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Expansion Tank EasyCalc

HYDRONIC SYSTEM EXPANSION TANK CALCULATION


(c) 2000 ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC Systems & Equipment, Hydronic Heating & Cooling System Design, Chap.12
MODA GDMW, Engineering Design Branch, Developed by: Edgar I. Lim, EasyCalc Software

Equations for Sizing Expansion Tanks:


EasyCalc Software Email Address

Job no.:

Date Prep.

5/6/2013

For Closed Tanks with air/water interface:

Equation (12)

(Sometimes called a plain steel tank)

Open Tanks with air/water interface:


Equation (13)

(i.e., A tank open to the atmosphere & must be


located above the highest point in the system)

For Diaphragm Tanks:


Equation (14)

(Flexible membrane between the air & the water.


Another configuration is the bladder tank)

REQUIRED DATA FOR CALCULATIONS

Where:
Site Altitude-Elevation (m)
vol.of
expansion
tank,
gal (Closed, Open, Diaph)
Vt =
V s = volume of water in system, gallons
t 1 = lower temperature, F
t 2 = higher temperature, F
P a = atm.pres.psia (14.696 psia at sea level)
P 1 = pressure at lower temperature, psia
P 2 = pressure at higher temperature, psia
3
v 1 = specific vol.of water at lower temp., ft /lb
3
v 2 = specific vol.of water at higher temp. ft /lb
t = (t2t1),F, temperature differential
= linear coef.of thermal expansion, in/in-F

Expansion Tank Calculation

Data Entry
0

Closed

Open

Diaphragm

39

Temp T2 Hi

144

3000

3000

3000

3000

40

40

40

40

220

220

220

14.696

14.696

not reqrd.

220
not reqrd.

4.0

4.0

not reqrd.

4.0

39.7

39.7

not reqrd.

39.7

0.01602

0.01602

0.01602

0.01602

0.01677

0.01677

0.01677

0.01677

180

180

180

180

6.50E-06

6.50E-06

6.50E-06

6.50E-06

( equals to 6.5 106 in/in-F for steel or 9.5 106 in/in-F for copper)

`
Water Volume in Hydronic System Components (Cooling or Heating)
System
Hydronic Components

Equipment Data (Sys. Components) Vol. of Water in System


Water Content
Capacity
Liters
Gallons

Piping Distribution System


0.0057 Liters
per lps of airflow

Total Lps

Air Handling Units

1.2 Liters
per Ton of Refrigeration

Total Tons

Chillers

0.7 Liters
per Ton of Refrigeration

Total Tons

Fan Coils

Boilers
Radiators

1.9 Liters
per Kw
2 Liters
per m2 of Heat Surface

Total Kw
Tot. m2 of H.S

Total
Plus safety factor for other components, fittings etc. (%)

0.0%

Grand Total Volume of Water in System


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11356.25

3000.00

11356.25
11356
Liters

3000.00
3000
Gallons
Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Water Volume Calculation in System Distribution Pipe Works

Table 2 Steel Pipe Data (excerpts) (c) 2000 ASHRAE Hndbk, Chap.40 HVAC Sys.& Equipment

Nom. Pipe Size Pipe Length

Flow Area.
2

Inch

mm

meters

mm

1/2"
3/4"
1"
1-1/4"
1-1/2"
2"
2-1/2"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"

15
20
25
32
40
50
65
75
100
125
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500

4.25

196
344
557.6
965
1313
2165
3089
4769
8213
12907
18639
32280
50870
72190
87290
114000
144300
179400

19
333

822

Liters per

Water Vol.

Water Vol.

Lineal meter

Liters

Gallons

0.196
0.344
0.558
0.965
1.313
2.165
3.089
4.769
8.213
12.907
18.639
32.280
50.870
72.190
87.290
114.000
144.300
179.400

0.8
24.9
720.9
10609.5
11356.25
Liters

0.2
6.6
190.5
2802.7
3000.00
Gallons

Total water volume in distribution pipe works

NOTES:
(c) 2000 ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC Systems & Equipment, Hydronic Heating & Cooling System Design, Chap.12

Low-temperature water (LTW) system.


Max. allowable working pres. for low-pres. boilers is
160 psig,with a max. temp. limitation of 250F.

Medium-temperature water (MTW) system.


Operates at temperatures between 250 & 350F,
with pressures not exceeding 160 psi.

Usual max. working pres. for boilers for LTW


systems is 30 psi

Usual design supply temperature is approx. 250 to 325F,


with a usual pres.rating of 150 psi for boilers & equipment.

High-temperature water (HTW) system.

Chilled water (CW) system.


Normally operates w/ design supply water temp.of 40 to

Operates at temp. over 350F & usual pressures


of about 300 psi.
Max. design supply water temp.is usually about 400F,
w/ a pres.rating for boilers & equipt. of about 300 psi

55F, usually 44 or 45F, & at a pres. of up to 120 psi.

The connected piping in hydronic systems is subject to expansion & contraction due to changes in system temp. especially during
initial system fill. Expansion tanks (or compression tanks) are required to protect against thermal expansion of the piping system
due to temperature rise. During initial fill the piping system could experience the largest thermal expansion.
In good design practice, in order to reduce the size of the expansion tank, it is preferred to install the tank before the system pump.
The size of the tank can also be reduced when the tank is installed at the highest point of the piping system where the pressure is
the lowest.
As an example, the lower temp. for a heating system is usually normal ambient temp. at fill conditions (e.g., 50F) & the higher
temp. is the operating supply water temp. for the system. For a chilled water system, the lower temp. is the design chilled water
supply temp., & the higher temp. is ambient temp. (e.g., 95F or 115oF for KSA hot areas). For a dual-temp. hot/chilled system,
the lower temp. is the chilled water design supply temp., & the higher temp. is the heating water design supply temperature.

Pressures at the expansion tank are generally set by the following parameters:
1) The lower pressure is usually selected to hold a positive pressure at the highest point in the system (usually about 10 psig
or 24.696 psia).
2) The higher pres. is normally set by the max. pres. allowable at the location of the safety relief valve(s) without opening them.
Other considerations are to ensure that (1) the pres. at no point in the system will ever drop below the saturation pres. at the
operating system temp. and (2) all pumps have sufficient net positive suction head (NPSH) available to prevent cavitations.

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Enable/Disable notes on page 2 above


yes
Example Calculation of Expansion Tanks From 2000 ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC Systems & Equipment, Chap. 12
Example 1. Size an expansion tank for a heating water system that will be operated at a design temperature range of 180 to 220F.
The minimum pressure at the tank is 10 psig (24.7 psia) & the maximum pressure is 25 psig (39.7 psia). (Atmospheric pressure
is 14.7 psia.) The volume of water is 3000 gal. The piping is steel.
1. Calculate the required size for a closed tank (plain steel tank) with an air/water interface.
Solution: For lower temperature t 1 , use 40F
From Table 3 in Chap. 6 of the ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals,

Given Data:

v1 at 40F = 0.01602 ft3/lb v2 at 220F = 0.01677 ft3/lb

ASHRAE Data Users Entry


Example 2 Data Page1

Vs =
t1 =
t2 =

3000

3000

40

40

220

220

Pa =
P1 =
P2 =
v1 =
v2 =
t =
=
Vt =

14.7

14.696

24.7

4.0

39.7

39.7

0.01602

0.01602

0.01677

0.01677

180

180

6.50E-06

6.50E-06

578

39

Solution: Using Equation (12) ,


ASHRAE Data in Formula as per Example no.1)

Answers: Volume of Diaphragm Expansion Tank


Vt=
Vt=

578
39

Gallons (ASHRAE Data as per Example no.1)


Gallons ( User's Entries calculation at page 1)

Example 2. If a diaphragm tank were to be used in lieu of the plain steel tank, what tank size would be required?
ASHRAE Data Users Entry
Example 2 Data Page1
Vs =
3000
3000
t1 =
40
40
t2 =
220
220

Given Data:

P1 =
P2 =
v1 =
v2 =
t =
=
Vt =

24.7

Solution: Using Equation (14) ,


ASHRAE Data in Formula as per Example no.2)

4.000

39.7

39.7

0.01602

0.01602

0.01677

0.01677

180

180

6.50E-06

6.50E-06

344

144

Answers: Volume of Diaphragm Expansion Tank


Vt=
Vt=

344
144

Gallons (ASHRAE Data as per Example no.2)


Gallons ( User's Entries calculation at page 1)

EXPANSION TANK MINIMUM PRESSURE


The expansion tank must be pressurized to provide at least 4 psi (28 kPa) of positive pressure at the highest point in the
hydronic piping system. This will also ensure no air is drawn into the piping. The amount of charge pressure in pounds per
square inch (psi) that is required in the expansion tank is equal to 4 psi (28 kPa) plus the height (in feet) from the chiller
to the highest point in the hydronic system divided by 2.31.
Example: The expansion tank elev. is 10 feet. The hydronic system is piped to an air handler on the roof with an elevation
of 100 feet. The total pressure required in the expansion tank is:
4 psi + (100 ft 10 ft)/2.31 = 42.96 psi
Thus an expansion tank with a pre-charged pres. at 40 psi from factory will require an additional 3 psi pressure.

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Boiler System Types:


1. Low Temperature Heating Water Systems:
a. 250F. &Less.
b. 160 psig maximum.
2. Medium Temperature Heating Water Systems:
a. 251350F.
b. 160 psig maximum.
3. High Temperature Heating Water Systems:
a. 351450F.
b. 300 psig maximum.

Common Boiler Design Pressures ( psig.)


Add 14.696 to get absolute pressure at sea level.
1. 15 Psig
2. 30 Psig
3. 60 Psig
4. 125 Psig
5. 150 Psig

6. 200 Psig
7. 250 Psig
8. 300 Psig
9. 350 Psig

EXPANSION TANKS COMMERCIAL LISTED SIZES (ARMSTRONG)


N TANKS LISTED COMMERCIAL SIZES
Diaphragm Tank
Bladder Tank Configuration
Closed Tank
liters
29.5
41.3
82.1
127.2
168.1
210.8
257.4
291.5
340.7
416.4
499.7
601.9
798.7

gallons
7.8
10.9
21.7
33.6
44.4
55.7
68.0
77.0
90.0
110.0
132.0
159.0
211.0

liters
200.6
302.8
401.3
499.7
598.1
798.7
999.3
1200.0
1400.6
1597.4
1998.7
2498.4
2998.0
3997.4

gallons
53
80
106
132
158
211
264
317
370
422
528
660
792
1056

liters
56.8
90.8
113.6
151.4
227.1
302.8
378.5
454.2
511.0
662.4
832.8
908.5
1154.6
1116.7
1514.2
1911.6
1987.3

gallons
15.0
24.0
30.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
135.0
175.0
220.0
240.0
305.0
295.0
400.0
505.0
525.0

A. Class I Boilers. ASME Boiler &Pressure Vessel Code, Section I:


1. Steam Boilers, Greater than 15 Psig
2. Hot Water Boilers:
a. Greater than 160 Psig
b. Greater than 250F.
B. Class IV Boilers. ASME Boiler &Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV:
1. Steam Boilers, 15 psig &less
2. Hot Water Boilers:
a. 160 psi &less
b. 250F. &less

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Hot Water Boilers

Steam Boilers

Chillers

A. Boiler Types:
1. Fire Tube Boilers:
a. 15800 BHP.
b. 50026,780 MBH.
c. 30300 psig.
2. Water Tube Boilers:
a. 3502,400 BHP.
b. 13,00082,800 MBH.
c. 30525 psig.
3. Flexible Water Tube Boilers:
a. 30250 BHP.
b. 1,0008,370 MBH.
c. 0150 psig.
4. Cast Iron Boilers:
a. 10400 BHP.
b. 34513,800 MBH.
c. 040 psig.
5. Modular Boilers:
a. 4115 BHP.
b. 1364,000 MBH.
c. 0150 psig.
6. Electric Boilers:
a. 155,000 KW.
b. 5117,065 MBH.
c. 0300 psig.

A. Boiler Types:
1. Fire Tube Boilers:
a. 15800 BHP.
b. 51827,600 Lb./Hr.
c. 15300 psig.
2. Water Tube Boilers:
a. 3502,400 BHP.
b. 12,07582,800 Lb./Hr.
c. 15525 psig.
3. Flexible Water Tube Boilers:
a. 30250 BHP.
b. 10,00082,000 Lb./Hr.
c. 15525 psig.
4. Cast Iron Boilers:
a. 10400 BHP.
b. 1,0358,625 Lb./Hr.
c. 0150 psig.
5. Electric Boilers:
a. 155,000 KW.
b. 5117,065 MBH.
c. 0300 psig.

A. Chiller Types:
1. Centrifugal:
a. 200 Tons &Larger.
b. 0.550.85 KW/Ton.
c. 4.146.39 COP.
d. Turndown Ratio, 100% to 10%.
2. Reciprocating:
a. 200 Tons &Smaller.
b. 0.901.30 KW/Ton.
c. 2.703.90 COP.
d. Turndown Ratio, Staged or Stepped
based on nos of cyl.& unloadingcontrol.
3. Rotary Screw:
a. 501100 Tons.
b. 1.001.50 KW/Ton.
c. 2.343.50 COP.
d. Turndown Ratio, 100% to 25%.
4. Absorption (Steam or Hot Water):
a. 100 Tons &Larger.
b. 18,750 Btuh/Ton; 0.64 COP 1-Stage.
c. 12,250 Btuh/Ton; 0.98 COP 2-Stage.
d. Turndown Ratio, 100% to 10%.
5. Absorption (Gas or Oil):
a. 100 Tons & Larger.
b. 11,720 Btuh/Ton; 1.02 COP Gas.
c. 12,440 Btuh/Ton; 0.96 COP Oil.
d. Turndown Ratio, 100% to 10%.

Low Temperature Heating Water Systems:


Chilled Water Systems:
1. Leaving Water Temperature (LWT): 180200F.
1. Leaving Water Temperature (LWT): 4048F.
2. T Range 2040F.
(60F.Maximum)
3. Low Temperature Water 250F. & less; 160 psig maximum
2. T Range 1020F.
Medium &High Temperature Heating Water Systems:
Low Temperature Chilled Water Systems
1. Leaving Water Temperature (LWT): 350450F.
(Glycol or Ice Water Systems)
2. T Range 20100F.
1. Leaving Water Temperature (LWT): 2040F.
3. Medium Temperature Water 251350F.; 160 psig maximum
(0F. minimum)
4. High Temperature Water 351450F.; 300 psig maximum
2. T Range 2040F.
Dual Temperature Water System Types:

Condenser Water Systems:

1. Leaving Cooling Water Temperature 4048F.


2. Cooling T Range 1020F.
3. Leaving Heating Water Temperature: 180200F.
4. Heating T Range 2040F.

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1. Entering Water Temperature (EWT): 85F.


2. T Range 1020F.
3. Normal T 10F.
Water Source Heat Pump Loop
1. Range: 6090F.
2. T Range 1015F.

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

AC Condensate Flow:
1. Range: 0.020.08 GPM/Ton
2. Average: 0.04 GPM/Ton
3. Unitary Packaged AC Equipment: 0.006 GPM/Ton
4. AHU (100% outside Air): 0.100 GPM/1,000 CFM

5. AHU (50% Outdoor Air): 0.065 GPM/1,000 CFM


6. AHU (25% Outdoor Air): 0.048 GPM/1,000 CFM
7. AHU (15% Outdoor Air): 0.041 GPM/1,000 CFM
8. AHU (0% Outdoor Air): 0.030 GPM/1,000 CFM

AC Condensate Pipe Sizing


1. Minimum Pipe Sizes are given in the following table.
AC Tons of Refrigeration
0-20
21-40
41-60
Minimum Drain size (inch)
1"
1-1/4"
1-1/2"

61-100

101-250

251 &Larger

2"

3"

4"

Expansion Tanks &Air Separators


A. Minimum (Fill) Pressure:
1. Height of System + (5 to 10 psi)
or 510 psi, whichever is greater.
B. Maximum (System) Pressure:
1. 150 Lb. Systems: 45125 psi
2. 250 Lb. Systems: 125225 psi
C. System Volume Estimate:
1. 12 Gal./Ton
2. 35 Gal./BHP
The sizing of low-temperature hot water pipes is usually based on a pressure drop of 1 to 3 ft per 100 ft of pipe length. For a small
low-temp. hot water heating system, an open-type expansion tank is often used. An open expansion tank has the disadvantage of
allowing air to enter the system via absorption in the water. A diaphragm tank is often used for a large system. On-line circulating
pumps with low head are often used.
Table 1 Standard Atmospheric Data
for Altitudes to 10 000 m
Altitude,

Pressure,

Atmospheric Data Calculation


For Different Altitudes
Altitude,

Pressure,

kPa

psia

kPa

psia

500

107.478

15.588

555

94.833

13.754

101.325

14.696

500

95.461

13.845

1 000

89.875

13.035

1 500

84.556

12.264

2 000

79.495

11.530

2 500

74.682

10.832

3 000

70.108

10.168

4 000

61.64

8.940

5 000

54.02

7.835

6 000

47.181

6.843

7 000

41.061

5.955

8 000

35.6

5.163

9 000

30.742

4.459

10 000

26.436

3.834

(c) 2005 ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals, Chapter 6

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Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

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Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

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Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

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Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

nds per

pressure.

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10

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

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11

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

048F.

040F.

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12

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

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13

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

Expansion Tank EasyCalc

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Expansion Tank EasyCalc

ASHRAE Fundamentals
Table 3 Thermodynamic Properties of Water at Saturation
Temp.,
F
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

Specific Vol.
ft3/lbw
0.01747
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01602
0.01603
0.01603
0.01603
0.01603
0.01603
0.01603
0.01603
0.01603

Temp.,
F
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87

Specific Vol.
ft3/lbw
0.01604
0.01604
0.01604
0.01604
0.01604
0.01604
0.01604
0.01605
0.01605
0.01605
0.01605
0.01605
0.01606
0.01606
0.01606
0.01606
0.01606
0.01607
0.01607
0.01607
0.01607
0.01608
0.01608
0.01608
0.01608
0.01609
0.01609
0.01609

Temp.,
F
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115

Specific Vol.
ft3/lbw
0.01609
0.0161
0.0161
0.0161
0.01611
0.01611
0.01611
0.01612
0.01612
0.01612
0.01612
0.01613
0.01613
0.01613
0.01614
0.01614
0.01614
0.01615
0.01615
0.01616
0.01616
0.01616
0.01617
0.01617
0.01617
0.01618
0.01618
0.01619

Temp.,
F
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143

Specific Vol.
ft3/lbw
0.01619
0.01619
0.0162
0.0162
0.0162
0.01621
0.01621
0.01622
0.01622
0.01623
0.01623
0.01623
0.01624
0.01624
0.01625
0.01625
0.01626
0.01626
0.01627
0.01627
0.01627
0.01628
0.01628
0.01629
0.01629
0.0163
0.0163
0.01631

Temp.,
F
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171

Specific Vol.
ft3/lbw
0.01631
0.01632
0.01632
0.01633
0.01633
0.01634
0.01634
0.01635
0.01635
0.01636
0.01636
0.01637
0.01637
0.01638
0.01638
0.01639
0.01639
0.0164
0.0164
0.01641
0.01642
0.01642
0.01643
0.01643
0.01644
0.01644
0.01645
0.01646

172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205

0.01646
0.01647
0.01647
0.01648
0.01648
0.01649
0.0165
0.0165
0.01651
0.01651
0.01652
0.01653
0.01653
0.01654
0.01654
0.01655
0.01656
0.01656
0.01657
0.01658
0.01658
0.01659
0.01659
0.0166
0.01661
0.01661
0.01662
0.01663
0.01663
0.01664
0.01665
0.01665
0.01666
0.01667

206
207
208
209
210
212
214
216
218
220
222
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240
242
244
246
248
250
252
254
256
258
260
262
264
266
268

0.01667
0.01668
0.01669
0.01669
0.0167
0.01671
0.01673
0.01674
0.01676
0.01677
0.01679
0.0168
0.01682
0.01683
0.01684
0.01686
0.01688
0.01689
0.01691
0.01692
0.01694
0.01695
0.01697
0.01698
0.01700
0.01702
0.01703
0.01705
0.01707
0.01708
0.01710
0.01712
0.01714
0.01715

270
272
274
276
278
280
282
284
286
288
290
292
294
296
298
300
302
304
306
308
310
312
314
316
318
320
322
324
326
328
330
332
334
336

0.01717
0.01719
0.01721
0.01722
0.01724
0.01726
0.01728
0.01730
0.01731
0.01733
0.01735
0.01737
0.01739
0.01741
0.01743
0.01745
0.01747
0.01749
0.01751
0.01753
0.01755
0.01757
0.01759
0.01761
0.01763
0.01765
0.01767
0.01770
0.01772
0.01774
0.01776
0.01778
0.01780
0.01783

338
340
342
344
346
348
350
352
354
356
358
360
362
364
366
368
370
372
374
376
378
380
382
384
386
388
390
392
394
396
398
400
405
410

0.01785
0.01787
0.01789
0.01792
0.01794
0.01796
0.01799
0.01801
0.01804
0.01806
0.01808
0.01811
0.01813
0.01816
0.01818
0.01821
0.01823
0.01826
0.01828
0.01831
0.01834
0.01836
0.01839
0.01842
0.01844
0.01847
0.01850
0.01853
0.01855
0.01858
0.01861
0.01864
0.01871
0.01878

415
420
425
430
435
440
445
450
455
460
465
470

0.01886
0.01894
0.01901
0.01909
0.01918
0.01926
0.01935
0.01943
0.01952
0.01961
0.01971
0.01980