ENGLISH GRAMMER

BACK BONE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Definition of Grammar The definition of grammar is as follows: Grammar applies rules for standard use of words and how their component parts combine to form sentences. A grammar is also a system for classifying and analyzing the elements of language including inflections, functions, rules and relations in the sentence.

ALPHABETS

WORDS
The group of alphabets

THE SENTENCE
A GROUP OF WORDS THAT MAKE COMPLETE SENSE

GROUP OF WORDS :The east in rises the sun. SENTENCE:The sun rises in the east.

STRUCTURE OF A SENTENCE

THE SENTENCE
RULES :---

1. The first word of a sentence always begins with a capital letter. 3. A full stop (.) must be place at the end of a sentence.

THE PHRASE
The group of words that make sense but not complete sense.

At ten o’clock , for two hours , in the west , in the east , by day , by night , at night , on a table.

The sentence has a

VERB
in it; but a phrase hasn’t.

The sentence has a

VERB
in it; but a phrase hasn’t.

EXAMPLE
SENTENCE: I will be giving you a presentation. PHRASE: For an hour.

EXAMPLE
SENTENCE: I will be giving you a presentation. PHRASE: For an hour.

VERB

HAS NO VERB

EXAMPLE
SENTENCE: I will be giving you a presentation. PHRASE: For an hour. VERB

VERB HAS NO VERB

A verb is a word which says something about a subject.

KINDS OF SENTENCES
DECLARATIVE SENTENCES INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES IMPERATIVE SENTENCES EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES

KINDS OF SENTENCES
DECLARATIVE SENTENCES

A SENTENCE THAT DECLARES SOMETHING.

KINDS OF SENTENCES
DECLARATIVE SENTENCES

A SENTENCE THAT DECLARES SOMETHING.

EXAMPLE:>> 1. The boys were swimming in the river. 2. The sun rises in the east.

KINDS OF SENTENCES
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

A SENTENCE CAN ASK A QUESTION.

KINDS OF SENTENCES
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

A SENTENCE CAN ASK A QUESTION.

EXAMPLE:>> 1. Who has broken the glass? 2. Where is the aero plane?

KINDS OF SENTENCES
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

A SENTENCE THAT EXPRESSES A COMMAND, A REQUEST OR A DESIRE.

KINDS OF SENTENCES
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

A SENTENCE THAT EXPRESSES A COMMAND, A REQUEST OR A DESIRE.

EXAMPLE:>> 1. Peter, shut the door. 2. Please bring me a glass of water. 3. I wish to play chess.

KINDS OF SENTENCES
EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES

A SENTENCE CAN EXPRESS SOME STRONG OR SUDDEN FEELING.

KINDS OF SENTENCES
EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES

A SENTENCE CAN EXPRESS SOME STRONG OR SUDDEN FEELING.

EXAMPLE:>> 1. How beautiful this rose is! 2. What a noise they are making!

PARTS OF A SENTENCE
SUBJECT PREDICATE

THE PERSON OR THING WE SPEAK ABOUT.

PARTS OF A SENTENCE
SUBJECT PREDICATE

WHAT IS SAID ABOUT THE SUBJECT.

PARTS OF A SENTENCE
SUBJECT PREDICATE

The cow is grazing in the field.

we are talking about cow

PARTS OF A SENTENCE
SUBJECT PREDICATE

The cow is grazing in the field.

we say about cow that it is grazing in the field.

PARTS OF SPEECH

THE PARTS OF SPEECH Every name is called a NOUN, As field and fountain, street and town In place of noun the PRONOUN stands As he and she can clap their hands The ADJECTIVE describes a thing, As magic wand and bridal ring The VERB means action, something done To read, to write, to jump, to run How things are done, the ADVERBS tell, As quickly, slowly, badly, well The PREPOSITION shows relation, As in the street, or at the station CONJUNCTIONS join, in many ways, Sentences, words, or phrase and phrase

EXAMPLE

TENSES

TYPES OF TENSES
SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE FUTURE PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUS FUTURE CONTINUOUS PRESENT PRFECT PAST PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

SIMPLE & PERFECT TENSES

SIMPLE TENSES Simple present Simple Past Simple future PERFECT TENSES Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Bill has walked his dog. Bill had walked his dog. Bill will have walked his dog. Bill walks his dog. Bill walked his dog. Bill will walk his dog.

CONTINUOUS TENSES
CONTINUOUS TENSES Present Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense Future Continuous Tense PERFCT CONTINUOUS Present Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense Future Perfect Continuous Tense Bill is walking his dog. Bill was walking his dog. Bill will be walking his dog.

Bill has been walking his dog. Bill had been walking his dog. Bill will have been walking his dog.

ACTIVE VOICE
Active voice In most English sentences with an action verb, the subject performs the action denoted by the verb. These examples show that the subject is doing the verb action.

PASSIVE VOICE
One can change the normal word order of many active sentences (those with a direct object) so that the subject is no longer active, but is, instead, being acted upon by the verb - or passive. Note in these examples how the subject-verb relationship has changed.

ACTIVE TO PASSIVE
1. Move the active sentence's direct object into the sentence's subject slot

2. Place the active sentence's subject into a phrase beginning with the preposition by

ACTIVE TO PASSIVE
3. Add a form of the auxiliary verb be to the main verb and change the main verb's form

PASSIVE TO ACTIVE
To change a passive voice sentence into an active voice sentence, simply reverse the steps shown above. 1. Move the passive sentence's subject into the active sentence's direct object slot

2. Remove the auxiliary verb be from the main verb and change main verb's form if needed

PASSIVE TO ACTIVE

3. Place the passive sentence's object of the preposition by into the subject slot.

NARRATION
Direct Speech / Quoted Speech Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations." or "Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.

NARRATION
Indirect Speech / Reported Speech Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too.

NARRATION
For example:

NARRATION
Tense change As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right): Direct speech Indirect speech Present simple She said, "It's cold." Present continuous She said, "I'm teaching English online." Past simple She said it was cold. Past continuous She said she was teaching English online.

NARRATION
Present perfect simple She said, "I've been on the web since 1999." Present perfect continuous Past perfect simple She said she had been on the web since 1999. Past perfect continuous

She said she had been She said, "I've been teaching teaching English for seven English for seven years.“ years.

NARRATION
Past simple She said, "I taught online yesterday." Past continuous She said, "I was teaching earlier." Past perfect She said she had taught online yesterday. Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching earlier.

NARRATION
Past perfect She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived. " Past perfect continuous Past perfect NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he arrived. Past perfect continuous

She said, "I'd already been NO CHANGE - She said teaching for five minutes." she'd already been teaching for five minutes.

NARRATION
Modal verb forms also sometimes change: Direct speech will She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow." can She said, "I can teach English online." Indirect speech would She said she would teach English online tomorrow. could She said she could teach English online.

NARRATION
must She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." may She said, "May I open a new browser? " had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. might She asked if she might open a new browser.

NARRATION
Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to. Direct speech Indirect speech "I might go to the cinema", he said. He said he might go to the cinema.

You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i.e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so:-

NARRATION
Direct speech "My name is Lynne", she said. or Indirect speech She said her name was Lynne. She said her name is Lynne.

You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event. Direct speech (exact quote) Indirect speech (not exact) "Next week's lesson is on She said next week's lesson reported speech ", she said. is on reported speech.

NARRATION
• Time change • If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. • For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting. Today "Today's lesson is on presentations." + 24 hours - Indirect speech She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations.

NARRATION
Expressions of time if reported on a different day this (evening) today these (days) now (a week) ago last weekend here next (week) tomorrow › › › › › › › › › that (evening) yesterday ... those (days) then (a week) before the previous weekend there the following (week) the next/following day

NARRATION
Reporting Verbs Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech. We use asked to report questions:For example: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started. We use told with an object. For example: Lynne told me she felt tired. There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked. These include:accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologized, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought.

NARRATION
Use of 'That' in reported speech In reported speech, the word that is often used. For example: He told me that he lived in Greenwich. However, that is optional. For example: He told me he lived in Greenwich. !Note - That is never used in questions, instead we often use if. For example: He asked me if I would come to the party.

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