Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 5

Angle Modulation

5.1 Introduction
Consider a sinusoid, Ac cos ( 2 π fc t + φ0 ) , where Ac is the (constant) amplitude, fc is the (constant) frequency in Hz and φ0 is the initial phase angle. Let the sinusoid be written as Ac cos ⎡ ⎣θ ( t )⎤ ⎦ where θ ( t ) = 2 π fc t + φ0 . In chapter

4, we have seen that relaxing the condition that Ac be a constant and making it a function of the message signal m ( t ) , gives rise to amplitude modulation. We shall now examine the case where Ac is a constant but θ ( t ) , instead of being equal to 2 π fc t + φ0 , is a function of m ( t ) . This leads to what is known as the angle modulated signal. Two important cases of angle modulation are Frequency Modulation (FM) and Phase modulation (PM). Our objective in this chapter is to make a detailed study of FM and PM.

An important feature of FM and PM is that they can provide much better protection to the message against the channel noise as compared to the linear (amplitude) modulation schemes. Also, because of their constant amplitude nature, they can withstand nonlinear distortion and amplitude fading. The price paid to achieve these benefits is the increased bandwidth requirement; that is, the transmission bandwidth of the FM or PM signal with constant amplitude and which can provide noise immunity is much larger than 2W , where W is the highest frequency component present in the message spectrum.

5.1
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Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Now let us define PM and FM. Consider a signal s ( t ) given by

s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ ⎣θi ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ where θi ( t ) , the instantaneous angle quantity, is a function of m ( t ) . We define the instantaneous frequency of the angle modulated wave s ( t ) , as fi ( t ) = 1 d θi ( t ) 2π d t (5.1)

(The subscript i in θi ( t ) or fi ( t ) is indicative of our interest in the instantaneous behavior of these quantities). If θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t + φ0 , then fi ( t ) reduces to the constant fc , which is in perfect agreement with our established notion of frequency of a sinusoid. This is illustrated in Fig. 5.1.

Fig. 5.1: Illustration of instantaneous phase and frequency Curve 1 in Fig. 5.1 depicts the phase behavior of a constant frequency sinusoid with φ0 = 0 . Hence, its phase, as a function of time is a straight line; that is
θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t . Slope of this line is a constant and is equal to the frequency of

the sinusoid. Curve 2 depicts an arbitrary phase behavior; its slope changes with time. The instantaneous frequency (in radians per second) of this signal at t = t1 is given by the slope of the tangent (green line) at that time.

5.2
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Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

a) Phase modulation

For PM, θi ( t ) is given by θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t + k p m ( t ) (5.2)

The term 2 π fc t is the angle of the unmodulated carrier and the constant k p is the phase sensitivity of the modulator with the units, radians per volt. (For convenience, the initial phase angle of the unmodulated carrier is assumed to be zero). Using Eq. 5.2, the phase modulated wave s ( t ) can be written as ⎤ ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ PM = Ac cos ⎡ ⎣2 π fc t + k p m ( t ) ⎦ (5.3)

From Eq. 5.2 and 5.3, it is evident that for PM, the phase deviation of s ( t ) from that of the unmodulated carrier phase is a linear function of the base-band message signal, m ( t ) . The instantaneous frequency of a phase modulated signal depends on
kp ' d m (t ) 1 d θi ( t ) = fc + m (t ) . = m' ( t ) because 2π d t 2π dt

b) Frequency Modulation

Let us now consider the case where fi ( t ) is a function of m ( t ) ; that is,
fi ( t ) = fc + kf m ( t )

(5.4) (5.5)
t

or

θi ( t ) = 2 π

−∞

∫ fi ( τ ) d τ ∫ m ( τ) d τ

t

= 2 π fc t + 2 π kf

(5.6)

−∞

kf is a constant, which we will identify shortly. A frequency modulated signal
s ( t ) is described in the time domain by

⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ FM

⎡ = Ac cos ⎢2 π fc t + 2 π kf ⎢ ⎣

⎤ ⎥ m d τ τ ( ) ∫ ⎥ −∞ ⎦
t

(5.7)

kf is termed as the frequency sensitivity of the modulator with the units Hz/volt. From Eq. 5.4 we infer that for an FM signal, the instantaneous frequency

5.3
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we find that the minimum instantaneous frequency of the FM occurs (as expected) at those instants when m ( t ) is most negative (such as t = t1 ) and maximum instantaneous frequency occurs at those time instants when m ( t ) attains its positive peak value. This is quite evident in Fig. the instantaneous frequency has only two possibilities. From Fig. the envelope of PM or FM wave is a constant.4).4 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Venkata Rao deviation of s ( t ) from the (unmodulated) carrier frequency fc is a linear function of m ( t ) . 5. When m ( t ) is a square wave (Fig. 5. it can assume only two possible values.4(b). the zero crossings of PM and FM waves are not uniform (zero crossings refer to the time instants at which a waveform changes from negative to positive and vice versa). V. ii) iii) Unlike AM.3(b). we observe the following: i) Unlike AM. 5.2 to 5. From these illustrations. Correspondingly. 5. Fig.5 illustrate the experimentally generated AM.Principles of Communication Prof. mp (such as t = t 2 ).2(b) and 5. 5. FM and PM waveforms for three different base-band signals.

Venkata Rao Fig 5.2: AM and FM with tone modulation 5.5 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Principles of Communication Prof. V.

Venkata Rao Fig.Principles of Communication Prof. 5. V.3: AM and FM with the triangular wave shown as m ( t ) 5.6 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

Venkata Rao Fig. 5. Except at time instants such as t = t1 . 5. v) The modulating waveform of Fig.4: AM and FM with square wave shown as m ( t ) iv) A triangular wave has only two possibilities for its slope. 5. Correspondingly.5(c) is a square wave. which is evident from the figure. and constant negative slope to the right of t2 for the remaining part of the cycle shown.7 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Principles of Communication Prof. In Fig. it has a constant positive slope between t1 and t2 . t = t1 5.5(b). it has zero slope and d m (t ) dt is an impulse. the PM wave has only two values for its fi ( t ) . V.

the modulated carrier is simply a sinusoid of frequency fc . Venkata Rao Therefore. Let mI ( t ) = −∞ ∫ m ( τ) d τ .7 reveal a close relationship between PM and FM. 5.3 and 5. V. This is justified by the fact that at t = t1 . 2 regardless of the value of k p or kf . At t = t1 . fi ( t ) has to be infinity. Similarly a PM signal can be obtained using frequency modulator by differentiating m ( t ) before applying it to the frequency modulator. m ( t ) should not have any discontinuities. θi ( t ) undergoes sudden phase change (as can be seen in the modulated waveform) which implies d θi ( t ) tends to become an impulse. Pav = 2 Ac . except at the time instants when m ( t ) changes its polarity. then the resulting signal is actually an FM signal as given by Eq.8 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Principles of Communication Prof. 5. t If mI ( t ) phase modulates a carrier with modulator sensitivity k p = 2 π kf .7. the average power of a PM or FM signal is. dt Eq. 5.) As both PM and FM have constant amplitude Ac . (Because of differentiation.

5: PM with m ( t ) (a) a sine wave (b) a triangular wave (c) a square wave 5. V.Principles of Communication Prof.9 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Venkata Rao Fig 5.

Venkata Rao Example 5. As 302 + 402 = 50 .1 An angle modulated signal is given by s ( t ) = cos ⎡ 2 π 2 × 106 t + 30 sin (150 t ) + 40cos (150 t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Let us find the maximum phase and frequency derivations. with m ( t )max = − m ( t )min = 1 volt.10 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V. We shall find the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous frequency for a) b) FM with kf = 104 Hz/volt PM with k p = π rad/volt 5. the maximum phase deviation is (100 π ) .Principles of Communication Prof. The terms ⎡ ⎣30 sin (150 t ) + 40cos (150 t ) ⎤ ⎦ can be expressed in the form ⎡ ⎣cos α sin (150 t ) + sin α cos (150 t ) ⎤ ⎦.2 Let m ( t ) be a periodic triangular wave with period 10− 3 sec. we have 4 ⎛3 ⎞ 30 sin (150 t ) + 40cos (150 t ) = 50 ⎜ sin (150 t ) + cos (150 t ) ⎟ 5 ⎝5 ⎠ = 50 sin (150 t + ϕ ) where ϕ = tan− 1 ( ) 4 3 Hence s ( t ) = cos ⎡ 4 π × 106 t + 100 π sin (150 t + ϕ ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Evidently.  Example 5. Let ψ ( t ) = 100 π sin (150 t + ϕ ) 1 d ψ (t ) = 50cos (150 t + ϕ ) ⋅ 150 2π d t = 7500 cos (150 t + ϕ ) Hence maximum frequency deviation = 7500 Hz.

V. Let us 2 find the expression for θi ( t ) . where k is a suitable constant.000 2 = 98 kHz Similarly.3 Let s ( t ) be a general angle modulated signal given by s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ ⎣ θi ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ = Ac cos ⎡ ⎣ ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ It is given that when m ( t ) = cos ωm t . fi ( t ) = fc + kf m ( t ) a) ( fi ( t ) )min ( fi ( t ) )max b) = 100 × 103 − 104 = 90 kHz = 100 × 103 + 104 = 110 kHz kp 2π m' ( t ) For PM. Venkata Rao Assume the carrier frequency to be 100 kHz.Principles of Communication Prof.11 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .000 . If m ( t ) is different from cos ωm t . ( fi ( t ) ) max = 102 kHz  Example 5. 1 d θi ( t ) 2 = fi ( t ) = fc + 2 π k ( fm ) cos ωm t 2π d t d θi ( t ) 2 = 2 π fc + ωm k cos ( ωm t ) dt 5. s ( t ) has the instantaneous frequency given by fi ( t ) = fc + 2 π k ( fm ) cos ωm t . For FM. what could be the expression for θi ( t ) and s ( t ) . Hence ( fi ( t ) )min = 100 × 103 − 1 × 4. fi ( t ) = fc + Note that m' ( t ) is a square wave with maximum and minimum values as ± 4.

12 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .6.1 A periodic signal m ( t ) angle modulates a very high frequency carrier. θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t − k d ⎡m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ dt ⎣ and ⎡ d m (t ) ⎤ s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎢2 π fc t − k ⎥ dt ⎦ ⎣  Exercise 5. Let the modulated signal be given by. V. 5.6: Modulating signal for the exercise 5. Venkata Rao or θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t + ωm k sin ( ωm t ) = 2 π fc t − k d ⎡cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ dt ⎣ Generalizing. Fig. ⎣ ⎦ where m ( t ) is as shown in Fig. 5. s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡2 π × 108 t + k p m ( t ) ⎤ .1 If ( fi )max − ( fi )min is to be 100 kHz show that k p = 10 π rad/volt. 5.Principles of Communication Prof.

at least theoretically. But s ( t ) ( mI ( t ) ) 2 cos ( ωc t ) . we have ⎡ ⎤ 2 cf2 s ( t ) = Ac ⎢cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) − mI ( t ) ) cos ( ωc t ) + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅⎥ (5. ( mI ( t ) ) sin ( ωc t ) etc. For convenience. The spectrum of n 2 cos ( ωc t ) occupies the interval fc ± 2W and that of ( mI ( t ) ) cos ( ωc t ) occupies the interval fc ± nW . 5. (PM is considered in section 5.9) ( 2! ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m ( t ) is band-limited to W .13 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .8) As s ( t ) = Re ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ pe .4. The spectrum of 3 ( mI ( t ) ) ( mI ( t ) ) 2 is of width 2W . we shall make a detailed analysis of the bandwidth requirements of FM. as MI ( f ) = consists of terms { } ( j 2πf ) M (f ) .2 Bandwidth of FM In this section.Principles of Communication Prof. let s ( t ) denote the FM signal. With mI ( t ) = envelope of s ( t ) is ⎤ ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ pe = Ac exp ⎡ ⎣ j ( ωc t + cf mI ( t ) ) ⎦ −∞ ∫ m(τ)d τ. where W is the message band-width). (Recall that the bandwidth of any linear modulated signal is less than or equal to 2W . the spectrum of the FM signal is not band-limited. then so is mI ( t ) . A similar situation prevails even in the case of a PM signal. and that of ( mI ( t ) ) 3 is 3 W etc.) Let cf = 2 π kf . V. Venkata Rao 5. It appears that. Clearly. it has infinite bandwidth and S ( f ) is not simply related to M ( f ) . t the pre- ⎡ c2 cn 2 n = Ac ⎢1 + j cf mI ( t ) − f ( mI ( t ) ) + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + j n f ( mI ( t ) ) + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ n! 2! ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ jω t ⎥e c ⎥ ⎦ (5. Let us take a closer look at this issue of FM bandwidth.

V.4 1 In general.14 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .2.11) Though the expressions for NBFM or NBPM resemble fairly closely that of an AM signal. Venkata Rao 5. For this reason. then A ( t ) Ac . Similarly. 5.9 can be well approximated by the first two terms.Principles of Communication Prof. Then s ( t ) of Eq. the narrowband PM (NBPM) signal can be written as s (t ) ⎤ Ac ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωc t ) − k p m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎦ (5. Now S ( f ) is band-limited to 2W as in the case of an AM signal1. the sideband spectrum of PM or FM has a phase shift of π with respect to the carrier. Note that from Eq. that is. s (t ) Ac ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ (5. Example 5. FM is nonlinear as Ac cos {ωc t + cf [ mI 1 ( t ) + mI 2 ( t )]} ≠ Ac cos {ωc t + cf mI 1 ( t )} + Ac cos {ωc t + cf mI 2 ( t )} 5. namely.1 NarrowBand FM (NBFM) Assume that cf mI ( t ) max << 1.10) Eq. This makes the time 2 domain signal of PM or FM very much different from that of an AM signal. there is one important difference.10 is similar to that of an AM wave. 5. 5. the case cf mI ( t ) max << 1 is called narrowband FM (NBFM).10. we have the envelope of the NBFM signal given by A ( t ) = Ac 1 + cf2 mI2 ( t ) If cf mI ( t ) << 1. A NBFM signal has phase variations with very little amplitude variations whereas the AM signal has amplitude variations with no phase variations.

However. Venkata Rao A NBFM signal. Then the instantaneous frequency varies in the 5. 5. S (f ) = Ac A K ⎡ δ ( f − fc ) + δ ( f + fc ) ⎤ + c f ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 ⎡ M ( f − fc ) M ( f + fc ) ⎤ − ⎢ ⎥ f f − ( ) ( f + fc ) ⎥ ⎢ c ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ f ⎞ where M ( f ) = tri ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ Exercise 5.2  Let M ( f ) = ⎛ f ⎞ ga ⎜ 3 ⎟ and fc = 106 Hz. most of the power of the FM signal resides in a finite bandwidth. as will be seen a little later. we observe that fi ( t ) = fc + kf m ( t ) Let mp = m ( t )max = m ( t )min . infinite bandwidth. 5. We shall find S ( f ) . Sketch S ( f ) for a NBFM signal.2. we have s ( t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ ( ) But Hence mI ( t ) ←⎯ → M (f ) j 2πf and cf = 2 π kf . In order to estimate this bandwidth.Principles of Communication Prof. called the transmission bandwidth.15 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . at least theoretically.10. which. It is given that kf = 250 10 ⎝ 10 ⎠ 1 3 Hz/volt. then we have the wideband FM. From Eq. V. as mentioned earlier has. s ( t ) . is generated by using m ( t ) = 103 sin c 2 103 t . and Ac = 4 V.2 WideBand FM (WBFM) If the condition cf mI ( t ) max << 1 is not satisfied.

less than 2W ) by choosing ∆ f appropriately! The fallacy here lies in equating the instantaneous frequency to the spectral frequency. Venkata Rao range fc − kf mp to fc + kf mp . 5. felt that bandwidth requirement of FM can be made less than that of AM (that is. we imply that x ( t ) is composed of the complex exponentials with the magnitude and phase specified by X ( f ) . can we assume that. for all practical purposes. Then. ( BT )FM is ( ) ( ) ( BT )FM = 2 kf mp ? Let ∆ f denote the maximum deviation of the carrier frequency fc . and each one of these exponentials exists for all t with the given frequency. ∆ f = kf mp . V. thinking that the actual bandwidth of an FM signal is 2 ∆ f . to a very good approximation. That is. on the other hand represents the frequency of a cosine signal that can be treated to have a constant frequency for a very short duration. ( BT )FM = 2∆f ? The above expression for the transmission bandwidth is valid only when ∆ f >> W .Principles of Communication Prof. In the 1920s radio engineers. can we assume that. In the case ∆ f << W . We shall now give some justification that bandwidth of an FM signal is never less than 2W . as will be shown later. Although fi ( t ) is measured in Hz. it should not be equated with spectral frequency. As the total range of frequency deviation (with centre at fc ) is 2 kf mp . the transmission bandwidth of an FM signal. When we refer to the spectrum X ( f ) of a signal x ( t ) . ( BT )FM ≠ 2 ∆ f but 2W .16 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Spectral frequency f is the independent variable of the frequency domain where as fi ( t ) is a time dependent quantity indicating the time behavior of a signal with angle modulation. This is indeed the fallacy that gave birth to FM in the first place. maybe only for a few cycles. fi ( t ) .

lies in the frequency range f ≤ Hence. as shown in Fig. we can take as one possible value of the transmission bandwidth of an FM signal.13) 5. (Note that about 92% of the energy of 1 ). From the sampling theorem (to be discussed in chapter 6). ( BT )FM can be well approximated In the literature. we shall treat the adjacent sample separation to be equal to The FM wave for the staircase-approximated signal will consist of a sequence of sinusoidal pulses. T ( ) a rectangular pulse of duration T sec. as ( BT )FM by 2 ∆ f . The most commonly used rule. 5. V. called the Carson’s rule. is from ⎡ ⎣fc + kf m ( tk ) − 2W ⎤ ⎦ to ⎡ ⎣fc + kf m ( tk ) + 2W ⎤ ⎦. 2W convenience. = 2 k f mp + 4 W = 2 ∆ f + 4 W = 2 ( ∆ f + 2 W ) (5. its spectral range (between the first nulls) as shown in Fig. is ( BT )FM = 2(∆ f + W ) (5.12) For the wideband FM case. where ∆ f >> W . Hence. Clearly the significant part of the spectrum of the FM signal will lie in the interval ( fc − kf mp − 2W ) to fc + kf mp + 2W . 5.7(a). Venkata Rao Let the base-band signal m ( t ) be approximated by a staircase signal. A typical pulse and its spectrum are shown in Fig.17 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . ⎛ 1 ⎞ The frequency of the RF pulse in the interval ⎜ tk . each of a constant frequency and duration of 1 sec. other rules of thumb for FM bandwidths are to be found. 5.7(c).Principles of Communication Prof. tk + ⎟ 2W ⎠ ⎝ is fi ( tk ) = fc + kf m ( tk ) . For 2W 1 . this staircase approximation is justified as long as the width of each rectangle (separation between two adjacent samples) is less than or equal to 1 .7(b) and (c) 2W respectively.

5. namely. 5. In other cases.13. 5.7: Estimation of FM spectral width Carson’s rule gives a better bandwidth estimate than does Eq.12 for the NBFM (∆ f << W ) case.Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao Fig. 5.18 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .12 gives a better estimate than does Eq. V. This is in agreement with our result on NBFM. its bandwidth is approximately 2W . where ∆ f << W is not satisfied (wideband and intermediate cases) Eq. 5.

3. for tone modulation. V. As can be seen. That is. β = kf Am and fm j β sin( ωm t ) ⎤ spe ( t ) = Ac e j ωc t ⎡ e ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (5.3 Tone Modulation Let m ( t ) = Am cos ( 2 π fm t ) Then mI ( t ) = Am sin ( ωm t ) .13 can be combined into ( BT )FM (5.16a) (5.12 and 5. ∆ f = kf Am and W = fm . 5. Eq. 5. Venkata Rao We now define the deviation ratio D .12 and Eq.15) where k varies between 1 and 2.1 NBFM s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ ⎣ ωc t + β sin ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ = Ac cos ( ωc t ) cos ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) − sin ( ωc t ) sin ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) { } 5.Principles of Communication Prof. 5. 5.13 are special cases of Eq. In this case. as D = ∆f W = 2W ( D + k ) (5.16b) ⎤ s ( t ) = Re ⎡ ⎣s pe ( t ) ⎦ = Ac cos ( ωc t + β sin ( ωm t ) ) 5.15. 5. assuming mI ( − ∞ ) = 0 ωm ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ A spe ( t ) = Ac exp ⎢ j ⎜ ωc t + cf m sin ( ωm t ) ⎟ ⎥ ωm ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ k A = Ac exp ⎢ j ⎜ ωc t + f m sin ( ωm t ) ⎟ ⎥ fm ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ For tone modulation.19 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the deviation ratio is referred to as the modulation index and is usually denoted by the symbol β .14) Then Eq.

5. we construct the phasor diagram for NBFM.Principles of Communication Prof. 5. (We have taken the carrier phasor as the reference.8: Phasor diagram for NBFM with tone modulation Using Eq.17(c). shown in Fig. we make the following observation. V. In the case of AM.8.17c) Fig. the resultant of the side-band phasors is collinear with the carrier phasor whereas. 5.26).17(b) can be written as A β ⎧ s ( t ) = Re ⎨ Ac e j ωc t + c 2 ⎩ − j ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ ⎫ ⎡e j ( ωc ⎢ ⎣ + ωm ) t −e ⎬ ⎥ ⎦⎭ (5. 5.7) is µ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡s ( t ) ⎦ ⎤ cos ( ωc + ωm ) t + cos ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ = Ac ⎨cos ( ωc t ) + ⎡ ⎬ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ AM 2 ⎩ ⎭ Eq. and β sin ( ωm t ) .17a) (5. Venkata Rao NBFM: small β .) Comparing the phasor diagram for the NBFM with that of the AM signal (Fig. 5. it is perpendicular to the carrier phasor in NBFM. s ( t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωc t ) − β sin ( ωm t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ β ⎧ ⎫ cos ( ωc + ωm ) t − cos ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ = Ac ⎨cos ( ωc t ) + ⎡ ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎩ ⎭ Corresponding expression for AM (Eq 4. 4.20 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Let β be small enough so that we can use the approximations cos ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) sin ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) 1 . (5.17b) Then.

3. Venkata Rao It is this quadrature relationship between the two phasors of NBFM that produces angle variations resulting in corresponding changes in fi ( t ) .16(a) is a periodic signal with period 1 . 5.21 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Expressing this term in Fourier series.19.18) The integral on the RHS of Eq.19c) Using Eq. we have fm = e j β sin( ωm t ) n = −∞ 1 2 fm 1 − 2 fm ∑ ∞ xn e j n ωm t where xn = fm ∫ e j β sin( ωm t ) e− j n ωm t dt Let θ = ωm t .18 is recognized as the nth order Bessel function of the first kind and argument β and is commonly denoted by the symbol Jn ( β ) . xn 1 = Jn ( β ) = 2π −π ∫ π j β sin θ − n θ ) e ( dθ (5.19b) Hence. xn 1 = 2π −π ∫ π j β sin θ − n θ ) e ( dθ (5. 5. e j β sin( ωm t ) = n = −∞ ∑ ∞ Jn ( β ) e j n ωm t (5.Principles of Communication Prof. 5.19a) That is. that is. e j β sin( ωm t ) ←⎯ → n = −∞ ∑ ∞ Jn ( β ) δ ( f − n fm ) (5. Then.2 WBFM The exponential term in the brackets in Eq. 5. V. we can express spe ( t ) as 5.

2 ωm ⎠ ⎝ Now use the Fourier transform properties for time reversal and time shift. then e j β cos( ωm t ) ⎛ π ⎞ = x ⎜t − ⎟.22) Exercise 5. Jn ( β ) ( β 2 )n n! 5. Properties of J n ( β ) : The following properties of Jn ( β ) can be established. V. Show that ←⎯ → n = −∞ n ∑ ( j ) Jn (β ) δ ( f ∞ ∞ + n fm ) b) Ac cos ⎡ ⎣ωc t + β cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ = Ac ⎡ ⎛ π ⎞⎤ j β sin ⎢ωm ⎜ − t ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎝ 2 ωm ⎦ e n = ∑ π⎤ ⎡ Jn ( β ) cos ⎢( ωc + n ωm ) t + n ⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ −∞ Hint: e j β cos( ωm t ) = If x ( t ) = e j β sin ωm ( − t ) . 1) 2) 3) Jn ( β ) is always real (For all n and β ) Jn ( β ) = ( − 1) J − n ( β ) n For small values of β . 5.Principles of Communication Prof. we obtain s ( t ) = Ac n = −∞ ∑ ∞ Jn ( β ) cos ⎡ ⎣2 π ( fc + n fm ) t ⎤ ⎦ (5.20) ⎤ As s ( t ) = Re ⎡ ⎣s pe ( t ) ⎦ . Venkata Rao spe ( t ) = Ac n = −∞ ∑ ∞ Jn ( β ) e j⎡ ⎣ 2 π( fc + n fm ) t ⎤ ⎦ (5.21) Taking the Fourier transform of s ( t ) .19(c) gives the Fourier transform of e a) e j β cos( ωm t ) j β sin( ωm t ) . we have S (f ) = Ac 2 n = −∞ ∑ ∞ Jn ( β ) ⎡ ⎣δ ( f − fc − n fm ) + δ ( f + fc + n fm ) ⎤ ⎦ (5.3 Eq.22 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2) For small β . Moreover. n > 1 4) n = −∞ ∑ ∞ 2 Jn (β ) = 1 Fig 5.5. 5. etc. n = 1. We now make the following observations regarding the spectrum ( f > 0 ) of a tone modulated FM signal. Then the FM spectrum has only three components: at fc . for small values of β .23 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . J0 ( β ) = 0 for some values β ( β = 2. in contrast to AM. Thus. 4) From Fig.9 depicts the behavior of Jn ( β ) . As can be seen from the plot. β Fig. 5.) . V.10 gives the spectral plots obtained from a spectrum analyzer with β 2. the carrier component is very nearly zero (approximately 50 dB below the maximum value).4. Venkata Rao Hence. 2. fc ± fm . this amplitude ‘contains’ part of the message information. 5. 3) The amplitude of the carrier component varies with β according to J0 ( β ) . 5. only J0 ( β ) and J1 ( β ) are significant. J0 ( β ) 1 J1 ( β ) Jn ( β ) β 2 0.9(b).Principles of Communication Prof. This situation corresponds to the special case of NBFM.4 . we find that Jn ( β ) decays monotonically for that Jn ( β ) << 1 for n > 1 and β n >> 1 . 1) The spectrum of a tone modulated FM wave contains carrier component and an infinite set of side-frequencies located symmetrically on either side of the carrier at frequency separations of n fm .

the value as observed on the plot of Fig.43 spectrum analyzer agrees with this. Similarly.7 and value indicated by the 0. For n = 1 .Principles of Communication Prof.281.11(a) gives the theoretical plot of various spectral components for β 4 . we expect 0. V.11(b) is the spectral plot as observed on a spectrum analyzer. Let us normalize the dB plot with respect to the largest magnitude. For n = 4 . that is.066 = − 17. 5. theoretical value is 20 log dB.25 . From Eq. we treat the largest magnitude as 0 dB and compare the rest respect to with this value.132 = − 10.11(a). 5.1 0.24 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Fig. for 20 log10 n = 5 .21.11(b) is in 0. Fig.430 0. Venkata Rao Fig 5.43 close agreement with this. 5. we have J 4 ( β ) = 0. Spectrum analyzer display is in close agreement with this. 5. the average power Pav of the FM signal with tone modulation is Pav = 2 Ac 2 n = −∞ ∑ ∞ 2 Jn (β ) . 5. The values of the remaining spectral components can be similarly be verified.281 = − 3. Hence 20 log10 0. We see from this plot that the third spectral component has the largest magnitude which is an agreement with the theory.

Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao Fig. V. β for fixed n (b) Jn ( β ) vs. 5.25 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .9: Bessel Functions: (a) Jn ( β ) vs. n for fixed β β 5.

5. which implies that the Pav of the tone modulated FM signal is 2 Ac . As the RMS value of a sinusoid is independent of the frequency.24b) which corresponds to Eq. if we assume that we can neglect Jn ( β ) for n > β + 2 . V. then = 2 n fm = 2 ( β + 2 ) fm (5. This result is true in general 2 (whether m ( t ) is a tone or not) because an FM signal is essentially a constant amplitude cosine signal with time varying frequency.26 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . we have n = −∞ ∑ ∞ 2 Jn (β ) = 1.4 But from property 4 of Jn ( β ) . 5.Principles of Communication Prof. then. 5. we state that ( Pav )FM ( BT )FM = 2 Ac 2 (5.10: Spectrum analyzer output with β 2.15.24a) This in agreement with Eq. Venkata Rao Fig.23) For large β . with k = 2 . ( BT )FM = 2 ( β + 1) fm (5. 5.15 with k = 1. If we neglect the values of Jn ( β ) for n > β + 1 .

Venkata Rao Fig. we have J7 ( 5 ) = 0. 5. V. the average power of these two is.27 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1.018 .Principles of Communication Prof.053 and J8 ( 5 ) = 0. From Appendix A5. 5.11(a): Jn ( β ) for β = 4 (b) Spectrum analyzer output for β 4 Consider β = 5 . P1 .

As such. nsig can be found from the table in Appendix A5.31 % .0031) . 5. In this case. We will keep ∆ f = 20 f0 .1 = 2 ( β + 1) fm (Carson’s rule). V. These are listed in Table 5. ( Pav )FM P1 = 0. the magnitude of a spectral component depends only on Jn ( β ) and these Bessel coefficients have been tabulated extensively. If we take Ac = 1. For example.0028 + 0.0031 = 0.1. For a given β . etc. then BT = 2 nsig fm (5. (For β = 10. Let us tabulate BT for a few other values of β .24(b) is a fairly good measure of ( BT )FM for tone modulation. 2 2 Hence.Principles of Communication Prof. With tone modulation.0003 ) = c ( 0. it is possible to estimate the value of BT to the accuracy desired. we see that practically the entire power of the FM signal is confined to the frequency range [fc ± 6 fm ] . but reduce the value of β by increasing fm .24c) where nsig is such that Jn ( β ) ≥ 0. if β = 20 .) Let fm = f0 when β = 20 . Venkata Rao P1 = 2 Ac A2 ( 0.2 where BT . we find that even Eq.28 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1..1 and BT . let us define transmission bandwidth such that it includes all those spectral components whose magnitude is greater than one percent of the unmodulated carrier amplitude. As Jn ( 5 ) for n ≥ 9 are much smaller than J8 ( 5 ) . 5.2 = 2 ( β + 2 ) fm 5. and BT . Also listed in the table are BT .01 for n ≤ nsig .then nsig would be 25.

in absolute terms. we see that i) For small values of β (less than or equal to 0.1 .Principles of Communication Prof. with β = 20 . which is based on Carson’s rule is in close agreement with BT only for very small values of β . For β = 0.29 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1. BT required is 400 f0 .1 2 nsig BT BT . Otherwise.1 BT . BT .1: BT of Eq. we require a BT of 50 f0 where as with β = 0. BT .5). (From the table. 10 and 20. As such. Venkata Rao fm β 20 10 5 2 1 0.33 0. bandwidth is essentially decided by the highest frequency component in the input spectrum. BT does not go zero. as β → 0 .24c for various values of β with ∆ f = 20f0 From the above table. we find that 40 f0 2∆f 1 = = 400 f0 10 BT ii) For small values of β .5 0. In fact. it increases. It is interesting to note that for β = 5.2 f0 2 f0 4 f0 10 f0 20 f0 40 f0 60 f0 200 f0 50 28 16 8 6 4 4 2 50 f0 56 f0 64 f0 80 f0 120 f0 160 f0 240 f0 400 f0 42 f0 44 f0 48 f0 60 f0 80 f0 120 f0 160 f0 440 f0 44 f0 48 f0 56 f0 80 f0 120 f0 200 f0 280 f0 840 f0 Table 5. ∆ f becomes less and less significant in the calculation of BT .) iii) BT . V.2 (which is generally considered to overestimate the bandwidth requirement) is less than BT as given 5.2 is better.1 . 5.

Principles of Communication Prof. BT as given by Eq. 5.2 resulting in a larger value for the bandwidth. Therefore. We know that.30 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This has been done in the Appendix A5.24(c).2 and ( J8 ( 5 ) Ac ) ( 2 Ac 2 ) 2 = 3.3. V. 5. It is instructive to analyze the FM signal when m ( t ) is a sum of sinusoids. the ratio Power of any spectral component not included in BT Pav is less than With ( 0.4 Phase Modulation All the results derived for FM can be directly applied to PM. where m'p = m' ( t ) (5. 5. for phase modulation. 2 BT . This has been dealt with in Appendix A5. ∆f = kp 2π m'p . That is. This is because BT of Eq.38 × 10− 4 .01 Ac . fi ( t ) = kp ' 1 d θi ( t ) = fc + m (t ) 2π d t 2π (5.25a) where m' ( t ) is the derivative of m ( t ) . Venkata Rao by Eq. In other words.4.25b) max 5. Another measure of bandwidth that is useful in the study of frequency modulation is the rms bandwidth. 5.24(c) neglects only those frequency components whose magnitude is less than or equal to 0.24(c) includes few more spectral components in the bandwidth than that taken into account by BT .01 Ac )2 2 Ac 2 2 = 10− 4 takes into account only upto J7 ( 5 ) β = 5.

for signals with strong high frequency components. On the other hand. Hence the bandwidth of WBFM is essentially independent of the spectrum of m ( t ) (It has a weak dependence on W ). there is one important difference between PM and FM. it depends only on the peak value of the modulating signal. What is the frequency sensitivity of the source? Keeping Am at 2 V. As a result. Am is gradually increased and ⎣ ⎦ when Am = 2 V.26) ⎡ k m' ⎤ p p = 2⎢ + kW ⎥ ⎢ 2π ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ With respect to ∆ f . predominance of lower-frequency components will result in a lower value of m'p . as ∆ f = kf mp . V. Strong high frequency components in M ( f ) would result in large values of m'p . the following method has been used. it has been found that the carrier component goes to zero for the first time.31 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . For FM. frequency fm is decreased until the carrier component goes zero for the second time. Example 5. ∆ f is a function of m'p and this value is strongly dependent on M ( f ) . What is the value of fm for this to happen? ( ) 5. The FM generator is fed a tone modulating signal Am ⎡cos 4 π × 103 t ⎤ . ( BT )PM will be much larger than for the case of the signals with strong spectral components at lower frequencies. Similarly. Venkata Rao ( BT )PM = 2[∆ f + k W ] . 1 < k < 2 (5. for PM. Starting near about zero.5 To determine the frequency sensitivity of an FM source.Principles of Communication Prof.

4 kHz/V 2 The carrier component is zero for the second time when β = 5.5 or fm =  Example 5.8 kHz = kf mp As mp is 2 V.4 . the magnitude of the spectral components at ( fc ± 1000 ) Hz is 2 Ac J1 ( 8 ) . fm ∆ f = 2.8 = 2.8 × 103 = 872 Hz 5. For FM. the magnitude of the spectral components at ( fc ± 1000 ) Hz is Ac µ . we know that carrier goes to zero for the first time when β = 2. the smallest value of β for which J0 ( β ) = 0 is β = 2.32 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .5 . Venkata Rao With tone modulation. (That is.6 A 1.4 . That is. Ac µ = Ac J1 ( 8 ) ⇒ µ = 2 J1 ( 8 ) 2 = 0. find the modulation index of AM. V.47  5. Unmodulated carrier amplitude is the same for both AM and FM. If the frequency components at ( fc ± 1000 ) Hz have the same magnitude in AM as well as FM.4 . we have kf = 4. Hence.) But β = ∆f = 2.0 kHz tone is used to generate both an AM and an FM signal. For AM.8 × 103 fm 4.5 = 4.Principles of Communication Prof. The modulation index β of FM is 8. 5.4 fm = 4.

3).2 × 103 Hz 5. A5. Let us compute of f1 and f2 .85 700 6 We shall take into account Jm ( β1 ) upto m = 12 ( = β1 + 2 ) and Jn ( β2 ) upto n = 8 ( = β2 + 2 ) . a) ( B T )FM Case i) f1 = 500 Hz and f2 = 700 Hz From Eq.85 cos ( 2 π f2 t ) be used to generate an FM as well as a PM signal.3. Venkata Rao Example 5. Modulator constants are kf = 5 kHz/V and k p = 10 rad/V. V. i) ii) (a) B T ( )FM and (b) B T ( )PM for the following combinations f1 = 500 Hz and f2 = 700 Hz f1 = 1000 Hz and f2 = 1400 Hz We will assume that Jn ( β ) can be neglected if n > β + 2 .33 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1 (Appendix 5. we have s ( t ) = Ac ∑∑ Jm ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) cos ⎡ ⎣( ωc + m ω1 + n ω2 ) t ⎤ ⎦ m n β1 = β2 = 5 × 103 = 10 500 5 × 103 × 0.Principles of Communication Prof.7 In this example we will show that the bandwidth of the PM signal is strongly dependent on M ( f ) whereas this dependence is weak in the case of an FM signal. ( B T )FM = 2 (12 × 500 + 8 × 700 ) = 23. Then. Let m ( t ) = cos ( 2 π f1 t ) + 0.

Principles of Communication Prof. If we account for Jm ( β1 ) and Jn ( β2 ) upto m = 7 and n = 5 .1).391 × 0.318 × 0. Let. and this product is C = J 4 ( 5 ) J2 ( 3 ) = 0.0002 5.19 However. A = 0.018 × 0. Jm ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) . Then.115 .362 = 0. Venkata Rao In the equation for s ( t ) above. V. we have β1 = 5 and β2 3.0052 . we see that the magnitude of any spectral component depends on the product. we find that the maximum value of the product Jm (10 ) Jn ( 6 ) occurs for m = 8 and n = 5 .486 = 0. Let us calculate the ratio J13 (10 ) J8 ( 6 ) ⎡ ⎣Jm (10 ) Jn ( 6 ) ⎤ ⎦ so as to get an idea of the max magnitude of the spectral components that have been neglected in calculating B T Let ( )FM .34 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . then ( B T )FM = 2 7 × 103 + 5 × 1400 = 28 × 103 Hz ( ) Of course the maximum value of Jm ( β1 ) and Jn ( β2 ) occurs for m = 4 and n = 2 . D = J8 ( 5 ) J6 ( 3 ) = 0. B = J8 (10 ) J5 ( 6 ) = 0. B Case ii) f1 = 1000 Hz and f2 = 1400 Hz Now. = 0.0114 = 0.02 From the tables (Appendix A5.0006 A = J13 (10 ) J9 ( 6 ) = 0.03 × 0.

( B T )FM b) = 2 ( 6000 + 5 × 1400 ) = 26 × 103 Hz which is fairly close to the previous value of 23. Venkata Rao Hence D 0.001 This is much less than ( A B ) which implies that we have taken into account more number of spectral components than case (i) above.0002 = C 0.5 Case i) f1 = 500 Hz and f2 = 700 Hz ( B T )PM = 2 (12 × 500 + 10 × 700 ) = 26 × 103 Hz Case ii) f1 = 1000 Hz and f2 = 1400 Hz As β1 and β2 remains unchanged.2 × 103 Hz. V. we have ( B T )PM = 2 12 × 103 + 10 × 1400 = 52 × 103 Hz ( ) 5.85 ( 2 π f2 ) sin ( 2 π f2 t ) ⎤ ⎦ Now m' ( t ) frequency modulates the carrier β1 = Similarly. ( B T )PM m' ( t ) = − ⎡ ⎣2 π f1 sin ( 2 π f1 t ) + 0.Principles of Communication Prof. then. 2 π f1 = k p = 10 2π f1 kp ⋅ β2 = 0. If we restrict ourselves to the number of spectral components upto m = β + 1. J7 ( 5 ) J 6 ( 3 ) = 0.85 k p = 8.001.003 which is closer to ( A B ) than 0. J 4 ( 5 ) J2 ( 3 ) Then.35 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .19 0.

This example shows that the bandwidth of the PM signals is strongly dependent on M ( f ) . namely.12.  Exercise 5. Fig.4 Let fc be the frequency of the modulator when m ( t ) = 0 . 5. 5.12: Scheme for the Exercise 5.Principles of Communication Prof. V.36 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Venkata Rao This is twice B T ( )PM of case (i).5 Generation of FM We had earlier identified two different categories of FM. NBFM and WBFM. 5. We shall now present the schemes for their generation.4 Consider the scheme shown in Fig. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ what are the values of fc' and β ? b) What are the frequency components in the spectrum of s ( t ) ? Ans: ⎛ k A2 ⎞ fc' = ⎜ fc + f m ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ β = 2 kf Am 2 fm 5. If s ( t ) can be expressed in the form a) s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ω 'c t − β sin ( 2 ωm t ) ⎤ .

From the approximation (5. 5.13: Generation of NBFM signal 5.5.10) we have. 5.2 WBFM: Indirect and direct methods There are two distinct methods of generating WBFM signals: a) Direct FM b) Indirect FM. a) Indirect FM (Armstrong’s method) In this method . Fig. s (t ) Ac ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ The system shown in Fig. Applying m ( t ) directly to the balanced modulator. This is then converted to WBFM by using frequency multiplication.13 can be used to generate the NBFM signal. V. Venkata Rao 5. 5. Details on their generation are as follows.1 Narrowband FM One of the principal applications of NBFM is in the (indirect) generation of WBFM as explained later on in this section.37 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .first a narrowband FM signal is generated. 5.attributed to Armstrong . results in NBPM with a suitable value for k p .5.14.Principles of Communication Prof. This is shown schematically in Fig.

. 2 fc . 5. 5.. x ( t ) = cos ⎡ ⎣θ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ . If necessary.. Then.. Let x ( t ) be the FM signal given by.15. n fc with the corresponding frequency deviations ∆ f .27) The DC term in Eq...14: Generation of WBFM (Armstrong method) The generation of NBFM has already been described. frequency multiplication can be resorted to in more than one stage. The required WBFM signal can be obtained by a suitable BPF. For simplicity. The multiplier scheme used in a commercial FM transmitter is indicated in Fig. Venkata Rao Fig. where ∆f is the frequency deviation of the input NBFM signal. y ( t ) = cos2 ⎡ ⎣θ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ = 1 1 + cos ⎡ ⎣2 θ ( t )⎤ ⎦ 2 { } ⎤ α α m d ∫ ( ) ⎥ ⎥ −∞ ⎦ t = ⎡ 1 1 + cos ⎢2 ωc t + 4 π kf 2 2 ⎢ ⎣ (5.. V. . an x n ( t ) will give rise to FM output components at the frequencies fc . An input-output relation of the type y ( t ) = a1 x ( t ) + a2 x 2 ( t ) + . A nonlinearity of order n can give rise to frequency multiplication by a factor of n . . consider a square law device with output y ( t ) = x 2 ( t ) where x ( t ) is the input. 5. n ∆ f .... where θ ( t ) = ωc t + 2 π kf −∞ ∫ m (α) d α t Note that we have dropped the subscript i from θi ( t ) .38 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .27 can be filtered out to give an FM output with the carrier frequency 2 fc and frequency deviation twice that of the input FM signal. 2 ∆ f . A frequency multiplier is a nonlinear device followed by a BPF.. 5.Principles of Communication Prof.

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. 5.15: Multiplier chain used in typical commercial FM transmitter

The carrier frequency of the NBFM signal fc 1 , is 200 kHz with the corresponding ∆ f1 = 25 Hz. Desired FM output is to have the frequency deviation ∆ f4 kHz and a carrier fc 4 of 91.2 MHz. 75

( )

To obtain ∆ f4 = 75 kHz starting from ∆ f1 = 25 Hz, we require a total frequency multiplication of

(75 × 10 ) = 3000 . In the scheme of Fig. 5.11, this
3

25

has been accomplished in two stages, namely, multiplication by 64 followed by multiplication by 48, giving a total multiplication by the factor 64 × 48 = 3072 . (Actually each stage of multiplication is implemented by a cascade of frequency doublers or triplers. Thus multiplication by 64 is obtained by 6 doublers in cascade where as multiplication by 48 is implemented by a cascade of a frequency tripler and 4 doublers.) Multiplication of fc 1 = 200 kHz by 3072 gives a carrier frequency fc 4 = 614.4 MHz. As the final required carrier frequency is 91.2 MHz, a frequency conversion stage is used to down convert fc 2 (12.8 MHz) to fc 3 (1.9 MHz). In this process of down conversion, frequency deviation is unaffected ( ∆ f2 = ∆ f3 = 1.6 kHz ) . The possible drawbacks of this scheme are the introduction of noise in the process of multiplication and distortion in the

5.39
Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

generation of NBFM signal especially for low modulating frequencies as could become excessive.

∆f fm

Example 5.8

Armstrong’s method is to be used to generate a WBFM signal. The NBFM signal has the carrier frequency fc1 = 20 kHz. The WBFM signal that is required must have the parameters fc = 6 MHz and ∆ f = 10 kHz. Only frequency triplers are available. However, they have a limitation: they cannot produce frequency components beyond 8 MHz at their output. Is frequency conversion stage required? If so, when does it become essential? Draw the schematic block diagram of this example.

Total frequency multiplication required =

6 × 106 20 × 103

= 300 . Using only

frequency triplers, we have 35 = 243 and 36 = 729 . Hence a set of six multipliers is required. But these six cannot be used as a single cascade because, that would result in a carrier frequency equal to 20 × 103 × 36 = 14.58 MHz and the last multiplier cannot produce this output. However, cascade of 5 triplers can be used. After this, a frequency conversion stage is needed.

Fig 5.16: Generation of WBFM from NBFM of example 5.8

Block diagram of this generation scheme is shown in Fig. 5.16. As the final frequency deviation required is 10 kHz, the NBFM must have a

5.40
Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

( ∆ f )1

=

10 × 103 = 13.71 Hz. After the frequency conversion stage, we have 729

one more stage multiplication by 3. If fc 3 is the carrier frequency at the mixer output, then fc 3 × 3 = 6 MHz ⇒ fc 3 = 2 MHz. Assuming that fLo is greater than incoming carrier frequency of 4.86 MHz, we require fLo = 6.86 MHz so that the difference frequency component is 2 MHz.



Exercise 5.5

In the indirect FM scheme shown in Fig. 5.17, find the values of fc, i and ∆ fi for i = 1, 2 and 3 . What should be the centre frequency, f0 , of the BPF. Assume that fLO > fc,2 .

Fig. 5.17: Scheme for the Exercise 5.5

Exercise 5.6

In the indirect FM scheme shown in Fig. 5.18, find the values of the quantities with a question mark. Assume that only frequency doublers are available. It is required that fLO < fc,2 .

Fig. 5.18: Scheme for the Exercise 5.6 5.41
Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Consider the situation at t = 0 when y ( t ) has just switched to V0 and the switch going from position 2 to position 1. One can construct a VCO by using an integrator and hysteric comparator (such as Schmitt trigger circuit). Then y ( t ) goes to − V0 and the electronic switch assumes position 2. Method 2 below gives the details of this scheme. In a VCO. Let us first examine the case when the input v m ( t ) is a positive constant v 0 . for 0 < t ≤ t1 . We can generate the required FM signal from a VCO by using the message signal m ( t ) in the control voltage. The value of t1 can be obtained from 5. At this point.42 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Then.Principles of Communication Prof. the oscillation frequency varies linearly with the control voltage. V. Venkata Rao b) Direct FM Conceptually. the direct generation of FM is quite simple and any such system can be called as a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO). y ( t ) changes from + V0 to − V0 when x ( t ) reaches + E0 and from − V0 to + V0 when x ( t ) reaches − E0 . let x ( t ) become E0 . Another way of realizing a VCO is to vary the reactive component of a tuned circuit oscillator such as Colpitt’s oscillator or Hartley oscillator.19(a). Method 1: Consider the scheme shown in Fig. The relationship between x ( t ) and y ( t ) is shown in Fig. 5. Further. We shall explain below two methods of constructing a VCO. and − V0 when x ( t ) is decreasing. x ( t ) has attained the value − E0 . we have x ( t ) = − E0 + 1 ∫ v0 d τ RC 0 t When t = t1 . The Schmitt trigger output y ( t ) is + V0 when the integrator output x ( t ) is increasing.19(b). The electronic switch is designed such that it is in position 1 when y ( t ) = V0 and goes to position 2 when y ( t ) = − V0 . Method 1 below gives the details of this scheme. 5.

Principles of Communication Prof.19: Direct FM generation (method 1) The output x ( t ) now keeps decreasing until t = t2 when x ( t ) = − E0 . That is. where 4 RC 5. If v 0 = E0 then f0 = properly choosing the values of R and C .43 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Venkata Rao E0 1 = − E0 + RC 2 RC E0 v0 t1 0 ∫ v0 d τ or t1 = Fig. we can have f0 = fc = . By 4 RC 1 . 5. 1 . V. x ( t ) and y ( t ) are periodic with period v0 −1 ⎡ 4 RC E0 ⎤ 4 RC E0 or the fundamental frequency of these waveforms is f0 = ⎢ ⎥ v0 ⎣ v0 ⎦ Note that f0 depends on the input signal v 0 . It is easy to see that ( t 2 − t1 ) = 2 RC E0 .

Varactor diodes.Principles of Communication Prof. or voltacap). the varactor is a junction diode. as given by C ( t ) = C0 − k m ( t ) where k is an appropriate constant. 5. when used as voltage-variable capacitors are reverse biased and the capacitance of the junction varies inversely with the applied (reverse) voltage. LC0 k ωc . varactor diodes are designed and fabricated such that the value of the junction capacitance is significant (varactors are available with nominal ratings from 0. Venkata Rao fc is the required carrier frequency. 2 C0 when k m (t ) C0 << 1 ωi ( t ) = ωc + cf m ( t ) . Then ωi ( t ) = 1 ⎡ k m (t ) ⎤ LC0 ⎢1 − ⎥ C0 ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ k m (t ) ⎤ 1 ⎢1 + ⎥ 2C0 ⎦ LC0 ⎣ Let ωc = 1 . we can have the instantaneous frequency of s ( t ) as fc + kf m ( t ) . If the triangular wave x ( t ) is the input to a narrowband BPF tuned to fc .44 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . where cf = One of the more recent devices for obtaining electronically variable capacitance is the varactor (also called varicap. the output s ( t ) is Ac cos ( 2 π fc t ) . by making v m ( t ) = v 0 + k m ( t ) where k is a constant such that k m ( t ) < v 0 . Method 2: The oscillation frequency f0 of a parallel tuned circuit with inductance L and capacitance C is given by f0 = 1 or ω0 = 2 π LC 1 LC Let C be varied by the modulating signal m ( t ) . V. Then. In very simple terms. which is the desired result. Though all junction diodes have inherent junction capacitance.1 to 2000 pF). Then.

5. 5. RFC is an RF choke that prevents the RF energy of the oscillator circuit from feeding into the audio transformer.45 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Note that C2 >> Cd or C1 and is essentially a short at the required FM frequencies. VB reverse biases D such that when m ( t ) = 0 . However.20: Direct FM generation (method 2) Consider the scheme shown in Fig. V. The frequency of the oscillator output depends on L1 and Ceq where Ceq = C1 || Cd . ' − k m t = C − k m t . Ceq is of the correct value to result in output frequency fc .20. Cd = C0 () 0 d m ( t ) = 0 . where C = C + C ' C ( t ) = C1 + C0 () () 0 0 1 0 ( ) The other components in Fig. Hence C ( t ) of the oscillator circuit is. with on. When the message signal m ( t ) is ' − k m t where C ' is the value of C . Cd can be taken as.14 have the following functions. Direct FM generation can produce sufficient frequency deviation and requires little frequency multiplication. 5.Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao Fig. R1 limits the current in the circuit in the event that the peaks of the audio signal voltage exceed the voltage of the DC source and momentarily forward bias the diode D . C2 is a blocking capacitor to isolate the DC level of the varactor from the rest of the modulator circuit. it suffers from the carrier 5. Cd being the capacitance of the varactor D .

what is required is an external capacitor and one or two external resistors.Principles of Communication Prof. (Actually CD 4046 is a PLL and VCO is a part of it. CD 74HC7046 is another PLL chip with VCO. V. Waldow and Ingo Wolf describe a VCO operating in the frequency range 100 MHz to 4 GHz [1]. 5.4.5. Another chip with an operating frequency range of about 1 MHz is LM 566. Donald Tillman describes a new VCO design (called a quadrature trapezoid VCO) especially suited for electronic music applications.) To make the VCO chip functional. Venkata Rao frequency instability as the carrier frequency is not obtained from a highly stable oscillator. Free running frequency of the VCO is 18 MHz.4 MHz.46 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Some additional circuitry is required to achieve frequency stability. Voltage controlled oscillators are available in the form of IC chips.html. Texas Instruments CD 4046 is an inexpensive VCO chip with a normal operating frequency range upto 1.till. PLLs are discussed in sec.01 Hz to 1 MHz. USA has an operating frequency range of 0. For example XR-2206 of the EXAR Corporation.com/articles/QuadTrapVCO/discussion. 5. Koster. Details are available at: http://www.

5.) ( ) ( ) c) Let Ac be the amplitude of oscillations of the VCO.20 for the direct generation of FM.Principles of Communication Prof. by using the binomial approximation. Let VB = 4 V and m ( t ) = 0. Cd can be put in the form Cd b) 10− 10 = − 0.2 × 10− 12 sin ⎡ 10 π × 103 t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3 ( ) ( ) Show that fi ( t ) = 2 × 106 + 705.47 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .86 sin ⎡ 10 π × 103 t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (Note that C2 is a short circuit at the frequencies being generated. The diode capacitance Cd . Cd = where v d 100 pF 1 + 2vd is the voltage across the varactor. a) Show that.054 sin ⎡ 10 π × 103 t ⎤ . Venkata Rao Exercise 5. Write the expression for the generated FM signal. is related to the reverse bias as. 5. V. It is given that C1 = 250 pF and the circuit ⎣ ⎦ resonates at 2 MHz when m ( t ) = 0 .7 Consider the circuit of Fig.

( fi )max 91. if you use binomial approximation. What are the values of ( fi )max and ( fi )min . Venkata Rao Exercise 5. Of course. 5.21. 5. m ( t ) = 0. L1 = 50 µ H and the capacitance of the varactor diode Cd . Ans: fc 91 kHz. Calculate the carrier Let VB = 5 V. the two diodes are in series. ( fi )max and ( fi )min from the above scheme. This arrangement helps to mitigate the effect of the RF signal of the tuned circuit (also called tank circuit) driving a single diode into conduction on its peaks which will change the bias voltage (and thereby the frequency that is generated). V. given that C1 = 50 pF. this means the capacitance of the combination is one-half that of a single diode. as far as the tuned circuit is concerned. 5. 5.4 kHz and ( fi )min 90. without any approximation. ( ) frequency fc .48 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5.14 The varactor diodes D1 and D2 are connected back-to-back. Do not use any approximations.20 is shown in Fig.21: A variation of the VCO circuit of Fig.8 A simple variation of the circuit of Fig.6 kHz.Principles of Communication Prof.5cos 2 π × 103 t . follows the relation Cd = 50 pF vd where v d is the voltage across the diode. Fig.

1 Band-pass limiters have been analyzed in section 5. which in this case is proportional to m ( t ) . Consider the scheme shown in Fig. Venkata Rao 5.7. (for f > 0 ). We shall now indicate three ways of implementing this demodulation scheme.6 Demodulation of FM A variety of techniques and circuits have been developed for demodulating FM signals. We shall consider a few of these techniques falling under the following categories: 1) 2) 3) 4) FM-to-AM conversion Phase shift discrimination Zero crossing detection Phase Locked Loop (PLL) 5. V. ( f > 0 .6.Principles of Communication Prof. 5. 5.1 FM-to-AM conversion The instantaneous frequency of an FM signal is given by fi = fc + kf m ( t ) . the circuit converts the frequency deviation into a corresponding amplitude change. over the required bandwidth. BPL1 is a Band-Pass Limiter which eliminates amplitude fluctuations from the received FM signal. the message signal. and α and β are constants) over the FM band would yield an output proportional to the instantaneous frequency.49 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Hence a frequency selective network with a transfer function of the from H ( f ) = α f + β .22 where d represents a banddt pass differentiator with the magnitude characteristic H ( f ) = α f + β . That is. It is assumed that the time constant of the network is small enough in comparison with the variations in the instantaneous frequency of the FM signal.

28. Therefore. Band-pass limiter eliminates the amplitude fluctuations. The envelope of s ' ( t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ (we assume that ∆ f = kf mp ≤ fc . the envelope of s ' ( t ) would be Ac ( t ) ⎡ ⎣ ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ . Then. there would be an additional term. Let Ac ( t ) denote the envelope of the FM signal.28) Eq. (Several factors such as channel noise. The need for a BPL is as follows.Principles of Communication Prof. after the DC-block.to . 5. Venkata Rao Fig.AM conversion s ( t ) is the constant amplitude FM signal to be demodulated. As Ac ωc represents a DC term. which implies that the envelope of s' ( t ) does not contain a term proportional to m ( t ) . is given by ⎡ ⎢ωc t + 2 π kf ⎤ ω + π s' ( t ) = − Ac ⎡ 2 k m t sin ( ) f ⎣ c ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ α α m d ( ) ∫ ⎥ −∞ ⎦ t (5. the output of the differentiator. 5. signal m ( t ) can be obtained from s ' ( t ) . giving rise to an FM signal with constant envelope. 5. d Ac ( t ) on the RHS of Eq. ⎡ ⎣ ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ≥ 0 ). 5.22: Schematic of an FM demodulator based on FM . Assume that the received FM signal (with amplitude fluctuations) is applied directly as the input to the differentiator. We shall now indicate some schemes to implement this method of demodulation. Even if this term were to be dt neglected. fading etc.50 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V.28 represents a signal that is both amplitude and frequency modulated. s ' ( t ) . cause variations in Ac ). hence. it is essential to maintain the FM envelope at a constant level.

The parts of the characteristic shown in red have been drawn as straight lines. can be carried out by constructing an op-amp differentiator circuit followed by an envelope detector.22. (This is a good approximation to the actual characteristic.Principles of Communication Prof. 5. The transfer characteristic of a tuned circuit in a small region off resonance is approximately linear. Let us assume that the FM signal to be demodulated has the carrier frequency fc = f1 ≤ fc − BT B where as f2 ≥ fc + T .51 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. 5. for f < 0 . Scheme 2 (Slope detection): Another way of implementing the FM-to-AM conversion scheme is through a simple tuned circuit followed by an envelope detector.23: Magnitude characteristics of a tuned circuit In Fig. A' to B' ) for demodulation purposes. we can use the straight line segment between A and B (for f > 0 .23.) Assuming that m ( t ) > 0 produces an increase in the instantaneous frequency. we have the corresponding segment. Venkata Rao Scheme 1: Circuit implementation of the scheme of Fig. This is shown in Fig. Fig.24. 5. we have shown the resonance characteristic of a tuned circuit. V. 2 2 f1 + f2 and 2 5.

fc gets converted to fIF . 5.25: Tuned circuit demodulator Consider the demodulator circuit shown in Fig. As such. V.52 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. changes in the instantaneous frequency will give rise to corresponding changes in the output amplitude. This method of demodulating an FM signal is also known as slope detection. Envelope detection of this output will produce the required message signal.24: Segment A to B of Fig. 5. where f0 > fc . Fig. If. 5.Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao Fig.23 As can be seen from the figure. over the frequency range f ± fc ≤ BT . the detector stage follows the IF stage. we can expect the m ( t ) to resemble m ( t ) fairly closely. it suffers from the following disadvantages: the resonant circuits on the primary and secondary side are 1 In a superheterodyne receiver. Though the method is fairly simple.25. 5. then. The primary of the coupled circuit is tuned to fc 1 whereas the secondary is tuned to f0 . the output of the primary is 2 fairly constant.

V.Principles of Communication Prof. Scheme 3 (Balanced slope detection): This latter problem is partially overcome by using a balanced configuration (balanced slope detection). making the demodulation of a WBFM unsatisfactory. the frequency range of linear amplitude response of a tuned circuit is somewhat limited. shown in Fig. the width of linear frequency response is about 3 B . where 2 B is the width of the 3-dB bandwidth of the individual tuned circuits) and does not require any DC bock (The two resonant frequencies of the secondary are appropriately selected so that output of the discriminator is zero for f = fc ). 5. 5. 5. the difference of the two envelope detected outputs would be proportional to m ( t ) . The scheme.53 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .26(b). The outputs of the tuned circuits on the secondary are envelope detected separately. one above fc and the other. Though the balanced configuration has linearity over a wider range (as can be seen from Fig. it suffers from the disadvantage that the three tuned circuits are to be maintained at three different frequencies. The resonant circuit on the primary is tuned to fc whereas the two resonant circuits on the secondary side are tuned to two different frequencies.26(a) has three tuned circuits: two on the secondary side of the input transformer and one on the primary. Venkata Rao tuned to two different frequencies. below fc .

9 Let the FM waveform of Fig. 5. Venkata Rao Fig. 5.26: Balanced slope detection (a) circuit schematic (b) response curve Example 5. Let us find an expression for the output of the differentiator and sketch the output of the envelope detector. 5.4(b) be the input to a differentiator followed by an envelope detector.54 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Principles of Communication Prof. We shall assume that the differentiator will produce the appropriate step change in the output for sudden changes in the input frequency. V.

27: Output of the ED After DC block. For the values of R and C given. 5. Taking the constant of proportionality as unity.0 MHz.4(a). (Imagine Figure 5. we will show that for frequencies around 1. we obtain the modulating square wave signal. A2 > 0 . t1 < t < t2 : 2 π f1 sin ( 2 π f1 t ) = A1 sin ( 2 π f1 t ) t2 < t < t3 : 2 π f2 sin ( 2 π f2 t ) = A2 sin ( 2 π f2 t ) with A2 > A1 and A1 . Hence. 5. t2 ) be taken as ( t 2 . d dt  Example 5. 5. V.28.Principles of Communication Prof.55 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . would act as a demodulator for the FM. where f2 > f1 . with two different frequencies. t3 ) be taken as cos ( 2 π f2 t ) .10 a) Consider the RC network shown in Fig. this can act as a differentiator.27 Fig. Venkata Rao Let the FM waveform between the time instants cos ( 2 π f1 t ) and that between time instants ( t1. Then the output of the differentiator is. we have the output of ED as shown in Fig 5.) The output of the ED is proportional to A1 during t1 < t < t2 and proportional to A2 during t2 < t < t3 . followed by ED with a DC block.

we can take H ( f ) as 100 j 2 π f RC . we can recover m ( t ) from the ED output. = 5 × 10− 9 j 2 π f H (f ) ( ) b) c) for frequencies around some fc . 2 π f R C << 1. j 2πf RC 1 + j 2πf RC c) a) H (f ) = RC = 100 × 50 × 10− 12 = 5 × 10− 9 and for frequencies around 1.00 MHz. Venkata Rao Fig.28: The RC network of Example 5. we will show that. 2 π f RC = 2 π × 106 × 5 × 10− 9 = 10 π × 10− 3 = As π 100 π << 1. which is a differentiator. V. we require. For the above network. 5. let v in ( t ) = s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡2 π × 106 t + cf mI ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ where kf m ( t ) << 106 Hz.Principles of Communication Prof. With s ( t ) as the input.56 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . v out ( t ) is v out ( t ) = 5 × 10− 9 d ⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ dt ⎣ 5. If v out ( t ) is envelope detected.10 b) Let us find the condition on R and C such that this network can act as a differentiator for frequencies around some frequency fc .

Venkata Rao = 5 × 10− 9 Ac sin ⎡2 π × 106 t + cf mI ( t ) ⎤ 2 π × 106 + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎣ ⎦ { } Output of the ED = 5 × 10− 9 Ac ⎡2 π × 106 + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ k ⎡ ⎤ = 2 π × 106 × 5 × 10− 9 Ac ⎢1 + f6 m ( t ) ⎥ . Quadrature Detector (QD): Consider the FM signal s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ ⎣ωc t + φ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ where φ ( t ) = 2 π kf −∞ ∫ m (λ ) d λ t d φ (t ) = 2 π kf m ( t ) Then φ' ( t ) = dt 1 ⎡φ ( t ) − φ ( t − ∆ t )⎤ ⎦ .2 Phase shift discriminator This method of FM demodulation involves converting frequency variations into phase variations and detecting the phase changes. we have the Foster-Seely discriminator (and its variant the ratio detector) and the quadrature detector.6.57 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V.Principles of Communication Prof. ∆t ⎣ φ ( t − ∆ t ) can be obtained from φ ( t ) with a delay line or a network with linear phase. provided ∆ t is small. In other words. 5. this method makes use of linear phase networks instead of the linear amplitude characteristic of the circuits used in the previous method. Under this category. 10 ⎣ ⎦ = π Ac 100 kf ⎡ ⎤ ⎢1 + 106 m ( t ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦  5.2. Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector have been discussed in appendix A5. We shall now explain the operation of the quadrature detector.

(which will contribute a delay of ∆ t ).29: Block diagram of a quadrature detector With H ( f ) specified as above. namely. 5. f > 0 . 5. As H ( f ) has the j 2πf ∆t linear phase term e − output of the filter is j ⎢ ωc ( t 1 Ac e ⎣ 2 ⎡ .29. f + fc < 2 2 (5. f − fc < T 2 2 BT π − 2 π ( f + fc ) ∆ t . the phase function.29) Fig. let us calculate the output of the network with the input Ac cos ⎡ ⎣ ωc t + φ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ = Ac + ϕ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ e j⎡ ⎣ωc t + ϕ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ +e 2 − j⎡ ⎣ωc t + ϕ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ .Principles of Communication Prof. can be well approximated by a linear phase function. the term at the − ∆ t ) + ϕ( t − ∆ t ) − π ⎤ + ωc ∆ t ⎥ 2 ⎦ j ⎢ωc t 1 = Ac e ⎣ 2 ⎡ + ϕ( t − ∆ t ) − π⎤ 2⎥ ⎦ . A (f ) ⎧ − ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ B π − 2 π ( f − fc ) ∆ t . 5. Venkata Rao Consider the scheme shown in Fig. V. We can take 1 j ⎡ω t Ac e ⎣ c 2 to represent the positive part of the spectrum.58 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . f < 0 . H ( f ) has the transfer characteristic given by H (f ) = e j A( f ) where A ( f ) .

30.Principles of Communication Prof. can provide the bandpass response with the phase characteristic given by Eq. y ( t ) can be approximated as. Several tuned circuits. y (t ) k1{φ ( t ) − φ ( t − ∆ t )} = k1 ∆ t ϕ' ( t ) = k2 m ( t ) where k1 and k2 are constants with k2 = cf k1 ∆ t . Venkata Rao Similarly. the quantity π⎤ ⎡ Ac cos ⎢ωc t + ϕ ( t − ∆ t ) − ⎥ = Ac sin ⎡ ⎣ωc t + ϕ ( t − ∆ t ) ⎤ ⎦.59 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Fig. 5. Assuming ∆ t to be very small. Combining these two terms. Consider the series RLC circuit shown in Fig. Multiplication of this output by Ac cos ⎡ ⎣ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ followed by low pass filtering yields the output y ( t ) proportional to sin ⎡ ⎣φ ( t ) − φ ( t − ∆ t )⎤ ⎦. 5. when properly designed. 5. we have at the output of the filter. V.29 5. 2⎦ ⎣ The π phase shift provided by H ( f ) at f = ± fc gives rise to the term 2 quadrature detector.29. 5.30: A network to provide the phase of Eq. the output corresponding to the negative part of the input spectrum − 1 would be Ac e 2 π⎤ ⎡ j ⎢ωc t + ϕ( t − ∆ t ) − ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦.

then.60 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .30 reduces to 2 πL 2 π LC H (f ) = (f 2 0 − f 2 + j ( f fb ) 2 f0 ) Consider f > 0 ⎛ ff ⎞ ⎡H ( f ) ⎦ ⎤ = − tan− 1 ⎜ 2 b 2 ⎟ arg ⎣ ⎜f − f ⎟ ⎝ 0 ⎠ = − 2⎞ ⎛ f 2 − f0 π − tan− 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ff ⎟ 2 b ⎝ ⎠ = − ⎡ ( f + f0 ) ( f − f0 ) ⎤ π − tan− 1 ⎢ ⎥ 2 f fb ⎣ ⎦ Let the circuit be operated in a small frequency interval. Eq.30) Let f0 = R 1 and fb = . around f0 so that f Then. 5. Venkata Rao H (f ) = V0 ( f ) = Vi ( f ) R + j 2πf L + = 1 j 2πf C 1 j 2πf C 2 1 j 2 π f RC − ( 2 π f ) LC + 1 (5. V. (f + f0 ) f fb 2 and fb arg ⎡ ⎣H ( f ) ⎤ ⎦ 2(δ f ) π − tan− 1 2 fb 2 ( δ f )Q π − tan− 1 f0 2 δ f = ( f − f0 ) and If 2 ( δ f )Q << 1 . Then. f0 arg ⎡ ⎣H ( f ) ⎤ ⎦ − π 2Q ( δ f ) − 2 f0 (5.Principles of Communication Prof. f + f0 2 f0 .31) 5. − − where Q = f0 fb f0 .

Some details on these FM receivers can be found in Roddy and Coolen [2].31 is another possibility.6. Venkata Rao As H ( f ) is the frequency response of a network with real impulse response. with the transitions in the square wave occurring at the zero 5. 5. V. Quadrature detector is well suited to IC construction. we have δ f = ( f − fc ) and ∆ t = Q 1 ⋅ π fc There are other circuit configurations (other than the one given in Fig. 5. have built high quality FM receivers using QD as the FM demodulator. 5. Fig.32(a).Principles of Communication Prof. The circuit given in Fig. 5. 5. it produces at its output a square wave of the same period. Companies such as Signetics.61 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . When the input to the hard limiter is a sine wave of period T0 .31: Another phase shift circuit for the QD Here C provides a very high reactance at the carrier frequency and the parallel tuned circuit resonates at f = fc .30) that can provide the required phase shift for the quadrature detector.3 Zero-crossing detection Consider the scheme shown in Fig. we will have arg ⎡ ⎣H ( − f ) ⎤ ⎦ = − arg ⎡ ⎣H ( f ) ⎤ ⎦ By choosing f0 = fc .

Consider a time interval T such that 1 1 >> T >> . where W is the W fc highest frequency present in the input signal. which is the desired result. t −T ∫ t v p (λ) d λ = 1 nT A τ T A τ fi ( t ) After the DC block. 5. Venkata Rao crossings of the input sine wave. v p ( t ) . looks like a pulse train of nearly constant period.62 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . triggers a monostable pulse generator. 5. the message signal m ( t ) is essentially constant which implies that instantaneous frequency fi ( t ) is also a near constant (Fig. the hard limiter output appears as a square wave of varying frequency. V.32(b)). interval. When the input to the hard limiter is an FM signal. Then the monostable output. The hard limiter output v H ( t ) .Principles of Communication Prof. The number of such pulses in this interval nT vI (t ) = 1 T T fi ( t ) with an average value. we will have y ( t ) being proportional to m ( t ) . which produces a short pulse of amplitude A and duration τ at each upward (or downward) transition of v H ( t ) . We shall assume that during the T sec.

recall the squaring loop. PLL consists of a phase detector and a VCO connected as shown in Fig. The basic aim of a PLL is to lock (or synchronize) the instantaneous angle of a VCO output to the instantaneous angle of a signal that is given as input to the PLL. Venkata Rao Fig 5. In the case of demodulation of FM.6.63 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. Besides FM demodulation.32: Zero-crossing detector 5.4 FM demodulation using PLL PLL is a versatile building block of the present day communication systems. timing recovery. Section 4. 5. In its simplest form.2. it has a large number of other applications such as carrier tracking (in schemes with a pilot carrier and even suppressed carrier.33(a).3).Principles of Communication Prof. V. the input signal to PLL is the received FM signal. frequency synthesis etc.

The scheme resembles closely that of a negative feedback amplifier configuration. G ( s ) is system function in the 5.33: Phase lock loop (a) Basic configuration (b) PD of (a) in functional form (c) PLL as a negative feedback loop PD makes the comparison of the instantaneous phase of x ( t ) and v ( t ) . and is designed such that θv ( t ) . if necessary with some fixed phase difference. V. the most common PD is that of an analog multiplier followed by a LPF (Fig. In this figure. 5.Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao Fig.33(c). shown in Fig. the instantaneous phase of v ( t ) locks on to θ x ( t ) . (This will become evident later.33(b)).64 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. 5. the instantaneous phase of x ( t ) . In the context of FM demodulation.) A number of circuits are available which have been used as phase detectors. s is the variable of the Laplace transform.

This is ensured by providing sufficiently high loop gain. π phase shift in the 2 Now let us look at the demodulation of FM. This anomaly can be corrected. w ( t ) = x ( t ) v ( t ) = cos ⎡ ⎣ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ⎡ ⎣ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ = Only the term e1 ( t ) = 1 cos ⎡ ⎣2 ωc t + ϕ ( t ) + ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ + cos ⎡ ⎣ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ 2 { } 1 cos ⎡ ⎣ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t )⎤ ⎦ will appear at the output of the LPF. if the loop provides a π 2 phase shift so that the output of the VCO is sin ⎡ ⎣ ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ . V. Here after.Principles of Communication Prof. it is possible to make θv ( t ) follow the changes in θ x ( t ) . by making the amplifier gain ga sufficiently large. we shall assume this VCO output. This is not the characteristic of a proper phase detector.32.32) (We are assuming that the LPF has unit gain) As the phase detector. e1 ( t ) is maximum when ϕ ( t ) = ψ ( t ) . that is 2 1 cos ⎡ ⎣ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t )⎤ ⎦ 2 (5. v ( t ) = cos ⎡ ⎣ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ . That is. x ( t ) = cos ⎡ ⎣ ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ Let and let the VCO output be. the loop locks in phase quadrature. Let x ( t ) = s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ ⎣ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ 5. 5. from Fig.65 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. we want e ( t ) to be zero where ϕ ( t ) = ψ ( t ) . Venkata Rao forward path whereas H ( s ) is the network in the feedback path. A properly designed negative feedback system ensures that the error quantity e2 ( t ) is fairly close to zero so that v1 ( t ) x1 ( t ) . Then.33(b). Similarly. but from Eq.

35. Hence. the t control voltage is zero. Venkata Rao where ϕ ( t ) = 2 π kf −∞ ∫ m ( τ ) d τ .33(b) is. 5. e1 ( t ) = Ac Av sin ⎡ ⎣ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t )⎤ ⎦ ∗ h (t ) 2 t (5.34) for the PLL. Or ψ' ( t ) = 2π kv y ( t ) = K1 y ( t ) .33b) (5. 5.66 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .33c) (5. in units of Hz/volt. in a superhet. where K 2 = (5. 5. 5. the demodulator follows the IF stage and fc is actually fIF .35) Then y ( t ) = = K 2 sin ⎡ ⎣θe ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ∗ h ( t ) . the VCO output can be written as v ( t ) = Av sin ⎡ ⎣ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ where ψ ( t ) = 2π kv ∫ y ( τ ) d τ and kv is the voltage sensitivity of the VCO. The VCO is designed such that when y ( t ) .Principles of Communication Prof. 5. This is called the free running frequency of the VCO.36) Using Eq. its frequency is fc . (As mentioned earlier.34b) (5.33a) (5.34a) where h ( t ) is the impulse response of the LPF. and Let y ( t ) = ga e1 ( t ) θe ( t ) = ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) Ac Av ga sin ⎡ ⎣θe ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ∗ h (t ) 2 Ac Av ga 2 (5.36 and 5. we can draw following block diagram (Fig. where K1 = 2 π kv e1 ( t ) of Fig. which is a known quantity). V.33(c).

Literature on PLL is very widespread. Then ϕ' ( t ) . 5. For a more detailed and rigorous analysis.34 brings out much more clearly the negative feedback nature of the PLL. it suffers from the problem of tuning. θe ( t ) << 1 for all t Let the loop be in lock so that sin θe ( t ) θe ( t ) . refer Taub and Shilling [3]. we have ϕ' ( t ) = 2 π kf m ( t ) ψ' ( t ) Hence y ( t ) = K1 2 π kf m ( t ) . Though balanced slope detection offers linearity over a wider frequency range. The above has been a very elementary analysis of the operation of PLL. it is not used in practice because of its limited range of linearity. ψ ( t ) ϕ ( t ) and ψ' ( t ) t .34: Equivalent circuit of a PLL Fig. As ϕ ( t ) = 2 π kf −∞ ∫ m ( τ) d τ . where in the quantities involved are instantaneous phase deviations of the input and the VCO output. The Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector have been the work horses of the FM industry 5. 5. V.67 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Principles of Communication Prof. That is. y ( t ) K1 α m (t ) . Venkata Rao Fig. Summary of the Detectors: Slope detection using a single tuned circuit has been presented to show how simple an FM demodulator could be.

As such. This is due to various impairments during propagation on the channel.7 BandPass Limiter (BPL) We know that information in an FM wave resides in the instantaneous frequency (or in the zero-crossings) of the signal. In other words. A band-pass limiter consists of a hard limiter followed by a band-pass filter. namely. the amplitude changes of the carrier are irrelevant.68 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . we want A ( t ) = A . as was pointed out in section 5. a constant. etc. the received signal may not possess this property.1. Though the FM signal that is generated at the transmitter has a constant envelope. In fact. 5. This type of detector is best suited when exceptional linearity over a very large frequency deviation is required. BPL helps us to recover the constant envelope FM signal from the one that has envelope fluctuations.6. from the point of view of proper demodulation. including the IF amplifier is available in a single chip (e. RCA CA 3089E).Principles of Communication Prof. V. if the envelope A ( t ) is not a constant. they are now becoming less and less important as better circuit configurations have been developed especially from the point of view of IC design. A divide by ten counter inserted after the hard limiter extends the range up to 100 MHz. Commercial zero crossing detectors have better than 0. channel noise. Venkata Rao until recently. The input-output relationship of a hard-limiter is given by 5. Except the phase-shifting network. distortion introduced by the channel.g. the rest of the detector. it will give rise to distortion in the demodulated output. PLL performs better than other demodulators when the signal-tonoise ratio at the input to the detector is somewhat low. It is less useful when the frequency deviation is a small fraction of the carrier frequency.1 % linearity and can operate from 1Hz to 10 MHz. The quadrature detector offers very high linearity and is commonly used in high quality receivers.

69 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . then 5. 5. will be a periodic square wave (with period 2 π ) when the input to the limiter is a cosine signal. Such a wave is difficult to analyze. x ( t ) < 0 (5. If the input to the hard limiter is the FM signal (with or without envelope fluctuations). Let x ( t ) be as shown in Fig. Venkata Rao ⎧ ⎪ A . 5. However.35(b). if x ( t ) = cos ω t = cos θ . Hence. cos θ as a function of θ is always periodic with period 2 π . then the output would be a sequence of alternate positive and negative rectangular pulses with durations that are not uniform.37) where x ( t ) is the input. y ( t ) is the output and A is a constant.35: (a) Input to the hard limiter (b) Output of the hard limiter Then the output with A taken as 1. 5. Fig.Principles of Communication Prof. Hence the hard limiter output. V.35(a). when considered as a function of θ . x (t ) > 0 y (t ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩− A . would be as shown in Fig.

we have the constant envelope FM waves with carrier frequencies n fc and frequency n ∆ f respectively. we have y ( θ) = 4 4 cos [ ωc t + ϕ(t )] − cos ⎡ ⎣3 ( ωc t + ϕ(t ) ) ⎤ ⎦ +⋅⋅⋅ 3π π At the output of BPL.36). With an appropriate BPF. Hence Fourier series consists of only cosine terms with the even harmonics missing.38. we can expand it in terms of Fourier series. 5 etc. 3. V.) Let θ be the instantaneous angle of the FM signal. 5. namely y ( θ) = 4⎡ 1 1 ⎤ cos θ − cos3 θ + cos5 θ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅⎥ ⎢ π⎣ 3 5 ⎦ (5.38) (Note that y ( θ ) is real. 5.Principles of Communication Prof. and has half-wave symmetry. 1. cos θ > 0 y ( θ) = ⎨ ⎩− 1. it is possible for us to obtain constant envelope FM signal with carrier frequency fc and deviation ∆ f . See Sec. 5. where n = 1.2.36: Hard limiter output with cos θ as input y ( θ ) being a periodic signal (Fig. that θ = θi ( t ) = ωc t + cf ∫ m ( τ ) d τ = ωc t + ϕ(t ) t Then.2. Venkata Rao ⎧ 1. cos θ < 0 Fig. suppressing the components with spectra centered at the 5. from Eq. We will assume that BPF will pass the required FM signal.70 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

multiplication factors being 3. One such circuit is shown in Fig.8. 5. that is. 5. the transmission bandwidth allocation for each station is about 200 kHz.9 MHz with stations being separated by 200 kHz.38) also has the 5. the FM receiver (Fig.37. BPL can be used as a frequency multiplier.37: Circuit realization of a hard limiter As shown in the figure. 5. Zeners can be chosen to have the appropriate break down voltages. The receiver for the broadcast FM is of the superheterodyne variety with the intermediate frequency of 10. a current limiting resistor R and two zener diodes arranged in a back-to-back configuration. 7. these stations can broadcast high quality music.1 to 107.Principles of Communication Prof. Incidentally.71 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . as defined by Eq. V. As the audio bandwidth is 15 kHz. 5. Fig. the circuit consists of a high gain amplifier. Venkata Rao harmonics of fc . etc. Like the superhet for AM. Let us now look at the receiver for the single channel (or monophonic) broadcast FM. 5. A hard limiter. 5.7 MHz.1 Monophonic FM Reception FM stations operate in the frequency range 88.37 can be easily be realized in practice.8 Broadcast FM 5.

V. Assume.) However. This will be followed by the limiter-discriminator combination. quadrature detector. the envelope detector output is used for AVC. operating at the allocated frequencies. Assume that the receiver is properly tuned so that fLO − fc = fIF . where the envelope detector is the invariable choice. PLL etc. (Recall that. mixer stage and IF stage. Let fLO − fc = fIF IF IF 5. Basic operation of the AFC block is as follows.38: FM broadcast superhet receiver The need for a band-pass limiter has already been explained. 5. we have a lot of choices: Foster-Seely. that LO frequency is ' . These being fairly stable. RF stage. AFC is not a requirement. the output of the discriminator is used in a feedback mode to control the frequency stability of the local oscillator. in the case AM. Then the discriminator input will have equal frequency variations with respect to fIF .72 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Venkata Rao front end tuning. Also. This is unlike AM. As far as the frequency discriminator is concerned. Fig. where f ' < f . most of the present day receivers might be using frequency synthesizers in place of a LO. Then the input to the S-curve of not correct. ratio detector.Principles of Communication Prof. which is different from the AM radio. hence the discriminator output will vary symmetrically with respect to zero output. As such. This is very important as a change in the frequency of the LO can result in improper demodulation. the net DC voltage is zero and LO frequency will not be changed. however.

This voltage will increase the ' tend capacitance of the varicap which implies fLO decreases and this makes fIF to fIF .8. f ' tends towards f .Principles of Communication Prof. Fig. whose output drives the speaker. 5. Let the corresponding output signals be denoted by mL ( t ) and mR ( t ) . fLO will increase which implies ' will be increased. As the name indicates. These are generally called as left microphone and the right microphone. 5. The two. Discriminator output goes through a base-band amplifier1 (with a bandwidth of 15 kHz). 5.channel transmitter is shown in Fig. If this voltage is applied to the varicap in the LO circuit.39: FM stereo transmission scheme 1 Output of the discriminator goes through a de-emphasis network before being applied to a base- band amplifier.73 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Similarly. audio signal is derived as the output of two separate microphones.2 Two-channel (stereo) FM Two-channel (stereo) FM is fairly common these days and stereo transmission has been made compatible with mono-aural reception. in the two-channel case. Pre-emphasis at the transmitter and de-emphasis at the receiver are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio performance. V. In other words. if fIF IF IF ' where f ' > f . then the discriminator output is positive most of fLO − fc = fIF IF IF the time which implies a net positive DC value.39. Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis will be discussed in Chapter 7. Venkata Rao the discriminator will be operating mostly in the negative output region. This means that the discriminator output will have a net negative voltage. 5.

the other input to modulator being the carrier with a frequency of 38 kHz. Typical spectrum (for f > 0 ) of the base-band signal as shown in Fig. monophonic case).40: Spectrum of the final base-band signal The signal mB ( t ) is used to frequency modulate the carrier allotted to the station. 5. let us look at the operations performed by the stereo receiver after recovering mB ( t ) from s ( t ) .40. 5. Hence y 3 ( t ) is a DSB-SC signal. Hence. V. The final base-band signal mB ( t ) consists of the sum of y1 ( t ) . Venkata Rao As shown in the figure. The carrier 38 kHz is derived from the primary source at 19 kHz and a frequency doubler. The signals v1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) go through a pre-emphasis stage. y 3 ( t ) and 19 kHz primary carrier. 5. The signal y 2 ( t ) is applied to a balanced modulator. The resulting signal s ( t ) is transmitted on to the channel.74 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V1 ( f ) = mL ( f ) + mR ( f ) Y3 ( f ) = K ⎡ ⎣Y2 ( f − f0 ) + Y2 ( f + f0 ) ⎤ ⎦ f0 = 38 kHz and K is a constant Fig. The block schematic of the stereo receiver upto the discriminator is the same as shown in Fig. 5.38 (that is. v1 ( t ) = mL ( t ) + mR ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) = mL ( t ) − mR ( t ) .Principles of Communication Prof.

5. after suitable power amplification. will drive the two speakers. it would have been difficult to extract it at the receiver.41: Scheme to recover mL ( t ) and mR ( t ) From v1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) .41. 5.Principles of Communication Prof. after de-emphasis will yield v1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) . V. (Note that if a pilot carrier of 38 kHz had been sent. Venkata Rao These operations are indicated in Fig. If the receiver is not stereophonic. namely mL ( t ) and mR ( t ) are obtained. The DSB-SC signal is coherently demodulated by generating the 38 kHz carrier from the pilot carrier of 19 kHz. (Note that constants of proportionality are ignored and are taken as 1. These signals. it would respond only to v1 ( t ) thereby making it stereo transmission and monophonic reception compatible.75 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the individual channels signals. 5.) Fig.) r1 ( t ) and r2 ( t ) . arranged such that one is on the left and the other is on the right.

0005 0.0025 0.0012 0.0.1776 .1149 0.0184 0.1858 0.0145 0.0212 0.2346 .0002 - 3 .2459 0.2196 .1231 0.2458 0.0002 - 2 0.0533 0.0256 0.9385 0.2546 0.0070 0.7652 0.0584 . Venkata Rao Appendix A5.0002 - 1 0.3971 .2239 0.0096 0.3621 0.0026 0.0014 - 6 0.0306 0.1717 0.0.1289 0.1130 .2075 0.0634 0.0340 0.2167 0.2429 0.0435 0.Principles of Communication Prof.2601 0.2767 -0.0290 0.0.0055 0.5767 0.0070 0.1310 0.3576 0.3648 0.1321 0.0001 - 8 0.0020 0.2811 0.0152 0.0.0114 0.2611 0.0196 0.0608 0.0.0.0033 0.0025 0.2423 0.3376 0.0.0005 0.1296 0.1320 0.5 0.2919 0.0660 0.2341 . V.0430 0.1263 0.2235 0.0491 0.3091 0.0.0009 0.3641 0.1506 .1148 0.0.3912 0.0565 0.0002 - 5 .0.2911 .3179 0.3206 0.1 Table of Bessel Functions Jn (β ) β n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 0.0010 10 .76 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1054 0.4302 0.0.0.0040 0.4401 0.0.3391 0.0465 0.3276 0.3528 0.0001 - 4 .0120 5.4861 0.

which implies that the entire input voltage Vin would appear across L .77 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The mutually coupled double tuned circuit has high primary and secondary Q and low mutual inductance. an additional inductance L and only a single tuned circuit on the secondary ( L2 || C2 ) . C . Note the similarity between this circuit and the circuit of Fig.1 Foster-Seely discriminator Fig. When evaluating the primary current. Major differences are a by-pass capacitor C between the primary and secondary.26. Hence. 5. Venkata Rao Appendix A5.2 Phase Shift Discriminator (i) (ii) Foster-Seely Discriminator The Ratio Detector A5.1 illustrates the circuit diagram of this discriminator where all the resonant circuits involved are tuned to the same frequency. we may neglect the primary resistance and any impedance coupled from the secondary.1: Circuit schematic of Foster-Seely discriminator In the frequency band of operation. V. Fig.2. A5. C3 and C4 are essentially short circuits.2.Principles of Communication Prof. A5. the primary current 5.2.

Venkata Rao Ip = Vin j ω L1 (A5.2. A5.2.2. X L2 = ω L2 and XC2 = 1 . we have ⎛M ⎞ Vs = − ⎜ ⎟ Vin ⎝ L1 ⎠ Assuming the diode circuit will draw very little current. A5.1 in Eq.2. the voltage across the terminals 2.Principles of Communication Prof. Is = R2 + j X L2 − XC2 ( Vs ) where R2 is the resistance associated with the inductance L2 . V62 . V. Taking the negative sign and using Eq.78 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . is V62 = VL + = Vin + 1 V23 2 1 V 2 23 (A5.2.3) 5.2. we calculate the current in the secondary because of Vs as.2) where the sign depends on the direction of the winding.1) (Note that all the voltages and currents are phasor quantities) The voltage induced in series with the secondary as a result of the primary current is given by Vs = ± j ω M I p (A5. Hence. 3 is given by ωC2 V23 = Is − j XC2 = ( ) ( R2 + j ( X L Vs − j XC2 2 ) − XC2 ) ( ) = j M Vin XC2 where X 2 = X L2 − XC2 L1 R2 + j X 2 The voltage applied to diode D1 .

2.5a) That is. and the discriminator circuit is always tuned to fIF .2.79 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .2(a). Thus 1 1 V23 will lead Vin by 90 and − V23 will lag Vin by 90 . V. the demodulator follows the IF stage. the voltage applied to diode D2 . V54 = V64 − V65 which is proportional to {V62 i) − V63 } .4) The final output voltage V54 is. When the input frequency f = fc we have V23 = ⎛ M X c2 j M Vin XC2 = j⎜ ⎜ LR L1 R2 ⎝ 1 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟Vin ⎠ (A5. V62 and V63 respectively are equal. f > fc and f < fc . is V63 = Vin − 1 V23 2 (A5. Let us 2 2 construct a phasor diagram by taking Vin as reference. the voltages V64 and V65 are equal and hence the final output V54 is zero. fc is actually fIF . We will consider three different cases: f = fc 1. This is shown in Fig. Hence. the secondary voltage V23 leads the primary voltage by 90 .2. A5. 1 Note that in a superheterodyne receiver. As the magnitude of the voltage vectors applied to the diodes D1 and D2 . 5. irrespective of the incoming carrier frequency.Principles of Communication Prof. V63 . Venkata Rao Similarly.

V. Let R2 + j X 2 = Z2 e j θ .5b) That is.2: Phasor diagram illustrative of the operation of Foster-Seely discriminator when the input frequency exceeds fc . V64 > V65 which implies the final output V54 = V64 − V65 is positive. Then.Principles of Communication Prof.2.2(b). A5. V23 = Vin XC2 M j ( 90 − θ ) j M Vin XC2 e = L1 R2 + j X 2 L1 Z2 ii) (A5. V23 leads in Vin by less than 90 and − V23 lags in Vin by more than 90 . A5.80 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . As the magnitude of the vector V62 is greater than that of V63 . 5. This is shown in Fig.2.2. X 2 = X L2 − XC2 is positive. Venkata Rao Fig.

This implies 5. for the given frequency deviation. V.3: Response curve of the Foster-Seely discriminator iii) Similarly. The actual value of the final output depends on how far away the input frequency is from fc .2.3) normally lies between the 3 dB points of the tuned circuit which forms part of the discriminator circuit. the voltages across R3 and R4 are equal and let this value be 3 V. Now. Let the input to the discriminator be fi ( t ) = fc .Principles of Communication Prof.81 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . A5. which is usually termed as the S-curve of the discriminator. let fi ( t ) be such that voltage across R3 increases while that across R4 decreases. A5. A5. A5. Then.3 gives the plot of the frequency response of the Foster-Seely discriminator.2.2. Let the voltage increase on R3 be 2 Volts.2(c). we have the voltage at point 4 equal to 5 volts where as the voltage at point 5 equal to 1 V. we can easily argue that the final output would be negative when f < fc . Useful range of the discriminator (frequency range of linear response. We can take the voltage decrease on R4 also as 2 V. In other words.2. Venkata Rao Fig. say ∆ f1 . based on the phasor diagram of Fig. Fig. Foster-Seely discriminator responds also to input amplitude variations. shown in red in Fig.

Vout V65 changes from the previous value. Now let fi ( t ) change such that we have the deviation ∆ f1 as in the previous case.82 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . it is possible to have a demodulator circuit which has built in capability to handle the amplitude changes of the input FM signal.Principles of Communication Prof. with their difference being equal to 8 V. The resulting circuit is called the ratio detector which has been shown in Fig.2. Venkata Rao Vout = ( 5 − 1) = 4 . the voltage across R4 . Comparing the ratio detector circuit with that of the Foster-Seely discriminator.2 Ratio Detector By making a few changes in the Foster-Seely discriminator. V65 Let the input signal strength be increased such that. We shall now briefly explain the operation of the circuit. the circuit responds not only to frequency changes but also to changes in the incoming carrier strength. Let V64 denote voltage across R3 and V65 . thereby obviating the need for an amplitude limiter. V64 = V65 = 6 . V.4. a parallel RC combination consisting of ( R5 + R6 ) and C5 has been added and the output Vout is taken across a different pair of points. Foster-Seely discriminator has to be the preceded by a BPL. Then V64 = 5. Though the ratio V64 remains at 5. 5.2. A5. Hence. Then V64 will become 10 Volts whereas V65 becomes 2 V. when fi ( t ) = fc . A5. we find the following differences: direction of D2 is reversed. That is.

A5. any variation in the magnitude of this sum voltage can be considered to be spurious.1 and the corresponding phasor diagrams. Taking R5 = R6 .2. With the diode D2 being reversed. the voltage V54 represents the sum voltage. we find that by and large. we find that the voltages V64 and V65 are series aiding rather than series opposing and as such.4: Circuit schematic of a ratio detector Reexamining Fig. the sum V62 + V63 remains constant.2. V. Venkata Rao Fig.Principles of Communication Prof. Hence. we find Vout = V64 + V47 = V64 − V74 = V64 − = V64 − 1 V54 2 V56 + V64 2 = 1 [V64 − V56 ] 2 =k⎡ ⎣ V62 − V63 ⎤ ⎦ 5.83 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Suppression of these spurious variations would result in a detector that is unaffected by input voltage fluctuations which implies that circuit does not require a separate limiter stage. How the sum voltage is kept constant would be explained a little later. A5.

Above resonance. In the circuit Fig. which.84 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . as V64 > V56 . Hence at resonance. of late.4. As these circuit configurations are not very convenient from the point of view of IC fabrication. the Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector have been the work horses of the FM industry.Principles of Communication Prof. For example. V. C5 charges to the full potential existing between the points 5 and 4. as indicated earlier is essentially a constant. C5 is a capacitor of a rather large value. the secondary of the ratio detector transformer is more heavily damped. A5. Thus the ratio detector provides variable damping. Some details can be found in Roddy and Coolen [2]. Venkata Rao Usually. their utility has come down. Q falls and so does the gain of the amplifier driving the detector. This being so. 5. The gain of the driving amplifier increases thereby counteracting the fall in the input voltage. C5 is of the order of 5 µ F whereas C3 and C4 are of the order 300 pF. For a large number of years. This nearly counteracts the rise in the input voltage. when Vin increases. C3 = C4 and R3 = R4 . Companies such as Motorola have built high quality FM receivers using the Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector. If Vin is constant. If Vin tries to increase. the damping is reduced. V64 = V56 which implies that Vout is zero. the output is positive whereas below resonance V56 > V64 . But V54 remains constant at first because C5 is a fairly large capacitance and it is not possible for the voltage across it to change instantaneously. C5 will tend to oppose any rise in Vout . extra diode current flows trying to charge C5 .2. The situation now is that the current in the diodes' load has risen but the voltage across the load has not changed. This is because as the input voltage tries to rise. and the output is negative. Similarly.

3. j β sin ω t spe ( t ) = Ac ⎡ e 1 ( 1 )⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡e j β2 sin( ω2 t ) ⎤ e j ωc t ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where β1 = A1 kf A k and β2 = 2 f f1 f2 ⎧⎡ ⎫ ⎤⎡ ⎤⎪ ⎪ spe ( t ) = Ac ⎨ ⎢ ∑ Jm ( β1 ) e j m ω1 t ⎥ ⎢ ∑ Jn ( β2 ) e j n ω2 t ⎥ ⎬ e j ωc t ⎪ ⎦⎣n ⎦⎪ ⎩⎣ m ⎭ Hence. Then. Even with respect to the terms of the type (2) and (3). 2. 2. 3. These terms are not present in linear modulation. 5. Venkata Rao Appendix A5. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ . ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 3) A set of side frequency components due to f2 : These components have amplitudes J0 ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) at frequencies ( fc ± n f2 ) . 3.3 Multi-tone FM Let m ( t ) = A1 cos ω1 t + A2 cos ω2 t where f1 and f2 are arbitrary. s ( t ) = Ac ∑∑ Jm (β1) Jn (β2 ) cos ⎡ ⎣( ωc + m ω1 + n ω2 ) t ⎤ ⎦ m n (A5. linear modulation generates only those components with m = 1 and n = 1 .3. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 4) A set of cross modulation (or beat frequency) terms with amplitudes Jm ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) at frequencies ( fc ± m f1 ∓ n f2 ) where m = 1. 3. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Cross spectral terms of the type given at (4) above clearly indicate the non-linear nature of FM.Principles of Communication Prof. n = 1.1) The (discrete) spectrum of s ( t ) can be divided into 4 categories: 1) 2) Carrier component: amplitude = J0 ( β1 ) J0 ( β2 ) when f = fc A set of side frequency components due to f1 : These components have amplitudes Jm ( β1 ) J0 ( β2 ) at frequencies ( fc ± m f1 ) . V. m = 1.85 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . n = 1. 2. 2.

N ( f ) . with fc >> ∆ f . S X . null-to-null bandwidth. 2 σf can be used as a measure of the spectral width of the process.4. Let σf denote the standard deviation of S X .1b) 2 where ( f − f0 ) = 2 ∫ (f − f0 ) S X ( f ) d f 2 ∞ 0 ∫ SX (f ) d f 2 0 ∞ = ∫ (f − f0 ) S X ( f ) d f PT (A5. has the properties of a ∫ PDF. can be treated as a band-pass random process.86 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . We shall define the r ms bandwidth of a band-pass process as Brms = 2 ⎛ ⎜ ( f − f0 ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ or 2 Brms = 4 ( f − f0 ) ∞ 1 2 ⎞2 (A5. such as 3-dB bandwidth. In the context of WBFM.2a) 2 0 where PT is the total power of the process and 5.1a) (A5. Then. another meaningful and useful bandwidth quantity is the r ms bandwidth. Let S X ( f ) denote the power spectral density of a random process X ( t ) . noise equivalent bandwidth.4. The basic idea behind the r ms bandwidth is as follows. The WBFM process. Venkata Rao Appendix A5. the normalized PSD. etc.Principles of Communication Prof. N ( f ) = ∞ −∞ SX (f ) SX (f ) d f . Then. V.4 RMS Bandwidth of WBFM We have already used a number of measures for the bandwidths of signals and systems.4.

4) (Note that in quasi-static approximation. Then m = ( fi − fc ) kf (A5. A5. it is assumed that fi ( t ) remains constant for a sufficiently long period. Let pM ( m ) denote the PDF of the process. In this derivation. We will now ⎝ kf ⎠ show that ( Brms )WBFM 2 = 2 kf ⎡ ⎣RM ( 0 ) ⎤ ⎦ 2 where RM ( 0 ) = M ( t ) . ⎛ f + fc ⎞ ⎤ PT ⎡ ⎛ f − fc ⎞ ⎡ ⎣S X ( f ) ⎤ ⎦WBFM = 2 k ⎢ pM ⎜ k ⎟ + pM ⎜ k ⎟ ⎥ f ⎣ ⎝ f ⎠ ⎝ f ⎠⎦ (A5. 2 ⎛ f − fc ⎞ In Eq. FM wave appears to be a regular sinusoid 2 Ac and fi can be replaced by f .) For the FM case. the mean 1 square value of the process.3) Using quasi-static approximation. V.2b) Let M ( t ) be a strict sense stationary message process with m ( t ) as a sample function.4.87 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . this has been done to avoid confusion. PT = ST = . instead of the earlier symbol f ( ) .) For the WBFM process. (Note that RM ( τ ) is the ACF of the process. Venkata Rao f0 = 2 PT ∞ 0 ∫ f SX (f ) d f (A5. f denotes only the frequency variable.4. pM ⎜ ⎟ is the positive part of the spectrum.4.4. as such. (Note that we are using the symbol p ( ) to denote the PDF.4.Principles of Communication Prof. it has been shown by Peebles [4] that. we have fi = fc + kf m where m is a specific value of m ( t ) for some t .) 5.

Principles of Communication Prof. S X ( f ) is symmetrical with respect to f = fc (we assume that the input PDF is symmetric about zero) and hence f0 = fc . otherwise a) b) Find ⎡ ⎣S X ( f ) ⎤ ⎦WBFM . we expect the PSD of the resulting WBFM also to be uniform over the appropriate frequency range.4 in A5. Then.4.2(a). Venkata Rao For f > 0 .4.1 RM ( 0 ) (A5. m < 1 pM ( m ) = ⎨ 2 ⎪ ⎩0 . 2 kf ⎝ kf ⎠ f − fc = λ . It is given that ⎧1 ⎪ . we have ∞ 0 ( Let 2 Brms ) WBFM 8 = PT ∫ (f − fc ) ⋅ 2 ⎛ f − fc ⎞ PT pM ⎜ ⎟ df .4. Using Eq. What is the value of Brms ? As pM ( m ) is uniform.88 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .4. A5. we have f = fc .5) Let m ( t ) be a sample function of a strict sense stationary process M ( t ) . When m = 0 . ( Brms )WBFM = 2 kf Example A5. kf ( 2 Brms ) ∞ WBFM = 4 − 2 ∫ ( λ kf ) pM ( λ ) d λ fc kf ∞ 4 kf2 −∞ ∫ λ 2 pM ( λ ) d λ = 4 kf2 M 2 ( t ) = 4 kf2 RM ( 0 ) That is. A WBFM signal is generated using m ( t ) as the message signal. 5. V.

1. there is a small but finite ( ) 5. Let pM ⎜ ⎟ + pM ⎜ ⎟ be as shown in Fig. In other words. A5.4. ⎣ WBFM In a few situations Brms might be quite meaningful.4. f − kf < f < fc + kf ⎪ = ⎨ 8 kf c ⎪ ⎩ 0 . V.1 To find the value of α . we require that the RHS of Eq.4. if m ( t ) is the sample function of a Guassian process. the frequency range over which SM ( f ) exists is ⎛ f − fc ⎞ ⎛ f + fc ⎞ fc − kf < f < fc + kf .4.89 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1: Shape of the PSD of Example A5. For example. 2 ∫ ⎤ A2 α df⎥ = c 2 ⎥ ⎦ 2 2 Ac Ac ⋅ α ( 2 kf ) = 2 kf 2 That is.Principles of Communication Prof. ⎝ kf ⎠ ⎝ kf ⎠ Fig. A5. A5. α = 1 2 2 ⎧ Ac . when integrated over the entire range should be equal to ⎡ A2 2⎢ c ⎢ 4 kf ⎣ or fc + kf fc − kf 2 Ac . That is. Venkata Rao whereas m = ± 1 results in the instantaneous frequency to be fc ± kf respectively.4. otherwise ⎡S X ( f ) ⎦ ⎤ Hence.

9 ) .4. Venkata Rao probability that m ( t ) will assume very large values.7) 5. then ( Brms )WBFM (Note that = 2 × 3 × kf = 6 kf 9 = 3) RM ( 0 ) = Exercise A5. Brms ( ) ( ) will not be unduly excessive. For example if m ( t ) belongs to a Guassian process and say pM ( m ) is N ( 0.90 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Principles of Communication Prof. Show that = 2 kp RM ( 0 ) ⎡ B rms ⎣ ( B rms )PM ( )M ⎤ ⎦ (A5.4.4. ∞ ⎡B ⎣ rms ( )M ⎤ ⎦ 2 = −∞ ∫ f 2 SM ( f ) d f RM ( 0 ) (A5. V. This implies that ∆ f becomes excessive and as such BT given by Carson’s rule or its variants would be extremely high.1 We define the RMS bandwidth of any lowpass process M ( t ) as. As Brms weights the large frequency derivations with small probabilities.6) Let B rms ( )PM denote the RMS bandwidth of the PM signal.

The bandwidth allocated to each TV station by the regulatory body is about 6 MHz. Maybe. we may be able to watch any program of our choice in the language we prefer to listen either in real time or near real time. Our purpose here is to illustrate how various modulation techniques have been used in a practical scheme. As the TV transmission and reception started with monochrome (black and white) signals we shall begin our discussion with this scheme. we have access to so much information and entertainment in such a fine detail (audio as well as video with all its hues and colors) that the angels could envy the humans on this count. VSB becomes the automatic choice. Let m v ( t ) denote this signal. It is at 5. we have seen that VSB can be envelope detected.) As such. V. designing the HT with required specifications in extremely difficult. Similarly. (Filtering method is ruled out because of appreciable low frequency content in Mv ( f ) and because of the fairly wide bandwidth. it is difficult to design a filter with an exact vestigial sideband. Hence PAL and SECAM systems have not been discussed. we have real time reception almost at any point on this globe. We shall now take a closer look at the modulation techniques used in (commercial) TV. based on the NTSC standard used in North America and Japan. Actually at the transmitter.2 MHz. (Note that color transmission can be viewed on a monochrome receiver. It is very difficult to generate the SSB of the video signal. it is only partially VSB.) The bandwidth of a monochrome video signal is about 4.Principles of Communication Prof.5 Modulation Techniques in TV Color television is an engineering marvel.91 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Distances are no longer a barrier. blackand-white transmission can be viewed on a color receiver. m v ( t ) . not too far into the future. Venkata Rao Appendix A5. Hence the use of DSB is ruled out. because of the high power levels at the transmitter. With a suitable carrier component. At the flick of a button on a remote.

Details of the magnitude spectrum of the transmitted signal is given in Fig.2. Venkata Rao the IF stage of the receiver that perfect VSB shaping is achieved. A5. A5. subsequently it is demodulated. V.92 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . A5.5.5. Fig.5.2: Audio and video spectrum of a monochrome TV signal 5. A5.5. Fig.1: Modulation stages in a monochrome TV transmitter Fig.1 shows the block diagram of the modulation scheme of a monochrome TV transmitter.Principles of Communication Prof.

is applied to an IF amplifier and VSB shaping network.5. A5. A5. (The video carrier fcv is 1. The characteristic of the VSB shaping filter is shown in Fig. v1 ( t ) .75 ) MHz.4. The maximum frequency deviation is 25 kHz.3: (Partial) Block diagram of monochrome TV receiver The mixer output. Venkata Rao In this figure. V.75 ) to fcv is transmitted without any attenuation. As this is not exactly a VSB characteristic.93 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . fcv is the video carrier and fca is the carrier for audio. Below the frequency ( fcv − 0.25 MHz above the lower frequency limit allotted to the station) The USB of the video occupies the full bandwidth of 4.Principles of Communication Prof.5. A part of the reciever structure is shown in Fig.2 MHz.3.5. band-limited to 10 kHz frequency modulates the audio carrier. the audio bandwidth can be taken as 2 ( ∆ f + W ) = 2 ( 25 + 10 ) = 70 kHz. A5. TV receiver is of the superheterodyne variety. Fig. it is termed as partial VSB. The audio signal.25 MHz ) . The IF amplifier has a pass-band of 41 to 47 MHz. which is higher than fcv by 4. That part of LSB spectrum between ( fcv − 0. Hence. 5.5 MHz. LSB is gradually attenuated reaching almost zero level at ( fcv − 1.

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. A5.5.4: VSB shaping in TV receiver

The frequency modulated audio signal is also passed by the IF stage but with much less gain than the video part. That is, v 2 ( t ) consists of the video signal of the (VSB+C) type and the FM audio signal, with a carrier at 4.5 MHz and with Aca << Acv where Aca is the audio carrier amplitude and Acv is the amplitude of the video carrier. Under these conditions, it can be shown that v 3 ( t ) , the output of the envelope detector, has the video as well as required audio. The video amplifier removes the audio from v 3 ( t ) . The output of the video amplifier is processed further and is displayed on the picture tube. v 3 ( t ) is also applied as input to an IF stage, with the IF of 4.5 MHz. The audio part of the v 3 ( t ) is passed by this IF stage; the FM demodulator that follows produces the audio signal.

Color TV: The three primary colors, whose linear combination can give rise to

other colors are: Red, Blue and Green. These color signals, pertaining to the scene that is being shot, are available at the outputs of three color cameras. Let us denote these signals as mR ( t ) , mG ( t ) and mB ( t ) respectively. These basic color components are linearly combined to produce (i) the video signal of the monochrome variety (this is called the luminance signal and is denoted by
mL ( t ) )) and (ii) two other independent color signals (called the in-phase

component of the color signal and the quadrature component of the color signal). 5.94
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Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Let us denote these components as mI ( t ) and mQ ( t ) respectively. The equations of the linear transformation are given below in the form of a matrix equation.
⎡ mL ( t ) ⎤ 0.59 0.11 ⎤ ⎡ 0.3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ mI ( t ) ⎥ = ⎢ 0.6 − 0.28 − 0.32⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣0.21 − 0.52 0.31 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ mQ ( t ) ⎦
M

⎡mR ( t ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ mG ( t ) ⎥ ⎢ mB ( t ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(A5.5.1)

From Eq. A5.5.1, we obtain
mL ( t ) = 0.3 mR ( t ) + 0.59 mG ( t ) + 0.11mB ( t )

(A5.5.2)

It has been found that mL ( t ) as given by Eq. A5.5.2 closely resembles mv ( t ) of the monochrome system. mL ( t ) has the same bandwidth as mv ( t ) namely, 4.2 MHz. This is required to preserve the sharp transitions in the intensity of light at the edges in a scene. However, the eye is not as sensitive to color transitions in a scene and is possible to reduce the bandwidth occupancy of mI ( t ) and mQ ( t ) . In the NTSC system, bandwidth allocation for mI ( t ) is 1.5 MHz and that of
mQ ( t ) is 0.5 MHz. These chrominance signals are quadrature multiplexed

(QAM) on the color subcarrier as shown in Fig. A5.5.5.

Fig. A5.5.5: Generation of composite baseband video

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Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

The composite video signal mbv ( t ) is modulated on to the carrier fcv . This implies that color subcarrier, fcc , is 3.58 MHz above fcv and fca is 4.5 MHz above fcv . As such, the color information gets interleaved in between the spectral lines of the luminance signal and no additional bandwidth is required for the color TV system. In order to facilitate coherent demodulation of the QAM signal, a few cycles of the color subcarrier (called color burst) is sent along with the transmitted signal. This reference carrier is tracked by a PLL in the receiver. The VCO output of the PLL is used in the demodulation of the chrominance signal. For more details on TV transmission and reception, refer to Carlson, Crilly and Rutledge [5] or Leon Couch [6].

TV modulator circuit is available in an IC chip. For example, Motorola MC 1374 includes an FM audio modulator, sound carrier oscillator, RF dual input modulator. It is designed to generate a TV signal from audio and video inputs. It is also suited for applications such as video tape recorders, video disc players, TV games etc. The FM system can also be used in the base station of a cordless telephone. Circuit details and other parameters can be obtained from the manual.

Exercise A5.5.1

Indirect method can used to generate the FM signal for the audio in TV. Required carrier is 4.5 MHz and ∆ f = 25 kHz. Using fc1 = 200 kHz and ∆ f1 < 20 Hz, design the modulator such that frequency at any point in the modulator does not exceed 100 MHz. Use the shortest possible chain of frequency doublers and triplers.

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).97 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Peter Waldow and Ingo Wolff. A unique low voltage. (4th ed. Crilly and Janet C. Z.Principles of Communication Prof. 1995 3) Herbert Taub and Donald L. PP58-66 (website: http://www. April 2001... 1986 4) 5) Peebles P. source-coupled J-FET VCO.). Pearson Education-Asia. 2002 6) Leon W. Electronic communications.. Venkata Rao References 1) Bettina Koster. McGraw Hill International ed. 2001 5. Addison-Wesley. 1976 A.rfdesign. Principles of communication systems. McGraw Hill International ed. Digital and Analog Communication systems (6th ed. (2nd ed. Bruce Carlson. Communication system principles. Rutledge. Couch II.com) 2) Dennis Roddy and John Coolen.). Schilling. Paul B. PHI. V.). RF signal processing. Communication systems (4th ed.

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