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Electrical Drives

Electrical Drives

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Electrical Drives

Ele c t r ic a l Dr ive s
MEP 1 4 2 2
2004/2005-02


Module 1. Introduction to drives:
Elements in electrical drives, overview of DC and AC drives.
Torque equations,
Components of load torque, torque characteristics. Four-quadrant
operation
Notes on Introduction to Electromechanical Energy Conversion

Module 2 Converters in electric drive systems:
Controlled rectifier, Linear scheme, Non-linear scheme,
Switched-mode converters - average model and transfer function,
Two-quadrant converters, Four-quadrant converters, Bipolar
switching, Unipolar switching,
Current-controlled converters, Fixed switching frequency control,
Hysteresis control
Example of Simulink file for 2-Q converter (switching and average
model)
Current ripple in 4 Q converter
Space Vector Modulation (SVM)

Module 3 DC motor drives
DC drives in power point format, in .pdf
Construction, modeling and transfer function, Converters for DC
drives – quadrant of operations.
MATLAB–based controller design method – here
Linear analysis in Simulink
Large signal simulation using SIMULINK – here

http://encon.fke.utm.my/courses/mep1422/modules.html (1 von 2) [17.05.2005 17:09:50]
Electrical Drives
Module 4. Induction motor drives
Dynamic model of induction machine
Construction and principle of operations,
Speed Control-
constant V/f, Scalar control – problems at low speed,
current
Simulink example on open-loop constant V/Hz using SIMULINK
s-function for IM simulation
Compiled with Borland C - here
Current controlled and voltage boost, open-loop and closed-loop
control.
Field-oriented control of IM:
Rotor flux orientation
Stator flux orientation
Simulink example on indirect FOC IM – requires imch.dll
PPoint for principles of direct torque control and in pdf
Direct Torque Control using SIMULINK and the required *.dll files
for the S-function



http://encon.fke.utm.my/courses/mep1422/modules.html (2 von 2) [17.05.2005 17:09:50]
1
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL DRIVES

Drivcs can lc dcfincd as sysicns cnploycd for noiion conirol ÷ c.g. iransporiaiion, fans, rolois,
punps, cic.

Princ novcrs arc rcquircd in drivc sysicns io providc iIc novcncni - can lc dicscl cngincs,
pcirol cngincs, Iydraulic noiors, clcciric noiors cic

Drivcs iIai usc clcciric noiors as iIc princ novcrs arc lnown as clccirical drivcs


Conponcnis of clccirical drivcs.
Elcciric drivcs is nulii-disciplinary ficld. Various rcscarcI arcas can lc sul-dividcd fron
clcciric drivcs.
Advaniagcs of clccirical drivcs.
casy io conirol (c.g. ly varying voliagc or currcnii ÷ widc rangc of spccd
IigI cfficicncy ÷swiicI-nodc convcricrs and clccirical noiors arc vcry cfficicni
clcan ÷ docs noi polluic
casy io siorc or iranspori cncrgy
Sourcc
Conirol
f1lacl
Powcr
proccssor
Conirol
Unii
Moior
Elcciric
Drivcs
MacIinc
TIcory
Powcr
clccironics
Conirol
TIcory
Scnsors
Fcal-iinc
DSP or µp
Uiiliiy
inicrfacc
Load
2
Components oI EIectrIcaI DrIves

Moiors
Moiors oliain powcr fron clccirical sourccs. TIcy convcri cncrgy fron clccirical io nccIanical -
iIcrcforc can lc rcgardcd as cncrgy convcricrs.
TIcrc arc scvcral iypcs of noiors uscd in clcciric drivcs ÷ cIoicc of iypc uscd dcpcnds on
applicaiions and clccirical sourccs availallc. Droadly, iIcy can lc classificd as ciiIcr DC or AC
noiors.
DC noiors (wound or pcrnancni nagncii - DC voliagc,
AC noiors
Induciion noiors ÷ squirrcl cagc, wound roior - AC voliagc
syncIronous noiors ÷ wound ficld, pcrnancni nagnci - AC voliagc
DrusIlcss DC noior ÷ - AC voliagc
Sicppcr noiors ÷ rcquirc powcr clccironic convcricrs
SyncIronous rcluciancc noiors or swiicIcd rcluciancc noior ÷ rcquirc powcr clccironic
convcricrs

Sourcc
Elccirical sourccs or powcr supplics providc iIc cncrgy io iIc clccirical noiors. For IigI
cfficicncy opcraiion, iIc powcr oliaincd fron iIc clccirical sourccs nccd io lc rcgulaicd using
powcr clccironic convcricrs
Powcr sourccs can lc AC or DC in naiurc and iIcy nornally unconirollallc, i.c. iIcir
nagniiudcs or frcqucncics arc fi×cd or dcpcnd on iIc sourccs of cncrgy sucI as solar or wind.
AC sourcc can lc ciiIcr iIrcc pIasc or singlc pIasc
3-pIasc sourccs arc nornally for IigI powcr applicaiions

Powcr proccssor or powcr nodulaior
Sincc iIc clccirical sourccs arc nornally unconirollallc, ii is iIcrcforc ncccssary io lc allc io
conirol iIc flow of powcr io iIc noior ÷ iIis is acIicvcd using powcr proccssor or powcr
nodulaior. WiiI conirollallc sourccs (i.c. ouipui of powcr proccssori, iIc noior can lc rcvcrscd,
lralc or can lc opcraicd wiiI variallc spccd. Classical nciIod uscd, for c×anplc, variallc
inpcdancc or rclays, io sIapc iIc voliagc or currcni iIai is supplicd io iIc noior ÷ iIcsc
nciIods Iowcvcr arc inflc×illc and incfficicni.
Incrcasing nunlcr of powcr proccssors usc powcr clccironic convcricrs wIicI Ias advaniagcs
ovcr classical nciIod sucI as .
Morc cfficicni ÷ sincc idcally no losscs occur in powcr clccironic convcricrs
Flc×illc ÷ voliagc and currcni can lc sIapcd ly sinply conirolling swiicIing funciions of
iIc powcr convcricr

Pouc) cícct)oníc conuc)tc)s
Convcricrs arc uscd io convcri and possilly rcgulaic (i.c. using closcd-loop coniroli iIc
availallc sourccs io suii iIc load i.c. noiors
DC io AC,
AC io DC,
DC io DC
AC io AC
TIcsc convcricrs arc cfficicni lccausc iIc swiicIcs opcraic in ciiIcr cui-off or
saiuraiion nodcs

Conirol Unii
Conplc×iiy dcpcnds on drivc pcrfornancc
÷ analog - noisc, nonflc×illc, infiniic landwidiI
÷ digiial ÷ innunc io noisc, configurallc, landwidiI dcpcnds on sanpling frcqucncy
÷ DSP1nicroproccssor ÷ flc×illc, lowcr landwidiI conparcd io alovc. DSPs pcrforn fasicr
opcraiion iIan nicroproccssors (nuliiplicaiion in singlc cyclci. WiiI DSP1nicrop.,
conplc× csiinaiions and olscrvcrs can lc casily inplcncnicd.


3

OvervIew oI AC and DC drIves

Dcforc scniconducior dcviccs wcrc iniroduccd.
AC drivcs uscd for fi×cd spccd opcraiion. TIis is lccausc ii is noi casy io oliain variallc
frcqucncy supply. TIc cfficicncy of iIc drivc is low wIcn fi×cd frcqucncy and variallc voliagc
supply is uscd io conirol iIc spccd of iIc noiors. Howcvcr, variallc DC supply can lc casily
oliaincd. Conscqucnily, DC drivcs arc widcly uscd for variallc spccd opcraiion.

Aficr scniconducior dcviccs wcrc iniroduccd in 1950s
Spccd conirol is acIicvallc in AC drivcs lccausc variallc frcqucncy can lc oliaincd
using voliagc sourcc invcricr (i.c. powcr clccironic convcricri. DC drivcs wcrc rcplaccd wiiI AC
drivcs in variallc spccd applicaiions wIicI do noi rcquirc IigI pcrfornancc opcraiions. AC
drivcs uscs AC noiors Icncc rcquirc lcss nainicnancc ÷ c.g. squirrcl÷cagc induciion noiors
rcquirc nininun nainicnancc sincc no coniaci lrusIcs arc uscd.

Aficr scniconducior dcviccs wcrc iniroduccd aficr nid 1980s
WiiI iIc advanccncni of powcr scniconducior dcviccs and powcrful nicroproccssors
(sucI as digiial signal proccssors (DSPii, ii is possillc io conirol iIc AC noiors iIai will givc
conparallc pcrfornancc io iIai of iIc DC drivcs. AC drivcs uiilizing conirol iccIniqucs sucI as
]ícíd-o)ícntcd cont)oí (FOCi and dí)cct to)quc cont)oí (DTCi arc now gradually rcplacing DC drivcs
in IigI pcrfornancc applicaiions.

Conparison lciwccn DC and AC drivcs
Moiors .
• DC rcquirc nainicnancc, Icavy, c×pcnsivc, spccd liniicd ly nccIanical consiruciion
• AC lcss nainicnancc, ligIi, cIcapcr, rolusi, IigI spccd (csp. squirrcl÷cagc iypci

Conirol unii.
• DC sinplc conirol ÷ dccoupling iorquc and flu× ly nccIanical connuiaior ÷ iIc
conirollcr can lc inplcncnicd using sinplc analog circuii cvcn for IigI pcrfornancc
iorquc conirol ÷cIcapcr !
• For AC drivcs, iIc iypc of conirollcrs io lc uscd dcpcnd on iIc rcquircd drivc
pcrfornancc ÷ olviously cosi incrcasc wiiI pcrfornancc ÷ IigI pcrfornancc rcquirc
rclaiivcly norc conplc× conirol iccIniquc (c.g. ficld÷oricnicd coniroli ÷ norc c×pcnsivc

Pcrfornancc.
• In DC noiors, flu× and iorquc pcrpcndicular iIus cannoi influcncc onc anoiIcr ÷ quicl
iorquc rcsponsc. Pcrfornancc is c×ccllcni.
• AC induciion nacIinc ÷
scalar conirol . iorquc and flu× conponcnis of iIc siaior currcni arc couplcd ÷ sluggisI
iorquc rcsponsc. Pcrfornancc is ncdiun
vccior conirol. iorquc and flu× conponcnis of siaior currcni arc dccouplcd iIus sinilar
io DC drivcs. Pcrfornancc conparallc io iIai of iIc DC drivcs.













4
Torque EquatIons For RotatIng Systems

Loads can lc ÷ dirccily couplcd io noior sIafi
÷ iIrougI iransnission sysicns ÷ c.g. gcars or lcli ÷ spccd rcduccd
÷ iranslaiional noiion
÷ roiaiional noiion

For iIc purposc of analysis and conirollcr dcsign, a conlincd noior÷load sysicn can lc
rcprcscnicd ly an cquivalcni roiaiional sysicn.














TIc sysicn can lc dcscrilcd ly a firsi ordcr nccIanical sysicn.


.


If dJ1di ÷ 0 (sysicn wiiI consiani incriiai






Tc ÷ Moior iorquc (Nni
Tl ÷ Load iorquc (Nni
J ÷ Moncni of incriia conlincd noior ÷ load (lgn
2
i
ωn ÷ insianiancous angular vclociiy of noior sIafi (rad1si



dynanic iorquc ÷ prcscni during iransicni, i.c. accclcraiion or dccclcraiion. In
sicady siaic, wIcrc dω1di÷ 0 , Tc ÷ Tl

For c×anplc, in ordcr io accclcraic in forward dircciion, iIc nci iorquc, i.c. Tc ÷Tl, nusi lc
posiiivc and io accclcraic in rcvcrsc dircciion, iIc nci iorquc nusi lc ncgaiivc.

Civcn a spccd profilc of a drivc sysicn, ii is iIcrcforc possillc io csiinaic iIc rcquircd iorquc
produccd ly iIc noior, providcd iIai iIc load iorquc is lnown. In ordcr io calculaic iIc noior
iorquc, iIc sysicn Ias io lc rcprcscnicd ly iIc cquivalcni roiaiing sysicn as prcviously
dcscrilcd.





Motor Ioad
TI
Te
ω ωω ωm
J
( )
dt
J d
T T
m
l e
ω
+ =
( )
dt
J d
m
ω
dt
d
J T T
m
l e
ω
+ =
J
1

ω
θ
+
Tl
Tc
÷
S
Components oI Load Torque, TI

Load iorquc can lc dividcd inio 3 najor conponcnis.

(ii Friciion iorquc, TF

Friciion iorquc c×isis duc io iIc friciion lciwccn various noving paris of iIc noior, c.g. ai
iIc sIafi. TF can lc sul-dividcd inio 3 conponcnis.
TV, Viscous friciion ÷ proporiional io iIc spccd (Tv ÷ Dωi
TC, Colounl friciion ÷ indcpcndcni of iIc spccd
Ts, Siaiic friciion ÷ c×isi during siari÷up

In nosi cascs, Tc and Ts is ncgligilly snall.



















(iii Windagc iorquc, TW

Causcd ly wind iIai opposcs iIc noiion of iIc noior. TW is dirccily proporiional io iIc
squarc of iIc spccd, TW ÷ Kω
2
. In sonc cascs TW is ncgligilly snall conparcd io TV.

















(iiii Torquc rcquircd for uscful nccIanical worl, TL

TL dcpcnds on pariicular applicaiion. Ii nay lc consiani or ii nay vary wiiI iinc. Ii nay
dcpcnds on posiiion ÷ nay lc rcpcaiing ovcr a pcriod or ii nay noi.

Tc
Ts
Tv
TF
ωM
ωM
TF
Tw
ω
6
TIc ovcrall load iorquc, Tl nay lc wriiicn as.

2
C L l
K T D T T ω + + ω + =

WiiI TC and Kω
2
wIicI arc nornally ncgligilly snall, iIis can lc wriiicn as.

ω + +
ω
= D T
di
d
J T
L c



Load torque cbaracterIstIcs

Ccncrally, can lc classificd inio iwo iypcs.

Actíuc íoud to)quc.
Capallc of driving iIc noior undcr cquililriun. TIc dircciion of aciivc load iorquc is
indcpcndcni of spccd ÷ ii rciain iIc dircciion cvcn wIcn iIc dircciion of roiaiion rcvcrsc ar
cIangc, c.g. graviiy, icnsion or conprcssion undcrgonc ly clasiic lody.

Pussíuc íoud to)quc.
Always opposcs iIc noiion ÷ iIc dircciion dcpcnds on dircciion of roiaiion of iIc noior, c.g.
friciion and windagc.



Four-quadrant operatIon oI a drIve system

TIc ω÷T planc wiiI noior's sIafi cross scciional arca is sIown.






















TIc posiiivc or forward spccd is arliirarily cIoscn in counicrcloclwisc dircciion (ii can also lc
cIoscn as cloclwisci. TIc posiiivc iorquc is in iIc dircciion iIai will producc accclcraiion in
forward spccd, as sIown alovc.

TIc planc is dividcd inio 4 quadranis , iIus 4 nodcs of opcraiion. TIc quadranis arc narlcd as
I, II, III and IV

ω ω
ω
ω
ω
T
I II
III IV
Tc
Tc
Tc
Tc
?
Ouadrani I
DoiI iorquc and spccd arc posiiivc ÷ iIc noior roiaics in forward dircciion, wIicI is in iIc sanc
dircciion as iIc noior iorquc. TIc powcr of iIc noior is iIc produci of iIc spccd and iorquc (P
÷ Tcωi, iIcrcforc iIc powcr of iIc noior is posiiivc. Encrgy is convcricd fron clccirical forn io
nccIanical forn, wIicI is uscd io roiaic iIc noior. TIc nodc of opcraiion is lnown as forward
noioring.

Ouadrani II
TIc spccd is in forward dircciion lui iIc noior iorquc is in opposiic dircciion or ncgaiivc valuc.
TIc iorquc produccd ly iIc noior is uscd io 'lralc' iIc forward roiaiion of iIc noior. TIc
nccIanical cncrgy during iIc lraling, is convcricd io clccirical cncrgy ÷ iIus iIc flow of cncrgy
is fron iIc nccIanical sysicn io iIc clccirical sysicn. TIc produci of iIc iorquc and spccd is
ncgaiivc iIus iIc powcr is ncgaiivc, inplying iIai iIc noior opcraics in lraling nodc. TIc
nodc of opcraiion is lnown as forward lraling.

Ouadrani III
TIc spccd and iIc iorquc of iIc noior arc in iIc sanc dircciion lui arc loiI ncgaiivc. TIc
rcvcrsc clccirical iorquc is uscd io roiaic iIc noior in rcvcrsc dircciion. TIc powcr, i.c. iIc
produci of iIc iorquc and spccd, is posiiivc inplying iIai iIc noior opcraics in noioring nodc.
TIc cncrgy is convcricd fron clccirical forn io nccIanical forn. TIis nodc of opcraiion is
lnown as rcvcrsc noioring.


Ouadrani IV
TIc spccd is in rcvcrsc dircciion lui iIc iorquc is posiiivc. TIc noior iorquc is uscd io 'lralc'
iIc rcvcrsc roiaiion of iIc noior. TIc nccIanical cncrgy gaincd during iIc lraling is convcricd
io clccirical forn ÷ iIus powcr flow fron iIc nccIanical sysicn io iIc clccirical sysicn. TIc
produci of iIc spccd and iorquc is ncgaiivc inplying iIai iIc noior opcraics in lraling nodc.
TIis nodc of opcraiion is lnown as rcvcrsc lraling.


ReIerences

G.K. Dubey, “Fundamental of Electrical Drives”, Narosa, 1994.
N. Mohan, “Power Electronics: Converters, applications and design” John Wiley and Sons, 1995.
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(
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(
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http://encon.fke.utm.my/courses/mep1422/rl_2q_average.mdl
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CURRENT RIPPLE FOR UNIPOLAR AND BIPOLAR SWITCHING SCHEMES

TIc ouipui voliagc of a dc-dc powcr convcricr is conposcd of iIc dcsircd avcragc voliagc and ac
conponcnis, or ripplc. TIc ripplc in ouipui voliagc conscqucnily coniriluics io iIc ripplc in
arnaiurc currcni. Ii is cusionary io nininizc iIc currcni ripplc in clccirical drivcs for iIc
following rcasons.

ai Torquc is nornally dirccily rclaicd io currcni. TIus, ripplc in currcni will causc ripplc in iIc
clccironagnciic iorquc. Fipplc in iorquc will lc rcflccicd in iIc spccd or posiiion rcsponscs,
in pariicular for sysicns wiiI snall incriia.

li Currcni ripplc Ias zcro avcragc valuc and docs noi coniriluic io iIc uscful iorquc
produciion. Insicad, currcni ripplc incrcasc nacIinc Icaiing ÷ cddy currcni and Iysicrcsis
losscs.

ci Currcni coniaining IigI ripplc nusi lc considcrcd wIcn sclcciing iIc swiicIing dcviccs for
iIc convcricr. A IigI currcni ripplc rcquircs IigI raiing of pcal currcni for iIc dcviccs.


Currcni ripplc is invcrscly proporiional io iIc swiicIing frcqucncy and dirccily proporiional io iIc
inpui dc voliagc of iIc convcricr. For iIc sanc iriangular frcqucncy and DC voliagc, unipolar and
lipolar swiicIing scIcncs rcsuli in diffcrcni anouni of ripplc prcscni in iIc arnaiurc currcni.
TIis can lc analyzcd as follows.

UnIpoIar swItcbIng
TIc ouipui voliagc wiiI unipolar scIcnc swings lciwccn Vdc and 0 or 0 and Vdc voliagcs. Dccausc
of iIc diffcrcni (i.c. invcricdi conirol signals uscd for iIc iwo lcgs in iIc invcricr, iIc frcqucncy of
iIc ouipui voliagc is iwicc iIai of iIc iriangular wavcforn. TIc currcni ripplc can lc calculaicd ly
considcring iIc ripplc conponcni of iIc ouipui voliagc. TIis is acconplisIcd ly scparaiing an
avcragc and ripplc conponcnis of iIc wavcforn as dcpicicd in Fig.1. Assuning iIai ripplc voliagc
nainly appcar across iIc inducior, iIc currcni ripplc can lc calculaicd ly using iIc voliagc÷
currcni rclaiion of an inducior.

























÷
+
irr
Tdal
T
vL
Vdc ÷ Vavc
Vdc
T
Vdc ÷ Vavc
Vavc
Tiri


TIc currcni ripplc pcal÷pcal is givcn ly.


T d
L
V V
i
al
avc dc
rr

= (1i

TIc avcragc voliagc, Vavc in icrns of ouipui voliagc duiy raiio, dal and pcriod, T, is givcn ly

Vavc ÷ dalVdc (2i

WIicI givcs iIc currcni ripplc pcal÷pcal as.

( )
2
al al
dc
rr
d d
L
T V
i − = (3i

Ii can lc sIown iIai iIc na×inun ripplc pcal÷pcal is wIcn dal ÷ 0.5

Wc Iavc alrcady sccn iIai dal ÷ 2da ÷1 , wIcrc da is iIc duiy raiio of lcg a (posiiivc conirol signali.
TIcrcforc, iIc na×inun pcal÷pcal currcni ripplc occurs wIcn da÷ 0.75. For unipolar swiicIing
scIcnc, iIc pcriod of iIc iriangular wavcforn is iwicc iIai of iIc ouipui voliagc, i.c. 2T÷Tiri . TIus
iIc na×inun ripplc currcni can lc csiinaicd as.

( )
L 8
T V
5 . 0 5 . 0
L 2
T V
i
iri dc 2 iri dc
rr
= − = (4i


BIpoIar scbeme
In lipolar scIcnc, iIc ouipui voliagc swings lciwccn Vdc and ÷Vdc. TIc duiy raiio of lcg a is iIc
sanc as iIc duiy raiio of iIc ouipui voliagc. Again, iIc currcni ripplc can lc csiinaicd ly
considcring iIc voliagc÷currcni of iIc arnaiurc induciancc. Ii is assuncd iIai all iIc voliagc
ripplc appcar across iIc inducior.












TIc currcni ripplc pcal÷pcal is givcn ly.


T d
L
V V
i
al
avc dc
rr

= (5i

TIc avcragc voliagc, Vavc in icrns of ouipui voliagc duiy raiio, dal and pcriod, T, is givcn ly

Vavc ÷ (2dal ÷1iVdc (6i

WIicI givcs iIc currcni ripplc pcal÷pcal as.
÷ +
Vdc
-Vdc
Vdc - Vavc
Vavc

2
al al
dc
rr
d d
L
T V 2
i − = (7i

As in iIc unipolar scIcnc, iIc na×inun ripplc occurs wIcn dal ÷ 0.5

In iIc casc of lipolar scIcnc, iIc duiy raiio of iIc ouipui voliagc, dal, is iIc sanc as iIc duiy
raiio of lcg a, da. TIcrcforc, iIc duiy raiio of lcg a is 0.5 ai na×inun pcal÷pcal currcni ripplc. For
lipolar swiicIing scIcnc, iIc pcriod of iIc iriangular wavcforn and iIc ouipui voliagc is iIc sanc,
i.c. T÷Tiri . TIus iIc na×inun ripplc currcni can lc csiinaicd as.

( )
L 2
T V
5 . 0 5 . 0
L
T V 2
i
iri dc 2 iri dc
rr
= − = (8i

Equaiions (4i and (8i sIow iIai in unipolar swiicIing scIcnc, iIc na×inun currcni ripplc is
rcduccd ly four iincs conparcd io iIc currcni ripplc in lipolar scIcnc.




SPACE VECTOR MODULATION

In contrast to Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), which treats the 3-phase quantities
separately, in SVM, the 3-phase quantities are treated using single equation known as space vector.
Therefore in terms of microprocessor or digital implementation, SVM gives less computational
burden. The space vector of a 3-phase voltage is defined as:
2 4
j j
3 3
s a b c
2
v v (t) v (t)e v (t)e
3
π π

= + +


,
where v
a
, v
b
and v
c
are the phase voltages.

In 3-phase VSI, there are 8 possible switch configurations, hence there are eight possible voltage
vectors that can be generated or obtained from the VSI. SVM utilized these 8 voltage vectors to
synthesize the reference voltage.



























Given a location of the reference voltage in any of the sectors, the actual voltage can be synthesized,
within a sampling period, by selecting the two adjacent voltage vectors and zero voltage vectors. For
example, if the reference voltage is located in sector 1, voltage vectors v
1
, v
2
, v
0
and v
7
should be
selected. This is illustrated in Figure 2








v
d
*
v
q
*
Space vector
modulator
AC
Motor
+


V
d




Figure 1 Space vector
modulator applied to AC
motor drive





















































(2/3)V
d

Sector 1 Sector 3
Sector 4
Sector 5
Sector 2
Sector 6
(1/√3)V
d

[100]
[110]
[010]
[011]
[001]
[101]
*
s
v
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
-100
-50
0
50
100
a
b
c
sector 6 sector 1 sector 2 sector 3 sector 4 sector 5
Figure 3 Sinusoidal
reference voltage
Figure 4 Example of
modulated waveform in
sector 2
000 010 110 111 110 010 000
Phase a
Phase b
Phase c
T T
d
q

Figure 2 Voltage
vectors of a 3-phase
VSI
T
0
T
1 T
2
T
7
The interval for each voltage vector, as shown in Figure 4, is determined by equating volt-second
integral of v
s
with the sum of all voltage vectors within a cycle. Thus, for example in sector 1,

7 7 2 2 1 1 o o s
T v T v T v T v T v ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅
Note that v
1
and v
2
equal
d
V
3
2
. Thus in terms of d-q components this can be written as:

0 T ) 60 sin j 60 (cos T V
3
2
T V
3
2
0 T T v
7
o o
2 d 1 d o s
⋅ + + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅

Also, we need to satisfy the time constraint: T= T
0
+ T
1
+ T
2
+ T
7


If we let T
0
= T
7,
we can calculate all the required time intervals. If the angle between the reference
voltage and the adjacent vector (to the right of the reference voltage) equals α, it can be shown that
for any sector, the time intervals T
1
and T
2
are given by:

1 s
3 1
T T v cos sin
2 3

= ⋅ ⋅ α − α




2 s
T 3 T v sin = ⋅ ⋅ α

In the above equation, v
s
is the normalized reference vector. The interval for the zero voltage vector is
given by: T
0
+ T
7
= T – (T
1
+T
2
). The ratio between T
0
and T
7
essentially control the amount of
triplen harmonic components in the fundamental phase voltage.


Further readings:
PG Handley and JT Boys, “Practical real-time PWM modulators: an assessment” IEE Proceedings-B,
Vol 139, No. 2 March 1992

W. Leonhard, “Control of electrical drives”, Springer-Verlag, 1984.


1
DC DRIVES

Pri nc i ple of ope rat i on and c ons t ruc t i on – a re vi e w

DC ma ch in e con s is t s of

s t a t or – s t a t ion a r y – wh er e t h e field flu x is pr odu ced
r ot or – r ot a t in g – wh er e t h e a r ma t u r e win din g is pla ced.

Field flu x is obt a in ed eit h er fr om per ma n en t ma gn et or fr om field win din g excit a t ion . Field flu x
in t er a ct s wit h cu r r en t ca r r yin g con du ct or s in a r ma t u r e t o pr odu ce t or qu e. Commu t a t or in
a r ma t u r e cir cu it will en s u r e t h a t t h e t or qu e pr odu ct ion is a lwa ys ma ximu m, r ega r dles s of r ot or
pos it ion .



Mode li ng of DC mot or

Th e t or qu e is pr odu ced a s a r es u lt of in t er a ct ion of field flu x wit h cu r r en t in a r ma t u r e
con du ct or s a n d is given by

Te = kt Φ ia (1)

wh er e kt is a con s t a n t depen din g on mot or win din gs a n d geomet r y
Φ is t h e flu x per pole du e t o t h e field win din g

For t h e mot or wit h wou n d field, t h e flu x ca n be va r ied t o con t r ol t h e s peed, bu t for per ma n en t
ma gn et mot or , t h e flu x is fixed a n d t h u s ca n be wr it t en a s :

Te = Kt ia

wh er e Kt depen ds on t h e per ma n en t ma gn et ma t er ia l
Th e dir ect ion of t h e t or qu e pr odu ced depen ds on t h e dir ect ion of t h e a r ma t u r e cu r r en t
Wh en t h e a r ma t u r e r ot a t es , t h e flu x lin kin g t h e a r ma t u r e win din g will va r y wit h t ime a n d
t h er efor e a ccor din g t o Fa r a da y’s la w, a n emf will be in du ced a cr os s t h e win din g. Th is gen er a t ed
emf, kn own a s t h e ba ck emf, depen ds on s peed of r ot a t ion a s well a s on t h e flu x pr odu ced by
t h e field a n d is given by:

ea = kt Φ ω (2)

Simila r ly, for per ma n en t ma gn et , t h is ca n be wr it t en a s :

2
ea = Kt ω

Th e pola r it y of t h e ba ck emf depen ds on t h e dir ect ion of t h e mot or r ot a t ion


For s epa r a t ely excit ed DC mot or , t h e a r ma t u r e cir cu it is s h own :











Ra – lu mped a r ma t u r e win din g r es is t a n ce
La – s elf in du ct a n ce of t h e a r ma t u r e win din g
ea – a s defin ed befor e, is t h e ba ck emf of t h e mot or

Us in g KVL,

(3)

In s t ea dy s t a t e con dit ion ,

(4)


In t er ms of t or qu e a n d s peed t h e s t ea dy s t a t e equ a t ion ca n be wr it t en a s :

(5)


wh ich gives :

(6)



Th u s t h r ee met h ods ca n be u s ed t o con t r ol t h e s peed: Vt , Φ a n d Ra

Speed con t r ol u s in g a r ma t u r e r es is t a n ce by a ddin g ext er n a l r es is t or Rext is s eldom u s ed,
es pecia lly for la r ge mot or du e t o t h e los s es a s s ocia t ed wit h Ia
2
Rext . Vt is n or ma lly con t r ol for
s peed u p t o r a t ed s peed. Beyon d r a t ed s peed, for s epa r a t ely excit ed DC mot or , t h e s peed con t r ol
is a ch ieved by flu x con t r ol, Φ. Wh en s peed con t r ol by flu x con t r ol is u s ed, t h e ma ximu m t or qu e
ca pa bilit y of t h e mot or is r edu ced s in ce for a given ma ximu m a r ma t u r e cu r r en t , t h e flu x is les s
t h a n t h e r a t ed va lu e a n d t h u s t h e ma ximu m t or qu e pr odu ced is les s t h a n t h e ma xu mu m
t or qu e. Als o it s h ou ld be n ot ed t h a t , wit h per ma n en t ma gn et excit a t ion , s peed con t r ol u s in g
flu x wea ken in g is n ot pos s ible – t h u s ma ximu m s peed of per ma n en t ma gn et mot or is limit ed.

Wh en des ign in g con t r oller s for DC mot or dr ives u s ed in s er vo or h igh per for ma n ce a pplica t ion s ,
a s ma ll s ign a l model of t h e mot or is r equ ir ed. A s epa r a t ely excit ed DC mot or wit h fixed field
excit a t ion , or a per ma n en t ma gn et DC mot or , is des cr ibed by equ a t ion s (3), (1) a n d (2). If a s ma ll
per t u r ba t ion a r ou n d a DC oper a t in g poin t is in t r odu ced, t h es e equ a t ion s ca n be wr it t en a s (7)-
(9). Th e ‘~’ in dica t es a s ma ll per t u r ba t ion , wh ich is a dd t o t h e DC compon en t s of vt , ia, ea, Te, TL
a n d ω :
+

ea


a
a
a a a t
e
dt
di
L R i v + + =
+

vt


R
a
L
a
ω Φ +
Φ
=
t a
t
t
k R
k
T
V
a a a t
E R I V + =
( )
a
2
t
t
t
R
k
T
k
V
Φ

Φ
= ω
3


(7)



(8)


(9)


Equ a t ion des cr ibin g t h e dyn a mic of t h e mech a n ica l s ys t em is given by:

(10)

wh er e Tl = TL + Bω

Tl is t h e loa d t or qu e compos ed of wor kin g t or qu e of t h e loa d, TL a n d t or qu e du e t o fr ict ion , Bω.
Th e fr ict ion a l t or qu e depen ds on t h e r ot a t ion a l s peed, wh ile TL depen ds on t h e n a t u r e of t h e
loa d bein g dr iven . Simila r ly, if a s ma ll per t u r ba t ion is in t r odu ced in Te a n d TL a n d ω, equ a t ion
(10) ca n be wr it t en a s :

(11)


Sepa r a t in g t h e DC a n d s ma ll per t u r ba t ion or AC compon en t s in (7)–(9) a n d (11), t h e s t ea dy s t a t e
a n d s ma ll s ign a l equ a t ion s des cr ibin g t h e DC mot or ca n be obt a in ed:

















Th e t r a n s fer fu n ct ion of t h e DC mot or is obt a in ed by t a kin g t h e La pla ce t r a n s for m of t h e s ma ll
s ign a l equ a t ion s .


Vt (s ) = Ia(s )Ra + Las Ia + Ea(s ) (12)

Te(s ) = kEIa(s ) (13)

Ea(s ) = kEω(s ) (14)

Te(s ) = TL(s ) + Bω(s ) + s J ω(s ) (15)


( )
) e
~
E (
dt
i
~
I d
L R ) i
~
I ( v
~
V
a a
a a
a a a a t t
+ +
+
+ + = +
) i I ( k T
~
T
a a E e e
+ = +
)
~
( k e
~
E
E e e
ω + ω = +
dt
d
J T T
m
l e
ω
+ =
dt
)
~
( d
J )
~
( B T
~
T T
~
T
L L e e
ω + ω
+ ω + ω + + = +
a
a
a a a t
e
~
dt
i
~
d
L R i
~
v
~
+ + =
) i
~
( k T
~
a E e
=
)
~
( k e
~
E e
ω =
a a a t
E R I V + =
a E e
I k T =
ω =
E e
k E
dt
)
~
( d
J
~
B T
~
T
~
L e
ω
+ ω + =
) ( B T T
L e
ω + =
AC compon en t s DC compon en t s
4

Th u s t h e block dia gr a m r epr es en t in g t h e DC mot or is s h own :

















Powe r e le c t roni c c onve rt e rs i n DC dri ve s

Th e power elect r on ic con ver t er s a r e u s ed t o obt a in a n a dju s t a ble DC volt a ge a pplied t o t h e
a r ma t u r e of a DC mot or . Th er e a r e ba s ica lly t wo t ypes of con ver t er n or ma lly employed in DC
dr ives : (i) con t r olled r ect ifier (ii) s wit ch –mode con ver t er .

(i) Con t r olled r ect ifier
Con t r olled r ect ifier ca n be oper a t ed fr om a s in gle ph a s e or t h r ee ph a s e in pu t
Ou t pu t volt a ge con t a in low fr equ en cy r ipple wh ich ma y r equ ir e a la r ge in du ct or in s er t ed in
a r ma t u r e cir cu it , in or der t o r edu ce t h e a r ma t u r e cu r r en t r ipple. A la r ge a r ma t u r e cu r r en t r ipple
is u n des ir a ble s in ce it ma y be r eflect ed in s peed r es pon s e if t h e in er t ia of t h e mot or –loa d is n ot
la r ge en ou gh . Con t r olled r ect ifier h a s low ba n dwidt h . Th e a ver a ge ou t pu t volt a ge r es pon s e t o a
con t r ol s ign a l, wh ich is t h e dela y a n gle, is r ela t ively s low. Th er efor e con t r olled r ect ifier is n ot
s u it a ble for dr ives r equ ir in g fa s t r es pon s e, e. g. in s er vo a pplica t ion s .
In t er ms of qu a dr a n t of oper a t ion s , a s in gle ph a s e or a t h r ee ph a s e r ect ifier is on ly ca pa ble of
oper a t in g in fir s t a n d fou r t h qu a dr a n t s – wh ich is n ot s u it a ble for dr ives r equ ir in g for wa r d
br ea kin g mode. To be a ble t o oper a t e in a ll fou r qu a dr a n t s , con figu r a t ion s u s in g ba ck t o ba ck
r ect ifier s or con t a ct or s s h own below mu s t be employed.





















T
k
a a
s L R
1
+
) s ( T
l
) s ( T
e
s J B
1
+
E
k
) s ( I
a
) s ( ω ) s ( V
a
+
-
-
+
3-phase
supply
3-phase
supply
+

V
a

-
Converter
A
ω
T
Converter
B
Converter
B
Converter
A
Con ver t er A
Con ver t er B
5














(ii) Swit ch –mode con ver t er
Swit ch –mode con ver t er s n or ma lly oper a t e a t h igh fr equ en cy. As a r es u lt of t h is , (i) t h e a ver a ge
ou t pu t volt a ge r es pon s e is s ign ifica n t ly fa s t er t h a n t h e con t r olled r ect ifier , in ot h er wor ds t h e
ba n dwidt h of a s wit ch –mode r ect ifier is h igh er compa r ed t o t h e con t r olled r ect ifier , a n d (ii) t h e
a r ma t u r e cu r r en t r ipple is r ela t ively les s t h a n t h e con t r olled r ect ifier cir cu it wh en t h e s a me
a mou n t of in du ct a n ce pr es en t in t h e a r ma t u r e cir cu it . Th e s wit ch -mode con ver t er is t h er efor e
s u it a ble for a pplica t ion s r equ ir in g pos it ion con t r ol or fa s t r es pon s e, for exa mple in s er vo
a pplica t ion s , r obot ics , et c. In t er ms of qu a dr a n t of oper a t ion s , 3 pos s ible con figu r a t ion s a r e
pos s ible: s in gle qu a dr a n t , t wo–qu a dr a n t a n d fou r –qu a dr a n t con ver t er s – t h es e a r e s h own below.































Reference:
N. Mohan, “Electric Drives: An integrative approach”, University of Minnesota Printing services, 2000.
N. Mohan, “Power Electronics: Converters, applications and design” John Wiley and Sons, 1995.
≡ Con t a ct or
Single-quadrant
Two-quadrant
Four-quadrant
ω
T
F1 and F2
are closed

F1

F2

R1

R2

R1 and R2
are closed

R1 and R2
are closed

F1 and F2
are closed

Q1
Q1
Q2
Q2
Q3
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q4
ω
T
T
T
ω
ω
+ V
a
-
3–ph a s e
s u pply
+
v
a



+
v
a



+ v
a

DC MOTOR DRIVES
(MEP 1422)
Dr. Nik Rumzi Nik Idris
Department of Energy Conversion
FKE, UTM
Contents
• Introduction
– Trends in DC drives
– DC motors
• Modeling of Converters and DC motor
– Phase-controlled Rectifier
– DC-DC converter (Switch-mode)
– Modeling of DC motor
• Closed-loop speed control
– Cascade Control Structure
– Closed-loop speed control - an example
• Torque loop
• Speed loop
• Summary
INTRODUCTION
• DC DRIVES: Electric drives that use DC motors
as the prime movers
• Dominates variable speed applications before
PE converters were introduced
• DC motor: industry workhorse for decades
• Will AC drive replaces DC drive ?
– Predicted 30 years ago
– AC will eventually replace DC – at a slow rate
– DC strong presence – easy control – huge numbers
Introduction
DC Motors
• Several limitations:
• Advantage: Precise torque and speed control
without sophisticated electronics
• Regular Maintenance • Expensive
• Heavy • Speed limitations
• Sparking
Current in
Current out
Stator: field
windings
Rotor: armature
windings
Introduction
DC Motors
•Mechanical commutator
•Large machine employs compensation windings
Introduction
a t
i k Te φ = Electric torque
φω =
E a
k e Armature back e.m.f.
L
f
R
f
i
f
a
a
a a t
e
dt
di
L i R v + + =
+
e
a
_
L
a
R
a
i
a
+
V
t
_
+
V
f
_
dt
di
L i R v
f
f f f
+ =
Introduction
a a a t
E I R V + =
In steady state,
( )
2
T
e a
T
t
k
T R
k
V
φ

φ
= ω
Therefore speed is given by,
Three possible methods of speed control:
Field flux
Armature voltage V
t
Armature resistance Ra
a
a
a a t
e
dt
di
L i R V + + =
Armature circuit:
Introduction
For wide range of speed control
0 to ω
base
→ armature voltage, above ω
base
→field flux reduction
Armature voltage control : retain maximum torque capability
Field flux control (i.e. flux reduced) : reduce maximum torque capability
T
e
ω
Maximum
Torque capability
Armature voltage control
Field flux control
ω
base
MODELING OF CONVERTERS
AND DC MOTOR
Used to obtain variable armature voltage
POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS
• Efficient
Ideal : lossless
• Phase-controlled rectifiers (AC →DC)
• DC-DC switch-mode converters(DC →DC)
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phase-controlled rectifier (AC–DC)
T
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
ω
3-phase
supply
+
V
t

i
a
Phase-controlled rectifier
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
ω
T
3-phase
supply
3-
phase
supply
+
V
t

Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phase-controlled rectifier
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
ω
T
F1
F2
R1
R2
+ V
a
-
3-phase
supply
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)
• Firing circuit –firing angle control
→ Establish relation between v
c
and V
t
firing
circuit
current
controller
controlled
rectifier
α
+
V
t

v
c
i
ref
+
-
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)
• Firing angle control








π
= 180
v
v
cos
V
V
t
c m
a
α
=
c t
v
180
v
180
v
v
t
c
= α
linear firing angle control
α = cos v v
s c
Cosine-wave crossing control
s
c m
a
v
v V
V
π
=
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)
•Steady state: linear gain amplifier
•Cosine wave–crossing method
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
•Transient: sampler with zero order hold
T
G
H
(s)
converter
T – 10 ms for 1-phase 50 Hz system
– 3.33 ms for 3-phase 50 Hz system
0.3 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36
-400
-200
0
200
400
0.3 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36
-10
-5
0
5
10
Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)
T
d
T
d
– Delay in average output voltage generation
0 – 10 ms for 50 Hz single phase system
Output
voltage
Cosine-wave
crossing
Control
signal
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current)
• Model simplified to linear gain if bandwidth
(e.g. current loop) much lower than sampling
frequency
⇒Low bandwidth – limited applications
• Low frequency voltage ripple →high current
ripple →undesirable
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
ω
T
+
V
t
-
T1
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters
+
V
t
-
T1
D1
T2
D2
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
ω
T
Q1 →T1 and D2
Q2 →D1 and T2
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
ω
T
+ V
t
-
T1
D1
T2
D2
D3
D4
T3
T4
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters
• Switching at high frequency
→ Reduces current ripple
→ Increases control bandwidth
• Suitable for high performance applications
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Switch–mode converters - modeling
+
V
dc

V
dc
v
c
v
tri
q



=
0
1
q
when v
c
> v
tri
, upper switch ON
when v
c
< v
tri
, lower switch ON
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
tri
on
T t
t
tri
T
t
dt q
T
1
d
tri
= =

+
v
c
q
T
tri
d
Switch–mode converters – averaged model
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
dc
dT
0
dc
tri
t
dV dt V
T
1
V
tri
= =

V
dc
V
t
V
tri,p
-V
tri,p
v
c
d
1
0
0.5
p , tri
c
V 2
v
5 . 0 d + =
c
p , tri
dc
dc t
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V + =
Switch–mode converters – averaged model
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
DC motor – small signal model
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Extract the dc and ac components by introducing small
perturbations in V
t
, i
a
, e
a,
T
e
, T
L
and ω
m
a
a
a a a t
e
dt
di
L R i v + + =
T
e
= k
t
i
a
e
e
= k
t
ω
dt
d
J T T
m
l e
ω
+ =
a
a
a a a t
e
~
dt
i
~
d
L R i
~
v
~
+ + =
) i
~
( k T
~
a E e
=
)
~
( k e
~
E e
ω =
dt
)
~
( d
J
~
B T
~
T
~
L e
ω
+ ω + =
ac components
a a a t
E R I V + =
a E e
I k T =
ω =
E e
k E
) ( B T T
L e
ω + =
dc components
DC motor – small signal model
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
Perform Laplace Transformation on ac components
a
a
a a a t
e
~
dt
i
~
d
L R i
~
v
~
+ + =
) i
~
( k T
~
a E e
=
)
~
( k e
~
E e
ω =
dt
)
~
( d
J
~
B T
~
T
~
L e
ω
+ ω + =
V
t
(s) = I
a
(s)R
a
+ L
a
sIa + E
a
(s)
T
e
(s) = k
E
I
a
(s)
E
a
(s) = k
E
ω(s)
T
e
(s) = T
L
(s) + Bω(s) + sJω(s)
DC motor – small signal model
Modeling of Converters and DC motor
T
k
a a
sL R
1
+
) s ( T
l
) s ( T
e
sJ B
1
+
E
k
) s ( I
a
) s ( ω ) s ( V
a
+
-
-
+
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL
Cascade control structure
• It is flexible – outer loop can be readily added or removed
depending on the control requirements
• The control variable of inner loop (e.g. torque) can be
limited by limiting its reference value
1/s
converter
torque
controller
speed
controller
position
controller
+
-
+
-
+
-
tacho
Motor
θ*
T* ω*
k
T
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL
Design procedure in cascade control structure
• Inner loop (current or torque loop) the fastest –
largest bandwidth
• The outer most loop (position loop) the slowest –
smallest bandwidth
• Design starts from torque loop proceed towards
outer loops
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL
Closed-loop speed control – an example
OBJECTIVES:
• Fast response – large bandwidth
• Minimum overshoot
good phase margin (>65
o
)
• Zero steady state error – very large DC gain
BODE PLOTS
• Obtain linear small signal model
METHOD
• Design controllers based on linear small signal model
• Perform large signal simulation for controllers verification
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL
Ra = 2 Ω La = 5.2 mH
J = 152 x 10
–6
kg.m
2
B = 1 x10
–4
kg.m
2
/sec
k
t
= 0.1 Nm/A k
e
= 0.1 V/(rad/s)
V
d
= 60 V V
tri
= 5 V
f
s
= 33 kHz
Permanent magnet motor’s parameters
Closed-loop speed control – an example
• PI controllers
• Switching signals from
comparison of v
c
and triangular
waveform
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL
Torque controller design
T
c
v
tri
+
V
dc

q
q
+

k
t
Torque
controller
T
k
a a
sL R
1
+
) s ( T
l
) s ( T
e
sJ B
1
+
E
k
) s ( I
a
) s ( ω
) s ( V
a
+
-
-
+
Torque
controller
Converter
peak , tri
dc
V
V ) s ( T
e
-
+
DC motor
Bode Diagram
Frequency (rad/s ec)
-50
0
50
100
150
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
-90
-45
0
45
90
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL
Torque controller design
Open-loop gain
compensated
compensated
k
pT
= 90
k
iT
= 18000
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL
Speed controller design
Assume torque loop unity gain for speed bandwidth << Torque bandwidth
1
Speed
controller
sJ B
1
+
ω*
T*
T
ω

+
Torque loop
Bode Diagram
Frequency (Hz)
-50
0
50
100
150
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
-180
-135
-90
-45
0
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL
Speed controller
Open-loop gain
compensated
k
ps
= 0.2
k
is
= 0.14
compensated
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL
Large Signal Simulation results
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
-40
-20
0
20
40
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
-2
-1
0
1
2
Speed
Torque
CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL – DESIGN EXAMPLE
SUMMARY
Power electronics converters – to obtain variable armature voltage
Phase controlled rectifier – small bandwidth – large ripple
Switch-mode DC-DC converter – large bandwidth – small ripple
Controller design based on linear small signal model
Power converters - averaged model
DC motor – separately excited or permanent magnet
Closed-loop speed control design based on Bode plots
Verify with large signal simulation
Speed control by: armature voltage (0 →ω
b
) and field flux (ω
b
↑)

1
MATLAB-BASED DESIGN EXAMPLE OF DC MOTOR DRIVE CONTROLLER

TIc following noics will dcscrilc iIc dcsign proccdurc of iIc proporiional-inicgral (PIi spccd and
currcni conirollcrs for a DC drivc sysicn using MATLAD1SIMULINK. Cascadc conirol siruciurc is
assuncd wIcrc iIc inncr loop is iIc currcni loop. TIc dcsign will siari fron iIc currcni loop
followcd ly iIc spccd loop.

Current Ioop
Parancicrs for iIc noior arc as givcn as in ED÷IA pagc 8÷12. Using iIc lincarizcd nodcl as
sIown in Fig. 1(ai, iIc lodc ploi of opcn÷loop gain of iIc currcni loop is oliaincd using Líncu)
Anuíusís fron SIMULINK and is sIown in Fig 1(li. TIc ploi in Fig. 1(li is oliaincd wiiI lp÷1 and
li÷0.

60
Vd Va
Tl
speed
T
Ia
Subsystem Step1
Step
PID
PID Control ler1
PID
PID Control ler
Output Point
Input Poi nt
0.2
1/Vt

(ai

Bode Diagram
Frequency (Hz)
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
it
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
-90
-45
0
45
90
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)

(li

Pole-Zero Map
Real Axis
I
m
a
g
in
a
r
y

A
x
is
-350 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1

(ci

Fig. 1 Opcn-loop iransgcr funciion of currcni loop wiiIoui iIc PI conirollcr. (ai SIMULINK
llocls rcprcscniing iIc lincarizcd sysicn, (li Dodc ploi of iIc opcn-loop gain, (ci Polcs and zcro
locaiion


2
Ii is dcsircd iIai iIc landwidiI of iIc currcni loop io lc 3.3 lHz. TIc landwidiI is inicniionally
cIoscn an ordcr lowcr iIan iIc iriangular frcqucncy ai 33 lHz. Fron iIc ploi of polc1zcro
locaiion in Fig. 1 (ci, iIcrc iwo arc polcs ai 37 rad1s and 348 rad1s. If iIc zcro of iIc PI is sci ai
200 rad1s, iIcn li1lp ÷ 200 rad1s. If iIc valuc of lp is uniiy , iIcn li ÷ 200 and iIc ploi is sIown
in Fig.2 Noic iIai if li is non÷zcro, iIcrc is a polc ai origin.

Bode Diagram
Frequency (Hz)
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
-180
-135
-90
-45
0
45
90
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)

Fig. 2 Opcn loop gain wiiI li ÷ 200 and lp ÷ 1

Fron Fig. 2 ii can lc sccn iIai iIc cross ovcr frcqucncy or iIc landwidiI is ioo low. To incrcasc
iIc landwidiI, iIc valuc of lp is incrcascd. Ai iIc sanc iinc, zcro of iIc conirollcr is nainiaincd
ai 200 rad1s ly iIc appropriaic valuc of li. For lp of 90, iIc Dodc ploi of iIc opcn-loop gain is
sIown in Fig. 3. TIc crossovcr frcqucncy is aloui 3.3lHz wiiI good pIasc nargin.

Bode Diagram
Frequency (Hz)
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
-180
-135
-90
-45
0
45
90
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)

Fig. 3 Torquc opcn loop gain wiiI lp incrcascd io 90 in ordcr io incrcasc iIc iorquc landwidiI.

Speed Ioop
TIc landwidiI of iIc spccd loop nusi lc nadc ai lcasi an ordcr lowcr iIan iIc iorquc
landwidiI, i.c. aloui 300 Hz. Dy doing so, wc can assunc iIai iIc closcd-loop iorquc gain is

3
uniiy, wIicI will sinplify iIc dcsign of iIc spccd conirollcr. Using iIis appro×inaiion, iIc
parancicrs of iIc PI spccd conirollcr arc nainly dcicrnincd ly iIc viscous friciion D and
noncni of incriia J. TIc Sinulinl llocls sIowing iIis assunpiion is givcn in Fig. 4(ai. Fig. 4(li
sIows iIc Dodc ploi of iIc corrcsponding sysicns. Fron iIc figurc ii can lc sccn iIai for
frcqucncy lowcr iIan iIc landwidiI of iIc iorquc loop, iIc gain plois arc alnosi idcniical lui
iIcrc is a snall crror prcscnis in iIc pIasc plois.




1
torque-l oop
PID
speed_control l er
PID
speed control l er
PID
current control l er
60
Vd Va
Tl
speed
T
Ia
Subsystem Step1
0.2
1/Vt
In1Out1
1/(sJ +B)1
In1Out1
1/(sJ +B)




Bode Diagram
Frequency (Hz)
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i t
u
d
e
( d
B
)
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
-180
-135
-90
-45
0
P
h
a
s
e
( d
e
g
)




Fig. 4 Spccd loop dcsign. (ai Torquc loop appro×inaicd ly uniiy gain, (li iIc Dodc ploi for iIc
appro×inaicd uniiy gain and iIc aciual iorquc loop

TIcrc is a polc ai 0.7 rad1s. TIc zcro of iIc conirollcr can lc sci ai iIis frcqucncy, and iIc gain
is adjusicd io oliain iIc crossovcr frcqucncy of around 200 Hz. TIc Dodc ploi of iIc
conpcnsaicd spccd loop gain is sIown in Fig.5. TIc polc ai origin iniroduccd ly iIc PI conirollcr
will cnsurc zcro sicady siaic crror.

uniiy gain
wiiI iorquc loop
(ai
(li

4
Bode Diagram
Frequency (Hz)
-50
0
50
100
150
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
-135
-90
-45
0
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)

Fig. 5 Conpcnsaicd spccd loop gain (solid linci
TIc final valucs of parancicrs for iIc conirollcrs arc sunnarizcd lclow.

lp li
Torquc conirollcr. 90 18000
Spccd conirollcr. 0.2 0.14

TIcsc valucs arc uscd in iIc largc signal sinulaiion nodc. TIc SIMULINK llocls uscd io pcrforn
iIc largc signal sinulaiion is sIown in Fig.6 (ai. Unipolar swiicIing scIcnc for iIc convcricr is
uscd in iIc sinulaiion. A squarc wavc spccd rcfcrcncc ai 5 Hz is givcn wiiI iIc iorquc during
accclcraiion is liniicd io 1.5 Nn. TIc spccd and iorquc rcsponscs arc sIown in Fig. 6(li.

vc_m
To Workspace4
vc
To Workspace3
vtri
To Workspace2
torque
To Workspace1
speed
To Workspace
Out1
Subsystem1
Va
Tl
speed
T
Ia
Subsystem
Step1
Si gnal
Generator
Saturati on1
Rel ay1
Rel ay
PID
PID Control l er1
PID
PID Control l er
-1
Gai n

(ai
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
-40
-20
0
20
40
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
-2
-1
0
1
2

(li

Fig. 6 Largc signal sinulaiion of iIc cascadc conirol siruciurc (ai Sinulinl llols (li Spccd and
iorquc rcsponscs
USING LINEAR ANALYSIS IN MATLAB
FOR DC MOTOR DRIVE CONTROLLER
DESIGN
Our objective in DC drive system are:
(a) To obtain zero or small steady state error
– making sure DC gain of open–loop plot is large
(b) To achieve fast response
– making sure crossover frequency of open–loop
plot is large or large close–loop bandwidth
EXAMPLE in using linear analysis in MATLAB
) 1 s 1 . 0 ( s
100
G
OL
+
=
1
0.1s+1
Tra nsfe r Fcn
1
s
Inte gra tor
-K-
Ga in
100
0.1s +s
2
Tra nsfe r Fcn
EXAMPLE in using linear analysis in MATLAB
EXAMPLE in using linear analysis in MATLAB
Select Bode as response type in Plot Configurations window
Try to place input point at several different positions. For
each position, obtain the plot using the Simulink →get
linearized model
1
0.1s+1
Tra nsfe r Fcn
Output Point
1
s
Inte gra tor
Input Point
-K-
Ga in
1
0.1s+1
Tra nsfe r Fcn
Output Point
1
s
Inte gra tor
Input Point
-K-
Ga in
1
0.1s+1
Tra nsfe r Fcn
Output Point
1
s
Inte gra tor
Input Point
-K-
Ga in
EXAMPLE in using linear analysis in MATLAB
Bode Diagram
Frequency (rad/s ec)
-100
-50
0
50
100
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
-180
-135
-90
-45
0
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
EXAMPLE in using linear analysis in MATLAB
1
0.1s+1
Tra nsfe r Fcn
Output Point
1
s
Inte gra tor
Input Point
-K-
Ga in
Bode Diagram
Frequency (rad/s ec)
-100
-50
0
50
100
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
-180
-135
-90
-45
0
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
Crossover frequency
approximates close–
loop bandwidth
EXAMPLE in using linear analysis in MATLAB
PI controller
s
s
1 k
p
i
k
k
i










+
• Contain a zero and a pole at origin
• DC gain can be adjusted independently from
location of zero
Transfer function
EXAMPLE in using linear analysis in MATLAB
PI controller
Output Point
1
s
Inte gra tor
Input Point
0.1
Ga in1
1
Ga in
Bode Diagram
Frequency (rad/s ec)
-100
-50
0
50
100
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
-90
-45
0
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
ki=1, kp=0.1
ki=100, kp=10
http://encon.fke.utm.my/courses/mep1422/dc_m2_large_torque.mdl
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1
PEMACU MOTOR ARUHAN

Mot or aruhan ï%LQDDQGDQSULQVLSRSHUDVLUHYLVLRQ
Mot or a r u h a n t er dir i da r i s t a t or da n r ot or
Pa da s t a t or t er da pa t belit a n 3 fa s a ya n g dis a mbu n g kepa da beka la n volt a n 3 fa s a (a , b, da n c)
Seca r a a m, t er da pa t du a jen is r ot or : s qu ir r el ca ge (s a n gka r t u pa i) da n wou n d (ber belit )
















Bila volt a n s in u s oida l t iga fa s a s eimba n g diken a ka n , a ka n t er ben t u k flu ks ma gn et pa da s ela
u da r a ya n g ber pu t a r den ga n kela ju a n :

f 2
p
2
s
π · ω r a d/ s (1)

ωs – diken a li s eba ga i fr eku en s i s eger a k (s yn ch r on ou s fr equ en cy)
f – ia la h fr eku en s i beka la n t iga fa s a pa da s t a t or
p – ia la h bila n ga n ku t u b

Flu x s ela u da r a ber pu t a r in i a ka n men ga r u h ka n dge pa da pen ga lir r ot or . Ar u s a ka n t er h a s il
pa da pen ga lir r ot or da n a ka n ber in t er a ks i den ga n flu ks s ela u da r a ber pu t a r u n t u k
men gh a s ilka n da ya kila s ya n g a ka n memu t a r ka n r ot or . Oleh it u la ju r ot or s en t ia s a ku r a n g da r i
la ju s eger a k.

Per beza a n la ju in i diken a li s eba ga i la ju gelin cir a n (s lip s peed).

ωs l = ωs – ωr (2)

Nis ba h la ju gelin cir a n kepa da la ju s eger a k ia la h gelin cir a n .

s
r s
s
ω
ω − ω
· (3)

Flu ks s ela u da r a ya n g ber pu t a r ju ga a ka n men ga r u h ka n dge pa da belit a n s t a t or ya n g diken a li
s eba ga i dge ba lika n (ba ck emf) a t a u volt a n s ela u da r a (a ir ga p volt a ge).

Volt a n s ela u da r a ya n g t er a r u h diber i oleh :

Eag = k f φag (4)

J ika Vs ia la h volt a n per -fa s a ya n g diken a ka n pa da belit a n s t a t or da n Is ia la h a r u s belit a n
s t a t or , per s a ma a n lit a r s t a t or ia la h :

a
b
b’
c
c’
x
x
x

• •
2
Vs = Rs Is + j(2πf)Lls + Eag (5)


d. g. e. ya n g t er a r u h pa da r ot or a da la h dis eba bka n oleh flu ks ma gn et ya n g s a ma t a pi pa da
fr eku en s i gelin cir a n da n ia boleh dit u lis s eba ga i:

Er = k s f φag = s Eag (6)

Oleh it u , per s a ma a n u n t u k lit a r r ot or ia la h :

Er = s Eag = Rr Ir + js (2πf)Llr (7)

J ika kedu a -du a bela h per s a ma a n diba h a gi den ga n s ,

lr r
r
a g
L ) f 2 ( j I
s
R
E π + · ⇒ (8)













Lit a r s et a r a per fa s a


Rs – Rin t a n ga n belit a n s t a t or
Rr – Rin t a n ga n pen ga lir r ot or
Lls – Kea r u h a n bocor belit a n s t a t or
Llr – Kea r u h a n bocor belit a n r ot or
Lm – Kea r u h a n kema gn et a n
s – gelin cir a n


Rot or t ida k mempu n ya i s u mber ku a s a , oleh it u ku a s a ya n g dipin da h ka n da r i lit a r s t a t or ke lit a r
r ot or diken a li s eba ga i ku a s a s ela u da r a (a ir -ga p power ) da n diber i oleh :










Ku a s a meka n ika l boleh dit u lis da la m s ebu t a n da ya kila s da n la ju r ot or s eba ga i:

Pm = Tem ωr

Ta pi s ωs = ωs - ωr ⇒ ωr = (1-s )ωs
+

Vs


Rs
Lls
Llr
Rr
s
+

Eag


Is Ir
Im
Lm
Hila n g
pa da Rr Dit u ka r kepa da ku a s a meka n ika l
Pm = (1- s )Pag

[ ] s 1
s
R
I 3 R I 3
s
R
I 3 P
r 2
r r
2
r
r 2
r a g
− + · ·
3

∴ Pag = Tem ωs


Oleh it u
s
r
2
r
s
a g
em
s
R I 3
P
T
ω
·
ω
·

J ika
( )
lr ls
r
s
s
r
X X j
s
R
R
V
I
+ + +
· , da ya kila s boleh dit u lis s eba ga i:


( )
2
lr ls
2
r
s
2
s
s
r
em
X X
s
R
R
V
s
R 3
T
+ +
,
`

.
|
+
ω
·



Ben t u k la zim cir i T-ω u n t u k mot or a r u h a n :
























Gelin cir a n s ema s a da ya kila s ma ks imu m diber i oleh :

( )
2
lr ls
2
s
r
m
X X R
R
s
+ +
t ·


Nila i da ya kila s ma ks ima (pu ll-ou t t or qu e):

( )
]
]
]
]

+ + t
ω
·
2
lr ls
2
s s
2
s
s
ma x
X X R R
V
s
3
T
0 ωr at ed ωs
1 0
ωr
s
Tm,r at ed
Pu ll ou t
Tor qu e
Tem
4


Kawalan laju mot or aruhan

Ter da pa t beber a pa ka eda h ka wa la n la ju :

(i) Pole ch a n gin g ¬ ncnuIar IIIangan IuIuI
La ju s eger a k ber ga n t u n g kepa da bila n ga n ku t u b
Den ga n men u ka r s a mbu n ga n pa da belit a n , bila n ga n ku t u b boleh diu ba h .

(ii) Va r ia ble volt a ge, fixed fr equ en cy
Ma gn it u d volt a n dika wa l, fr eku en s i t et a p, e. g. men ggu n a ka n t r a n s for mer .
























(iii) Va r ia ble ma gn it u de va r ia ble fr equ en cy

Ma gn it u d volt a n beka la n dit u ka r ber ka da r a n den ga n fr eku en s i da n mer u pa ka n ka ea da h ya n g
pa lin g popu la r digu n a ka n da la m pema cu ka wa la n la ju mot or a r u h a n . Un t u k s ya n g kecil da n
φag ya n g t et a p, boleh dit u n ju kka n h u bu n ga n di a n t a r a da ya kila s da n la ju gelin cir a n (s lip s peed)
a da la h lin ea r

Un t u k men geka lka n flu ks s ela u da r a pa da n ila i ka da r a n , bila volt a n diu ba h , fr eku en s i ju ga
per lu diu ba h :

Eag = k f φag

Oleh u n t u k men gh a s ilka n φag ya n g ma la r pa da n ila i ka da r a n , n is ba h
f
E
a g
h a r u s la h ma la r . J ika
keja t u h a n volt a n pa da Rs da n Xls a da la h kecil diba n din gka n den ga n Vs ,

f
V
f
E
s
a g


Volt a n beka la n diu ba h s eca r a ber ka da r a n den ga n la ju a t a u fr equ en s i s eh in gga la ju ka da r a n .

TL
T
ωr
Lower s peed gives
h igh er s lip ∴ les s
efficien t
5
Un t u k ω > ωr at ed, ma gn it u d volt a n dit et a pka n t a pi fr eku en s i din a ikka n , oleh it u torque capability
men gu r a n g ker a n a flu ks mu la men gu r a n g



















Bila la ju kecil, keja t u h a n volt a n oleh Rs da n Xls a da la h bes a r jika diba n din gkn den ga n Vs . Oleh
it u kebia s a a n n ya Vs din a ikka n lebih bes a r s edikit (boos t ) s ema s a fr equ en s i r en da h

Cir i T-ω bila ma gn it u d Vs da n f diu ba h ber ka da r a n





























Ba ga ima n a ka h ma gn it u d da n fr eku en s i dika wa l s er en t a k ?
Men ggu n a ka n Pu ls e Widt h Modu la t ion (PWM) In ver t er


T
T,r at ed
TL
ωr
ωr ,r at ed
ωs ,r at ed
Vs
ωr
Vs
f
Vs , r at ed
fr at ed
6












Example 1
400 V, 50 Hz 4¬¡oIc 1370 r pm
Rs = 2 Ω, Rr = 3 Ω, Xls = Xlr = 3. 5 Ω

Mot or is con t r olled by a volt a ge s ou r ce in ver t er wit h con s t a n t V/ f.

Ca lcu la t e:
(a ) Speed for fr equ en cy of 30 Hz a n d 80% of fu ll loa d
(b) Fr equ en cy for a s peed of 1000 r pm a n d fu ll loa d t or qu e
(c) Tor qu e for a fr equ en cy of 40 Hz a n d s peed of 1100 r pm


(a )




















8 . 0 , s lip
r a t ed
r a t ed , s lip
r a t ed
N
T 8 . 0
N
T
·



Ns lip,r at ed = Ns ¬ Nr ,r at ed = 1500 ¬ 1370 ÷ 130 r¡n

r pm 104 ) 130 ( 8 . 0 N
T
T 8 . 0
N
r a t ed , s lip
r a t ed
r a t ed
8 . 0 , s lip
· · · ∴


Pa da 30 Hz, la ju s eger a k ia la h 30 x 60 = 1800/ 2 = 900 r pm

Fixed AC.
Va r ia ble volt a ge
Va r ia ble fr eq.
IM
PWM in ver t er
AC–DC
(r ect ifier )
Con t r ol
(f a n d V)
50 Hz 30 Hz
Tr at ed
0. 8 Tr at ed
1500
Ra t ed
s lip
s peed
Ns lip,0.8
7
∴Nr = Ns ¬ Ns lip = 900 ¬104 = 796 r pm

(b)



















Ns = 130 + 1000 = 1130 r pm

∴ f = 37. 67 Hz



(c)























∴ Ns = 1200 r pm


Ns lip = 1200 ¬1100 ÷ 100 r¡n


50 Hz ? Hz
Tr at ed
1500
Ns lip,ra t ed
= 130
1000 Ns
Ns lip,ra t ed
= 130
r pm
1370
60 f
p
2
N
s
× ·
50 Hz 40 Hz
Tr at ed
T = ?
1500
Ns lip,ra t ed
= 130 r pm
1100
Ns
Ns lip
1370
60 f
p
2
N
s
× ·
8

∴T = 0. 769 Tr at ed Tr at ed = ?


Tr at ed diper oleh i da r i :




Tr at ed = 38. 06 Nm

∴ Da ya kila s pa da 40 Hz, la ju 1100 r pm ia la h T = 0. 769 (38. 06) = 29. 267 Nm


Example 2

A 4–pole, 3-phase, 50 Hz IM, 1460 rpm has a rated torque of 20 Nm. It is used
to drive a load with characteristic given by T
L
= Kω
2
, such that the speed
equals rated value at rated torque. If a constant V/Hz control method is used,
find the speed of motor at 0.5 rated torque.

If the starting torque of 1.1 times the rated is required, what should be the
starting frequency?

























ω
slip,r
= 1500 – 1460 = 40 rpm or 4.19 rad/s

a) Load torque is given by:

T
L
= Kω
2


1460 rpm ⇒ 152.9 rad/s
20 = K(152.9)
2




100
T
130
T
r a t ed
·
( )
2
lr ls
2
r
s
2
s
s
r
em
X X
s
R
R
V
s
R 3
T
+ +

,
`

.
|
+
ω
·
TL = K ω
2
T
L
(Nm)
ω(rad/s)
T
rated
Z
slip,r
Z
syn,r
Z
r,r
50 Hz
0.5 T
rated
9
⇒ K = 20/(152.9)
2






∴ at 0.5 rated torque, the speed is 108.11 rad/s



Motor T-ω is obtained as follows:









Therefore at 0.5 T
rated
and speed of 108.11 rad/s




∴ ω
syn
= 110.2 ⇒ f

= 35 Hz
































At start-up,
2
2
L
9 . 152
20
T ω ·
r s yn
e
r , r r , s yn
r a t ed
s lip
r a t ed
T
77 . 4
T T
ω − ω
· ·
ω − ω
·
ω
r syn e
77 . 4 77 . 4 T ω − ω ·
) 11 . 108 ( 77 . 4 77 . 4 10
s yn
− ω ·
TL = K ω
2
T
L
(Nm)
ω(rad/s)
T
rated
Z
slip,r
Z
syn,r
Z
r,r
50 Hz
1.1(T
rated
)
Z
slip
= Z
syn
19 . 4
T T 1 . 1
r a t ed
s lip
r a t ed
·
ω
61 . 4 ) 1 . 1 ( 19 . 4
syn syn slip
· · ω ∴ ω · ω
1 0
SCALAR CONTROL OF IM

We have seen that applying balanced, sinusoidal 3-phase supply to a 3-phase
sinusoidally distributed winding produces a rotating mmf wave and hence
rotating magnetic flux. The rotating magnetic flux will induce emf on the
rotor circuit, which is shorted for squirell cage rotor. Rotor current will
flow and interact with the rotating flux, producing torque.














Per-phase steady state equivalent circuit


To ensure maximum torque capability at all time it is therefore necessary to
maintain the magnetic flux at its rated value at any frequency. From the
steady state equivalent circuit, this is equivalent to maintaining the
magnetizing current at its rated value.

The flux can be maintained constant at its rated by maintaining the ratio E
g
/f
constant. At high speed, where the induced back emf is large, the drop across
the stator leakage and resistance is negligibly small.- therefore E
g
/f is
maintained constant by maintaining V/f constant. However at low speed, the
back emf is low and the drop is significant. Thus the flux is reduced below
rated – torque capability is also reduced.


Simulation results with constant V/f



The performance can be improved by:

(i) Boosting the voltage at low frequency:

s
p
e
e
d
-

r
a
d
/
s

t
o
r
q
u
e

-

N
m

Im
Rs
Rr / s
Lr l
Ls l
Lm
+

V


+

Eg


1 1



To accurately boost the voltage, stator current needs to be measured. The
voltage drop drop is calculated and added to stator voltage on-line


ii) Control the stator current such that constant magnetising current is
maintained. This is achieved by using a current-controlled voltage source
inverter.

m
r
lr
r
m lr
1
1
r
m lr
r
lr
m
I
s
R
L j
s
R
) L L ( j
I
I
s
R
) L L ( j
s
R
L j
I
+ ω
+ + ω
· ⇒
+ + ω
+ ω
·


Introducing σ
r
= rotor leakage factor, which gives, L
lr
= σ
r
L
m
,

, I
1 T
1
j
1 T j
I
I
s
R
L
1
j
s
R
L j
I
m
r
r
r
s lip
r s lip
1
m
r
r
r
r
r
r
1
+

,
`

.
|
σ +
σ
ω
+ ω
·
+

,
`

.
|
σ +
σ
ω
+ ω
·


Where T
r
= L
r
/R
r
and ω
slip
= ω - ω
r
= sω
The method depends on the rotor parameters, which vary with temperature.


Open-loop V/f control
1 2

For low cost, low performance drive, open-loop constant V/f control is
normally employed. With open-loop speed control, the rotor speed will be less
than the synchronous speed by slip speed. In other words, the desired speed,
ω*, will differ from the actual speed by slip speed. The slip speed on the
other hand, depends on load. To improve the performance or the speed
regulation, slip speed can be estimated and added to the reference speed –
slip compensation technique. Typical arrangement is shown below:




































How is the slip speed estimated?

The slip frequency is proportional to the torque, hence it can estimated by
estimating the torque. The torque is estimated from,

T
e
= P
ag

syn
VSI
Rectifier
3-phase
supply
IM
Pulse
Width
Modulator
V
boost

Slip speed
calculator
ω*
+
+
+
+
V
V
dc
I
dc
Ramp
1 3

P
ag
is

estimated by subtracting the input DC power with the inverter and stator
copper losses.



Closed-loop speed control

Speed regulation can be improved by employing closed-loop speed control system
with tachometer feedback, as shown below.







The reference and actual speed are compared. The error is fed to the speed
controller which defines the inverter frequency. The current limit is
activated only when current exceeds the maximum allowable value. The signal
generated by the current limit block will reduce the rate by which the
inverter frequency is increased. This is to avoid the frequency from reaching
the breakdown frequency.


Further readings:
Power Electronic Control of AC Motors – J.M.D. Murphy and F.G. Turnbull,
Pergamon Press



1
Modelling of 3-phase Induction Machine (IM)

The steady state model of IM, which is represented by a steady state per phase equivalent
circuit introduced in the undergraduate courses, describes the steady state behaviour of
the IM. It is used when steady state analysis, such as efficiency, losses, steady state
torque, current, fluxes need to be evaluated. The model assumes input to be a balanced, 3-
phase steady state sinusoidal voltage. If the IM is fed by power electronic converters,
the steady state analysis can be performed by representing the pulse-width modulated
waveform of the inverter using Fourier series. Steady state model of IM is also used to
derive the control signals used for scalar control drives. Since the model only valid in
steady state condition, such drive normally has a poor transient performance. Applications
not requiring good transient response such as fans, blowers or compressors, normally
employ such control technique. Dynamic model on the other hand, describes the transient as
well as the steady state behaviour of the IM. Using the dynamic model, the transients of
IM, which cannot be analysed using steady state equivalent model, can be predicted and
studied. The model can be used to simulate the IM drives and evaluate their transient
performances, including that of using the scalar control technique. Dynamic model is also
essential when developing high performance control techniques for IM drives, such as
vector control or direct torque control drives. A dynamic model of IM must contain effect
of the magnetic coupling between stator phase circuits and the rotor phase circuits, as
well as coupling between phases of each circuit. This will undoubtedly result in a huge
number and complex equations, which are difficult to manage. By using space vector
equations, however, these complex equations are simplified and reduced. We will now
develop a dynamic model of an IM using mathematical equations based on space vectors or
space phasors (these terms will be defined later on).



System equations

Figure 1 shows the conceptual representation of a 3-phase, 2 poles induction machine. The
magnetic axis of each winding is represented by an inductor symbol. As usual the angles
between windings of each phase are 120
o
. The angle between rotor’s phase a axis and
stator’s phase a axis is given by θ
r
. The equation describing the stator and rotor
circuits can be written as:

v
abcs
= R
s
i
abcs
+ d(ψ ψψ ψ
abcs
)/dt (1)

v
abcr
= R
r
i
abcr
+ d(ψ ψψ ψ
abr
)/dt (2)


where,

Ψ
Ψ
Ψ
= Ψ

=

=
cs
bs
as
abcs
cs
bs
as
abcs
cs
bs
as
abcs
i
i
i
i
v
v
v
v and

Ψ
Ψ
Ψ
= Ψ

=

=
cr
br
ar
abcs
cr
br
ar
abcr
cr
br
ar
abcr
i
i
i
i
v
v
v
v

It is clear that since the displacements between various windings of all the phases are
non-quadrature, there exists magnetic coupling between them. The stator and rotor flux
linkages (ψ
abcs
and ψ
abcs
)of equations (1) and (2) are contributed by the stator and rotor
currents. Thus:


r , abcs s , abcs abcs
Ψ + Ψ = Ψ (3)
s , abcr r , abcr abcr
Ψ + Ψ = Ψ (4)






2








































ψ
abcs,s
and ψ
abcs,r
are the components of the stator flux linkage caused by stator and rotor
currents (phase a, b and c) respectively, and, ψ
abcr,r
and ψ
abcr,s
are the components of the
rotor flux linkage caused by rotor and stator currents (phase a, b and c) respectively
These flux linkages can be written in terms of the inductances and respective currents.

= Ψ
cs
bs
as
cs bcs acs
bcs bs abs
acs abs as
s , abcs
i
i
i
L L L
L L L
L L L
(5)

= Ψ
cr
br
ar
cr , cs br , cs ar , cs
cr , bs br , bs ar , bs
cr , as br , as ar , as
r , abcs
i
i
i
L L L
L L L
L L L
(6)

= Ψ
cr
br
ar
cr bcr acr
bcr br abr
acr abr ar
r , abcr
i
i
i
L L L
L L L
L L L
(7)


stator, b
rotor, b
rotor, a
stator, a
rotor, c
stator, c
ξ = 0
θ
r

Figure 1
3

= Ψ
cs
bs
as
cs , cr bs , cr as , cr
cs , br bs , br as , br
cs , ar bs , ar as , ar
s , abcr
i
i
i
L L L
L L L
L L L
(8)

In equation (5), L
as
, L
bs
and L
cs
are the self inductances of phases a, b and c
respectively. The self inductance consists of magnetising and leakage inductance.

L
as
= L
ms
+ L
ls
. L
bs
= L
ms
+ L
ls
. L
cs
= L
ms
+ L
ls
.

L
abs
, L
bcs
, L
acs
in equation (5), are the mutual inductances between stator phases.

For symmetrical winding, which is normally the case, magnetising and leakage as well as
mutual inductances for each phase are equal.

It can be shown that the magnetizing and the mutual inductances are given by:

|
.
|

\
|
π
|
|
.
|

\
|
µ =
4 g
rl
N L
2
s o ms

2
L
8 g
rl
N L L L
ms 2
s o acs bcs abs
− =
|
.
|

\
|
π
|
|
.
|

\
|
µ − = = = (9)


Thus equation (5) can be written as:

+ − −
− + −
− − +
= Ψ
cs
bs
as
ls ms
ms ms
ms
ls ms
ms
ms ms
ls ms
s , abcs
i
i
i
L L
2
L
2
L
2
L
L L
2
L
2
L
2
L
L L
(10)


The mutual inductances between the stator and rotor windings in (6) and (8) depend on the
rotor position, θ
r
and it can be shown that they can be written as:


( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

θ
π
− θ
π
+ θ
π
+ θ θ
π
− θ
π
− θ
π
+ θ θ
= Ψ
cr
br
ar
r r r
r r r
r r r
ms
s
r
r , abcs
i
i
i
cos
3
2
cos
3
2
cos
3
2
cos cos
3
2
cos
3
2
cos
3
2
cos cos
L
N
N
(11)



( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

θ
π
+ θ
π
− θ
π
− θ θ
π
+ θ
π
+ θ
π
− θ θ
= Ψ
cs
bs
as
r r r
r r r
r r r
ms
s
r
s , abcr
i
i
i
cos
3
2
cos
3
2
cos
3
2
cos cos
3
2
cos
3
2
cos
3
2
cos cos
L
N
N
(12)



Space phasors representation of induction machine

Equations (1)-(8) give the complete description of the electrical characteristics of an
induction machine. There are six circuits that describe the 3-phase induction machine and
each of them coupled to one another. Although the determinations of the inductances are
quite straight forward, however, the number of equations involved is large. We will now
develop a model of the induction machine which is based on space phasors or space vectors
and valid under steady state and transient conditions. By doing so, the number of
equations is significantly reduced.
4
If the permeability of the core is assumed infintely large, all the mmf drops will appear
across the airgap. Therefore, the stator airgap MMF of a sinusoidally distributed winding
for phase a can be written as:
) cos( i
2
N
as
s
as
α − ξ = ℑ (13)

ξ is any angle where ξ=0 coincide with the magnetic axis of stator winding phase a. α is
the angle in which airgap mmf is maximum. i
as
is the stator phase a current. If α = 0 then
equation (9) can be written as:

ξ = ℑ cos i
2
N
as
s
as
(14)
Phases b and c are spatially separated from phase a by 120
o
. Thus airgap mmf of phase b
and c are given by:

)
3
2
cos( i
2
N
bs
s
bs
π
− ξ = ℑ (15)
)
3
2
cos( i
2
N
cs
s
cs
π
+ ξ = ℑ (16)
The total airgap mmf
)
3
2
cos( i
2
N
)
3
2
cos( i
2
N
cos i
2
N
cs
s
bs
s
as
s
abcs
π
+ ξ +
π
− ξ + ξ = ℑ (17)

Using Euler’s identity and with some mathematical manupulation, it can be shown that:

( ) ( ) { }
ξ − ξ
+ + + + + = ℑ
j
cs
2
bs as
j
cs bs
2
as
s
abcs
e i a ai i e ai i a i
4
N
(18)

where a = e
j(2π/3)

This can be further reduced or written as:

{ }
ξ ξ −
+ = ℑ
j *
s
j
s
s
abcs
e i e i
4
N
2
3
(19)

The term
s
i is defined as the space phasor or complex space vector of the stator current.
It is given by:

( )
cs
2
bs as s
i a ai i
3
2
i + + = (20)

The physical current can be obtained from the space phasor by separating the space phasor
into its real and imaginary part. In most cases we can assume that i
as
+ i
bs
+ i
cs
= 0.
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + + − =
+ + + + =
) i i (
3
1
j i
) i i (
2
3
j ) i i (
2
1
i
3
2
) 240 sin j 240 (cos i ) 120 sin j 120 (cos i i
3
2
i
cs bs as
cs bs cs bs as
cs bs as s



Thus
[ ]
s as
i Re i = (21)

Similarly it can be shown that

5
[ ]
s
2
ls
i a Fc i = and [ ]
s cs
i a Fc i = (22)


Similar definitions can be made to the stator voltage, rotor current, stator flux and
rotor flux. Equations (1) and (2) therefore can be written as:

di
d
i F v
s
s s s
Ψ
+ = (23)
dt
d
i R v
r
r r r
Ψ
+ = (24)

s
Ψ is composed of components caused by stator and rotor currents as given by (3). In
space phasors, (3) can be written as:

r , s s , s s
Ψ + Ψ = Ψ (25)

s , s
Ψ is obtained by multiplying second and third rows of (5) with a and a
2
respectively.
Similarly,
r , s
Ψ can be obtained from (6). With some mathematical manipulations, it can be
shown that:

r
j '
r m s s s
e i L i L
θ
+ = Ψ (26)

Where L
s
= L
ls
+ L
m
, L
m
= 3/2L
ms
and
r
s
r '
r
i
N
N
i =
Similarly, it can be shown that the rotor flux linkage can be written as:

r j
s m
'
r r
'
r
e i L i L
θ −
+ = Ψ (27)

Note that the rotor current in (26) (i.e.
'
r
i ) , is the space vector referred to the
rotating rotor reference frame. However, the d and q components of
r j '
r
e i
θ
are expressed in
the stator stationary reference frame. This is illustrated in Figure 2. Therefore we can
define the rotor current referred to the stator stationary frame as

r
j '
r
s
r
e i i
θ
= (28)

Equation (26) can be written in stationary stator reference frame as:

s
r m
s
s s
s
s
i L i L + = Ψ (29)

Where the superscript ‘s’ referred to the stator reference frame.















r j '
r
'
r
e i i
ξ
=
) r r ( j '
r
s
r
e i i
θ + ξ
=
θ
r
ω
r
d
r
q
r
q
s
d
s
i
s
dr
i
s
qr
ξ
r
'
r
i
Figure 2
6
Similarly the term
r j
s
e i
θ −
in (27) is the stator current referred to rotating rotor frame.
This is illustrated in Figure 3.















Re-writing equations (23),(24),(26) and (27), the space vector equations to describe the
squirrel cage IM written in stationary stator frame can be written as follows:


dt
d
i R v
s
s s
s s
s
s
ψ
+ = (30a)
s
r r
s
r s
r r
j
dt
d
i R 0 ψ ω −
ψ
+ = (31a)
s
r m
s
s s
s
s
i L i L + = ψ (32a)
s
s m
s
r r
s
r
i L i L + = ψ (33a)


In a general reference frame rotating at angular speed of ω, these equations can be
written as:

g
s g
g
s g
s s
g
s
j
dt
d
i R v ψ ω +
ψ
+ = (30b)
g
r r g
g
r g
r r
) ( j
dt
d
i R 0 ψ ω − ω +
ψ
+ = (31b)
g
r m
g
s s
g
s
i L i L + = ψ (32b)
g
s m
g
r r
g
r
i L i L + = ψ (33b)


Torque equation

The product of the stator voltage and conjugate stator current space vectors is given by:

( ) ( )
cs bs
2
as cs
2
bs as
*
s s
ai i a i
3
2
v a av v
3
2
i v + + + + = (34)

After some mathematical manipulations, with the three phase currents sum to zero, it can
be shown that:

[ ] ( )
cs cs bs bs as as
*
s s
i v i v i v
3
2
i v Re + + = (35)

θ
r
ω
r
d
r
q
r
q
s
d
s
i
r
ds
i
r
qs
ξ
s
s
i
s j
s s
e i i
ξ
=
) r s ( j
s
r
s
e i i
θ − ξ
=
Figure 3
7
For a three phase induction machine without a neutral return, the power into the machine
can be written as:

[ ] ( ) [ ] ( )
*'
r
'
r
*
s s e
i v Re
2
3
i v Re
2
3
P + = (36)

Replacing the voltage vectors expressed in rotating general reference frame, it can be
shown that equation (36) can be expressed as:

[ ]
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+

+ ω − ω + + + ω +

+ + + + + =
'*
r s m
2
'
r m ls r
*
s r m
2
s m ls
2
'
r s m
2
'
r
'
lr
2
s
ls
2
'
r r
2
s s e
i i L i ) L L ( ) ( j i i L i ) L L ( j Re
2
3
i i L i
2
L
i
2
L
p
2
3
i r
2
3
i r
2
3
P
(37)

Equation (37) can be divided into three terms:

(i) Power dissipated in stator and rotor resistances
(ii) Time rate of change of stored energy
(iii) Power conversion from electrical to mechanical – responsible for torque
production


[ ]
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦

+ + ω − ω + + + ω =
'*
r s m
2
'
r m ls r
*
s r m
2
s m ls mech
i i L i ) L L ( ) ( j i i L i ) L L ( j Re
2
3
P (38)

The first and third terms of (38) have only imaginary components. Thus,


[ ] { } [ ] { }
'*
r s m r
'*
r s m
*
s r m
'*
r s m r
*
s r m mech
i i L j i i L i i L ( j Re
2
3
i i L ) ( j i i L ( j Re
2
3
P ω − + ω = ω − ω + ω = (39)

Since the term
'*
r s m
*
s r m
i i L i i L + has no imaginary part, the mechanical power reduces to:


{ }
'*
r s m r mech
i i L j Re
2
3
P ω − = (40)

Which can also be written as:

{ }
'*
r s m r mech
i i L Im
2
3
P ω = (41)

OR

[ ]
'
qr ds
'
dr qs m r mech
i i i i L
2
3
P − ω = (42)


The mechanical power is the product of torque and speed, and the mechanical rotor speed is
related to the rotor speed as ω
r
= (p/2)ω
rm
, thus from (42)


[ ]
'
qr ds
'
dr qs m e
i i i i L
2
p
2
3
T − = (43)





8
Simulation of induction machine (IM) with MATLAB/SIMULINK

For the purpose of simulation and microprocessor implementation, the space vectors
representation of the induction machine is converted to its equivalent d-q axis form.
Transforming equations (30)–(33) to their equivalent d-q axis forms in stationary
reference frame (ω
g
= 0), and re-arranging them into matrix form, the following is
obtained:

+ ω − ω −
ω + ω
+
+
=

rq
rd
sq
sd
r r r r m m r
r r r r m r m
m s s
m s s
rq
rd
sq
sd
i
i
i
i
sL R L sL L
L sL R L sL
sL 0 sL R 0
0 sL 0 sL R
v
v
v
v
(44)


‘s’in (44) represents the derivative operator d/dt. The space vectors equations can also
be put into state space forms with the choice of flux linkages or currents as state
variables. If the stator and rotor currents are chosen as the state variables, re-
arranging (44) the IM equation can be written as:



+

ω − − ω −
ω ω −
− ω ω
ω − − ω −

=

sq
sd
m
m
r
r
s r
2
m
rq
rd
sq
sd
s r s r r m s s m r
s r r s r s m r m s
m r r m r r s
2
m r
r m r m r sq
2
m r r s
s r
2
m
rq
rd
sq
sd
v
v
L 0
0 L
L 0
0 L
L L L
1
i
i
i
i
L R L L L R L L
L L L R L L L R
L R L L L R L
L L L R i L L R
L L L
1
i
i
i
i

(45)


Equations (43),(45) along with the mechanical torque equation, can be used to simulate the
IM using SIMULINK. The SIMULINK blocks used to simulate the IM is shown in Figure 4.



q
8
Te
7
Vq
6
i rq
5
Vd
4
speed
3
i rd
2
i sq
1
i sd
Sum
Mux
Mux
1/s
Integrator
In1 Out1
IM1
-K-
Gai n2
-K-
Gai n1
Demux
Demux
Tl oad
Constant
3to2
-K-
1/J1
-K-
1/J
3
Vc
2
Vb
1
Va

Figure 4
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Branch {
Points [0, 15; -35, 0]
DstBlock "Sum"
DstPort 1
}
Branch {
Points [70, 0; 0, -45]
DstBlock "Te"
DstPort 1
}
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Vc"
SrcPort 1
Points [20, 0; 0, -120]
DstBlock "3to2"
DstPort 3
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Vb"
SrcPort 1
Points [20, 0; 0, -20]
DstBlock "3to2"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Va"
SrcPort 1
Points [20, 0; 0, 40]
DstBlock "3to2"
DstPort 1
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}
Line {
SrcBlock "1/J"
SrcPort 1
Points [0, 0; -25, 0]
Branch {
Points [0, -175]
DstBlock "Mux"
DstPort 3
}
Branch {
Points [-15, 0; 0, 75]
Branch {
Points [0, 40]
DstBlock "Gain1"
DstPort 1
}
Branch {
DstBlock "load_C"
DstPort 1
}
}
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Mux"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "IM1"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "IM1"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Demux"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Sum"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Integrator"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Integrator"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "1/J"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Demux"
SrcPort 3
Points [30, 0; 0, 75]
DstBlock "irq"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Demux"
SrcPort 4
Points [25, 0; 0, 20]
DstBlock "ird"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Gain1"
SrcPort 1
Points [0, 0]
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DstBlock "speed"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "load_C"
SrcPort 1
Points [145, 0; 0, -75]
DstBlock "Sum"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Constant"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Sum"
DstPort 3
}
Annotation {
Name "q"
Position [482, 87]
VerticalAlignment "top"
}
}
}
Block {
BlockType Reference
Name "Manual Switch"
Ports [2, 1]
Position [150, 232, 180, 268]
SourceBlock "simulink/Signal\nRouting/Manual Switch"
SourceType "Manual Switch"
sw "0"
action "0"
}
Block {
BlockType Mux
Name "Mux"
Ports [2, 1]
Position [660, 41, 665, 79]
ShowName off
Inputs "2"
DisplayOption "bar"
}
Block {
BlockType RateLimiter
Name "Rate Limiter"
Position [170, 115, 200, 145]
RisingSlewLimit "50"
FallingSlewLimit "-50"
}
Block {
BlockType Scope
Name "Scope"
Ports [3]
Position [735, 104, 765, 136]
Location [357, 69, 795, 439]
Open on
NumInputPorts "3"
List {
ListType AxesTitles
axes1 "%<SignalLabel>"
axes2 "%<SignalLabel>"
axes3 "%<SignalLabel>"
}
List {
ListType SelectedSignals
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axes1 ""
axes2 ""
axes3 ""
}
TimeRange "1.5"
YMin "-10~-20~-50"
YMax "80~20~50"
DataFormat "StructureWithTime"
}
Block {
BlockType Scope
Name "Scope1"
Ports [4]
Position [455, 271, 490, 364]
Location [6, 204, 444, 564]
Open on
NumInputPorts "4"
List {
ListType AxesTitles
axes1 "%<SignalLabel>"
axes2 "%<SignalLabel>"
axes3 "%<SignalLabel>"
axes4 "%<SignalLabel>"
}
List {
ListType SelectedSignals
axes1 ""
axes2 ""
axes3 ""
axes4 ""
}
TimeRange "1.5"
YMin "-400~-400~-400~-5"
YMax "400~400~400~60"
SaveName "ScopeData1"
DataFormat "StructureWithTime"
}
Block {
BlockType Reference
Name "Slider\nGain1"
Ports [1, 1]
Position [100, 115, 130, 145]
SourceBlock "simulink/Math\nOperations/Slider\nGain"
SourceType "Slider Gain"
low "0"
gain "0.07"
high "1"
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Induction Machine"
SrcPort 8
Points [55, 0; 0, -60]
DstBlock "Scope"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Induction Machine"
SrcPort 2
Points [190, 0]
DstBlock "Scope"
DstPort 3
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Slider\nGain1"
SrcPort 1
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DstBlock "Rate Limiter"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Constant"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Slider\nGain1"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Constant V/Hz"
SrcPort 2
Points [0, 0; 70, 0]
Branch {
DstBlock "Induction Machine"
DstPort 2
}
Branch {
Points [0, 175]
DstBlock "Scope1"
DstPort 2
}
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Constant V/Hz"
SrcPort 1
Points [55, 0; 0, -20; 35, 0]
Branch {
DstBlock "Induction Machine"
DstPort 1
}
Branch {
Points [0, 195]
DstBlock "Scope1"
DstPort 1
}
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Constant V/Hz"
SrcPort 3
Points [0, 0; 40, 0]
Branch {
Points [15, 0; 0, 20]
DstBlock "Induction Machine"
DstPort 3
}
Branch {
Points [0, 175]
DstBlock "Scope1"
DstPort 3
}
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Rate Limiter"
SrcPort 1
Points [0, 0; 10, 0]
Branch {
Points [0, 225]
DstBlock "Scope1"
DstPort 4
}
Branch {
Points [25, 0]
Branch {
Points [15, 0]
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DstBlock "Constant V/Hz"
DstPort 1
}
Branch {
Points [0, -80]
DstBlock "Gain"
DstPort 1
}
}
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Constant1"
SrcPort 1
Points [0, -30]
DstBlock "Manual Switch"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Constant2"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Manual Switch"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Manual Switch"
SrcPort 1
Points [70, 0]
DstBlock "Constant V/Hz"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Mux"
SrcPort 1
Points [50, 0]
DstBlock "Scope"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Induction Machine"
SrcPort 4
Points [115, 0]
DstBlock "Mux"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Gain"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Mux"
DstPort 1
}
}
}
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http://encon.fke.utm.my/courses/mep1422/imch.c
/*
* sfuntmpl.c: Template C S-function source file.
*
* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
* | See matlabroot/simulink/src/sfuntmpl.doc for a more detailed template |
* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
*
* Copyright (c) 1990-97, by The MathWorks, Inc.
* All Rights Reserved
* $Revision 1.1 $
*/
/*
* You must specify the S_FUNCTION_NAME as the name of your S-function.
*/
#define S_FUNCTION_NAME imch
/* Input Arguments */
/*
* Need to include simstruc.h for the definition of the SimStruct and
* its associated macro definitions.
*/
/* #include "tmwtypes.h" */
#include "tmwtypes.h"
#include "simstruc.h"
#define Rs ssGetArg(S,0)
#define Rr ssGetArg(S,1)
#define Ls ssGetArg(S,2)
#define Lr ssGetArg(S,3)
#define Lm ssGetArg(S,4)
#define pole ssGetArg(S,5)
/*====================*
* S-function methods *
*====================*/
/* Function: mdlInitializeSizes ===============================================
* Abstract:
*
* The sizes information is used by SIMULINK to determine the S-function
* block's characteristics (number of inputs, outputs, states, etc.).
*
*/
static void mdlInitializeSizes(SimStruct *S)
{
ssSetNumContStates( S, 4); /* number of continuous states */
ssSetNumDiscStates( S, 0); /* number of discrete states */
ssSetNumInputs( S, 3); /* number of inputs */
ssSetNumOutputs( S, 5); /* number of outputs */
ssSetDirectFeedThrough(S, 0); /* direct feedthrough flag */
ssSetNumSampleTimes( S, 1); /* number of sample times */
ssSetNumInputArgs( S, 6);
ssSetNumRWork( S, 0); /* number of real work vector elements */
ssSetNumIWork( S, 0); /* number of integer work vector elements*/
ssSetNumPWork( S, 0); /* number of pointer work vector elements*/
ssSetNumModes( S, 0); /* number of mode work vector elements */
ssSetNumNonsampledZCs( S, 0); /* number of nonsampled zero crossings */
ssSetOptions( S, 0); /* general options (SS_OPTION_xx) */
}
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/* Function: mdlInitializeSampleTimes =========================================
*/
static void mdlInitializeSampleTimes(SimStruct *S)
{
ssSetSampleTime(S, 0, CONTINUOUS_SAMPLE_TIME);
ssSetOffsetTime(S, 0, 0.0);
}
/* Function: mdlInitializeConditions ==========================================
* Abstract:
*
* In this function, you should initialize the continuous and discrete
* states for your S-function block. The initial states are placed
* in the x0 variable. You can also perform any other initialization
* activities that your S-function may require.
*/
static void mdlInitializeConditions(real_T *x0, SimStruct *S)
{
int i;
for (i=0; i<4; i++){
*x0++ = 0.0;
}
}
/* Function: mdlOutputs =======================================================
* Abstract:
*
* In this function, you compute the outputs of your S-function
* block. The outputs are placed in the y variable.
*/
static void mdlOutputs(real_T *y, const real_T *x, const real_T *u,
SimStruct *S, int_T tid)
{
double lm;
double pl;
lm = mxGetPr(Lm)[0];
pl = mxGetPr(pole)[0];
y[0]=x[0];
y[1]=x[1];
y[2]=x[2];
y[3]=x[3];
y[4]=1.5*(pl/2)*lm*((x[0]*x[3])-(x[1]*x[2]));
}
static void mdlUpdate(real_T *x, const real_T *u, SimStruct *S, int_T tid)
{
}
/* Function: mdlDerivatives ===================================================
* Abstract:
*
* In this function, you compute the S-function block's derivatives.
* The derivatives are placed in the dx variable.
*/
static void mdlDerivatives(real_T *dx, const real_T *x, const real_T *u,
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http://encon.fke.utm.my/courses/mep1422/imch.c
SimStruct *S, int_T
tid)
/* x0=iq x1=id x2= iqr x3= idr u0=vq u1=vd u2=w */
{
double lr,ls,rr,rs,lm,a;
lm = mxGetPr(Lm)[0];
lr = mxGetPr(Lr)[0];
ls = mxGetPr(Ls)[0];
rr = mxGetPr(Rr)[0];
rs = mxGetPr(Rs)[0];
a=1/(lm*lm-lr*ls);
dx[0]=(u[2]*lm*lm*x[1]+rs*lr*x[0]+u[2]*lr*lm*x[3]-rr*lm*x[2]-lr*u[0])*a;
dx[1]=(rs*lr*x[1]-u[2]*lm*lm*x[0]-rr*lm*x[3]-u[2]*lr*lm*x[2]-lr*u[1])*a;
dx[2]=-(u[2]*lm*ls*x[1]+rs*lm*x[0]+u[2]*lr*ls*x[3]-rr*ls*x[2]-lm*u[0])*a;
dx[3]=-(rs*lm*x[1]-u[2]*lm*ls*x[0]-rr*ls*x[3]-u[2]*lr*ls*x[2]-lm*u[1])*a;
}
/* Function: mdlTerminate =====================================================
* Abstract:
*
* In this function, you should perform any actions that are necessary
* at the termination of a simulation. For example, if memory was allocated
* in mdlInitializeConditions, this is the place to free it.
*/
static void mdlTerminate(SimStruct *S)
{
/*
* YOUR CODE GOES HERE
*/
}
/*======================================================*
* See sfuntmpl.doc for the optional S-function methods *
*======================================================*/
/*=============================*
* Required S-function trailer *
*=============================*/
#ifdef MATLAB_MEX_FILE /* Is this file being compiled as a MEX-file? */
#include "simulink.c" /* MEX-file interface mechanism */
#else
#include "cg_sfun.h" /* Code generation registration function */
#endif
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FIELD-ORIENTED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MACHINE

TIc sicady siaic nodcl of induciion nacIinc (pcr pIasc cquivalcni circuiii dcscrilcs iIc sicady
siaic lcIavior of iIc nacIinc. TIis nodcl cannoi lc uscd io nodcl iIc iransicni siaic of iIc
nacIinc. TIc nodcl, wIicI can lc uscd io dcscrilc iIc dynanic or iransicni lcIavior of an IM, is
ncccssary if wc arc io dcvclop conirol siraicgics for IigI pcrfornancc drivc sysicn, sucI as
ficld¬oricnicd conirol or dircci iorquc conirol. TIc dynanic nodcl of iIc IM will lc lascd on
conplc× spacc vccior or spacc pIasor cquaiions.


Space Pbasor EquatIons

TIc analysis of iIc 3¬pIasc synncirical induciion nacIinc is norc convcnicnily carricd oui in
icrns of conplc× spacc vcciors, or spacc pIasor quaniiiics. TIc spacc pIasor is a ncans of
rcprcscniing any of iIc iIrcc pIasc variallcs (currcnis, voliagcs, nnf or flu×csi ly a singlc vccior
wIicI roiaics in spacc and is valid for loiI sicady siaic and iransicni opcraiions. Oncc in spacc
pIasor forns, iIc quaniiiics can lc casily c×prcsscd in iIcir iwo-a×is forns (d-q a×csi.

In gcncral if xa, xl, and xc arc iIc iIrcc pIasc quaniiiics, iIc spacc pIasor iIc 3 pIasc sysicns is
dcfincd as.

( )
c
2
l a
× a a× ×
3
2
× + + = , wIcrc u ÷ c
]2
π
/3
(1i

TIc cocfficicni 213 in (2.1i corrcsponds io iIc non-pouc) ínuu)íunt or unpíítudc ínuu)íunt
dcfiniiion of iIc spacc pIasor. In icrns of iis d and q a×cs, iIc spacc pIasor can lc convcnicnily
c×prcsscd as follows.

q d
j× × × + = (2i

TIc d and q a×is conponcnis arc rclaicd io iIc iIrcc pIasc quaniiiics ly scparaiing iIc
inaginary and rcal icrns of (2.1i, i.c.,

[ ] ( ) |
.
|

\
|
− − =

+ + = =
c l a c
2
l a d
×
2
1
×
2
1
×
3
2
× a a× ×
3
2
Fc × Fc × (3i

[ ] ( ) ( )
c l c
2
l a q
× ×
3
1
× a a× ×
3
2
In × In × − =

+ + = = (4i




Vector rotatIon

TIc siaior currcni spacc pIasor, c×prcsscd in siaiionary rcfcrcncc franc is givcn ly.

( )
sc
2
sl sa s
i a ai i
3
2
i + + = (5i

TIis cquaiion can lc wriiicn in a polar forn as follows.

s
j
s s
c i i
θ
= (6i

Sinilarly, roior currcni c×prcsscd in roior rcfcrcncc franc (wIicI is roiaiing ai ωri can lc wriiicn
as.
( )
rc
2
rl ra r
i a ai i
3
2
i + + = (7i

And iis corrcsponding polar forn as.

r
j
r r
c i i
θ
= (8i

TIc siaior and roior currcnis arc grapIically sIown in Figurc 1. ds-qs and dr-qr arc iIc d and q
a×cs of iIc siaiionary siaior rcfcrcncc franc and iIc roiaiing roior rcfcrcncc franc, rcspcciivcly.
















Figurc 1

Ii can sccn fron iIc figurc iIai iIc roior currcni can lc c×prcsscd in siaior siaiionary franc ly
sinply rcsolving ii io iIc d and q a×cs of iIc siaiionary franc, iIus

( ) ( ) α + θ + α + θ =
r r r r
s
r
sin ji cos i i
α θ
=
j j
r
s
r
e e i i
r

α
= ∴
j
r
s
r
c i i (9i


Lilcwisc, iIc siaior currcni can lc c×prcsscd in iIc roiaiing roior franc.

( ) ( ) α − θ + α − θ =
r s r s
r
s
sin ji cos i i
α − θ
=
j
s
j
s
r
s
c c i i (10i

α −
= ∴
j
s
r
s
c i i (11i

α j
c and
α − j
c arc lnown as iIc uccto) )otuto)s


InductIon MacbIne EquatIons In Space Pbasor

TIc IM can lc c×prcsscd using spacc pIasors ly iIc following cquaiions.

g
s g
g
s g
s s
g
s
j
di
d
i F v ψ ω +
ψ
+ = (12i
θs
θr
ωr
dr
qr
qs
ds
ir
is
α
g
r r g
g
r g
r r
i ( j
di
d
i F 0 ψ ω − ω +
ψ
+ = (13i
g
r n
g
s s
g
s
i L i L + = ψ (14i
g
s n
g
r r
g
r
i L i L + = ψ (15i

wIcrc ( )
sc
2
sl sa
g
s
v a v v
3
2
v + + = is iIc siaior voliagc spacc pIasor c×prcsscd in gcncral rcfcrcncc.
Sinilar dcfinaiions Iold for
g
r
g
r
, i ψ and
g
s
ψ . TIc supcrscripi 'g' siands for gcncral rcfcrcncc franc.
If iIc cquaiions arc c×prcsscd in iIc siaiionary siaior rcfcrcncc franc, iIcn ωg ÷ 0 and can lc
wriiicn as.

di
d
i F v
s
s s
s s
s
s
ψ
+ = (16i
s
r r
s
r s
r r
j
di
d
i F 0 ψ ω −
ψ
+ = (17i
s
r n
s
s s
s
s
i L i L + = ψ (18i
s
s n
s
r r
s
r
i L i L + = ψ (19i

In cquaiions (16i¬(19i, all quaniiiics arc wriiicn in iIc siaiionary siaior rcfcrcncc franc.


FIeId OrIented ControI oI IM

TIc clccironagnciic iorquc can lc c×prcsscd in scvcral forns. Ii can lc sIown iIai iIai iorquc
can lc c×prcsscd as.

s s c
i
2
p
2
3
T × ψ = (20i

Dy sulsiiiuiing iIc siaior flu× linlagc c×prcsscd in siaior and roior currcnis, iIc iorquc can lc
wriiicn as.

( )
s r n s s s s c
i i L i L
2
p
2
3
i
2
p
2
3
T × + = × ψ = (21i

WIicI sinplifics io.

i i i i i ( L
2
p
2
3
T
sd rq sq rd n c
− = (22i

TIc iorquc cquaiion can also lc wriiicn in icrns of roior flu× and siaior currcnis.

s r
r
n
c
i
L
L
2
p
2
3
T × ψ = (23i

In d-q a×is, (23i is givcn ly (24i,

i i i (
L
L
2
p
2
3
T
sd rq sq rd
r
n
c
ψ − ψ = (24i

Equaiion (24i rcprcscnis iorquc cquaiion c×prcsscd in a gcncral rcfcrcncc franc. TIis ncans iIai
iIc d-q a×is of iIc roior flu× and siaior currcni can lc roiaiing, ai any spccd.

In FOC wiiI roior flu× oricniaiion, iIc iorquc c×prcssion of cquaiion (24i is uscd and iIc cIoscn
rcfcrcncc franc is sucI iIai iIc d-a×is coincidcs wiiI iIc roior flu× nodulus wIicI roiaics ai
syncIronous spccd (Figurc 2i. TIis ncans iIai iIc q conponcni of iIc roior flu× is zcro, i.c.

r
rd r
ψ
ψ = ψ

0
r
rq
= ψ
ψ


TIcrcforc (24i can lc wriiicn as.

r
sq r
r
n
c
i
L
L
2
p
2
3
T
ψ
ψ = (25i














Figurc 2

TIc valucs of iIc d and q conponcnis of iIc roior flu× and siaior currcnis arc consianis in iIis
roiaiing rcfcrcncc franc. TIus iIc iorquc c×prcssion in (25i, as sccn in iIis rcfcrcncc franc, is
sinilar io iIc iorquc cquaiion of a scparaicly c×ciicd DC noior (cquaiion (25(lii,

Tc,dc ÷ lifia( (25li

In DC noior, iIc ficld is fi×cd and iIc iorquc is conirollcd ly conirolling iIc arnaiurc currcni in
ordcr io oliain a fasi iorquc rcsponsc. Sinilarly, in FOC, iIc flu× is fi×cd and a fasi iorquc
rcsponsc is oliaincd ly conirolling iIc q conponcni of iIc siaior currcni.
r
sq
i
ψ
.
TIc iorquc in (25i, is c×prcsscd in iIc syncIronous rcfcrcncc franc. For inplcncniaiion, iIc
rcfcrcncc valucs in iIis roiaiing franc nccd io lc c×prcsscd in iIc siaiionary rcfcrcncc franc. To
do iIc iransfornaiion, wc nccd io lnow iIc c×aci posiiion of iIc roior flu×. TIcrc arc iwo
iccIniqucs wIicI can lc uscd io oliain iIc roior flu× posiiion, wIicI sulscqucnily classifics iIc
FOC inio iwo iypcs.

(ii Indircci FOC

Fron (13i,
g
r r g
g
r g
r r
i ( j
di
d
i F 0 ψ ω − ω +
ψ
+ =

Sulsiiiuiing iIc roior currcni in (15i, wc Iavc,

r
ψ
r
d
ψ
r
q
ψ
s
i
r
sd
i
ψ
r
sq
i
ψ
s
sd
i
s
sq
i
s
d
s
q
g
r r g
g
r g
s
r
r n g
r
r
r
i ( j
di
d
i
L
F L
L
F
0 ψ ω − ω +
ψ
+ − ψ = (26i

In roior flu× rcfcrcncc franc (
r
rd r
ψ
ψ = ψ dan 0
r
rq
= ψ
ψ
i, cquaiion (26i can lc wriiicn as.

( )
r slip
r r
sq
r
sd
r
r n
r
r
r
i ( j
di
d
ji i
L
F L
L
F
0 ψ ω +
ψ
+ + − ψ =
ψ ψ
(27i

Scparaiing iIc rcal and inaginary paris.

di
d
i
L
F L
L
F
0
r r
sd
r
r n
r
r
r
ψ
+ − ψ =
ψ
(28i

r slip
r
sq
r
r n
i ( i
L
F L
0 ψ ω + − =
ψ
(29i


For indircci FOC, iIc syncIronous spccd is oliaincd ly adding iIc slip spccd (oliain fron iIc
rcfcrcnccsi io iIc ncasurcd roior posiiion (ii sIould lc noicd iIai iIc roior posiiion can also lc
csiinaicd fron iIc icrninal variallcs or oiIcrwisci. Any diffcrcnccs lciwccn iIc csiinaicd and
aciual valucs will dcgradc iIc drivc pcrfornanccs.

(iii Dircci FOC

In dircci FOC drivc, iIc roior flu× posiiion is oliaincd ciiIcr ly ncasurcncni or csiinaiion using
nacIinc cquaiions, lascd on iIc icrninal variallcs (i.c. currcnis and voliagcsi. TIc forncr is also
lnown as iIc flu× nodcl or olscrvcr. Nowadays, Iowcvcr, wiiI iIc availaliliiy of fasi
nicroproccssors, iIc flu× is nornally csiinaicd in rcal iinc using fasi digiial signal proccssors.
TIc flu× can lc csiinaicd fron (26i ÷ iIis ncans iIai iIc nodcl rcquircs roior spccd and siaior
currcni as iIc inpuis.

Figurc 3
Indircci FOC



Figurc 4

ReIerences

Novoiny, D.W, and Lipo, T.A. (1998i. ºVccior conirol and dynanics of AC drivcs" O×ford Univcrsiiy
Prcss, Ncw Yorl.

Vas, P. (1990i. ºVccior Conirol of AC MacIincs", O×ford Univcrsiiy Prcss, Ncw Yorl.

MurpIy, J. M. D. and Turnlull, F. C.(1987i. ºPowcr Elccironic Conirol of AC Moiors", Pcrganon
Prcss, O×ford.








1
STATOR FLUX FOC

In stator flux FOC, the frame chosen is aligned to the synchronously rotating frame
such that the d–axis coincide with stator flux space phasor.














Figure 1


The torque equation in general reference frame is given by:

(1)



(2)


In the chosen reference frame,
sd s
ψ = ψ and 0
sq
= ψ , hence (2) reduces to:


(3)


To implement the stator flux FOC using current–controlled VSI, we need to

i) derive the d and q components of the stator current reference values,
ii) obtain the stator flux position in order to transform the rotating frame
to stationary frame..

From (3), given T
e
*
and ψ
s
*
,the q component of the stator current in this reference
frame can be easily obtained. To look at the relation between i
sd
and ψ
s
we need to
examine the IM equations.

The induction machine in general reference frame is given by equations (4)–(7):

g
s g
g
s g
s s
g
s
j
di
d
i F v ψ ω +
ψ
+ = (4i
g
r r g
g
r g
r r
i ( j
di
d
i F 0 ψ ω − ω +
ψ
+ = (5i
g
r n
g
s s
g
s
i L i L + = ψ (6i
g
s n
g
r r
g
r
i L i L + = ψ (7)

Ψs
is
s
sd
i
ψ
s
sq
i
ψ
s
d
ψ
s
q
ψ
s
d
s
q
s s c
i
2
p
2
3
T × ψ =
( )
sd sq sq sd c
i i
2
p
2
3
T ψ − ψ =
( )
sq s c
i
2
p
2
3
T ψ =
2
Substitute (7) into (5)



(8)


The stator flux is obtained by substituting the rotor current (which in practice,
normally unavailable) from (6), into (8)

With mathematical manipulations and recognizing that in the reference frame where
only the d axis component of the stator flux exists, it can be shown that by
separating the real and imaginary terms and after substituting rotor current,
equation (8) is given by:

(9)



(10)


From (10), it can be seen that ψ
s
is proportional to i
sd
and i
sq
. There exists a
coupling between ψ
s
and i
sq
. Varying i
sq
to control the torque will result in ψ
s
to
vary too hence the torque will not react immediately to i
sq
.





















Figure 2

To overcome this problem, a de–coupler to compensate the effect of the i
sq

component from the output of the PI controller is can be designed [1].

[1] X. Xu, R. K. Doncker, D.W. Novotny, “A stator flux oriented Induction machine
drive”, IEEE-PESC, 1988.


( )
g
s n
g
r r r g
g
s n
g
r r g
r r
i L i L i ( j
di
i L i dL
i F 0 + ω − ω +
+
+ =
( ) ( ) 0 i L i L p 1
s s
sd s s r slip sq s r
= σ − ψ τ ω − στ +
ψ ψ
( ) ( ) 0 i L i L p 1 p 1
s s
sq s r slip sd s r s r
= σ τ ω − στ + = ψ τ +
ψ ψ
2 → 3


c
j
θ
s
Trcf
Ψrcf
flu×
rcgulaior
dc-couplcr
+
+
+

is
vs
isd
Ψs
θs
|ψs|
siaior
flu×
csiinaior
cqu (3i
isqd
isq
currcni
conirollcd
VSI
IM

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1
DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF IM

If a three phase VSI is connected to an IM, there can be eight possible
configurations of six switching devices within the inverter. As a result, there are
eight possible input voltage vectors to the IM. The eight voltage vectors, two of
which are zero vectors, are shown in Fig 1.
DTC utilises the eight possible stator voltage vectors, to control the stator
flux and torque to follow the reference values within the hysteresis bands. The
voltage space vector of a three-phase system is given by:

( )
π
= + + =
3
2
j
sC
2
sD sA 3
2
s
c a wIcrc , i i ( v a i i ( av i i ( v i i ( v (1)

v
sA
, v
sB
, and v
sC
are the instantaneous phase voltages.

For the switching VSI, it can be shown that for a DC link voltage of V
d
, the
voltage space vector is given by:

( )
π
= + + =
3
2
j
2
c l a d 3
2
s
c a wIcrc , a i i ( S a i i ( S i i ( S V i i ( v (2)

S
a
(t), S
b
(t) and S
c
(t) are the switching functions of each leg of the VSI, such that,

S
when upper switch is on
when lower switch is on
i
=

1
0
i ÷ a,l,c





Figure 1. Voltage vectors for 3-phase VSI


Direct Flux Control
The IM stator voltage equation is given by:

di
d
i F v
s
s s s
ψ
+ = (3)

Where v i and
s s s
, , ψ are the stator voltage, current and stator flux space vectors
respectively. According to equation (3), if the stator resistance is small and can
be neglected, the change in stator flux, ∆ψ
s
, will follow the stator voltage, i.e.,
∆ ∆ ψ
s s
v t = (4)

2
This simply means that the tip of the stator flux will follow that of the stator
voltage space vector multiplied by the small change in time. Hence if the stator
flux space vector (magnitude and angle) is known, its locus can be controlled by
selecting appropriate stator voltage vectors. In DTC the stator flux space vector
is obtained by calculation utilizing the motor terminal variables (stator voltages
and currents). The stator flux is forced to follow the reference value within a
hysteresis band by selecting the appropriate stator voltage vector using the
hysteresis comparator and selection table.


Direct Torque Control
As shown by Takahashi and Noguchi [1], under a condition of a constant mechanical
frequency and stator flux magnitude, when a step increase in the stator angular
frequency is applied at t=0, the rate of change of torque at time t=0 is
proportional to the slip frequency of the stator flux . Thus,

dT
dt
t
sl
t
=
=
0
0
α ω (5)

where ω
sl
is the instantaneous angular slip frequency

If the torque and stator flux is kept within their hysteresis bands by selecting
appropriate voltage vectors, an independent control over the torque and stator flux
is accomplished. If the stator flux space vector plane is divided into six sectors
or segments (Figure 2), a set of table or rules of which voltage vector should be
chosen in a particular sector (either to increase stator flux or to reduce stator
flux and either to increase torque or to reduce torque) can be constructed; such
table is given by Table 1.





Figure 2 Six sectors of stator flux plane




3
vs,3
vs,3
vs,3
vs,2
vs,4
vs,4
vs,3
vs,2
vs,6
vs,5
vs,4
vs,1
Table 1 Voltage vectors look-up table.

Counter cIockwIse Sec I Sec II Sec III Sec IV Sec V Sec VI
Inc Flu×
Inc T(01i 100 110 010 011 001 101
(0i Dcc T(00i 000 111 000 111 000 111
Dcc Fíux Inc T(01i 110 010 011 001 101 100
(1i Dcc T(00i 111 000 111 000 111 000
CIockwIse Sec I Sec II Sec III Sec IV Sec V Sec VI
Inc Flu×
Inc T(10i 001 101 100 110 010 011
(0i Dcc T(00i 000 111 000 111 000 111
Dcc Fíux Inc T(10i 011 001 101 100 110 010
(1i Dcc T(00i 111 000 111 000 111 000

























Figure 3 Flux control within the hysteresis band

















Figure 4 Basic DTC

í1| I.TalaIasIi, T. NogucIi, ºA ncw quicl-rcsponsc and IigI-cfficcicncy conirol siraicgy of an induciion noior", IEEE T)uns.
Ind. Appí., vol IA-22, No 5 Scpi1Oci 1986
Sector I
Sector II
Hustc)csís
Iund
Vo|tage vector
se|ector
Vo|tage
8ource
|nverter
8tator f|ux
and torque
est|mator
Tref
ψ ψψ ψref

|H
θ θθ θψ ψψ ψ
ψ ψψ ψ
T
+ Vdc -

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}
Block {
BlockType Integrator
ExternalReset "none"
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LimitOutput off
UpperSaturationLimit "inf"
LowerSaturationLimit "-inf"
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ShowStatePort off
AbsoluteTolerance "auto"
ZeroCross on
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Block {
BlockType Mux
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Block {
BlockType Outport
Port "1"
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Block {
BlockType Relay
OnSwitchValue "eps"
OffSwitchValue "eps"
OnOutputValue "1"
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OutputDataTypeScalingMode "All ports same datatype"
OutDataType "sfix(16)"
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ConRadixGroup "Use specified scaling"
ZeroCross on
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Block {
BlockType Scope
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ModelBased off
TickLabels "OneTimeTick"
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Grid "on"
TimeRange "auto"
YMin "-5"
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SaveName "ScopeData"
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Block {
BlockType "S-Function"
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}
Block {
BlockType SignalGenerator
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Block {
BlockType Step
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VectorParams1D on
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Block {
BlockType SubSystem
ShowPortLabels on
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RTWFcnNameOpts "Auto"
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SimViewingDevice off
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Block {
BlockType Sum
IconShape "rectangular"
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ShowAdditionalParam off
InputSameDT on
OutDataTypeMode "Same as first input"
OutDataType "sfix(16)"
OutScaling "2^0"
LockScale off
RndMeth "Floor"
SaturateOnIntegerOverflow on
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}
AnnotationDefaults {
HorizontalAlignment "center"
VerticalAlignment "middle"
ForegroundColor "black"
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DropShadow off
FontName "Helvetica"
FontSize 10
FontWeight "normal"
FontAngle "normal"
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FontName "Helvetica"
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FontWeight "normal"
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System {
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Open on
ModelBrowserVisibility off
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ModelBrowserWidth 200
ScreenColor "white"
PaperOrientation "landscape"
PaperPositionMode "auto"
PaperType "usletter"
PaperUnits "inches"
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ReportName "simulink-default.rpt"
Block {
BlockType SubSystem
Name "Induction Machine"
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Position [160, 63, 215, 192]
TreatAsAtomicUnit off
MaskPromptString "Stator resistance (ohm)|Rotor resistance (ohm)|"
"Stator self inductance (H)|Rotor self inductance (H)|Mutual Inductance (H)|No"
" of poles|Moment of inertia (kg.m^2)|Load torque (Nm)"
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MaskIconUnits "autoscale"
MaskValueString "5.5|4.51|306.5e-3|306.5e-3|291.9e-3|4|0.03|1"
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Name "Induction Machine"
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Open off
ModelBrowserVisibility off
ModelBrowserWidth 200
ScreenColor "white"
PaperOrientation "landscape"
PaperPositionMode "auto"
PaperType "usletter"
PaperUnits "inches"
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BlockType Inport
Name "Va"
Position [25, 40, 45, 60]
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Block {
BlockType Inport
Name "Vb"
Position [25, 120, 45, 140]
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}
Block {
BlockType Inport
Name "Vc"
Position [25, 240, 45, 260]
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Block {
BlockType Gain
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Position [260, 292, 285, 318]
Orientation "left"
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Gain "1/J"
SaturateOnIntegerOverflow off
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Block {
BlockType Gain
Name "1/J1"
Position [295, 347, 320, 373]
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SaturateOnIntegerOverflow off
}
Block {
BlockType SubSystem
Name "3to2"
Ports [3, 2]
Position [105, 81, 135, 139]
ShowPortLabels off
TreatAsAtomicUnit off
System {
Name "3to2"
Location [4, 42, 628, 468]
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ModelBrowserVisibility off
ModelBrowserWidth 200
ScreenColor "white"
PaperOrientation "landscape"
PaperPositionMode "auto"
PaperType "usletter"
PaperUnits "inches"
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BlockType Inport
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Position [15, 50, 35, 70]
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Block {
BlockType Inport
Name "in_2"
Position [15, 115, 35, 135]
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Block {
BlockType Inport
Name "in_3"
Position [15, 180, 35, 200]
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Block {
BlockType Gain
Name "Gain3"
Position [120, 248, 160, 272]
Gain "0.577"
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Block {
BlockType Gain
Name "Gain4"
Position [120, 298, 160, 322]
Gain "-0.577"
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Block {
BlockType Gain
Name "Gain5"
Position [145, 143, 185, 167]
Gain "-0.33333"
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Block {
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BlockType Gain
Name "Gain6"
Position [140, 183, 180, 207]
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Block {
BlockType Gain
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Position [135, 63, 175, 87]
Gain "0.66666"
}
Block {
BlockType Sum
Name "Ib"
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Position [240, 255, 260, 275]
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Block {
BlockType Sum
Name "Ib1"
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Position [260, 87, 280, 123]
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Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "d"
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BlockType Outport
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Line {
SrcBlock "Ib1"
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Points [15, 0; 0, -35]
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Line {
SrcBlock "Gain7"
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Points [30, 0; 0, 20]
DstBlock "Ib1"
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Line {
SrcBlock "in_1"
SrcPort 1
Points [40, 0; 0, 15]
DstBlock "Gain7"
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SrcBlock "Gain6"
SrcPort 1
Points [30, 0; 0, -90]
DstBlock "Ib1"
DstPort 2
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Line {
SrcBlock "Gain5"
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Points [25, 0; 0, -40]
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Line {
SrcBlock "in_3"
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Points [40, 0; 0, 5]
Branch {
DstBlock "Gain6"
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Branch {
Points [0, 115]
DstBlock "Gain4"
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}
}
Line {
SrcBlock "in_2"
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Points [20, 0; 0, 30]
Branch {
DstBlock "Gain5"
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Branch {
Points [0, 105]
DstBlock "Gain3"
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SrcBlock "Gain3"
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DstBlock "Ib"
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Line {
SrcBlock "Gain4"
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Points [30, 0; 0, -40]
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Line {
SrcBlock "Ib"
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DstBlock "q"
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Block {
BlockType Demux
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Position [420, 91, 460, 149]
Outputs "5"
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Block {
BlockType Gain
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Name "Gain1"
Position [150, 407, 175, 433]
Orientation "left"
Gain "2/pole"
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Block {
BlockType SubSystem
Name "IM1"
Ports [1, 1]
Position [320, 106, 380, 134]
TreatAsAtomicUnit off
System {
Name "IM1"
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Open off
ModelBrowserVisibility off
ModelBrowserWidth 200
ScreenColor "white"
PaperOrientation "landscape"
PaperPositionMode "auto"
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Block {
BlockType Inport
Name "In1"
Position [25, 33, 55, 47]
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Block {
BlockType "S-Function"
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Ports [1, 1]
Position [80, 25, 140, 55]
FunctionName "imch"
Parameters "Rs, Rr, Ls,Lr,Lm,pole"
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Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "Out1"
Position [165, 33, 195, 47]
InitialOutput "0"
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Line {
SrcBlock "In1"
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DstBlock "S-Function"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "S-Function"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Out1"
DstPort 1
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}
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Block {
BlockType Integrator
Name "Integrator"
Ports [1, 1]
Position [360, 295, 380, 315]
Orientation "left"
}
Block {
BlockType Mux
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Name "Mux"
Ports [3, 1]
Position [260, 104, 290, 136]
Inputs "3"
}
Block {
BlockType Sum
Name "Sum"
Ports [2, 1]
Position [440, 287, 460, 323]
Orientation "left"
Inputs "+-"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "isd"
Position [630, 25, 650, 45]
InitialOutput "0"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "isq"
Position [625, 70, 645, 90]
Port "2"
InitialOutput "0"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "ird"
Position [600, 140, 620, 160]
Port "3"
InitialOutput "0"
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Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "speed"
Position [90, 410, 110, 430]
Orientation "left"
Port "4"
InitialOutput "0"
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Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "Vd"
Position [265, 50, 285, 70]
Port "5"
InitialOutput "0"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "irq"
Position [595, 185, 615, 205]
Port "6"
InitialOutput "0"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "Vq"
Position [90, 285, 110, 305]
Orientation "left"
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InitialOutput "0"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
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Name "Te"
Position [715, 230, 735, 250]
Port "8"
InitialOutput "0"
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Line {
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SrcPort 1
Points [60, 0; 0, -20]
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DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "Demux"
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Points [65, 0; 0, -75]
DstBlock "isd"
DstPort 1
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Line {
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Points [0, 0]
Branch {
Points [0, 170]
DstBlock "Vq"
DstPort 1
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Branch {
Points [55, 0; 0, -15]
DstBlock "Mux"
DstPort 1
}
}
Line {
SrcBlock "3to2"
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Points [0, 0; 25, 0]
Branch {
Points [0, -35]
DstBlock "Vd"
DstPort 1
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Branch {
Points [30, 0; 0, 25]
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DstPort 2
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}
Line {
SrcBlock "Demux"
SrcPort 5
Points [45, 0; 0, 145]
Branch {
Points [0, 15; -35, 0]
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Branch {
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DstBlock "Te"
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Line {
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SrcBlock "Vc"
SrcPort 1
Points [20, 0; 0, -120]
DstBlock "3to2"
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Line {
SrcBlock "Vb"
SrcPort 1
Points [20, 0; 0, -20]
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Line {
SrcBlock "Va"
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Points [20, 0; 0, 40]
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SrcBlock "1/J"
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Points [0, 0; -25, 0]
Branch {
Points [0, -175]
DstBlock "Mux"
DstPort 3
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Branch {
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DstBlock "Gain1"
DstPort 1
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}
Line {
SrcBlock "Mux"
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DstBlock "IM1"
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Line {
SrcBlock "IM1"
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DstBlock "Demux"
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Line {
SrcBlock "Sum"
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Line {
SrcBlock "Integrator"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "1/J"
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Line {
SrcBlock "1/J1"
SrcPort 1
Points [190, 0; 0, -45]
DstBlock "Sum"
DstPort 2
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Line {
SrcBlock "Demux"
SrcPort 3
Points [30, 0; 0, 75]
DstBlock "irq"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "Demux"
SrcPort 4
Points [25, 0; 0, 20]
DstBlock "ird"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "Gain1"
SrcPort 1
Points [0, 0; -10, 0]
Branch {
DstBlock "speed"
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Branch {
Points [0, -60]
DstBlock "1/J1"
DstPort 1
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}
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VerticalAlignment "top"
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Block {
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Ports [1, 1]
Position [220, 355, 270, 375]
Orientation "left"
FunctionName "flxp2"
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Block {
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Name "Scope"
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Position [560, 214, 590, 246]
Location [249, 259, 660, 649]
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NumInputPorts "3"
ZoomMode "yonly"
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axes1 "%<SignalLabel>"
axes2 "%<SignalLabel>"
axes3 "%<SignalLabel>"
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axes2 ""
axes3 ""
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Position [560, 144, 590, 176]
Location [667, 408, 991, 647]
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ZoomMode "yonly"
List {
ListType AxesTitles
axes1 "%<SignalLabel>"
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List {
ListType SelectedSignals
axes1 ""
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TimeRange "0.01"
YMin "-0.1"
YMax "2"
SaveName "ScopeData1"
DataFormat "StructureWithTime"
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Block {
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Ports [1]
Position [325, 184, 355, 216]
Location [667, 110, 991, 349]
Open on
NumInputPorts "1"
ZoomMode "yonly"
List {
ListType AxesTitles
axes1 "%<SignalLabel>"
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List {
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axes1 ""
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TimeRange "0.01"
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YMax "20"
SaveName "ScopeData2"
DataFormat "StructureWithTime"
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Orientation "left"
WaveForm "square"
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Orientation "left"
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Time "0.001"
After "1.2"
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Block {
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Position [110, 286, 160, 384]
Orientation "left"
TreatAsAtomicUnit off
System {
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Open off
ModelBrowserVisibility off
ModelBrowserWidth 200
ScreenColor "white"
PaperOrientation "landscape"
PaperPositionMode "auto"
PaperType "usletter"
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Position [25, 35, 45, 55]
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Block {
BlockType Inport
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Port "2"
}
Block {
BlockType Inport
Name "Flx ang"
Position [25, 160, 45, 180]
Port "3"
}
Block {
BlockType Demux
Name "Demux"
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Position [280, 99, 320, 131]
Outputs "3"
}
Block {
BlockType Mux
Name "Mux"
Ports [3, 1]
Position [100, 99, 130, 131]
Inputs "3"
}
Block {
BlockType "S-Function"
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Ports [1, 1]
Position [180, 105, 230, 125]
FunctionName "select2"
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Block {
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InitialOutput "0"
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}
Block {
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Position [395, 105, 415, 125]
Port "2"
InitialOutput "0"
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Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "Sc"
Position [350, 170, 370, 190]
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InitialOutput "0"
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Line {
SrcBlock "Flx ang"
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DstBlock "Mux"
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Line {
SrcBlock "Demux"
SrcPort 3
Points [0, 55]
DstBlock "Sc"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "Flx,err"
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DstBlock "Mux"
DstPort 2
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Line {
SrcBlock "Demux"
SrcPort 2
DstBlock "Sb"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "T,err"
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DstBlock "Mux"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "Demux"
SrcPort 1
Points [0, -70]
DstBlock "Sa"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "Mux"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "S-Function1"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "S-Function1"
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DstBlock "Demux"
DstPort 1
}
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}
Block {
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Position [510, 307, 530, 343]
Orientation "left"
Inputs "-+"
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Block {
BlockType Sum
Name "Sum4"
Ports [2, 1]
Position [435, 380, 455, 400]
Orientation "left"
Inputs "+-"
}
Block {
BlockType SubSystem
Name "Voltage-controlled\nPWM-VSI1"
Ports [3, 3]
Position [70, 96, 100, 164]
ShowPortLabels off
TreatAsAtomicUnit off
System {
Name "Voltage-controlled\nPWM-VSI1"
Location [-23, 85, 764, 579]
Open off
ModelBrowserVisibility off
ModelBrowserWidth 200
ScreenColor "white"
PaperOrientation "landscape"
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PaperType "usletter"
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Block {
BlockType Inport
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Position [370, 60, 390, 80]
Orientation "left"
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Block {
BlockType Inport
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Position [390, 155, 410, 175]
Orientation "left"
Port "2"
}
Block {
BlockType Inport
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Position [395, 225, 415, 245]
Orientation "left"
Port "3"
}
Block {
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Block {
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BlockType Gain
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Block {
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Block {
BlockType Outport
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Position [160, 60, 180, 80]
Orientation "left"
InitialOutput "0"
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Block {
BlockType Outport
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Position [165, 155, 185, 175]
Orientation "left"
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InitialOutput "0"
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Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "out_3"
Position [175, 225, 195, 245]
Orientation "left"
Port "3"
InitialOutput "0"
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Line {
SrcBlock "in_5"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Gain3"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "in_6"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Gain1"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "in_7"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Gain2"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Gain3"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "out_1"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Gain1"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "out_2"
DstPort 1
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}
Line {
SrcBlock "Gain2"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "out_3"
DstPort 1
}
}
}
Block {
BlockType Relay
Name "flux\nhysterisis"
Position [335, 378, 365, 402]
Orientation "left"
OnSwitchValue "0.01"
OffSwitchValue "-0.01"
}
Block {
BlockType SubSystem
Name "stator flux - voltage model"
Ports [4, 4]
Position [345, 15, 415, 145]
TreatAsAtomicUnit off
MaskPromptString "Stator resistance"
MaskStyleString "edit"
MaskTunableValueString "on"
MaskEnableString "on"
MaskVisibilityString "on"
MaskToolTipString "on"
MaskVariables "Rs=@1;"
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MaskIconOpaque on
MaskIconRotate "none"
MaskIconUnits "autoscale"
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Block {
BlockType Inport
Name "id"
Position [40, 98, 70, 112]
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Block {
BlockType Inport
Name "vq"
Position [60, 143, 90, 157]
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Block {
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BlockType Inport
Name "iq"
Position [25, 193, 55, 207]
Port "4"
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Block {
BlockType SubSystem
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Ports [2, 2]
Position [420, 92, 455, 143]
ShowPortLabels off
TreatAsAtomicUnit off
MaskType "[x,y]->[r,theta]"
MaskDescription "Tranformation from cartesian to polar\ncoor"
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MaskIconFrame on
MaskIconOpaque on
MaskIconRotate "none"
MaskIconUnits "autoscale"
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Name "Cartesian to Polar"
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ModelBrowserVisibility off
ModelBrowserWidth 200
ScreenColor "white"
PaperOrientation "landscape"
PaperPositionMode "auto"
PaperType "usletter"
PaperUnits "inches"
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Block {
BlockType Inport
Name "x"
Position [20, 70, 40, 90]
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Block {
BlockType Inport
Name "y"
Position [20, 129, 40, 151]
Port "2"
}
Block {
BlockType Mux
Name "Mux"
Ports [2, 1]
Position [75, 96, 105, 129]
Inputs "2"
}
Block {
BlockType Fcn
Name "x->r"
Position [155, 72, 260, 98]
Expr "hypot(u[1],u[2])"
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Block {
BlockType Fcn
Name "x->theta"
Position [160, 129, 265, 151]
Expr "atan2(u[2],u[1])"
}
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Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "r"
Position [295, 75, 315, 95]
InitialOutput "0"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "theta"
Position [295, 130, 315, 150]
Port "2"
InitialOutput "0"
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Line {
SrcBlock "x->theta"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "theta"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "y"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Mux"
DstPort 2
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Line {
SrcBlock "x"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Mux"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "x->r"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "r"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Mux"
SrcPort 1
Points [15, 0]
Branch {
Points [0, 25]
DstBlock "x->theta"
DstPort 1
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Branch {
Points [0, -30]
DstBlock "x->r"
DstPort 1
}
}
Annotation {
Name "Cartesian to Polar"
Position [167, 37]
VerticalAlignment "top"
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}
}
Block {
BlockType Gain
Name "Gain2"
Position [170, 167, 195, 193]
Gain "Rs"
}
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Block {
BlockType Gain
Name "Gain3"
Position [170, 112, 195, 138]
Gain "Rs"
}
Block {
BlockType Integrator
Name "Integrator"
Ports [1, 1]
Position [315, 85, 345, 115]
}
Block {
BlockType Integrator
Name "Integrator1"
Ports [1, 1]
Position [310, 165, 340, 195]
}
Block {
BlockType Sum
Name "Sum6"
Ports [2, 1]
Position [240, 90, 260, 110]
Inputs "+-"
}
Block {
BlockType Sum
Name "Sum7"
Ports [2, 1]
Position [240, 145, 260, 165]
Inputs "+-"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "flxsdv"
Position [500, 28, 530, 42]
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "flxsv"
Position [550, 88, 580, 102]
Port "2"
InitialOutput "0"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "angflxsv"
Position [480, 123, 510, 137]
Port "3"
InitialOutput "0"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "flxsqv"
Position [435, 203, 465, 217]
Port "4"
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Sum6"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Integrator"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Sum7"
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SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Integrator1"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Gain3"
SrcPort 1
Points [25, 0]
DstBlock "Sum6"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Gain2"
SrcPort 1
Points [0, -10]
DstBlock "Sum7"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "vd"
SrcPort 1
Points [60, 0; 0, 55]
DstBlock "Sum6"
DstPort 1
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SrcBlock "Integrator"
SrcPort 1
Points [0, 5; 25, 0]
Branch {
DstBlock "Cartesian to Polar"
DstPort 1
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Branch {
Points [0, -70]
DstBlock "flxsdv"
DstPort 1
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}
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SrcBlock "Integrator1"
SrcPort 1
Points [50, 0]
Branch {
Points [0, -50]
DstBlock "Cartesian to Polar"
DstPort 2
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Branch {
Points [0, 30]
DstBlock "flxsqv"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "Cartesian to Polar"
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Points [75, 0]
DstBlock "flxsv"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "id"
SrcPort 1
Points [0, 20]
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DstBlock "Gain3"
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SrcBlock "Cartesian to Polar"
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SrcBlock "vq"
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SrcBlock "iq"
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DstBlock "Gain2"
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MaskStyleString "edit"
MaskTunableValueString "on"
MaskEnableString "on"
MaskVisibilityString "on"
MaskToolTipString "on"
MaskVariables "Th=@1;"
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MaskIconOpaque on
MaskIconRotate "none"
MaskIconUnits "autoscale"
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ScreenColor "white"
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Block {
BlockType Relay
Name "Relay"
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Position [185, 58, 215, 82]
Orientation "left"
OnSwitchValue "Th/2"
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Block {
BlockType Relay
Name "Relay1"
Position [185, 123, 215, 147]
Orientation "left"
OnSwitchValue "0"
OffSwitchValue "-Th/2"
OnOutputValue "0"
OffOutputValue "-1"
}
Block {
BlockType Sum
Name "Sum3"
Ports [2, 1]
Position [55, 105, 75, 125]
Orientation "left"
}
Block {
BlockType Outport
Name "out_1"
Position [15, 105, 35, 125]
Orientation "left"
InitialOutput "0"
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Line {
SrcBlock "Sum3"
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DstBlock "out_1"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "Relay1"
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Points [-75, 0]
DstBlock "Sum3"
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Line {
SrcBlock "Relay"
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Points [-65, 0]
DstBlock "Sum3"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "in_1"
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Points [-20, 0]
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Points [0, 30]
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Branch {
Points [-5, 0]
DstBlock "Relay"
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}
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}
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SrcBlock "Induction Machine"
SrcPort 5
Points [30, 0; 0, -100]
DstBlock "stator flux - voltage model"
DstPort 1
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SrcBlock "Induction Machine"
SrcPort 1
Points [110, 0]
DstBlock "stator flux - voltage model"
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Line {
SrcBlock "Induction Machine"
SrcPort 2
Points [70, 0; 0, 35]
DstBlock "stator flux - voltage model"
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SrcBlock "Induction Machine"
SrcPort 7
Points [15, 0; 0, -70]
DstBlock "stator flux - voltage model"
DstPort 3
}
Line {
SrcBlock "stator flux - voltage model"
SrcPort 3
Points [40, 0; 0, 270]
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SrcBlock "Induction Machine"
SrcPort 8
Points [20, 0; 0, 20]
Branch {
Points [0, 90; 140, 0]
Branch {
Points [165, 0]
DstBlock "Sum2"
DstPort 1
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Branch {
Points [0, -60]
DstBlock "Scope"
DstPort 2
}
}
Branch {
DstBlock "Scope2"
DstPort 1
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}
Line {
SrcBlock "stator flux - voltage model"
SrcPort 2
Points [65, 0; 0, 95]
Branch {
Points [0, 60]
Branch {
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Points [0, 165]
DstBlock "Sum4"
DstPort 1
}
Branch {
DstBlock "Scope"
DstPort 1
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Branch {
DstBlock "Scope1"
DstPort 1
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SrcBlock "Voltage-controlled\nPWM-VSI1"
SrcPort 1
Points [20, 0; 0, -25]
DstBlock "Induction Machine"
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Line {
SrcBlock "Voltage-controlled\nPWM-VSI1"
SrcPort 2
DstBlock "Induction Machine"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Voltage-controlled\nPWM-VSI1"
SrcPort 3
Points [20, 0; 0, 25]
DstBlock "Induction Machine"
DstPort 3
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SrcBlock "Subsystem"
SrcPort 1
Points [-80, 0; 0, -195]
DstBlock "Voltage-controlled\nPWM-VSI1"
DstPort 1
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Line {
SrcBlock "Subsystem"
SrcPort 2
Points [-70, 0; 0, -205]
DstBlock "Voltage-controlled\nPWM-VSI1"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Subsystem"
SrcPort 3
Points [-60, 0; 0, -215]
DstBlock "Voltage-controlled\nPWM-VSI1"
DstPort 3
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Line {
SrcBlock "flux\nhysterisis"
SrcPort 1
Points [-40, 0; 0, -55]
DstBlock "Subsystem"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Sum4"
SrcPort 1
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DstBlock "flux\nhysterisis"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Step"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Sum4"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "torquehys"
SrcPort 1
Points [-60, 0; 0, -20]
DstBlock "Subsystem"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Sum2"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "torquehys"
DstPort 1
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Signal\nGenerator"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Sum2"
DstPort 2
}
Line {
SrcBlock "S-Function2"
SrcPort 1
DstBlock "Subsystem"
DstPort 3
}
Line {
SrcBlock "Induction Machine"
SrcPort 4
Points [45, 0; 0, 120]
DstBlock "Scope"
DstPort 3
}
}
}
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