CHAPTER 4 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS (BJTs

)
Chapter Outline
4.1 Device Structure and Physical Operation
4.2 Current-Voltage Characteristics
4.3 BJ T Circuits at DC
4.4 Applying the BJ T in Amplifier Design
4.5 Small-Signal Operation and Models
4.6 Basic BJ T Amplifier Configurations
4.7 Biasing in BJ T Amplifier Circuits
48 DiscreteCircuit BJ T Amplifiers
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-1
4.8 Discrete-Circuit BJ T Amplifiers
4.1 Device Structure and Physical Operation
Physical structure of bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
Both electrons and holes participate in the conduction process for bipolar devices.
BJ T consists of two pn junctions constructed in a special way and connected in series, back to back.
The transistor is a three-terminal device with emitter, base and collector terminals.
From the physical structure, BJ Ts can be divided into two groups: npn and pnp transistors.
Modes of operation
The two junctions of BJ T can be either forward or reverse-biased.
The BJ T can operate in different modes depending on the junction bias.
The BJ T operates in active mode for amplifier circuits.
Switching applications utilize both the cutoff and saturation modes.
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-2
Mode EBJ CBJ
Cutoff Reverse Reverse
Active Forward Reverse
Saturation Forward Forward
Operation of the npn transistor in the active mode
Electrons in emitter regions are injected into base due to the forward bias at EBJ .
Most of the injected electrons reach the edge of CBJ before being recombined if the base is narrow.
Electrons at the edge of CBJ will be swept into collector due to the reverse bias at CBJ .
Emitter injection efficiency (¸ ) =i
En
/ ( i
En
+i
Ep
)
Base transport factor (o
T
) =i
Cn
/ i
En
Common-base current gain (o) =i
Cn
/ i
E
=¸ o
T
<1
Terminal currents of BJ T in active mode:
i
E
(emitter current) =i
En
(electron injection from E to B) +i
Ep
(hole injection from B to E)
i
C
(collector current) =i
Cn
(electron drift) +i
CBO
(CBJ reverse saturation current with emitter open)
i
B
(base current) =i
B1
(hole injection from B to E) +i
B2
(recombination in base region)
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-3
Terminal currents:
Collector current:
Base current:
 Hole injection into emitter due to forward bias:
 Eelectron-hole recombination in base:
 Total base current:
Emitter current:
T BE T BE
V v
S
V v
B
i nB E
B nB E B nB E Cn C
e I e
W N
n qD A
W n qD A dx x dn qD A i i
/ /
2
/ ) 0 ( / ) ( = = = = ~
T BE
V v
pE E
i pE E
E pE E B
e
L N
n qD A
dx x dp qD A i
/
2
1
/ ) ( = ÷ =
T BE
V v S C
C B C E
e
I i
i i i i
/
1
o o |
|
= =
+
= + =
T BE
V v
n B
i E
n B E n n B
e
N
qWn A
W n q A Q i
/
2
2
2
/ ) 0 (
2
1
/
t
t t =
|
.
|

\
|
× = =
| t
C V v
n nB pE E
B
nB
pE
S B B B
i
e
D
W
L
W
N
N
D
D
I i i i
T BE
÷ + = + =
/
2
2 1
)
2
1
(
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-4
o o |
Large-signal model and current gain for BJT in active region
Common-emitter current gain: ) 1 /( )
2
1
(
1
2
o o
t
| ÷ = + = ÷
÷
n nB pE E
B
nB
pE
B
C
D
W
L
W
N
N
D
D
i
i
Common-base current gain
i
B
i
C
i
E
1
| (|+1)
1
Common-emitter current gain
i
B
i
E
i
C
o
(1÷o)
Common-base current gain:
The structure of actual transistors
In modern process technologies, the BJ T utilizes a vertical structure.
Typically, o is smaller and close to unity while | is large.
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-5
) 1 /( + = | | o
Operation of the npn transistor in the saturation mode
Saturation mode: both EBJ and CBJ are forward biased
Carrier injection from both emitter and collector into base
Base minority carrier concentraiton change accordingly ÷leading to reduced slope as v
BC
increases
Collector current drops from the value in active mode for negative v
CB
For a given v
BE
, i
C
drops sharply to zero at v
CB
around ÷0.5 V and v
CE
around 0.2 V.
BJ T in saturation: V
CEsat
=0.2 V
Current gain reduces from | to |
forced
: | | s =
saturation
B
C
forced
i
i
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-6
n
p0
n
p0
exp(v
BE
/V
T
)
n
p0
exp(v
BC
/V
T
)
v
BC
increases
Ebers-Moll model
In EM model, the EBJ and CBJ are represented by two back to back diodes i
DE
and i
DC
.
The current transported from one junction to the other is presented by o
F
(forward) and o
R
(reverse).
EM model can be used to describe the BJ T in any of its possible modes of operation.
EM model is used for more detailed dc analysis which can not be performed by the simplified models.
The diode currents:
The terminal currents:
Application of the EM model
The forward active mode:
i i
C E B
i i i ÷ =
S SC R SE F
I I I = =o o
|
|

|
1
1
/V v
I I
) 1 (
/
÷ =
T BE
V v
SE DE
e I i ) 1 (
/
÷ =
T BC
V v
SC DC
e I i
DE F DC C
i i i o + ÷ =
DC R DE E
i i i o ÷ =
The saturation mode:
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-7
i
DE
i
DC
o
F
i
DE
o
R
i
DC
i
C
i
E
i
B
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + ~
F
S
V v
F
S
E
I e
I
i
T BE
o o
1
1
/
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + ~ 1
1
/
R
S
V v
S C
I e I i
T BE
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ~
R F
S
V v
F
S
B
I e
I
i
T BE
| | |
1 1
/
T BC T BE
V v
S
V v
SE E
e I e I i
/ /
÷ =
T BC T BE
V v
SC
V v
S C
e I e I i
/ /
÷ =
T BC T BE
V v
R SC
V v
F SE B
e I e I i
/ /
) 1 ( ) 1 ( o o ÷ + ÷ =
The cutoff mode
 I
CBO
(CBJ reverse current with emitter open-circuited)
I
CBO
=(1÷o
R
o
F
)I
SC
Both EBJ and CBJ are reverse-biased.
In real case, reverse current depends on v
CB
.
 I
CEO
(CBJ reverse current with base open-circuited)
I
CEO
=I
CBO
/(1÷o
F
)
o
F
is always smaller than unity such that I
CEO
>I
CBO
.
CBJ current flows from (C to B) soCBJ is reverse-biased.
EBJ currentflowsfrom(E toB) soEBJ isslightlyforward-biased. EBJ current flows from (E to B) soEBJ is slightly forward biased.
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-8
÷ +
E C
B
(2) o
R
I
SC
I
SC
(1)
i
C
i
E
=0
i
B
(3) o
R
I
SC
o
R
o
F
I
SC
(4)
i
C
=I
CBO
=(1÷o
R
o
F
)I
SC
(5)
i
B
=(o
R
÷1)I
SC
+(1÷ o
F
)i
DE
=0 ÷ i
DE
=I
SC
(1 ÷ o
R
) / (1 ÷ o
F
) (5)
E C
B
(2) o
R
I
SC
I
SC
(1)
i
C
i
B
=0
i
E
÷ +
(3) i
DE
o
F
i
DE
(4)
i
C
=I
SC
+o
F
i
DE
=I
SC
(1÷o
R
o
F
)/ (1÷o
F
) ÷ I
CEO
=I
CBO
/ (1 ÷ o
F
) (6)
The pnp transistor
Transistor structure:
 emitter and collector are p-type
 base is n-type
Operation of pnp is similar to that of npn
Operation of pnp in the active mode
Collector current:
Base current:
Emitter current:
L i l d l d t i f BJT i ti i
T EB
V v
S C
e I i
/
=
| /
C B
i i =
B C E
i i i + =
Large-signal model and current gain for BJT in active region
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-9
Common-base current gain
i
B
i
C
i
E
1
| (|+1)
1
Common-emitter current gain
i
B
i
E
i
C
o
(1÷o)
4.2 Current-Voltage Characteristics
Circuit symbols, voltage polarities and current flow
Terminal currents are defined in the direction as current flow in active mode.
Negative values of current or voltage mean in opposite polarity (direction).
Summary of the BJT current-voltage relationships in the active mode
The values of the terminal currents for a BJ T in active mode solely depend on the junction voltage of EBJ .
The ratios of the terminal currents for a BJ T in active mode are constant.
The current directions for npn and pnp transistors are opposite.
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-10
T BE
V v
S C
e I i
/
=
T BE
V v S C
B
e
I i
i
/
| |
= =
T BE
V v S C
E
e
I i
i
/
o o
= =
T EB
V v
S C
e I i
/
=
T EB
V v S C
B
e
I i
i
/
| |
= =
T EB
V v S C
E
e
I i
i
/
o o
= =
B C E
i i i + =
1 +
=
|
|
o
o
o
|
÷
=
1
pnp transistor npn transistor
Current-voltage characteristics of BJT
The i
C
-v
CB
characteristics The i
C
-v
CE
characteristics
The Early effect
As CBJ reverse bias increases, the effective base width W
eff
reduces due to the increasing CBJ depletion.
For a constant junction voltage v
BE
:
 The slope of n
B
(x) increases ÷ i
C
increases
 Charge storage Q
n
reduces ÷ i
B
decreases
 Current gain o and | increases
Early voltage (V
A
) is used for the linear approximation of Early Effect.
Linear dependence of i
C
on v
CE
:
Exhibit finite output resistance:
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-11
n
B
(0)
n
B0
0 W
X
W
Y
W
Z
V
Y
V
Z
V
X
) / 1 (
/
A CE
V v
S C
V v e I i
T BE
+ =
C
A
constant v
CE
C
o
I
V
v
i
r
BE
~
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
÷
÷
=
1
Common-base output characteristics breakdown Early effect
i
C
versus v
CB
plot with various i
E
as parameter is known as common-base output characteristics
The slope indicates that i
C
depends to a small extent on v
CB
÷Early effect
i
C
increases rapidly at high v
CB
÷breakdown
BCJ is slightly forward-biased for ÷0.4V <v
CB
<0
No significant change is observed in i
C
The BJ T still exhibits I-V characteristics as in the active mode
BCJ turns on strongly and the i
C
starts to decrease for v
BC
<÷0.4V
 I-V characteristics in the saturation mode and v
CEsat
is considered a constant (~ 0.2V)
Current gain (o): large-signal o ÷ i
C
/i
E
and small-signal (incremental) o ÷ Ai
C
/Ai
E
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-12
Common-emitter output characteristics (I)
i
C
versus v
CE
plot with various v
BE
as parameter.
Common-emitter current gain is defined as | =i
C
/ i
B
The BCJ turns on with a positive v
BC
at low v
CE
BJ T operates in saturation mode
The i
C
curve has a finite slope due to Early effect
The characteristics lines meet at v
CE
=÷V
A
V
A
is called the Early Voltage (~50 to 100 V)
Common-emitter output characteristics (II)
Plot of i
C
versus v
CE
with various i
B
as parameter
BJ T in active region acts as a current source
with high (but finite) output resistance
The cutoff mode in common-emitter configuration
is defined as i
B
=0
Current gain: large-signal |
dc
÷ i
C
/i
B
and |
ac
÷ Ai
C
/Ai
B
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-13
breakdown Early effect
Saturation of common-emitter configuration
In saturation region, it behaves as a closed switch with a small resistance R
CEsat
The saturation I÷V curve can be approximated by a straight line intersecting the v
CE
axis at V
CEoff
The saturation voltage V
CEsat
~ V
CEoff
+I
Csat
R
CEsat
V
CEsat
is normally treated as a constant of 0.2 V for simplicity regardless the value of i
C
Incremental | in saturation is lower than that in active region: |
forced
÷ I
Csat
/ I
B
<|
Overdrive factor ÷ | / |
forced
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-14
Transistor breakdown
Transistor breakdown mechanism:
 Avalanche breakdown: avalanche multiplication mechanism takes place at CBJ or EBJ
 Base punch-through effect: the base width reduces to zero at high CBJ reverse bias
In CB configuration, BV
CBO
is defined at i
E
=0.
The breakdown voltage is smaller than BV
CBO
for i
E
>0.
In CE configuration, BV
CEO
is defined at i
B
=0.
The breakdown voltage is smaller than BV
CEO
for i
B
>0.
Typically, BV
CEO
is about half of BV
CBO
.
Breakdownof theBCJ isnot destructiveaslongasthepower dissipationiskeptwithinsafelimits Breakdown of the BCJ is not destructive as long as the power dissipation is kept within safe limits.
Breakdown of the EBJ is destructive because it will cause permanent degradation of | .
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-15
4.3 BJT Circuits at DC
BJT operation modes
The BJ T operation mode depends on the voltages at EBJ and BCJ
The I-V characteristics are strongly nonlinear
Simplified models and classifications are needed to speed up the hand-calculation analysis
Mode EBJ CBJ
Active Forward Reverse
Cutoff Reverse Reverse
Saturation Forward Forward
Inverse Reverse Forward
v
BE
v
BC
Active Mode
v
BE
> 0, v
BC
< 0
Saturation Mode
v
BE
> 0, v
BC
> 0
Inverse Mode
v
BE
> 0, v
BC
> 0
Cutoff Mode
v
BE
> 0, v
BC
> 0
npn transistor
v
EB
v
CB
Active Mode
v
EB
> 0, v
CB
< 0
Saturation Mode
v
EB
> 0, v
CB
> 0
Inverse Mode
v
EB
> 0, v
CB
> 0
Cutoff Mode
v
EB
> 0, v
CB
> 0
pnp transistor
Simplified models and classifications for the operation of the npn BJT
Cut-off mode:
 i
E
=i
C
=i
B
=0
 v
BE
<0.5 V and v
BC
<0.4 V
Active mode:
 v
BE
=0.7 V and i
B
: i
C
: i
E
=1: | : (1+|)
 v
CE
>0.3 V
Saturation mode:
 v
BE
=0.7 V and v
CE
=0.2 V
 i
C
/i
B
=|
forced
<|
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-16
Equivalent circuit models
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-17
DC analysis of BJT circuits
Step 1: assume the operation mode
Step 2: use the conditions or model for circuit analysis
Step 3: verify the solution
Step 4: repeat the above steps with another assumption if necessary
Example 4.4
Example 4.5
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-18
Example 4.9
Example 4 11 Example 4.11
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-19
4.4 Applying the BJT in Amplifier Design
BJT voltage amplifier
A BJ T circuit with a collector resistor R
C
can be used as a simple voltage amplifier
Base terminal is used the amplifier input and the collector is considered the amplifier output
The voltage transfer characteristic (VTC) is obtained by solving the circuit from low to high v
BE
 Cutoff mode:
0 V s v
BE
<0.5 V and i
C
=0
v
O
=v
CE
=V
CC
 Active mode:
v
BE
>0.5 V and i
C
=I
S
exp(v
BE
/V
T
)
v
O
=V
CC
÷ i
C
R
C
=V
CC
÷ R
C
I
S
exp(v
BE
/V
T
) v
O
V
CC
i
C
R
C
V
CC
R
C
I
S
exp(v
BE
/V
T
)
 Saturation:
v
BE
further increases
v
CE
=v
CEsat
=0.2 V
v
O
=0.2 V
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-20
Biasing the circuit to obtain linear amplification
The slope in the VTC indicates voltage gain
BJ T in active mode can be used as voltage amplification
Point Q is known as bias point or dc operating point
I
C
=I
S
exp(V
BE
/V
T
)
The signal to be amplified is superimposed on V
BE
v
BE
(t) =V
BE
+v
be
(t)
The time-varying part in v
CE
(t) is the amplified signal
The circuit can be used as a linear amplifier if:
 A proper biaspointischosenfor gain  A proper bias point is chosen for gain
 The input signal is small in amplitude
The small-signal voltage gain
The amplifier gain is the slope at Q:
Voltage gain depends on I
C
and R
C
Maximum voltage gain of the amplifier
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-21
C
T
C
V v
BE
CE
v
R
V
I
dv
dv
A
BE BE
÷ = ÷
=
| |
max v
T
CC
T
CE CC
C
T
C
v
A
V
V
V
V V
R
V
I
A = s
÷
= ÷ =
Determining the VTC by graphical analysis
Provides more insight into the circuit operation
Load line: the straight line represents in effect the load
i
C
=(V
CC
÷V
CE
)/R
C
The operating point is the intersection point
Locating the bias point Q
The bias point (intersection) is determined by properly choosing the load line
The output voltage is bounded by V
CC
(upper bound) and V
CEsat
(lower bound)
The load line determines the voltage gain
Thebiaspointdeterminestheheadroomor maximumupper/lower voltageswingof theamplifier The bias point determines the headroom or maximum upper/lower voltage swing of the amplifier
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-22
4.5 Small-Signal Operation and Models
The collector current and the transconductance
The total quantities (ac +dc) of the collector current:
Small-signal approximation: v
be
<<V
T
The transconductanceindicates the incremental change of i
C
versus change of v
BE
Th t d t i d t i db it d ll t tI
T be T be T BE T BE
V v
C
V v V V
S
V v
S C
be BE BE
e I e e I e I i
v V v
/ / / /
) ( = = =
+ =
be
T
C
C
T
be
C c C C
v
V
I
I
V
v
I i I i + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ~ + = 1
T
C
I i
BE
C
m
V
I
v
i
g
C C
=
c
c
=
=
The transconductanceg
m
is determined by its dc collector current I
C
General, BJ Ts have relatively high transconductancecompared with FETs at the same current level.
The base current and the input resistance at the base
The total quantities (ac +dc) of the base current:
Small-signal approximation:
Resistance r
t
is the small-signal input resistance between base and emitter (looking into the base)
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-23
T be T be T BE T BE
V v
B
V v V V S V v S C
B
e I e e
I
e
I I
i
/ / / /
= = = =
| | |
be
T
B
B
T
be
B b B B
v
V
I
I
V
v
I i I i + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ~ + = 1
B
T
m b
be
I
V
g i
v
r = = ÷
|
t
The emitter current and the input resistance at the emitter
The total quantities (ac +dc) of the emitter current:
Small-signal approximation:
Relation between r
t
and r
e
:
o o o
c C C
e E E
i I I
i I i + = = + =
m m E
T
e
be
e
g g I
V
i
v
r
1
~ = = ÷
o
be
T
E
be
T
C
be
m c
e
v
V
I
v
V
I
v
g i
i = = = =
o o o
e
r
o
=
Output resistance accounting for Early effect
Use the collector current equation with linear v
CE
dependence:
The output resistance r
o
is included to represent Early Effect of the BJ T
The resulting r
o
is typically a large resistance and can be neglected to simplify the analysis
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-24
e
r r ) 1 ( |
t
+ = ÷
m
m
e
g
r
g
|
t
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
A
CE V v
S C
V
v
e I i
T BE
1
/
C
A
constant v
CE
C
o
I
V
v
i
r
BE
~
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
÷
÷
=
1
BJT small-signal models
Two models are exchangeable and does not affect the analysis result
The hybrid-t model
 Typically used as the emitter is grounded
Neglect r
o
The T model
 Typically used as the emitter is not grounded
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-25
Neglect r
o
4.6 Basic BJT Amplifier Configuration
Three basic configurations
Characterizing amplifiers
The BJ T circuits can be characterized by a voltage amplifier model (unilateral model)
Common-Emitter (CE) Common-Base (CB) Common-Collector (CC)
The electrical properties of the amplifier is represented by R
in
, R
o
and A
vo
The analysis is based on the small-signal or linear equivalent circuit where dc components are not included
Voltage gain:
Overall voltage gain:
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-26
vo
o L
L
i
o
v
A
R R
R
v
v
A
+
= ÷
vo
so L
L
sig in
in
v
sig in
in
sig
o
v
A
R R
R
R R
R
A
R R
R
v
v
G
+ +
=
+
= ÷
The common-emitter (CE) amplifier
Characteristic parameters of the CE amplifier
 Input resistance:
 Output resistance:
 Open-circuit voltage gain:
 Voltage gain:
 Overall voltage gain:
CE amplifier can provide high voltage gain.
Input and output are out of phase due to negative gain.
t
r R
in
=
C o C o
R r R R ~ = ||
C m o C m vo
R g r R g A ÷ ~ ÷ = ) || (
) || ( ) || || (
L C m o L C m v
R R g r R R g A ÷ ~ ÷ =
) || ( ) || || (
L C
sig
m o L C m
sig
v
R R
R r
r
g r R R g
R r
r
G
+
÷ ~
+
÷ =
t
t
t
t
p p p g g
Lower I
C
increases R
in
at the cost of voltage gain.
Output resistance is moderate to high.
Small R
C
reduces R
o
at the cost of voltage gain.
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-27
The common-emitter (CE) with an emitter resistance
Characteristic parameters (by neglecting r
o
)
 Input resistance:
 Output resistance:
 Open-circuit voltage gain:
 Voltage gain:
e e e in
R r R r R ) 1 ( ) )( 1 ( | |
t
+ + = + + =
C o
R R =
e m
C m
e e
C m
vo
R g
R g
r R
R g
A
+
÷ ~
+
÷ =
1 / 1
L C m L C m
R R g R R g
A ÷ = ÷ ~
) || (
 Overall voltage gain:
Emitter degeneration resistance R
e
is adopted.
Input resistance is increased by adding (1+|)R
e
.
Gain is reduced by the factor (1+g
m
R
e
).
The overall gain is less dependent on |.
It is considered a negative feedback of the amplifier.
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-28
e m C L e m
v
R g R R R g
A
+
=
+ +
~
1 1
e m
L C m
sig C L
L
e m
C m
sig
v
R g
R R g
R r
r
R R
R
R g
R g
R r
r
G
+ +
÷ =
+ + +
÷ ~
1
) || (
1
t
t
t
t
The common-base (CB) amplifier
Characteristic parameters of the CE amplifier (by neglecting r
o
)
 Input resistance:
 Output resistance:
 Open-circuit voltage gain:
 Voltage gain:
 Overall voltage gain:
CE amplifier can provide high voltage gain.
Input and output are in-phase due to positive gain.
e in
r R =
C o
R R =
C m vo
R g A =
) || (
L C m v
R R g A =
) || (
L C m
sig e
e
v
R R g
R r
r
G
+
=
p p p p g
Input resistance is very low.
A single CB stage is not suitable for voltage amplification.
Output resistance is moderate to high.
Small R
C
reduces R
o
at the cost of voltage gain.
The amplifier is no longer unilateral if r
o
is included.
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-29
The common-collector (CC) amplifier
Characteristic parameters of the CC amplifier (by neglecting r
o
)
 Input resistance:
 Output resistance:
 Open-circuit voltage gain:
 Overall voltage gain:
CC amplifier is also called emitter follower.
Input resistance is very high.
) )( 1 (
L e in
R r R + + = |
| /
sig e o
R r R + =
1 ) /( ~ + =
e L L vo
r R R A
1
) )( 1 (
) 1 (
~
+ + +
+
~
+ +
=
sig e L
L
e L
L
sig in
in
v
R r R
R
r R
R
R R
R
G
|
|
Output resistance is very low.
The voltage gain is less than but can be close to 1.
CC amplifier can be used as voltage buffer.
It is noted that, in the analysis, the amplifier is not unilateral.
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-30
4.7 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits
DC bias for BJT amplifier
The amplifiers are operating at a proper dc bias point.
Linear signal amplification is provided based on small-signal circuit operation.
The DC bias circuit is to ensure the BJ T in active mode with a proper collector current I
C
.
The classical discrete-circuit bias arrangement
A single power supply and resistors are needed
Theveninequivalent circuit:
 V
BB
=V
CC
R
2
/(R
1
+R
2
)
 R
B
=R
1
||R
2
BJ T operatingpoint:
÷
BE BB
V V
I BJ T operating point:
R
C
is chosen to ensure the BJ T in active (V
CE
>V
CEsat
).
A two-power-supply version of the classical bias arrangement
Two power supplies are needed
Similar dc analysis
BJ T operating point:
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-31
) / 1 1 ( / | | + +
=
E B
BE BB
C
R R
I
) / 1 1 ( / | | + +
÷
=
E B
BE EE
C
R R
V V
I
Biasing using a collector-to-base feedback resistor
A single power supply is needed.
R
B
ensures the BJ T in active (V
CE
>V
BE
~ 0.7 V)
BJ T operating point:
The value of the feedback resistor R
B
affects the small-signal gain.
Biasing using a constant-current source
The BJ T can be biased with a constant current source I.
The resistor R
C
is chosen to operate the BJ T in active mode.
ThecurrentsourceistypicallyimplementedbyaBJ T currentmirror
) / 1 1 ( / | | + +
÷
=
C B
BE CC
C
R R
V V
I
The current source is typically implemented by a BJ T current mirror.
Current mirror circuit:
 Both BJ T transistors Q
1
and Q
2
are in active mode.
 Assume current gain | is very high:
 When applying to the amplifier circuit, the voltage
V has to be high enough to ensure Q
2
in active.
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-32
R
V V V
I I
BE EE CC
REF
÷ +
= =
4.8 Discrete-Circuit BJT Amplifiers
Circuit analysis:
DC analysis:
 Remove all ac sources (short for voltage source and open for current source)
 All capacitors are considered open-circuit
 DC analysis of BJ T circuits for all nodal voltages and branch currents
 Find the dc current I
C
and make sure the BJ T is in active mode
AC analysis:
 Remove all dc sources (short for voltage source and open for current source)
 All large capacitors are considered short-circuit
 ReplacetheBJ T withitssmall-signal model for acanalysis  Replace the BJ T with its small signal model for ac analysis
 The circuit parameters in the small-signal model are obtained based on the value of I
C
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-33
Complete amplifier circuit DC equivalent circuit
AC equivalent circuit
The common-emitter (CE) amplifier
The common-emitter amplifier with an emitter resistance
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-34
The common-base (CB) amplifier
The common-collector (CC) amplifier
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-35
The amplifier frequency response
The gain falls off at low frequency band due to the effects of the coupling and by-pass capacitors
The gain falls off at high frequency band due to the internal capacitive effects in the BJ Ts
Midband:
 All coupling and by-pass capacitors (large capacitance) are considered short-circuit
 All internal capacitive effects (small capacitance) are considered open-circuit
 Midbandgain is nearly constant and is evaluated by small-signal analysis
 The bandwidth is defined as BW=f
H
– f
L
 A figure-of-merit for the amplifier is its gain-bandwidth product defined as GB =|A
M
|BW
NTUEE Electronics – L. H. Lu 4-36

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