Frequency Planning

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Overview
Page 2

FP Principle
 FP Definition  Network evolution  Cell Planning - Frequency Planning  Interference Theory  Carrier types - Multiple Reuse Pattern MRP  Manual Frequency Planning  BSIC Planning

Frequency Planning Process RMS Frequency Planning

Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005

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Frequency Planning Principle

All rights reserved © 2005, Alcatel

FP Definition Page 4 Frequency Planning is the process made o provide to each TRX in the network a certain frequency Frequency planning is done in order to provide the highest spectrum efficiency (higher capacity with less resources) The frequency allocation is done in such way that all the FP constraints are fulfilled:  Co-cell/co-site/neighbour separation constraints  Overall interference is reduced Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

UL: 1930-1990 MHz  200 kHz channel spacing  300 channels  ARFCN 512 -810 E-GSM  DL: 925-935 MHz. 975 . UL: 869-894 MHz  200 kHz channel spacing  124 channels  ARFCN 128 -251 GSM 1800  DL: 1805-1880 MHz. UL: 880-890 MHz  200 kHz channel spacing  Additional 50 channels  ARFCN 0. UL: 1710-1785 MHz  200 kHz channel spacing  374 channels  ARFCN 512 – 885 GSM 900  DL: 935-960 MHz.1023 Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. UL: 890-915 MHz  200 kHz channel spacing  124 channels  ARFCN 1 – 124 GSM 1900  DL: 1850-1910 MHz.GSM Frequency Spectrum Page 5 GSM 850  DL: 824-849 MHz. Alcatel .

Alcatel .Impact of limited Frequency Spectrum Page 6 Bandwidth is an expensive resource Best usage necessary Efficient planning necessary to contain good QoS when the traffic in the network is increasing smaller reuse (high traffic with less resources) MRP usage implementation of concentric cells / microcells/dual band implementation of Frequency Hopping – Baseband Hopping (BBH) – Synthesized Hopping (SFH or RFH) Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Alcatel .Coverage Approach Page 7 First issue in a network life-cycle is to provide coverage Network design changes rapidly The frequency plan has to be adapted after each network extension Planning method must be flexible and fast (group method) During first steps manual frequency planning possible Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.Network Evolution .

Capacity Approach 1/3 Page 8 With the growing amount of subscribers. the need for more installed capacity is rising Possible Solutions: Installing more TRXs on the existing BTS Implementing additional sites More frequencies on air  higher interference Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.Network Evolution . Alcatel .

Alcatel .Disadvantages  More antennas on roof top (Air combining)  Additional losses if WBC has to be used  Less (indoor) coverage  More frequencies per site needed  Tighter reuse necessary  decreasing quality/ increase interference Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.Advantages  No site search/acquisition process  No additional sites to rent (saves cost)  Trunking efficiency  Higher capacity per cell Installing more TRXs .Capacity Approach 2/3 Page 9 Installing more TRXs .Network Evolution .

Advantages  Reuse can remain the same (smaller cell sizes)  Needs less frequency spectrum  higher spectrum efficiency Implementing additional sites .Capacity Approach 3/3 Page 10 Implementing additional sites .Network Evolution .Disadvantages  Site search/acquisition process needed  Additional site cost (rent)  Re-design of old cells necessary (often not done) Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

What is frequency reuse? Page 11 As the GSM spectrum is limited. frequencies have to be reused to provide enough capacity The more often a frequency is reused within a certain amount of cells. Alcatel . the smaller the frequency reuse Aim: Minimizing the frequency reuse for providing more capacity REUSE CLUSTER: Area including cells which do not reuse the same frequency (or frequency group) Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

ARCS  If the cells are different equiped.RCS  If all cells within the reuse cluster have the same amount of TRXs. the reuse per TRX layer can be calculated: B RCS  # TRX / cell Average Reuse Cluster Size . Alcatel . the average number of TRXs has to be used for calculating the average reuse cluster size: B ARCS  # TRX / cell Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.RCS and ARCS 1/2 Page 12 Reuse Cluster Size .

RCS and ARCS 2/2 Page 13 The ARCS is giving the average reuse of the network when using the whole bandwidth and all TRXs per cell E.g: if we want to have the reuse of all non hopping TCH TRXs. Alcatel . we have to use the dedicated bandwidth and the average number of non hopping TCH TRXs per cell to get the ARCS of this layer type. Therefore the BCCH reuse is an RCS and not an ARCS! The lower the ARCS is:  the higher is capacity traffic (more TRX/cell)  The higher interference is Traffic capacity/inference is always a trade-off Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Each cell has only one BCCH.

Alcatel .Reuse Cluster Size 1/2 Page 14 Sectorized sites 4 sites per reuse cluster 3 cells per site REUSE Cluster Size: 4X3 =12 1 3 7 9 8 2 4 6 10 12 11 1 3 5 2 4 6 5 7 9 8 10 12 11 Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Alcatel .Reuse Cluster Size 2/2 Page 15 Sectorized sites 3 sites per reuse cluster 3 cells per site 1 2 3 7 9 8 4 6 1 3 7 9 8 2 4 6 5 5 REUSE Cluster Size 3X3 = 9 Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Alcatel Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 .Frequency Reuse: Example Page 16 No sectorization 7 cells per cluster  BCCH RCS = 7 BCCH RCS TCH Reuse: Depending on BW and Number of installed TRXs per cell Example:  B= 26  4TRXs per cell TCH RCS  interferer region TCH RCS 26  7 BCCH  1Guard 6 3 All rights reserved © 2005.

Cell Planning .Frequency Planning Page 17 Can frequency planning be seen independently from cell planning? Discussion Bad cell planning  Island coverage  Big overlap areas  disturbing the reuse pattern  bigger reuse necessary Good cell planning  Sharp cell borders  Small overlap areas  good containment of frequency  tighter reuse possible Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Influencing Factors on Frequency Reuse Page 18 Topography  Hilly terrain  Usage of natural obstacles to define sharp cell borders  tighter frequency reuse possible  Flat terrain  Achievable reuse much more dependent on the accurate cell design Morphology  Water  City  low attenuation  high attenuation  high reuse distance  low reuse distance Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Examples for different frequency reuses Page 19 Big city in the south of Africa:  BCCH reuse 26  Irregular cell design  Mixed morphology  Lots of water  Flat terrain plus some high sites Big city in eastern Europe  BCCH reuse 12  Regular cell design  Flat area  Only urban environment Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

B C/ I  0 R dista nce D Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel . A Received Power Prec.Interference Theory 1/2 Page 20 C/I restrictions  9dB for co-channel interference  -9 dB for adjacent channel interference P rec Prec.

0 2..0 12.0% C/Ithr C/Imed C/I [dB]  Margin Interferer probability [% ] 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 C/I .. Alcatel .16.0 Pint[%] 10 7.0% 0..9.5 5.5 Probability density function [%] 5.0.0% 3.5.5 8.0% 1.5..11.0% 2.Interference Theory 2/2 Page 21 Interferer probability  C/Imed is the calculated carrier to interferer ratio at a certain location (pixel) ARCS 6.0 7.C/I thr [dB] Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.0% 4.0.9.

Carrier Types . Alcatel . like:  PC (Power Control)  DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) are not allowed BCCH needs a clean frequency plan since it is used for all mobiles within the network Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.BCCH carrier Page 22 BCCH frequency is on air all the time with full power  BCCH BCCH interference is always present If there is no traffic/signalling on TS 1 to 7  dummy bursts are transmitted No interference reductions mechanisms are allowed.

nothing is transmitted  Generation of comfort noise at receiving mobile TCH not in use  no signal is transmitted Special case: Concentric cells  Different re-uses for inner and outer zone are possible Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.TCH carrier Page 23 PC allowed and recommended for UL and DL  Reduction of transmit power according to the actual path loss  Careful parameter tuning for DL necessary DTX allowed and recommended for UL and DL  Discontinuous Transmission  If there is no speech.Carrier Types . Alcatel .

Alcatel .Multiple reuse pattern 1/2 Page 24 For different types of carriers. different interference potential is expected BCCH layer needs a higher REUSE then on other layers:  as the BCCH carrier has the highest interferer potential because of being on air all the time  the BCCH channel itself is accepting only low interference TCH layers can be planned with a smaller REUSE Inner zones of concentric cells are able to deal with the smallest reuse in non hopping networks Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Alcatel .Multiple reuse pattern 2/2 Page 25 REUSE clusters for  INNER ZONE layer  TCH layer  BCCH layer Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

fBx.fCx. Alcatel . (3 specified by GSM standard) fA1...fx3.fA3. Frequencies fAx.fx2.… must have at least 2 channels spacing Frequencies fx1.fA2.… must have at least 2 (or 3 depending on HW used) channels spacing Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.GSM restrictions Page 26 Intra site minimum channel spacing  2 Intra cell minimum channel spacing  2 from Alcatel G2 BTS..

Alcatel .t – 2 * f1.t – f1.r  Frequency planning must avoid fulfilling these equations  Both frequencies must be on the same duplexer  To avoid intraband IM inside GSM900 the following frequency separations shall be avoided:  75/112/113 channels IM5 IM3 Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.t = f1.t = f2.t = f1.t – 2 * f2.t = f2.r  3 * f1.r / 3 * f2.Intermodulation problems 1/2 Page 27 IM Products GSM900  In a GSM 900 system intermodulation products of 3rd and 5th order can cause interference  2 * f1.t – f2.r / 2 * f2.

t – f900.r  Decoupling between the GSM 1800 TX path and the GSM 900 RX path is less than 30 dB (e.t = f2. same antenna used!) Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.r  Frequency separations to be avoided  237/238 channels IM Products Dual Band (GSM900/GSM1800)  f1800.t = f1. only intermodulation products of 3rd order can cause mesasurable interference  2 * f1.t – f2.t – f1.g.t = f900. Alcatel .Intermodulation problems 2/2 Page 28 IM Products GSM1800  In a GSM 1800 system.r / 2 * f2.

which are not declared as neighbour cells but are located in the neighbourhood may use adjacent frequencies if it is not avoidable. the HO will be risky and at least audible by the user.Treating “neighbour” cells Page 29 Cells. thus have HO relationships. Alcatel . but no co channel frequencies Cells which are declared as neighbours.  Sometimes due to big frequency constraints separations of 1 channel for neighbour cells (with low amount of HO) is acceptable. must not use co or adjacent frequencies  If an adjacent frequency is used. Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

the HO will be performed towards the best neighbour Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .Where can I find neighbour cells? Page 30 At the OMC-R for each cell a list of neighbour cells is defined Maximum number of neighbours: 32 The list of neighbours and their frequencies is transmitted to the mobile to be able to perform measurements on these frequencies In case of a HO cause.

Alcatel .BSIC All rights reserved © 2005.

BSIC allocation Page 32 Together with the frequencies the Base Transeiver Station Identity Code (BSIC) has to be planned BSIC = NCC (3bits) + BCC (3bits) The BSIC is to distinguish between Base Stations using the same BCCH frequency The aim of BSIC planning is not to use the same frequency/BSIC combination on cells influencing each other BSIC can be planned by the A9155 RNP tool Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Spurious RACH Page 33 Bad BSIC planning can cause SDCCH congestion cause by the spurious RACH problem. also known as “Ghost RACH” This problem occurs. when a mobile sends an HO access burst to a TRX of cell A using the same frequency as a nearby cell B uses on the BCCH Both cells using the same BSIC and Training Sequence Code TSQC. Alcatel . the HO access burst is understood by the cell B as a RACH for call setup Therefore on cell B SDCCHs are allocated everytime a HO access burst is sent from the mobile to the cell A Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Frequency Planning Process All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Network Life Cycle Page 35 Frequency planning occurs in all phase during network life-cycle  During planning phase (roll-out phase)  During optimization phase Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Alcatel .Frequency Planning Process .Contents Page 36 Analysis of existing FP FP Inputs FP Strategy Definition Preparation Work FP Creation Frequency Plan validation Frequency Plan Implementation Post Implementation Tasks Reporting Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Analysis of existing FP All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Alcatel . hopping)  The possible outcome of a new FP  KPI expected to be improved  Define if a FP is needed  Spectrum definition  Possible coverage problem FP brings no benefit in these areas  Hardware used  define co-cell the channel separation (2 or 3) Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.Analysis of existing FP 1/2 Page 38 This step is done during:  Optimization phase  Network densification steps The reason is to define:  Define if available RNP data can be used for the generation of a new FP  Sites coordinates. cell impacted. height. azimuths  The strategy used for FP (non-hopping.

Alcatel .Analysis of existing FP 2/2 Page 39 Analysis of existing FP consists in:  A9155 analysis  Import csv files into A9155 (through A9155 PRC Generator)  Coverage plots  areas with bad coverage  C/I Plots  areas with high interference  Separation constraints violation  Analysis of the usage of the frequency band  Define type of hopping  OMC-R analysis  Define areas with low KPI  Analysis of the frequencies from that areas  Reporting  Should be the base of the FP strategy chosen Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Alcatel .FP Inputs All rights reserved © 2005.

Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.  Day Y. when the new frequency plan has to be ready for implementation. The FP targets must contain the available frequencies. The new plan must take into consideration the network configuration planned for this day. If there are usage constraints related to the frequency spectrum they must be provided.  target area of the new frequency plan has to be defined.  FP Quality Indicators used for frequency plan validation (before implementation)  Not the well know KPI  New indicators: like C/I plots The expected results from the FP should be clearly stated from the beginning.  frequency spectrum. as well as the list of all involved cells from this area. and the whole strategy should be driven by these goals.FP Inputs Page 41 FP Inputs must be provided by customer before starting the FP. Alcatel .

Alcatel .FP Strategy Definition All rights reserved © 2005.

Alcatel .FP Strategy 1/3 Page 43 FP Strategy contains the different methods used during frequency allocation process It consists of defining:  Spectrum Partitioning  Macro layer / Micro layer  BCCH / TCH  Guard Bands / Joker Frequencies  Decision on Frequency Hopping Implementation  for QoS improvement  due to capacity saturation Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

It must avoid  Spurious Emissions  Receiver Blocking  Intermodulation Products BSIC Allocation Strategy Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.FP Strategy 2/3 Page 44 Frequency Coordination at the Planning/Country Border  Planning Border Take into consideration the frequencies of the first ring outside planning area  Country Border  as defined in ETC recommendation Frequency Coordination at Co-Existence of Several Systems. Alcatel .

FP Strategy 3/3 Page 45 Frequency Planning Activation Mode  Message Mode (PRC activation)  Massive Logical Update (MLU) Definition of Hot Spot Areas  Set a higher priority during FP for areas with high traffic Handling of Sites with Untypical Configurations Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

FP Preparation Work All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

heights. tilt… A9155 AFP Dry Run  Identify the possible problems that might occur and the time needed OMC Neighbors Relationships Clean-up  Bad neighbour planning bad frequency plan  A problem in most running networks  too many neighbours declared  Neighbour plan to be checked/optimized Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. antenna types.FP Preparation Work 1/2 Page 47 Retrieve data needed for FP:  Logical data (csv files)  Physical data: sites coordinates. Alcatel .

Alcatel .FP Preparation Work 2/2 Page 48 Experience Database  Computed from field feedback during network operation  It is based on:  Old reports  Anomaly reports  RNP/RNO experience Prepare Before/After Comparison  In order to compute the KPI before FP implementation (for a later comparison)  Can be:  Drive tests  OMC-R Statistics Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

FP Creation All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

FP Creation Page 50 FP is created using a A9155 AFP Module BSIC planning has to be done as well All parameters defined during the strategy phase should be reflected in the tool (see AFP training) Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Alcatel .Frequency Plan Validation All rights reserved © 2005.

Alcatel .FP Validation Page 52 Validation is done to take the decision about the implementation of a new FP There are several means of evaluating a FP (before implementation)  Interference calculation  Constraints violation  Visual analysis of frequencies plan  Frequency distribution. KPI cannot be used in this phase Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Alcatel .Frequency Plan Implementation All rights reserved © 2005.

Frequency Plan Implementation Page 54 Implementation of the frequency plan is done via OMC-R through the PRC PRC can be created:  Manually  For very small changes  Using External Tools  A9155 PRC Generator Module Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Post Implementation Tasks All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Post Implementation Tasks Page 56 To check the frequency plan after implementation. Alcatel . intensive QoS analysis must be performed  OMC-R  Drive tests Compute KPI for before/after comparison The optimization solutions for possible problems are:  Using joker frequencies  Use MAFA to find “clean” frequencies  Manual optimization All problems occurred must be reflected in an updated Experience Database (used for future FP) Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Reporting All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Reporting
Page 58

Reporting step should contain
 At least one week network monitoring for before/after comparison, to show
 The QoS Improvement  Capacity increasement (if this was the main reason for FP)

 All problems encountered during entire FP process  Possible improvements/suggestions in the overall Alcatel FP Process

Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005

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New FP method: RMS based FP

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Radio Measurement Statistics
Page 60

RMS creates statistics on the network QoS:
 based on field measurements  Measurements are performed by each mobile during a call

RMS Different Outputs at TRX level

 on neighbor cells (C/I)  on downlink and uplink quality & level  on number of consecutive bad speech frames (BFI)  on Radio Link Counter (UpLink only)  on Path Balance and on Timing Advance  on Power and number of channel seizures  9 Voice quality indicators
Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005

Used for RMS FP

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RMS creates a C/I report for each neighbour Measured interference is used by A9155 for frequency planning RMS Measurement Neighbour C/I Generate RMS files A9155 New FP based on RMS IM Creates IM RMS Measurements OMC-R A9155 A9155 Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.RMS Frequency Planning Basics Page 61 The Frequency Planning target is to improve networks QoS  to reduce overall network interference For all cells. Alcatel .

which are not neighbours. Alcatel . This leads to:  Interferer BCCH frequencies. are not measured  RMS interference matrix is not reflecting the complete network interference: – Report only for declared neighbours – Interference is existing but is not measured Solution:  Generate artificially more neighbours during RMS measurements (dummy neighbours)  Dummy neighbours can be:  Real cells (with very high HO_MARGIN)  Logical cell with the BCCH frequency to be measured (dummy cells) Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.RMS Frequency Planning Page 62 RMS limitation for FP:  Measurements are done only for declared neighbours in OMC-R.

Alcatel .Dummy Neighbours Principle Page 63 RMS measurements without dummy neighbours  Cell close to serving cell but not neighbours are:  not reported  not contributing to overall interference matrix Some interferer BCCH frequencies are not reported Serving cell Neighbour cell Other cells Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Dummy Neighbours Principle Page 64 RMS measurements with dummy neighbours  All cells close to the serving cell are measured and reported to the OMC-R  Target is to measure as many different BCCH as possible  Dummy neighbours:  Not real neighbours  Different BCCH than: – Serving cell – Neighbour Cells Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 Serving cell Neighbour cell Dummy neighbour cell All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

RMS Based AFP Process Flow Page 65 Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

Conclusions All rights reserved © 2005. Alcatel .

it is nevertheless recommended to use a separated band and select a bigger reuse Microcells/Inner zones of concentric cells do not need a separated band if they are dedicated for hotspot coverage If there is a continuous layer of microcells/inner zones.Discussion: Subdivide Frequency Band? Page 67 Any subdivision of the frequency band is reducing the spectrum efficiency! As the BCCH has to be very clean. Alcatel . it makes planning easier when using a separated band Any other separations should be avoided if possible! Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.

Alcatel . using all available frequencies in the most efficient way. it is very difficult to implement new sites in the future! New sites would make a complete re-planning of the surrounding area or the whole frequency plan necessary To avoid re-planning every time when introducing new sites. it is recommended to keep some Joker frequencies free These Joker frequencies can be used for new sites (especially BCCH TRXs) unless it is impossible to implement new sites without changing a big part of the frequency plan New frequency plan necessary! Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 All rights reserved © 2005.Hint for creating a future proofed FP Page 68 If a frequency plan is implemented.

Absolute Radio Frequency Channel All rights reserved © 2005.Multiple Reuse Pattern .Bandwidth .Reuse Cluster Size .Global System for Mobile Communication . Alcatel .Received Power .Base Transceiver Station Identity Code .Average Reuse Cluster Size .Summary of Abbreviations Page 69 RCS ARCS MRP GSM B Prec C/I WBC BSIC ARFCN Frequency Planning/ 26-07-2005 .Wide Band Combiner .Carrier to Interferer ratio .

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