FILOSOFI PBL DAN STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN

Rahmatina B. Herman Medical Education Unit FK-UNAND
MEU FK-UNAND

BLOK 1

Bahan Bacaan:
1. Ellington, H. Selecting Appropriate Teaching/Learning Methods. Robert Gordon University 2. Boud, D. Developing Student Autonomy in Learning. 3. Burton, WH. The Guidance of Learning Activities 4. Biggs, JB and Moore, PJ. The Process of Learning 5. Savin-Baden, M and Major, CH. Foundations of problem-based learning
MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1

Tujuan Pembelajaran
Input

Process  Learning
Output Outcomes (Areas of competence)
Competencies
Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes
BLOK 1

MEU FK-UNAND

demonstrator.Mengontrol semua aspek proses instruksi (cara. dll BLOK 1 MEU FK-UNAND .Menerangkan secara tradisional .Metode Pembelajaran 1.Tergantung pada apa yang diperoleh dari dosen. Mass Instruction:  Metode: Kuliah konvensional Presentasi film & video Siaran radio pendidikan Kerja studio & praktikum masal  Peran dosen:  Peran mahasiswa: .Sangat pasif . video. isi) .

kedalaman belajar MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Belajar sendiri dari buku teks / materi belajar dll .Produser / manajer pembelajaran . Belajar individu/sendiri:  Metode: .Sangat bertanggung jawab terhadap pembelajarannya .Memberikan support bila diperlukan .Tugas.Metode Pembelajaran 2.Mengontrol diri sendiri dalam hal: lama / frekwensi belajar. dll  Peran dosen:  Peran mahasiswa: .

Game & simulasi .Kelas diskusi / grup tutorial .Sangat dependen pada preparasi dan interaksi sesama BLOK 1  Peran dosen:  Peran mahasiswa: MEU FK-UNAND .Fasilitator .Metode Pembelajaran 3.Sangat bertanggung jawab terhadap pembelajarannya .Organiser aktivitas grup .Seminar .Supportive . Belajar grup:  Metode: .

Kurikulum 2.Strategi Pembelajaran Adalah cara pembelajaran yang digunakan termasuk: 1. Konsep pembelajaran Contoh: Problem-based learning Integrated curricula Community-oriented curricula Core and options / electives BLOK 1 MEU FK-UNAND .

Genn.Kurikulum • What is a curriculum? . 2000: A planned educational approach to reaching identified professional outcomes MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 . 1995: Everything that happens in relation to the educational program .Stewart.

Informal: Essentially extra-curricular activities .Formal: Everything the developers intend . as opposed to intentional .Null: Things intended not to be there MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Kurikulum • Types of curriculum? .Hidden: Incidental.

Student-centered fokus: active learning MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 . Teacher-centered fokus: transfer of knowledge 2.Konsep Pembelajaran Dua kategori utama: 1.

TEACHER CENTERED TEACHING MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

recall) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Pembelajaran sistem teacher-centered • • • • • • Teacher-centered instructional strategies Highly lecture-based Discipline-based One-way communication Overload dengan informasi Rote-learning (memorize.

Teacher Centered mhs mhs dosen mhs mhs mhs MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

2001) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Teacher Centered Dosen mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs Metoda didaktik satu arah (Sefton.

“The scarcely tolerable burden of information that is imposed taxes the memory but not the intellect. General Medical Council. The emphasis is on the passive acquisition of knowledge. 1993)  „Tomorrow‟s Doctors‟ MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .” (Education Committee. UK. rather than on its discovery through curiosity and experiment. much of it to become outdated or forgotten.

STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING Problem-Based Learning MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

Apa itu PBL? Suatu strategi pembelajaran: menggunakan masalah sebagai stimulus untuk menemukan atau mendapatkan informasi yang diperlukan untuk memahami dan mencari solusinya MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

Pembelajaran sistem PBL • Student-centered instructional strategies • Students have to identify.solving the problem • The knowledge arises from work on the problem MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 . the knowledge that they need to deal with the problem • Two objectives for the student: .learning related to the problem . and search for.

” (Barrows.encountering the problem first.self-study. . 1985) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 . .summarizing what has been learned.problem-solving with clinical skills and identifying learning needs in an interactive process.applying newly gained knowledge to the problem. .Pembelajaran sistem PBL “ The basic outline of the PBL process is: . .

Feedback dapat diberikan sewaktu tutorial. karena informasi yang dikumpulkan melalui belajar mandiri sesuai dengan apa yang dibutuhkannya (need to know basis).Karakteristik PBL • • • • Pembelajaran bersifat student-centered yang aktif. sehingga dapat memacu mahasiswa untuk meningkatkan usaha pembelajarannya. MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 . Pembelajaran berjalan secara efisien. Latihan keterampilan diberikan secara paralel. Pembelajaran dilaksanakan melalui diskusi kelompok kecil Diskusi dipicu oleh masalah yang bersifat integrasi interdisiplin yang didasarkan pada pengalaman/kehidupan nyata. Diskusi secara aktif merangsang mahasiswa untuk menggunakan prior knowledge • • • • Mahasiswa terlatih untuk belajar mandiri dan diharapkan dapat menjadi dasar bagi pembelajaran seumur hidup.

. self. critical appraisal.directed learning. . information literacy. yang berkaitan masalah psikososial (psychosocial issues)  Teori Konstruktivis MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Di bidang psikomotor (skills): berupa scientific reasoning.Di bidang kognitif (knowledges): berupa ilmu dasar dan ilmu terapan secara terintegrasi. life-long learning.Di bidang affektif (attitudes): berupa value of framework.Tujuan PBL Membangun dan mengembangkan pembelajaran mahasiswa yang memenuhi kriteria ketiga ranah pembelajaran (taxonomy of learning domains). hubungan antar-manusia. .

” (Boud and Feletti. but a way of shaping the learning programme of professional practice. 1997) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .“Problem-based learning (PBL) is grounded in the belief that learning is most effective when students are actively involved and learn in the context in which the knowledge is to be used. Problems act as stimulus and focus for student activity. Problem-based learning is not simply the addition of problem solving activities to otherwise discipline-centered curricula.

the enhanced work environment for students and faculty that has been consistently found with PBL is a worthwhile goal. 2000) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .“Even if knowledge acquisition and clinical skills are not improved by PBL.” (Albanese.

Student Centered student tutor student module student student student MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

interaksi kompleks yang harus difasilitasi seorang tutor dengan manajemen yang baik (Sefton.mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs tutor Komunikasi antarpersonal. 2001) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

5. Students generalize from specific scenario to other situations BLOK 1 MEU FK-UNAND . 4. Group receives written problem scenario 2. Group synthesizes and summarizes work. 3. Group defines the problem Group identifies the learning goals Students work independently to achieve the learning outcomes Group reconvenes and students build new learning on to prior knowledge 6.Proses PBL (Harvard) 1.

Students generalize from specific scenario to other situations BLOK 1 MEU FK-UNAND . 2. 3. Students receive problem scenario and define the problem Brainstorming used to identify explanation for phenomena observed Group reaches interim conclusions about the problem Group formulates the learning objectives Students work independently to achieve the learning process Group synthesizes and summarizes work. 6. 5.Proses PBL (Maastricht) 1. 4.

PBL • Student centered • Problem-based • Integrated • Community-oriented • Electives with core Konvensional • Teacher centered • Information gathering • Discipline-based • Hospital-based • Standard / uniform • Systematic MEU FK-UNAND • Apprenticeship BLOK 1 .

The Learning Pyramid Average Retention Rate Lecture Reading Audiovisual Demonstration 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 80% BLOK 1 Discussion group Practice by doing Teach others National Training Laboratories. Maine. USA MEU FK-UNAND . Bethel.

MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

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