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บทที่ 10 การทดสอบสถิติไร้พารามิเตอร์

บทที่ 10 การทดสอบสถิติไร้พารามิเตอร์

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10

+:el·n···:.e»· (Nonparametric Statistics) .uv+ a»··r·.+:er¹r¹v»··+.e···v
r»:ar:»··a.»a..auu»+·· (Free distribution) aa·¹r le»ur»:ar»··eu +:er¹r¹v»··
re+»u:va·+e+e.v
1. asæaaaa+aa¡·.ea+
1. Chi-Square Test
¹rre+»ur»:ar»+¹v·ue+·::+ ·r»:ar+ eleae»e·..·»r »:are·ev+.e·:r|u_
v·»l:

2
=


E
) E O (
.:» O e» e+·::rle:·.·»»··+ ..»e
E e» e+·::re·ev+.e·:r|u_
v»».·»v.··+ .+·:··:¹rle+ae+·¹v»··re+»ur»:a+·:·.·»u··r·»·r:»··a.»a..
.uvìe.u»ev·»l: ìe+e.+::e¡·vle+ ·
H
0
: r»:a:·.·»u··r·»·r:»··a.»a...u vìe.u»e
H
1
: r»:a:·.·»u··r·»·r:»··a.»a..l:.u vìe.u»e
10.1
¹v»··+··+.e+·:ee.vvr».v».·+vr:e»»··+»vr».e· leoae.v
e+·:ee.vv r»u ..+ · l:r»u ·+:
v».·+v 17 9 10 36
..re+»u+ ·.·v+vv».·+vra+e.e+·:ee.vv··eue·. · .·ae»e·.»vv·»l:
o+.nøaauae o
I.u+.+r .oa.
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
140
+::e¡·v H
0
: e+·:ee.vv··eue·. · l:ae»e·.»v
H
1
: e+·:ee.vv··eue·. · ae»e·.»v
a.·v+r»:alee.v
score arv··eue+·:ee.vv
·v+ 1 arv r»u, ·v+ 2 arv ..+ ·, ·v+ 3 arv l:r»u
¹r.:v Analyze .:v·». Nonparametric Test .:v+»+ Chi-Square .·u··»¸
vv·e·.
:·nu··»»u 12.1
.a»»e+au·re+»u¹+ r». Test Variable List: aa·¹+e·re·ev+. :·r»»a ::e·
e·ev+ ..r·»v¹vea» All categories equal :·aea·»a::e·e·ev+.l:.r·»v¹vea»¹v+.»a:
vv· Values : aa·¹+e·e·ev+.r».»a:a·» aa+ea »u: Add e·e·ev+..·lu»+¹v»·»u
+.va +: aa·¹+e·e·ev+.e+r+». aa·ea»u: Add r·.rvvlu.·»+ · .v»··r.e·ur»»a: aa+
ea»u: OK
+·v·uu: Options... ¹ra+e.e·+:env¡·vr».e+au·
oaanarle.·»»··+ .e···vr»:a:e.v
score
17 12.0 5.0
9 12.0 -3.0
10 12.0 -2.0
36
1.00
2.00
3.00
Total
Observed N Expected N Residual
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
141
Test Statistics
3.167
2
.205
Chi-Square
a
df
Asymp. Sig.
score
0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than
5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 12.0.
a.
oa»··+.e···vr »:alee·le+ae+· 3.167, df = 2 :··euv++ ·e¡r·.+:er .205
a+e.+ ···eue+·:ee.vvr».v».·+vae»e·.»v»+ ·.l::v++ ·e¡r·.+:e vve»e+·:ee.vv
··eue·. · r».v ».·+ve»»··+»vr».e·l:ae»e·.»v
2. Binomial Test
.uv+:er¹rre+»ue+·:v·.·.uv¹v»·arr»:a:a »ua·au..uv 2 u··.:r
(Dichotomous)
10.2
¹v»··rea».+»v+aa»ì.r+u¡v·r·.eaer·+e· lerea».»uv ».·+v.·v+v 20 ev
ìe+v».·+v»a:a·» 10 ev ¹v.·+v+aa»ì.r+u¡v·eaer·+e·+a ». aa+e·:e+++ a r. + +v»a :
+». 10 ev ¹v.·+v+aa»ì.r+u ¡v·ea er·+e·+a r. »»vaa +e·:e+++ a ». .·»vv..r·»··+»u
ìe+¹vv».·+va»ì.r+u¡v·r »·vverv nu+ · v».·+v¹r+a a»ì.r+u¡v·ìe++a ». 17 ev aa·+ a
r. 3 ev o+.+e».»··re+»u+ ·v».·+v.·.a »»¹r+ aa»ì.r+u¡v·+a ». + ..·+»+·¹v»··+»u
v·»l:
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: P
1
= P
2
= 0.5
H
1
: P
1
> P
2
¹v P
1
arvì»»·+r.a»»a»ì.r+u¡v·e+++a ».
P
2
arvì»»·+r.a»»a»ì.r+u¡v·e+++a r.
+··.·v+e+au·
¹v method arv+a.a »»a»ì.r+u¡v·
ìe+¹v 1 arv+a ». aa·¹v 2 arv+a r.
¹r.:v Analyze .:v·». Nonparametric Test .:v+»+ Binomial... .·u··»¸vv ·e·.
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
142
:·nu··»»u 12.2
.a»»e+au·re».»··re+»u¹+ r». Test Variables List: ea»u: Options... .n».a »»
¹vìu·a»·:a+e.e·+:env¡·v aa+ea»u: OK
¹vr». Test Proportion: .uv»··¹++e++vr».e+au·r e».»··re+»u ¹ve+»+ ·. 12.2
v ì»»·+r.a»»a»ì.r+u¡v·eaer·+e·r . 2 +a:.r·.r+:»v e.v v¹vr». Test Proportion: ..
.uv .50
oaana.·»»··u··:+aoalee.v
Binomial Test
1.00 17 .85 .50 .003
2.00 3 .15
20 1.00
Group 1
Group 2
Total
method
Category N
Observed
Prop. Test Prop.
Exact Sig.
(2-tailed)
.·»oa»··u··:+a:··euv ++·e¡r .003 a+e.+·u¸.+a H
0
+»:·u H
1
vve»v».·+v
.·.a»»¹r+a ». + ..·+»+·lu¹r¹v»··+»u
3. The kolmogorov - Smirnov One-Sample Test
¹r+·v·ure+»ue+·:»a:»a v (Goodness of Fit) .r v.e++»ule+ae+·
10.3
:·+ :+»er·+r».+ve·:· 10 rve ler»:ae.v 11, 13, 6, 7, 10, 7, 4, 8, 13 aa· 7
a·vu·r e».»··r··u+·+»er·+r».+ ve·r. 10 rvev :»··a.»a..auuu»ev·»l:
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
143
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: +»er·+:»··a.»a..auuu»e
H
1
: +»er·+l::»··a.»a..auuu»e
a.·v+r»:alee.v
¹v sale arv+»er·+r».+ve·r. 8 rve
¹r.:v Analyze .:v·». Nonparametric Test .:v +»+ 1-Sample K-S .·u··»¸
vv·e·.
:·nu··»»u 12.3
.a»»e+au·re».»··re+»u¹+ r». Test Variable List: .a»»»··a.»a..re».»··¹r
.u·+u.r+u aa+ea»u : OK
u: Options... ¹r¹v»··»·vve¹vìu·a»·:a+e.e·+:env¡·vr».e+au·
oa»··u··:+au··»¸e.v
One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test
10
8.6000
3.02581
.202
.202
-.127
.637
.811
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Normal Parameters
a,b
Absolute
Positive
Negative
Most Extreme
Differences
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
sale
Test distribution is Normal. a.
Calculated from data. b.
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
144
oaana.·»»··u··:+a:e· K-S = .637 :··euv++·e¡r .811 v ve»+»:·u H
0
+»er·+:»··a.»a..auuu»e
4. The One-Sample Runs Test
.uv»··re+»u+ ·»a:e+»+·.le:·.·»u··r·»·»+·.+:v·»l:
10.4
.·»»··+..»ee+·:e.¹..·+vr».v».·+v 25 ev lee·avve.v 35, 30, 11, 31, 24,
23, 26, 15, 13, 20, 22, 19, 27, 31, 21, 18, 27, 17, 12, 18, 22, 23, 34, 28, 9 o+.+e».»··
r··u+·r»:av:a»ua·r».»··+ :v·»l:
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: r»:arev.uvlu»+ ·.+:
H
1
: r»:arev.u+..uvlu.·»»··+:
a.·v+lee.v
¹v score arve·avve+·:e.¹..·+v
¹r.:v Analyze .:v·». Nonparametric Test .:v +»+ Runs... .·u··»¸vv·e·.
:·nu··»»u 12.4
.a»»e+au·re».»··re+»u¹+ ¹vr». Test Variable List: aa·.a»».eeer ¹r¹v»··
au. (Cut Point) ¹vrv¹v.a»»¹rle 3 .»ar e» ¹r Median ¹r Mode v·»¹r Mean v·»»·..·
»·vve.»ar r v:·.».le ìe+¹+.»arre».»··¹vr ». Custom:
u: Options... +·v·u.a»»a+e.+:en v¡·vr».e+au·
oa»··u··:+aoa:e.v
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
145
Runs Test
22.00
11
14
25
12
-.340
.734
Test Value
a
Cases < Test Value
Cases >= Test Value
Total Cases
Number of Runs
Z
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
score
Median a.
oa»··u··:+avu.·v+vr:e·e·»+·:a+¡·vle 11 + .»+·:a+¡·vle 14 e·+:e
Z =-.340 :v++·e¡r·.+:er··eu .734 a+e.+·+»:·u H
0
vve»r»:arev.uvlu»+·.+:
2. a¡saeaaaaaaa+aa ¡·aa·aa aaaau aaaa
¹v»··re+»u»·a »a :e+»+·.+».»a:+:nva»vv :+:er.»++r».»+ 3 e+e»
5. The McNemar Test
6. The Sign Test
7. The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks Test
+:e¹v»a:v¹re·+..e++»ve» .:v Analyze .:v·». Nonparametric Test aa·.:v
+»+ 2 Related Samples... .·u··»¸vv·e·.
:·nu··»»u 12.5
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
146
.a»»e+au·re».»··re+»u¹+ ¹vr». Test Pair(s) List: aa·.a»»rver».+:ere+»u
¹vr». Test Types ¹v+»eea».»ueaa»ua·r».r»:aaa·+e:u··+.er».o + .+
u: Options... +·v·uu··:+ae·+:env¡·v
5. The McNemar Test
¹rre+»u»··.ua+vaua. ìe+n.··a·e+·:ae»e·.r».r »:a»»vaa·va .»··rea».
10.5
¹v»··ø»»u·:e·.vv.:o.r··u»··»u·: 20 ev o.e»u·:lere+»uo.r··u»··»u·:
r.»»v»u·:aa·va.»··»u·: u··»¸+· o.r··u»··»u·:.·v+v 7 ev :e·avv»+ ¹v.»aro·v
r.»»vaa·va.»··»u·: .·v+v 5 ev :e·avv»+ ¹v.»arl:o·v»»v»··»u·:aeo·vva.»··
»u·: .·v+v 5 ev :e·avvl:o·v.»arr.»»vaa·va.»··»u·: aa·.·v+v 3 ev:e·avvo·v
.»ar»»v»··»u·:ael:o·vva.»··»u·: ..re+»u»··.ua+vaua.v
e.+::e¡·v e+·:v·.·.uvr».»··.ua+vaua..·»»··+»uo·v.»ar:·.u vl:
o·v.»ar+»:.r·»ue+·:v·.·.uvr».»··.ua+vaua..·»»··+»ul:o·v.»ar:·.uvo·v.»ar
H
0
P
A
= P
D
= 1/2
H
1
: P
A
P
D
1/2
a.·v+r»:alee.v
¹v pre arvoa»··+»u»»v»u·:
·v+ 1 arv+»uo·v ·v+ 0 arv+»ul:o·v
¹v post arvoa»··+»uva.»u·:
·v+ 1 arv+»uo·v ·v+ 0 arv+»ul:o·v
oa.·»»··u··:+alee.v
pre & post
5 5
3 7
pre
0
1
0 1
post
Test Statistics
b
20
.727
a
N
Exact Sig. (2-tailed)
pre & post
Binomial distribution used. a.
McNemar Test b.
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
147
oaana.·»»··u··:+au··»¸+·:v++·e¡r·.+:er··eu .727 a+e.+·+»:·u H
0
vv
e»e+·:· r».o.r··u»··»u·:»»vaa·va.»··»u·:l:.ua +vaua.
6. The Sign Test
.uv»··re+»ur¹rvu.·v+v.e·».v:·+u+»aa·aue·:a»ua·»··.ua +vaua.
10.6
¹v»··u··r:u¸ue»··e·.vv. o.e»··u··r:lere+»u..eeer».o .r·u··r:»»vaa·
va.»··u··r: oa»··re+»uu··»¸e.e···.r·.a·.v ..e·v+a+·»··.e»··u··r:e·.vr·¹v..e
eeeer».o.r··u»··u··r:.ua+vaua.v·»l:
o.r··u»··u··r:evr e·avv»»v»··u··r: e·avvva.»··u··r:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
39
32
36
29
37
33
22
22
41
30
35
29
39
35
21
27
9
10
11
12
34
21
24
29
39
25
22
33
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: rrveer».o.r··u»··u··r:l:.ua +vaua.
H
1
: rrveer».o.r··u»··u··r:.ua +vaua.
a.·v+r»:alee.v
¹v pre arve·avv»»v»··u··r:
¹v post arve·avvva.»··u··r:
oa»··u··:+au··»¸e.v
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
148
Frequencies
4
7
1
12
Negative Differences
a
Positive Differences
b
Ties
c
Total
post - pre
N
post < pre a.
post > pre b.
post = pre c.
Test Statistics
b
.549
a
Exact Sig. (2-tailed)
post - pre
Binomial distribution used. a.
Sign Test b.
oaana.·»»··u··:+au··»¸+·:v ++·e¡r·.+:er .549 vve»+»:·u H
0
a+e.+·
rrveer».o.r··u»··u··r:»»vaa·va.»··u··r:l:.ua+vaua.
7. The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks Test
.uv»··re+»urv·.»·rv·er».e+·:ae»e·.r».r »:aaea·e:·n.··a·.n»e+·r »:a
aea·e:e+·:ae»e·.»v:·»v »+.n+.¹e
10.7
r»:ae»luv .uve·avv..eeee»»·r ne·.·v+v 12 ev .:»»»v:»·rne·aa·va..·»
:»·rn.u ve·:·aa+ 1 u
e·evr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
»»v:»·rne· 57 59 62 42 38 49 50 53 55 56 56 60
va.:»·rne· 46 52 45 47 42 51 43 43 52 65 45 56
»+·»r··u+· ..eeee»+ r·rne·.:»»»v:»·r ne·aa·va .:»·rne·aa+ 1 u
.·.ua +vaua.v·»l:
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
149
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: e·avv..eee»»v:»·rne·aa·va.:»·rne· 1 u l:ae»e·.»v
H
1
: e·avv..eee»»v:»·rne·aa·va.:»·rne· 1 u ae»e·.»v
a.·v+r»:alee.v
¹v pre arve·avv..eeee»»·rne·»»v:»·rne·
¹v post arve·avv..eeee»»·rne·va.:»·rne· 1 u
oa»··u··:+au··»¸e.v
Ranks
8
a
7.56 60.50
4
b
4.38 17.50
0
c
12
Negative Ranks
Positive Ranks
Ties
Total
post - pre
N Mean Rank
Sum of
Ranks
post < pre a.
post > pre b.
post = pre c.
Test Statistics
b
-1.689
a
.091
Z
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
post - pre
Based on positive ranks. a.
Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test b.
oaa na.·»»··u··:+au··»¸+ ·:v++·e¡r··eu .091 vve»+»:·u H
0
a+e.+·
e·avv..eeee»»·rne·r».e·.:»»»v:»·rne·aa·va.:»·rne· 1 ul:ae»e·.»v
3. a¡saeaaaaaaa+aa¡·aa·aa aa.aaaasaaaa
¹v»··re+»u»·a»a:e+»+·.+».»a:+:nva »vv :+:er.»++r».»+ 4 e+e»
8. Chi-Square Test
9. The Mann-Whitney U Test
10. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Two-Sample Test
11. The Wald-Wolfowitz Runs Test
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
150
+:e¹v»a :v¹re·+..e++»ve» ¹r.:v Analyze .:v·». Nonparametric Test .:v
+»+ 2 Independent Samples... .·u··»¸vv·e·.
:·nu··»»u 12.6
.a»»e+au·e·:¹+¹vr». Test Variable List: .a»»e+au·.e»a :¹+¹vr». Grouping
Variable: aa·.a»»+:ere».»··re+»u
u: Options... + ·v·u»·vve¹va+e.e·+:env¡·v
8. Chi-Square Test
.uv»··re+»ue+·:+:nvar».e+au· 2 e+r:r »:a»+ ¹v·ue+·::
10.8
.·»r »:a¹v.·».»··a.»a..e+·::auuva·+r·.aa·»··v·e·+:e urr 3
H
0
: e+au·.nraa·e+au·rvul::e+·:+:nva»v
H
1
: e+au·.nraa·e+au·rvu:e+·:+ :nva»v
oaanalee.v
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
151
rvu» ø ou+ * :nø+a+o« »o+aa++ Crosstabulation
3 3 6
50.0% 50.0% 100.0%
33.3% 27.3% 30.0%
15.0% 15.0% 30.0%
3 4 7
42.9% 57.1% 100.0%
33.3% 36.4% 35.0%
15.0% 20.0% 35.0%
3 4 7
42.9% 57.1% 100.0%
33.3% 36.4% 35.0%
15.0% 20.0% 35.0%
9 11 20
45.0% 55.0% 100.0%
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
45.0% 55.0% 100.0%
Count
% within rvurr»u·
% within
.nrr».»a:e+»+·.
% of Total
Count
% within rvurr»u·
% within
.nrr».»a:e+»+·.
% of Total
Count
% within rvurr»u·
% within
.nrr».»a:e+»+·.
% of Total
Count
% within rvurr»u·
% within
.nrr».»a:e+»+·.
% of Total
rvur 1
rvur 2
rvur 3 rvlu
rvurr»u·
Total
r·+ v¡ .
.nrr».»a:e+»+·.
Total
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
152
Chi-Square Tests
.087
a
2 .958
.086 2 .958
20
Pearson Chi-Square
Continuity Correction
Likelihood Ratio
Linear-by-Linear
Association
N of Valid Cases
Value df
Asymp. Sig.
(2-sided)
6 cells (100.0%) have expected count less than 5. The
minimum expected count is 2.70.
a.
Symmetric Measures
.066 .958
.066 .958
20
Phi
Cramer's V
Nominal by
Nominal
N of Valid Cases
Value
Asymp.
Std. Error
a
Approx. T
b
Approx. Sig.
Not assuming the null hypothesis. a.
Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. b.
.·»oa»··+ .e···vr »:au··»¸+· e·le+ae+·:e· .087, df = 2 :v++·e¡r·.+:er
··eu .958 a+e.+ ·e+au·.nraa·rvu:e+·:+ :nva»v»+·.l::v++·e¡r·.+:e vve»e+au·
.nraa·rvu l::e+·:+ :nva»v
:·oa»··+ .e···vu··»¸+ · e·le+ae+·:e·+ .»+·.:v++·e¡r·.+:e e·e+·:+ :nva
Phi aa· Cramer9s V ».·:v++·e¡r·.+:e + .u.u»»:.rv·er».e+·:+:nva+ ·e+au·r.+».:
e+·:+:nva»v:·»v»+.n+.¹e
9. The Mann-Whitney U Test
.uv»··re+»u+::e¡·v+ ·»a:e+»+ ·.r.+».r.uv»+··.·»»v:·.·»u··r·»·r:»··
a.»a...v:»v»vv·»¹rre+»u+·u··r·»· 2 u··r·»·:»··a.»a..e+·:v·.·.u vrve.e++»v
v·»l:
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
153
10.9
»·.··+evvv .e».»··re+»ue+· e·avvrle.·»»··+»u+r·eaer·+e·r».v+er·+
aa·v¡.ae»e·.»vv·»l: ..+:e+»+·..·»v+er .r·+»u.uvv+er·+ 12 ev v+ev¡ . 15 ev
u··»¸e·avve.v
v+er·+ 55 60 82 76 82 73 78 73 71 90 62 82
v+ev¡. 92 44 74 49 71 82 94 80 61 82 89 80 82 63 67
..re+»ue+·e·..a+r».e·avvrv+er·+le·u»··e·..a +r».e·avvr v+ev¡ .le·u
.r·»vv·»l:
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: e·..a+r».e·avvr».v +er·+aa·v+ev¡ ..r·»v
H
1
: e·..a+r».e·avvr».v +er·+aa·v+ev¡ .l:.r·»v
a.·v+r»:alee.v
¹v sex arv.nr ìe+·v+ 1 arv.nrr·+ ·v+ 2 arv.nrv¡.
¹v score arve·avv+»u+r·+:e
oa»··u··:+au··»¸e.v
Ranks
12 13.42 161.00
15 14.47 217.00
27
sex
1.00
2.00
Total
score
N Mean Rank
Sum of
Ranks
Test Statistics
b
83.000
161.000
-.344
.731
.755
a
Mann-Whitney U
Wilcoxon W
Z
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
Exact Sig. [2*(1-tailed
Sig.)]
score
Not corrected for ties. a.
Grouping Variable: sex b.
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
154
oa»··u··:+aoau··»¸+·:e· Z = -.344 :v ++·e¡r .731 vve»+»:·u H
0
a+e.+·
e·..a +r».e·avvr».v+er·+aa·v+ev¡ ..r·»vv·»l:ae»e·.»v
10. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Two-Sample Test
¹rre+»ue+·:ae»e·.r».»a:e+»+·.r.u v»+··»v 2 »a: v·»¹r¹v»··n.··a·+·
r »:arle.·»»a :e+»+·.:·.·»u··r·»·.e++»vv·»l: v·»:·.·»u··r·»·r:»··a.»a..
.v:»v»vv·»l:
10.10
¹v»··re+»ue+·:+·:··:¹v»··.·+v· r».v».·+vrvu··::r »u·ur 3 o+.+leau.
v».·+vrvu··::r»u·ur 3 »»».u v 2 »a: e»»a :r 1 .uvv ».·+vr.e+.·+vrv»vu·a »a:r
2 .uvv».·+vrl:.e+.·+vrv»vu·a:·»»v o +.++:e+»+·.v».·+v:·»a:a· 10 ev u··»¸oa
»··+»ue.v
»a: 1 14 11 13 8 13 11 10 13 17 16
»a: 2 10 13 8 10 11 4 12 8 11 9
..re+»u+ ·v».·+vr. 2 »a::e+·:+·:··:¹v»··.·+v·e·.»vv·»l:
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: v».·+vrvu··::r»u·ur 1 r .e+.·+vrv»v u·aaa·l:.e+
.·+vrv»v u·a:·»»v:e+·:+·:··:¹v»··.·+v· l:
ae»e·.»v
H
1
: v».·+vrvu··::r»u·ur 1 r .e+.·+vrv»v u·aaa·l:.e+
.·+vrv»v u·a:·»»v:e+·:+·:··:¹v»··.·+v· ae»e·.»v
a.·v+r»:alee.v
¹v group arve+au·.e»a:
ìe+·v+ 1 arv»a:r 1 aa··v+ 2 arv»a :r 2
¹v score arve·avve+·:+·:··:¹v»··.·+v·
oa»··u··:+au··»¸e.v
Frequencies
10
10
20
group
1.00
2.00
Total
score
N
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
155
Test Statistics
a
.500
.000
-.500
1.118
.164
Absolute
Positive
Negative
Most Extreme
Differences
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
score
Grouping Variable: group a.
oa»··u··:+au··»¸+ ·:v++·e¡r .164 vve»+»:·u H
0
a+e.+·e+·:+·:··:r».
v».·+vrvu··::r»u·r. 2 »a:l:ae»e·.»v
11. The Wald-Wolfowitz Runs Test
¹rre+»u+::e¡·v+·»a:e+»+ ·.r.uv»+··»v 2 »a ::»+::·.·»u··r·»·.e++»v
v·»l:
10.11
¹v»··re+»u+r·:·u·lr+r».v ».·+v 2 »a: u··»¸e·avv»··+»ue.v
»a : 1 : 20 25 24 22 44 18 41 30 36 28 15 24 32 61 74 31
»a : 2 : 69 51 66 52 69 80 61 66 50 53 51 58 62 75 89 76
54 72 48 23 49 75 57 58 74
..re+»u+·v».·+v 2 »a:v:·.·»»a:v».·+vr:e+·:+·:··:n» · »vv·»l:
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: »a:e+»+·.r. 2 »a ::·.·»u··r·»·r:e+·:+·:··:.r·»v
H
1
: »a:e+»+·.r. 2 »a ::·.·»u··r·»·rae»e·.»v
a.·v+r »:alee.v
¹v group arve+au·.e»a :
·v+ 1 arv»a:r 1 aa··v+ 2 arv»a:r 2
¹v score arve·avv.·»»··+»ueaer·+e·
u··:+aoalee.v
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
156
Frequencies
16
25
41
group
1.00
2.00
Total
score
N
Test Statistics
b,c
8
a
-3.997 .000
8
a
-3.997 .000
Minimum Possible
Maximum Possible
score
Number
of Runs Z
Asymp. Sig.
(1-tailed)
There are 2 inter-group ties involving 4 cases. a.
Wald-Wolfowitz Test b.
Grouping Variable: group c.
oa»··u··:+au··»¸+·:v++ ·e¡r·.+:er .000 a+e.+ ·u¸.+a H
0
+»:·u H
1
a+e.+·
v».·+vr. 2 »a::e+·:+·:··:e·.»v v·».uv»a:e+»+ ·..·»v».·+vr:e+·:+·:··:e·.»v
4. a¡saeaaaaaaa+aa ¡·a¡aa+ ¡aa·aa aaaau aaaa
¹v»··re+»u»·a »a :e+»+·.+».»a:+:nva»vv :+:er.»++r».»+ 3 e+e»
12. The Cochran Q Test
13. The Friedman Test
14. Kendall Coeficient of Concordance
+:e¹v»a :v¹r.e++»ve» ¹r.:v Analyze .:v ·». Nonparametric Test .:v +»+ K
Related Samples... .·u··»¸vv ·e·.
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
157
:·nu··»»u 12.7
.a»»e+au·re».»··re+»u¹+ r». Test Variables: aa·.a»»+:ere».»··re+»u¹v
r». Test Type
u: Statistics... +·v·u»·vve¹vìu·a»·:u··:+ae·+:e
12. The Cochran Q Test
¹rre+»ue+·:ae»e·.e·:.»arr»..·v+v»a : .rvì»»·+rev.·e»u+ · r»u :
.·v+v.r· · »vr»»a :v·»l:
10.12
rea».¹vv».·+va».a»u ¡v·r·.eaer·+e·r»vv . +.:+a »··a»u¡v·»+ 3 + a ìe+
+:e+»+·.v ».·+v:·.·v+v 12 ev aa+»·vveì.r+eaer·+e·¹vr. 3 + a aa+e·+.ìe+
»·vve¹v 1 .:»a»u¡v·ì.r+eaer·+e·+av vle+·.·. aa·¹v 0 .:»a»u¡v·ì.r+ ea er·+e·
+avvl:le oa»··¹ve·avvu··»¸oae.v
e·avv.·»»··a»ì.r+u ¡v·ea er·+e·ìe+
v».·+vevr + ar 1 +ar 2 + ar 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
158
e·avv.·»»··a»ì.r+u ¡v·ea er·+e·ìe+
v».·+vevr + ar 1 +ar 2 + ar 3
10
11
12
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
..re+»ue+·:v ·.·.uv¹v»··a»u¡v·ì.r+ea er·+e·r».v ».·+vr. 3 + a
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: e+·:v·.·.u v¹v»··a»u ¡v·ì.r+ea er·+e· le
.·.v:»v»vr. 3 +a
H
1
: e+·:v·.·.u v¹v»··a»u ¡v·ì.r+ea er·+e· le
.·e·.»vr. 3 +a
a.·v+r»:alee.v
¹v score1 :. score 3 arve·avv.·»»··a»ì.r+u ¡v·ea er·+e·r. 3 +a
·v+ 1 arva»ì.r+u¡v·ea er·+e·le:»e».
·v+ 0 arva»ì.r+u¡v·ea er·+e·l::»e».
oa»··u··:+au··»¸e.v
Frequencies
5 7
5 7
6 6
score1
score2
score3
0 1
Value
Test Statistics
12
.250
a
2
.882
N
Cochran's Q
df
Asymp. Sig.
1 is treated as a success. a.
oa»··u··:+au··»¸+ ·:v++·e¡r·.+:er .882 v ve»+»:·u H
0
a+e.+·e+·:v ·.·
.uv¹v»··a»u ¡v·ì.r+ea er·+e· le .·.v:»v»vr. 3 +a
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
159
13. The Friedman Test
¹rre+»u+·»a:e+»+·.le·u»··+::·.·»u··r·»·»a:.e++v·»l: v·»:·.·»u··r·»·
r:»··a.»a...v:»v»vv·»l:
10.13
»··rea».+ a»··+»vre·. · »v 4 +a a»v ».·+vr+::· 15 ev u··»¸e·avv
oa+:|ra‰r·.»··.·+vva..·».+·.+v»··+»ve.e···.e»luv
v».·+v 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
+a r 1 14 17 18 11 18 17 23 17 19 32 18 13 17 10 14
+a r 2 31 36 28 21 13 27 25 22 16 14 22 14 29 22 31
+a r 3 22 32 31 28 23 24 27 20 26 25 24 27 19 16 32
+a r 4 18 22 37 12 17 24 22 17 21 18 19 26 22 28 17
..re+»u+ ·v».·+vr»u+a»··+»vr . 4 +ae·.»vv·»l:
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: v».·+vr»u+a»··+»vr. 4 + al:ae»e·.»v
H
1
: v».·+vr»u+a»··+»vr. 4 + aae»e·.»v
a.·v+r»:alee.v
¹v score1 :. score4 arve·avve+·:r»u+ a+»vr. 4 + a
oa»··u··:+au··»¸e.v
Ranks
1.50
2.80
3.30
2.40
score1
score2
score3
score4
Mean Rank
Test Statistics
a
15
15.872
3
.001
N
Chi-Square
df
Asymp. Sig.
Friedman Test a.
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
160
oa»··u··:+au··»¸+·:v++·e¡r .001 v ve»u¸.+a H
0
+»:·u H
1
a+e.+·v».·+v
r»u+a+»vr. 4 + a ae»e·.»v
14. Kendall Coeficient of Concordance
+·v·ur»:a.e»veu aa·:.·v+ve+au·:·»»+· 2 e+r+:nva »v
10.14
oee+v:·nrau·.·v+v 3 ev .e»veu:·nrau·r +..r·u··»+e.·v+v 10 :·nle
r»:ae.v
:·nr+ ..r·u··»+e
o.e»veu 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
evr 1 1.0 4.5 3.0 4.5 2.0 7.5 9.0 6.0 7.5 10.0
evr 2 2.5 1.0 4.5 2.5 4.5 10.0 9.0 6.5 8.0 6.5
evr 3 8.0 1.0 8.0 4.5 8.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 2.0 10.0
e».»··r··u+· oee+v:·n.r·u··»+e ee+ v:·nle+»eea».»vv·»l:
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: oee+v:·nr. 3 .e»veu:·n.r·u··»+el:+»eea ».»v
H
1
: oee+v:·nr. 3 .e»veu:·n.r·u··»+e+»eea ».»v
a.·v+r»:alee.v
X1 to X3 arva ·euro.ea·euevr 1, 2 aa· 3 .ea·eu·u:·nr. 10 :·n
oa»··u··:+au··»¸e.v
Ranks
1.95
2.10
1.95
x1
x2
x3
Mean Rank
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
161
Test Statistics
10
.008
.167
2
.920
N
Kendall's W
a
Chi-Square
df
Asymp. Sig.
Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance a.
e·+:u··+ra‰e+·:+»eea ».:e· 0.008 .: »re+»uv++·e¡e+++:ele+ae+·aa+le
e· 1.67 r df = 2 :v++·e¡r·.+:er .920 vve»oee+v:·nr. 3 ev.e»veu:·nr . 10 l:
+»eea ».»v
5. a¡saeaaaaaaa+aa ¡·a¡aa+ ¡aa·aa aa.a aaasaaaa
¹v»··re+»u»·a »a :e+»+·.+».»a:+ :nva »vv :+:er.»++r».»+ 2 e+e»
15. The Median Test for More Than Two Independent Sample
16. The Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance Test
+:e¹v»a :v¹r.e++»ve» ¹r.:v Analyze .:v ·». Nonparametric Test .:v +»+ K
Independent Samples... .·u··»¸vv·e·.
:·nu··»»u 12.8
.a »»e+au·e·:¹+r». Test Variable List : aa·e+au·.e»a:¹+ r». Grouping
Variable: aa·.a»»+:ere».»··re+»u¹vr». Test Type
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
162
u: Options... +·v·u»·vve¹vìu·a»·:e·v+a+:env¡·vr».e+au·
15. The Median Test for More Than Two Independent Sample
.uv+ a»··r¹rre+»u+·»a:e+»+ ·.»+··r:·»»+ · 2 »a:+::·.·»u··r·»·r:e·:a+
¡·vv·»»··a.»a..ae»e·.»vv·»l:
10.15
¹v»··re+»uoa+:|ra ‰r·.»··.·+v+r·vv .r».v».·+vrv:a+:r»u·ur 3 le:»··+:
e+»+·.v».·+v:· 3 ì·..·+v ì·..·+va· 8 ev oa»··re+»uu··»¸e.v
ì·..·+v » 15 17 14 19 12 20 14 12
ì·..·+v r 17 14 16 15 13 12 13 17
ì·..·+v e 18 15 14 16 17 16 17 15
..re+»u+ ·e·avvrv».·+vaea·ì·..·+vr·le:e·:a+¡·v.r·»vv·»:»··a.»a..
.v:»v»vv·»l:
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: »··a.»a..r».u··r·»·r. 3 ì·..·+v.v:»v»v
H
1
: »··a.»a..r».u··r·»·r. 3 ì·..·+ve·.»v
a.·v+r»:alee.v
¹v group arve+au·.e»a:
·v+ 1 arvì·..·+v » ·v+ 2 arvì·..·+v r aa··v+ 3 arvì·..·+v e
¹v score arve·avvoa+:|ra‰r·.»··.·+v
oa»··u··:+au··»¸e.v
Frequencies
3 3 5
5 5 3
> Median
<= Median
score
1.00 2.00 3.00
group
urr 10 »··re+»u+: el·n···:.e»·
163
Test Statistics
b
24
15.0000
1.343
a
2
.511
N
Median
Chi-Square
df
Asymp. Sig.
score
6 cells (100.0%) have expected frequencies less than
5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 3.7.
a.
Grouping Variable: group b.
oa»··u··:+au··»¸+·:v++·e¡r .511 v ve»+»:·u H
0
a+e.+·e·avvrv ».·+vae
a·ì·..·+vr·le:e·:a+¡·v.r·»vv·»:»··a.»a...v:»v»v
16. The Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance Test
.n»re+»u+·»a:e+»+·. K »a:rle.·»»··u··r·»· K »a::»··a.»a...v:»v»v
v·»l: v·»:»+ ::·.·»u··r·»·r :e·..a +.r·»vv·»l:
10.16
¹v»··+»v+r·:·u·lr+ o+»ve».»··.u·+u.r+u+a +»v 3 + a +·.·¹voaae»e·.»v
v·»l: va..·»»··+»ve+++a+»vr. 3 +aaa +..r·»··re+»u+ eoa+:|ra‰r·.»··.·+vr».
v».·+vr+»vaea·+a e·avv.·»»··re+»u.uve.v
+ ar 1 77 76 67 68 77 55 67
+a r 2 52 73 45 74 74 56
+a r 3 48 44 60 43 55 64 52 60
..re+»u+ ·+a+»ve·.»v.·¹voa+:|ra‰rae»e·.»vv·»l:
e.+::e¡·v H
0
: +a+»vrae»e·.»v¹voa+ :|ra‰r·.»··.·+vrl:ae»e·.»v
H
1
: +a+»vrae»e·.»v¹voa+ :|ra‰r·.»··.·+vrae»e·.»v
a.·v+r»:alee.v
¹v group arve+au·.e»a:
·v+ 1 arv+ a+»vr 1 ·v+ 2 arv+a+»vr 2 aa··v+ 3 arv+a+»vr 3
¹v score arvoa+:|ra‰r·.»··.·+v
»··¹r SPSS .n »»··+.e···vr »: a
164
oa»··u··:+au··»¸e.v
Ranks
7 15.64
6 11.42
8 6.63
21
group
1.00
2.00
3.00
Total
score
N Mean Rank
Test Statistics
a,b
7.955
2
.019
Chi-Square
df
Asymp. Sig.
score
Kruskal Wallis Test a.
Grouping Variable: group b.
oa»··u··:+au··»¸+·:v++·e¡r .019 vve»u¸.+a H
0
+»:·u H
1
a+e.+·+ a»··
+»vr. 3 +a¹voaae»e·.»v
u» Options... r·a Statistics...
¹r+·v·u»··a+e.oa+:env¡·vr».»··re+»u+:el·n···:.e»·
1. a+e.+:ee+au·.e++ (Univariabe statistics) .·n:ne·..a+, e·+ .+e, e·e·+e,
++v.u+..uv:·e·¡·v aa·.·v+vr »:a¹vaea·e+au·
2. n:ne·¹ve·avv.e+»lrar 1, 2 aa· 3 aa·.·v+vr»:a¹vaea·e+au·

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