actual length of the tub for air. (0. 4 This dimensional analysis is a bit tricky. . Most of the heat transfer is hampered in the sublayer thus the core assumption of isothermal flow (not enough heat transfer so the temperature isn’t constant) breaks down5 . The current explanation is correct but based on hands waving and definitely dose not satisfied this author. A dimensionless analysis4 demonstrate that all the common materials that this author is familiar which create a large error that the fundamental assumption of the model breaks. Nevertheless. . The fact that the actual tube length is only less 1% than the entry length means that the assumption of the isothermal also breaks (as in control large time respond). Remember from Fluid Dynamic book ¡ £ ¦ ¦ ¥¤ ¡ £I © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ 79¥¤ ¡ £I ©   "   $ "9 ¡ ¥ 9Q   (8. ISOTHERMAL FLOW 8.51) The typical values of the the kinetic viscosity. For this illustration. Currently and ashamedly this author is looking for a more simplified explanation. For example.0000130034 kg/m-sec at 200K. and is based on estimates. The flow speed at the entrance is very large. for even for   ¡£¢ the inlet speed is over 56 [km/sec].). 5 see Kays and Crawford “Convective Heat Transfer” (equation 12-12).0000185 kg/m-sec at 300K and ¡ ¢ 0.5 Supersonic Branch To add figure from the programs with comparison with Fanno flow. In the supersonic flow.7-1. The thermal entry length is in the order of the hydrodynamic entry length (Look at the Prandtl number. most gas cases the speed of sound is about . book under construction perhaps to general ref at this stage Apparently. are 0. the hydraulic entry length is very large as shown below. For example. the feeding diverging nozzle somewhat reduces the required entry length (as opposed to converging feeding). this model can provide a better understanding so the trends and deviations from Fanno flow model can be understood. even with low   § § temperature like £§ the speed of sound of air is . this analysis/model is over simplified for the supersonic branch and does not produced reasonable results since it neglects to take into account the heat transfer effects. Combine this information with our case of   ¤ ¡ £   !"   $ "9   ¡ §  3@§Q § Q7 ¥A@   On the other hand with typical value of friction coefficient   4 $©   ¡ § 5 £   ¥   ¡    ¡  ¥  ¨ results in to insert the figure from Van Dreist also figure 15-4 in Kays and Crawford. a flow gas in a tube with for   ¤ number is over 200. Almost all the perfect gas model substances dealt in this book the speed of sound is a function of temperature. value for the common gases. However.128 CHAPTER 8.

this topic will be covered in the next version because it provide some insight and boundary to Fanno Flow model.1: The Isothermal Flow basic parameters  ¥ 9¦    ¥ §     ¥   ¥9  Q¦    ¥¨ @  ¥9  7¦    ¥ ¢     ¥ §£ ¦    ¥ § ¦   ¥   ¥  ¦    ¥      ¥ §¦¦    ¥¨ §  H¥  ¦    H¥ 9     ¥ Q ¦    ¥ Q     A¥ @ ¦    A¥ @B     ¥ 7 ¦    ¥ 7 £   ¢  ¥ 7 §£ £ 7¨@  ¥ 7 @BB7  ¥ 79Q9¨@  ¥7 3 §£ £ ¦   @ 7¢ ¥ ¢ @ G §  ¥  § ¢ @ ¥ Q £ ¢¢§ ¥ £ ¢§ £ ¥H@ ¢ £ § ¥ 7 7 ¥H@  §¦  Q9Q ¥ ¢£  ¢£¢ £ ¥ ¢ ¢ @ §3@  @¥ § § ¥ 7Q   ¥  Q¨@9@ £¦¥ ¢§ Q97 § £¦¥ Q9Q97 §  ¥¦ 7 ¨@G  ¥ §£¢ § 3 @ ¢  ¥ 7 §  ¥ ££Q9  ¥ 7 97¨   ¥   ¢§   ¥ ¦9Q Q  ¥ ¦9¨ @£  ¥ ¦ § ¨¢  ¥ ¦ 97§§ Q §  ¢¡¤£ ¥  ¥ ¦    ¥ § § 7 ¥ G £ @ ££7 § £ ¥ ¢£ § 7 ¢ ££Q ¥ 9 ¢£ £ §§ ¥ 7 £ ¥ 3@GQ £ ¢ ¥ 9¢Q §¦§ ¥  Q 7 ¥ §3 £ § ¥ §§ 97 § ¥ 7 Q§ ¥7 £ @ § ¥ § £§§£¢@ § ¥ £¦£ £ ¥ 73¢@G7 £ £ ¥ Q  £ ¥ 99QQ £ ¥ § 97Q§ £ ¥¦  £ ¥ § ¨ @§ £ ¥£ § Q ¢ £ ¥ ¨BQ £ ¥  §§ £ ¥ § § £ ¥ £ £ ¥ £ £ £ ¥ ¦  £ @ ¥ Q9 Q¨ £ £ ¥ § B¢ £  ¥ Q £ ¢ 7 ¥ 7 §¢©§  @ H¥   Q ¥ Q   ¥¢ £ £7£ § ¥ 9 § § ¥ A @  § § § ¥ £¢Q £ ¥ 7¨@ £ £ ¥Q § @  £ ¥3 § @B7§ § £ ¥   § £ ¥ § 9Q  £ ¥ £ 7§ § ¢ @ £ ¥ £ § £ ¥9 7  £ ¥  §§ ¢  £ ¥  ¢9 £ ¥  £ ¥ 3 @ £ ¥ ¨  £ ¥   £ ¥  £ £ ¥  ¦ § § § ¢¢ § 7 ¥ £G§@ £7¢ £ ¥£ 7 £Q ¥ ¢ 9 ¢£ £§§ ¥ 7 £ ¥ 3@G9Q £ ¢ ¥ 9¢Q § § ¥  9Q 7 ¥ §3  ££ § ¥ §§ B7 § ¥ 7 9Q§ ¥7 £ @ § ¥ § £§3 @ § ¥ £¦£ §¨¢ £¦¥ 73¢@G7 £ £¦¥ Q 9 £¦¥ 99Q9Q £¦¥ § 979Q§ £¦¥ ¦  £¦¥ § ¨ @§  £¦¥ £ § Q ¢ £¦¥ ¨BQ £¦¥  §§ £¦¥ § £¦¥  £ £¦¥  £ £ £¦¥ ¦  ¤¤  ¥ 73@B §£Q  ¥ 73@B 7  ¥ 73@B § §  ¥ 73@B9Q9  ¥ 73@B979Q§  ¥ 73@GQ £ §  ¥ 73@GQ §  ¥ 73@GQ3 @B  ¥ 77 § ¢   ¥ 7¢7 §  ¥7 ¢ 3  @B  ¥ 7¢ Q § §  ¥¢ 9  ¦   ¥¢ £  § §  ¥ ¢©§ £ 73@B  ¥¢ @ ¢ §  ¥ ¢ 97¦¢   ¥¢  §7 §  ¥¢ Q 3  @B  ¥ ¢ @G § §  ¥ ¢ 7¨¢@  §  ¥ ¢ 7¢§ 7 §  ¥¢ ¢   ¥¢ ¢ ¨ § 7 ¥ @§£ £ ¥ ¦  ¡ ¢ ¡£¢   ¢ ¤  ¡¤ "#2 ¡¥ 1%¥6 ¡©¢ 0¥2 # ¤ ) ¤¢#!£©¢') 4%'¡¥ ¦¨§©§  ¢4%¨¢ § 0¥2©¢ )42 ) ¢"'  % 3¢¡ %¥6 ©¢3¢!2! $26" £  ¢$ ¡ # & 3 %¢' % 3&%¢©(¡©¢#3© ¢ ) .8. ¡ ¢ if Mach number is changing from 10 to 1 the kinetic energy change which means that maximum of the mount of energy is insuffi¡ ¢ ¡¤££7 ¥ ¨@ Now with limitation. 8. 129 Now.6 Figures and Tables Table 8. FIGURES AND TABLES is about cient.6.

Hint calculate the maximum flow rate and then check if this request is reasonable. . The density reads £    £ ¥  £ 5  5  ¦ 2¡ £§ ¥ Q ¡ 4  £   ¡  ¦¥ £ £ ¢ ¡ §  ¥ 2¡ £Q ¥ ¢ ¦ I   £ 6 The proof questions are questions that ask for proof for finding a mathematical intently (normally good for mathematicians).   ¤   ¤ ¡£¢ 0     5 ¡ §   ¥  ¥ § ¨ 9    ¡ §    ¥ £G@§ § § Utilizing the table 8. What should be the pump pressure so that a flow rate of 2 ¥   will be achieved. These questions or example will be in later versions. check whether flow is choked (or even possible). and mass flow rate questions. . ISOTHERMAL FLOW 8.130 CHAPTER 8. the velocity can be calcu¡£¢   ¤ ¥ . The driving force questions deal with what should be the pressure difference to obtain certain flow rate. the flow is not choked. etc.25 [m] diameter and 5000 [m] in length is attached to a pump. ¡£¢ Calculating the resistance. resistance (diameter.1: A tube of 0. . . friction factor.1 or the program provides  ¥  § £ §   ¥       ¡£ ¥ § £ § ¥  ¢§ £ § § ¢ § ¢  ¥ £ @ § ¡  ¤¤  ¥ 7 ¢ § §¨Q ¡  ¥  § £ 5 ¡£¢ ¡ ¢   2¡ §  ¥ £ ¢ ¡ ¢  ¡ §¨¡¢   £G5 @ ¡  §¨¦  The maximum flow rate then reads 5   ¥§  $ ¥ 5 § ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ §  ¥£ ¢ 5 £§ ¥ Q   ¨ § ¡ The maximum flow rate (the limiting case) can be calculated by utilizing the above table. First.e. The exit Mach number is not necessarily   i.). Assume that friction factor and the exit pressure is . surroundings temperature . the density is a function of lated by utilizing  ¨  the entrance Mach number. The specific §¨¢ § heat for the gas. Example 8. the “engineering” or practical questions can be divided into driving force (pressure difference). Here is an example.     ¡ £¦¥  £ ¡ ¡  ¥  ¨ ¤   I © "¨§£© £¨¤ ¦ @9£ ¢ ¡  & ) ' 17 032 £ S OLUTION   If the flow was incompressible ¦ then for known density. friction coefficient. The velocity of the gas at the entrance ¡  §¨¢ § . In this model no questions about shock (should) exist7 . 7 Those who are mathematically include these kind of questions can exit but there is no real world situations with isothermal model with shock.7 Examples There can be several kind of questions aside the proof questions6 Generally. In incompressible flow.

1 or utilizing the program provides § 5 ¢   ¨  @ ¥  ¡  & ¨ ¡ ¨¥   ¡ ¢ ¡ ¥  ¦ 5 £¦¥  £ ¡  ¥ £  £  ¦ ¦ 5¡  ¢   ¡    ¢  ¥ £      Q9Q ¥ Q3@9@ ¢   ¤ ¡ ¢  ¢¡¤£ ¥ 7 ¥ §¨7 Q ££ § § §  ¥ § § ¢ § ¢ § ¢ 7 ¥ §¨7 § Q ¤¤  ¥7 ¡ ¢ ¡£¢  ¢ 9Q¨@ The entrance Mach number obtained by £  ¡ Q9Q ¥ Q¨@@ ¢  §   2¡ §¨Q9Q ¥ Q7 §  ¥  §  £§ §Q9Q ¥ Q7    ¢¡¤£ ¥ £ ¥H@BQ¨@B7 § § £ ¥HB7 § § § § § ¢ § ¢ £ ¥H@BQ¨@G7 ¤¤  ¥7 ¢ ¦ §§ § ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ The pressure should be ¨©¡ § £¦¥H@BQ¨@G7¦ 5 7 ¥ §7 Q ¡ § H¥ BQQ8¤ ¦ "¨§£© Note that table here above for this example are for  ¢¡¤£¦¥  £ Example 8.2: A flow of gas was considered for a distance of 0. EXAMPLES 131 The maximum flow rate is larger then the requested mass rate hence the flow is not choked. Due to safety concerns.7.8. The friction coefficient for the tube can be assumed . It is more appropriate to assume isothermal model hence our model is appropriate.5 [km] (500 [m]). the maximum pressure allowed for the gas is only 10[bar]. It is note worthy to mention that since the isothermal model breaks around the choking point.2 [kg/sec] is required. calculate the required diameter of tube. To solve this problem the flow rate has to accounted as ¡ ¡ ¡   ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨   ¢     ¡ ¡ Now combining with equation (8. the flow rate is really some what different.38) yields    ¥ ¥  £I¦  ¨   ¡ ¡ ¨     ¢    £ £  ¢  ¡©¡ §   £ ¢ ¢   ¡ ¡ ¡  ¥ ¨ ¥ ¢  ¥ From the table 8. Assume that the flow is isothermal and k=1. A flow rate of 0.4.

028 . @9  ¡  ¥ ¨ ¥ ¨  ¡  ¨   © §    ¢ £ £ ¡ ¥ 7 §¨ £    § ¢ § ¢ Now. the minimum diameter will be obtained when the flow is chocked.5 [in]9 . with the value of   either utilizing table 8. the maximum   that can be obtained when the  ¥ is at its maximum and back pressure is at the atmospheric pressure. ISOTHERMAL FLOW as 0. S OLUTION At first.4318 [m]. Thus. 5  ¥ § 5    £ § ¢ © § £ §  ¥ § ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡¤£Q ¥ Q78¤ ©  ¡   ¡£¢ ¤ § ¢ § ¥¨ § § ¢     § ¥ § £    ¡£ ¥ £  ¥ ¦ £7 § § Q ¥ §£¢£¢ £ £  ¥   £7 ¤¤  ¥ 7¨@BQ § ¡£¢ ¡ ¢    £¢ © However. You can assume § that the soundings temperature to be . The only point that must be emphasis that all properties (like ¡ ¢ Mach number. is unfortunate. the pipes are provided only in 0.132 CHAPTER 8. With this pipe size the calculations are to be repeated in reversed to produces: ¡ ¡ ¡   ¢ ¡©¡   ¢ © ¡  ¢ ¨  ¢   £  ¢ ¡ ¨ ¢  ¢       The usage of the above equation clearly applied to the whole pipe.1 or using the provided program yields  ¥ 7 §3  With   ¡£¢   ¢ ¤     ¡ ¢ § ¥ § £ the value of minimum diameter.5 increments and the next size is 17[in] or 0. . Note that tubes are provided in increments of 0. but is seem that this standard will be around in USA for some time. The new   ¤ is   ¤ ¡£¢ 5 § 5 ¦  £ ¡ §  ¥¥ §¨  £7 ¢ ¢§ ¢§ ¥Q § ¢ ¢  ¥ 7 § 8A 9 It   7 ¢§ ¥ Q9¨9   ¡£ ¥ ¥ £ 97 § Q ¥§ § §  § ¢ § ¢ ¥ £ 97 ¤¤  ¥ 7¨@BQ § ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ @ relative smooth tube of cast iron. pressure and etc) have to be taken at the same point.

¡£¢   ¤   §£¢ with   ¡ ¢ ¤   § ¢ ¡§¦¦ 5 5 ¡ §  ¥   £ ¥ § §¦ ¦ ¡§¦¦ the following can be written . The pressure at the exit (station (b)) is 2[bar]. the information whether the flow is choked needed to be found. Calculate the Mach number at the entrance to pipe and the flow rate. If not see below The speed of sound at the entrance is     ¥   ¨ ¢¢¡   £  ¢ ¦ 5  ¥ 97¨B 5   £¦¥ § ©   §     ¥ 8¤  ¦¥   £I   7¨@ 5 ¦  ¢  ¡  ¥§  ¡ and the density is  £  ¢     £¦¥ § 5 § 73@ 5 ¦  2¡  §3@ ¥ § & I¡  2   £ ¡  ¢ ¢ ¨ £§ ¡ ¦  ¡  ¦ ¡ £ £ ¥ Q £  ¦¥ ¡  73@ 5 ¦  ¡ £  ¡  ¥ 97¨ § 7 5  3 § @ ¥ § 2¡ ¡ The velocity at the entrance should be ¡ ¡ §£¢ ¥ Q & I¡  2 § The diameter should be   ¡   ¡ §¡ ¡ ¡   5 § D 5 §£§ ¢ ¥ Q  5 ¥ £¦£ ¥ Q £ 2¡ ¡  ¥ @ Nevertheless. k=1. It should be noted that ¨ should be replaced by ¨ in the calculations. and the average friction f=0.3: A flow of gas from a station (a) with pressure of 20[bar] through a pipe with 0. S OLUTION First.01.4.8. Example 8. The gas and the sounding temperature can be assumed to be 300 K.7. Therefore.4[m] diameter and 4000 [m] length to a different station (b). This situation is reversed question. Assume that the flow is isothermal. It should be noted that the flow isn’t chocked. EXAMPLES To check whether the flow rate is satisfied the requirement 133 5 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Since the mass flow rate requirements is satisfied. at first it will be assumed that the whole length is the maximum length. for sake of the exercise the other parameters will be calculated. The flow rate is given with the diameter of the pipe.

and chose new   accordingly.  ¤£  ¥ § £ ¢  ¥H  ¦¥ ¢ 97 ¡ §¦¦ ¥  ££ £ §   ¡£¢ ¤   §£¢ ££ £ £ §   ¥  ¦   ¡   ¤ ¡£¢  ¥ £  ¦  §¨§ §© The flow rate is ¡ ¡ ¡   ¢ © ¡   ¢ ¨      5 §   ¥  §    ¦    § £ ¥ § 5  ¥ § ¥ 5  ¥  § £ ¢ ¡  ¦ ¦  5 7¨@ £ § § ¥ §¨Q8¤  ¦¥   £I  © In this chapter. 4. ¨ ¥ in mind that this isn’t the real pressure but based on the assumption) 5.134 CHAPTER 8. Calculate the pressure. The solution is iterative process. £ 1. Compare the results of guessed pressure ¨ ¥ with the actual pressure.52828. Obtain  ¥ from the table ? or using the program. ISOTHERMAL FLOW    ¥  § £ ¢ §¦  ¥A@ §  § £ From the table    ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ §    ¥  § £ § . Now the process has been done for you and provide in the Figure ?? or in table resulted from the provided program. there are no examples on isothermal with supersonic flow. Calculate the value of   ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡£¢   ¤ ¡£¢ ££ £¥ by subtracting   ¤ ¡£¢ ££ £ 3. ¡ £ ) pressure ¨ ¥ ¡ £ ¨ ¥ ¢ ¥ ¦ £ ¤  '  ¡ § ¥ § £ 5  ¥H § 7 § 7 ¡©£¦¥ £G@ ¤ ¦ "¨§£© ¨ ¨ ¥ than the actual As the pressure at point (b) is smaller the actual pressure ¨ pressure one must conclude that the flow is not choked. guess reasonably the value of   and calculate   ¤ 2.and ¥     £ ¥ Q¨@ ¤ 2 " §£© ¨ ¢ ¡ £ § ¥ 7 Q3@ £ § ¥ § £¨¤ ¦ ¨ ¥ ' £  ¥ 7¨@9B £ ¡£¢   ¡ ¢¡ §   ¥ £ ¢§ ¨ ¤ ¤ ¢  §  ¥£ § ¡  § ¢©§ ¨ £ ¥ Q9Q £  ¢  § ¢ ¡ § § ¢ The pressure at point (b) utilizing the isentropic relationship (  ratio is 0. .

8 Unchoked situation M1 isothermal flow 1 0.5 = 0.2 = 0.2 0.3: The Mach  ¢¡¤£ number at the entrance to a tube under isothermal flow model as a function ¥ Table 8. 8.6 M1 0.4 0.8 = 0.8 0.9: The flow parameters for unchoked flow  ¤£  ¥A@ ¢ @  ¥Q  §  ¥ Q9Q7 §  ¥Q ¨ § 79  H¥  ¢ £§  H¥ B7¦¨ @  H¥ @ 9 7 § §  ¥ 7 § ¢£¢   ¥ 79 @  ¥ 7 § ¢§££7  ¥ 79 ¢  ¥ 79797§  ¥ 797 @  ¥ 793@§  ¢  ¤¥  ¥  ¢   ¥9  7 @G7  ¥ £ §£¢¢§§ ¢§  ¥ £Q  ¥ § 7 ¨ @  ¥ 9Q3@G7   ¥ §¦3  @B §   ¡ ¢ ¤   § ¢ ££ £ £  ¥  ¢ ¦  ¥9 7 @£  ¥ £ §£¢¢ § §§  ¥ £Q £  ¥ § @ ¢   ¥ 9Q3@GQQ  ¥ §¦3  @G3@   ¤ ¡ ¢  ¥ £ ¦ ¦  ¥ £ ¦ ¦  ¥ £ ¦ ¦  ¥ £ ¦ ¦  ¥ £ ¦ ¦  ¥ £ ¦ ¦  ¥ £ ¦ ¦ §¨§ §© .3 0.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 4fL  D 60 70 80 90 100 P2 / P1 P2 / P1 P2 / P1 P2 / P1 = 0. UNCHOKED SITUATION 135 8.8.5 0.10 Fri Feb 25 17:20:14 2005 Fig.9 0.7 0.8.

136 CHAPTER 8. ISOTHERMAL FLOW .

v. The main restriction for this model is that heat transfer is negligible and can be ignored 1 . small Eckert number. etc.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦   ! £101   ! ¡% ¢¡ Adiabatic flow with friction name after Ginno Fanno a Jewish engineer is the second model described here. more general case will be examined2 . Fig. which are considerably slower (see more discussion about dimensionless number in the chapter about dimensional analysis (not included yet. 687 ¡# ¢£¥¤§¦©¨ 98@ No heat transer   %  ' !"$  $& %3' %' ( (0)§1©2 254 c.1: Control volume of the gas flow in a constant cross section the friction does not converted into heat 2 Not ready yet. 9. This model is applicable to flow processes which are very fast compared to heat transfer mechanisms.1). compressed air systems. 9. discussed on the ideal gas model and on the ideal gas model and the entry length issues. Later. 1 Even 137 . It is advantages to examine the simplest situation and yet without losing the core properties of the process.1 Introduction flow direction Consider a gas flows through a conduit with a friction (see Figure 9.). As this model raised from need to explain the steam flow in turbines. exhaust system internal combustion engine. This model explains many industrial flow processes which includes emptying of pressured container through relatively a short tube.

3) Or in a derivative form  ¢¡ ¤  ¤  ¥ ¡ ¥ § ¡   (9.4) Again for simplicity. £#     ¨  ¨©¡   ¡ ¨ ¥   ¥ ¥ ¢ (9.1) The energy conservation (under the assumption of this model as adiabatic flow and the friction in not transformed into thermal energy) reads £#    ¡ ¥ § ¡ ¢ ¡  ¡  ¢¥ ¥  ¡ ¥ § ¡  ¥ (9.6) It is convenient to define a hydraulic diameter as   Or in other words 5   ¡ § Cross Section Area wetted perimeter (9.7) ¢ ¡ ¡  ¢  § ¥ (9. the perfect gas model is assumed3 .138 CHAPTER 9.2 Model The mass (continuity equation) balance can be written as ¡ ¡ ¡   ¢ £# ¡   ¡  !¡  " ¢   ¡  ¡   ¥ ¡ ¥ (9.2) (9.5) It is assumed that the flow can be approximated as one dimensional. . FANNO FLOW 9. The force acting on the gas is the friction at the wall and the momentum conservation reads ¢ ¤©¨ 9A ¤ A ¡ £ ¡ ¤¢¡ ¢ ¡ (9.8) 3 The equation of state is written again here so that all the relevant equations can be found when this chapter is printed separately.

2.12) The second law is the last equation to be utilized to determine only the flow direction.13) 9.10) Utilizing equation (9. yields ¤©¨    ¢  £ §   ¡ ¥ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¤ (9.14)  ¡  ¡ 7  ¢ ¨  © ¤ ¤  Utilizing the definition of the ideal gas results  ¥ ¡ 7¥ ¥ ¤ ¦ (9. The infinitesimal area that shear stress is acting on is   ¤ ¢ A  ¢  ¡ 139 ¡ ¡   ¤¢ (9.11) and rearranging Dividing equation (9. MODEL It is convenient to substitute for of but it is referred to the same hydraulic diameter.16) . ¥    (9.6) yields $ ¨ ©' ¥  ¡   § ¤©¨ ¡   § ¤   ¤¢ ¨    £ §   ¡ ¥ ¥ ©'  ¢¡ ¥  ¡ ¢ ¨   ©  ¡   ¨£ ¤¢¡ £ (9.15) Utilizing the identify in equation (9.1 Dimensionalization of the equations Before solving the above equation a dimensionless process is applied.2.14) and substituting it into equation (9. Utilizing the definition of the sound speed to produce the following identities for perfect gas  ¥ ¥ ¦ ¡ ¥ (9.10) into momentum equation (9.11) and after some rearrangement yields ¤©¨  § ¤       ¢  § £  ¨  ¥ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¨ ©  ¥ ¤¢¡©¡   ¨  ¥ ¤¡ ¡ (9.2) and substituting equation (9.9.9) Introducing the Fanning friction factor as a dimensionless friction factor which some times referred to as friction coefficient and reads as following:      ¥ ¥ ¡ 9A (9.11) by the cross section area.

The dimensionless friction.17).19) and (9.17).6) results ¤©¨ ¡ ¤     ¨ ¤ ¤ (9.14) and dividing by equation (9.   Combining equations (9.19). is chosen ¡£¢ as independent variable since the change in the dimensionless resistance. (9.21) when eliminating results ¤©¨ ¡ ¤   ¨     § £$ ¥ ¢¡ ¥ ¡ ¥ ¤ ¤¦  (9.20) Dividing the energy equation (9.2) results      § ¡    ¤ ¥ ¢¡ ¡ ¤ (9. Thus.4) by yields and utilizing definition Mach number ¤   $     ¨ £ ©  £¢ £ ¥  £ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¥ ¤ ¤   ¥ ¡ ¥ § ¡ ¡ ¡  (9. Explicit explanation is provided only ¡£ two variables.21) £# ¤¦   £#  ¢¡   ¢ ¨¦  ©       £$ § ¡ ¥ ¡ ¥  ¥ ¡ ¥ § ¤¦    £ ¥ ¥ ¢¡ ¡ ¥ ¤ This equation is obtained by combining the definition of Mach number with equation of state and mass conservation. and (9. causes the change in the other variables.   ¤ . These equations are separable so one variable is a function of only single variable (the chosen independent variable).16) results in ¢  ¥ ¥ CHAPTER 9. (9.20).17) ¤ ¤     ¨  © ¡  ¥ §   ¡ £ ¤¢¡ ¡  ¡ ¥  (9.6) and dividing the results by equation of state (9.140 Furtherer rearranging equation (9.22) . FANNO FLOW ¤¨ ¨ § ¤   It is convenient to relate expressions of (©¨   ¨ ) and ¡   ¡ in term of the Mach number and substituting into equation (9.18) The derivation of the equation of state (9.19) Derivation of the Mach identity equation (9. the original limitations must be applied to the resulting equation. (9.   ¤ .14) yields ¤   ¥$ ¡ ¤  ¡ ¥ $  ¥ ¡ ¥   ¡  ¤  (9. Derivative of mass conservation (9. Equations (9. ¢ rest can be done in similar fashion.21) need to be solved.18).

18) and equation (9.31) .24) and results in ¤   ¤ ¤ § ¤¢ ¡ £  ¥ ¤ ¥        # £  £7 ¢¥   ¥ $   ¥  (9. and only left is ¨ .26) After similar mathematical manipulation one can get the relationship for the velocity to read ¤¡ ¡ ¡ § £   ¥ ¥ $ § ¤¢     (9.27) and the relationship for the temperature is ¤¦ ¡ §£ ¤  ¡   ¤  ¡   §  §  £ $    § ¤ %£  ¥ $     ¢ (9.25) Rearranging equation (9.24) The second equation for Mach number.23) ¤ ¤©¨ ¡ ¨ £    §  £$ ¥ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¥ ¥  ¤ (9. Then       and ¡ are eliminated by tion (9. Then ©¨   ¨ can be eliminated by utilizing equation (9.25) results in ¤   ¥ ¥ ¡    ¥ ¥ £   £   7£¢ ¥   ¥ ¥  § ¤     ¢ (9.2.29) The stagnation pressure similarly obtained as ¤©¨ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¢   The second law reads  § § ¤     ¢ (9.22) and rearrangement yields "¤¤ 141 The term ¢¡ ¥   ¡ ¥ can be eliminated by using (9.27) and (9.  variable is obtained by combining equa  .22).9.23) ¤¨ ¡ ¨    ¥ ¥ £ § #£    ¥ $ £$ § ¤¢     (9.21) by eliminating utilizing equation (9.28) density is obtained by utilizing equations (9.18) and substituting into equation (9. MODEL The term can be eliminated utilizing equation (9.30) ¤ ¡   ¡ ¦¥  ¤¦  ¢ ¦¥  ¤©¨ ¨ (9.20) and (9.18) to obtain #£    ¥  ¥ $ ¥ § ¤     ¢ (9.

0. from equation (9.35) 9. Taking ¤¦ ¢ ¡ ¤¦ %  £  %£ (9.24) that increase or decrease to above just above one  from subsonic just below one   requires a change in a sign pressure direction. Observing from equation (9. ©¨ ¡   and mathematically it is a singular point (see equation (9. the pressure increases downstream.  at the last point.1 Why the flow is chock? There explanation is based on the equations developed earlier and there is no known explanation that is based on the physics.24) it can be observed that the . FANNO FLOW The stagnation temperature expresses as  derivative of this expression when  is remains constant yields §    ¥ and thus when these equations are divided they yields  $ $  ¢¡  %£ #£   $   §  ¥$ . Thus the discussion will be divided into two cases.34).142 CHAPTER 9.  . First it has to recognized that the critical point is when  at which show change in the trend and singular by itself.24) because ¢ and  are positive. For the same reasons.3 The Mechanics and Why The Flow is Chock? The trends of the properties can examined though looking in equations (9. in the supersonic branch. For example. one of flow with speed above speed of sound.3. This constrain means that because the flow cannot “cross–over”  the gas has to reach to this speed.33) The first law requires that the stagnation temperature remains constant. the pressure has to be a monotonic function which means that flow cannot crosses over the point of  . ¤ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ £$ ¡ ¡ %£ ¡ £    $ ¡ %£  $ ¡ £ ¡©£ . When  ¨ the pressure decreases downstream critical point is when  as can seen from equation (9. For example. This situation called chocked flow. two flow with speed below of speed of sound.34) ¡ £ $ ¤¨ ¢   ¨¢ ¥   Utilizing the equation for stagnation pressure the entropy equation yields  ¤ ¡ ¡    £$ § § ¤   ¢ (9. Therefore the entropy change  ¤¦ ¢ ¡  $ .32) ¤¦    ¡ ¤¦ ¢¡  ¢  ¢¡ ¦¡  In the similar fashion the relationship between the stagnation pressure and the pressure and substitute in the entropy equation results ¤ ¡  ¤ ¡ ¤¢ ¢   ¢ ¦¡  ¤¨ ¢ ¨ ¢ (9. (9. However. ¡ £ ¡ £   £ ¤ 9.24)). This pressure increase is what makes compressible flow so different than “conventional” flow.24) through (9. and.

26 yields   "   ¦¦ ¡   § "¥¥  £    £  ¥ £  7£¢  ¥ ¥ ¥ © ¥   ¥ ¤ (9. Density.4.30) can be ¡£ solved.0. the pressure can be examined by looking at equation (9.24).  ¢ 9. For example. On the other hand.28). It demonstrates that the Mach number increases downstream when the flow is subsonic.37) Utilizing the mean average theorem equation (9.24 in equation 9. Now equation 9.24 can eliminate term   ¤ and describe the pressure on the Mach number. (9. when the flow is supersonic.26). the pressure as written in equation 9. The summary of the properties changes on the sides of the branch Subsonic decrease increase increase decrease decrease decrease Supersonic increase decrease decrease increase increase increase This table is only for a historical reason. (9.4 The working equations Integration of equation (9. THE WORKING EQUATIONS 9. the pressure decreases.2 The Trends 143 The trends or whether the variables are increasing or decreasing can be observed from looking at the equation developed.25) yields   § ¡ ¢   § ¢   ¢ ¤ ¡  £ £ ¢   ¥ ¥    §    £ ¦¡  7 £¥   ¥ £  7£¢ ¥   ¥ (9. (9. ¢ ¤ . ¨ Mach number. and   For example.38) It common to replace the  with which is adopted in this book. is there another way to represent this information? Pressure. ¡ Temperature.39) .23 is represented by ¡£¢ Mach number. Dividing equation 9.36) yields §        4 $© ¡  £ £     ¥ ¥    § £   7 £¥   ¥ £  7£¢ ¥   ¥ (9.   Stagnation Temperature.36) A representative friction factor is defined as    ¡   4 $© ¢ ¡ £ ¢   § ¢   ¤¢ ¦¥  (9.3. and (9.27).9.29).29). (9. Equations (9.  Velocity.

42) ¡ ¡ £ ¡    ¥   £ ¢  7 £¥    £ £ 7 ¢¥   ¥ (9.46) The integration of equation (9.39) can be integrated to yield: ¡ £ ¤¡ £ ¨ ¨ £ ¡ £ 7 £¥    £  7 ¢¥    ¥ (9.45) And further rearranging equation (9.47) .40) and substituting into equation (9.34) yields £ ¡ ¡ ¦¥   ¥ ¢ ¡ (   £     £  7£¢ ¥   ¥  4 ¤ £ ¤ ¨ (9. FANNO FLOW The symbol “*” denotes the state when the flow is choked and Mach number is equal to 1.144 CHAPTER 9.44) ¤ ¤ ¨$¤¨ £ ¦ ¨ ¨ © £ Utilizing the pressure ratio in equation (9.44) yields ¨ ¨ ¢ ¡ ¢ £ ( £  7£¢ ¥   ¥ 4 7£  ¥ ¤ ¤  ¨  £   £  7  7£¢¥   £  ¥ § ¥ (9.45) provides ¨ ¨ ¢ ¡ £ ¢  £ ¡ ( £  7££ ¢ ¥   ¥ 4 7¥ § ¥  ¥ ¨ ¦ ¥¤ ¤ £ ¨ (9.41)     £ ¡ £   ¡ £  7 7£¢ ¥   ¥ (9.40) In the same fashion the variables ratio can be obtained  ¡ ¥ ¡   ¥ £ £ £ 7 £¥  7 ¢¥   £ £  ¥ ¥ (9.  when ¨ ¨ Equation (9.43) The stagnation pressure decreases can be expressed by ¨ ¦ ¤   £  ¦ ¨ ¤ ©   $ ¤  ¨ ¨ ¢ ¨ ¢ ¨ ¡ ¨ ¢ ¨ ¢ ¨ £ £ ¨ £ (9. Thus.

In most of the times.  §       4 $© ¥ ¥ ¡  §   4 $© ¥ §        (9.50) .2 The fanno flow is in many cases shockless and therefore a relationship between two points should be derived.49) Hence.2: Various parameters in Fanno flow as a function of Mach number out Reynolds dimensionless parameter. ρ/ρ and T/T as a function of M 1e+02 4fL  D P  * P * T0/T0 P0/P0 U/U* 1 * * * 145 Fanno Flow * 1e+01 0.4.1 0.1 Fri Sep 24 13:42:37 2004 0. 9. THE WORKING EQUATIONS P/P .9. The real ratio can be obtained by ratio of two star ratios as an example ¥ ¡  ¡ ¤ £ ¤  £  ¤ £ ¤  £    ¦ ¨ (9. The results of these equations are plotted in figure 9.48) A special interest is the equation for the dimensionless friction as following ¢ ¦ ¢ ¨ §       ¤¢ ¡ ¡ ¢   §£¢ ¢ ¨ §     ¤¢ ¡     ¢   § ¢ ¢ ¦ §       ¤¢ (9.01 1 Mach number 10 Fig. the “star” values are imaginary values that represent the value at choking.

. the total temperature at the entrance can be obtained by ¢ . Assume that ¥ and that the flow from the reservoir up the average friction factor to be to the pipe inlet is essentially isentropic. For given Mach number ( ) the following is obtained. finding the total pressure and temperature at the pipe inlet is the solution.3: Schematic of example 1 Example 9.1 Example   !#"%$'&)(10 TVU%WYXa` b  ¢¡¤£¦¥ £¨§©  ced8f)gah iqp F G6I¤PEQ¨R1S H 2436587@9 A)B¦CED Fig. 9. Estimate the total temperature and total pressure in the reservoir under the Fanno flow model.4. Vrts ¤ ¦¨u §£©   r„Hƒ …a† v wr @B£yx €r‚#ƒ S OLUTION For isentropic flow to the pipe inlet. The air exits to the atmosphere.146 CHAPTER 9.1: Air flows from a reservoir and enters a uniform pipe with a diameter of 0. There is no Mach meter. With the Mach number and temperature known at the exit.05 [m] and length of 10 [m]. FANNO FLOW 9. knowing the ‡‰‘ˆ@ x r’#ƒ ”ƒ ¢ … Hƒ HsE†  s saƒ•s s sƒ  7 ¢ So the total temperature at the exit    ¢¡¤£ ¥ § §£¢ § § ¢ § ¢ “ ¡  ¢ ¢“ saƒ   † #ƒ sE† Q  s ƒ  § @ ¡ ¤¤ ££ v  … §¨¢  ƒ 8¤ § © r ¥ v ££ ¥ v ¥ r … s ƒ  § @ r H To ”move” the other side of the tube the ‡–‘ ˆ— is added as £ £ 5 ƒ a† 5 s@ £  §  #ƒ #sE†  s ‡‰‘ˆ@ ££™˜ r ‡–‘ˆ—  ‡‰‘ˆ— ££ ¥ r † ## ƒs ƒ  v £   £ 4 This property is given only for academic purposes. Thus. temperature and total pressure at the pipe inlet are the same as the those in the reservoir. The following conditions § ¢ 4 temperature ¥ prevail at the exit: ¨ ¥ .

k = 1. the stagnation ratios has to be added for x r #ƒ B779Q ¡ ¡ ¢ #ƒ ¨ ¢ follows:   #ƒ ¢ @B The total pressure ¨ ¢˜ Hƒ ¢ 97 ¨ ¡  ¡£¢ ¤¤¢ saƒ @ †  ¤ ¤ ¥ ”ƒ ¢ s  § § ¢ ¤©¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ §§ ¢© saƒ  can be found from the combination of the ratios as ¨ ©'  ¨ ©' £  £  ¨ ££ ¨ ££ ¡ ¡ ££ ˜ ˜ ¢ r ¨ ¥ ˜ ˜ 5 ¨ £ ¥ ¨ 5 £ ˜ ˜ ˜ § ¢ § §£© 5 ˜ ˜ r s ¡ ¥ ¤ £  ƒ #s@† ¢ ¢ ¡¤  r ƒ s ¤ u £ £ ¤  ©' ¨ ' ©  £ v ¢˜ r v ¥ v v £££ ¥ ˜ r   5 ˜ ¡ ¢£ ¥ ¦ 5 sƒ•s @ 5 ¨ ¤ ¢ £ ££ ¤ £ v ˜ ££ ˜ ¤£ £ ˜  v £ ¢¡ ¤ ¦   † 7£§ r @99£ Another academic question: Example 9.0 [m] long. variableName = fldV. –‡ ‘ˆ— 147 either from the table “ ¡  “ § § ”ƒ 9797Q  ƒ s—  ƒ HsE†  s…ƒ @ †…  ƒ @BQ † #ƒ 9797 sE†  s ƒ s Q ¢£¢     ¡£ ¥ § § § ¢ § ¢ ¤¤ ¡ 5 Note that the subsonic branch is chosen.21 . .4. The system is supplied by a 5 whatInfo = infoStandard .2: A system compromised from a convergent-divergent nozzle followed by a tube with length of 2.9.4.5 [cm] in diameter and 1. FLD = 3. THE WORKING EQUATIONS The rest of the parameters can be obtained with the new by interpolations or utilizing attached program.

0. With the isentropic relationship the Mach number at point one is known the following can be found either from table or program6 6 It should pay attention that in the program the variable whatInfo = infoStagnation . ¡ ¡ r   ¢ xrq The density and speed of sound are unknowns and needed to be computed. 9. ¤ih  p ¥ § © and r’#ƒ   . With these conditions a pipe inlet Mach number is 3. R = 287 S OLUTION (a) Assuming that the pressure vessel very much larger than the pipe therefore. (b) the temperature at the pipe exit. Thus. determine. FANNO FLOW  ¤!¨"$# %¨&¦' (0)$1¨2 354 687@9¨9A  T ¢ §©Y   BDCFEHG¦I P acbedgf QD R ¡¤S¨£¦U V¦¥ £¨W X` shock d-c nozzle atmosphere conditions Fig. Hence. A normal shock wave occurs in the tube and the flow discharges to the atmosphere. . (a) the mass flow rate through the system.   x © ].148 CHAPTER 9.4. the velocity in the vessel can be assumed small enough so it can be neglected. It further assumed that the flow through the nozzle can be approximated §¨¢ § and ¨ ¨ as isentropic. and not whatInfo = infoStandard .65 [Bar]. v ¢ ˜ r †…… ¢˜ r ƒ Q¨ ¤ u §© The mass flow rate through the system is constant and for simplicity reason point 1 is chosen in which.4: The schematic of Example 2 vessel. the stagnation conditions can be approximated as the condition in the tank. 400 K. The vessel conditions are is at 29. and (c) determine the Mach number that a normal shock wave occurs [ Take k = 1.

obtain the flowing  ƒ … #ƒ  §§ s Q ”ƒ s 7 § § and the conditions of the tube are     ¡£ ¥ §§ § “ ¡  § ¢ ¢“ † ƒ  † Q ”ƒ   s 7 sƒ Q †  #  ƒ † § 7¨@ § ¢ § ¢ ¡ ¤¤ 5 ƒ   5  s ƒ  r Hƒ 7 ‡–‘ˆ— r † #H §  ƒ  Since 7 #ƒ 7£¢ Hƒ  § § s Q the flow is chocked and with a shock wave. a check weather the flow is shockless by comparing the flow resistance and the maximum possible resistance. From the table or by using the attached program7 . .9. THE WORKING EQUATIONS  ƒ …   Hƒ ¨@ s@† ¡ ¡ ¢ ”ƒ  @GQ §  ¤¤ 149 ¢ †#ƒ §  † Q ¤ ¤ ¥ Hƒ  @ § § §¢  § § ”ƒ s…s  7 ¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ § ¢ § § The temperature is ˜ v ˜ r v v ¢ ˜ v ¢ ˜ r Hƒ ¨@ 5 † r sE† § ƒ 7 § £ § ¢ With the temperature the speed of sound can be calculated as q ˜ r   p£¢ v r   s…ƒ † 5 § 3 7 @ 5 s@† § ƒ 7 ¨  ƒ  † ¤ ¡  ¡ £I$q © The pressure at point 1 can be calculated as ˜ r ¨ ˜ ˜ ¨ ¢ ˜ r #ƒ  § @ 5   £ #  ƒ 7 s ¤ § u §£© ¨ ¢ ££ The density as a function of other properties at point 1 is   ˜r ¨ ¢v ¢ ¡ s‡ ££™˜ r § 7 ƒ s 5 5 @ 7 @ sE† § ƒ 7 ¨ £ sƒ ¢ @ ¡ p¦¥ £   £ The mass flow rate can be evaluated from equation (9.4.2) ¡ ¡ § ¥ 5 #  5  5 §  ¢ ƒ  † r Hƒ Q ¢ p¦¥  ƒ  5 @ r  sƒ  £I$q †   £ (b) First.

Two possibilities needed to be checked. one. To find the location of the shock ratio of the pressure ratio. (fanno flow table) ¤  ¢¡¤£ ¡   ¤ § ¢¢ §  “ ¥ ¡  § § “ ”ƒ † @B s ¢ s…ƒ §£¢ s ¢ § ƒ §  † ¢ sƒ  ¢ a† saƒ ¢ Q †  #ƒ   ¢ s @ sƒ•sE† 7 s ¢ The stagnation values for x r Hƒ † @B s are  ƒ …… §     ”ƒ † @9 s ¢   ¡ ƒ Q3@ ¢  ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ £ ¤¤ ¢ ¤ § ¢¤ § § ¢¢ ¢¤ § ”ƒ † @B s ¢   ”ƒ ¢ 9Q¨@ ¢ ˜ ¨ ¥ ¡ ¡£¢ Hƒ 7 ¢  †  ¨  ©' ¥  £ ¤¤¢ saƒ  ¢ † ¤ ¤¦¥ #ƒ 79Q¨@GQ   § § ¢ ¤ ¨ ¤  ¨ § ¢ ¢ § § saƒ•s s The ratio of exit pressure to the chamber total pressure is shock. is needed. the shock is somewhere downstream. FANNO FLOW The exit pressure determines the location of the shock.150 CHAPTER 9.  ¥  ¥  ¥ ¨ ¢ ¨ ¥ ¨ ¨ ˜ ¨ ¢ r ˜ © ¨ ¢ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¢ ¨ ¢ ¨ ¢ § s r s 5 § § ƒ §  † ¢ 5 Hƒ 7¨BQ97 5 #ƒ  7 † 5 s r Hƒ s † @BQ §£¢ The actual pressure ratio s   ƒ Q r„#ƒ  97 is smaller than the case in which shock occurs at the entrance. possibility of the shock wave occurs immediately at the entrance for which the ratio for © are (shock wave table) x  ƒ 7¨@ s @ s ”ƒ 99 ”ƒ  § 79 † ¢ ˜ After shock wave the flow is subsonic with “ x ” r #ƒ † @9 s . First. if a shock exists. shock at the exit and comparing the pressure ratios. “claiming” up stream from the exit through shock to the entrance. Then either utilizing shock table or the program to obtained the upstream Mach number. One possible way to find the exit temperature. v ¥ is by finding the location of the ¡¡  ¡ ¢ £ ¨  © © ¥  ˜   ‡–‘ˆ— The procedure of the calculations: 1) Calculated the entrance Mach number assuming the shock occurs at the exit: . calculating the parameters for shock location with known in the “y” side. Thus. For example. and two. the shock at the entrance of the tube. by comparing “possible” ¨ © ¤  to ¨   . With the location of shock.

9.5 In chapter ?? it was shown that the isothermal model cannot describe the adequately the situation because the thermal entry length is relatively large compared to the pipe length and the heat transfer is not sufficient to maintain constant temperature. SUPERSONIC BRANCH a) set ¥   assume the flow in the entire tube is supersonic: b) calculated   Note this Mach number is the high Value. and. However. the because the very limited amount of heat transformed it closer to a adiabatic flow. ˜ r  . . 2) Calculated the entrance Mach assuming shock at the entrance.). 9 The word information referred into the shear stress transformed from the wall to centerer of the tube. experiments by many starting with 1938 8 You can use any method you which. The information from the wall to the tube center9 is slower in reality. 3) according your root finding algorithm8 calculated or guess the shock location and then compute as above the new . In the process x that will produce x Supersonic Branch © and ¡ must be calculated (see 9.5.). Note this Mach number is the low Value. furthermore. In the Fanno model there is no heat transfer. a) set ¥ b) add and calculated c) calculated © for ’ x r¢s ˜ x x ¢ r s ‘‡‰ˆ— x 151 ˜ ’ for subsonic branch x x ˜ To check Secant Method.  ƒ …  ¤£ s…ƒ …  ¤¥ ”ƒ §§ Hs ¢   ¡£ ¥ ££  ¢¡  ¢¡¤£ ¥ ”ƒ @ ¢ 7 s ££ £¥¤§¦©¨ s…ƒ ¢ 7 ¢£¢ x       ”ƒ ¨@ ¢ s@ £ –‡ ‘ˆ— ££     ¡ (c) The way that numerical procedure of solving this problem is by finding the chapter on the program with its algorithms. The only limitation of the model is uniform of the velocity (assuming parabolic flow for laminar and different profile for turbulent flow. but be-careful second order methods like Newton-Rapson method can be unstable.   x ˜ a) set x ¥ r¢s b) for the new ‡‰‘ ˆ@ and compute the new x ’ as on the subsonic branch c) calculated x © ’ for the x ’ ˜ d) Add the leftover of ‡–‘ ˆ— and calculated the x   4) guess new location for the shock according to your finding root procedure and according the result repeat previous stage until finding the solution.

Nevertheless. the entrance Mach number. Insert also example on percentage of heat transfer. Only combination of two these parameters are truly independent.5. Many of the pictures in the literature carry copyright problems. FANNO FLOW To insert example on the change in the flow rate between isothermal flow to Fanno Flow. Three parameters. This solicitation is about how to explain this issue to non-engineers or engineer without proper background. These results were obtained from the mathematical derivations but were verified by numerous experiments12 . 9. A shock wave can occur and some portion of the tube will be in a subsonic flow pattern. It also must be recognized that there is a maximum length for which only supersonic flow can exist11 . The maximum length of the supersonic can be evaluated when as follow:     ¤ £  ¢ © £       ¢  £ ¤    ¥ ¡ ¦   ¥¢¡ £     ¤   ‡‰‘ˆ— ¡ x † 4$     #   £ ˜ r 7¢ ˆ  ¡x r ‡‰‘@ ¢¨ ¥¥ 2 7¦ ˜ r ¢7 # 7 7˜ ˜ r  ˜& ˜ £ £ 7 ¥  7 ¥ 7 ¦ 7£¢ ˜ & ¥ ˜ £ 7£ ˜&  7 ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7£¢ ˜ &   ¡ p r sƒ † £ r’#ƒ 7 § s  ¡  ¥  x r   The maximum length of the supersonic flow is limited by the above number.7 Working Conditions It has to be recognized that there are two regimes that can occurs in Fanno flow model one of subsonic flow and supersonic flow. the comparison with shows that heat transfer cause changes to the flow and they needed to be expected. 12 If you have experiments demonstrating this point. From the above analysis. please provide to the undersign so they can be added to this book. and the pressure ratio. However. on the comparison of the maximum length of isothermal model and Fanno Model.152 CHAPTER 9. work by Frossel10 since has shown that the error is not significant. it can be observed that no matter how high the entrance Mach number will be the tube length is limited and depends only on specific heat ratio. 10 See 11 Many ¥§¦¨¦©¨5 %  % " $% !3 "(5 % 6'% " D 4')3'0 9 D 9 0 4 '! '©34'! ¦ '¦ @ 3 E #"1G .6 Maximum length for the supersonic flow It has to be noted and recognized that as oppose to subsonic branch the supersonic branch has a limited length. ¨ ¥   ¨ are controlling the flow. as shown in figure 9. all the three parameters can be varied and there are discussed separately here. the dimensionless friction. . This changes includes the choking point at lower Mach number. Even the flow in the tube starts as a supersonic parts of the tube can be transformed into the subsonic branch. The discussion has to differentiate between two ways of feeding the tube: converging nozzle or a converging-diverging nozzle. p 9. This author seeking nice explanation of this concept for the non–fluid mechanics engineers. ˜ ‡–‘ˆ— x ˜ ¨§ ¤©© ¤¢  ©© !" on the web in the industry have difficulties to understand this concept. .

4 1.6 1. the treatment of the two branches are separated. increase of the dimensionless friction. . WORKING CONDITIONS 153 The maximum length in supersonic flow In Fanno Flow 1.2 1. It worth noting that entrance Mach number is reduced (as some might explain it to reduce the flow rate). In the case of the converging–diverging feeding nozzle. These results applicable the converging nozzle.4 0.5: The maximum length as a function of specific heat. increasing the tube length results in increasing the exit Mach number (normally denoted herein as ¥ ).1 Subsonic branch For converging nozzle feeding.7. it should be assumed that that back pressure is constant and/or low as possibly needed to maintain a choked flow.7 0. the mass flow rate decrease.3 1.7.5 1.9.  D Fig. the mass flow rate must decrease. x r s x r ‡‰‘ˆ@ . Once the flow becomes choked a different flow pattern emerged.1. Thus.5 1. results in a similar flow pattern as in the converging nozzle.3 0. no further increase of the exit Mach number can be achieved.1 0 1.35 1.   9.7. In this process.5 0.65 spesific heat.1 Variations of the tube length (   £ ¢¡ ) effects ¢ In part of this analysis of this effect.45 1.25 1. 9.2 0.1 1 0.7. 9.8 0.” The density decrease because   and when Pressure is remains almost constant the the density decreases. First.3 1. Once the Mach number reaches maximum ( ).9 0. k Thu Mar 3 16:24:00 2005 4fLmax maximum length.55 1. The velocity therefor must decrease because the less of the enthalpy (stagnation tem¡ © ¤ perature) is “used.2 1.4 1. The entrance temperature increase as can be seem from Figure 9.6 0.

9. is the point in which no supersonic flow is possible in the tube i. the mass flow rate is constant because the flow is choked at the ‰‡ ‘ˆ—    7 ¤ " 0 ‡–‘ˆ—  £   7 © £ £ £ ‡‰‘ˆ—     7 © £ £ £ 0 ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ –‡ ‘ˆ— ‡–‘ˆ— ‡–‘ˆ— ‡–‘ˆ— ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ‰‡ ‘ˆ@    7 ¤ " 0  ‡‰‘ˆ@  £   7 © £ £ V £ ‡‰‘ˆ@     7 © £ £ W   £ # £ V # # W X #   X . At the starting point the flow is choked in the nozzle. The point V is the choking point (for the supersonic branch) in which the exit Mach number reaches to one.1.e. The point W is the maximum possible flow of supersonic flow not depend on nozzle. (to achieve supersonic flow). referred here as the critical point. the shock reaches to the nozzle. entrance and exit Mach number are discussed.2 Supersonic Branch There are several transitional points that change the pattern on the flow.6: The effects of increase of ¥  ¢¡¤£ on the Fanno line 9. Y .8): £ The 0-V range. There is another point. FANNO FLOW CDD ! " ¤ Fig. Between these transitional points the effect parameters such and mass flow rate. X . in which no supersonic flow is possible in the entire nozzle–tube system.7. The following ranges that has to be discussed which include (see figure 9.154 2!354 97 88 8 U #%$'&(( ()10 6 @  ¢¡ £ R9S DE1FG!HPI SS Q T A%B ¥§¦©¨¨ CHAPTER 9. The next point.

the resistance increases and on the other hand. the entrance Mach number. ¥ decreases (remember this flow is on the supersonic branch) and starts ( ) as ¥ . is constant because it is a function of the nuzzle design only. reduces with the increase of . is more practical point. In the range W In semi supersonic flow W X (in which no supersonic is available in the tube but only the nozzle) the flow is still double chocked and the mass flow rate is constant. and the exit velocity remains constant!13 In the last range X the end is really the pressure limitation or the break of the model and the isothermal model is more appropriate to describe the ‡–‘ˆ— 4 $ x ˜ x ‡‰‘ˆ—   13 On personal note. The entrance Mach number. this situation is rather strange to explain.). The total maximum available for supersonic flow W x r s x ˜ x ‡‰‘ˆ@ r¢ x r x ˜ theoretical length in which the supersonic flow can occur if nozzle will be provided with a larger Mach number (a change the nozzle area ratio which also reduces the X . 9.7. Is anyone have explanation for this strange behavior suitable for non–engineers or engineers without background in fluid mechanics. is only W  . £  © . WORKING CONDITIONS constant pressure lines 155  ¢¡ £ 1’ 1 2 2’ 1’’ 2’’ Fanno lines ¤ Fig. the exit Mach number remains constant and equal to one. In the range of V W the flow is all supersonic. V X the mass flow rate nozzle entrance It worth noticing that in the velocity. Notice that exit Mach number. . The entrance Mach continues to be constant and exit Mach number is constant. However.7: The development properties in of converging nozzle nozzle. The exit Mach number. At end of the range V . mass flow rate. ¥ is still one. . On one hand. In the next range V W The flow is double choked and make the adjustment for the flow rate at different choking points by changing the shock location.9. The mass flow rate continue to be constant. ¥ .

9. when the shock wave occurs at the tube exit and. In the figure 9. To summarize the above discussion the figures 9. . at the tube entrance .156 %'& a CHAPTER 9. Figure 9. the larger creates larger differences between exit Mach number for the different shock location. ¡ x ˜ x ‡‰‘ˆ@ ¡ x ˜ ‡‰‘ˆ@ x ˜ x ‡–‘ˆ— x ˜ x ‘ ‡‰ˆ@ x ˜ x x ‰‡ ‘ˆ@ ‰‡ ‘ˆ@ r #ƒ•s –‡ ‘ˆ— r #ƒ † –‡ ‘ˆ— r #ƒ54 14 Note that 687 ‡–‘ˆ— x ˜ increases with decreases of  97 but this effect is less significant.10 only for and two extremes are shown. The exit Mach ¥ is a continuous monotonic function that decreases with . one. FANNO FLOW 1 (0) all supersonic flow   ¡£¢ b mixed supersonic with subsonic flow with a shock between ¥ ¤    "!$# c the nozzle is still choked ¦¨§©  2'3 Fig.10 The figure 9. Subsonic velocity occurs for supersonic entrance velocity.   The § ¢ figure was calculated by utilizing the data from figure 9. two. the flow rate decreases since ( ¢ )14 .8 exhibits the developed . Somewhat different then the subof sonic branch the the mass flow rate is constant even the flow in the tube is completely subsonic. Obviously there can be two extreme possibilities for the subsonic exit branch. For shown with only shock at the exit only. In this range. and as can be observed. The entrance Mach is a non continuous function with a jump at point when shock occurs at the entrance “moves” into the nozzle.2 by obtaining the for ¥ and subtracting the given and finding the corresponding .8: The Mach numbers at  ¢¡ £ entrance and exit of tube and mass flow rate for Fanno Flow as a function of the ¥ Should the mathematical derivations be inserted to demonstrate it? flow. In the figure 9. Obviously.9 exhibits the as a function of ¥ . This situation is because the “double” choked condition in the nozzle. The larger larger must occurs even for shock at the entrance.10 exhibits the entrance Mach number as a function of the ¥ . ¥ mass flow rate as a function of .

shock at the entrance.1 D = 1.9. The below the maximum critical length is mathematically ‡‰‘ˆ— ‡–‘ˆ— ¢ For cases above the maximum critical length no supersonic flow cannot be over whole tube and at some point a shock will occur and the flow becomes subsonic flow15 .1 0.6 0.7 0. WORKING CONDITIONS 157 Fanno Flow M1 as a function of M2 1 0.7 Entrace Mach number 0. One. shockless flow. 15 See ‡–‘ˆ— p s s p¦ p s 4p p s ¡  more on the discussion about changing the length of the tube.8 0.5 0.0 = 100.9:   7 as a function  ¢¡ for different ¥  ¢¡¤£ For a given .0 = 10.9 0. below the maximum critical length.3 0.6 0.4 0. the entrance supersonic entrance has three different regimes which depends on the back pressure. .4 0.3 0.1 0 0 0.5 0.8 0.2 0. and shock at the exit.2 0.7.0 Exit Mach number Tue Oct 19 09:56:15 2004 Fig. 9.9 1 4fL  = 0.

is independent of the parameters such as.8 1 M2  ¢¡¤£ 4fL = 0. Reynolds number etc) thus the flow remains on the same Fanno line. For very low pressure ratio the flow can be assumed as incompressible while exit Mach number are smaller than ¨ . the exit and entrance Mach numbers increase. FANNO FLOW Fanno Flow M1 as a function of M2 for the subsonic brench 5 4.6 1.8 2 Tue Jan 4 11:26:19 2005 Fig. effects In this section the studied parameter is the variation of the back pressure and thus.4 0. 9.1  D = 0.2 1.1 shock = 0. Again a differentiation of the feeding is important to point out. the entrance pressure decreases as well because the increase in the entrance Mach number (velocity).2 0.5 2 1.2 = 0.4 1. If the feeding nozzle is converging than the flow will be only subsonic. Mach number. ! ! ¡7 . .10:   7 as a function   ¡ for different ¥ for supersonic entrance velocity 9. If the nozzle is “converging–diverging” than in some part supersonic flow is possible.7. At first the converging nozzle is presented and later the converging-diverging nozzle is ex  ‡‰‘ˆ— #ƒ   . As the pressure ratio increases (smaller back pressure.4 = 0.5 3 M1 2.5 4 3.2 The Pressure Ratio. For case where the supply come from a reservoir with a constant pressure.158 CHAPTER 9.6 0.4 1.5 1 0. According to Fanno model the value of is constant (friction factor. ¡   the pressure ratio ¡ ¢ variations.5 0 0 0. ¨ ¥ ).

The Much number. The maximum velocity is when exit Mach number equals one. Any additional reduction in the back pressure will not change the situation in the tube. Something must break since the conflicting demands and it result in a “jump” in the flow. This jump and it is referred to as a choked flow.1 Choking explanation for pressure variation/reduction decreasing the pressure ratio or in actuality the back pressure. In our model the tube area is postulated as a constant therefore the velocity cannot increase any further. WORKING CONDITIONS plained. results in increase of the entrance and the exit velocity until a maximum is reached for the exit velocity.9. However. . as it was shown in the chapter 4. the flow to be continuous the pressure must decrease and for that the velocity must increase.7.2. 159 £¥¤  ¢¡ ¦ § a shock in the nozzle fully subsoinic flow    ¥ critical Point a criticalPoint b critical Point c ¨©  critical Point d Fig. The only change will be at tube surroundings which are irrelevant to this discussion. 9. can increase only if the area increase.7.11: The pressure distribution as a function of ¥  ¢¡¤£ for a short ¥  ¢¡¤£ Converging nozzle 9.

When the back pressure is below point c. Note however that exit Mach number.7.12 shows different of pressure profiles for different back pressures.2 Short ‡–‘ˆ— Figure 9.12: The pressure distribution as a function of ¥  ¢¡¤£ for a long ¥ 9. Between point a and point b the shock is in the nozzle. A back pressure that is at the critical point c results in a shock wave that is at the exit. –‡ ‘ˆ— ‡–ˆ— ‘ £¥¤  ¢¡ ¦ § s¢tvu!w syx!s€ƒ‚Gw „…w €ƒt‡†‰ˆ‘G’#•“h” ˜ a shock in the nozzle –— fully subsoinic flow  !#"%$'& ()0( 21 3%465!798A@CBDEGFPHI S QR    ¥ TVUXW`Y critical Point a criticalPoint b critical Point c ¨©  Fig.160 CHAPTER 9. The critical length is the maximum that associate with entrance Mach number. 9. ¥ ¨ and is not 1.2. before the flow reach critical point a (in the figure) the flow is subsonic. One case is where the   is short or equal to §£¢ the critical length. Once the back pressure is less the point b the supersonic reaches to the tube. the tube is “clean” of any { x aCbcdGe#ifhg pr q  ¢¡¤£ s . FANNO FLOW If the feeding nozzle is a “diverging-converging” then it is has to be differentiated between two cases. In this range and further reduction of the pressure the mass flow rate is constant no matter how low the back pressure is reduced. Up to this stage the nozzle feeds the tube increases the mass flow rate (with decreasing back pressure).

point c in this case is   §£¢ different from point c at the case of short tube . The point c or location of the shock wave is a function entrance Mach number.7.13: The effects of pressure variations on Mach number profile as a function of ¥  ¢¡¤£ ¥ when the total resistance for Fanno Flow ¡¡  ¥ ¢  ¢¡¤£ 9.15 4fL  D 0.25 shock at 75% 50% 5% Tue Jan 4 12:11:20 2005 Fig.4 0. In this point the exit ¨ Mach number is equal to 1 and the flow is double shock. The back pressure below point c some a adjustment as to occurs with exceptions of point d.7. ‡–ˆ— ‘   §£¢ ‡‰‘ˆ— ‡–‘ˆ— ‡‰ˆ— ‘ x ˜ 16 It is common misconception that the back pressure has to be at point d.2 1 0. The is no analytical solution for the location of this point c.1 0. Mach number in Fanno Flow 4fL  D 2 1. .8 0. WORKING CONDITIONS 161 shock16 . However.9. and the “extra” . 9.3 Long –‡ ‘ˆ— In the case of ‡‰‘ ˆ— ‡–‘ˆ— ¢ reduction of the back pressure results in the same process as explain in the short up to to point c.05 0. The procedure is (will be) presented in later stage.2 0 0 0.8 1.2.2 0.6 1.6 0.4 Mach Number 1. Further reduction of the back pressure at this stage will not “move” the shock wave downstream the nozzle.

4 0 0 0. is a function of the ratio of the nozzle’s throat area to the nozzle exit area and its efficiency.162 CHAPTER 9.6 1.3 Entrance Mach number.2 0. Practically. It is assumed that in this discussion that the pressure ratio ¡ ¢ is large enough to create a choked flow and is small enough to allow it to happen. the nozzle area ratio change by changing the throat area..8 2. As was shown before.15 4fL  D 0. In reality these effects have significance and needed to be accounted for in some instances. ¡ ¦ .8 4. the effect of changing the throat area on the nozzle efficiency are neglected.8 0. .2 0. there are two different maximums for .6 3. This dissection deals only when the flow reaches the supersonic branch reached otherwise the flow is subsonic ¡   with regular effects. This effect is the third parameter discussed here.4 4 3. This ‡–‘ˆ— x ˜ p ‡–‘ˆ— ‰‡ ‘ˆ— x ˜ .4 2 1. . effects In this discussion. FANNO FLOW P2/P1 Fanno Flow 4fL  D 4.05 0. The entrance Mach number.25 5% 50 % 75 % Fri Nov 12 04:07:34 2004 Fig.1 0. first is the total maximum of the supper sonic which deponent only the specific heat.7.2 P2/P1 2.14: Fanno Flow Mach number as a function of ¥  ¢¡ £ when the total ¥  ¢¡ £ ¡   ¥¢ 9. 9. and second the maximum depends on the entrance Mach number.

is increase can increase the possibility to supersonic flow? ‰‡ ‘ˆ@ ‡‰ˆ@ ‘ x ˜r   Admittedly. The process of decreases the throat area also results in increasing the pressure drop of the nozzle   (larger resistance in the nozzle18 )19 .1 The maximum location of the shock The main point in this discussion however. WORKING CONDITIONS %'&)( 111 0 1 2436587 ¥¢¦¨§© ‡–‘ˆ— R'S)T VV U V WYXa`bWYXdcY` ! "$# shock 9A@BC6D'HEGF IQ P  ¢¡¤£ ‰‡ ˆ— ‘ ‡–‘ˆ—   163 Fig. The “payment” for increase in the supersonic length is by reducing the mass flow. . The mass flow rate is proportional linear to throat area and therefore the mass flow rate reduces. 9. § ¢ ‡–ˆ— ‘ why? make a question. When the entrance Mach number is infinity.7. The reference to the tube because it is the focus of the study. Perhaps it is challenge to public as an open question of how to explain it.0. if the shock location is at the Maximum length. to £ find the furtherest shock location downstream. Once the exit Mach number reaches one no further increases is possible. decrease of of the throat area results in flashing the shock out the tube. However. 18 Strange? frictionless nozzle has a larger resistance when the throat area decreases 19 It is one of the strange phenomenon that in one way increasing the resistance (changing the throat  ¢¡¤£ area) decreases the flow rate while in a different way (increasing the ¥ ) does not affect the flow rate. §¢ In the case of large tube ¢ the exit Mach number increases with the decrease of the throat area. this author have and can explain it mathematically. This part is for the case where some part of the tube under supersonic regime and there is shock as transition to subsonic branch.   § ¢ Obviously.16 shows  as function of retreat of the location of the shock wave from the possible the maximum location. Further. the throat area decreases. Decreasing the nozzle throat area moves the shock location downstream.3. than shock at © results in   and possible e ‡‰‘ˆ— x r„s x ˜r   x r„s 17 The word referred to the tube and not to the nozzle. By doing so. in this situation.7.9. The author did found any physical explanation developed one. 9. the location of the shock wave approaches . to the theoretical location if entrance Mach.15: schematic of a “long” tube in supersonic branch analysis deals with the case where is shorter than total . If the tube contains no supersonic flow then reducing the nozzle throat area wouldn’t increase the entrance Mach number. This similar to surface tension phenomenon that can be explained only heavy mathematics. . The process of decreasing the diverging-converging nozzle’s throat. Figure 9. increases the entrance17 Mach number. the critical point is where is equal to as result to entrance Mach number.

51) ˆ—b  ced©f chgpi ‡–r ‡‰‘ˆ— r –‡ ‘a ‘ˆ— vv c€y‚ . To overcame this numerical problem it is suggested to start the calculation from distance from the right hand side. Let denote   Note that uq  ts is that denote ‰‡ ‘ˆ— in which the flow supersonic achieved and the actual length in which the flow is supersonic see figure 9. FANNO FLOW "!¢#¤$ % ( &' FHGPIRQ SHTPUWV 9A@CBED 0  ¢¡¤£ ¥ ¦¦ ¦¦ ¦¦ ¦ §©¨§¨© )¢0¤1 2 33 33 33 3 46587  ¢¡¤£ Fig. From numerical point of view.16: The extra tube length as a function of the shock location. the right side (at the entrance).164 CHAPTER 9.15.16. The requirement that has to satisfied is smaller than ‡–w vx YX a`     e as difference between the maximum possible of length v f c€f v v „†… „†… ˆ r ‡–‘— v € v c y‚ vx i –‡ ‘a ˆ— q ts   (9. the Mach number equal infinity when left side assume result in infinity length of possible extra (the whole flow in the tube is subsonic). ¥ supersonic branch ‰‡ ‘ˆ— ii) Calculated the extra ‡‰‘ ˆ— The proposed procedure is based on figure 9. 9. The retreating length is expressed as subsonic but ‡–‘ƒ ˆ— vvv „†… f „†… c€f –‡ ‘ˆ— ‘ˆ— q ts (9. i) Calculated the extra and subtract the actual extra the left side (at the max length). –‡ ‘ˆ— and subtract the actual extra ‡–‘ ˆ— assuming shock at assuming shock at iii) According to the positive or negative utilizes your root finding procedure.52) .

The maximum for @2 is BADCE2 X r` 4 i BADCE2 F2 . WORKING CONDITIONS 165 $&%('0)1 1 ¦¢§©¨       "! #  ¢¡¤£ ¥  ¢¡¤£ Fig. Example 9. . The right side is when the shock is at the entrance at which the extra ‡‰‘ ˆ— is calculated for x y and Q x P is     S OLUTION The solution is obtained by iterative process. Hence. The maximum 65798 for is 0.3: Calculate the shock location for entrance Mach number assume that .9.20 The solution of the above utilizing results in the following table ”ƒ I4 4H4 4”ƒ †† 4 4 ƒ ¦† … s ƒ HsE† 4 ƒ #ƒ † 4 E4 sƒ s a† The extra e X ‡‰‘ ˆ— ` is ” 4 ƒ †† 4 i #  ƒ•s #sF2 r ” 4 ƒ #s— 4 Now the solution is some          R   ¡£ ¥ U UYX GA EC U©V U V X C T T X ` EWI4 S S X FC ”ƒ  2 R £ s…ƒ … R ¥ ”ƒ W¢A¦aA v   ¡ £  ¢¡ ¥ v  ¢¡¤£ £¥¤ ¦ ¨ ¥ v ”ƒ 4I4 v     sƒ C¢A”s R   ”ƒ Ca†E2   R ¡ 20 What if the right side is also negative? The flow is choked and shock must occur in the nozzle before entering the tube. Hence. the value of left side is Hƒ s #F s 2 . At the left side is when the shock occurs at ”ƒ  Hƒ E4 4I4 s ”ƒS † ˜£  With ¡ x 2     R   R ¡ S ¤ ¢ T W GWHC¢W ƒ T¤ ¢ U A GW †#ƒ U ¤ ¢ ”ƒ  a† ““ X U©V ¤ U V © E2 ¢2I2 ¢ where between the negative of left side to the positive of the right side. x ˜ is reduces after the and for p r¢s…ƒ † x ˜ r32 ‰‡ ˆ@ ‘ ‡–‘ˆ— ‰‡ ‘ˆ— ry#ƒ 4 p r sƒ † ‡‰‘ˆ@ x ˜ r ‡–‘ˆ— r #ƒ 4a e ‡–‘ˆ— r Hƒ #ƒ 4a r H ƒ s #s ‡‰‘ˆ— r Hi ƒGAHCI2 4 (flow chocked and no any additional ‡‰‘ˆ@ ). 9.821508116. sonic branch   7 to the tube as a function of ¥ super- As the figure ?? shows the entrance Mach number. exceed the the maximum length for this entrance thus the extra tube. maximum length is excessed.7. Mach number.17: The maximum entrance Mach number. or in very long tube the whole flow will be subsonic.

4 P2 / P1 P2 / P1 P2 / P1 P2 / P1 P2 / P1 P2 / P1 = 0. 9.2 = 0. FANNO FLOW 9.1 iso = 0. When the Mach number decreases the temperature approaches the stagnation   ). p r  sƒ ‡‰‘ˆ@ r 4 v v v r Hƒ ‡–‘ˆ— v v v ˜ x ˜ #ƒ•s x ˜ M1 Fanno flow with comperison to Isothermal Flow 0. .3 M1 0.18: The entrance Mach number as a function of dimensionless resistance and comparison with Isothermal Flow .5 = 0.8 iso = 0. One must noticed that the maximum temperature at the entrance is ¡  . Hence.18 the dominating parameter is The results are very similar for isothermal flow. The only difference is in small dimensionless friction.2 0.1 = 0. Hence the mass flow rate is a function of because changes.8 The Approximation of the Fanno flow by Isothermal Flow to insert a question or example about this issue in end The isothermal flow model has equation that theoreticians are easier to use compared to Fanno flow model. Looking that the table or figure 9.166 CHAPTER 9. say temperature (£¢ about 1%) that flow can be assumed to be isothermal. ‡‰‘ˆ— ‡–‘ˆ— .8 0. As it can be seen for the figure 9. This requirement provide that somewhere (depend) in the vicinity of EW the flow can be assumed isothermal. This tolerance requires £¥¤ §¦   that ¡   i 4E4 which requires that enough for FW even for large C¢A . if one allow certain deviation of temperature.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 Wed Mar 9 11:38:27 2005 50 4fL  D 60 70 80 90 100 Fig.2 or the results from computer program attached to this book shows that reduction of the mass flow is very rapid.

18 for ¨© ¨ or accurately utilizing the program as in the following table. The mass flow rate is v # v £ 0 r ¨21 x 3 p r ……5 4 v ¡   p8 9 #ƒ  4 © VHƒ s 4EA6 3 s…ƒ † # # † 4 2aA …  ƒ †E2§7  A@$qB H   .9.4: To demonstrate the utility of the figure 9. † #ƒ EW"V† r †  ‡–‘ˆ— r ! #ƒ  4 ˜ r #ƒ•s x ˜$# Hƒ s etc. Find ¤ the   mass flow rate for   EW . a function of the Mach number. Hƒ s )Hƒ )#ƒ #ƒ   r #ƒ    r † r Hƒ  4 …     u ˜r S OLUTION First calculate the dimensionless resistance.9 More Examples Example 9. The stagnation conditions at the entrance are  and ¡   ¤ air. The Mach number is indeed function of the pressure ratio but and therefore mass flow rate is function pressure ratio only through Mach number. MORE EXAMPLES 167 9. the mass rate is Therefore. † ”ƒ …… †…”ƒ … † ”ƒ …… † 4 ƒ•s CE4¢A † ”ƒ …… Wa”ƒBAHWICI4 † ”ƒ …… — s ¢A ƒ † 4 v  ¢¡ £ ¥   ¡£ £ ¥ v ”ƒ•s 4¢A84H2 ”ƒ•s 4a† 4a ”ƒ•ss I4 4 ”ƒ ¢  AH4¢AHW   R¤£ s ƒ … … Hƒ † ¢AD4… Hƒ 4 4HCI4aA Hƒ E  4I4IC¢W Hƒ Hƒ 4 Hƒ † s ƒ H S V 4E4IC¢AEA 4E4ICI4 4E4¢A 4E4I2¢A   R¤¥  ƒ H 4#ƒ sFCI4¢A s@#ƒGAIWHCI4 C¢A ƒ † 4aI C v  ¢¡¤£ ¥ ¥ v ”ƒ s…s C ¢A ”ƒ …… ”ƒ W… ”ƒ 2…… U ©     U § Only for the pressure ratio of 0.18 consider the flowing example. From Figure 9. ¢¡ £¥¤ . Hence.9. ”ƒ•s 4¢A84H2 ”ƒ•s 4a† 4a ”ƒ•ss I4 4 ”ƒ ¢  AH4¢AHW   R S ”ƒ #s ”ƒ 4 ”ƒ ¦† ƒ ”     T TV 4E4 F4EW 4E4 4E4 ¢W 4E4ICE2     †#ƒGWH4Hs@ †#Bƒ A¦ 4EA W ƒ•sF s 4IC A 5 ƒ 4H2† 4 % %'& Hƒ ¦† Hƒ 4 Hƒ  ƒ H U U©V 4E2I2¢A 4E2I4 I2 4E4 I4aA 4E4EWIWIC †#ƒ †ƒ 4 # ƒ ƒ 4 ”s     ( U U V X © W I4 C¢W W aA A EW F4       % %)(   and for the same the pressure. ¦¡ £§¤ and pressure ratio ¨© ¨   G W  2 .   ¤ ‰‡ ‘ˆ— .1 the flow is choked.

15: Fanno Flow Standard basic Table ”ƒ  … ”ƒ a†  ”ƒ E  W ”ƒ I  C… ”ƒ ¢  Aa ”ƒ I  2… ”ƒ I  4… ”ƒ•s@… ”5ƒ 4a… ”5ƒ 4IW ”ƒ … ”ƒ EW ”ƒ †…… ”ƒ ¢ † W ”Gƒ Wa… ”Gƒ WIW ”ƒ C… ”ƒ CEW ”Bƒ A¦… ”Bƒ AHW ”ƒ 2… ”ƒ 2EW ”ƒ 4… ”ƒ 4EW saƒ … 4 ƒ … ”ƒ … †#ƒ …         R  ¢¡¤£ ¥ †…†…”ƒ 4s ” ƒ 4 ”ƒ  s@†…”ƒ s— ”ƒ 84 ”ƒ † #s ”ƒ 4#s sE†#ƒ #ƒ † a† ”5ƒ 4 #ƒ † 4 4” ƒ  sƒ a† sƒ  #s #ƒ 84  #ƒ † … 4 #ƒ 4a† #5ƒ 4a #s@† #ƒ•s 4 84 #ƒ  4 4 #ƒ  #ƒ #s@† #s #ƒ  4 #ƒ  #ƒ ¢  Wa… #Gƒ W 4 4”F sC #ƒ C E C                                         AH2¢A I2 EW I2 F4 CIC IC BA 2 E4EC CIC 4 C GW 2 E2 W H4E4 ¢W IW E2EW GWHCEC ICE4 BA I2 ¢W E4 I2 ¢WI4 E2 ¢A I2 ¢A I4 EC ¢W I2 ƒ IC W C EA E2 A 4 2 EW I2 FW C C CE2 FC 2 4 EW W aWIW ¢W EC C 4 E4 CE4EWH2 E2ICEW I2 4 GAHC C 2 ¢4 EW E2 E2 I2I4 aA H4 EC                                 #ƒ #ss 4 ƒ #s 4” sƒ … a† s #ƒ 4 a s ”ƒ †Hs s #ƒ a† s 4”ƒ s #s s@#ƒ † ”ƒ † ¦† †Hƒ ¦† #ƒ Hs #s #ƒ  4 4 4” 4”ƒƒ 4” ƒ s #s sƒ a†Hs sƒ a† sƒ Hs sƒ † sƒ a† sƒ 4 sƒ 4a† sƒ s 4 #s sƒ  #s sƒ …… #ƒ † I  2 4EW #ƒ 4#s 2 4 4 #ƒ s IC       U UYX s 4#ƒ … sE†Hƒ † #s ssƒ #sE† 4#ƒ 2#ƒ 4 #s A ƒ 4 #s C#ƒ † #s W”ƒ 4”s 4”ƒ 4”ƒ †  4 4” ƒ  ”s sƒ  sƒ #s sƒ †…† sƒ sƒ 4 ¦† sƒ s 4 sƒ s sƒ  a†† sƒ  4¦† sƒ  4 sƒ  4a sƒ … sƒ … 4 sƒ …… sƒ CE2I2 †Hƒ 4 EW s@#Gƒ A 4                     U©V U V X EW ¢2 FW WI4 CECEWH4 I4 FW IC C ¢C 2 2 4EC EW EA EW GAEAD2 WI4 E2¢A I4I2 EW E4 F2I2 EWHC E4 EC I2 ¢A I2I4 #ƒ † #s 2 4 4”ƒ 2 4IW¦† s 2#ƒ 4IC 4a s W”ƒ 4 4a F s #ƒ a †A† ssƒ † s 2 4 s@#ƒ s W”s 4 4#ƒ s ¢AD2 †Hƒ WI2 4HC #ƒ CaA † 4 #ƒ a 4”ƒ C†…A¦4 4” s 2a† 4”ƒƒ H  CI4 E sƒ 2aA¦I 2 sGƒ AaI 44 sƒ W¢AHW sƒ ¢ † C 4HC sƒ ECICEW sƒ 4I2 I2 sƒ 4#ss 4 sƒ s@E † 2I4 sƒ E  4 a† sƒ †† sƒ …… #ƒ CHs 4 aA #ƒ WI  4#F s2 #ƒ ¢ † C¢AIA”s                         T T`X ““ X #ƒ  4H2EC #ƒ a† I2Hs #ƒ E  Waa † AHC #ƒ I  C¢WEAa #ƒ ¢  AHCIC† #ƒ I  2aAHWI2 #ƒ I  4E2EW#s #ƒ•s@E  4a†…† #5ƒ 4”F s244 #5ƒ 4EA 4”D sA #ƒ 4EWEA 4 #ƒ ¢AH2¢AH4 #ƒ † Hs #ƒ E † 2 4IC #Gƒ W ¢ †W4 #Gƒ WH2¢WaE C #ƒ C E † 2Hs #ƒ CI2 ¢A¦† #Bƒ A Hs AH4 #Bƒ AIAH2I4† #ƒ 2 4EW”s@† #ƒ 2¢Aa aA #ƒ 4#s@E † C… #ƒ 4EW¢AD2Hs sƒ … sƒ C sƒ 4IC† 4”ƒ•s E2                                 saƒ•s saƒ•s saƒ•s † saƒ•s Hs saƒ•s saƒ•s saƒ•s Hs saƒ•s saƒ•s  saƒ•s 4 saƒ•s saƒ•s s saƒ•s 4 saƒ•s saƒ•sE† 4 saƒ•s #s saƒ•ss † saƒ•s@ saƒ  4 saƒ  saƒ  saƒ a† saƒ  4 saƒ #s saƒ … ”ƒ CICICEC¢A ”ƒ † 4H2¢WEA ”5ƒ 4H2EW¢A s             S S X 4I4E2 4I4EC 4I4 4I4 4I2E2 4I2¢W 4I2 4¢AHC 4 ¢W 2EW AD2E2 A C I2 FW I4 W 4 IC¢W I4 I4 ¢AD2aA IC E2 E2¢W ¢A A .168 and for the rest ¥ £ ¥ CHAPTER 9. FANNO FLOW £ 0 0   £ £ 7   £ 0 7¡  7¡    ¥ £   £ r #  ƒ B ¢ Hƒ †¢2 r Hƒ W B ¢ #ƒ †E2 r’#ƒ 2 B ¢ Hƒ †¢2"   Hƒ s 4¦† 4 r Hƒ †¢CI2 Hƒ s 4EA #ƒ•ss E4 r’#ƒ † #ƒ•s 4EA #ƒ ¢  AH4¢AIW r’#ƒ  Hƒ s 4EA             p98  A@$q B p8 9 7  A@$ qB p 9 8 7  A@$q B 7 The table for Fanno Flow Table 9.

9.15: Fanno Flow Standard basic Table (continue) 169 W”ƒ … #ƒ … A ƒ … 2#ƒ … 4#ƒ … s@#ƒ … 4a#ƒ … 4IW”ƒ … #ƒ … EW”ƒ … †…#ƒ … †¢W”ƒ … Wa#ƒ … WIW”ƒ … C#ƒ … CEW”ƒ … A¦#ƒ … C     R #ƒ CE4 I2… #Gƒ A 4H4I2E2 #Gƒ AIW 4H2… #Gƒ AHCI2#F s4 #Gƒ AEAD2I4E4 #Gƒ AH2ICI2 #ƒ 2Hs 4HC¢W #ƒ 2HF s WH2 4 #ƒ 2Hs AHWEW #ƒ 2Hs 2IC… #ƒ 2Hs 4 4I2 #ƒ 2Hs 4¢AIW #ƒ 2 4aE 2 #ƒ 2 4a #ƒ 2 4aE W4 #ƒ 2 4aI  CEC #ƒ 2 4a¢  AH2          ¢¡ £ ¥ #ƒ  †† #ƒ  #ƒ a† #s #ƒ  … #ƒ  4 a† #ƒ  4  #ƒ  … #ƒ   #ƒ  4 s #ƒ  4 #ƒ #s #ƒ #s 4”s #ƒ  #ƒ   #ƒ  … #ƒ  #ƒ  a…               U©V U U X U V X I2I4 EW IC aAHWI2 W 2 aAHC F4 ICE2IC 4 H4 ¢2 E4 ¢W W IC I4 GW E4 C ¢A GW W 2 2 C E4¢AH4 GW E2 E4 ECI2 C ¢WEAH4 W ¢W A 2 4 ”ƒƒ•s  s ƒ  sƒ #ƒ ”ƒ † sƒ †Hƒ sƒ•s 4†H ”ƒ ƒ #ƒ sƒ 4”ƒ #ƒ ”ƒ † ƒ                       44           †   4 † W W W W C C C 4                                   EC EC   ”ƒ †† 4”s ”ƒ † ”ƒ † 4 ”ƒ † 4  ”ƒ † 4a ”ƒ †Hs ”ƒ †Hs@ ”ƒ †… ”ƒ †… ”ƒ †… … ”ƒ †… ”ƒ †… ”ƒ †… ”ƒ †… ”ƒ †… ”ƒ †… † ”ƒ †… †             T T X aA EWICI2 H2¢WEA E4 ECIC 2 aAD4 I4E2I2 I4 I2 I4 I2 I2E2I4 I2aAHW I2ECIC I2¢WH4 I2¢W I2 E4 I2 EC 4# C  ƒ54a…… ” 4#ƒƒ 44II 4EW  ƒ•sE†¢C † ”             ““ X S S X 4#  ƒ•ss…ss…s 4#ƒƒ ¢WH4 ”  ƒ I2ECI4¢WEA ” 4#ƒ aAIA ”ƒ ICE4¢AHC¢A 4#ƒ E4 ”ƒ EW¢A s@†           4#ƒ † a† ”ƒ #s@†E2HsFW 4# †… ”ƒ E4EW 4 4#ƒƒ †… †…† ”ƒ ECIC   4# †¢W ”  ƒ †E2E2 4#ƒƒ †… †…†EC ”  ƒ  ¢A¦† 4#ƒ †…†EC ”ƒ  H4 4EC 4#ƒ †…†aA ”ƒ  ¦4 †    4#ƒ †…†aA ”ƒ Hs 4E2 4# †E2 ”  ƒ Hs CEC 4#ƒƒ †… †…†E2 ”  ƒ HsE† 4 4#ƒ †…†E2 ”ƒ Hs 4 4 .9. MORE EXAMPLES Table 9.

170 CHAPTER 9. FANNO FLOW .

This model applied to case where the heat transfer is significant. a simple model is build around assumption of constant properties (poorer prediction to case were chemical reaction take palace). 10. Nevertheless. This model usage is to a rough predict the situation involve mostly chemical reaction. The basic physics of the flow revolves around the fact that the gas is highly 171 . Yet Rayleigh flow is practical and useful concept in a obtaining trends and limits. the main characteristic of the flow such as chocking condition etc. This fact create situation different compare to the previous two models. Yet. In contract the heat transfer in Rayleigh flow occurs either between unknown temperature to tube but the heat flux maintained constant. As opposed to the two previous models. are encapsulated in this model. the heat transfer can be in two directions not like the friction (there is no negative friction). for smaller range of temperature and length the calculations are more accurate. The density and pressure change due to external cooling or heating. While the isothermal flow model has heat transfer and friction the main assumption was that relative length is so the heat transfer occurs between the surrounding and tube. This flow referred in the literature as Rayleigh Flow (see historical notes). As before. In analysis the flow one has to be aware that properties do change significantly for a large range of temperature. In practice Rayleigh flow is difficult to achieve. This flow is another extreme case in which the friction effect are neglected because their relative effect is much smaller the heat transfer effect.1 Introduction The third simple model for an one dimensional flow is for constant heat transfer for frictionless flow.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦     !"$# §©¨ Rayleigh flow is (frictionless) flow with heat transfer through a pipe of constant cross sectional area.

1) the momentum balance reads # ' i ¨ © ) £ 0 #21 © i 1 ' ) 3 3 The mass conservation reads '546' 1 © 4 © 1 £ 0 1 ¨ Equation of state (10. The density change though the heat transfer (temperature change).4) There are four equations with four unknown.3) 3¨ ' 3¨ © '% ' ©% © (10. 10. RAYLEIGH FLOW compressible.1: The control volume of Rayleigh Flow The energy balance on the control volume reads !¢" $ s #&%   © i %  ('0) (10.172 CHAPTER 10.2) (10. in Rayleigh flow also cooling can be applied. a solution can be obtained. if the upstream conditions are known (or downstream condition are known). The flow velocity acceleration change the direction when the cooling is applied. One . 10. As appose to the Fanno flow in which the resistance always oppose the the flow direction.2 Governing Equation   ¡ ¢ £¥¤  flow direction ¦¨§ ©   heat transfer (in and out) Fig. Thus.

5) and (10.6) 3' 4 © © ¦¨ ¦§  § 4 ' ©    6 ©     ¢4 %© ¤ % ¢ 4 % ' ¤ ' % ©' © 3 (10.9) when letting the variable parameters be ¤ % Take © . GOVERNING EQUATION 173 can noticed that equations ray:eq:momentum.11) results in i ¤ © ) "   s " "5¤ # ¤ 4 ##    £ (10.2. ¢¥¤ ' © ¡  £ ¨ '   £¢¥¤ © © ¨©     (10. and © results in i ¢¥¤ © " ¤ % 7698A@ #CBED @ B #   3 (10.5) The equation of state (10.7) into equation (10.9) ¢¥¤ ' © ) ¤ © ¢ i   )20    £¢¥¤ 4   ©  # #  £ (10.11) 3   ¢4¤ © © ) ¤ ' ! ¢   3¢4¤ ' © ! ¤ the initial condition ' . and # © .12) ¢¥¤ © ) the derivative of the equation (10. # ' " i s #A© &)10 %% © i ¢ i¢   )20 ¨ © (10.13) "   ¢4¤ © )GF # ' " i s # © 4 )10               ¨ ' . A derivative of equation (10.7) Substituting equations (10. The second maximum can be expressed as " % ¨ law is used to find the expression for derivative.10.ray:eq:mass.10) ¤ The Rayleigh line exhibits two possible maximums one ¤ for % ©    £¢¥¤ ' © © ¤ © % '   £¢¥¤ © ©¥! 7 ¤ ' B ' © (10.8) % ©   £¢¥¤ ' © ¤ © 3 % © % '   £¢¥¤ © © ¤ ' % '     Transferring the temperature ratio to left hand side and squaring results in ¤ %$ and % " " ¨ # &$ (' " # The second for "¨# " % .4) can further assist in obtaining the temperature ratio as %© 3 The density ratio can be expressed in term of mass conservation as 3 %' ¨ ¨© ' 3' © (10.ray:eq:state are similar to the equations that was solved for the shock wave. and # ' are constant then the variable parameters are ¤ Let © .6) yields (10.

On T-s diagram a family of curve can be drawn for a given constant. yet note this temperature is decreasing. The derivative is equal to infinity. increase of heating results in increase of entropy. But the entropy of supersonic flow is lower (see the Figure 10. The transition to supper sonic flow occurs when the area changes. And cooling results in reduction of entropy. Yet for every curve several observations ¤ can be generalized. 10.14) to put a mathematical explanation how the curves are constructed.12) and (10. chocking can be explained by the fact increase of energy must accompanied by increase of entropy. The chocking is occurred only when because it violate the second law.174    ¢¤£ ¦ ¥ § li ne CHAPTER 10. It is convent to referrers to the value of .2: The Temperature entropy diagram for Rayleigh line Combining equations (10.). RAYLEIGH FLOW !"!$# ¨© Pr es su re co ns ta nt  ¡ Fig. some what similarly to Fanno flow. The derivative is equal to zero © i when or or when ¢ . ¤ when . The peculiars point of when additional is applied the ¤ heat ¦ . point is not the choking point. From thermodynamics.2) and therefore it is not possible (the maximum entropy at . Hence. These value referred as the ¢ ' ¤ &$ ¤ ¤    ¢ ¥     " % "¨# ¤ $ ¤   ¢ " % "¨# ¤ $   ¤   ¤   .13) by eliminating ¤ ©) " % 96 8A@ C# BED @ B # ¤ ¤ # ©  i # ¢¥3   i )   ¢4¤ © ) © "5#   "¤ results in (10. when cooling applied to a tube the velocity decreases and heating applied the velocity ¤ increases. Yet. The derivative is negative.

19) The “star” values are tabulated in table 10.10.18) The stagnation pressure ratio reads ¨   ¨   '   ¨ ' ¢   ¢ ¨©' £©¦ '  ¤ ¥ ' ©¤¥ ¨   ©   7  © ¥ ¢ ¤ ¢  £ '  ££   ¢¥¤ ' © B  '©¦ ©           (10. Several observations can be made in regards to the stagnation temperature. The equation (10.1. GOVERNING EQUATION 175 “star”1 values. ¨¡  ¨ The temperature ratio is ¢¥¤ ' ©   3£ '   ¢         (10.2. .17) %   ' % ' ¢   ¢ ¤£© '  ¤ ' ©¤¥ 4 #   £¢ ) ¤ ' ©   ¢ i   ¤ ' © %   #   £¢¥¤ © ) © 7 %   §' ¦ © ¥ 4 B     (10.16) 3' 4     © ¦ ¦ X   4 ' ©  X    ¢4 %   3 %   ¢ 4 % ' ¤ ' % '    (10.4 $ $ $ $ $ $ # $ "¨$ $ $ $ $ $ W $ $ $ $ $ $ C $ $ $ $ $ $ A $ $ $ $ $ $ 2 $ $ $ $ $ $ 4 $ $ $ $ $   $ $ $ $ $ $ 4 $ $ $ $   R $! $ S S $ X W   A $! $ $ 4   A $! $   " $ $ $! $ 4 $ W H $! $ E "4 4   4 D A 2 $! $ IC 4   4 $! $ $" $! $ WHCWHC$ 4  C$ $! 4 $ CIC       $  S $ S $#V V X"   $  $ $ AHCEW $ $     4 4 4 $ $   A     4 $ $ 4 4 4 $ $ $ 4   W $  $ I2 $ AHW $ $ $ " AIAIA $    A Ca ¢WIW             44  I4¢W       44  I 4 4 I2E2 4  I2 "           U I U X 4aA   4  ¢AH4     4  ¢A 44  IE A 4 Ca A    4ICIC   I CIC    4I 4 CE"W   I 4 C   I 4 C 4   I C      4E WH4   44 E W   U©V V X  U 4I C¢A $  $ T T$ X 4   C $  $ $ E2 $  $ $ WI4I2 $  $ $ 2EC $ $  $     CI2 $ $ $   W 4 4 " $ $   4 4 4 4 $  $ 4 ECICI4 $ $ 4 $ 4 $ 4       1 The star is an asterisk.1: Rayleigh Flow k=1.15) % 3 3¢¥¤ ' ©     7 ¤ © %'   £¢ B   © (10. Table 10.5) can be written between chocking point and any point on the curve.

RAYLEIGH FLOW Table 10.176 CHAPTER 10.1: ?? (continue) $  4EW $ $ $ $ $$$$ $  ¢W $ $ $ $  "¨$ $ $ $ $ " W $ $ $ $ W $ $ $ $ $  WEW $ $ $ $ C $ $ $ $ $  C¢W $ $ $ $ A $ $ $ $ $  AIW $ $ $ $ 2 $ $ $ $ $  2¢W $ $ $ $ 4 $ $ $ $ $  4¢W $ $ $    $ $$ $$     $ $   4 $ $    "¨$ $   $$   W $ $   C $ $   A $ $   2 $ $   4  $4  $$ $$ 44  4 $ $ 4  "¨$$ $$ 44  W $ $ 44  CA $$ $$ 4  2 $$ $$ 4  4$ $ $  $$ "  $W $ $ " W $ $             R $  S S $$X "$" $ $  " $ 2I2¢A $ W   "   $ C   W   W $ A $ 2 # $" $  AD4 $   4 $  2EWI4I2¢A $  4   C¢A $ $  4IC $ 2   $  4I4 H $ 4 4  $ "   $     $ E W    $ 4I 4 4   $ E    $ $ 4   $ WW $ $ $   4IC $   $  4     2EW $  2EWI4   A $  2 $ W I4 $  AHW 4IW $ $ A $   A " $  CEW ¢AIA $  C $ 2I4 " $  WHCaA " $ W I 4 $  " 44 2I E $  " C   $WHCC $ "   4 4 $  " $ I2 " $  ¢AH2¢A $                                 $! S 4ES VWHV XCI2 " 4  4 U U $ X A $! " CI2EC 4      $! " I2I4 " 4  $ $"4  $! W H $ C $  $! C 4  4I4     4E a 2 $! CE4   EC    AEAAD2 $! AIWH4I4      CE2IC $! 2   2I4 4    WI4IC $! 2ECI2    W $ 2 $! 4 $ 2EW $    " 4 $! 4 " $ $ 4    " $! 4EC I4¢W    I C $! 4E2 $ 4aA    4  CI 4 $! 4E4 4 $ A      4IW $! 4E4I2   "    $ C $    $ $ $ $   $ $ $$ $ $ $! 4 I4 4 4 2¢A $! 4E $  2E a 4 D A ¢ 2 A 4 H A E 4 $! 4¢WEAD4E2 $  A   W¢$ADC  $! 4 " E $ C "   $ W $! 4 $ 4 4I $  AD2   $! 2E2 " 4  24 $  W¢ WHC $! 2¢WH4¢A   $  "W 4AH¢ I W C $! 2 IC 4I2 $  " ¢W 4 $! 2   "   " $  E4IC " $! AH4 E4 $  EC EC " $! AEA " $ C $  " W " $! AIWHC   $  $ 2EC " $! A I4EW " $  I 2E"WEW   $! A 4 " 4   $  4I $! A   $ $ C $  44 "C C AD  2W $  EWEWHC   $! CE4¢A $ $ $  4 H $  " I4 $! CE2 " 4 " $  4 4  "4 I  CA $    " 2IC $! CaA I2 $ $  4 $ $$" $ $  4H4ECI2¢A $! CEC EW $ $    2¢AH2I2 $  4H2 $ 4H2 $! C¢W I4E2 $    ADC " A $  4   "   4 $! C   WH2 $ $    4 4 $    CE2   $! WI2I4 $ 4 $    $ E C $    ¢W " $ $! WICI4I2 4 $  $ 2 4  WH AIA84                                                                                       4  2¢  A " E "C 4  42 W  I 4A   2 4  4W $ ¢                  4E4      AH2      W¢A      ¢"W    $    "   $ 4    $ AIW   #    $$ "WI2$   $   $   4    $ $      $ $ W    $ $ $  $ $   $ $   $ W    $#"  "4   $    AH2     4 4      "¨    4 AHC$    " $  C   $   W    C "  C   A    2I 2EC 44  #$4 "4 W4 4  "   "2                  U 4 U©V  V X 2 $    T TaX AD4 $   4   2 $ I $ $  4 W  4EC                   4 C A $  ¢AH¢ I 2 ¢ C $  "$" "$" "W $ W   $ $   $  WEA "$" A $  C aA   $  CI4aAHW   $  AHWEW 4 " $ 2   $   $  2IC 4 $ $" $  4   $ 4aA $  4EWICI4    $$ $ $    "AH2     $ C   4 W   I $WIC     4 "¨   $    "¢$AIW   " W   "      " WEW    " AI"W   4$   W     W E 4 2W   W E    WIW $    WHC      WEA $     WH2    WH2E2$    C "4   C     CEWIC               .

the total exit pressure. After what amount of ¤£ ¦¥ ¨§  ¨ ©      energy the exit temperature will start to decrease? Assume ¤ $ 4    4 D 4 "    $ $$"   S OLUTION The entrance Mach number and the exit temperature are given and from the Table 10. and heat released (transfered) to the air. Illustrative example The typical questions that raised in Rayleigh Flow are related to the maximum heat that can be transfered to gas (reaction heat) and to flow rate.3. Example 10. Due internal   ¡ was found to be EA . Calculated the exit Mach number.10. From the initial values the ratio at the exit can be computed as following.2. the exit pressure.1 or from the program the initial ratio can be calculated. GOVERNING EQUATION Table 10.1: ?? (continue) 177 $$ W  $ $ W  $W $ $ C  $ $ C  $W $ $ A  $ $ A  $W $ $ 2  $ $ 2  $W $ $ 4  $ $   4$$  $$W $$ 4 $ $ 4I$W  $ $ $ $ E W " $ $ $ " W $ $ $ $ $ W $ $ WI$W  $ $ C $ $ CE$W  $ $ A     $ R $!  S S   X       $! $ 4 E $! $ AD24 "A 2¢  4A $! $ C¢A8I C " $! $ WH2 4I 4 $! $ W $ 4 "C $! $ $ "$" $ $! $ I4I42E2  $! $ EWHC¢W $ $! $ 4 $ W $! $ H 4aA84 $! $ $4 2I A $! $ # $ " CE44 $! $ $ I 4 C$ $! $ $ 4 "¨ $! $ $   2 " $! $ $   " W $! $ $     A $! $ $ $ 4aA   $! $ $ $ 2   C $! $ $ $ CE4EW $! $ $ $ C $ $                   V U V X $  S WES WI $  $ U X C CICICaA $  W "$"WEWH $  $ CE A E W W IC $  W IC $  # $ " CI $ W H $ $  $ E4I4CI4$ $ 4 a 4 A $  W 4 " I2 $  $ "$" 2 $  W 4 $ $#" $  $ $ $ 4 " $ W   C " A $ $ I " $ $  W   " 4 $  $ 44 C " 44¢W $  W   $ 4I2 $  $ 4 $ 4¢AH4 $  W $ 2E2EW $  $   2I2 " C $ W $ A $ 4 $ $   A $ 4   $ " 4 "   W $ $ $ $"42 $  " 4 4EWH4 $  $ $ 4EH " $  " 4   A " $  $ $   4A $ $ " 4   4 4 $ $ $   " $ $  " 4 $ 2I4 $  $ $   $ A $  " 4 $ CIC $  $ $ $ 2 " C $  " 4 $ W $ $  $ $ $ CI2EC $  " 4 $ ¢A $  $ $ $ WHCaA $ " 4 $ H $ $ $ # $" $  " 4 $ 44 2  $  $ $ $#" $AHCC $  " 4 $   W $  $ $ $ EW $                                   I"! 2  4¢W W  "CE2 AHW        4 2A  4   E    U C U©V V X            "$ $$ 4    CE4    $ 4    CE4EW    2 $ 4    CE4I2 4  $ $ 4     CE$4I4   2 $ 44    AA $ 4 "   A          $# $ # 4 #$ ""     A    4  $ 2     "A $$ W    AA   "   A   " W  $ $     C $    $$ CW    AA   ""   C $ C   A   " 4  2W $ CC     AA    "  $ C   A   " W W                                                                                  CaAHW    CE2      CE2I$C   CE4  CET T C¢A X The Figure is presented in figure 10. .1:  ¢¡ Air enters a pipe with pressure of ¡   ¤ and temperature of ¢A at Mach number of combustion heat was released and the exit temperature IW .

178 CHAPTER 10.1 1 M 10 Fri May 6 11:11:44 2005 Fig.4898 0 0. The stagnation temperature at the entrance. 10.3: The basic functions of Rayleigh Flow S V U V U $  4EW $ $ $ $  S S $$X "$" $ ! $ SE   V X " U $X U©V X 4 WHCI2 4 4 CE4   4   AIA and % © % ' % © &$  $#" " $$ $$ $  " $ W %  % %'         R $    T TaX AD4     $  4I4I2   $  " S S $ X W $ $! S S "V V X¢AHC 4   U U X "             R   4   U V  U© V X   4E 4 $    T T2EX 4I4     The exit Mach number is known. RAYLEIGH FLOW Rayleigh Flow k=14 4 T/T * T0 / T0 3 P/P * P0 / P0 ρ/ρ 2 ∗ * * @( M = ∞ ) 1. ¨ f s ¡d ¡ q … ¦¨ £ ¢ §©¨ „ ¤ ¥   can be calculated as the following: § 4 4 4¢A  "¨$ % %'& $ U  4E U©V " W¢A W $ WV 4 $ U© % %)( X ( U   ¨ ' ¨   ¨ '  ¨     ¨   ¨   ¨    §     $! 4¢WE  A " W    4     AIA      4I4 4   $ 2EW¢A ¡    ¤ 84 D The heat release (heat transfer) can be calculated from obtaining the stagnation temperature form the both sides.7143 1 @( M = ∞ ) 0.   f s ¡d ¡ q …¢ ¥ £ „ ¤ %  . the exit pressure can be calculated as ¨ © ¨   ' ¨¡ ¨ ' ¨ S ¨ ©        " $ 4  4 $ CI4 4     4 4   ¡ D9 ¤ For the entrance the stagnation values are $  4EW $ $ $ $  4IS 2aV ADCEW $ ¨   R ! 4ETT CI V 4 " § The total exit pressure.

10. The exit temperature is 1000 [K]. GOVERNING EQUATION The exit stagnation temperature is f s ¡d ¡ q … ¦¨ £ ¢ §©¨ „ ¤ 179 %   § % © %%   § © " $ $ ¤ $! 4E2¢ADC¢W "¨$ A    4¦¡  ¤ i    ¤ ¢  ¢" s &# % § %   $ $#" # "¨$ A    4   i   )     0 £ The heat release becomes $  AIW )   $      AH2  6 ¢¢ ¡ ! #@ 8 A   ¡ The maximum temperature occurs at the point the Mach number reach and at this point $  2 " W   W    $ S S 4HX 2IC %x R c€y R $  S 4aS VADV X4¢WH4    4 U U $ X $ $        U $ U V  V X   C  A¡    $  2¢T T WEX A   " ¤ The maximum heat before the temperature can be calculated as following: $ $ $ % ' % % '   % % x c€y ! $  $#"$"   4H2EC   $     T $  2 " W   W $! 2aS AHV W $ $ $  A T  V C   2    $ 4 4   S The stagnation temperature for this point is % % & $ 4 U ! C U© V HCIC¢W $  XC (" UU© $ WV   % ¤ %)( %   50798 % x  £ 0 c€y£¢ %   50798 % x c€y  $$     2¢AHW A     WI2  W   ¡  i   The maximum heat can be calculated as " s # %   i %    )      $ $#" #     WI2  W   57 8 $  AIW )   2¢WH2   2 ¢ ¢ ¡6 ! 8¥# @  Note that this point isn’t the choking point.2. Calculated the entrance temperature and the entrance Mach number. S OLUTION The solution involve finding the stagnation temperature at the exit and subtraction . Example 10.2: Heat is added to the air until the flow is choked in amount of 600 [kJ/kg].

38454 and the entrance temperature can be calculated as following % ' %   % % '   $ $ $ $  WH2 " C   WI2 "! C¡  ¤ The difference between the supersonic branch to subsonic branch Example 10. RAYLEIGH FLOW of the heat (heat equation) to obtain the entrance stagnation temperature. Therefore with ¡ It must be noted that %   § W C The entrance temperature is program X $  E2 " W " $  WHS S 2 X " C     R $  S W S $V V X   C $    4EU U 2IX 2 " !     4   U V  U©   CV X $  4HT T4 X " $   Thus entrance Mach number is 0.180 CHAPTER 10. If a shock is occurs immediately at the entrance what is the maximum heat that can be added? S OLUTION To achieve maximum heat transfer the exit Mach number has to be one. From the table the ratio or from the pogrom the following can be obtained.   $$$ $ R $ 2 S S V         $! C T TV      I4 "   $$$         $ % % & $ 4 4   4 $ $! $ ¡  ¤ U  W U© V I2 H2 $  XW ( 4IUU© V 2 4I2 % %)( The stagnation temperature %   § % © % %   § $   $ $ $ © 2 %      i  ¤ " £ 0 £   $ $ i $ $ C $ $  $ $$" ¢ $  $   4  4   W C %  § %  § ¡    $  $   either by table or the %     . What is the maximum heat that can be add so there is no subsonic flow.  The table for ¤   £ 0 " s # %   § i %    ) " s %     7   i %%       B ¤ ©  . as following .3: Air with Mach 3 enters a frictionless duct with heating.

2. GOVERNING EQUATION 181   $ R $$$ $! 4IS S 2 X $ 4I2 $  S C¢S WV V XE4I2 $   U0U AHX C " A      U " U©V4 V X" W   4  WIT T 2I2 X The higher the entrance stagnation temperature the larger the heat amount that can be observed by the flow. In subsonic branch the Mach number is after the shock is information from Rayleigh flow as following ¢ U V ¢ T¢ U ¢ S¥¤ $ $! " AH¡ W   4 4  CaS£ $  $   T¤ U ¤ U V ¤ "   4H2 AD4 2EW¢A   ¤ ¡$  " AIW   4 the maximum heat transfer requires With Mach number of   $ R $$$   R               $  " AIW   4 $! AIS S W X $ 2EC $  S C¢S WV V XE4I2    2 U U 4 X EW     R    U   U©V4 V X"$" $  " T T   X   ADC   It also must be noticed that stagnation temperature remains constant across shock wave.10. § vv q©¨"q ¡ d ¦x v ¤¢ § v q©¨ s q ¡ d x v v …8„ ¤ ¢ ¦   i   X ` q©¨"q  X   i  ` q©¨ s q X X ¡        ¤ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¡ d ¡ …8„ d   i $$  CEW I4E2     i CEW I4E2   It is not surprising since the the shock wave are found on the Rayleigh flow. To make up a example with mid range increase of temperature .

182 CHAPTER 10. RAYLEIGH FLOW .

A. 2 Even if the instructor feels that their students are convinced about the importance of the compressible. Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics. It was the undersigned experience.. However. Saad. that Isothermal model in traditional classes for with compressfor relativly long tube ible flow (sometimes referred to as gas Volume forced models dynamics) don’t provide a demonstraExternal forces that control the tank volume tion to applicability of the class matefanno model for relativly short tube rial aside to aeronautical spectrum even such as turbomachinery. However. 183 .Fig. 1985.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § § ¡ £¢¥¤§¦¨¢© ¢ ! !"!" ¢ #%$'&   () 0 1 ¢& 23$'465 In some ways the next two Chapters fanno model contain materials that is new to the trafor relativly short tube 1 ditional compressible flow text books . this example can further strength and enhance this conviction. These books are Owczarek. Volume is a function of pressrue or rigit (the volume can be also a function of inertia and etc) There is a significant imporSemi rigit tank tance to the “pure” models such Isothermal flow and Fanno flow which have im. Pennsylvania. in many evacuating of a single chamber instances.. 11. these books contained only limit discussions on the evacuation of chamber with attached nozzle. by M. A. the situations in life are far 798A@CB DFE G9HAIQP RTSVUXWVYa` 1 After completion of these Chapters. J. Prentice Hall.” 2nd Edition.1: The two different classifications of models that explain the filling or mediate applicability. 1964. In this Chapter a discussion on application of comIsothermal model for relativly long tube pressible flow to other fields like manufacturing is presented2 . and “Compressible Fluid Flow. International Textbook Co. Scranton. the undersigned discover two text books which to include some material related to this topic.

11.   ¤ . Yet umes used in this model as it was stated before. Fanno flow model is the most appropriate in the case where the filling and Control volume for the filling case evacuating is relatively fast. the models in this Chapter are suitable for study of the filling the airbag or filling bicycle with air. For example. The term semi rigid tank referred to a tank that the volume is either completely rigid or is a function of the chamber’s pressure. This author isn’t familiar with situations in which Control volume for the evacuating case Rayleigh flow model is applicable. 11. EVACUATING AND FILLING A SEMI RIGID CHAMBERS more complicate.3: A schematic of the control volIsothermal flow is appropriate model. The Rayleigh flow model requires 2436587 9A@ B C that a constant heat transfer supplied either DFE G H by chemical reactions or otherwise. In case the the ¡£¢ filling is relatively slow (long   ¤ than the Fig. In the second Chapter models where the chamber’s volume is a function of external forces are presented (see Figure 11. The Isothermal model is more appropriate for cases where the tube is relatively long in–which a significant heat transfer occurs keeping ¡£¢ the temperature almost constant. As it was shown in this book the most appropriate model for the flow in the tube for a relatively fast situation is Fanno Flow. In the first Chapter models where the chamber volume is controlled or a function of the pressure are discussed. And therefore. The analysis is extended to include a semi rigid tank. For instance.2: A schematic of two possible connections of the tube to a single chamber To put the dimensionless analysis to discuss what is fast enough. " $$ fanno model fanno model reduced connection for relativly short tube "§#©$% &'() 01 1 2 for relativly short tube ¥§¦©¨  ! 1 2 Isothermal model for a relativly long tube Isothermal model for a relativly long tube The connection is through a narrow passage A schematic of a direct connection Fig. 11. Yet Isothermal flow model is ter 9 the resistance. here Isothermal flow . should be larger than used as to limiting case.1). at this stage.184 CHAPTER 11. As it was shown in Chap.1 Governing Equations and Assumptions The process of filing or evacuating a semi flexible (semi rigid) chamber through a tube is very common in engineering. most car today equipped with an airbag. no discussion is ofI4P6Q8R SAT U V WFX Y fered here. Combination of gas compressibility in the chamber and flow out or through a tube post a special interest and these next two Chapters are dealing with these topics.

the payment is by far more complex model that sometime clutter the physics. 11. model is studied in which the flow in the tube is Isothermal.¨ and etc. If the mass occupied in the tube is % #$ ) #$ ) . The initial condidifference between the two sides of the tube £ ¨ f   ¤  ¨ ¤ tions in the chamber are . The assumptions can be relaxed or removed and the model will be more general.1) Fig.1. Second. Additionally.2) The mass flow out is a function of the resistance in¡£¢ tube.11. some simplified assumptions are made. The mass in the chamber and mass flow out are expressed in terms of the chamber variables (see Figure 11. the stagnation pressure at the tube’s entrance is the same as the pressure in the chamber. The reduction is typical when a ball is filled trough an one–way valve (filling a baseball ball. Thus. The first kind connection tied the resistance. the process in the chamber can be limited or bounded between two limits of Isentropic process or Isothermal process.4).2): one) direct two) through a reduction. a model based on Fanno flow model is constructed. Effects such as chemical reactions (or condensation/evaporation) are neglected. The second possibility leads itself to an additional parameter that ¡£¢ is independent of the resistance. In this analysis. in order to obtain the essence of the process.4: The pressure assumptions in the chamber and tube entrance And for perfect gas the mass at any given time is £ ¨ 4 #B)1 #B) % #B) # ' ) ¡£¢ (11.3. There are two suggested itself possibilities to the connection between the tube to the tank (see the Figure 11. This reality is an additional reason for the construction of two models in which they can be compared. The direct connection is when the tube is connect straight to tank like in a case where pipe is welded into the tank. ¨ (see Figure 11. the pressure in the chamber is equal to the stagnation pressure. with the tube area. The mass in the tank for perfect gas reads  ¢¡£ ¥¤  ¦¨§©£¦ 1 2 "£ "B i £ 0 ¨f ¤ $ (11.   ¤ . also in manufacturing processes). GOVERNING EQUATIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS 185 and Fanno flow are used as limiting or bounding cases for the real flow. Of course. The simplest model for gas inside the chamber as a first approximation is the isotropic model. First. # ¨   Therefore.   ¤ and the pressure ¤ 0 ¨ © . The flow in the tube in many cases is somewhere between the Fanno flow model to Isothermal flow model. It is assumed that kinetic change in the chamber is negligible.

EVACUATING AND FILLING A SEMI RIGID CHAMBERS neglected (only for filling process) the most general equation ideal gas (11.7) After some rearranging equation (11.4b) (11.4) and substituting into equation (11.6) obtains the form " 7 ¨ b% 1b " Bb b B   B d 1 ¤ x 1c€y # § $ ¢ 4 % # $ ) ¨ §b ' ¤ b ' ¤ b &$ %b' ) ¤ b ¤¤ ' # c€B y ) x (11.1) reads "B 11. General Model and Non-dimensioned It is convenient to non-dimensioned the properties in chamber by dividing them by their initial conditions. d is the time that will take to evacuate the chamber if the gas in the chamber was in its initial state.5) B ¨ # 4 $ ) 1 #$ $ ) " ¨ b 1 b B d % # ) " Bb 7 % b   4 ¨b ' ¨ %b ' % B # $$ ) #) 1 © ¢ 4 %b ' % # $ ) ¤  x c€y ¤ b # Bb ) $ (11.8) .186 CHAPTER 11.4a) (11. the flow rate was at its maximum (choking flow). Utilizing these definitions (11.2 " ¦ 7 4 ¨ x© § 1 % ¦  B   3 '1 6'¤ '# ¦ x¢ §¡¤ © £¦¥ § §© ¦    ¤ ¡£¢  ¨ ¨ © &$ ) '  (11.3) yields d f ¦ §T ©  §©  ¦ 1 #$ ) ¤ x c€y¨§ ¢ 4 % # $ ) ) Bb B B d (11. and the gas was incompressible in the chamber. The dimensionless properties of chamber as % b %% ## BB $B b ) ) 1 b 11 ## B &$B b ) ) B # ¨ B Bb ) &$ ) ¨b ¨ #B where d is the characteristic time of the system defined as followed B B d 1 The physical meaning of characteristic time.6) where the following definition for the reduced Mach number is added as (11.3) When the plus sign is for filling process and the negative sign is for evacuating process.

5).9) Note that equation (11.12)   ¡¤ ¤   ¤  definitions (11. Nevertheless.13) is a first order nonlinear differential equation that can be solved for different initial conditions. find the general solution for this equation. % # $B )  ¨ # $B )  % # ) ¨ # ) !   ¨b  (11.11) and subNote that   ¡ ¤ is a function of the time.10) 7 b b d § ¡  b B b ¤ c€y . Utilizing the stituting equation (11.14)  . And where   x It is more convenient to deal with the stagnation pressure then the actual pressure at the entrance to the tube.11. At this stage. and substituting into equation (11.2.9) can be modified by introducing additional parameter which referred to as external time.2. the author isn’t aware that is a general solution for this equation4 .13) " Bb b B  %b     Equation (11. The ratio of ¢ is substituted by 1 % ¤ " %1 "B B B B B '¤ $ %' B BB    ¢ i   ¤ © § ¤ ¤ ¥ ¨§¦ ¦ ¨b' ¨b  (11.11) £ ! § % '  %   b b  It is convenient to denote  ¦¦ ¨ ¤ ¥ §  § ¤ ¢    i£   ¤ © ! (11. when ¨ b  b  b  and b are all are function of   in this case. 4 To those mathematically included. where the process time x is important parameter equation (11.9) to be transformed into " 7 ¨ b % 1 b   ¨ b ¤ b # Bb )   ¡ ¤ ¤ 7$ (11. 11. For cases.1 Isentropic process The relationship between the pressure and the temperature in the chamber can be approximated as isotropic and therefore %b 3 This notation is used in many industrial processes where time of process referred to sometime as the maximum time. equation (11.9) transformed to ¨   x c€y ¨ b b (11. Utilizing the equations developed in Chapter 4 between the stagnation condition. and condition in a tube denoted with subscript 1.12) into equation (11.8) yields " 7 ¨ b% 1b " Bb b B   ¨b' § % ¤ b 7$ b ' (11. denoted £ ¢ without subscript. many numerical methods are available to solve this equation. cey 3 . GENERAL MODEL AND NON-DIMENSIONED 187 and utilizing the definition of characteristic time.

once the flow ¡£¢ became choked the Mach number.2. the application of this model provide some kind of a limit where to expect when some heat transfer occurs.2. the model in the tube could be either Fanno flow or Isothermal flow.13) is simplified into three different forms: " X 1b ¨ b  `   ¨ b §¥  ¤ b  ¢ ¨ b  " ¨ b 1 b " Bb ¨ b  "  1 b   ¨ b  § ¥   ¤ b " Bb " Bb    1 b  " ¨ b £¢ ¨ b "  1 b   ¢ ¨ b    §  ¤ b " Bb " Bb     Equation (11. These statements are correct for both Fanno flow and the Isothermal flow models.   ¤ . The situations where the chamber undergoes isentropic process but the the flow in the tube is Isothermal are limited.3 Isothermal Process in the Chamber A Note on the entrance Mach number The value of Mach number. These equations are combinations of the momentum and energy equations in terms of the Mach numbers. Two equations must be solved for the Mach numbers at the duct entrance and exit when the flow is in a chockless condition.15) and  b% b ¨   ¨b §¥    (11.2 11. ¨¢¡ ¨ .17) 11.16) So equation (11. . It should be point out that. are ¤ ' ¤ ' ' ¡£¢ ¤ '   ¤ ¡£¢ ¡ ¢ ¥ £   ¤ 50798  ' i ¡ ¢ ¥ £   ¤ 50798  © (11. Nevertheless. The characteristic equations for Fanno flow (9.50).17) is a general equation for evacuating or filling for isentropic process in the chamber.188 CHAPTER 11. Note the temperature in the tube entrance can be above or below the surrounding temperature. EVACUATING AND FILLING A SEMI RIGID CHAMBERS The ratios can be expressed in term of the reduced pressure as followed: ¨b %b ¨b ¨b  ¨b  (11. The method outlined in Chapters 8 and 9 is appropriate for solving for entrance Mach number. is only a function of the resistance. As it was shown before. ¨© is different from ¨ ¡ in some situations. is a function of the ¤ resistance.   # Bb )   ¡ ¤ ¤ &$ # Bb )   ¡ ¤ ¤ &$ # Bb )   ¡ ¤ ¤ &$ (11. in this stage.   ¤ and the ratio of pressure in the tank to the back pressure. Simplified calculations of the entrance Mach number are described in the advance topics section. The exit pressure.18) .

3 Rigid Tank with Nozzle The most simplest possible combination is discussed here before going trough the more complex cases A chamber is filled or evacuated by a nozzle.20) can be simplified as ¢  XA¨ § ` ¨ 5 This work is suggested by Donald Katze the point out that this issue appeared in Shapiro’s Book Vol 1.3. RIGID TANK WITH NOZZLE and 189 where   ¤ is defined by equation (9. See advance topic about approximate solution for large resistance. .19) ¤ '  11.1   (11.18) and (11. Chapter 4.   ¤ or small entrance Mach number.31.49).  "     ¡ £¥¤ " Bb 7$ (11.20) ¢  ¨ b " " ¨ Bbb   ¨ b § ¥ # Bb )   ¡ ¤ ¤ &$   and ¤ b  definition is It was utilized that 1 b  simplified as ¤ b   . ¡£¢  ¡ ¡  ¨ £ ' ¤ © ¥   ¢ ¤ i   ¤ © ' ¢ £   ¨£© ' ¤ © ©¥¤ ¨ ©    © ! £ ¤ # © ¨   B)   © '           (11. £§¦ ¡£¢ £ The solution of equations (11.3. The gas in the chamber assumed to go an isentropic processes and flow is bounded in nozzle between isentropic flow and isothermal flow5 . 11.17) becomes 6¤ 3 Adiabatic Isentropic Nozzle Attached     ¡ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ §¦ § ¤ ¨¦ ¢ i   £     ©!      ¢   § ¤ ¤ ¥ §¨¦ ¦ 7 £   B    (11. p. it also will be assumed that the flow in the nozzle is either adiabatic or isothermal.5) reduced into: $) 1 # d B 1 § ¢ 4 % #$ )) (11.19) for given   ¤ and   8©f ¨ ¥ yields the entrance and exit Mach ¡£¢ numbers.47) or simply use 1 and equation (11.22) Equation (11.11. It can be noticed that the characteristic time defined in equation (11. Here.21) Also it can be noticed that equation (11. 111 as a question 4.12) simplified into The mass flow out is given by either by Fliegner’s equation (4.23) .

  D   $ F S OLUTION The characteristic time is Bx c€y $ $! $ $       "   £ 2¢A6£¡ $ $ £  2¡ #A@ 6 ¤ " W ¨ #B) $   W ¡ $ ¨b ¨ # ) The time is  i ¢   £  € c y B B x ¨b   7 £ B    results Substituting values into equation (11. Calculate time it requires that the pressure to reach 5[Bar] for two different noz© zles throat area of 0.24) ¨b §  ¢      7 i£     ¡ ¤ ¤ Bb ! B  (11. After the integration. .23) can be integrated as   £¢ The integration limits are obtained by simply using the definitions of reduced pres¨ b . Owczarek [1964] found that analytical solution which described here.001.1.3. Assumed the £  ¢¡ stagnation temperature at the main line is the ambient of A¦¡ ¤ .25) Example 11.27)  §§ ¤ ¥¨ ¤ ¦ i £  " §§ ¤ ¨¤ ¦ $  $ 6 $  $ £   7 £ B   ¡¡ # @ ¤ B 2 ¡ And for smaller area 16 1   $ 16   $        " £ 2aA6¢¡ $ $ &$! $ £ 2¡ #A@ 6 ¤ 1   (11.26) Bx c€y ¥    (11.28) 11.1 Filling/evacuating the chamber under upchucked condition The flow in the nozzle can became upchucked and it can be analytically solved. at ¨ b and ¨ b b rearrangement becomes # B &$ )   #B B) ' ¨ §  "   9¨   f   " B &$ (11.1 [£ ] when diaphragm is erupted. equation (11.190 CHAPTER 11.24) and sure.1: A chamber is connected to a main line with pressure line with a diaphragm and nozzle. The initial pressure at the chamber is W¡    ¤ and the volume is ¡£ ¤ . EVACUATING AND FILLING A SEMI RIGID CHAMBERS Equation (11. and 0.27) ¥      (11.

RAPID EVACUATING OF A RIGID TANK 191 11. After the integration.30) transformed into ¤ Here. equation (11. is constant and equal one for a completely rigid tank.2 Isothermal Nozzle Attached In this case the process in nozzle is assumed to isothermal but the process in the chamber is isentropic.22).3. Yet. Thus. equation (11.37) is obtained by noticing that is not a function of time and by variables separation results in b £¢ £¢ f¢   ¨b   ¨b ¨b (11.30) converted into £¢ f¢ ¨b   (11.13) is reduced into b 1   " ¨b " Bb %       ¡ ¤¨b ¤ $ (11.29) Separating the variables and rearranging equation (11.30)   ¡ ¤ ¨b   b   ¤ is expressed by equation (11.4 11. In such case.17) “shrinks” and doesn’t contain the relative volume term.4.4. the specific governing equation is 1 #B)   c€y For a choked flow the entrance Mach number to the tube is at its maximum. the general equation (11. the differential temperature change in the chamber is slower than the temperature change in nozzle. The temperature in the nozzle is changing because the temperature in the chamber is changing. x and therefore b . b . For rigid volume. A reasonable model for the tank is isentropic (can be replaced polytropic relationship) and Fanno flow are assumed for the flow in the tube. The solution of equation (11.31) 11. and for isothermal nozzle b Thus.32)  ¤     " B ' ¢ ¤ ¤"   §    " § ¢¤ ¤ '    .   ¡ ' " ¤   " B &$ )20 ¨b ¨b ¢   § ¤ ¤ ¥ ¨ §¦ ¦ Bb 7 £ B # ¥§  ) §  ¤ ¤   ¥  ¨§¦ ¦ f£¢ ¢   @¡      (11.33) b   b   ¡ ¤ b   ¡ ¤¨b ¤ ¤   " ¨b i ¢ ¤ b   ¡¤ " Bb ¤¨b   §  7$ (11.11.1 Rapid evacuating of a rigid tank With Fanno Flow The relative Volume.

b is a function of P and can be reversed for case.6 0. The transition point is denoted here as .40) results in Bb # ¢ i   ) ¤ b   ¡ ¤ ¨b   £ ¥ ¤ ¨b § i It has to be realized that this is “reversed” function i.0 Fig.e.2 0 0 0.4 ¯ t 0. Thus.2 0.6 shows 1.34) B (11.6.5: The reduce time as a function of the modified reduced pressure The big struggle look for suggestion for better notation.0 P(t) 0.6 0.35)  The function is drawn as shown here in figure 11. But for the chocked case it appears as §    # ¢ i   ) £ ¤ b   ¡ ¤ ¤ Bb !       (11.192 CHAPTER 11. that when the modified reduced pressure equal to one the reduced time is zero. 11. The reduced time increases with decrease of the pressure in the tank. At certain point the flow becomes chockless flow (unless the back pressure ¡  is complete vacuum).8 1. equation 6 % . EVACUATING AND FILLING A SEMI RIGID CHAMBERS direct integration of equation (11. The figure 11.4 0.8 V(t) = P (t) V(t) = P (0) 0.

40) results in Bb # ¢ i   ) ¤ b   ¡ ¤ ¤   ¨b § i  It has to be realized that this is a reversed function.40) has to include the entrance Mach under the integration sign as 193 Bb i Bb d  ¡    £¢ £ ¢¤£¦¥  ¢ ¤ b    ¡ ¤ ¤ ¨ b §   " ¨ b  (11. ¡ £¥¤ and length of § W ¡ £§¤ $ F &$! $ " $  $   W S OLUTION ¡£¢ The first parameter that calculated is   ¤   ¤ ¡£¢ 11.2: A chamber with volume of 0.37) is obtained by noticing that is not a function of time and by variable separation results in b £¢ £ ¢ f¢   ¨b   ¨ ¨b (11.4.6. Nevertheless. The Figure shows that when the modified reduced pressure     (11. Again. RAPID EVACUATING OF A RIGID TANK (11.37) ¤   " B ' ¢ ¤ ¤"     §    " § ¢¤ ¤ ' £ ¥ direct integration of equation (11. x and therefore b . Example 11.2 Filling process The governing equation is c€y For a choked flow the entrance Mach number to the tube is at its maximum. The £ chamber is connected with a rubber tube with   W .38) b   b b   ¡ ¤ b   ¡ ¤¨b ¤ ¤   " ¨b i ¢ ¤ b   ¡¤ " Bb ¤¨b   §  7$  (11.39) .4. The solution of equation (11. with today computer this should not be a problem and easily can be drawn as shown here in Figure 11. unless extra long time or extra low pressure is calculated/needed. And in the choke region the calculations can use the choking formula and numerical calculations for the rest. when the flow became chockless the entrance Mach number does not change much from the choking condition.11.1[£ ] is filled with air at pressure of 10[Bar].36) For practical purposes if the flow is choked for more than 30% of the charecteristic time the choking equation can be used for the whole range. Further. for the special cases where the choked equation is not applicable the integration has to be separated into zones: choked and chockless flow regions.

41) d 4 b b x b   ¢ % # $ ) 1 #$ $ ) " ¢ 1 B % # ) "B ¥ ' % ## $ $ ) ) ¢ % #$ )¤   ¤ #B) $ 11. a general solution is easily can be obtained similarly to rigid tank. This situation occurs at least in small ranges for airbag balloon etc.4. For the double isothermal (chamber and tube) the equation (11. EVACUATING AND FILLING A SEMI RIGID CHAMBERS Fig. The transition point is denoted here as (11. It has to be remembered that the chamber can undergo isothermal process.42) " Bb " X ¨b ¥  ` i ¨b  §¥  ¤ b   ¡ ¤ ¤ $ (11.4 Simple Semi Rigid Chamber A simple relation of semi rigid chamber when the volume of the chamber is linearly related to the pressure as where is a constant that represent the physics. The reduced time increases with decrease of the pressure in the tank.194 CHAPTER 11.40) has to include the entrance Mach under the integration sign as 6 % Bb i Bb d  ¡    £¢ £ ¢ £¦¥ ¢ ¤ b    ¡ ¤ ¤ ¨b §   " ¨b   (11.3 The Isothermal Process For Isothermal process. Nevertheless. 11. The combination of the isentropic tank and Isothermal flow ¤ in the tube is different from Fanno flow in that the chocking condition occurs at .40) 11. Substituting equation (11. At some point the flow became chockless flow (unless ¡ the back pressure is   . equation a complete vacuum).6) reduced into d   ¦ §T ©  ¦ §©  ¨b b   ¨b ¨ 4 ¨ § c€y 4 1 (11. b .4. This model is reasonably appropriated when the chamber is insulated and not flat while the tube is relatively long and the process is relatively long.43) .6: The reduce time as a function of the modified reduced pressure equal to one the reduced time is zero. Thus.42) into yields D 1 #B) D ¨ #B) (11. the relative temperature. The physical explanation when it occurs beyond the scope of this book.

4. Further. In this analysis and previous analysis the initial effect of the chamber container inertia is neglected. The analysis is based only on the mass conservation and if unsteady effects are required more terms (physical quantities) have taken into account. Yet. it is assumed the ideal gas applied to the gas and this assumption isn’t relaxed here. @ is that the tank is rigid. @ There isn’t a real critical value to . is waiting to find such conditions before calling it as critical condition.5 The “Simple” General Case The relationship between the pressure and the volume from the physical point of view must be monotonous.50) integration obtains the form £ ¢  Bb ¤ b   ¡ ¤ ¤ # ¡ ¢ i ©   ) #   3¢ )   i ¨ b   § Similarly as before. Any continuous positive monotonic function can be expressed into a polynomial function. RAPID EVACUATING OF A RIGID TANK Carrying differentiation result in   195 ¢   £ ¢ ¨ b " " ¨ Bbb    i ¨b ¢   § " " B   3¢ ' ¤ ¤  The equation (11. the variables are separated as £¢ f¢ ¨b ¨b     b ¡ ¤    § ¥  ¤ b   ¡ ¤ ¤ &$ (11. as results in faster reduction of the gas from the chamber. in the known situations to this author pressure increase results in volume decrease (at least for ideal gas.44) (11. When @ is approaching to a rigid tank and vis versa @ to zero the chamber is approaches when the ¢   the chamber is flexible like a balloon.47) concave. Therefore.).45) ¥    (11.46) The physical meaning that the pressure remains larger thorough evacuating process.4. as first approximation and simplified approach can be done by a single term with a different power as $ . Further. This undersigned is not aware situation where this indeed play important role. The physical meaning of @ $ can be any positive value including zero.   11. . the relation must be also positive.11. 6 Some suggested this border point as infinite evocation to infinite time for evacuation etc. it is convenient for engineers to further study the point where the relationship @ between the reduced time and the reduced pressure are linear Value of above it will Convex and and below it ¢ 6 @ When 1 #B) D ¨ (11. increase of the pressure results in increase of the volume (as results of Hook’s law. However. After all. In reality the value of lays between zero to one.

variables are separated and integrated as fol-     (11.51) (11.54) The solution of the last two equations yields ¤ ¡   i ¢ ¢ £ ¦ ¥ £   8 f¨ ¥  ¡£¢   ¤ (11.55) . EVACUATING AND FILLING A SEMI RIGID CHAMBERS (11.49) " Bb " X ¨b ¥   ` i ¨b § ¥  ¤ b   ¡ ¤ ¤ &$     lows @ ¢ i ¢   ¢ ¨b ¥ § § " ¨b   "B ¢ ' ¤ b   ¡¤ ¤     Carrying–out the integration for the initial part if exit results in £ ¢ © §  Bb ¤ b   ¡ ¤ ¤ # ¡ ¢ i £ @ ¢ i   ) #   £¢ )   i ¨ b   §     The linear condition are obtain when ¢i £ @ £ @ ¢ i ¡ ¢ i i     ¢ £ ¢ ¡ @ $  AD2¢WEA   " £ 2IC ) for ¢    " .50) ¥      (11.53) and equation (??) as ¨ … y ¡f ¨   #B) ¤  ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ … y¢¡f    © (11.48) " Bb  @   equation     (11.196 CHAPTER 11. That is just bellow 1 (   f¢ £ ¡     Again.52) 11. For small values of the Mach numbers.49) Notice that when reduced to equation (11. After carrying–out differentiation results   @ ¢ ¢ i ¢ ¨ b  ¥ § " ¨ b i ¨ b § ¥  ¤ b   ¡ ¤ ¤ 7$ (11.5 Advance Topics ¡£¢ The term   ¤ is very large for small values of the entrance Mach number which requires keeping many digits in the calculation. similarly as before. equation (??) can be approximated as   ¤ ¡£¢  ¢ ¤ ¤ … y y f © f © i ¤ ¤ … ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ © ¢ © (11.43).

259-265. 118. no. otherwise equations (??) and 197 . May 1996. R J Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering (USA). The solution of equation (??) and (??) is described in “Pressure die casting: a model of vacuum pumping” Bar-Meir. ¢ ¦ $  $ $ £ 2IC . pp. G. Goldstein. 2.5. Vol. Eckert. ADVANCE TOPICS ¤ This solution should used only for ¡ (??) must be solved numerically.11. E R G.

EVACUATING AND FILLING A SEMI RIGID CHAMBERS .198 CHAPTER 11.

Here the model deals with the case where the volume is controlled by external forces. This kind of model is applicable to many manufacturing processes such as die casting. In general the process of the displacing the gas (in many cases air) with a liquid is a very common process. again to add the dimensional analysis what is rapid and what is slow. 199 . It is further assumed that the process is relatively fast. sometime is vital to obtain a proper evacuation of the gas (air) from the cavity. direct and through reduced area are combined in this analysis. Two extreme possibilities again suggest themselves: rapid and slow processes. some simplified assumptions are made.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ §¡  ¡ £¢¥¤§¦¨¢©£¢ ! "!  0 1 ¢& 23$'4 5 ¦  $'4 ¥¤%© $'4 ¨¢!§¦ ¨ !"¦ & $ 0 ¨  © 4©¨ ! This chapter is the second on the section dealing with filling and evacuating chambers. The two different connections. For example. In these processes. in die casting process liquid metal is injected to a cavity and after the cooling/solidification period a part is obtained in near the final shape. 12. It simplest model of such process is when a piston is displacing the gas though a long tube. in order to obtain the essence of the process. extraction etc. It assumed that no chemical reaction (or condensation/evaporation) occur in the piston or the tube 1 . 1 such reaction are possible and expected to be part of process but the complicates the analysis and do not contribute to understand to the compressibility effects. One can also view the exhaust systems of internal combustion engine in the same manner. The last assumption is a appropriate assumption in process such as die casting.1 Model In this analysis.

which is also indicated by experimental studies and utilized by practiced engineers. A linear function is the simplest model that decibels changes the volume. In the exhaust system cost of large exhaust valve increase with the size and in addition reduces the strength with the size of valve2 . In manufacture processes to minimize cost and the secondary machining such as trimming and other issues the exit area or tube has to be narrow as possible. it is noteworthy to think about the process in qualitative terms. the best ventilation is achieved with a large tube or area.1) 2 After certain sizes. These critical conditions are very significant that they provide guidelines for the design of processes. in some situations like die casting this description is appropriate. In reality. The conflicting requirements suggest an optimum area. 12. For these reasons the optimum size is desired. The first approximation isotropic process describe the process inside the cylinder (see figure 12.1: The control volume of the “Cylinder” Before introducing the steps of the analysis. EVACUATING/FILING CHAMBERS UNDER EXTERNAL VOLUME CON 12. Obtaining conditions where the volume of displacing liquid is equal to the displaced liquid are called the critical conditions. The purpose of this analysis to yields a formula for critical/optimum vent area in a simple form is one of the objectives of this section. . this model can be extended numerical in cases where more complex function is applied.1. the possibility of crack increases. isontropic process  ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§© 1 2 Fanno model Fig. Obviously.200CHAPTER 12. 1 # B ) 1 # $ )    i B c€y ! Bx (12. eliminating the need for calculations of the gas flow in the tube to minimize the numerical calculations. thus. Nevertheless. it is possible to obtain a situation where that most of the liquid entered the chamber and yet most of the replaced gas can be still be in the chamber.1 Rapid Process Clearly under the assumption of rapid process the heat transfer can be neglected and Fanno flow can be assumed for the tube. But in a compressible substance the situation can be totally different. The second objective is to provide a tool to “combine” the actual tube with the resistance in the tube.1. The replacing incompressible liquid enter in the same amount as replaced incompressible liquid.

4)   § £  # )£ ' "¨§ "B ¡§ ¤ (12.4) Equation (12.12.4) can be obtained by transforming and by ¨b introducing a new variable § and therefore ¨ b . cey is asx sociated with the imposed time on the system (in this case the elapsed time of the piston stroke).2) The governing equation (11. The reduced Pres¡§ ¤ §  § § )£ '  # © ¨  £ and there implication sure derivative. The second characteristic time.6) #¢ i   ) #¨   i § ) §   i b Bb     ¢     Equation (12.1.5)).3) is an nonlinear first order differential equation and can be rearranged as follows B BB     1 " "1 ¢ "B "B     B B ¤ #¤ ) B B " Bb i §  &$  B B ¢ X  i f " ¨b ¤ ¤ f78 5 b   ¡ ¢ ¤¨b § ` ¨b   Bb ¦ ¨b #$ )    (12.5) # ¢ i   ) #   i  § ) ¡ § ¤ §    i b Bb  f f 798 ¤ b   ¡ ¤ ¤ And equation (12.5) where 50    can be further simplified as £ "§ "B (12.6) can be integrated to obtain # ¢ i   ) )20 vvvv   £   i or in a different form v  v i v v §   § v v v § ¦©  v ¤ §   § v v v v i )10 Bb (12. d and the “maximum” time.8) .4) is can be solved only when the flow is chocked In which case   ¡ £¥¤ isn’t function of the time. " ¨ b " § Utilizing this definition ' ¡ § ¤  ¨   reduce equation (12.3) d b b ¡ ¥ ¨b b ¤ ¤ c€y . MODEL Equation (12. The solution of equation (12.7)  Bb (12.2) can be non–dimensionlassed as 201 1 b # Bb )   i Bb (12. is associated with the ratio of the volume and the tube characteristics (see equation (11. Notice that in this case that there are two different characwhere b x c€y . The teristic times: the “characteristic” time. x d first characteristic time.10) that was developed in the previous chapter (11) obtained the form as £ c€y     ¥ b ¨b b b   x ¨¢ ¡ ¨¢ (12. Equation (12.

).11) The analytical solution also can be approximated by a simpler equation as ¨b   B ¤ ¥ 5¥ 798 ¢ (12.14) . In case when the flow chockless a numerical integration needed to be performed. The solution is applicable to indirect connection. Thus. 1 d Denoting the area that creates the ratio 5 provides the needed tool.2 and 12.202CHAPTER 12. In this case only some part of the flow is choked (the later part). When 5 f ¢ 798 tance of the ratio of 50 the pressure increases significantly and verse versa. Thus the exit area. to create a direct function equation (12.10) (12.3 in which outside tube condition is in vacuum. This happen when vacuum is applied outside the tube (a technique used in die casting and injection molding to improve quality by reducing porosity.3 demonstrate the imporf ¢ 798 . These f f figures 12.13) can be expressed as ¦ §© c€y cey B x d c€y vv  B B x d vv x d vv   B vv   B vv   B vv   ' ¢ (12. EVACUATING/FILING CHAMBERS UNDER EXTERNAL VOLUME CON Now substituting to the “preferred” variable £   i f 5 f ¢ 798 b   ¡  v The analytical solution is applicable only in the case which the flow is choked thorough all the process.4) is transformed into ¤ ¤ § ¨b   ¤¨b §  ¤ ¤ ¦   ¥ 5 ¥ ¢7 8  § ¡¢¤  £¦¥ ¢¨§ ' B ¢ v v v v v£ b (12.2. the question remains how the time ratio can be transfered to parameters that can the engineer can design in the system.9) " ¨b " Bb with the initial condition of ¢ X  i f f ¢7 8 5 b   ¡ i b ¤ ¤   B ¤¨b § ` ¨ #$ )   ¡ i   (12.12) The results for numerical evaluation in the case when cylinder is initially at an atmospheric pressure and outside tube is also at atmospheric pressure are presented in figure 12. In the literature. The results of a choked case are presented in figure 12. f f ¢ 798 as the critical area. 1 can be expressed as ©     1 f The actual times ratio  5 f ¢ 798 vv v  1 1 d 1 d (12.

8 1.1 0. A/Ac 0.4 £ Dimensionless Area.0 ∇ ∗ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∗ ∇ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∗ ∇ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∗ o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ∗ ∇ o o ∗ ∇ o ∇ o ∗ ∇             ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇ 0.0 5.5 0.4 1.6 2.0 4fL D ∗   ∗   ∗   ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∗     ¡ P (t ) P (0) o ¢ ∗   ∇ ∇   3.7 0. MODEL 203 5.6 4.5 1.4 £ Dimensionless Area.2 3.2 2.0 4fL D ∗   ∗   ∇ ∇ ∗   ∇ ∗ ∗   ∇   ¡ P (t ) P (0) o ¢ ∗   ∇ ∇   3.1.2 0.0 0.0 ∗   ∗     ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∗ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∗ ∇ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∗ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∗ ∇ ∗ ∇ o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ∗ ∇ o ∇ o ∗ ∇       ∗ ∗     ∗   ∇ ∇ ∇ ∗ ∗   ∗           ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡   ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0.0 0.0 Figure b Fig.0 ∗   ∗     ∗   ∗     ∗   1.5 0. A/Ac 0.2 3.2 ∗ ∗   ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇ = 100.1 0.7 Dimensionless Time.0 5.5 1.0 0.8 3.4 Figure a 0.4 1.8 0.8 1.2 0.4 0.0   4.0 1.6 2.2 0.9 1.6 4.6 0.0 ∗ ∗   ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇ = 5.2 1.6 0.0 1.0 2.2 0. 12.8 0.2 2.0 5.8 3.2: The pressure ratio as a function of the dimensionless time for chockless condition .9 1. t.0   4.0 0.3 0. or.12. Cylinder Volume Fraction £ 0.3 0.0 2.

. ∗ 1.. . or. ∗ ∗ ..0 . 1.... . A  ... ∗ .. 0.6 . ∗∗ ¡ .. ..6 0.9   DIMENSIONLESS TIME.4 1. 12..3: The pressure ratio as a function of the dimensionless time for choked condition . .. ∗ . ∗ × × × × × ¡ × × × × × × ¡ × × × × ¡ × × × × ¡ × 2 1.6 ¡ × × × ¡ ¡ × × × × × ¡ ¡ × × × × 0... 4..0 .4 × ¡ ¡ × × × ¡ ¡ × × 0..5 0. CYLINDER VOLUME FRACTION Fig. . ∗ .2 0 0 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 1 0. ∗ . ∗ ...204CHAPTER 12...8 × ¡ 0. EVACUATING/FILING CHAMBERS UNDER EXTERNAL VOLUME CON 2..5 ∗ . .3 0. . ∗ . .4 0.. ∗ = 0.. ∗ .1 0.. ∗ ...2 ∗ ...8 0. ..2 0.5 .2 P(t) 1 P(0) 0.7 0.. ∗ .. ...1 . . ∗ .. ∗ ∗ .. . ∗∗ . ∗ .    ¢ ... ∗ . . . Ac ∗ . ∗ . ∗ 0.. ∗ 1.8 1. t..0 ∗ ...

¢ . are studied here since it is … the dominant parameter.1.5) d is inversely proportional to to area.4. MODEL According to equation (11. This parameter repIt is important to point out the significance of the 5 resents the ratio between the filling time and the evacuating time. cey ¡ £ ¤ and   ¤ ¡ A@ ¤ .1.4: The pressure ratio as a function of the dimensionless time large values of ¢ the pressure increases the volume flow rate of the air until a quasi steady state is reached.2 Examples Example 12. d¡  equation (12. ¢ . f f ¢ 7 8 .1: Calculate the minimum ¡£ required the die vol¢ £ vent area for die casting process when ume is . which was obtained by an integration of equation (12. according to the following equation Figure 12. and the friction ¡ ¢ parameter. The required solidification time. x $ $ $   F $ B $ $ ¡ # 6 S OLUTION . The effects of the area ratio.4 describes the pressure as a function of the dimensionless time for various values of ¢ . B B  (12.   ¤ . This parameter also represents the dimensionless area. Mach number.9). ¢ . The line that represents ¢ is almost straight. For  ¤       Fig. When ¢ is greater than one the pressure is concave upward and when ¢ is less than one the pressure is concave downward as shown in Figures 12. The pressure and the mass flow rate are maintained constant after this state is reached. 12. The influence is small on the residual air mass in the cylinder but larger on the y ¡ f .      12. the time which would be required to evacuate the cylinder for constant mass flow rate at the maximum Mach number when the gas temperature and pressure remain in their initial values. From ¡ ¢ other detailed calculations [?] it was found that the influence of the parameter   ¤ on the pressure development in the cylinder is quite small.14) the cey is canceled and reduced into x c€y 1 x d vv 1 d v v B B B   ¤ 205 1 . This quasi steady state is achieved when the volumetric air flow rate out is equal to the volume pushed by the piston. Thus.12.15) Parameters influencing the process are the area ratio. For small values of ¢ there is no steady state stage. The pressure in this quasi steady state is a function of ¢ .

3 Direct Connection In the above analysis is applicable to indirect connection.1. .206CHAPTER 12. It should be noted that critical area. 1 d . This critical area depends on the geometry and the filling time. taking into account the compressibility of the gas flow. The direct connection posts more mathematical difficulty because the critical area is not constant and time dependent. To continue 12.2 Summary The analysis indicates there is a critical vent area below which the ventilation is poor and above which the resistance to air flow is minimal. is not function of the time. EVACUATING/FILING CHAMBERS UNDER EXTERNAL VOLUME CON 12. The critical area also provides a mean to “combine” the actual vent area with the vent resistance for numerical simulations of the cavity filling.

normal shock and Prandtl–Meyer function are presented as three and separate and different issues. changing of the deflection angle to a negative value results in expansion waves. Clearly. Here.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ # 2¨!"£¢ ¦ $¥¤6# 1 ¨%¤§¦ §¡  ¨©'QP£©§ V(  ©!D3! #"% $&( '0B$ )1!'29Y 3546 #6 !7D"b 3985 $% @'`P 49)£A"!4B ©9)! 4C4¥79"5 D8 "'dFPeE2 G"6 98"5 C4cI 85F)H ©84Ig 'QPR©5 0S  T 7D©& U £  4 I 8 WS F X S F $ ! ©    © ` 4 a S   c I 9 4 £  F 4  4 D 4 f $ hPi G4D"( pr qDyPi SsG794" b"F 546 4btu© £4H 'F'v ©54§ wa D4D #98! 35& 4DC I85')C Ww€C a0SDR F529© 8b¥ f5 ©&& H#"( #"5p‚ 4B 94v I'F8' 4D$ F8x    © f   7 & © #   " !  £' v 4  " 0  @ P F  F E F  2    ! © D ¨ 5 © )F48 )bb GWS9F8Sg `VaE ƒI „w&„SY wB€5…@ 4„S†Sa'24F857b)C G9D88G`€B Vawa !D7©C 8G935wa4Df EF4D"† ‡ˆ 4F€5‰& &G59G8C $!'¥ 9 )!4cI 4I '0wa yPe 49)C E2€ V(   ! 3 %   u   #    & © C 8 D f I  F ' 9 7    8 I E 0 ' W  6 4  © 2©&#"(p 13. The common presentation is done by avoiding to show the boundaries of these models. However. The normal shock is a special case of shock and other situations exist for example the oblique shock.1: A view of a straight normal shock as these cases as three different regions of limited case for the oblique shock flow over plate with deflection section. Further. variation of the deflection angle from a zero ( ) to positive values results in the oblique shock. it is attempted to show the boundaries and the limits or connections of “•” ’ –˜— ‘ = 0 ™ ($ 207 .1 Preface to Oblique Shock In Chapter 5 a discussion on a normal shock was presented. 13. Commonly in literature the oblique shock. one can view all Fig.

2 Introduction to Prandtl–Meyer Function Decreasing the defection angle results 0◦ Prandtl in the same results as before: the ν∞(k ) θmax(k ) Meyer Oblique Function Shock boundary conditions must match the geometry. the direction of the flow is changed by a shock wave with an angle.” Phys. HowAs it will be shown in the next Chapter. should refer to J. 1 In this chapter. Yet.” Bull. pressure boundary condition are example of forcing shock. the normal shock occurs when a wall is straight/flat ( ) as shown in Figure 13.B. 84. etc is presented. The zero velocity can be found in a jet flowing into a still medium of gas. Prandtls-Meyer Function approaches to closer to zero. Am.1 which occurs when somewhere downstream a disturbance2 appears. triple shock intersection. Noquirement.R. OBLIQUE-SHOCK 13. During this time. In such case. Thus.2: The regions where the oblique shock must increased to achieve this reor Prandtl–Meyer function exist. 1874 (1994). a very limited discussion about reflection shocks and collisions of weak shock. Alternatively. Von Neumann paradox. This velocity increase is tice that both a maximum point and referred to as the expansion waves. This author believes that these issues are not relevant to most engineering students and practices. Rosales. This matching can occur only when there is a discontinuity in the flow field. the No Shock zone flow must be continuous. for a negative (in this section notation) defection angle.2. This shock communally is referred to as the oblique shock.2 13.2. When the deflection angle is increased the shock must match the boundary conditions. As it might be recalled. Math. . 13. waves and asymptotics. these issues should not be introduced in introductory textbook of compressible flow. “Focusing of weak shock waves and the Von Neuman paradox of oblique shock reflection. Those who would like to obtain more information. ™ $ 13. Furthermore. Tabak and R. 2 Zero velocity.1 Introduction Introduction to Oblique Shock The normal shock occurs when there is a disturbance downstream which imposed on the flow and in which the fluid/gas can react only by a sharp change to the flow. ever. The analysis shows that velocity of the flow Fig. “no solution” zone around zero. “Rays. and E. Fluids 6. as oppose to oblique shock analysis. flow fluid is governed by hyperbolic equation which is where the information (like boundary conditions) reaches from downstream only if they are within the range of influence.208 these models1 . as discussed in Chapter 13 the flow behaves as it in hyperbolic field. 3 This section is under construction and does not appear in the book yet. even the whole book. Keller. Soc. 727 (1978). CHAPTER 13. the flow moves ahead downstream which creates an angle. For information such as the disturbance (boundary condition) reaches deep into flow from the side requires time.G.

¤ ' ' 13.2. However. The two dimensional effects occur when the flow is affected from the “side” i. However. Only the oblique shock’s normal component undergoes the “shock.” The tangent component doesn’t change because it doesn’t “moves” across the shock line.2)). If you do not like this description. The reason for the larger maximum point is because of the effective turning (less entropy) which will be explained in the next chapter (see Figure (13.3 exhibits the schematic of the oblique shock.3 Introduction to zero inclination What happened when the inclination angle is zero? Which model is correct to use? Can these two conflicting models co-exist? Or perhaps a different model better describes the physics.e. please just ignore it. Hence. the stability issue will be examined in some details. Alternately.1) ¨ ©   © © ¢ © (13. using an infinite (or two dimensional) object produces a two dimensional shock. In such a case the change of the orientation makes the shock considerations a two dimensional. a one dimensional shock can be considered.). In Figure 13. change in the flow direction4 . . the mass balance reads ™ 3 The momentum equation reads ¨ 4 This ' 3 '4 ' ¢ 3 ¢ © © ¢ 4   ' 46' © 3 4 (13. 13. You can use the tradition explanation. Previously (see Chapter 5 ).3 Oblique Shock The shock occurs in reality in situations where the shock has three–dimensional effects. the maximum point for Prandtl–Meyer ¢ Function is match larger than the Oblique shock by a factor of more than two. The total flow after oblique shock can be also supersonic which depends boundary layer.2) author beg for forgiveness from those who view this description offensive (There was unpleasant eMail to this author accusing him to revolt against the holy of the holy. The normal shock analysis dictates that after the shock. . you do not need this author permission. the flow is always subsonic. OBLIQUE SHOCK 209 the upstream Mach number increases and determined the downstream Mach number and the “negative” deflection angle. In some books and in the famous NACA report 1135 it was assumed that Mach wave and oblique shock co–occur in the same zone. The three–dimensional effects of the shock make it appears as a curved plan. is the direction of the flow after the shock (parallel to the wall).13. In this chapter. One has to point that both oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer Function have maximum point for . the flow turns after the shock to be parallel to the inclination angle.3. it also assumed that normal shock occurs in the same time. for a chosen arbitrary accuracy requires a specific small area. The deflection angle. To match the boundary conditions.

. 13.3: A typical oblique shock schematic The momentum equation in the tangential direction yields 4 'f 4 The energy balance reads   Comp ersi ©f ©¢ © £ (13. Experiments and experience 5 This issue is due to R. Yet. The author is not aware of “simple” proof and a call to find a simple proof is needed. the new issue of relationship between the upstream Mach number and the deflection angle.3) " s % ' 46' £ © ¢" s % © 4 ¢   (13.210 CHAPTER 13.2) and (13. From the geometry it can be observed that ™ 021 ) and 0 46' 4 'f ¢ (13. Menikoff. two the strong shock. (13. 6 This solution requires to solve the entropy conservation equation. which raise to completeness of the solution.1). and three the impossible solution (thermodynamically)6 .4) Equations (13.6) Not as in the normal shock.4) are the same equations as the equations for normal shock with the exception that the total velocity is replaced by the perpendicular components. OBLIQUE-SHOCK  ¨¤© ¢¤£ θ on L ine θ−δ ¥§¦ &§' ( ¡    "!#¤$% Fig. here there are three possible pair5 of solutions to these equations one is referred to as the weak shock. and the Mach angel.5) 021 0 #) i ™ ) 4 © f 4© ¢ (13. He pointed out the full explanation to what happened to the negative solution. ) has to be solved.

13. in which the flow turn to lesser extent7 . .8) through (13. and this set set with utilizing  £ . The lesser extent angle is the unstable and the weak angle is the middle solution. ¡Rearranging ¢  ¤¦¥§¡  the the geometrical identity such as ¡£¢ results in 4' 4 ¤ % ' '% ¤ ¤ '¤ 0 021 0 ™ £ 0 )  ¤ ¤¦¥ ¤ '© 0 © ) i   £ '© #¢ )) £ ! ¡£¢   ™ 0 ¤¦¥§¡   (13.)  . and it follows that the total speed of sound is constant across the (oblique) shock.12) The relationship between the properties can be found by substituting instead of into the normal shock relationship and results in ¤ ' ¨ © ¨ ' £ ¢¥¤ ' © 0 © ) i # ¢ i   ) ¢   ¡£¢   ¤ ' 0 ¡¢ ) (13.3. 01 010 0 # ) i ) ™ ) 44 ©' ¢ ¢ (13. on both sides of the shock are different.11) The total energy across oblique shock wave is constant. As opposed to the normal shock.13) 7 Actually this term is used from historical reason.10) (13. here angles (the second dimension) have to be solved. The solution of this set of four equations (13.11) are function of four unknowns of .9) ¤¦¥§¡ (13. It should be noted f© © f the Mach number © f because the temperatures that although f © ©.8) (13.7) The above velocity–geometry equations also can be expressed in term of Mach number as ¡£¢ 0 ) ¡£¢ ¤¦¥¨¡ 0 #) i ™ ) ¤ © © ¤ 'f ) ¤ ' # ) i ™ ) ¤¤ © f © ¢ ¤ ' ¤ ' ¤ ¢ (13. But because the literature referred to only two roots the term lesser extent is used. © . OBLIQUE SHOCK 211 show that the common solution is the weaker shock.

14) The temperature ratio is expressed as %© %' ¢¥¤ ' © 0 © ) i # ¢ i   )   # ¢ i   ) ¤ ' © #¢   )© ¤ ' ¡¢   ¡ (13.212 The density and normal velocities ratio can be found from the following equation 3 CHAPTER 13. as it may be recalled.16) The Rankine–Hugoniot relations are the same as the relationship for the normal shock ¨ © i ¨ © i 3 3 ' ¢ ¨ 3 © i 3¨ ' ' © i ' (13. this set of parameters is. Other properties combinations provide a relatively simple mathematical treatment and the solutions of selected pairs and selected relationships are presented. One has to be careful to use the normal components of the Mach numbers.18) .  ¢¡ . and deflection angle.4. Thus.4 Solution of Mach Angle The oblique shock orientated in coordinate perpendicular and parallel shock plan is like a normal shock. Probably. are upstream Mach number. OBLIQUE-SHOCK 3© 6 4' ' 4© £ ¢ ¢ #¢   )¤ '© 0 © ) #¢ i   )¤ '© 0 © )   ¡¢ ¡£¢   £ £   (13.1 Upstream Mach number.17) 13. Thompson (1950) has shown that the relationship of shock angle is obtained from the following cubic equation: ¤ F D ' ¤ © D © ¤ D F &$     (13. the properties relationship can be founded by using the normal components or utilizing the normal shock table developed earlier. the most useful properties. The oblique shock is a two dimensional problem and two properties must be provided so a solution can be found. and the deflection angle which create somewhat complicated mathematical procedure and it will be discussed momentarily. Again. the most common and natural to examine.15) Prandtl’s relation for oblique shock is ¢ ¢ ¢ 4  4 § &6 © i ¢ i    4   f© (13. The stagnation temperature contains the total velocity. ¤ ' 13. only one parameter was required (to solve the problem). £   Again. perhaps. the normal shock is one dimensional problem. thus.

sign is 0 ) must refers to the mirror image of the solution.21) ¤ ' ¤ '© ! ™ D F i ¤ '© ™ (13.4. Thus.26) % and where the definitions of the ¥ ¥ 8 This 9 The ©  is 4 i  ¥ (13.19) requires that ¤ 0 has to be a real and positive number to obtain ) must be possible the and the negative real deflection angle . in a quadratic equation there are two roots. SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE Where 213 ¤ ¡¢ 0©) (13.18) provides three roots9 . the negative root of be And D'   i ¡£¢         ¡£¢ ¤ ¥¨¡     8 ¡¢ ¡£¢ ¤' i  D' # % ) ¡   ¡    (13. He also suggested that ¦ is bounded by §¢¨©   and 1.25) Where ©  4    ¥  (13. highest power of the equation (only with integer numbers) is the number of the roots.23) ¤© i and   D ' i £  # % ) £   ¡ # i % ) ¡ ¢      ¤£ ¡  (13.28) .19) disregarded Solution of a cubic equation like (13.27) ¢ F   4 © point was pointed by R. ¡ (13.24) ¤F i   ¡D' i   £   # % ) i £   ¡ # i % ) ¢    ¤£ ¡  (13. For example.20) ¤ '© £ ¤ © ¢  )© ¢ i   0 © # '    i " D© (13.13.22) Equation (13. These roots can be expressed as ¤ '© £ i ¢ 0 © ™ (13. Clearly. Menikoff.

the third root always turns the flow into subsonic and it refereed to a strong solution. reach the first angle that satisfies the boundary condition. The shock initially for a very brief time will transient in it and will jump from this angle to the thermodynamically stable angles. the solution in the case of ¥ of other issues to determine the validity of the solution. in steady state situations. only in some cases when ¥ the solution has physical has to be examined in the light meaning. if there was hand which moves the shock angle starting with the deflection angle. those who are dealing with rapid transient situations should be aware that this angle of the oblique shock can exist. the shock wave keeps the flow almost all the time as supersonic flow and it refereed to as the weak solution (there is a small branch (section) that the flow is subsonic). Two. The physical meaning of the above analysis demonstrates that in the range no solution exist because no imaginary solution can exist10 . Maybe insert example where imaginary solution results in no physical solution. is “unrealistic. One. ¦ When ¥ the three unique roots are reduced to two roots at least for steady state because the thermodynamics dictation11 . The reader simply can try it. 11 This situation is somewhat similar to a cubical body rotation. for example by additional boundary conditions. if one root is real and two roots are complex. ¥ ©$ £ F i D 'F (13. Though. the first solution dose not occur in reality. Furthermore. . OBLIQUE-SHOCK are  ¡D i © i 4 D '© A (13. the body will freely rotate only around two axis with small and large moments of inertia.29) 4 4 D 'D© £ W "D Only three roots can exist for Mach angle. Hence. Physically.30) $ $ © $ © $ $ ($ $ 10 A call for suggestions. In the last case where ¥ all the roots are real and unequal. The body rotation is unstable around the middle axes. These two roots represents two different situations. For the case ¥ all the roots ¦ are real and at least two are identical. that this author found.23). this situation is unstable and shock angle will jump to the second angle (root). for the second root. If additional “push” is given.214  and where the definitions of and and 4 CHAPTER 13.” Therefore. ) . ¥ where ¥ occurs when no shock angle can be found so that the shock normal component is reduced to be subsonic and yet be parallel to inclination angle. referred sometimes as thermodynamically unstable root which also related to decrease in entropy. This root has only a mathematical meaning for steady state analysis12 . should explanation about complex numbers and imaginary numbers should be included. From mathematical point of view. it can be shown that the first solution(13. However. however. The cubical body has three symmetrical axises which the body can rotate around. showing that it is totally impossible. 12 There is no experimental evidence. at least. It should be noted that this case is where entropy increases in the largest amount. In summary.

. © . For example. for 4 © ¥ mum defection angle is calculated when . in Figure 13. There are those who view this question not as a stability equation but rather as under what conditions a strong or a weak shock will prevail. It can be noticed that a This different inclination angle sometimes renormal shock.4. This can be done by evaluating the terms .4 and 13.1 The simple procedure For example.2 13.1. Alternative view.5. ¤ ' ¤¦¥¨§ 13. D ' i ¢   i ¢ © 0 ©0 ©™ D © #   )" ™ DF $  4 With these values the coefficients.13.1 In What Situations No Oblique Shock Exist or When Large deflection angle for given. Once. and for . ject as object with a different inclination angle. and weak shock co-exist. . in this case. These two angles of the strong and weak shock are stable for two-dimensional wedge (See for the appendix of this Chapter for a limit discussion on the stability14 ).4. The flow far away i ¢ the maxifrom the object does not “see’ the object. the wedge) in–front of it.4: Flow around spherically blunted cone-cylinder Only the fluid away the object “sees” the obwith Mach number 2.4. ferred to as imaginary angle. Fig. the inclination angle reaches “maximum potential energy” to change the flow direction and no change of flow direction is possible.2. 14 This material is extra and not recommended for standard undergraduate students. 13. SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE 215 the shock angle will jump to the third root13 . and are § © C§ ` i # £ ) # i ) #   £¢ 0 © ™ ) © 0 ¢ © ™ )  ¦ '  # # i   ) X 4 4 " ¡£¢   D' D DF  ¤ ' (' F ¡¢   $ ¤ ' '   ¡¢   ¡£¢   W 13 See for historical discussion on the stability. the imaginary angle is shown. 13.2.4. strong shock. the fluid “sees” the disturbance (here.0. a change in the inclination angle requires a larger energy to change the flow direction. For given upstream Mach number. £ ¤ '  ¢¡ The first range is when the deflection angle reaches above the maximum point.

Chapman.28) after substituting these values of  #   £¢ 0 © ™ ) ©   ¡¢  and 4 provides series The fluid doesn’t ’’see’ the object M∞ } } } The fluid ‘‘sees’’ the object with "imaginary" inclanation angle Intermediate zone The fluid "sees" the object infront Fig. When the right terms defined in (13. 13. OBLIQUE-SHOCK 4 Solving equation (13.30) are substitute into this equation and utilizing © ¤¦¥¨¡ © the trigonometrical ¡£¢ and other trigonometrical identities results in to Maximum Deflection Mach number’s equation in which is 0 ™ ™   ¤ ' © # ¢   ) # ¤ ' ©   ) £ # ¢¥¤ '       $ ¢ ¢     £ ¤ ' ¢ © i  ) (13. and (13.1.216 and CHAPTER 13.20)-(13. At time. their approach seems simpler to explain.29).4. ). (13. .21).2 The Procedure for Calculating The Maximum (Deflection point) ™ ¡  ¢   " ¢ The maximum is obtained when ¥ . English mathematician15 suggest another way to approached this 15 Mathematician have a different way in looking at things.2. x   13. is just above cey ¢ (note that the maximum is also a function of heat ratio.5: The view of large inclination angle from different points in the fluid field of roots from which only one root is possible. J. C. This root.31) This equation and it twin equation can be obtained by alternative procedure. in the case .

12) the deflection angle is a function of Mach angle and upstream Mach number. To compare these two equations the simple case of Maximum for infinite Mach number is examined. . He noticed that equation (13. ) c€y is a function of of only these parameters. The general solution of equation (13.35) .33) should be referred as Chapman’s equation. It can be noticed that this Maximum Deflection Mach © . Note this procedure does not require that approximation of ¢ has to be made. Thus it is sufficient to equate the numerator to zero to find the maximum.12) yields ¤ ' ¤ ' mum. This can be shown mathematical by the argument that differentiating equation (13.4. Thus. . .13.32) is zero at different values of denominator. A simplified case of Maximum Deflection Mach Number’s equation for Large Mach number becomes ¢ ¤ ' ¤ ' ¤ ' With the value of ) utilizing equation (13. one can conclude that the maximum Mach angle is only a function of the upstream Much number. The nom© © inator produce quadratic equation for ¡£¢ ) and only the positive value for ¡¢ ) is © applied here. and the maximum Mach angle. for large Mach number the Mach angle is   )     2 or ) C¢A AD4 . It should be noted that both Maximum Mach Deflection equation and Chapman’s equation lead to the same conclusion that maximum is only a function of of upstream Mach ¢ number and the heat ratio.31) is ¤ '©©   0) Hence.12) the maximum deflection angle can be computed.33) Equation (13. . The x differentiation of the equation (13. is found than Number’s equation is also quadratic equation for ¢ ¢ the Mach angle can be easily calculated by equation (13. SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE 217 issue. and Mach number. ) . Thus. . Once.32)   0 0 ¦ ' ¢ ¤ ' ) i #¢ i   ) 4 ¤ '© © ) i   ") 021 0 is a monotonous function the maximum appears when ) has its maxiBecause 021   ¡£¢ ¢ ¤ ' ¤ '     ¡¢     ¡£¢   ¥ ¡       ¡£¢ 0©) x c€y i   ¦ '¤ '©   0 0 0 3      £© ' ¤ ' © #¢   ) ¥  ¨ ¢¥¤ ' ©       ¢¦ © '¤ '¥  (13. Since in that equation there appears only the heat ratio.8). the ¡£¢ ) is ¡£¢  ¦ '  ¤ © 0 £ i  ¦ '  ¤ © ` ¤ © 0 © i ¢ 4 ¤ 0 ' ' ' ' `   ) X ) X © © " ™ § §   (13. The numerator of equation (13.34) which make ¤ ' ¤ ' ¢ 3 #¢   )¤ '©       ©   #¤ ' ©  ¤ ' © #¢   ) © £ ¢     2 # ¢ © i   ) ¡   C #   3¢ )     (13.12) and equating the results to zero crates relationship between the Mach number. ¤ ' 3   ¢ ¢  ¤ ' £ ¢ for ¡¢ ©    ©¦  ' (13.

1: Derive perturbation of Maximum Deflection Mach Number’s equation for the case .4.36) and With values presented in equations (13. The analysis shows regardless to the value of upstream Mach number ¥ when . © .36) for ¢¤ 4 ¤  §  ¦ § © ` ¤ ©  § ¦ ' `           4 i £ ' © £ ¥ ¢£ ¤ ' ©   ¥ £ AW ¤ ' © i £ ¤ ' © ¢ ¤ ' © "¤ ¦ '¥ W     " ¤ £ ' ¦ `    i £ ¤  § ¦§ © ` ©       becomes £ ¥© (13. of a very small upstream Mach number number of the form of Start with equation (13. This typical example for these who like mathematics.2 The case of £¢ $ of $ ¢ ¥ The second range in which ¥ is when . first the transition line in–which ¥ has to be determined. This can be partially for specific value of as demonstrated by evaluating the terms .31) and neglect all the terms that are relatively small.218 CHAPTER 13. This can be achieved by the standard mathematical procedure by equating ¥ . Example 13.38) . ¤ '   ¡    S OLUTION under construction 13.2. Hint.37) and  ¡ ¤©      § ¦ ' ` i ¤  §  ¦ § © ` F     4 (13. OBLIQUE-SHOCK Note that Maximum Deflection Mach Number’s equation can be extend to more complicated equation of state (aside the perfect gas model). Thus. and following $ © $ ™ $ D' D   $ ™¦ $ ™D $ F ¤ ' D' D© DF 4 4 ¤ '© £ ¤ '© £ ¤ © i ¤' '     i ¤     '  A (13.

 ¡  Substituting the values of ¢ 4 219 ¡ ¤©      § ¦ ' ` i ¤  §  ¦ § © ` F F     £¥¤ ™   interpretation of this fact that either that no shock can exist and the flow is without any discontinuity or a normal shock exist17 . Substitution of all the above values into (13. 18 See for example. 17 There 16 A .38) into equation (13. In other words. But for non ideal gas (real gas) this solution is only indication.28) provides the equation to be solved for .Fig. Nevertheless. paper by Rosles. demonstration.6: The various coefficients of three different mon approach. the -1 0 wall doesn’t emit any signal to the flow (assuming zero viscosity) which contradicts the com. And according to this analysis no Mach wave can be gen¨ 2. Nevertheless. Mach number to demonstrate that © is zero in the literature. this proof became trivial.© not. in the previous case. “Caustics of weak shock waves. '  .37)(13. 13.39) "¤ '¥ ¤ W This author is not aware of any analytical demonstration in the literature which $ . The question of singular point or zero Mach wave strength are only of mathematical interest. Note. Once this analytical solution was published.6) is provided for the following &$ .0 3 0 erated from the wall with zero deflection. Table (13.” 206 Phys. the physical £ 4 4 ¦ ¢¤ '©   £ ¥ ¢£       16 ¥ ¤¦¥§¡ ¡£¢ ¥ . there was transition from one kind of discontinuity to another. there are several papers suggesting zero strength Mach wave. ™ $ ¤ ' D' D DF F ' '¥ ''¥ mathematical challenge for those who like to work it out. other suggest singular point18 . Hence. positive large deflection angle. Fluids 10 (1) . SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE and equations (13. showing that the solution is identity zero for ™   £  $ identity ' can ¤   this be demonstrated by checking several points for example. ¤ ' ©   ¥ £ A ¤ ' © i £ ¤ ' © ¢ ¤ ' © £ ¥ © © &$ (13. are several papers that attempted to prove this point in the past. January 1998. Tabak.28) results in 0 for and Utilizing the symmetry and antisymmetry of the qualities of the $ $ © ¦ ™ demonstrates that regardless to Mach number.13.0 -3 -1 .4. the In the range where  § § question whether it is possible § § § coefficients § 9© § for the oblique shock to exist? § § § The answer according to this analysis and stability analysis is 1.

for simplicity sake. the increase and the decrease depend on the upstream Mach number but in different direction. for the purpose of introductory class. There must be another boundary condition(s) that forces a shock. the boundary layer covers or smooths the bumps. Furthermore. The analysis of the oblique shock impose that the inclination angle is not the source (boundary condition) that creates the shock. However. i. that normal shock can occur at zero inclination. emission of Mach wave can occur in other situations. any deviations from the zero inclination angle creates a jump between a positive angle (Mach wave) to a negative angle (expansion wave). no Mach wave at zero inclination should be assumed. Nevertheless. there two “weaks. In the light of this discussion. The analysis started by looking at normal shock which occurs when there is a zero inclination. OBLIQUE-SHOCK Suppose that there is a Mach wave at the wall at zero inclination (see Figure 13. . the same conclusion must be found. the zone in the proximity of zero inclination (small positive and negative inclination angle) should be viewed as zone without any change unless the boundary conditions force a normal shock. This theoretical jump occurs because in Mach wave the velocity decreases while in expansion waves the velocity increases. and yet both not allowing situation of zero inclination with emission of Mach wave. that there no such thing as a perfect wall. if it was assumed that no boundary layer exist and wall is perfect. only in several points (depends on the bumps) at the leading edge a very weak shock occurs. another Mach wave occurs after a small distance. If the situation is keeping on occurring over a finite distance there will be a point where the Mach number will be one and a normal shock will occur according the common explanation. there are imperfections in the wall and in the flow and there is the question of boundary layer.e. at least for a simple engineering analysis. 13. On the other hand. the reality is that no continues Mach wave can occur because the viscosity (boundary layer). But because the velocity after a Mach wave (even for a extremely weak shock wave) is reduced. thus. The imµ1 µ2 µ3 µ∞ perfections of the wall can be.7: The Mach waves that supposed to soidal shape.7). With these conflicting mechanisms.” These words mean two different things. Further.   © '   In reality. The 19 It is not a mistake. At the very extreme case. This jump has to be in reality either smoothed or has physical meaning of jump (for example. The first “weak” means more of compression “line” while the other means the weak shock. the Mach angle will be larger ( © ).220 CHAPTER 13. detach normal shock). For such wall the zero be generated at zero inclination inclination changes from small positive value to a negative value. If the Mach number is large enough and wall is rough enough there will be points where a weak19 weak will be created. It is well known. assumed to be as a sinuFig. in engineering world. Obviously. Therefor. After analysis of the oblique shock.

4.001 0.0 -0. are far more 13. The deflection angle can be expressed as a function of these variable as ¤¦¥   ¡ .8: The calculation of D (possible error).0005 Myw Mys θs θw 0. 0 10 δ 20 30 0 ™ 01 ) £ 0  # ¤ # ¢ ©  0 ) ©¤ ' © ¤   ! ' )¥¤   )   ¡¢ (13.0 30.40) .5 70 2 60 50 1.5 40 1 30 20 0. ' . SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE 221 approximation of weak weak wave with non zero strength has engineering applicability in limited cases especially in acoustic engineering but for most cases it should be ignored.5 10 0 0 -0. £ ¤ The solution for upstream Mach number. 13.0 δ 20. shock angle and exit Mach number for    ¤ ¢¡ simpler and an unique solution exist.0005 0 0 10 20 30 0. and shock angle. Oblique Shock k = 1 4 Mx=3 3 90 80 2.13.001 Wed Jun 22 15:03:35 2005 Fig. ) . and Shock Angle.4.3 Upstream Mach Number.0 10.

OBLIQUE-SHOCK 021 0™ £ £   #¤ '© 0 © ) ¤   ) £¤ ' © # ¢   ¤ £ 0 © ) ) ¤ ¥ 0) ¡¢   ¡£¢ (13.9). The ¤ first upstream Mach number.44) % ' '© #¢   )¤ '© 0 © ) The Mach number after the shock is ¤ © © 0 # ) ¤§™ ) £ # ¢¥¢ ¤ ¤ ©  ) ¤ 0 ©' © 0 © # ¢ ) £ (13. upstream Mach number . £ 13.42) ¢   ¨ ' 3 expressed as The density ratio can be 3 © 46' #¢   )¤ '© 0 © ) (13. £ and It is sometimes useful to obtains relationship where the two angles are known.43) ' 4 © #¢ ¤   )¤ '© 0 © ) £ The temperature ratio expressed as % © 66 © © ¢ £ ¢4¤ ' © 0 © )¥¤ # ¢ ¤   ) ¥ ¢ # ¢ ¤   ) ¤ ' © 0 © ) £ ¥ (13. ) . range of given ) . has to be in the range of 13. is limited between and © ¤ 0The ©   ).222 or CHAPTER 13. ™ .4.45) ' )¥¤ ¤   ) or explicitly ¤ © © # ¢ ¢ £   ¢¥) ¤© ¤ ©' 0 0 © © )¥¤ # ¢" # ¤ ' © ¥ ¢ 0 # ¢ © ) ¤   ¤ ) # ¢¥© ¤ ' 0 © © 0 © ) £ ¥   ) (13.40) ) (see 'Figure that shock angel.46) ' ) ¤ ¤  ) ¤  ) ' ) The ratio of the total pressure can be expressed as   0 ¢ ¤ © ¢ © # § '       ) ) ¨   (13. is unique the shows possible range deflection angle.4 For Given Two Angles.47) # ¢ ¤   ) ¤ ' © 0 © ) £ !  £ ¢¥¤ ' © 0 © ) ¤ # ¢ ¤   ) ! ¨     ¤ Eventhough that the solution for these variables.41) ¢¥¤ ' © 0 © ) ¤ # ¢ ¤   ) (13. ' and ) . is limited. ' is ¤ ' © 0 £ £ # # 020 1 )0 #0 ¢ 1 0 ™ ) £ (13.48) ) ¤ ™) )) The pressure ratio can be expressed as ¨ © £ ¡¢     ¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¡£¢   ¡£¢ ¡£¢     ¡£¢ ¡£¢ ¡£¢   ¡¢     ¡¢ ¡£¢ ¡¢   ¡£¢ ¡£¢     ¡£¢   ¡£¢   ¡¢ ¡£¢ ¡ ¡£¢ ¤¦¥   ¡¢   ¤ ¥¨¡ . 0Examining £ ' # ¤ ¤ equation £   ¤ ' ' ) ¢ ) ¢ # ¤ (13.

SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE subsonic weak solution 223 1. Equation (13.49) 3 ' ¡£¢ ¡¢ ¤¦¥§¡ ) ¢ ¢   £ ™   ™ must be small as well. can be simplified into 0™ 0 ) # ) ¤§™ ) (13.13. .9: The possible range of solution for different parameters for given upstream Mach number The reduced pressure difference is £ # ¨ 3© The reduced density is proaching zero).40) (13. Shock angle π θ= 2 θmax ∼ π 2 θ=0 Fig.51) The results are consistent with the initial assumption shows that it was appropriate assumption. 13. ) .4.0 < M1 < ∞ Defection angle strong solution θmin = sin −1 1 M1 supersonic weak soution possible solution no solution zone θ. the deflection angle.50) © ¤ For large upstream Mach number ' and small shock angle (yet non ap© ¤ 3 4 3 ¤ ¨ © ') £ ¡£¢ ¤ ¥¨¡ 0) 0™ # ) ¤ §™ ) ¡£¢ (13.

The dimensional analysis shows that no shock only doted area to be area where curflow direction ysis anal e t a i rmid range rent solution can be assumed as corinte sis naly rect21 . for steady state and no know experiments showing that it exist can be found the literature. for most engineering application. As oppose to the weak shock. the analysis for middle section produces close results to reality (because symmetry). The common approach is to carry numerical analysis. the strong shock is unstable. reports that only a weak shock is possible. 13. is not aware of a 20 Even finite wedge with limiting wall can be considered as example for this discussion if the B. the first solution is thermodynamical unstable. the analysis needs to account for edge effects. simple tool are sufficient for limit accuracy. Clearly. at least.5 Flow in a Semi–2D Shape The discussion so far was about the straight infinite long wedge20 which is a “pure” 2–D configuration. Yet.4. this solution is also act as “reality check” to any numerical analysis. All the literature. { { { { { 13. is neglected. for any finite length of the wedge. The analysis also provides additional value of the expected range. Another geometry that can be considered as two dimensional is the cone (some referred to as Taylor– 2-D oblique shock on both sides Maccoll flow). In this case Fig. the numerical works require many times a “reality check. 21 At this stage dimensional analysis is not competed.4.L. It is recommend to skip this issue and devote the time to other issues. the symmetrical nature of the cone creates a semi–2D problem. Eventhough.10). In additionally. Experimental and analytical work shows that the weak solution is the stable solution and a discussion is provided in the appendix of this chapter. the cone is s y l na a e edg range is a three dimensional problem. In spite of the small area al a norm range were the current solution can be asno shock sumed. As before. The mathematics is much more complicated but there are three solutions. This author is not aware of any such analysis in literature. In spite recent trends. The section where the current analysis is close to reality can be estimated from a dimensional analysis for the required accuracy or by a numerical method. known to this author.224 CHAPTER 13. The end of the wedge must have a different configuration (see Figure 13.10: Schematic of finite wedge with zero angle of attack there are no edge effects and the geometry dictates slightly different results.6 Small £ “Weak Oblique shock” This topic has interest mostly from academic point of view. This author.” . OBLIQUE-SHOCK 13.

the close proximity view provides continuous turning of the deflection angle. From the far view the oblique shock is accumulations of many small (or again weak) “weak shocks. and small normal upstream Mach number.8 Maximum value of of Oblique shock The maximum values are summarized in the following Table . the far view shows a sharp transition. In larger distance form the the wall. At the local view close to wall the oblique shock is a weak “weak oblique” shock.4. reduces δ the upstream flow velocity and therefore the shock doesn’t exist close proximity to the wall. SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE 225 single case that this topic used in a real world calculations.4.11: Two different views from local and far on the oblique shock ™ 13. the B. In this theory. The traditional approach to reconcile these two views.. Table 13.L.1: Table of Maximum values of the obliques Shock    £ $ $$ $$       $ R $  4¢A ¡   ¡   $  4EW # $"4 ¡ R    W "$  "W £ £ A 4 ™ ¡ £¢   )¤ ¥¢   ADC   £ AHC  4EWE WIW £ . devoted time. the Boundary Layer (B.13.) θ doesn’t enter into the calculation..7 Close and Far Views of The Oblique Shock In many cases. However. is by suggesting that the far view shock is a collection of many small weak shocks (see Figure 13. For small deflection angle. this author admits that as long there are instructors who examine their students on this issue. seems to come on the count of many important topics. 13.4. Yet.L. Fig.L. . ¢ . the shock starts to be possible.52) . In reality. there small “shocks” are built or accumulate into a large and abrupt change (shock). 13. increases the zone where continuous flow exist. ¤ '       ™ 01 ) 0 § ¤ '  © ¤   (13.” However. under construction. The B. In fact. after expressed analytical solution is provided. it should be covered in this book.11). .

Henderson and Menikoff22 suggested a procedure to calculate the maximum deflection angle for arbitrary equation of state23 .4. . Since the flow “sees” the obstacle. In some cases this assumption might not be sufficient and different analysis is needed. there isn’t a physical solution to oblique shock. for large deflection angle.1: Maximum values of oblique shock (continue)   $$ $$ $$   $$$   W $ $ $   C $ $ $   A $ $ $   2 $ $ $   £  $4 $ $ $ £ £ $ $ $ £ " $ $ $ £  $ $ $ £ C $ $ $ 2 ¡  $£ $$ $$ $$ ¡ " $ $ $ ¡ $$$ ¡ C $ $ $ ¡  $2 $ $ $ "! $ $ $ $ W $ $ $ $ C $ $ $ $ A $ $ $ $ 2 $ $ $ $   4$  $ $ $ $ ¡ "   R $  4 ¡I¡ C £ 4 $  4 £ CE2 ¡ $  4 £   CEW $ 4   4 "   $  4   2aA   $  4   4E4¢A $ 4 £ £ £ " $  4 £ " AD2 $ 4 ¡ $ 2 ¡ $  4 ¡¢A " A $  4 " ¡E2¢A $ 4 " 4 £ W $  4EW " ¡EW $  4EWH2E4¢A $  4IC ¡ ¡EW $  4ICIC ¡ $ $  4ICI4 " £ $  4¢A £   " $  4I2   2 ¡ $  4I2¢A   " $  4I4 $ $" $  4I4 ¡ ¡¢AA $  4I4 " " $ $  4I4EWEWH4 R ¡EW  ¡ £ AH"W ¡IC  I ¡4¡ ¡¢A  ¡$ $ WH £ 4£ ¡I2  4 A I ¡4 "¡I2    AI     AIA " £ " E ¡ I 4 " ¡  £ W " C2 " ¡  AD4 $ 2 "$"  "$"  "   C£ 4   "     A    CE     A  $ W     4W     £ 4  2 ¡ ¡    £ £  CaAHW £  4¢$A ¡E £ W   C "2 £  2$  CI2   ¡ £  2   ¡¢A ¡ "  $WH2aAH"W ¡ A¡ C  "I C C£ £ 4£  £A ™  ¥¢ £     C C )¤ £¢   CE4 C A a CEC C¢W C¢"W  ¡IC " ¡  A $ £ ¡W  C¢AHC£  WH AD4¢A C  4ICICE CE2 $   4$ "  AHW ¡ £ " " C "  C $ C¢"W C " C A " C "  CI"$ 4 "¡ C  2$ ¡ C¢W  £ ¡I4E $4 C¢W  " ¡ " "4 C¢W    C¢W  WEAD2aA C¢W  AH$WH4 ¡ C¢W  4$#" 2a"A CEC  C   CEC  WHC¢ $ £A $ CEC  4 CaA  £     4E $C CaA  W ¡ CaA  "$ ¡I"C¢A ¡  4 CaA It must be noted that the calculations are for ideal gas model. This shock referred to as the detach shock. 23 The effect of the equation of state on the maximum and other parameters at this state is unknown at this moment and there are more works underway.9 Detached shock When the mathematical quantity ¥ becomes positive. the only possible reaction is by a normal shock which occurs at some distance from the body. The detach shock 22 Henderson and Menikoff ”Triple Shock Entropy Theorem” Journal of Fluid Mechanics 366 (1998) pp. 13. 179–210.226 CHAPTER 13. OBLIQUE-SHOCK Table 13.

#¤ ) detachment distance body thickness constant #) ¤   sh o #¤ B )) ck (13.12: The schematic for round tip bullet in C the flow must be supersonic (The a supersonic flow weak oblique shock is predicted for flow around cone. Yet. Nevertheless.10 Issues related to the Maximum Deflection Angle The issue of maximum deflection has practical application aside to the obvious configuration shown as a typical simple example. the gas must go through a shock.13. it can be explained as the subsonic is “sucked” into gas in zone C. In such case. If the deflection angle exceeds 24 See example 13. Figure 13. The flow in zone A has to go thorough some acceleration to became supersonic flow. Thus. these calculations can be summarized in the flowing equation w ea k B where   is a function of the upstream Mach number which tabulated in the literature. which this author isn’t aware of. or alternatively the flow becomes “blinder” to obstacles. Larger shock results in smaller detachment distance.4. SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE 227 distance from the body is a complex analysis and should be left to graduate class and for researchers in the area.). The distance of the de ¢¡¤£ tachment determined to a large de#%$ & ' ( ) 01$ 2 &©#%3 4 & ' 2 ( $ 5 6 7 4 8 0101$ & 7 3 ( ' 9 @ 6 A 8 4 gree the resistance to the body.53) To insert the table for the constants and functions 13.12 exhibits a bulzone B Subsonic Area θ let with a round tip which the shock zone A Normal Shock is detach. Regardless the explanation. this phenomenon has a larger impact for relatively smaller supersonic flow. Analysis of the detached shock can be carried out by looking at a body with a round section moving in a supper sonic flow (the absolute ve¥ ¦M §©¨  >   1    ¨  Strong Shock   ¨"! locity isn’t important for this discusUpstream U∞ sion). 13. . The constant and the function are different for different geometries. In the typical example a wedge or cone moves into a still medium or gas flow into it. The explanation to such phenomenon is above the level of this book (where is the “throat” area question24 . While at at zone Fig. a graph and general explanation to engineers is provided. Even though there are very limited applications to this topic some might be raised in certain situations. As general rule the increase in the upstream Mach results in decrease of the detachment.5. The zone A is zone where the flow must be subsonic because at the body the velocity must be zero (the no slip condition).4.

it can be observed that Fig.13). The Mach number deMach angle (weak shock only) creases after every shock. at least two oblique shocks occur and after their interaction is shown in Figure (13. the second oblique shock complicates the situation and the second oblique shock can cause detached shock. for example. The analysis of this situation log(%)10 2 3547698A@7(!BDC!8 ically is very simple yet the matheδ1 θ1 matics is somewhat complicated.31) equation. hence situation causes the detach shock to appear in the second oblique shock. the configuration that detached shock occurs in many design configurations and the engineers need to take it into considerations. This situation known in the scientific literature as the Mach reflection.54) Additionally. However. ) © utilizing (13. (b) Calculate the maximum deflection angle. a symmetrical suction section in which the deflection angle is just between the maximum deflection angle and above the half of the maximum deflection angle. 13. No detached shock issues are raised when only the first oblique shock is considered. In this situation. Such configurations seem sometimes at the first glance not related to the detached shock issue. the maximum deflection angle decreases with decrease of the Mach number. OBLIQUE-SHOCK the maximum possible a detached shock is occurs.14: The “detached” shock in complicated configuration some times referred as Mach reflection . as before. Consider. A© utilizing equation (13.228 CHAPTER 13. It can be observed that the  ¢¡¤£ ¥ ¦¨§¤©¤ ¨¢ maximum of the oblique shock for δ1 θ1 Ideal gas model depends only on upstream Mach number i. However. this angle can be guessed to be parallel to original flow. only function of the upU B C stream Mach number. Additionally due to the symmetry a slip plane © . (c) Calculate the deflection angle. The maximum deflection angle in this case is. This detached shock manifested itself in form of curved shock (see Figure 13.14). Therefore.12) ™ Fig. It seems to this author that most straight way is by the following procedure: ¤ '© ¤ ' ™' ™ (a) Let calculation carried for ¤ '¡ . 13. Thus.e. The calculations of such case can be carried by several A sub sonic flow approaches.13: The schematic for symmetrical suction for non maximum oblique shock that section with Mach reflection for a constant deflection angle decrease of'&Mach number results in increase of © ) ¦ ) © . for evU B  ery upstream Mach number there C θ2 Slip Plane is only one maximum deflection anA δ2 gle. ™ !#"%$   #¤ ' ) (13.

3: A cone shown in the Figure 13.13. For engineering purpose when seldom Mach number reaching this value it can be ignored. The wedge angel that satisfy this requirement by equation (13.2: Air flows at Mach number ( ) or $ is approaching a wedge. POTTO–GDC can be 229 used to calculate this ratio. ¤ ' ¤ '  13.11 Examples Example 13. $ ¤ ' ¤ " S OLUTION The find maximum wedge angle for ( $ ) ¥ has to be equal to zero.15 exposed to supersonic flow and create an oblique shock. This procedure can be extended to calculated the maximum incoming Mach number.   "! " ¡ ¡ $ $ .4. (d) Use the deflection angle. ™ © ™ Note that no maximum angle is achieved in this shock.28) is the solution (a side to the case proximity of ). With given two angle the solution can be obtained utilizing equation (13. In general   this zone is larger with Mach number. Is the shock shown in the photo is weak or strong shock? explain. Using the geometry provided in the photo predict at which of the Mach number the photo was taken based on the assumption that the cone is a wedge. for example at Mach 5 the this zone is 2 W . by check the relationship between the intermediate Mach number to . In discussing these issues one must be aware that there zone of dual solution in which sharp shock line co–exist with curved line. S OLUTION     The measurement shows that cone angle is and shock angle is 4E4 . What is the maximum wedge angle which the oblique shock can occur? If the wedge angle is £   calculated the weak and the strong Mach numbers and what are the respective shock angle.48) or the Potto-GDC. SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE ' and Mach number ¤ ' ¡ to calculate ¤ ' ¡ . The maximum values are: " $ R ™ $   ¤ " $$$ $! " 2EW £ ¡ ¡¡  R $  4¢A ¡ £ ¡ " R R ¡E2 ) ™    ¥¢ AEA E2 ¡   CIC )¤ £¢   A  $#"¨$ To obtain the results of the weak and the strong solutions either utilize the equation (13.4.28) or the GDC which yields the following results " $ R $$$   £  WICI2EC ¡¡¢   " C E ¡W ) ™" $ $! WI $ $  CICIC ¡ 4 A ¢ Example 13.

In such case there is just below less entropy production (less pressure loss. See for details in Henderson and Menikoff ”Triple Shock Entropy Theorem.2. 179–210.15: Oblique shock occurs around a cone. To illustrate the design significance of the oblique shock the following example is provided. 354 ¥§¦©¨   ¦ !©"§# $ %&§')( 0§!1 2( 687 98@ Clearly with a proper design. This photo is courtesy of Dr.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics 366 (1998) pp. It is suggested that series of weak shocks should replace one normal shock to increase the efficiency (see Figure 13.4.17: Two variations of inlet suction for fact. there is a general proof that regardless to the equationsupersonic of state (anyflow kind of gas) the entropy is be minimized through a series of oblique shocks rather than a single normal shock.230 CHAPTER 13.). 25 In .17)25 . § ¡ £ ¡ R¤£ ¡   ! $    2 WICEW " ¡ £ R R " W ¡ ¢ £ £ A   $   " ¡ ¡ $ $ ) )   ™ $ $ $  UU VV ¢¤ ! "  " $   ¡ 2I2aA ¡aA 4I4 ¢ Because the flow is around Cone it must be a weak shock. Note that Mach number is larger than the predicted by the wedge. the flow can be brought to a subsonic flow . 13. Even if the cone was a wedge. ¤   Fig.12 Application of oblique shock One of the practical application of the oblique shock is the design of inlet suction for supersonic flow. $ 13. the shock will be weak because the maximum (transition to a strong   shock) occurs at about C . Grigory Toker a Research Professor at Cuernavaco University at Mexico. According to  ¢¡ his measurement the cone half angle is and the Mach number is 2. 13. OBLIQUE-SHOCK θ δ Fig.

$   D $ R $ %   ¤ S OLUTION The first configuration is of a normal shock. In the past the input file was given but the graphical interface it is no longer needed.5 10 0 0 2. no input explanation is given.0 Mx Thu Jun 30 15:14:53 2005 My θ δ Fig.4: Mx The Section described in Figure ¢13.18 air is flowing into a suction section at ¡ £ . Compare the different conditions in the two ¡  9 ¤ .5 40 1 30 20 0.0 6.0 9. and A different configurations. 13.0 3. .4.0 10. ¨ . For which the results26 are £ $$$   ¢ S ¤ $! W¢AI¡ A ¡¢W    CES¥ 2¢AIW R R £ T¤ T¢ CICEC¢A "  WU $ ¤ $ U ¢ $ $  UU A VV£ ¢¤ $ 2¢A U V ¢ U V ¤ "$" 4E4 W In the oblique shock the first angle shown is £ $ R $ $ $ $  WH2E4¢A "    A "¡ 4E¢ 2   ¡   R 2EW A ) $£    ¡IC  £ ) $ 4I2 ¢ A $ ™$ $ $ $  and the additional information by the minimal info in Potto-GDC 26 The results in this example are obtained using the graphical interface of POTTO–GDC thus.5 70 2 60 50 1.0 4. SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE 231 k=14 Oblique Shock 3 90 80 2.0 8.13.16: Maximum values of the properties in oblique shock 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Example 13. Assume that only weak shock occurs.0 7.0 5.

OBLIQUE-SHOCK 354  ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§¤©¡ 1 neglect the detached distance 7◦  ¢! " #%$¢&('0)¢12 ' 2 3 4 Normal shock 687 7◦ Fig. 13. In fact. . the ¨   ¨     '   loss in the normal shock is 31% larger for the total pressure. In such case.18: Schematic for example 13.4 £ $ R $ $ $    A "¡ 4E¢ 2     4E2 R R ¡IC  £ R ) $ 4I2 ¢ A $     ™$ $ $      £ U " ¤ 2¢W U ¢ U©V ¢ $  V ¤ "$"     U© 4I4 W   S 4 ¤ ¡ S£¢ ¤ $ In the new region new angle is A A 4E2 results in    " A with new upstream Mach number of       R A " A " R R $! A   AHC      £ ¡ " C ¡   ¡ ¢ ADC  4I2 ¡ $ A )     W      T¢  WEW " 4 ) ¢   "! $ C ™$ $ $ $  S ¢ U V¢ U V ¤ £ 4IC¢W " And the additional information is   4E2   $ 2E2 "    2¢AEA $ W ¡ ¢ R ) ¢ ™$ $ $  £U C ¤ £ U ¢        S¥2E¤ W ¡ U ¢ $  UU 4IVV4¢¢¤ W " 4 V ¢ $  U© U©V ¤ $ 4I2E4 ¡ A oblique shock is not possible and normal shock occurs. the results are: £ ¡ " C   ¢ S "¤ $  2 £ ¡   "       S£ 4¢A ¨   ¨   ¨   ©   ¨   ¨   © ¨     R  "¨T $ ¤   2  CU   ¤   C With two weak shock waves and a normal shock the total pressure loss is F ' &$! 4E2I4 $ ¡5 $  4IC¢W £ " $  4I4 " " W &$! 4 " 4IC F The static pressure ratio for the second case is ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ © F    C     C"    £ C £ C"    £ 2EW £  C   " A ¨ ' ¨ ¨ © ¨ ' F The loss in this case is much less than in direct normal shock.232 CHAPTER 13.

20: Schematic of two angles turn with two weak shocks all the shocks are weak and straight. explain why this description has internal conflict. A∗ My s My w 233 10◦  $ Fig.4.19: Schematic for example 13.6: % %'& ¢   " 4   "!  U £ ¤ W $ U ¢ $ V ¢ $  U U £ V ¤£   4EW yields U ! 2E U©V CI4ICEC %   %)( (  X £ WEUU© "V A Thus the area ratio has to be 1.4458. Then.13.19). shock E or expension Adopted this description wave M 2 and assumed that turn of 1   0 of two equal C is made out C   A angles of (see Figure 13. 13. The half wedge   angle is . 4 Slip Plane The effects of double P3 = P 4 B wedge were explained in 3 government web site as weak weak oblique oblique shock shown in figure 13. Find the required angle of shock BE. SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE Example 13. Assume that there are no boundary layers and Fig. Note that the pressure after the weak shock is irrelevant to area ratio between the normal shock to the “throat” according to the standard nozzle analysis.5 (see Figure 13.5: A supersonic flow approaching a very long two dimensional bland wedge body and creates a detached shock at Mach 3. 13. What is the requited “throat” area ratio to achieve acceleration from subsonic region to supersonic region assuming one-dimensional flow. The condition for this shock are: .20. Carry the calculation for .20). 1 D ¡ ¤ ' ¡ $ S OLUTION   The shock BD is an oblique shock which response to total turn of C .5 S OLUTION The detach shock is a normal shock and the results are ¡ W R R $$$   $! " W ¡     W S R S ¤ ¡ ¡   W S¥¢   "  £ T C¤ $ T¢ Now utilizing the isentropic relationship for $  " W     W $! 4ES C V $ 2E4 $  4 T $ V W $ C    "$" WH2 T Example 13.

the pressure at 4 has to be ¨   ¨   ' ¨ ¨     ¨   ¨       $  $#" £ 4 $ $  4I4   $ W &$! $$" £ W   C $#" W   $$ &$ $ (13. check whether the pressure at 2 is above or below or above the pressure (ratio) in zone 4.  4I4aAIA ¡ £ 2 ¡  #" £ C ¡ ! $" £ " ¡ICaAD2I4 ¨ © ¨   © ¨ © ¨   © ¨    ¨  © £ £ ¦ ¦ £   a weak shock must occur to increase the static pressure (see £ Since   Figure 5. To that. OBLIQUE-SHOCK ¡ $ ¡ $ £ R R $ " 2 $   ¡ $$$ !   ¡   £ R R A R $¡ $ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 2¢A  2I2 4 "  2I4 )   )   $A £   ADC ¡  4 ¡EWIC C ) ¢ $ ™ $ $ $ $  ¢¤ $   U V U V 4I4 W The transition for shock AB is $ $ $ $! " ADC "     ¡   £ R 2 " R £ ) 2I2 £   $  WI4I4 A ) ¢ ) ¢ ¡ $ ™$ $ $ $  U V¢ U V ¤ 4I4E2¢AH4 For the Shock BC the results are: 2 " A # $" R R   2 £ $! " 2IC   $ ¡   £ S  "S V R A $ $" ¡ ¢ 4 And the isentropic relationship for ¤ T 2I2 V¢ ™ $ $ $ $  U© $ $  $ U©V ¤ "   2 4I4E2I4 ¡ £  $#" £  $ $ A 4¦ A 2 are £ £ £ £ £ A $ $ 42 ¨  © ¨    $ $ WH4IC ! $  T $V $ $ $  " $ CICI4 $!    $ WW " 2 ¨  © ¨   ¨   ¨    ¡    4¢AH"2 ¡   2EW % % & $$ ( U $  X U©V £ C ¡ $  $#" £ C4 ¡$ $     ¡E ¡ECIC¢W U # "V£ U© % %)( The combined shocks AB and BC provides the base to calculation of the total pressure ratio at zone 3. the angle for BE shock which cause this pressure ratio needed to be found. The total pressure ratio at zone 2 is ' ' $  4I4E2I4 " $  4I4I2aAD4 &$! 4E4¢AIA ¡   £ 2 ¡ ' (13.56) The static pressure at zone 4 and zone 3 have to match according to the government suggestion hence. The increase has to be §§ $  ¨ To achieve this kind of pressure ratio perpendicular component has to be F ¤ ¨ © $  $#" £ W   C $#" W ¤ $  $#" £ " ¡ICEAH2H4    $ $   2IC¢AEA " ¡ .234 CHAPTER 13.55) On the other hand.4).

The flow in zone 3 will flow £   into the wall in about A . .15) and (13. $ R $! 4E4I¡ 4 £ $    $ SS $ ¢¤ $ W   ) can be calculated from R  $ T $¤   ¡ T¢    $U $ ¤   4 U ¢     $$$$ U V ¢ V ¤ U$ ) ¡¢ 0 £ '    $ $ $ 2 ¤ £  A $$" 4 £    A   W ¡ £ $ 2aAD4 R The deflection angle for such shock angle with Mach number is £ A $ $"   4 R $  " 4¢W £ W ¡   £ R A $ a ¡A ¡ ¢ $! $ )   £   A ) £ ¢ $  $ ™ £ C £ ¡ ¡    UU $ VV$ ¢¤$ $ $ For the last calculation is clear that the government proposed schematic of the double wedge is conflict with boundary condition.  Example 13. and 9  A@ . In reality the flow of double wedge produce curved shock surfaces with several zones. the Upstream Mach number.    $$ C   R ¢ S ¤" $! CECE¡ W " W    ¡ES¥ 4 4 R T "¤ £ # $ T ¢ 2EW 2¢WEAHW V ¢ $  U UV ¤ " 2E4   W .7: Calculate the flow deflection angle and other parameters ¤ downstream when Mach   £   ¡ angle of ¤ and ¨ . Yet. Only far away for the double wedge the flow behaves   as only angle exist of C .4.1) or GDC the following can be obtained. £  2E2 ¡¢ 0 # ¡ "! $ )    C   £ U ¤ U ¢ ¤ ' $   W  AD™ 2 ¢ $  UU 2EVV4 ¢¤   £ A From the Table (5.13) or simply converting the to perpendicular component. SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE 235   $$2   The shock angle.13. Assume  ¡  ¤ A £ 4 £ ¡ 2¢A  8  ¡" ' ¡ D %' ¡" 4 '  $$$ # 6 ¢   " S OLUTION   The angle of Mach angle of while below maximum deflection means that the it is a weak shock. has to be determined ¤ ' ¤ ' ¢4 4 ' %  "   £ $ $ $ $ $   2aA6¢¡  ¡   R £  2E2 With this Mach number and the Mach deflection either using the Table or the figure or POTTO-GDC results in £  2I2 R   $ $ $  " 2 £ CI4 £    £¡¡2 ¢ $ $! $ ) ¤ ' ¤ '¢ 0) ¡¢ ¢ R   ¡ " $ ) The relationship for the temperature and pressure can be obtained by using equation (13.

236 CHAPTER 13.5 and angle of £ W R $ $ $ $! W ¡ " ¡   £  # $ "¡ " ¢ ¡   ¡   R R      results in 2EW $ )   4E4EW ¡ 2   £ " £ ) ¢ ™$ $ $ $     $ U V¢ U V ¤ 4ICE2¢A ¡ Example 13.12) the deflection angle.5 and wedge with total angle of calculate the ratio of the stagnation pressure. Would it make any difference if the wedge was flowing into the air? if so what is the difference. For weak shock the maximum pressure ratio is obtained when at the deflection point because it is the closest to normal shock.5 Mach without any close boundaries. . The obtain the maximum point for 2.5 Mach number either use Maximum Deflection Mach number’s equation or POTTO–GDC £ W R $ $ $ $! 4¡ " $ £        ¥¢ R C "  AD2 )  ¥¢ £ £   £ 4  AD4¢A " ™ "! ¡¢ U ¤ WEA ¡ U ¢ S ¤ £ ¥ S ¢ CI2¢W " $  UU C VV$ ¢¤$ £ A In these calculation Maximum Deflection Mach’s equation was used to calculate Normal component of the upstream than¤ Mach angle was calculated using the ¡£¢ geometrical relationship of ) . is obtained.10: Consider the schematic shown in the following Figure.8: £ £   For Mach number 2. With these two quantities utilizing ¢ equation (13. 0£'¤ ' ¤ ' ™ Example 13. OBLIQUE-SHOCK The temperature ratio combined upstream temperature yield % ©    ¡E4 " 46£¡ $ $ ¨© £ £ ¢ "   2 W  D and the same for the pressure  2¢WEAIW5£¡   £ 2 2 W¢A¡  9 ¤  And the velocity 4 ¢ © ¤ P¡   ¢ 4 %    " £ 2¢A6 "   2 W 2¢A £  C¡ £ ¤ #@6¤ Example 13. S OLUTION It has to be recognized that without any other boundary condition the shock is weak shock. S OLUTION Utilizing GDC for Mach number 2.9: What the maximum pressure ratio that can be obtained on wedge when the gas is flowing in 2.

   W ™ S OLUTION This kind problem is essentially two wedges placed in a certain geometry. SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE 237 3 stream line 2 1 θ M1 = 4 δ Assume that upstream Mach number is 4 and the deflection angle is . It is clear that the flow must be parallel to the wall. Compute the pressure ratio and temperature ratio after the second shock (sometimes it referred as the reflective shock while the first shock is called as the incidental shock). " $ R $ $ $ $ " C   W £   ¡   £ R R 4 £ $ 4 ¡¡¢ 2EW  WI2EW )     £ A $ ) ¢ C 4 £ ™ $ $ $ $  $ ¢¤   ¡ W $ U V U V £ 2 I2 And the additional information is by using minimal information ratio button in POTTO–GDC " $ R $$$   £ R 4 £ ¡ ¢ With Mach number of 4 4 the second deflection angle is also W . the upstream Mach number is known with deflection angle. the following can be obtained. Utilizing the table or POTTO–GDC.13.4. For the first shock. ¤ $ 4 £ A $ ) £ ¢ C 4 £  W $ ™$ $ $   )  AD U ¤ 4E2EW U ¢    AS ¡ ¤ " " S¥¢ $  UU 2 VV$ ¢¤¡I2 £      £ £ 4 £ R R   $ $  W   ¡IC¢A 4 ¡     R £ £ £ R $¡ ¢ 2 2 "! £ $ 2 2   ¡  AD2 £ ) ¢ £ £ ™ $ $ $ $  $ ¢¤$#"     W $ U©V U V © 4 and the additional information is £ 4 £ $ 4 £ £ £ R $¡ ¢ 2 ¡  AH2 £ ) ¢ £ £  W $ ™$ $ $    CI U ¤ CE4EW U ¢   S ¤ "  WE ADC S¥¢ V ¢ $  U© U©V$ ¤ $#"   4 . with these values the following can be obtained.

Utilizing the POTTO–GDC provides a solution in just a few clicks. Again calculate the ratios downstream after the second shock and the deflection angle. Note that hand calculations requires endless time looking up graphical representation of the solution. S OLUTION Here the Mach number and the Mach angle are given. OBLIQUE-SHOCK With the combined tables the ratios can be easily calculated.85.238 CHAPTER 13.11: £   Similar example as before but here Mach angel is 4 and Mach number is 2. Example 13. With these pieces of information utilizing the GDC provides the following:  AD4E2EW6    CECI4EW   ¨ F% ¨ % © ¨ % F % F' % ©' % ©F    A ¡ " "    WEAHC " ¨ ¨ ¨ © ' ' ¡ $ $ £ C £ C ¡ £ £  2EW R R   $ $ $! " 2 " CI4 ¡   £ R R  ¡EW¢AHW $ ) ¢ ¡ ¢ $ $)   £ 4 $ ) $   $  W ™  ¢ V¢ $  U© U©V ¤ £ 4IC C ¡ and the additional information by utilizing the minimal info button in GDC provides following information ™  "¨UU $ ¢¤  SS¥¢¤ £ $  UU VV ¢¤ £ $ $ $ $    W   ¡     2E4   ¡¢WH2 4IC C ¡ 4   $  W   the so called reflective shock provide the With the deflection Angle of ™ £  2EW   $$ R £  ¡¢WEAIW ¡ ¢ £ £  ¡EWEAIW  ¡EWEAIW £ R R   $! W " 2E4 "    4 "¡  ¢ 4 ¡   2 R R " 4 E ¡ 4I2 ¡ "  $ ) )   ™ $ $ $  UU VV ¢¤ $ $    W   4¢AIWHCE4 WH4 ¢ and the additional information of      4 4 " ¨ ¨ R ¡ ¢ % 'F %F ' ¢ U©V ¢ ™ $ $  UU ¢¤ "  S£ S £¤ $ $  $  V ¤   W     ¡E4I2   ¡ CI2 U© WI4 4¢AIWHCE4  "¨$ 2I4"    ¡I4I2 " ¢    4¢A ¨ ' ¨ ©   ¨ © ¨ %' %©F   £   £ ¢   $£  % © % F ¡¢WH2 ¡ CI2 2 ¡ " $ ) ¢ .

Note the static pressure raised less the combination shocks compare the the normal shock but the total pressure has the opposite results. Example 13.12: Compare a direct normal shock to oblique shock with a normal shock. Where will be total pressure loss (entropy) larger? Assume that upstream Mach number is 5   and the first oblique shock has Mach angle of .13: A flow in tunnel end up with two deflection angles from both sides (see the following Figure). SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE 239 Example 13. %F' % ' %F %© ' ¨ © ¨ © ¨ ¨ ' % F© %F £ C ¢ ¡ AIW5   $! a ¡ A " ¢ £ A  ¡EC  £  " £  W     CE2EWI2 ¢ C AHW . What is the deflection angle in this case? ¡$ S OLUTION For the normal shock the results are W $ R R $$$   $! "   ¡ W £ ¡ W R R  2S $ ¤ $ S¥¢ $ W  $ T $¤ $ T¢ $ £ 4  $U $ ¤ $ U ¢ $ $  U U $ VVC ¢¤   A £ $  UU " VV4I¢¤4 $   While the results for the oblique shock are W $ $ $ $ $  "   W £ ¡ ¡  $ $ WI2 $! $   ¡   ¡ ¢ R )   ¡ $ $ $ ) ¢ £ $    ™A £ S ¤" S¥¢ And the additional information is W $ R $$$   ¡ $ R R $¡ WH¢ 2 ¡ $  $) $ $ $ £ $    ™ A ¡IC ¢ £ U ¤ U ¢ C aAHW ¡ U©V ¢ $  U© " V4I¤ 4 $   W     The normal shock that follows this oblique is ¡ $ R $ WH2   $! " A ¡ " 2¢W ¨ ¨ £ S ¤ S ¢ CE2EWI2 ¤ ¡  2IT C £ W T¢ $   ¡aUU A ¢¤ " $ V ¢ $  U UV£ ¤ ¡ CaA   The pressure ratios of the oblique shock with normal shock is the total shock in the second case.4.13.

W $ R $$$ ! $ " ¡ $   C ¡   ¡ 2 $$C ¡ ¢ ¢ 2IC 4     £ £   £ 2 " W ) ¢ ™ $ $ $ $  $ ¢¤ $ $   £ $ And the additional conditions are W $ R $$$   ¡ 2 R ¢ U©V ¢ S ¤£ $¡ $ ¢ C £    £) 2 " W   £  $ ™ $ $ $    CEUU 4I¢¤ C ¡    CES£ $  U©V$ ¤ $ $ C W 2 C .240 CHAPTER 13. Based on these calculations. OBLIQUE-SHOCK δ2 θ2 1 D 4 slip plane B 0 2 stream line A 3 C stream line φ F θ1 δ1 Illustration for example 13. S OLUTION The first two zones immediately after are computed using the same techniques that were developed and discussed earlier.       W $ R $$$ ! $  " ¡I4   "   ¡   R $" ¡ W $ £ R ¡ ¢ $ 2IC $ A I ¡4 )   £ " ¡ ) ¢ £ ™ $ $ $ $  ¢¤     ¡  A W $ U©V U V © CI4 A And the addition conditions are  A  W £ For the second direction is for   W $ R $$$     $ "¨$ ¡ W # ¡ ¢ R R " ¡ R ) £ ¢ $   ™$ $ $ )        4a U ¤ AD4 £ U ¢  4 S¥£ ¤ ¡I2 S ¢ $  UU CIVV4 ¢¤ ¡   A U©V U V © 2 C and Mach number =5.   For the first direction is for W and Mach number =5. explain whether the slip angle is larger or smaller the the difference of the deflection angle. calculate the the pressure at zones 3 and 4 based on the assumption that the slip plan is half of difference between the two deflection angles.13   £   For upstream Mach number of 5 and deflection angle of and W .

In this case. and they are the pressure and the velocity direction. Thus. for the analysis. it is assumed that the slip angle moves half of the angle to satisfy both of the deflection angles (first approximation). the pressure at zone 3 has to be reduced. It has to be noticed that the velocity magnitudes in zone 3 and 4 do not have to be equal. To reduce the pressure the angle of slip plane has to increase from W to a larger number.4. the slip angle has two extreme cases. The first case is where match lower deflection angle and second to match the higher deflection angle. This non continuous velocity profile can occurs in our model because it is assumed that fluid is non– viscous. For the two different deflection angles.13. It is to say.     . SOLUTION OF MACH ANGLE 241 The conditions in zone 4 and zone 3 have to have two things that are equal. If the two sides were equal because symmetry the slip angle was zero.8006 U V ¢ $  U V ¤"   A   A 2E2 4EC  And in zone 4 the conditions are due to deflection angle of   ¡ W and Mach $" ¡ W $   R $ R £  CI4E2IC ¡ ¢ £  CECICE2   ¡ W ™$ $ $    CU £ ¤ " S ¤  WH CEWIC S¥¢   ¡ 2 ¡ 2 R R $ $ C $  " C £ WH4   ¡   £ R R 4 $ ¢ ¡W ¡ ¢ 2EW 4 ¡ )  C £ C ¡ ) £ £ C ¢   ¡ W   ™ $ $ $ $  ¢¤   S¥¢ U©V U V © 2EC AH4 with the additional information $$C   £ R 4 $ E ¡W ¡ ¢ £ C ¡ ) ¢ £ £ C   ¡ W ™$ $ $    CE U ¤ W¢AIA U ¢  C S $ ¤ ¡E2 $  UU 2EVVC ¢¤   AH4 From these tables the pressure ratio at zone 3 and 4 can be calculated F ¨ ¨ ¨    C £ " A5    4aAD4         $ ¢      2   4 £ ¨ © ¨   ¨ '   F   CI4EC ¡   C ¡E2 ¨© ¨   ¨ ' ¨   To reduce the pressure ratio the deflection angle has to be reduced (remember that at weak weak shock almost no pressure change). Under this assumption the continuous     £   in zone 3 are solved by looking at deflection angle of W W which results in        ¡ $" ¡ W $   R $ $ " A "   ¡ ¡   £ R R  CE4I2EC ) ¢ ¡ ¢ 2EW  CE2 )    4 £ A  CICECI2 U ¢ ) ¢   ¡ W ™$ $ $ $  U©V ¢ U V ¤" © 2E2 E 4 C with the additional information 3. that only one deflection angle exist.

6 Appendix: Oblique Shock Stability Analysis Unstable Stable The stability analysis is an analysis which answer the question what happen if for some reasons. ¤ ' ™ ¤ ' ¤ ' ¤ © $ 13. When D is equal to zero. Under heavy construction please ignore The question raises what is the optimum design for inlet suction unit. For given and deflection angle. 13. When ¥ . The are researchers that suggest that the numerical work with possibility to work the abrupt solution. © could be larger or smaller then 1. When D is positive there no physical solution and only normal shock exist. the oblique shock the upstream Mach number. not as the normal shock downstream Mach number.14: The previous example give raise to another question the order of the deflection angles.13 Optimization of Suction Section Design is presentation of the experimental works is useful here? or present the numerical works? Perhaps to present the simplified model. OBLIQUE-SHOCK Example 13. and three the strong shock. If the answer turned out to be that Fig. 13. is always smaller than 1.242 CHAPTER 13. the situation moves away from the expected solution. The are several considerations that have to be taken into account aside to supersonic flow which include for example the material strength consideration and operation factors.21: Typical examples of of unstable and stable situations situation will return to its . if oblique shock with first   £   with angle of W and or opposite order make a difference ( W )? If not what order make bigger entropy production or pressure loss? (No general proof is needed). ¢ there could be three solutions: the first one is the “impossible” solution in case where D is negative two the weak shock. However. The perpendicular component of the downstream Mach number. there is possibility of no two-dimensional solution resulting in a detached shock case. is always greater than 1.5 Summary As normal shock. for large deflection angle. The optimum deflection angle is a function of the Mach number range in with suction section is operated in.     ¤ S OLUTION Waiting for the solution 13.4. a spacial case is created for the weak and strong solution are equal (for large deflection angle). Consider the same values as previous analysis.

On the other hand. An example to this situation.   ) ¢   ™ £     Equation (13. if the answer is negative. In fact. the analysis for the oblique shock wave is carried out.57) ™ $ ™ $ . Instinctively. Yet. is a ball shown in the Figure 13. There isn’t known experimental evidence showing that flow is unstable for . Of course. The change is determined from the solution provided before or from the approximation (13. the shock angle. The only difference is that here. Thus. the weak shock is stable. On the ∆δ + other hand.21. the stable and unstable can be recognized.6. deflection angle.57) can be applied either to positive. There is also the situation where the ball is between the stable and unstable situations when the ball is on plan field which referred as the neutrally stable. APPENDIX: OBLIQUE SHOCK STABILITY ANALYSIS 243 original state then it referred to as the stable situation.22: The schematic of stability analysis for oblique shock has to be opposite direction of the change of shock angle. In the same manner. for example.13. the shock wave is unstable according to this analysis to one direction but stable to the other direction.51). there are more than one parameter that can changed. This change complicates the explanation and omitted in this section. 13.     ¦ £ (13. The change in ∆θ + the inclination angel ∆θ − results in a different upstream Mach num∆δ − ber and a different pressure. The similar analysis can be applied to strong shock. The opposite when the deflection increment became negative the deflection angle becomes positive which increase the pressure at the wall. Yet. then the situation is referred to as unstable. ) or negative ) values. upstream Mach number. The pressure difference at the wall becomes negative increment which tends to pull the shock angle to opposite direction. to maintain same direction stream lines the virtual change in the deflection angle Fig. the discussion is more complicated but similar analysis can be applied to the strong shock. it must be point out that doesn’t mean that flow is unstable but rather that the model are incorrect. in that analysis it has to remember that when the flow became subsonic the equation change from hyperbolic to elliptic equation. Please note this analysis doesn’t applied to the case in the close proximity of the . In this example only the weak solution is explained. in the analysis the strong shock results in elliptic solution (or region) as oppose to hyperbolic in weak shock. As results.

OBLIQUE-SHOCK .244 CHAPTER 13.

the flow becomes complicate and flow separation occurs and no known simple model describes the situation. In somewhat similar concept to oblique shock there exist a “detachment” point above which this model breaks and another model have to be implemented.1) Fig. Yet.8)).2: The angles of the Mach line triangle 245 ma .1: The definition of the angle for Prandtl–Meyer function here without any jump in properties. for very small angles.2))   ¡£¢   0 £ ' 7 ¤  §   ¨ ©  B (14. the deflection angle is denoted as a positive when the it appears away from the flow (see the Figure (14. Yet. there is no limitation of the Prandtl-Meyer function to approach zero. The transition as opposite to the oblique shock is smooth Fig. Supersonic expansion and isentropic comU pression (Prandtl-Meyer function). when this model breaks. Here because the tradition.1 Introduction xi mu m an gl e As it was discussed in Chapter (13) when the deflection turns to the opposite direction of the flow and accelerated the flow to match the boundary condition. 14. because imperfections of the wall have to be assumed insignificant.  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ §¡  ¢ 4 ¢ © !&¤¤£ $¦¥ $'4 ! ¦ ¤ © ¨  positive angle 14. 14. Reviewing the Mach line shows that a disturbance in a field of supersonic flow moves in an angle of . is extension c of the Mach Line concept. As oppose to the oblique shock. which is defined as (see Figure (14.

This change results in a change of the flow properties and is assumed here to be isotropic for a positive angle.2 Geometrical Explanation x The change in the flow direction is results of the change in the tangential component. 14. DC . The velocity component at  ¤!¦"§$#&% ')(  "10#2¤ direction of the Mach line assumed to be constant to satisfy the assumption that the change is results of the contour only. The reasons that “negative” angle is not applicable is because coalescing of small Mach wave results in a shock wave.3: The schematic of the turning this assumption will be examined. no shock is created for many small positive angles. The reason that Mach line is the chief line in the analysis because this line is the line on which the information of the shape of contour of the wall propagates. the Mach angle results is inA dy ¢¤dν £¦¥§¢   crease and a change in the direction of the flow appears.246 or   CHAPTER 14.3)) "¤ "4 010 "C 4 9 D "B   Also in the same manner the velocity in perpendicular to the flow.2) A Mach line results of a small disturbance of the wall contour is discussed here. This Mach line is assumed to be results of positive angle. This assumption turned out to be not far way from realty. 14.3) # 4 " 4 ) 0 # "¦B ) 4 ¦ " E C "B ¤ ¤ 0 0 1 The is the ratio of D " C " (see Figure (14. However.  dx = dU cos(90 − µ) ¨© ¦§ Hence. the contour is changed the direction of the flow changes to fit the wall. Later.4) (14. Once. is direction ( ¦B "   0 # "9B ) ¦B ¢ " #9 "B) ¢   ¦ ¡¢ ¤¦¥§¡ Ma ch li ne (14. is ¡£¢ " ¤ #4 " 4 )   B ¤ 4 "4 "¤ " (14.6) . The typical simplifications for geometrical functions are used y ¤ ¥¨¡ These simplifications are the core why the change occurs only in the perpendicular ¦ ¦ ). Fig. the total Mach number increases. This flow change results in the change in the direction of the flow. PRANDTL-MEYER FUNCTION 01 £ 0 ' ¤  '  ¤   (14. In this chapter a discussion on the relationship between the flow properties and the flow direction is presented.5)     (14. The change of the velocity in the flow direction. 3 ) 4 7 5 9 6  8 @ ¡ Therefore.

It must be recognized that here the cylindrical coordinates are advantageous because the flow turned around a Fig. In this secθ tion more rigorous explanation is provided. description For this coordinate system.6) and (14.2. 14.12) .10) The momentum equations are expressed as   4 ¡ 4¤£   ¢ 4 ¡ 4¥£ © 4¢¡   ¢   ¤   )      3     ¨  ¤ ¤ 63 ©   3      4 £ 4¥£   ¤ 4 £ 4¤£(4¢¡ 4¢¡   ¥   ¤   )   3    ¨ ) 6 3©      3 ) (14.1 Alternative Approach to Governing equations In the previous secback tion. the mass conservation can be written as   #    4¢¡ )  3     #   4¤£ ) &$ ) ¤ ¤  3 (14.8) After integration of the equation (14.8) results in ¢   01 0 £ ' 3 ¢ ¤   #¤ ¢¤   ¢   © ¤  ) 01 £ ' § 0 #¤ © ¤   ) 96 8A@ C# BED @ B   The constant can be chosen in a such a way that B &$ at ¤  .7) Combining equation (14. GEOMETRICAL EXPLANATION The ratio "4 4 ¤ 247 was shown to be "4 4 ¤ ¨ © £ " £ ¤ ©   ©'¤ ¢   © ¥ (14.9) 14.4: The schematic of the coordinate for the mathematical single point.14. a simplified verMach r Ur line sion was derived based Front on geometrical arguMach U line θ ments. (14.7) transform to "¦B ¤ B # ) ¤ 3     ¤ £ ¤ © ¤ © ¢  ¤      £©" ¤' ¤ © © ¥ ¤   (14.2.11) (14.

One has to remember that when  enter to the function. PRANDTL-MEYER FUNCTION If it is assumed that the flow isn’t a function of the radios.  .16) results in 4 6© 4¡ ¢ £ 7     (14.14) The momentum equations are obtained the form of 4 £     4 ¡ ¤ 4 £ © &$    )  4 ¢ ¡ 4¤£ 7   ) ¤ ¥ 4 £ B &$ ¤ ¤ Substituting the term T '   4£¤ ¤ 4 £(4¢¡ 4¥£     ¤  )   4£¤ 4¡ 4 £ 7  ¤ ) B   6 3©     3 3 ) 6©     3 (14.17) or 4 £© 7 4 ¡     4¤£   ) B 4£ &6 © 7 4 ¡     ¥ ) B   (14.19) it follows that 4¤£ &6 (14.20) It is remarkable that tangential velocity at every turn is the speed of sound! It must be point out that the total velocity isn’t at the speed of sound but only the tangential .248 CHAPTER 14. like the first term in mass equation.14) into equation (14.13) transforms into ¤ 4£   7 4¢¡     ¤ 4£ ) B   3    3   ) (14.18) And additional rearrangement results in ¢6© ¤ 4 £©¥ 7 4 ¡   4¥£   ) B 7$ (14. the derivative isn’t zero. Hence.15) )   4 £   ) B (14.13) After rearrangement equation (14. then all the derivatives with respect to radios vanish.16)   4 £ 4¥£ 7   ) ¤ 4¢¡ B T£ from equation (14. the mass equation reduced to 3 4 ¡     #   4¤£ ) 7$ ) 3 (14.19) From equation (14.

The solution of the differential equation (14. GEOMETRICAL EXPLANATION 249 component.25) Utilizing equation (14.23)  (14.2. The energy equation for any point on stream line is   #) ) 4   £©   £ 4 ¡©     For enthalpy in ideal gas with a constant specific heat.3) under ¡  is equal to speed of sound.27) becomes   Note. these results associated with line of characteristic line1 . the dimensionlization can be applied at this stage as well. After some additional rearrangement equation (14.24)  §¦ (14.28) topic is under construction.26) ©   £   ¦ (14. . (equation (14. .15) becomes 4 ¤ If  isn’t approaching infinity. However.22) In the literature. based on definition of the Mach angle.25) into ¢ ¦©¨ ¥ © £ After some rearrangement equation (14. This analysis can be also applied to the same equation when they normalized by Mach number.23) results © © ¢¤   4£ £ 4¡     6© " ¢ 4 % 6© ¡   ¥ " ¢¤   #¢ ¤   ) ¤ ¦¨§©¨ ¦  £ £  §© § ¢ (14. .22) transformed equation (14. ¡ must be positive. the component shown in Figure (14.27) incorporating the constant into it becomes 4 ¢    ¤ ¢ ¤   7  4) ¡ B §   ¦ £ § ¢¤         ¢ ¦©¨ ¥ © £       £ 4¤¡ © 4 ¡©  §¦ (14. In fact. ' 4   4 ¡ 4¤£ 7    ) ¤ B and since 4¥£ ©   4¤¡ 4£   ) £ 7$ $ leads to   (14.24)) into equation (14.21) (14.27) 4¢¡ 1 This ¡£¢ 0  ) 3 ¢¤   ¢     (14.14.20) for the speed of sound and substituting the radial velocity equation (14. is   # ) ) "¡¢ % ¢"¡¢ 44 % and substituting this equality.

28) results for the Mach number ¤ © ¢   ¢ ¤    0 1 0 ©      ) 3 ¢¤   ¢   4¥¡ 7 ¤£ B and 4¢¡ 4 © (14.35) These relationship are plotted in Figure (14.32) What happened when the upstream Mach number is not 1? That is when initial condition for the turning angle doesn’t start with but at already at different angle.2 Comparison Between The Two Approaches. PRANDTL-MEYER FUNCTION   which satisfied equation (14.29)    ¥ ¤   ¤ (14.250 CHAPTER 14. The tangential velocity ¢¤  § £ ¦  3 ¢ ¤   ) ¢   (14. ¡£¢ " ¡ ¢ ¡ © .33) ) #¤ ) 3     ¢   ¢ ¤ ¤ )    010 £ ' #¤ ¡£¢ " ¡ ¢¡¢ 3 © ¢¤  § ¤ ¢     ) © ¤   0£'§ ¤ © ¤   (14. And Limitations The two models produce the exact the same results but the assumptions that construction of the models are different.2)) 021 0 B © ¤ ¡£¢ " The deflection angle B .27) (because ¡£¢ stant in equation (14. 14.29) ¢    ¤¦¥§¡   ¤¦¥§¡     The Mach number in the turning area is ¤ © 4¥£ © 6 © 4¢¡ © 4¤£ © © ¢ 4 ¡©   4£       Now utilizing the expression that were obtained for and (14. In the geometrical model the assumption was .30) 4¥£ equations (14.34) (14. ¢ For this upstream Mach number (see Figure (14.31) or the reverse function for ) is ) 3 ¢   021 0 £ ' ¢¤      3 ¢ ¤   ¢¤ ¢     © ¤ (14.2. has to match to definition of the angle that chosen here () when ) so &$ B #¤ ) ¤ ¡ ¢¡¢ © © ¤   ¤ 01 (14. The upstream Mach number denoted in this segment as.28) is chosen such that ¤¡ obtains the form 4¥£ &6   4¤¡   ) 3 0 © ) 7$ © ) $   ). The arbitrary con4 # ) ) .6).

but increase of the Mach number can result in a very significant radial velocity. While the rigorous model the assumption was that radial velocity is only function of ) . In fact. the question of boundary layer arises. Whence. the radial velocity is small .36) The maximum of the deflection point and and maximum turning point are only function of the specific heat ratios.14. mass balance maintained by reduction of the density. the statement for the construction of the geometrical can be improved by assuming that the frame of reference moving in a constant velocity radially.3 The Maximum Turning Angle 3 The maximum turning angle is obtained when the starting Mach number is one and end Mach number approach infinity. Regardless.37) .5) i 14. $ 6 8A@ C# BED @ B 4 # 7$ ) 9 #   )     14. Normally. Aside to close proximity to turning point. The radial velocity is “fed” through the reduction of the density. how the gas is accelerated to above the speed of sound where there is no nozzle (where is the nozzle?)? These questions have engineering interest but are beyond the scope of this book (at least at this stage). the fact remains that that there is a radial velocity at ¥¡  .4 The Working Equations For Prandtl-Meyer Function B © ¤ B The change in deflection angle is calculated by ' B #¤ ( © ) ¤ B #¤ ' ) (14. However.3. In this case. analysis of design commonly used in the industry and even questions posted for students shows that many assumed that the turning point can be sharp. THE MAXIMUM TURNING ANGLE 251 that the velocity in the radial direction is zero. At this point ( ) these models falls to satisfy the boundary conditions and something else happen there. On top the complication of the turning point. What happen when the deflection angel exceeds the maximum angle? The flow in this case behaves as if there almost maximum angle and in that region beyond will became vortex street see Figure (14. Prandtl–Meyer function became ¡ B B £ £ ¢   ¢ ¤   ¤  ¤   (14. Thus. For example. the maximum turning angle is match larger than the maximum deflection point because the process is isentropic. some researchers recommend that in many instances. this author recommend to use this function every ever beyond 2-4 the thickness of the boundary layer based on the upstream length. At small Mach number. the sharp point should be replaced by a smother transition. to the assumption that were used in the construction of these models.

The relation between ¢ ¤ and ¢ is such that it depends on   the upstream Mach number.5 d’Alembert’s Paradox In ideal inviscid incompressible flow. The net force in flow personic d’Alembert’s Paradox direction. ¢ . Again it is assumed that the fluid is inFig. the pressure at zone 2 is larger than the pressure at zone 4.38) It can be noticed that only the area “seems” by the flow was used in expressing equation (14.38). and the specific heat. . PRANDTL-MEYER FUNCTION sl ip li ne Maximum turning Fig. This results 4 is known as d’Alembert’s Paradox and this paradox is w θ2 θ1 examined here. Thus. to equation ¤ ¢ of state of the gas. and the “visible” area of the object. is ¥ £ ¡  £¢¥¤ ¢ ¤ £ ¤ # )   ¦   §¢¨¤ ¤ ¢   # ) (14. Regardless. specific heat. θ2 θ1 Supposed that a two 4 dimensional diamond shape body is stationed in a su2 1 personic flow as shown in 3 Figure (14.252 CHAPTER 14. This drag known in the literature as (shock) wave drag.7: A simplified Diamond Shape to illustrate the Suviscid.7). 14. movement 3 of body doesn’t encoder 1 2 any resistance. . the drag.5: Expansion of Prandtl-Meyer function when it exceeds the maximum angle 14. ¤ ' ¢ ¤ ' ¢ . 14. there is always drag when the flow is supersonic which depends on the   upstream Mach number.

8: The definition of the angle for Prandtl–Meyer function here .6: Mach number as a function of 14. A body with zero thickness but with angle of attack will be examine. FLAT BODY WITH ANGLE OF ATTACK 253 Prandtl-Meyer Angle 100 80 k=1. Now. in addition to the drag.6 Flat Body with angle of Attack Previously the thickness of a body was shown to have drag. the slip condition is such that pressure in region 5 and 7 is the same in additional the direction of the velocity must be the same. Again. 14. 1 2 3 w 5 4 α Slip plane 7 6 Fig. As oppose the thickness of the body.14. As before the magnitude of the velocity will be different between the two regions. the body also obtains lift.6.4 60 θ 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mach Number 7 8 9 10 Fri Jul 8 15:39:06 2005 Fig. 14.

If the air flows in a imaginary 2-dimensional tunnel with width of 0.1 ¦ what will the width of this imaginary tunnel after the bend? Calculate the “fan” angle. 14. Calculate the pressure reduction ratio.254 CHAPTER 14.1 S OLUTION First the initial Mach number has to calculated (the initial speed of sound). Assume the specific heat ratio is $! $ $ 4 " $ #6 ¢   " ©£££!#" $&%('£)1032 PRQTSVUXW`Y¡a bdc GIH pRq e fhgFi 46587(9£@¡A BDCFE Fig. A ¡  £¢¥¤ £  ¡ flow of air with temperature of and speed of @ flows (see Figure 14.7 Examples Example 14. . ¢ r %     " ¢ ££s1t ¢ £#u ¡ D  The Mach number is then ¤ "1"   $     ¡   ¡ ¡   This Mach number associated with ¡ " ¡    ¢v¤ #xw 6    $$ ¡ … and results in y  "$" " u B $! ¡ $ ¡ $ € €‚ # … †…! " B ¤  t "$ " " s £ … ƒ ƒ $  " t# s £ £ „ u   „   £ # … "   ¡" The “new” angle should be "$" uˆ‡ £ $  "$" " .1:   £ A wall is include with inclination.9).9: The schematic of the Example 14. and Mach number after the bending ¢¨§ point. PRANDTL-MEYER FUNCTION 14.

due to Landau and friends. this time the pressure is given on both sides and angle is needed to be found3 . . There is very little with practical problems.2 ) .14. S OLUTION The Mach number is determined by satisfying the condition that the pressure down steam are Mach the given one.7. It isn’t present now because the low priority to this issue present for a text book on this subject. The expansion “fan” angle change in the Mach angle between the two sides of the bend fan angle ¡ " ‡ £ $ $ ¤   £ … ¡ $ s   Reverse example. 3 This example is for academic understanding. The relative pressure downstream can be calculated by the relationship ¢   ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦   £ ¢ ! $ ¡   " £ " $ £ …   u ' '   '   $$$ " y t t t £ B $ $   € €‚  ££ s" s $  … $  ¡ …   $! " t  $ t t ƒ „ ƒ „  #"  "1… £   ¡ 2 Not really different from this explanation but shown in more mathematical form. and the bend angle. It will be presented in the future version.2: … t Gas with flows over bend (see Figure 14. 3 $ " t s £ £ ¤ ¤ &$! £   ¢ $  £ £#u "$" ¢ … '¤ '¤ '6' 3 ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤6¤ 3 § Note that the compression “fan” stream lines are note and their function can be obtain either by numerical method of going over small angle increments. Example 14. The other alternative is using the exact solution2 . Compute the Mach number after the bend. EXAMPLES 255 £ Note that ¢ $ $ £ " ¦ y £ … ¢ ¦ ¤  " "$" u B ' $   € £  t ¡ " $ € ƒ ƒ   £ # " u1t $! £ £# u " " „ … „ ¡  "1…   £ $ ¢¨¤ ¢ ' ¢ ¦ ¢ ' ' ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢¥¤ $    £ t ¡ " 7$    t … … $  ¡  #… $ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¤ ¤ ' 3 ¤' ¤¤ ¤' ¡ %% ¤'  ¡   ¡ $  t " "$" s $    t#u ¢     ¦ £  $ $ £ " $   £ #" u¡t '& The “new” width can be calculated from the mass conservation equation.

The bend angle is ¤   " B   u  £      t   #" t u  u ¤ ¤ t t t £ $FE    "   "! " … £ ¡   $   ¢   "   14. Assume that specific heat ratio at stage is . calculate the drag coefficient and lift coefficient. PRANDTL-MEYER FUNCTION  ¢¡¤£¦¥ § 23¤4¦57698 @AB C &(' )10 ¨©¤   !#"%$ Fig. The Mach number after 1  t … the bend is . D   u $! £ …   u require either locking in the table or using the   ¢   y  "¡  t … u   t B $   $ $    s  "   u $  "$"  s ¡   € ! £ €‚…  u ƒ „   ƒ „  £     " t u   For the rest of the calculation the initial condition are used. 14. It should be noted that specific heat isn’t but … t . ¢   ¡ " S OLUTION For the following table can be obtained ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ y $$$ … £ ¡     ¡ B $! $   $ € €   … ‚ $ ¡ ƒ ƒ t  u¡t £ $  $ ¡ u …   „ t „ ¡   "    … .256 CHAPTER 14.8 Combination of The Oblique Shock and Isentropic Expansion Example 14.2 With this pressure ratio ¢ enclosed program.3.10: The reversed example schematic 14.3:   Consider two dimensional flat thin plate at angle of attack of and Mach number of 3.

. Question of optimum design what is left for the next versions.8. COMBINATION OF THE OBLIQUE SHOCK AND ISENTROPIC EXPANSION257 With the angle of attack the region 3 will at B table can be obtain (Potto-GDC) E … £ ¡   ‡ " for which the following ¡ " y u u … …£… ¡ B  $$ y $  $ €    $ u $ $  ¡    £ " s $! $ ¡  $ u ¡ € ƒ „ t s£s  u ƒ „ "  $1    ££s On the other side the oblique shock (assuming weak shock) results in ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ y y $ $ $ $  " ¡   ¡ " ¡    ¡   ¢     ¡   y ) ) $    ¡ ¡ ¡ "1… t   £ ¢ "! $  ¢ ™ $ $ $ $  €‚ €‚ u u ¤ … t … And the additional information by clicking on the minimal button provides $$$   ¢ F' ¢ ¡   ¢ y ¡ ¢     $ ¡ " … t   £ ) ¢ ™ " $ $ $ $     €   ¤   t € ¢      $£¤ … ƒ ¢ … ƒ  ¢ €‚ $  €‚ u u ¤ … t … The pressure ratio at point 3 is ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦' ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦' ¢ ' The pressure ratio at point 4 F F F $  $   $ u ¢   ¢ $  $     $£… 7 E $! t £ ¡ s   ¢ " ¢ "¥¤ ¢¢ '¤ ' # £ £ ¢¥¤ ¢ ¢ ¢4¤ ' ¤   ¢ ' ¤ ¢ F' ¢ 0 ¤ £¢   ¤ ¢ F)   ¤¦¥§¡  £ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¡   ' ¢  ' F'          t   ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡£¢  £ ¤ ¢ ¢ $ t £ ¡ s ) 0 #         t ¤ ! ¡¢ F'£¢ ¤¦¥¨¡    ¡ ¡ ¡ £ ¤ #         t ¤ $ t £ ¡ s ) "   E ¤ ¥¨¡ "   $ $ ¡ E $ #   " u This shows that on expense of small drag large lift can be obtained.14.

258 CHAPTER 14. PRANDTL-MEYER FUNCTION .

  ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ §¨§   # © $ ¢¥ ¥ 5 ©  ¢©$ ©  ¨ © ¨¨ ¤ 5 "  "& $  5  ¨ ¨¢! ¨  shock–expansion theory. linearized potential flow: thin airfoil theory. 2D method of characteristics 259 .

260 CHAPTER 15. TOPICS IN STEADY STATE TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOW .

The program has the base class of basic fluid mechanics and utilities functions to calculate certain properties given data. At this stage only the source code of the program is available no binary available. NO Support whatsoever will be provided for any Microsoft system. A. 261 . where it has to be in a L TEX format or not. Some parts of the code are in FORTRAN (old code especially for chapters 11 and 12 and not included here.1 . As much support as possible will be provided if it is in Linux systems. This program is complied under gnu g++ in /Gnu/Linux system.2 Usage To use the program some information has to be provided.1 About the Program The program is written in a C++ language. machV The Mach number and it is used in stagnation class fldV The   ¤ ¡£¢ and it is used in Fanno class isothermal class p2p1V The pressure ratio of the two sides of the tubes M1V Entrance Mach M1 to the tube Fanno and isothermal classes 1 when will be written in C++ will be add to this program. isothermal. The necessary input A parameter(s). In fact even PLEASE do not even try to use this program under any Microsoft window system. shock and others.¢ £ £ ¥   ¡ ¢¤£ ¢ 0 ¨ &  ¦%© $'4 ¢ 4©¨ 4 ¢& A. and in many case where it is a range of parameter(s). the kind of the information needed. This program was used to generate all the data in this book. The derived class are Fanno.

APPENDIX A. COMPUTER PROGRAM CompressibleFlow basic functions virtual functions Interpolation (root finding) LaTeX functions Representation functions pipe flow common functions only contain stagnation common functions discontinuity common functions real fluids P-M flow specific functions Fanno the actual functions Isothermal the actual functions Rayleigh the actual functions normal shock specific functions oblique shock specific functions 262 Fig. A.1: Schematic diagram that explains the structure of the program .

¤ ' and   ¤ ¡£¢ are given infoStagnation print standard (stagnation) info infoStandard standard info for (Fanno. ¤ $ The following lines have to be inserted  ¢¡¤£¥ §¦©¨¦   ¢¡¤£¥ §¦©!"#¡¤$%&¡'( )10 "2£435¡6¤'7¥ ¢¡6¤'§82£"¡91"2@¤9A I1§PQ B "2@4 #"#CED§2F"¢G4H I1RTSQUWVX ¦YU`G4"2a¤2¨"CED2Yb )10 "#£43¢¡16¤'Ycd §¦©!¤"¡¤$(ce 2¦©¨2Qc B "2@4 ©"CED§2F¤"fG4(c B "2@4 #"#CED§2P"1D#gEh  i1i1i1i1i§i1i1i1i1i§i1i1i1i1i2i1i1i2i1i§i1i2i1i1i2i1i§i1i§i§i1i2i1i§i1i§i§i1i2i1i1i§i ¨ 0 &6¤'¤D1D2' )  ¢¡¤$¦©£§g616p 2¦7£ 0 p¦#"fG4"¦%"C' B 1q#C¤D§' )  ©6&'gRg4¦T¦ 0 ' ) !¦fgED#£r¦ )  ¢£ 0 ¦ 0 ' )¤s 1"§9E¦tC§g¤££ 0   ¢¡6¤'2@©G4"2£4 #'#¡p §¦¦2£2g1u6¤'2@£ 0 D§"2£&£21£&u¤@'v¦1¦¤ 5¡¤$wU x 'g¥v"¡Tyg4¦f£¥v#"¡€v¢g¤£"¡9%u"¦©£¤ ¢£‚ 5¡T'#g¤@TD§"2£2R6r #D§QU x 'g7Gg4¦©£&g4¦#D2'¡¤$1£"#CED§R¦©£§D§&6r D§&"#¡99v'¤D#gG¡ ¦©£1D§%6E D§¦YU i1i1i1i1i§i1i1i1i1i§i1i1i1i1i2i1i1i2i1i§i1i2i1i1i2i1i§i1i§i§i1i2i1i§i1i§i§i1i2i1i1i§i ƒ  ¦ 2£D2'¡¤$1£"#CED§¦ ƒ C2$4 5¡E„1D§'¡1$1£"CED¤… „w†ˆ‡wU1U‰„r U’‘…“†ˆ‡wU1U”„ U’‘¤…w†`‡wU2U”„r•U’‘…w†`‡“U1UW„r–U’‘…“†ˆ‡QU1U”„E–U—‘…Q†ˆ‡wU§U‰„E U’‘¤…w†`‡“U1U‰„r•U’‘…“†’… ƒ v"u¤£r #'¡E„™˜1˜ ƒ D§"C1D1„1˜ed’£¤"Cfd”˜1…§… ƒ1ƒ .2.A. USAGE 263 M1ShockV Entrance Mach M1 when expected shock to the tube Fanno and isothermal classes FLDShockV FLD with shock in the in Fanno class M1fldV both   ¤ ¡£¢ ¤ ' and   are given £ £ ¤ MxV M1fldP2P1V three part info $ ¤ or § . etc) including infoShock print shock sides info infoTubeShock print tube info shock main info infoTubeProfile the Mach number and pressure ratio profiles infoTubeShockLimits print tube limits with shock A To get the shock results in L TEX of in the end of the main function. shock etc) infoTube print tube side info for (Fanno.

org.potto.3 Program listings Can be download from www. COMPUTER PROGRAM @§gED§£¢¥¤§VQU 2 5¡§¦„2VeU—u1£…2„§VQU©¨& 5¡E… ƒ G4"£ 0 C6„#I… G4"2£ 0 C¤6„‘¤6 ƒ ' B 2@‡… ¡ …  G4"2£ 0 C¤6„ ƒ ' B 2@#„ i …1… ¡ …  G4"2£ 0 C¤6 „ §V ƒ ' B 2@T„§V¤…#„ i …1… ¡ …  G4"2£ 0 C¤6„ ƒ @ 0 ' ƒ ' B 2@ ƒ @ 0 ' #„ i …§… ¡ …  G4"2£ 0 C¤6" „ ! ƒ ' B 2@T" „ !r … #„ i …1… ¡ …  G4"2£ 0 C¤6„¨ ƒ ' B 2@ ¨ #„ i …1… ¡ … ¡ …  ƒ1ƒ§ƒ 0 D ¢¡ @ gED§£¢¥¤§VQU 2 5¡§¦„2VeU—u1£…2„§VQU©¨& 5¡E… ƒ G4"£ 0 C6„#I… § G4"2£ 0 C¤6„‘¤6 ƒ ' B 2@‡… ¡ …  G4"2£ 0 C¤6 „  ƒ ' B 2@#„ i …1… ¡ …  G4"2£ 0 C¤6 „ §V ƒ ' B 2@T „ §V¤ … #„ i …1… ¡ …  G4"2£ 0 C¤6„ ƒ @ 0 ' ƒ ' B 2@ ƒ @ 0 ' #„ i …§… ¡ …  G4"2£ 0 C¤6" „ ! ƒ ' B 2@T" „ !r … #„ i …1… ¡ …  G4"2£ 0 C¤6„¨ ƒ ' B 2@ ¨ #„ i …1… ¡ … ¡ …  VQU)¨%1V10&  U‰V1V1V VQU¥'0'2‘ ¨eU)##¨& VQU)%4(%2‘ ƒ1ƒ A.264 ƒ 0 D ¢¡ ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… ƒ1ƒ1ƒ 0 D ¢¡ ƒ ¡¤916r f@r¦f£ 0 1"§9 ƒ v"#u¤£4 #'¡„%˜1˜Ab v'¡1£4 ¢¡1gh… ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… „ ¡1ƒ ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… „ ¡1ƒ ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… „ ¡1ƒ ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… „ ¡1ƒ ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… „ ¡1ƒ ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… „ ¡1ƒ ƒ GgD£4 §v'1D#gG¡E„E©…1„“†Wve†’… „ ¡1ƒ ƒ1ƒ1ƒ 0  D  ¢¡ ƒ ¡¤9 0 1  "§9 SQU $#%& SQU ('1S& ƒ 0 D ¢¡ ƒ #¡9„1D§'#¡¤$1£¤"#CD§§… „ ¡1ƒ „ ¡1ƒ „ ¡1ƒ „ ¡1ƒ „ ¡1ƒ „ ¡1ƒ „ ¡1ƒ APPENDIX A. .

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