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Elements of Yacht Design

Elements of Yacht Design

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elements of yacht design
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Library Cornell University

V331 .S62
Elements SJtJSSVJliiMSiBi

343 3 1924 030 752

There are no known copyright restrictions in text.org/details/cu31924030752343 .archive.B B Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library. the United States on the use of the http://www.

. MASS. All Rig-hti Reserved O PRESS OF THOMSON & COMPANY 9 Murray Street York. U. SKENE BOSTON. New A. S.COl'YRIGHT 1904 iV NORMAN L.


the thirty-foot water line sloop whose be a its plans are given on plates II.PREFACE THIS in book is intended to be a concise and practical presentation of the processes involved in designing a modern yacht. The methods presented for determining stability have been selected with reference to their applicability to small work. L. and are not ordinarihto be found in works on naval architecture. mathematics and theoretical presentations having been eliminated as far as possible. III and IV This is intended to conventional ratl'jer than an ideal design. and should prove of great assistance in roughing out a design. in The various operations involved lustrated in the text by designing a sailing yacht are il- work on I. special feature of the book is the series of curves on plates VI. There is at is present an almost utter lack of material of this character which accord with modern American practice. and was chosen on account of illustration. of the Massachusetts Technology. sailing yachts of various VIII and IX. all tended to be thoroughly practical character.stitute of is indebted to Prof. so that the operations may be readily grasped by men without technical education. for determining the proportions of These have been prepared by the writer from data on a large num- ber of yachts. suitability for is purposes of The complete data on this design given in the appendix. A sizes. N. Peabody. C. S. VII. . The author In. and find a useful place 'it is thought that the It is in- book may among works on in yacht architecture. for criticism and suggestion. IT.


48 CHAPTER The Sail Plan Vni.CONTENTS CHAPTER General Discussion I. PAGE i CHAPTER Methods of Calculation n. 5 CHAPTER Displacement HI. 28 CHAPTER Stability \'I. Tables 71 . 54 CHAPTER Construction IX. 18 CHAPTER The Lateral Plane I\' 24 CHAPTER Design V. 33 CHAPTER Ballast \'TT. 59 APPENDIX.


\'.LIST OF PLATES L n. Cabin Sail " " " " Stability Figures. " IX. Curves of Ratios ok Beam to Length.\CEMENT. . Construction Plan of Thirty-Footer. VIII.\nd Sail Area. VL VII. Lines of Thirty-Footek. Freeboard . " DlSPL. " " " ' Draught. IIL IV.


in fact seldom do we we see a successful combination of more than two of them. the increase in stability which may be secured b}.— ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN CHAPTER I. THERE to are four general characteristics sought after in yacht design seaworthiness. especially in the bow. This increasing of the stabilitv is the principal function of overhangs. precedent and study the results of This is light of a makeshift rather than a solution of the rating-rule problem. complex. large cabin accommodations. The best the designer can expect to do is to embody in his design the qualities especially desired. manner as to render their deficiencies In yacht designing one is less hampered than in any other branch of naval architecture. These properties are in a measure antagonistic. which used water-line length as a basis of com. The most marked development of form which has occurred is in the shape of the bow. . The complete success of these rules has yet to be proved by extended use.parison. and results from an increase in area of load water line plane and a general shifting to leeward There is scarcely any limit to of the center of buoyancy when heeled. ni-lXKRAL DI^CL'SSION. and the designer has many opportunities to depart from new ideas in design and construction. It was found that sail-carrying power could be increased independently of water-line length by increase of over-all length. and it is not until recently that am.have been devised which were at all promising. most fortunate. beautv and high speed. and it is impossible combine them all in one design. treating the other features in such a as inconspicuous as possible.lengthening and broadening the overhangs. and to it may be attributed the great advance which has been made in the art in recent years. This idea has been carried to such an extent as to render imperative the adoption of rules more stringent than those based simply on sail area and water-line length in order that boats of wholesome Such rules are necessarily somewhat typ2 may continue in the racing. As a temporary refuge against the machine racing boat a great deal of racing has been done in one-design and closely restricted While these afford good racing they must be regarded in the classes. This is the natural outcome of racing rules.

are constanth' changing so that the attainment of a given speed ma}not be sought but rather such a form as shall be easily driven at all speeds yacht subjected.. condition of sea.. and for that reason are not of great benefit to the science of yacht architecture. such as force within appropriate limits. however. The problem of steam yacht design is much more simple. External conditions to which a and direction of wind. a full discussion of which would be out of place here. Nor is this the only consideration. It does not pa}-. We are largely indebted to the late Mr. The aft edge of centerboard. Wave-making is a phenomenon. or at other places where the stream lines terminate abruptly. It is the chief source of resistance at high speeds and — varies nearly as the displacement for similar forms. The forward edge may simply be well rounded to avoid eddies at that point. The problem consideration is is of designing a sailing yacht with speed as a foremost a most complex one. and is of slight importance in the ordinary yacht. forms a large portion of the total resistance at low speeds. Skin friction. etc. again. for ease of form must be to some extent sacrificed for sail-carrying power. It is obvious that de- creasing the displacement is the most effective way of cutting down re- sistance. face as smooth as possible. shaft struts. Let us now consider some types of racing boats produced under very . should be well fined away to avoid the formation of eddies. the hull most easily driven at one speed is not most easily driven at all speeds. to economize unduly on area of lateral plane for the sake of cutting down the area of wetted It is obviously of great importance to have the immersed sursurface.2 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN of They do not permit much latitude of design. the power-driven yacht travels ordinarily on an even keel and the form of the yacht need be but little afifected by considerations of stability. and is of course decreased by cutting down the area of wetted surface. other things being equal. is made up of three kinds and eddy-making resistance. contrary to early theories. Eddy-making occurs at the stern post. Froude for our knowledge of this form of resistance. for. the length and shape of the surface. if it is too wide. A harmonious adjustment between power and resistance should be sought.driven at the desired speed. rudder. as there the hull may be so designed as to be most easil}. Frictional resistance is the resistance due to the friction of the water on the surface of the vessel and depends upon the area of the surface. The resistance which a vessel encounters in passing through the water frictional resistance. Then. the nature of the surface. wave-making resistance. etc. as it is called.

the water line is 3 First. low overhang with great violence. at The power to carry this lig is length. that produced Another type is where the amount of is sail to be carried sufficient is the only limitation. W. R. = L. -f- y S. L. centerboard boat of extremely long and easy fore and aft The stability lines.is made merely This is found to be a narrow. length rapidly when heeled and greatly diminishes the retarding com- strike the The waves ponent of the impact of waves when going to windward. is entirely that of form and of the weight of crew. The construction of this type of boat is the lightest possible and must a boat be designed with great care to withstand the enormous stressestoiwhichsuch An elaborate system of trussing furnishes the generis subjected. small displacement and consequent light construction. but the blow is largely in an direction upward and and does not tend less to retard the boat as the overhang presents a greater angle with the water plane. the hull proper being mere basket work. al strength. shoal. This compels a very small displacement and a reduction of weight wherever possible. The weight of the crew con- somewhat to the sail-carr}-ing power. The fastest type under the old rule to properly carry the sail under racing conditions. enormous overhangs and carrying a very large amount of gained by great beam and over-all tributes ever. L. let us take the type developed where the length on type found to be the fastest the only restriction. To preserve the continuity of the very gradual lines of ap- proach the entire underbody must be shoaled as much as possible. there being no ballast whatThe overhangs are ver}. is The under these conditions the extreme scow with sail.broad and flat and project over the water This permits the boat to gain a very small angle with the surface. there being no ballast whatever. the over-all ballast of weight or placement ly detrimental to safety . A. From the foregoing that for considerations of speed alone the stability should be entirely that of form rather than of ballast. Here the problem to produce the fastest possi- ble hull for the given sail area and the stabilit). These commonly compel a certain disrating most verely taxed by and limit the amount of sail. flatter the much as where The wider overhangs the must be their angle of incidence with the water plane.ELEMENTS UF YACHT DESIGN lax restrictions. The factors for speed which have been touched upon are unfortunate- and seaworthiness and for this reason are serules. is we may conclude probably a cross between the two just described.

more headroom in the cabin by permitting the floor to be placed The matter of lateral plane is discussed in a separate . considering the amount of money. and in other ways strive to produce a boat which shall be seaworthy as well as fast. shoal body. and the value of a moderate amount of overhang as a factor for seaworthiness is firmly established. This is to be deplored. but they must be short.4 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN length or the freeboard. chapter. as such boats fall far short of the vaLe they should possess as cruisers. The extensive adoption of generous every overhangs on fishing schooners desirable in a cruising boat. Plenty of deadrise is makes a boat easier in a seaway and af- fords lower down. as is it evidence of this. The modern boat of rational proportions has proved itself superior in way to the plumb-stemmed and clipper-bowed craft of a few years ago. The form tent b)- of the cruising boat has been influenced to an undesirable exis the racing boat. labor and material put into them. Water-line length has no bearing on the usefulness of a cruising boat. and pared away lateral plane. and the prevailing tj'pe of small cruiser to-day afflicted with long overhangs. high and fairly sharp in section. There is no doubt that properly treated overhangs are of value in a seaway.

of the naval architect revert to the determination of the area and position of center of gravity of Two methods are in common use for these determinations. .CHAPTER II. ring to fig. The integrator commonly measures areas and their moments about a given axis. and while it is not indispensable for small work it is a practical necessity for large work where the saving of labor resulting from its use is very considerable. numerical and instrumenatal. The principal methods of obtaining areas numerically are by the use of Simpson's first or one-third rule. Some integrators have in addition an attachment for measuring the moment of inertia of the area. The integrator is a more expensive instrument. METHODS OF CALCULATION. Referlatter measures areas alone. AD is a straight a . and is practically indispensable to the yacht designer. Theplanimeter It is an inexpensive instrument. A LARGE proportion of the calculations a figure bounded by a curve. Some of the uses of the planimeter and integrator will be explained later. and by the trapezoidal rule. let the area of the figure ABCD be required. I. The instruments used for the method are the planimeter and integrator.

For the purpose of comparing the two rules let us apply them to the segment of the circle shown in fig. 3. in fig. making (b-|-c-{-d) the end or- Area=s This rule may be used with any number of ordinates. 2) to be an arc of a parabola tangent to (drawn parallel to BD) at C and the area BCD is added to. CD. or subtracted from the area of the trapezoid ABDI. by a broken is it were bounded by the trapezoidal rule equal to the sum of the trapezoids ABCJ. JCDI. sufficiently error or in is if merous. The trapezoidal rule deals with the figure as though line —that is. 2 the area ABFG Fir.. DE. 2. offset partially or entirely by the gain on the concave por- Simpson's rule assumes the portion of the curve BCD (fig. and HEFG. is entirely neglected. This curve being entirely convex mn . two end ordinates and multiply the sum by the common ring to figure the area by the trapezoidal rule is 1 : Refer- Area=s bounding curve started dinates zero.O ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN interval. The area between BC. the area would be If the ( at : i^a+b+c+d+i^e) A and ended at D. IDEH. according as the curve is convex or concave. unimportant the curve is curvature if are nure- very the Where on the there is a the is loss convex portion of the curve tion. and This verse EF the and the curve ordinates flat.

making the interval i.: ELEMENTS and steep at the is Ol'- YACHT DESIGN 7 ends shows the trapezoidal rule at its worst.2 inches with eleven stations. The calculation is as follows of the arc STATION . The height four inches and the length of the chord twelve inches.

The calculation is as follows TRAPFZOTDAL STA.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN is almost infinitesimal and : may be disregarded. SIMPSON'S .

the point of interand BC resection of Ac and Cn.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN 9 the sum of functions of areas for Simpson's rule multiplied by the distance between stations gives the distance from the center of gravity to the station about which moments were taken. The comparisons just made of the working of the trapezoidal and Simpson's rule show the latter to be the more accurate. it may be used with any number of stations and involves in its application. ical its work much less numerThese considerations more than atone for Some special calculations will being slightly less accurate. now be presented. superior to Simpson's rule in that FIG. is quite accurate enough if a sufficient number of stations are taken (nine or more are recommended) and It is will be used for all cal- culations in the ensuing pages. The trapezoidal rule. however. The center of gravity of the triangle is at p. The area its of a triangle is equal to one-half the product of its base by equal to Yi (AC 5) Bm). thus the area of the triangle (fig. . is ABC X AB spectively. n and o being the middle points of altitude. 5.

of a quadrilateral having no two sides parallel is found by dividing the figure into two triangles and finding the area of each separ- Thus the area of AP. Their point of intersection. 6) is equal to Vi (ACXBm) +>4 (AC FIG. m and n are the centers of the triangles component triangles.EMKNTS OF YACHT DESIGN The area ately. x.lO EI. is then tin- FIG.CD (fig. The center of gravity is on a line connecting the centers of the In fig. 7. while o and p are the centers of the triangles ABC and ACD.\BD and BCD. . 7. Draw lines mn and op. X Dn). 6. .

9 W and w represent two weights having vy C FIG. as . is the center of gravity of the figure. middle points. 8. A somewhat is quicker method of finding the center of such a figure shown in figure 8. Taking mo- wXab W+w of wetted surface of hull.KMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN II center of the figure ABCD. The difficulty lies in determining the correct interval. the distance ac is equal to at c on the line ab. g. There are various methods employed for finding the approximate area These in general consist in applying Simpson's or the trapezoidal rule to the half girths below the water line taken at each station. Draw Bn.ICI. Bisect Draw the Bn and Bd. Their point of intersection. Bd. ments about a. center of x. Their common center lies ity at a and b. their centers of grav- In fig. Lay off Cn=Am. diagonals Ac and o and p being the FIG. often necessary to find the let common two areas or weights. It is Draw Do and np.

Next find the distance AC the other ooints on the station and find their mean. mean method probably the most accurate method for determining wetted surfaces. 3. If now we A'C is the proof paper and mark off on one distance edge of tions. shows this plane revolved into the plane of the paper. spaces below the water line as in lo. it the distance AA'. The se- cant gives the distance in the same manner at AA'. where the lines MN and OP di- FIG. we have once the tangent of the angle A' AC.12 liLEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN the distance between stations on the surface of the skin Taylor's is greater than at secant the centeriine and IS is constantly varying. which twice the between sta- and then divide at this distance decimally. the line AC is C on 4. jection of AC. Now in a table of natural functions find the secant corresponding to this tangent. 11) If with this scale we measure AC fig. we have a scale for meas10 (:=A'C fig. Now let us pass a plane through AC perpendicular to the plane of the paper. TO. in terms of AC . uring normals. take a piece is Fig. vide the stations into thirds. In applying Taylor's method each station is divided into a number of equal fig. drawn normal II to the station At a point on station and stopping at A on 2 and 1'.

033 I.002 Sum.036 1.. 9 1.000 1.002 4.007 I.001 1.OII II 12 At " L. The result is a very close approximation Table I.06 6. Yz .098 1. 1.26 6.0I8 1.46 4.86 6. 016 000 000 I.004 4.ooS 1.050 I.OII 4.26 6. 10 1.42 3. 1.0I3 3-078 1.0S8 1.SECANTS STATION J fi 7 1.013 ' 031 1. .OOI 1.OOI 3. 020 2.S4 3. 4. 016 1. the half girths having been measured in .038 1.036 4. Treat the half girth at each stamanner and sum up by the trapezoidal rule.02X % X2X3=352-2 sq.026 1.133 1.OIO 4.033 1.020 3-051 I. 016 t. 1.031 M N OP Keel 1. calculation is for the wetted thirty-footer by Taylor's method.031 1.036 I.040 I.59 4-30 S-68 6.006 1.007 i. using for s the same distance between stations. W.026 1.028 1.02.035 4. ft.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN Multiply the half girth by this tion in the 13 actual mean secant.006 1.013 I.026 4-35 Divide by 3 Half Girths Corrected Half Girths. The following to one-half the wetted surface.124 1.001 1.4. The factor 'A corrects for scale.036 1. 3.003 1.008 S-63 3.024 1. 001 I. 3-025 1.05 6.002 1. gives tangents advancing by hundredths and the corresponding secants.022 1.35 1. 000 000 Difference 3098 1.005 001 024 1.004 I.26 6.028 I.026 1.OOI 1. The wetted surface of the hull is then 44.006 1.071 4.OI7 4-2''. L 1.020 end ord 1.46 The corrected half girths are the products of the two preceding lines. The sum of the corrected half girths is Z14.78 2.007 6. of the appendix.

The factor 2 allows for both sides tance between stitions.: 14 ELEMKiNTS OF ^'ACHT DESIGN inches on the drawing. consists in taking the half girths as before rule using a corrected interval. The application of Taylor s method is somewhat laborious and for small work the bilge diagonal method will do well enough. makft. ing the total area of wetted surface 402. of the thirty-footer about a lon- gitudinal axis ST A. L. and the drawing is to other than the one-inch scale. The calculation for the moment is of inertia of the L. . as is generally most convenient.6 sq. measured in inches. the sum of the cubes must be multiplied by the cube of the inverted scale. apply the trapezoidal rule to the cubes of ordinates If the ordinates are and multiply the result by two-thirds.6.8 and 25. as follows W. cube them. This interval To obtain the moment of inertia of a water line about its longitudinal axis measure the half-breadths at each station. This method and applying the trapezoidal is obtained by multiplying the distance between stations by the length of a bilge diagonal between the stations at the forward and after points of immersion and then dividing by the length of the load water line. The cubes of ordinates should be taken from a table of cubes of numbers. of rudder To the and centerboard. and 3 is the disimmersed area of hull we must add that These are respectively 24.

STA. .ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN I5 rection to obtain the same about the center of gravity of the water line. Referring to the following computation on the thirty-footer we have in the second column the half-breadths of the load water line plane measured in actual inches on the drawing.

is not shown made by multiplying by the given plates in the secant of the angle which a diagonal through centerline. The plating of metal yachts is not of uniform thickness but is made heavier in localities which are especially stressed. rig and equipment will be apparent. There are some things such as paint. spars.l6 ELEMENTS OF VACHT DESIGN process for structural members being to find the volume and multiply by the density. The calculation of weights for the thirty-footer is given on page 50. The area of outer surface depends on the siding and spacing. The volumes of long members like stringers. The volume of the found by multiplying its area in square feet by its thickness in feet. which The volume of the beams is readily found. The volume of the deadwood is found by applying the trapezoidal rule to the areas of transverse sections taken at regular intervals. makes with the pounds per square foot. The most convenient methods of obtaining the weights of other portions of hull. Tables IV and \' give weights of sails and fastenings. Table III gives the weights of spruce spars of various diameters. thus if the frames were sided two inches and spaced The fourteen inches the area would be ^/i2X%=y7 that of the planking. etc.. which elude calculation and whose weight must be estimated. The area is found in the same manner as the v^^etted surface. and The weight of plates is is expressed a forty-pound steel plate considered to be . are equal to the length multiplied by the mean sectional area. is found in the same manner as that of the frames. etc. nineteen pounds for canvas. by its thickness. Table II gives average values for the densities of various materials entering into the structure of the yacht. the the plates should be taken correction should be expansion correctly in the and a ever. This difficulty does not exist with the metal construction as the densities of plates and shapes are very accurately known and of course do not vary appreciably. Care must be taken that nothing is omitted from the schedule of weights. personal effects. For this reason the skin can not be dealt with as a whole but the weight of each plate or group of The dimensions of plates of the same weight must be figured separately. clamps. The accuracy of weight calculations on wooden boats is vitiated by the frames is ing by the mean moulded the variation in densities of woods but with care. the half girths being taken from planksheer to rabbet line. fairly close results may be obtained.. The volume of planking is found by multiplying the area of surface next the plankdepth. cabin fittings. The length howfrom shell expansion. A fair allowance for outside paint is nine pounds per hundred square feet of surface over plain wood. volume of the deck is found by multiplying its area.

making plate an inch thick 17 A bronze five pounds to the eighth of an inch. any extended calculation is so laborious as to ren- good enough on small yachts. Naval vessels are often weighed during construction. In conclusion it may be said that the designer should avoid long hand figuring for computation.s. Calculations for longitudinal strength and of stresses set up when among waves are sometimes made. As these calculations are very comrefuse taken out. multiplied by their weight per foot. Logarithms leave the work in a much more convenient form for reference than ordinary figuring and are especially valuable for finding powers and roots of numIn addition they are more expeditious and more accurate than orbers. lengths of frames of the same size is to be multiplied by the weight per foot to get their weight. In finding the weight of deck beams their length should be measured along the upper crowned side and allowance should be made for the part turned construction is used. Small yachts should be weighed after completion whenever possible as a check on the calculations. keelsons. The length of frames and reverse frames should be measured on the The sum of the bod}' plan. allowing for curvature. if this vertical laps. stringers and other longitudinal members may be found from their length. the weight of all the material worked into the ship all is This procedure might be employed to advantage in important yacht work. but the calculation would be very laborious. as otherwise. der the unprofitable. 5 per cent. butt straps. it is thought unnecessary to give space to them here and the reader is referred to works on general naval architecture for these calculations. slide rule is quite work The ordinary for a large portion of the calculations dinary figuring. rivets in floors and down to form the bracket. A butts. 10 per fair allowance for these items is cent. making allowance for clips and doubling. bracket and tie-plates may be calculated from their area and weight per square foot. . The weights of under outer strakes and rivets may be computed. allowing for lightening holes if any are cut. Weights of keels. liners and rivets in plating. liners — . that is. and it is customary to allow for these items by arbitrary percentages taken from practice. deck stringer-plates. carefully recorded as well as the weight of plex and are made only on very large or very lightly built steamers. using logarithms or calculating machine exclusively. The weight of floors.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN an inch thick. rivets in frames and reverse frames. . weighs 43 pounds per square foot. brackets 3 per cent.

we have what is known as the curve of areas. The process of determining displacement is and longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy best explained by a concrete example. if the object were placed in a vessel full of water. and the center of gravity projected on the base line gives us the longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy. that is. The area of curve gives us the displacement of the yacht. There are approximately in pounds up to 35 or 40 feet foot there are 64 35 cubic feet of salt water and 36 of fresh water in one ton. the weights so that the yacht will trim properly. . : the calculation for the 30.CHAPTER III. If we plot the areas of the various transverse sections on a base line as in this fig. ANY object floating in water displaces its own weight. The center of buoyancy is the center of figure portion of the vessel. an amount would is run over equal to the weight of the object.footer being as follows the quantities opposite section in the station numbers are the planimeter readings of each half square inches. In one cubic pounds of salt water and 62. 4. must be same vertical line or the vessel will alter its trim so as to bring them In a yacht ter of it is important to know the longitudinal position of the cenin order to be able to distribute buoyancy when the yacht is is erect. in the central vertical plane. in the so. The displacement is determined from the lines of the yacht as will be explained later. its useful. athough a knowledge of is. DISPLACEMENT. The distance between stations is 3 feet.240 pounds above that size. as will be shown later. the center of buoyancy position is The vertical position of not so important. Displacement of yachts commonly expressed water line and in tons of 2.4 pounds of fresh water. The upward The force of the of the submerged buoyancy of the water may be considered to act at this point and the weight of the vessel to act centers of buoyancy and gravity at the center of gravity. Its transverse position of course.


is a suitable position for cruising boats. ver}.53 to . the prismatic coefficient generally For centerboard boats having little external lies between .61. The fineness of a design is commonly represented by three coefficients. An 50 to 56 per cent. A design may be perfectly fair and sweet yet have an undesirable distribution of the displacement as revealed by the area curve. The shows the manner . ' ~LWLXPC is The form as it of the curve of areas in a matter of considerable significance. keel it varies from . The area of midship section of the thirty-footer 6. For steam yachts and launches. the block coefficient or ratio of the volume of the displacement to the volume of the circumscribed parallelopipedon and the prismatic coefficient or ratio of the volume of the displacement to the volume of a solid whose length is equal to the length of the water line and having a constant sectional area equal to that of the mid section.2 sq. From 52 to 54 per cent.80 X-^X'% =-'4.Soto . and the prismatic coefficient is equal to 24207 30X24.54 and . ft.2X64 =. These are the midsection coefficient or ratio of midsection to the circumscribed rectangle.20 a portion or ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN all of the ballast is to be carried inside. the 'calculation for is weight may be dispensed with as the amount of weight easih' adjusted to secure the desired flotation. Having decided on a suitable prismatic coefficient for a design the area of the midsection is readily calculated for a given displacement as follows .522. The last coefficient is the most important for is our purposes. _ D cu.54 For the modern keel boat it varies from . -For boats of the semi-keel type from .50.46 to . It is also the ratio of the area of the curve of the transverse areas to the area of the circumscribed rectangle. of the load water-line length from its forward end. which the displacement is distributed longitudinally.little is buoyancy is something of which examination of the data for a large number of representative existing yachts shows its position to lie generally between best position for the center of The known. ft..60. will serve as a The curve of displacement on plate IX guide in estimating displacement for sailing yachts.

c' c". The semi- circumference and base line are spaced off as before. A discussion of resistance and the wave-form theory would not accord with the purpose of this book.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN 21 form of the curve has undoubtedly great influence on the wave-making resistance and should of course be that of least resistance for a given displacement and speed. The length of forebody in well- formed )^achts is generally is. c". to The area product of of the always equal one-half base tro- by diameter of generating circle. that the midsection or point of greatest sectional area cent. Ab and Ac. 12. Fig. 12 it is de- sired to construct a curve of versed sines of length AC. same number and perpenb". diculars through circle. Before proceeding further it will be well to give the construction for the curve of versed sines and the trochoid. b.5. W. of the water-Hne is in length. and the application of the theory to j-acht design will simply be given. from the forward FIG. lie on the curve. AC into the Draw a'. of equal divisions. b'b". L. b'. The wave form theory requires the curve of areas to be a curve of versed sines for the forebody or . Divide the base liner. c. According to the wave-form theory as proposed by Colin Archer in 1877. Suppose in fig. Let AB be the diameter of generating ber of equal divisions. Draw a' a". The . between 54 and 58 per cent. 13 shows the constrviction for the trochoid. Divide the semi-circumference into a numline. parallel to AC through a. that is. Draw the chords Aa. of the water-line length the neighborhood of 56 per end. c'. and a trochoid for the afterbody. its coefficient is . The points of intersection a". parallel and equal to the chords Aa. the curve should take the form of a wave line.6 of L. Ab and versed line Ac. sine The curve points a" b" c" is lie on the curve.

IIMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN choid has a varying coefficient dependent on the ratio of diameter of generating circle to base line.form curA-es having it is desirable to treat boat various prismatic coefficients. to the There is undoubtedly an advantage in having.\ curve through these points will have the wave form and its prismatic coefficient and position of center of buoyancy will be as indicated in table \^T. having first drawn it with the proper diameter of generating circle to give the desired coefficient. To construct an area curve using these factors divide the base line between the forward and after points of immersion into ten equal parts. making the areas of the boat proper take the \T gives a series of factors for and keel wave form. Erect ordinates at these points. the length of forebody from . on the contrary.22 EI. as this in itself will not produce a speedy design.60.57 to accord with modern practice.be increased to pass through any desired point. Table constructing wave. .ship section by the factors of the curve having that coefficient and plot these quantities on the ordinates. decreasing. In boats prescribed by the wave-form theory.56 or . The height of the trochoid ma}. Curves . however. the water line length to . little centerboard boats having external keel having a pronounced external keel separately. multiply the area of mid. by multiplying each ordinate by the height at the point through which the curve is to pass divided by the ordinate of the original curve at the same point. should not be overestimated. Its importance. many successful yachts have a curve differing widely from that B The area curves of steam yachts and may be made to take an exact wave form. and. the coefficient increasing with the ratio. however. and having selected a suitable prismatic coefficient. the area curve conform wave-form theory.

. in the curve are avoided In this way all irregularities and the displacement and position of center of buoyancy are sure to work out as intended after the design has been faiired up. An excellent method of design is to start with the curve of areas and make the areas of transverse sections conform to the curve.ELEMENTS OF YA(.HT DESICN 23 having other prismatic coefficients may readily be constructed b> using various other ratios of diameter of generating circle to base. This method of designing from the area curve is explained more fully in chapter V.

plane In cases where the center of the In the majority of cases 56 or 57 per cent. when the yacht is heeled is quite difThe position of the center of buoylateral re- ancy is also considered to affect the position of the center of sistance. In either case the proper dissail tance fore and aft from the reference point to the center of the plan must be determined experimentally from existing boats of the given type. cent. disregarding entirely the hull in shoal-bodied boats. The reasons for this moves forward it is constanth' entering solid water. although some designers use a center lying on a line between the centers of buoyancy and of the fin assume a center for reference in placing the center of 6r centerboard. THE LATERAL PLANK. Since we cannot determine the true center of lateral resistance we must our sailplan. Very small center- . increasing the pressure at the bow and decreasing it toward the stern where the water is more or less disturbed. It practically impossible of determination and is considerably farther for- ward than the center of figure of the lateral plane. of the water line. its distance from that point being expressed in terms of the waIn most yachts this distance is between 54 and 58 per ter line length. the contour of the lateral plane ferent from that in the erect position. point probably bears a This more constant relation to the true center of lateral resistance than the center of lateral plane. longitudinal projec- tion of the under-water body of the vessel. Its position is commonly located with reference to the forward point of immersion. as in the old-fashioned catboats.CHAPTER W. THE term is lateral plane is applied to the vertical. Thecenter of lateral plane is generally used for this purpose. It is found that to secure satisfactory results the fore and aft position of the center of lateral plane must lie within certain definite limits. The center of lateral resistance is the point at which the lateral pressure of the water on a boat sailing close-hauled may be considered to be concentrated. The wave which is piled up under tli(> lee bow tends also to increase the pressure in the region of the bow. will sail plan is neces- sarily very far aft. the center of lateral may be placed as far back as 60 or 61 per cent. Moreare that as the boat over. give the best results.

and for this reason the rud- der can hardly be considered a factor in resisting lateral pressure. but the best practice figures given above for area to disregard it and the pres- and center of lateral plane are for the plane is exclusive of rudder. where it is impracticable to secure a proper balance by placing the rig far enough for- ward. In a properly balanced yacht there sailing but little sure on the rudder when by the wind.5 sq. in general have a slightly smaller ratio than keel boats of similar type. The necessary amount of lateral plane it something for which no very .2 sq. area of rudder required varies widely with different types. The type of rig and amount of is sail carried also have a bearing on this question. Designers differ as to whether the rudder should be considered a part of the lateral plane or not. A con- venient comparative method of approximating the area of lateral plane lateral plane to area of midsection. definite rules can be stated. Centerboard boats may ft. In centerboard boats it is well to have the center of the board somewhat ahead of the general center so that when the board is raised the general center may move aft.65 the area of the lateral plane should be approximately 1 24.0. For illustration. For keel boats of ordinary type the ratio by the ratio of for a large should lie between 4. the thirty-footer has an area of midsection of 24.2X4. Taking a ratio of 4.25 and 5.0 to 6. On this account the area of each bilge board may be made much less . This ratio worked out number of representative yachts is found to vary from 4. entirely convex in contour. as varies greatly with the type of boat less lateral is thus a centerboard boat requires relatively plane than a keel boat. An exception may be made in some types such as catboats. making is the boat steer better off the wind. The higher ratios are found in the clipper-bow type with a long keel. as the centerboard being a plane surface more effective in resisting lateral pressure than the somewhat rounded surface of the keel.65^ 12.50. ft. Its size may The may . of bilge boards The commend decreased wetted surface and capsizing tendency their use on shoal racing is boats. Bilge boards are much more effective in resisting lateral pressure than a centerboard as they are nearly vertical when the boat is heeled down beating to windward and present a surface normal to the direction of pressure.ELEMENTS UI" YACHT DESIGN 25 board craft often have their centers very far forward with apparently good results. boats is The angle of weather helm and consequent loss of speed in such reduced by increasing the area of the rudder so that the rudder be considered lateral plane when comparing boats of this type.7 than the necessarj' area of a centerboard for the same boat (about as great).

a tendency to fall off Boats with this type of plane sea. of the lateral plane and for this reason the leading as possible. The forward portion resistance. The calculation of area and center of lateral plane of the thirtyfooter is as follows the first column gives measurements on each station in inches from the water line to the keel bottom. Moments of each are then taken about a convenient point. The fact that those features of design tending to produce speed are detrimental to seaworthiis when carried to a high degree holds true in the case of the lateral plane and for this reason the fore and aft concentration of lateral plane should be avoided on cruising boats. have and steer badly in a heavy they must be finely is balanced and carefully steered to lie at all times. : . and is much more expeditious than calculation.II sq. of the lateral plane has great influence on the performance The modern tendency This has its is toward a concentration of the plane more efficient advantages for racing boats as such a plane is and consequently may have less area and less wetted sur- face than one whose area is more widely distributed fore and aft. If such a plane has a centerboard the areas and centers of hull and board should be found separately and the combined center found b\' taking moments about a In the case of a very irregular contour the plane should convenient point. Table VII gives suitable values of this ratio for various sizes and types of )achts. Quick turning ness another advantage pertaining to this type. as then the leading edge extends tour.26 KLEilENTS OF YACHT DESIGN be advantageously stated in terms of the area of lateral plane exclusive of rudder or ratio of rudder to lateral plane. fore and aft. The exact form of the calculation for area and center of lateral plane depends on the character of the design. If the plane is regular in conable drag or slope. the sum of the moments divided by the sum of the areas giving the distance from the point to the total center.5X-II = I2. the trapezoidal or Simpson's rule may be used. for the ft. The cardboard method of determining the center of lateral plane is susceptible of sufficient accuracy if used with care.4 The shape of the yacht. be divided into a number of portions in such a way that the area and center of each may be readily figured. To carry out this is most effective for lateral edge should be made as long idea the keel bottom should have consider- the rudder from the bow aft to and is constantly entering solid water all along its length. hove to well the lateral plane must be well spread out in a fore and aft direction. their balance greatly afIf a boat is fected by reefing and varies with different strengths of wind. thirty-footer we get for area of rudder II2. Selecting a ratio of .


and cenIt will or nearly the ballast inside. As an aid in making such comparisons the curves on plates \'I. semi-keel boats with a small centerboard and terboard boats having all all or nearly all all the ballast outside. The small sizes vary greatly the first beam and draught and part of the curves simply represents a fair average value for these quantities. For this work yachts have been divided BEFORE starting a design into three classes. Thesecurves are based on data taken from a large number of successful existing yachts and may be considered thoroughly representative of current American practice. In general. at the water line. These curves will be found of great value in blocking out the proportions of a new design.. Plate IX gives average values for displacement. Having settled upon the type and water-line length. viz.ore closely to the curves. area of lateral plane. VIII and IX have been prepared. VII. on plate \TI for the same water sizes of yachts will line have draught than is indicated length and vice versa.CHAPTER DESIGN. By their use comparison is made of the proportions of a large number is of existing yachts of the given size instead of with only It is one or two as generally the case. It was found impracticable to make any distinction for type in drawing these curves. and plate VII gives extreme draughts. The larger conform m. beam at water line. V. it is well to fix upon the principal dimensions which include length over all. It understood that these curves ap- should not be inferred that the dimensions of a well-proportioned boat must lie on or very near the curves. . being expressed in pounds up to forty feet water line and in tons of 2. the other proportions are generally arrived at by some sort of comparison with existing boats.240 pounds above that size. be noted that the differences between the types so appear almost altogether in as to marked in the smaller sizes disthe larger boats. displacement and area of midship section. as many excellent designs show quite a divergence from them. a boat having greater less beam than is shown by plate VI. especially in the ply only to cruising boats. Plate VI gives ratios of beam at water line to length on water line for cruising boats. extreme draught. Plate VIII gives curves of sail area and least freeboard to top of rail. keel boats with all outside ballast.

the principal dimensions were taken beam at water line to water-line length as The beam. a good plan to draw a preliminary profile at half The object final profile from that. 29 On the other hand. On the preliminary profile the freeboard at bow and stern and the length and contour of the overhangs are determined. In this A good way to draw the sail plan first. 5 in. ft. sq. body plan. then should be 30X. A suitable prismatic Using .2X4-65=112..ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN smaller sizes.81 sq.5 explained on page 25. The next step is to determine the proper area of midsection to give this displacement. way the effect of the rig on the general appearance of the boat may be studied and the sheer line.S5 'Plate from the curves as follows the ratio of indicated on plate \'I is . profile of bow and stern.000 pounds at 30 feet water line. It We will etc. section should be 24200 64 24. if the proportions indicated by the to. draught. The displacement curve shows about 24. half-breadth plan. the procedure followed in the case of the thirty-footer will be given.50 to .52 the area of midcoefficient for this type of boat is . being altered and redrawn . It is area and center of lateral plane already fixed upon. will be of excellent proportions in the of present In order to illustrate the process of laying out a design. now have be assumed that the reader has some knowledge of lines and is familiar with meaning of the terms elevation. : ft.43 feet or about 2 ft. in. 24. Vn gives slightly over five feet draught at 30 feet water Plate VIII gives for the least freeboard 2.200 pounds was taken as a safe fig-ure. etc.385=ii.2X/^X'/i6= 6.52. or about 11 feet 7 inches. line.385. semi-keel cruiser of normal proportions.2 sq. study the the scale of the lines and enlarge the in doing this is to reduce the drawing at a glance to such a size that the eye can take in the entire drawing and very way is in which each 'portion harmonizes with the whole. drawn so as to harmonize in the best manner. as The area of lateral plane should be about 24. The contour of lateral plane may also be drawn in on this plan. curves for the given water line length are adhered a design light may be produced which practice. 30X-52 The half area in square inches on the drawing will be 24. The first step is to draw the profile using the least freeboard. Having settled upon a thirty-foot water line. ft. sufficient data to enable us to block out the design.

This is Having drawn which to in the midsection.30 until area ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN and center come as intended. draw the sheer or deck best shape for this line is also FIG. the shoal flat section contains the elements of speed higher degree than a narrower and more V-shaped section. The most suitable shape of midship section is found by experience. we may next The direct our attention to the half-breadth plan. of the water-line length= 16. The midship section should be drawn in next at the proper distance from the forwarl point of immersion. for the thirty-footer.81 ft. stability and seaworthiness combined in the proportions best adapted to the type of boat in hand. The m. This distance was made 56 per cent. . The section is drawn with the water-line beam. as it influences the form of the entire boat. 14. It must possess the elements of speed. The shape of the section is of great importance. draught and area already assigned and with the height of rail and draught given by the profile at that point. The final profile may then be en- larged from the preliminary sketch. within certain limitations and has numerous exceptions. in In general.idsection gives us a point amidships through line.

This course was pursued in designing the thirtyfooter.52. By centerline is meant a line passing through the points P on each section (fig. centerline in sections above square inches for areas of half gives STA. It is somewhat difificult to preserve the area of the section during the process of fairing up. The areas above 'centerline are the areas above the dotted line. A much better method is tQ draw an arbitrary displacement curve to start with and make the area of each station conform to that indicated by the curve for that station. as is usually the case. the top of planksheer. Where the yacht has an appendage. The usual procedure from this point is to draw in the stations by eye. This the factors in column 2. A preliminary load water line may be drawn next and the half-breadths at deck and load line transferred to the body plan. table VI were used. fair them up. but it may be done with care and practice.89. 14). draw a displacement curve and see if the displacement comes out near enough. all below that line being considered the appendage. load water line and keel bottom. We now have three points on each station on the body plan through which to draw the transverse sections. A boat of her type should have a prismatic coefficient for In constructing the curve of the portion above centerline of about . we must deal with the areas of sections above the centerline. . The thirty-footer's half area of midsection in square inches on the drawing is 5.: 1 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN a matter of judgment based on experience. to 3 It is a good plan generally have the widest point on deck a little abaft the widest point at the load line giving what is known as the raking midship section. areas above centerline. where the prolongation of the flat of the bottom intersects the central plane.

transverse sections. and buttocks flat in the elevation is must correspond with those v. developments are. The practice of making the model first and the lines from the model is now ity. The design is faired by taking sections planes.perpendicular to the con- tour of the. The final operation is to take offsets These computations from the design from which to lay the boat down full size in the mould loft.. buttocks. These are generally the diagonals. .\ is easily efifected in order to bring the total displacement to the desired figure. the water lines or buttocks are de- veloped next. boat It is important to take a sufficient number of these. longitudinally on water b}' lines. . as a b}- may be apparently perfectly fair the diagonals and yet exhibit pe- culiar places in the ends vice versa. through the boat in varous buttocks and diagonals and transin versely on the stations. perfectly fair longi- The operation whose of fairing should be commenced with those tudinal sections planes are most nearl}. A sHght variation in the displacement of the appendage . are dealt with elsewhere. varies the procedure and adopts methods which he has found of especial The practice of making a model from the lines is to be recommended. where it would be difficult or impossible to detect them in the lines. should be made in order to ascertain whether or not the design fulfill will requirements in a satisfactory manner. when the water lines come to be drawn in and The intersections of water lines in the plan. Hav- ing faired the boat by the diagonals. brief outline of the process of fairing lines may be of value at this point. etc.32 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN Having drawn in and faired the upper body the appendage may be drawn in and its displacement computed. stabiletc. craft some of the buttocks would be developed value to him. are developed and the sections are altered curves. as sometimes slight imperfections in the design are made apparent b\' the model. The designer. as nearly fair as possible After the transverse sections have been drawn until all these eye.. as he gains experience. the diagonals. After the completion of the design the computations for weight.'hat The procedure varied some- according to the type of boat first. practically obsolete. thus in a shoal.

when heeled to the angle B under the of the center of action of the wind or some other force. the position FIG. G and B' per- B' with the centerline centric height. THE by Statical stability of a vessel is the fig. buoyancy in the erect position. moment 15 of the couple formed is the weight and buoyancy.CHAPTER VI. erect position. B. B' the position of the center of when heeled to the water line W buoyancy L'. 15. the water line. G is the position of the center of gravity and a pendicular to W is the distance between lines passing through L'. STABILITY. With G M the stability said to be neutral and with G above M the stability . W In WL the water line in the L'. the vessel will tend to return to the erect position at when inclined. that is. The intersection at M of the perpendicular through G M is called the metais known as the metacenter : As long is as G is below M the stability is positive.

that of weight and construction as affecting the position of and that of the form of hull as affecting the position of B'. Equipment Crew .: 34 is ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN negative and the vessel will take an inclination until it reaches a posi- tion where G is below i\I. for instance. i MOM. too gravity from the reference line. the weight of the rig taken at the center of effort. giving the distance of the center of This is a very laborious process. A simple method of approximating its position to divide the weight of the )'acht into several portions. 25200 7180 o 180 o 3 12580 34180 BELOW ITEM L. The process any angle of heel consists then in finding the distance apart of the centers of gravity line at that angle. The moments of the weights are summed up and divided by the total weight. statical stability of a yacht is equal to the displacement of determining the sta- the righting arm. Its vertical position yacht. L. by approximation and by experiment on the completed center of gravity. W. footer is as follows ABOVE ITEM Rig Hull L. 21 . and it is simpler and generally sufficient to arrive at the position of the center of gravity by an approxis imation.0 4. as. we have a very close approximation to the correct position of the center of gravity. WT. The transverse multiplied by bility at a. L. G. lies The of course in the erect position. the deadwood taken at its center. The weights of the component members of the structure and equipment are found together with their vertical distances from a reference line. and of buoyancy in a direction parallel to the is It is evident that the stability water dependent upon two factors. 3. G on the centerline of the yacht on that line may be found by direct calculation. and the lead keel taken which may be computed or estimated closely. W. the hull proper taken at the center of its at its center of profile. 1200 8980 1800 600 ARM. WT.8 MOM. Adding the moments of these weights about the water line and dividing by the total weight. 5460 40200 Deadwood Lead 9800 II 620 45660 . usually line. 1820 ARM. the base line or load water much so for ordinary small yacht work. The application of this approximation to the thirtyprofile. The calculation for vertical position of the center of gravity is similar to that for longitudinal position as performed in chapter VII.



C. G. below L.

W. L.=

45660—34180^ 12580+ 1 1620



After the yacht



afloat the

center of gravity


be ac-

curately located by an inclining experiment.

Inclining experiments should

be performed whenever possible, as the knowledge of the position of the center of gravity obtained in this way is of great assistance in approximat-

ing the position for a new design of the same type. Let us consider, first, the case where an inclination is produced by raising a quantity of ballast
or other weight from the hold to the deck and then moving







the weight which has been raised from the hold



occupied the position



the weight at w, the center of gravity


some point G.


the weight

moved outboard

a distance


moves from G to G', causing an angle of inclination 6, which is indicated by a plumb bob attached to a deck beam It is a good plan to have the plumb bob hang in a bucket of water at a. as shown so as to steady it. The distance it swings b c is noted on a stick
the position w' the center of gravity

across the top of the bucket.




the distance GG', which the center of gravity has nioved


equal to



the position of the metacenter and


found by computation from

the lines as explained later, then

GM=GG'Cot^=^^X^^ Disp. b c
a b and b c are readily measured, so that

we may

solve for




us at once the height of the center of gravit}' with the weight on deck at





the distance


has been raised, the center of gravity with




be lowered



it is



no weight aboard which may be used for inclining the

necessary to employ some weight which

not a portion of the

yacht's equipment.

Let IM be the position of the metacenter calculated for

the immersion with his extra weight aboard.


as before



b c

which gives

G as

the position of the center of gravity with weight on board.


with the removal of the weight, the center of gravity will be lowered

by the amount


where h


the height of


above G.

The experiment should be conducted on
no sea or current.


in a location


All bilge water should be

pumped out and no

one besides the observer should be aboard when the readings are taken. After taking a reading the weight should be shifted to the other side an

equal distance from the center line and a second reading taken.




ferent inclinations should be used, taking a double reading for each.


angles should be from one to three degrees.

For small angles (up
practically constant.
stability equals

to about lo degrees) the height of






equal to




remains and the



We have then simply to determine the metacentric height in order to find
the stability

this is


as the metacentric

method of determining




applicable only to very small angles of inclination.


The height moment of

of the metacenter above the center of buoyancy
inertia of the water-line plane divided

equal to

by the volume of the

volume of the displacement or

B M=i.

the demonstration of this


somewhat complicated

it is



able to give space to


and the reader

referred to works on theoret-

naval architecture for this demonstration.


have seen in Chapter




to determine the


of inertia of a water line about

longitudinal axis.

For the

thirty-footer, the transverse



water line works out at 2025. The height of the transverse metacenter above the center of buoyancy is
inertia of the load


M=i V =-?^=5.36 378.2


the displacement in cubic feet.


The methods

so that


have to locate

B and G in

order to determine GM.

of determin-

ing the heights of the centers of buoyancy and of gravity have already been
dealt with. In the 30-footer, the center of


very nearly one foot

arm at 10 degrees is then, by about method, 4.36X-i74=-76 ft. the metacentric for longitudinal inclinations is analagous to height metacentric The is found in the same way with the difinclinations and that for transverse
below the center of gravity and the righting
ference that the


of inertia of the water line


taken about a transout on page 15, the

verse axis through
equal to

center of gravity.

As worked

longitudinal I for the thirty-footer,

equal to 11454 and





It is evident that

for small inclinations the metacentric height is a

the amount The amount of is . The ing arms. The value feet.small metacentric heights are often the most steady at sea. for in the neighborhood of 2 As stated. arm at various and wide angles of as ordinates. reaching their limit sometimes at as low as 50 or 60 degrees. maximum. If we plot these values abscissae. centric height. no indication of the range of sta- It is especially useful in investigating the condition of steamers in various states. and in the launching condition. the amount The curve of the of stability at thirty-footer Many heavily-ballasted keel racing boats have a range of stability of 180 degrees. This holds in a way in the case of sailing and for this reason cruising yachts have in general smaller meta- centric heights than racing boats. On the contrary.38 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN stability. is a stability. i. obtained by multiplying this righting arm by the displacement. The actual stability or righting moment is. of course. ity stabilit). This leads to a consideration of suitable values In racing yachts. of GM for steam yachts of about steamers of 200 feet water is 100 feet water line should be about line it lies 1. as obtained from the metadependent solely upon the position of the center of gravand the form of the underbody. while having large metacentric height and great stability at small angles. measure of the of is GM for various classes of yachts. This causes violence of motion when popular error that great stiffness is among waves and to be avoided in power-driven craft where the steadying effect of sent. moment A large metacentric height represents great and tendency to return quickly to the upright from small inis clinations. using angles of heel as we must determine the lengths of heel. we have a curve of rightis shown in fig. the stability at no time being negative. This curve for the thirty-footer the From this curve length of righting points to be noted in a stability curve are the angle at which the stability that angle and the range of shows a range of 127 degrees.at small angles. plate V.very low or by greatly increasing the of inertia of the water stiffness line. or greater than could possibly occur from effects of wind pressure alone. boats having ver}.5 feet. and for this reason cannot be used for determining sail-carrying power and bility. It is a sail is ab- essential to a comfortable power yachts. craft. have a limited range. arm for any given angle of heel is readily interpolated. the metacentric height made as great as possible either by placing the center of gravit}. On the other hand lightly- ballasted centerboard boats. In order to have a complete knowledge of the righting stability of a yacht. where the sail area is unlimited. such as without coal in the bunkers. At large angles. with coal and stores aboard. the amount of metacentric height is an indication of the sta- bility for very small angles only. however.

j are measured from L' as far as section h and from W like fig. Referring to the a. b. L' and W" L" are drawn of 20 degrees. An increase of beam increases the height of the first part of the curve of righting arms. The work is recorded In fig. plate V. etc. This point is the center of buoyancy at that angle and the distance between the centers of buoyancy and of gravity in a direction parallel to the water line If this process is pursued for other angles at interis easily measured. W L and represent an angle of W in the table on page 40. are Longitudinal sections perpendicular to W heel L' and W" L" drawn at a. The three methods. These are pasted lightly together in their correct relative positions and their common center of gravity determined. the shape of the underwater portions of evenly-spaced transverse sections at a given angle of inclination and up to a water line cutting off the required displacement. b. and section g passes through thecenter of gravity G. 2. Heeled Longitudinal Sections.. This a purely mechanical method. By draw- L' and W" L". have been selected with especial reference to their applicaThese methods are small yacht work. table. the L'. has so been worked out. and consists in pricking off on very thin card from a tracing of the body plan. 3.plays a very important part. as to cut off the same displacement as c. the measurements recorded in the columns headed are the distances in feet from the inclined water line to the intersection of the longitudinal ing two inclined water lines W and transverse sections. a discussion of which follows. where the distances from the first to the second intersection by h is measured. This is done by suspending the sections from two or more points at the edge of the card and noting where plumb lines from the points of suspension intersect. 1. we avoid the necessity of drawing a double body plan are taken from j. W" L" for sections Measurements for the afterbody are taken from W" L" as far as section i with the exception of station 12 on section h. c. vals of about ID degrees. the water lines.: ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN 39 of freeboard and general form of the upperbod}. This method is by direct computation. we may then draw a curve of righting arms. There are numerous methods of determining stability at large angles of heel. etc. the righting arm for the thirty-footer at 20 degrees heel. while an increase of freeboard increases the length of the curve. Blom's Method. and as an example of its applibility to cation. already given. most of which are too cumbersome and laborious in their application to be of value for yacht work. 2. The sections are spaced a foot apart. found by the approximation.surements for the forebody i and W . Sections i and After the measurements are all taken. Mea.

40 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN ^ OliOM CSOOtN.O'Ot^ro =:oq fTi fn -rt \o C^ n ^ Nvo -\o rN.O\od r^ioi-I fb^'od oi *-< r.\0»n-t<r)(s mOmcic^ 01 .

sections gives 1. give the areas of the sections a b c. FIG. The difference of the moments on sums of moments divided by 3. and for this reason used practically to the exclusion of numerical methods.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN 41 columns are added and their sums multiplied by the spacing of the stations. The integrator runs on a steel track T.41 feet for the is The Mechanical Integrator. the the length of the righting sum of the areas of arm at 20 degrees. The disc at A records area readings. a who have much stability work to do. and disc M records moment readings.. and the each side of g are then added separately. P is the tracing point. Some forms of the instrument have still another disc for finding moment of inertia of plane figures. and added together. the section passing through the center of gravity G. in square feet by the trapezoidal rule. its The area of each section multiplied by distance in feet from g. by naval now architects. 17. . The sum of the areas multiplied by the spacing of the sections ( i foot) gives for the . Fig. in this case three feet. heeled displacement 374. The areas are then transferred to the column at the right headed areas. etc. 17 is a diagram of common form of the instrument. Theuseof the integrator reduces greatly amount of labor in making stability calculations.85X1X64=24000 is lbs.

and makes an angle of 30 degrees with the centerline. and then sweep the tracing take point around a transverse section. we may readings of the discs .42 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN In using the integrator. If G is above the inthat is. This line passes through the center of gravity G. The line a a' is the axis about which mo- ments are taken.' the center of gravity is at G. the true righting arm will be G Br=C B+G C =C B+G A is sine below the intersection of the axis with the centerline. 18. in fig.\lthough it is convenient to have the axis pass through the center of gravity. it is not essential. for a correction in length of righting arm is readily made as shown FIG. If G A sin^ is to be subtracted. In figure 17 the instrument is placed for finding the righting arm of a yacht at 30 degrees inclination. Nov. we set the discs of the integrator at o. the track is first rect distance from the axis of the figure b}- set parallel to and at the cormeans of the gauges G and G'. Suppose the righting arm about an axis if A C is found to be C B. if the center of gravity tersection. . we must add to the arm as found the distance from G to intersection with the axis times the sine of the angle. 18.

tracted It is sufficient in general to determine the stability for a constant disetc. moments of the sections summed we may get the displacement and righting arm. The displacement in the inclined position is of course the same as when An inclined water line is drawn which it is estimated will cut oi? erect. corrects the moment reading area reading disc goes is for scale. If the moment backward. the right displacement and the displacement to this line determined.. The constants of The righting arm is equal to i9. very slight. are In large. In that figure the afterbody is drawn in dotted to avoid confusion. which will cut ofif nearly the right displacement and the stability for the portion below this line worked out. The corrected by multiplying by 9. but an easier and quicker way is to sweep the tracing point around each of the sections in succession. a new water line is drawn parallel to the trial line.99.00 and 34. The final readings give the sum of the areas and moments of the sections. ocean-going steam . especially in sailing yachts. If this done for all the sections of the boat and the areas and up.. being the cube of the inverted "! scale %. 3. degrees inclination were respectively 19. The application of this method requires a double body plan such as is shown in fig. the square of the inverted scale. These readings have simply to be corrected for the constant of the instrument and for scale before finding displacement and arm. The sums of the moment and area readings for the thirty-footer at 20 have been traced. placement as the changes in flotation due to consumption of stores. give us the moment of the section. The area and moment readings may be taken and recorded separately. the instrument were 4 for moments and 2 for areas.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN which.99X2X'%"" "727 ^. without stopping to take readings until all Care must be taken not to omit any sections. With this correction. The displacement will be in error by the amount of a slice whose thickness is equal to amount of the excess or deficiency in displacement to the heeled water line divided by the area of the water line. The moment divided by the area gives is the distance from the axis to the center of the section. which is found by measuring the widths of the water line on each station and applying the trapezoidal rule. plate V. '^^ . 43 area and when multiphed by the constants of the instrument. otherwise it is on the same side as the track.ooX4X% _^ 34. the final reading has to be sub- from one and the center of the figure is on the side of the axis away from the track.

44 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN yachts. known as a cross curve of having displacements for abscissas and righting arms for ordinates. considerable changes in displacement may occur on a voy- age due to consumption of stores and coal. For . The cross curves in fig. is A set of we wish to draw an ordinary curve for any given displacement. This difiference is very great in the case of racing this reason stability work on modern yachts must be considered comparative rather than quantitative. we may wish boats with long and low overhangs. and it is advisable to work out in such cases the stability at various displacements as well as at various angles of inclination. however. due to the support afforded by waves at bow and stern. using angles for abscissae. These conditions are of course absent when a yacht is under sail and the actual stability will in general. If we find the righting of inclination. of TONS FIG. arm for we may draw what several displacements at the is same angle stability. 19. be greater than the calculated. the displacement remaining constant. and with the values of righting arm for the various angles at this ordinate we draw an ordinary curve. say 158 tons. 19 were drawn with an assumed constant pocenter of gravity alters its sition of center of gravity. For instance. The position. assume the yacht to be at rest and in still water. 19. that is. This is the converse of the ordinary curve of stability which has angles of inclination for abscissas. course.ethods of determining stability which have been discussed. Disp. If shown cross curves shown in fig. The m. data obtained on sail-carrying power for a given type of boat should be used only for work on boats of that type. with a change in loading and displacement and a correction should be made for this as shown on page 42. we draw an ordinate at that point.

As the yacht is lifted on a wave it acquires a certain amount of momentum which tends to decrease the dispacement and virtual weight when the wave commences to subside. The curve of dynamical stability is the integral of the curve of statical stability that is.: . eddy-making. The last three items increase with ra- So far we have considered only statical sider d3'namical stability. the dynamical stability at a certain angle is equal to the area of the pidity of motion curve of righting moments up to that point. is very nearly as calculated. We have next to conThis is the amount of work expended in heeling the yacht to a given angle. The period of oscillation is the time consumed in swinging from an inclined position to the opposite position under the influence of the stability. and it is increased correspondingly in the trough. Having found the stability for a yacht of the given type having a suitable sail area.XanTi= : AXhXpXcos^. which used in conjunction with the stability determined in the ordinary manner. In this way values of p may be found for different types. A phenomenon of importance in connection with stability is the fluctuation in apparent or virtual weight of the yacht when among waves of sufficient size to lift her bodily. All the quantities in this equation are known except p which is readily found by solving the equation. the force of the wind remaining constant. assuming the yacht at rest. ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN to knov/ a suitable value for sail 45 wind pressure for a particular type. The virtual weight is a minimum when on a crest.554F GM / R2 . It is expressed theoretically by the following formula T=. in figuring area as shown on page 55. depressing the center of buoyancy. The stability of steam yachts when under way. we may equate the righting and heeling moments as follows Disp. This work is done in raising the center of gravity. A is the sail area. and in overcoming frictional resistance. Thus we see that the area as weh as the shape of the curve of righting moments is of importance. stability. and are of slight importance for slow inclinations. and p the pressure of the wind on one square foot of sail. h is the vertical distance between the centers of efTort and lateral resistance. This variation of stability when among waves. is the chief cause for a yacht's inability to carry the same amount sail of canvas in rough water as in smooth. enable us to apportion the area in accordance with the stability. wave-making. The direct effect of this on the stability is obvious when we remember that stability is the product of weight and righting arm.

be for least understood. and L is pounds or tons. too large a proportion of stability to weight. — foot pounds or foot tons. that too low- in placing the ballast knowledge of the longitudinal and transverse metacentric heights is of value in determining the change of trim or inclination consequent upon moving a weight from one portion of the yacht to another. moreover. GM the metafrom the center of gravit}. as it The period verse inclination. It will be seen that T varies as the radius of gyration and inversely as the square root of the metacentric height. the error being generally in giving is.to the longitudinal the water-line length in feet. The radius of gyration increased withis out affecting the metacentric height. It appears to be of advantage to make the radius of gyration as large as practicable for transof speed. placement.46 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN R is the radius of gyration and GM the metacentric height. This is one of the fundamental principles of _\'acht design and is. A faulty distribution of stability between form and weight is responsible mentation along this for the failure of many racing yachts. one of the ment. if not impossible. of oscillation has a very important bearing on the question depends both on the form and the amount and distribution of the weight. line experi- would be very difficult. the total form and that due to weight. The proportion of stability due to weight to the total varies in the same direction as the ratio of ballast to displace- There is absolutely no data as to what this proportion should Scientific varying ratios of ballast to displacement. and as small as possible for longitudinal inclinations. This is the reason trating last in shoal. The change of trim the displacement in . As we have seen. but the results would be of immence value to a skillful designer. This is accomplished b\- spreading the weights transversely and concenincreasing- them amidships longitU|dinalh-. thus g>Tation and the value of T. as will be seen from the formula. D is the amount of centric height or distance metacenter. the radius of bal- for "winging out" the is centerboard boats. The moment to change trim one inch is equal to A 12XL . there is stability is made up of the stability due to Now for any given ratio of ballast to dis- probably a certain combination of stability of form and weight more effective for speed under ordinary conditions than any other. Transverse distribution of ballast not possible in boats having outside ballast.

01745X24200X4-36=1841 A boat weighing 150 lbs. „ The longitudinal metacentric height is approximately the same as the water-line length.^5 . . is The moment where GM For the lbs.5^2950 ft.29 ^ ^ —^ ^^=1969 12X30 - — — .29 ft. XDXGM. is produce one degree heel the transverse metacentric height and equal to .01745 the displacement. mcnes.. The moment to change trim is then sum GM 24200X29. a distance of about 29. poimds.^ ft. lbs. The angle of heel produced would be 1200 18^1=. would be about 8 feet outboard if carried on davits and would produce a heeling moment of 150X8=1200 lbs.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN is 47 taken as the stern and rises at the is thirty-footer of the amounts by which the boat sinks at the for the bow.5 feet. or vice versa. so that for rough calculations the moment to change trim one inch may be to taken as one-twelfth the displacement. is The moment of the weight of the anchor and the change of trim is then 100X29. Suppose we wish to determine the change in trim due to moving a anchor from the bows to the lazarette. ft. D thirty-footer this moment is . 2950 1969 —y—=ix . The longitudinal 29. lOO-lb.

according to type as discussed in is the chapter on stability of great importance in all cases.40.40.55. This ratio for keel cruising boats should between . VII. An explanation of this is that the stone and iron being of smaller density than lead. it the only consideration. on the other hand. of safety and ability is demand The proper ballastWith cruising boats. considerations Where speed liberal amount of ballast. and a more suitable value for transverse time of osthan would result if lead were used. notably centerboard boats. For the semi-keel type the ratio should lie between . Transverse distribution and longitudinal concentration of ballast are to be sought in general.35.30 and . the sail-carrying power being furnished by increased stability of form and by the weight of crew. Certain types of boats. Iron.30 and . requiring a considerable amount of inside ballast. THE done by is function of ballast is to increase the stability due to weight. Lead has the further advantage over iron of being uninjured by the action of water. thus raising the center of gravity and distributing the weight so as to afford a better combination of stability of cillation form and of weight. being generally in the vicinity of . Excess increa.45. This increasing the displacement and by increasing the meta- centric height GM through a lowering of G. as the amount of lie . is a common error. however. ballast to a is desirable to reduce the amount of minimum. Its use permits of great concentration and lowering of weight and consequent in this direction. Centerboard cruising boats with inside ballast should have a ratio of from It is im. perform better with stone or iron ballast than with lead.CHAPTER BALLAST.se in weight stability. a ing of a yacht alone is of vital importance. however.25 to . Lead is more commonly used its for ballast than any other material on account of high density. are of greater bulk for equal weights. possible to state any values of this ratio for racing boats. A convenient method of comparison of the weight of ballast carried in different types is b\' the ratio of ballast to displacement. the ratio lying most commonly between . The nice adjustment of stability of form and of weight.40 and . is much cheaper than lead and may be incorporated in the arrangement for longitudinal strength.

necessary to make very careful computations for weight members have been given in chapter II. . multiplied by its weight gives the moment.405. To illustrate this process the computation for weight and center of gravity of the thirty-footer is given below. on the and poTo do sition of center of gravity if accurate results are to be expected. The In all ratio ballast to displacement for the thirty-footer is .st inside able position longitudinally or vertically. in order that the boat may trim as de- moments of boat and ballast taken about the center of buoy- ancy must be exactly equal. from the midship signed. usually the midship the weights of the various section lated. The methods of computing In designs it is where the amount of ballast is to be carried keel. of the balla. so that the position of the center of gravity The distance from the center of gravity of each may be member calcuto the midship section. ficult to It is dif- experiment with the vertical position of the ballast but the longi- tudinal position and resultant trim entire is readily varied if some inside ballast be carried. and varies from zero in the classes with little or no restrictions up to the values stated for cruising boats in classes where the restrictions are more stringent. the Now. The moments of weights forward of the midship section are summed up separately from those aft and the difference between the sums of moments divided by the sum of the weights. Longitudinal moments must be taken about a convenient axis. Boats carrying all inside ballast are found to require considerable experimentation as to position and distribution of ballast before securing the best results. this the weight and center of each item entering into the structure and equipment of the yacht must be ascertained. their weights being on opposite sides of the center of buoyancy.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN ballast is 49 dependent upon the rule under which the boat is built. particularly the latter. Care must be taken that nothing be omitted from this calculation. From this it seems altogether likely than many racing boats with all outside ballast are not sailing in their best form on account of the ballast not being in the most suitleast. gives the distance of the center of gravity of the yacht section. The amount of the ballast is made equal to the displacement minus the sum of the other weights. cases it is well to provide for the carrying of a small portion at the boat.



Keel sections are drawn at quent intervals. With this as a guide. another trial is made found and so on until the correct line in the found.5 feet on plate I. another line is drawn which is estimated will correct the errors in weight and center of the first trial line. The volume and center are then obtained by the application of the trapezoidal rule. The computation 1. and the areas of these sections are taken with a planimeter.footer STA. is as follows . To do this a trial line is drawn and the weight and center of the portion thus cut off is determined. for the thirty.: 52 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN it will have the required weight and position. Where there is a slot cut through the keel for a centerboard. the volume of the portion cut out is determined and its moment is subtracted from the total moment. If there is is still an error. The volume of the lead is same manner as the volume of the fre- hull in the calculation for displacement.

. The relative positions of the center of buoyancy and of gravity vary so widely in different designs that an estimation of the proper position for the center of the ballast is apt to lead to disappointment. order that satisfactory results may be assured. The calculation for longitudinal position of the center of gravity is abin solutely necessary when all the ballast is to be carried on the keel.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN ' 53 We is get . The many cases of faulty trim which are constantly occurring may be attributed to carelessness in this matter.20 feet for the distance which the center of gravity of the lead forward of station 8j4.

ratio of sail area to displacement is For the thirty-footer also used.:S. then S. The former The ratio of area to area of midsection tects. and S^ and D^. method THE simplest by is of determining the amount of sail for a new design comparison with some boat of known performance and of approximately the same type. This ratio should be be- tween 45 and 55 for cruising boats.ating the sail area.CHAPTER VIII. using The sail areas of a large number of successful yachts were used in constructing this curve. = ^l-^A- 2/l 2/-. theoretically. and ratio is generally about 3 sail area to area of midsection. while the heeling moment is equal to . it though is varies between 2 and 4. It was found that no distinction could be made between keel and centerboard boats. and it may be considered thoroughly representative of modern practice for cruising water-line length as a basis of comparison. twenty degrees.= d/^ D/^orS. and is used a great deal by French naval archia very good method of comparison.2. it is 53. « "D '^ The correct procedure. As an aid direct in estim. A method of comparison for sail area sail is by the ratios of sail area to area of wetted surface. The Theoretically. The righting moment is equal to the displacement times the righting arm for the given angle. the sail area should vary as the two-thirds power of the displacement. the area and displacement of another boat of exactly the same form but of different dimensions . say. Using this curve for the thirty-footer we get 1280 square feet as a suitable area. THE SAIL PLAN. This is the usual method. as explained in chapter W. especially above twenty feet water line. be the sail Let Sj and Dj sail area and displacement of a certain boat. the curve on plate VIII has been drawn. stability is to apportion the sail area in accordance with the making the heeling and righting moments equal for a reasonable angle of heel. boats..

Equating the heeling and righting moments at 20 degrees for the 30footer. 55 or pressure per unit area times the area. These conditions are.94 is the cosine of 20 degrees. 24. The assumptions made here are that the the boat. say i.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN the pressure on the sails. and FiG. of course. we have AXi. varying as the cosine of the angle. The pressure of the wind on sails for a good whole-sail breeze is generally considered to be a little over one pound per square foot of area. of course. .6 is the distance in feet between the centers of effort and lateral resistance . 24200 is the displacement in pounds and 1. 41 is the rightthat the . Thisisnot theabsolutepressure of the wind such as mechanical engineers use in designing structures but a sort of constant.i5povuids. and for this reason p must be considered a factor for wind pressure. determined as on page 45.i5X24. sails are perfectly fiat surfaces lying in the central plane of wind blows in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the boat. 20. not realized. This distance decreases.6X-94=2420oXi4i. multiplied by the vertical distance between the centers of effort and lateral resistance. as the angle of the heel increases.

N arm in feet at feet. 20 degrees.F. A b and a C being the respective altitudes. The mainsail was divided into the triangles A B D and B C D.MICNTS Ol' YACHT DICSIC. The area forestaysail of the mainsail jib are is then J d V2BD ( Ah-\-3. Solving the equation we get for the area 1283 square The area of the sail plan is easily found by dividing it up into triangles and finding the area of each by measuring its base and altitude and taking half the product. The altitudes of and G c and and their areas are Forestavsail^j4E ' FXGc iXjd generally meant the center of is con- Jib =>S sail TI is By the center of effort of a all plan gravity of the areas of the sails.C) .56 ing EI. 20 shows the manner in which these measurements were taken on the thirty-footer. The true center of pressure e . Fig.

. the balance of these boats trim. full-ended centerboarders. For racing machines of the scow type it varies from o to . of a quadrilateral. sail is In finding the center of effort. The combined center is obtained by finding the center of two sails and then combining with a third. ft. O. bisected. X. middle point being at Bd was at also bisected. and so on for any number of sails. It is conveniently expressed as a fraction of the water-line length. for shoal. The center of the sail is The center of the jib was The staysail 174 areas of the sails for the thirty-footer are. Ab was laid off d. manner. For cruising boats of normal form the lead is about In the larger sizes . generally a . The position of the center of lateral resistance also impossible to calculate. equal to aC b B was drawn and .10.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN siderably ahead of the center of gravity of the is is 57 sails.05 and little less.8 ~ 1285 The vertical projection of ft. it is convenient and customary to use instead the plan and the center of lateral plane. with no found and the then found by taking moments. its middle point being at c. distance from P being P 0=-^-^4?^-°=:6. The proper lead or distance between the centers of effort and lateral plane varies widely with the type of boat. the point of intersection of b c and D d. and as the positions of these two important 'points are unknown.15. its was used. the center of each construction for center of effort of the thirty-footer. and its exact position impossible to determine. the lead is center of gravity of the sail being the distance the former center of the system is ahead of the latter. was found in a similar tion. we get the center of three sails at Q. foreand jib 177. mainsail 934 sq. their point of intersecThe center of the forestaysail. for full-ended keel racing boats the lead is depending largely on their between . Fig. 21 gives the In finding the cen- ter of the mainsail. The center of staysail and jib is found at P by taking moments about M 'thus : MP=i74XMN^ 174+177 ^^_ Now all taking^ the moment its of the mainsail about P. found by bisecting H I and H J. the lead lies . Q on the water line at R gives a convenient point for locating the fore and aft position of the center of effort. the second construction given in chapter II for center two sides parallel. g and h being the middle points respectively and drawing I h and J G the center is at M.03. .

a boat without a topsail. polemast rig was chosen as being best adapted to this size and type of boat. as they . while others make head and hoist about equal. bearing in mind that when the sail set should be about 42 degrees for the mainsail. much in the dark as to the most efficient shape of sails. right in the case of long. and the yawl the most easily handled. The sail is should be and fully peaked up. The principal rigs in use to-day are the sloop. the double headsail. Xearly all agree that the forward portion of the sail is the most eft'ective. appearance.V discussion of the latter would be very shape unprofitable here as the designer. and the designer generally resorts to the unscientific device of a movable mast. ever.58 the lead ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN is generally smaller and the center of effort is often placed over and sometimes abaft the center of lateral plane. the peak angle or angle between head of sail and axis of mast For is from one to three degrees less than that to which the sail is cut. This is frequently done in howThe only way of determining the proper lead is by direct comparison with some well-balanced boat. but s the opin- ion of the writer that they should ahva\ be included in the calculation. Even then it is very difficult to get it the case of catboats for structural reasons. It is more efficient than the yawl rig and ^^'e are is is aTjout as easily handled. For the thirty-footer. The yawl rig for this reason is becoming more and more commonly used. . some preferring a long hoist with short gaff. and 48 degrees for the foreLow booms and low-cut jibs should be avoided as they sail in schooners. it lies within the province of the sailmaker rather than Every designer has his own theories as to what constitutes an efficient form of sail. and efficiency. the peak angle of the mainsail should not be made lessthan twenty-seven degrees. are in the way. The sloop rig is the most efficient. This is the peak angle to which the mainWhen topsails are used the peak angle sail of the thirty-footer is drawn. as it is drawn to be cut. The relative lengths of head and hoist vary widely with the practice of different designers. and that for this reason excessively long booms should be avoided. ^lany designit is ers neglect the topsails when figuring the center of effort. The area of sail decided upon has to be subdivided into a number of sails in a manner consistant with ease to handling. as serious defects in balance have resulted from neglecting them. By meant the proportions of the sail and not the amount of flow or draught and general set of the sail. do not draw well and tend to backwind the mainsail. There should be considerable space between jib and mainsail so as to allow a free passage of wind to the mainsail. full-ended racing boats. being one of their defects. schooner and yawl. and are not efficient when jibs are inefficient. High-pointed the boat is heeled well down.

is subjected among which are those produced by the leverage of keel or centerboard. etc. of the yacht's structure.. The hull of a yacht. each To save weight member entering into the structure of the yacht must be carefully designed for the highest efficiency. the designer must be thoroughly familiar with the method of construction to be pursued in building. by the forces acting on the ma. Moreover. These are assisted in their work by stringers. member is is carefully proportioned to the work is it has to do. and where each an extreme racing yacht. and All other tain its function. floors and knees. in order that he may determine what the weights will be and provide sufficient displacement ac- cordingly. the boat itself. by the impact of waves against the hull. The transverse strength is supplied mainly by the frames and deck beams. as in is imperative many cases the form must be adapt- ed to the method of construction to be employed in building the This is particularly true of the region of the fin in sailing yachts.CHAPTER IX. CONSTRUCTION. This necessitates a thor- ough knowledge of the physical properties of the various materials used in the construction. particularly to a very complicated system of stresses. members may be regarded as auxiliaries in assisting the skin to mainThe principal member for longitudinal strength is the though the skin. deck. as in a sense. intimate acquaintance with methods of construction to the successful designer. keel. is of the highest importance where extreme speed systematically. The most natural way is to be guided by the scantlings of an existing yacht of about the desired . By an efficient structure is meant one where there is no useless weight. and by the tension of the rigging.st. The is outer skin is the principal member is. contribute very materially. the saving of weight sovight. AN yacht. clamps. it the realization of the desired form. As dis- placement the principal factor for resistance. stringers. There are various methods of determining suitable scantlings or sizes of the various members of the yacht's structure. The designer must thoroughly understand the nature of these stresses in order to be able to design an efficient structure to withstand them.

Something along this line may be done. In the case of large cruising yachts. 22.6o size ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN and type which has proved itself under service conditions to be strong enough and structuralh' well proportioned. It is theoretically possible to compute the necessary sizes for the principal members. . the building rules of one of the classification societies furnish the best guide for the determination of suitable scantlings. in the case of large yachts of extreme or unusual proportions. Racing boats often have their scantlings specified by the rules of the particular class for which they are built. These building FIG. but this method is utterly impracticable for ordinary work on account of the immense amount of mathematical labor involved as well as the uncertainity of the exact nature of the stresses to which the yacht is subjected. however.

a yacht independently designed. The longitudinal number is equal to the transverse number multiplied by the length obtained as shown in pecially for yacht construction in steel. Under Lloyd's rules the principal scantlings are assigned according to what are known as transverse and longitudinal numbers. The advantages of this construction are great strength. which are obtained as shown in figures 22 and 23. 24. the all-wood and the composite. durSteel is ability and increased cabin accommodations. sternpost. composite are applicable to yachts of fig- 23. The transverse number is equal to J-^B+D-j-}2G+2N (fig. The all-metal construction is the most common for yachts of over eighty feet water line. although aluminum and bronze are sometimes employed. the usual material used. It upon the results of practice as well as upon the deductions of and may be relied on to produce a substantial and duris becoming more common for yachts to be built in accord- ance with the rules of one of the classification societies.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN rules are based 6l scientific research. and regulates the sizes of frames and floors. The . 22). keel. al- though possibly superior to one built under the surveyed before being accepted as a risk. A steel plate one inch thick weighs about forty pounds per square foot or two pounds for each members are expressed as follows : plates in . The beams is are pro- portioned according to length. particularly in the smaller sizes. shelves and fastenings. The longitudinal number regulates the dimensions of planking. whereas. stem. These will be dealt with briefly in order. The pounds per square foot of area or in twentieths of an inch thickness. able hull. These rules from about twenty feet water line upwards. must be completely The ican classification societies whose rules are struction in this country are Lloyd's Register of Shipping most used for yacht conand the Amer- Bureau of Shipping.scantlings required under these rules are somewhat in excess of those usual to American practice. for its greater weight as compared with steel. Lloyd's Register publishes a set of rules esall sizes and wood. the all-metal. The midship sizes of section of the 100-foot schooner yacht shown in fig. The number for equipment equal to the longitudinal number plus twice the product of the length and height of any erections that may be fitted. the former on account of its light weight and the latter on account of its smooth surIt is doubtful whether the smoother surface of bronze compensates face. will serve to illustrate the principal features of construction in steel. rudder-stock. as they may rqadily be insured if so built. rules. There are three general forms of yacht construction.

o .

.cl Sch. The latter and the sheer strake are heavier than the remainder of the plating. CONSTRUCTION SECTION /OOFt-W. The keel of the schooner shown 24 is a twenty-five pound plate flanged at the sides and riveted to the garboard strake.niic</ Kcc/ plate cs Ib^ FIG. Sfe. Seefe of faef \ri<. are rated accordlineal foot or ing to the dimensions of their legs. as they are subjected to greater stresses. in fig. 24. and their weight per thickness in twentieths of an inch. The system of plating shown is the ordinary "clencher" or "in and out" style.L.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN twentieth of an inch thickness. I bars. 63 Angle bars. Flush plating is often used above the . etc.

The keelson shown consists of a flat plate and two angles riveted together. The bulwarks are of 7j/4-pound plating. more exare steel pensive. They should be capped by a broad teak rail.64 ELEMENTS. its quite a heavy wood and for that reason use is confined to cruising boats.sts to take the strain of the rigging. The following paragraphs are descriptive of the various members and of the customary materials with their relative values. Yellow It is i)ine is a tough. Spanish cedar and mahogany. The keel plate is attached to the floor plate by short angle clips. extend across the top of each floor plate and are riveted to the backs of the frames. Planking The woods commonly used for planking of yachts are yellow or hard pine. is worked all around the vessel between the beams and the wood deck. They are attached to the frames bv bracket plates. The balla. and the space between the two angles forms a waterway to drain water to the scuppers. obtainable in short lengths . and back.OF YACHT DESIGN line water on yachts for the sake of appearance. are fitted at the ma. The frames angles 3"X23>2"X5-5 pounds spaced 22" Each pair of frames is' tied together at the feet by floor plates. consisting of plate riveted to or- dinary frames. the construction plan of the and may be taken as typical of construction in wood. known as reverse frames. The deck is of white pine plank laid parallel to the centerline and bolted to deck beams. and not so strong as the "clencher" system. easily-worked wood and does not absorb water badly. Anothej" angle some ten inches inboard and parallel to the deck line is riveted to the stringer plate. Deep frames. The brackets are often welded on the beam itself. but they are less suitfirst able than those mentioned. The all-wood thirty-footer construction is almost universal in this country for yachts Plate II is of less than fifty feet water line. These tie the frames together very securely and stiffen the floor plate. riveted to sheer strake and supported at frequent intervals by stanchions. This is connected with the sheer strake by an angle bar as shown. these are connected with the deck stringer plate by diagonal tie plates to take the strain of masts and prevent the deck from wringing. The bilge stringers consist of a pair of angles riveted back to Steel plates are fitted at each mast beneath the wood deck. Other — woods such is as cypress and oak are occasionally used. Angle irons.st is lead stowed inside the fin and covered with a layer of cement. cedar. but it is heavier. white pine. Cedar It is is a light. The deck beams are bulb angles and are supported in the middle by steel pillars. Limber holes are cut through the floor plates at the surface of the A deck stringer plate cement to allow bilge water to drain to the lowest point. durable wool and obtainable in very long lengths.

as a cement. The advantages claimed for double planking are great- and less liability of leaking. Where bent frames are used. neither skin being calked. although they are considerably heavier than cedar. especially on racing boats. Some builders more labor than the first. the strength at the centerline must be tails . Double planking is now quite extensively used on expen- sively built boats. The last point is the only advantage at all and a smoother surmarked. Spanish cedar and mahogany are quite extensively used for planking. fastening them against the ribbands — The bevel is obtained by putting a twist in the bend their frames around moulds to a little greater curvature than they will have in the boat. er strength face. moulds. the form of the boat is determined by moulds made from the design enlarged to full size in the mould loft. In fastening double planking the inner skin is first tacked in place. the seams renders them watertight. but is less durable. Between the frames the inner skin should be fastened to the outer with brass screws. Steam-bent frames are lighter for the same strength and are used in yachts up to about thirty feet water line. and galvanized-cut nails. Frames Oak is the usual material for frames. These are erected in their proper places on the keel. in shape. White pine resembles cedar very much. and then both skins are through fastened to the frames. less weight. the others being to doubtful. brass screws. Frames are of two kinds. The principal types of fastenings used for planking are copper nails riveted on burrs. steam-bent and sawed. as is generally the case. Their value as fastenings stands about in the order given. and after they have dried they are cut to the proper bevel and put into the boat cold. being spaced from two to four feet After a sufficient number of ribbands have been fastened to the apart. the frames may be put in hot. This method enwhere they cool frame. Where the frames are separate on each side. Their use is partly on account of their handsome appearance when finished bright. although American elm and hackmatack are admirably adapted to the purpose. The best method of double planking is make the inner skin is nearly as thick as the outer. 65 which necessitates a large number of butts in a boat of any length. binding the Watertightness secured by applying white lead very thickly between the skins.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN only. It is used largely for the inner skin of double-planked boats. In small craft with little deadrise the frames may be made continuous from rail to rail. chisel-point galvanized-wire nails. but more especially because they stay in place and retain a smooth finish better than other woods. This acts two skins together and squeezing out through Calking is unnecessary and prevents the surface being as smooth as it otherwise would be.

Another style of keel is that of the thirty* footer shown on plate II. 25 shows the construction of a small.66 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN preserved by connections known as floors. Elm. Here there is no keel proper. Where a yacht is flush-decked or has a house running straight fore and aft. Yachts with a house generally have the deck planks sprung parallel with the planksheer. are too large to bend. every other or every third frame being sawed. 26 — — ance. 23. Keels are of various styles. as a is thus secured with a thinner planking than could be used otherof most any light wood. tight deck Canvas-covered decks are used a great deal for small yachts. Fig. though where a boat is to remain in the water most of the time. The deck planks should be matched boards . This system of framing is used on the thirty-footer (see plate II). Stringers. according to the type of boat. Oak is sometimes used and spruce where especial lightness is desired. which shows a somewhat similar construction for a small keel boat. Frames larger than two inches square cannot be bent readily. Where frames the bent frames being put in in the usual way. maple is much better. Here all the frames are continuous and the keelsons extend inboard far enough to get a good fastening into the deadwood. wise. All the frames box into the keel. In yachts between twenty-five and forty feet water line a combination of sawed and bent frames is commonly used. Stringers etc. and transverse strength at the centerline is preserved by floors at frequent intervals. used. The keel is deep enough to furnish the necessary longitudinal strength without a keelson. The port bedlog extends aft for a keelson. beech and birch also make good keels. These short lengths "break joints" on the two halves of the frame. Where it is finished bright the seams are payed with some elastic seam composition after being calked. thus preserving the strength. the deck planks usually run straight. the longitudinal strength being furnished by keelsons notched over the frames which are continuous from rail to rail. fore — and aft of the box. Fig. The usual practice is to use all sawed frames in yachts over forty feet. like the thirty-footer. shelf and clamp are usually of yellow pine. The strength amidships is furnished by the deadwood. Deck White pine is almost universally used for decks. With this method the boat is ribbanded up on the sawed frames. as this makes a little more shipshape appearon the centerline. shoal centerboard boat. is while both bedlogs are through fastened to the forward keelson. the sawed frame construction is Each frame is usually double and is built up of several short lengths from natural crooks sawed to shape. The construction of a larger keel boat is illustrated by fig. Keel Keels are generally made from oak.

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schooner and is typical of the composite construction. The foregoing covers very wood. briefly the principal points of construction in Table VIII gives a representative schedule of scantlings for cruising boats of various water-line lengths. Sometimes a part of the frames and deck beams are Fig. stringers . and the beams along each side of the house are known as — may half beams. constntction is is a combination of the all-wood and fifty to all- metal construction and used largelv on yachts of from ninety feet With this construction the frames. The tie rods at mast communicate a portion of the thrust of the mast to the main beams thus relieving the keel. when they must be steamed and bent. keel- and deck beams are of steel. Lloyd's Reg- very complete rules for the determination of sizes of keel bolts based on width. are very effective. floors. — Floors are of oak or galvanized wrought on iron floors. bolt are given roughly in the following DIAMETER 1770 Knees and stem are of natural crook oak or hackmatack. Other intermediate beams continuous across the boat are called auxiliary beams. A flanged steel son. Extra heavy beams should be located at masts.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN 69 Deck Beams Oak is commonly used for deck beams. The weights of various woods are given in table II. but ister gives better practice to thread nut both ends.They resist the wringing tendency of the mast. while the keel. depth and sectional area of the lead and on the spacing of the bolts. at ends of house and cockpit. Tie rods and deck straps as shown on plate II. Customary working loads for various diameters of table. . as iron. is Bronze liable to keel bolts should not land galvanic action Keel bolts are generally of Tobin or other strong bronzes. 27 is the midship section of a seventy-five-foot of wood also. These are termed main beams. Miscellaneous occur. as forging reduces the strength of bronze. it is The lower end is commonly and enlarged by forging to hold the lead. which elastic limit of have an about 30000 pounds. reverse frames. The deck straps are let into the beams and are well fastened to deck plank and beams. though spruce be used where extreme lightness is a desideratum. planking and deck are of wood. Beams are sawed to shape unless the crown is excessive. \ The composite water line. and at skylights on other deck openings.

at the center- Floor plates. Locust ^fanchtons i.iviaph Keel M Lhs .70 plate is ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN bolted on top of the wood keel and to this the frames are riveted. clips and reverse frames complete the strength line.Pine. 27. The wood piece plate. ^Flanged Kae/ P/aTe . The lead is cast in one and the bolts pass through the keel and set up on the inside of keel Other features are similar to the all-metal construction. ' Angle 3'K3"t f. mou/ded S ' covsr/iucr/o/v 9i:ct/on 7S' SchooriB'r \Scafe of ij-' Bronze Boitt Feet FIG.f' W. keel is of maple nine inches thick.9Lk3 ncirerse frames stop /lere ffe versa fromc-t t '"£ 'x J J lit. .^i^e.

.2" 402. I.04' " Total ." Lbs. .4 W.W. 1200 " " " "Rig " " " " Crew Equipment 600 " Ballast " 9800 " 1800 " ..2 4. 3407 24207 16.L.L 9" o" o' Beam Extreme " L.15' 16. " Rudder to Lateral Plane Weight of Hull Sail Area to no '. Length O. " L. B. W. " .30' 17. W." APPENDIX DATA ON THIRTY-FOOT W. 112." " " " 56.4 Rudder Displacement Above Centerline " Below " " 20800 Lbs..L.8" 522 705 1307 Prismatic Coefficient (using total Midship Section) L. 53-8" 54..2 Sq. P.42' 16. . L Ratio Ballast to Displacement 405 53.6 " Ft "L.65 Area Midship Section " Lateral Plane to Area Midship Section.W. " " " ' C. CRUISER. L. W. E. per Inch Immersion at L.6 " " " " " " Wetted Surface (Board down) 1285 12. from For'd End L. G.L " " Sails total " 245.W. " C. L Draught Extreme " 12" II' S' 7" 2^' 11" to Centerline 2' 7' 8' 3' 2' Overhang For'd Aft Freeboard For'd Aft Least Area of Midship Section " " Lateral Plane (Board down) " o" 9" 7" 8" s" 2' 24. " " ' " L 54-8% L. C.- " C. 4S' 30' A L. 10800 Lbs.


white or red dry 30. AVERAGE NAME Aluminum Anthracite OF SUBSTANCE WEIGHT POUNDS 162 54 Ash Birch 40 40 525 35 Bronze Butternut Cedar. fresh " salt . Oak Pine. " cast 450 4.0 Teak Water. " " soaked 56 Oregon white yellow 35 28 dry 40. soaked 40 35 55 Spanish Cement Copper rolled 548 35 Elm Gasoline 42 35 Hackmatack Iron. 710 53 Mahogany Maple 48 dry 50. soaked 45 31 Spruce Steel Plates and Shapes 490 SO 62.ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN 73 TABLE II WEIGHT OF A CUBIC FOOT OF SUBSTANCES.80 wrought cast Lead.4 64.


ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN 75 TABLE V FASTENINGS Number of Nails in one Pound galv. wire nails copper nails galv. boat nails H" .

W. 14 12 II 25 30 35 10 40 45 50 095 085 080 '.76 ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN TABLE VII RATIOS OF RUDDER TO LATERAL PLANE L. 20' L. 60 070 060 056 052 050 70 80 90 100 .

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INDEX PAGE Analysis of righting couple Areas of plain figures 33 PAGE Moment of inertia of water line. trans. area of 20 Wooden construction 64 . fairing up process Metacentric height. amount of 48 16 axis Calculation of weights Prismatic co-efficient Resistance. nature oi 20 2 58 Center of buoyancy. definition suitable values. of 69 42 44 . 46 Co-efficient for 39 46 wind pressure 55 Composite construction Correction for change in position of C. determination of Sails. axis 9 56 14 15 Areas of Ballast. long. area of weights of materials weights of sails weights of spars Trapezoidal rule Trochoid. construction of curve. scantlings for wooden con77 69 75 73 struction sizes of keel bolts determination of amount. heeled longitudinal sections. area by bilge diagonal method area by Taylor's method 21 14 12 Midship section. 19 Center of eflfort Center of gravity. . 37 .47 Inclining experiment for finding C. 39 integrator method 41 metacentric method 37 Steel construction G 61 Cross curves of stability Curve of areas of transverse sections. calculation of 19 Table of area curve factors 75 data on thirty-footer 71 ratios rudder to lateral plane 76 . Wave form theory Wetted surface. fore and aft position ig vertical position. . Blom's method division of 26 54 58 60 5 of the yacht 34 Center of lateral plane 24 Change of trim due to shifted weight. Versed sines.21 shape of 26 57 32 33 . angle of. plain figures sails 56 9 57 Rigs Rudders. determination of Simpson's rule Stability. 19 Dynamical stability 45 weights of fastenings Heel. shape of Scantling.. sails of water line. of G 35 25 Lateral plane. construction of 74 74 6 22 . due to shifted weight.38 Lead of centre of effort Lines. size of Sail area. determination of.. 18 Curve of righting arms 38 Determination of proportions 29 Displacement.


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