The Garuda Purana

This is a translation of an abridged version of the Garuda Purana. The Garuda Purana is one of the Vishnu Puranas. It is in the form of a dialog between Vishnu and Garuda, the King of Birds. The second section of this Purana (given here) deals with issues connected with death, particularly funeral rites and the metaphysics of reincarnation. Portions of the Garuda Purana are used by some Hindus as funeral liturgy. Indeed, some consider it unlucky to read this text except during funerals. Of interest are the intermediate states between birth and rebirth, which roughly correspond to the western concepts of Hell and Heaven. Since this was written during the medieval era, it is possible that the writer of this text had contact with Christianity. Earlier Hindu texts do not elaborate about 'hell' and 'heaven,' at least not to this extent, and the subject is completely absent in the oldest texts. Here, the torments of Hell are described in terms that would not be out of place in a Baptist revival tent (or Dante, for that matter). In addition, the four-square city of Yama, the God of Death, is reminiscent of the heavenly city in Revelation. However, these are way stations between incarnations (or, as termed in the Tibetan Book of the Dead, Bardos), not a permanent destination. The Garuda Purana starts with the details of the afterlife. Following this is an account of funeral procedures, including rituals, the astrological timing of the post-death observances, and ritual gifts. Balancing the extended vision of Hell in the earlier part of the document is a shorter account of the City of Yama. After that is an enumeration of correspondences between the macrocosmos and the human body. The final part of this text is an appeal to self-knowledge as the key to liberation, going beyond austerities and study of the texts. "The fool, not knowing that the truth is seated in himself, is bewildered by the Shastras,--a foolish goatherd, with the young goat under his arm, peers into the well."




Allahabad: Pâṇiṇi Office [1911] E-book as PDF by Ganesh Rama Kumar
NOTICE OF ATTRIBUTION. Scanned at, June 2006. Proofed and formatted by John Bruno Hare. This text is in the public domain in the United States because it was published prior to January 1st, 1923. These files may be used for any non-commercial purpose, provided this notice of attribution is left intact in all copies.

No. Chapter Name PAGE 1. The Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1 2. The Way of Yama 10 3. The Torments of Yama 21 4. The Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell 30 5. The Signs of Sins 38 6. The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful 46 7. Babhruvâhana's Sacrament for the Departed One 52 8. The Gifts for the Dying 61 9. The Rites for the Dying 76 10. The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire 83 11. The Ten-Days' Ceremonies 97 12. The Eleventh-Day Rite 103 13. The Ceremony for all the Ancestors 114 14. The City of the King of Justice 130 15 The Coming to Birth of People who have done Good 141 16. The Law for Liberation 154

This Garuḍa Purâṇa Sârodhhâra (Extracted essence of the Garuḍa Purâṇa) was compiled or written by one Navanidhirâma, son of Śrî Hari Nârâyaṇa, who lived in the city of Jhunjhuṇû, which was ruled by a King Śrî Sûkhalâlajî. It was done for the helping of those who cannot understand the difficult earlier works; but itself is not easy to understand, and required much labour, the author informs us. It is entirely originally written, he says, and comprises the results of very deep study of the sacred books, and is the extracted essence of them on the subjects with which it deals. It is used all over India at funeral ceremonies, but some are afraid to read it on other occasions, thinking it inauspicious. CHAPTERS I to VII deal with Hells. CHAPTERS VII to XIII deal with Ceremonies for the dead. CHAPTER XIV deals with Heaven. CHAPTERS XV & XVI deal with Yoga and liberation. The neo-theosophists, among the great good they have done to the world, have revived the idea that Hell is a living reality, and not a superstitious fiction, created by a designing priestcraft, to keep Humanity on its good behavior. Among the educated, with the vanishing of the belief in an after-life, has vanished also the belief in Hell. But owing to the labors of the Psychical Research Society and similar other bodies, there are few educated persons now, who deny the existence of the afterlife, as they used to do some thirty years back. But though the belief in after-life has revived, yet the cognate belief in Heaven and Hell is still very vague. Our Hindu Puranas, however, among the great mass of rubbish that they contain, have always been very clear on this question of Heaven and Hell. Serious writers of law books also like Yâjñavalkya and Viṣṇu have described asseriously the existences of various Hells, as they have done the various joys of Heaven. No doubt, the subject of Hell is not a very savoury one, and nervous persons have always fought shy of studying this unpleasant department of existence. But, pleasant or unpleasant, the science does not take into account the human feelings. No one is forced to study the subject, unless he feels strong enough to do so, as no one is bound to study Medicine, unless he is prepared to face the scenes of the dissecting room. The question then is, do these hells really exist? If so, where? This is a question of fact, and must be decided like all questions of fact, on the evidence of reliable witnesses who have, from personal experience, described this region. To a Hindu there is needed no greater testimony than that of Yogi Yâjñavalkya who, in the Prâyaśchitta Adhyâya of his law book, mentions 21 hells. The author of Viṣṇu Smṛiti also has followed in his footsteps. Hell, then, according to Hindu seers, is a particular locality walled off from the surrounding regions of space by the messengers of Yama, the ruler of Hell. Within this particular space so specially guarded, no joy can enter. It is a region of pain--sharp. intense and severe. Sinners clothed in their painful bodies (jâtana deha)--replica of their

The natural fear. in another form of hell. so Hell is a place of punishment and pain only to the sinners and not to those who go there on similar missions. After being thus purified by Hell-fire. and leaves its senses unrestrained. pp. The twenty-two hells are described in the Viṣṇu Smṛiti. But there is one distinguishing mark between the Hindu idea of Hell and that of votaries of Semitic creeds.physical bodies. and some say that Gautama did not believe. if it so chooses. in the furnace of hell-fire. As a prison house is a prison only to the criminal. but making one feel the torture of hell. of a refined artist and poet like Dante. though not known as Hells. Viṣṇu Smṛiti. Thus the fact of concrete existence of hell cannot be doubted. make better use of its faculties. and learning from its Ruler the secret of cosmic evolution. Says Yâjñavalkya in verse 218 of the Third Adhyâya that the lords of mercy place such souls in very favourable circumstances afterwards. is the result of the finer development of conscience. its locality is in the astral region of the physical South Pole. as the Heaven is situate in the astral region of the physical North Pole. It is Reformatory and Educative. Leaving the testimony of Hindu seers aside. Mârkaṇdeya and others are said to be still living in their physical bodies. The punishment in Hell is not eternal. in modern times we have the evidence of a hard-headed man of science like Swedenborg. so there are physical hells also. though made of subtler matter. * But if the soul so favourably placed. The readers of the Hindu Sacred literature will no doubt remember the beautiful episode of Nachiketas going to Hell. But the permanent educative effect remains in that part of the sold--called the conscience. there is again a fall for that soul. no more than it remembers the joys of heaven. . suffer the punishments deserved by their sins. by passing through the bitterness of the valley of Yama--the merciful ruler of Hell. 140-141. † Is there any physical Hell also. which certain souls feel at the sight of temptation to sin. but not to the visitor. miscalled the secret of death. where the great ṛiṣis like Vyâsa. What are these prison houses in every well-governed community but physical hells? What is this outcasting by the society. omits to do good action or commits evil deeds again. The hell punishment is not remembered by the soul when it is re-born. as is mentioned in the next verse. verse 22. (See Sacred Books of the East. in fact Gautama in his law book definitely calls this stage hell. Where is then this Hell situated? According to Hindu belief. and as the Svarga is on the physical plane also. and the great sage Râmkṛiṣna Paramahaṃsa. the soul is re-born with keener conscience and under circumstances where it can. who goes there on his mission of mercy and charity. This is the permanent gain which the soul has acquired. and which it will never lose through ages to come. or is it in the astral plane only? As Heaven is both physical and astral. Lohachâraka). Aśvathâman.

except the death penance. but a gift to a Brâhmiṇ. they are born in high families. but one must suffer the full consequences of his sins. however bad he may be. has exploited to its extreme extent. penances can be compounded by the payment of amounts ranging from a cowrie shell to thousands of rupees to Brâhmiṇs. 265." iii:† Mandalik's Hindu Law. by the rule of the present Iron age. for modern Hinduism has done everything in its power to throw in 'the background that rational idea. is that according to the law. Repentance for sin is the highest prâyaśchitta. however meritorious it be in its nature. the infliction of bodily pains is of secondary importance. and also a pilgrimage. where they enjoy pleasures. is that for the intentional mortal sins--kâma kṛitamahâpâtaka. there is a penance. For minor sins. preying on the gullibility of its votaries. the penance for drinking spirituous liquors is death by drinking boiling liquors or butter. verse 219. One who has performed such penance has exhausted the evil effects of his sins and for him there is no penance. Footnotes iii:* "Afterwards freed from all sins. a very salutary rule is laid down by the paṇḍits that no death penance should ever be described. our ancient authors held different opinions. which is far from the truth. This presupposes that a kicking Brâhmiṇ has milk to give. as the saying goes that no one feeds a docile donkey. For every sin. The result therefore. Thus in certain cases of incest. The later view.Is there any means by which a man may save himself from the pains of hell? On this point. It is not that the gifts to a deserving man washes away sins. One class of thinkers held the view that sin could not be expiated by any act of man. and in this age. if a sinner asks the paṇḍit for the appropriate penance of his sin. . the only operative penance is to embrace a red-hot iron image and die in that way. and become accomplished in arts and sciences. and possessed of wealth. for the sake of her milk. And here is a rich field which the Brâhmiṇ priestcraft of India. p. with its concomitant result in the shape of so much fee (dakṣiṇâ) to be paid to the Brâhmiṇ. the rule is different. which can save the man from future troubles. to describe these death penances to any sinner. But no Paṇḍit is allowed. Penances have become a farce in Modern India. but a kicking cow. The after-life consequences can be warded off by appropriate penances. Similarly. The practice of Prâyaśchittas or penances is based upon a more rational basis. Several kinds of death penances are described in our law books. which has gained ascendency now. Like the dispensations of the Popes of Rome.--there is no penance. every mortal sinner must pass through the period of purificatory process of hell.

misery-giving to the sinful. The tree Madhusûdana. Now I wish to hear about the fearsome Way of Yama. along which is the travelling. The name of the Lord is easily pronounced. has been described to me by you.--whose firm root is Law. 11. 6. the Teacher. 8-9. and in what way they obtain the miseries of the Way of Yama. very difficult to tread. Saunaka and others.. 2. 7. and the tongue is under control. Suta said: Listen then. 10. in the morning. to the virtuously inclined. whose flowers are sacrifices. performed sacrifices for thousands of years to attain the Heaven-world. happiness-giving. to what condition the sinful come. O Lord. 1 the sages. it is revealed. 3-5. having offered oblations to the sacrificial fire respectfully asked this of the revered Sûta sitting there:-The sages said: The happiness-giving path of the Shining Ones has been described by you.--excels. whose trunk is the Vedas. of many forms. to remove your difficulties. inquired:-Garuḍa said: The Path of Devotion. was sitting at ease in Vaikuṇṭḥa. As it was declared to Vainateya 3 by the Blessed Viṣṇu. fie upon the wretched men who nevertheless go to hell! 12. Tell me. Please tell us correctly about the afflictions of this world and the other. of those who turn away from devotion to Thee. We now wish to hear about the fear-inspiring Way of Yama. and also. then. just so will I relate it. the son of Vinatâ. 2 and the means of destroying its pains. I am willing to describe the way of Yama. O Shining One. Those sages once. Once. 3 having bowed reverently. . whose abundant branches are the Purâṇas. the field of the sleepless Ones. when the Blessed Hari. has been told the highest goal of the devotees.GARUDA PURANA HOMAGE TO THE BLESSED GANEṢA CHAPTER I An Account of the Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1. 1 Also of the miseries of the World of Change. Fie. and whose fruit is liberation. when asked. In Naimiṣa.

In this last moment. With eyes turned up through loss of vitality. enveloped in the net of delusion. destitute of compassion and righteousness. the moment of dying seems an age. He remains. Lying encircled by his sorrowing relatives. like a house-dog. Bewildered by many thoughts. Self-satisfied. nearing death. O Lord of Birds. . Having experienced the good or the bad actions.--all the worlds appear as one. Powerful death. unbending. yet anxiously hoping to live.--then. diseased. terrible even to hear about. averse from the true scriptures and the company of the good. unexpectedly. In this condition. 27. swooning with intense pain he dies amidst his weeping relatives. 19. approaches him stricken with bodily and mental pain. When the breath is leaving its place. having passed through death. lacking the divine attributes. with tubes obstructed by phlegm. O Târkṣya. the sinfully-inclined go miserably to the torments of Yama. Then. with failing digestion. 18.-and he does not attempt to say anything. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. attached to the wicked. being cared for by his dependents. Those men who are intent upon wisdom go to the highest goal. the messengers of Yama come near and life departs. though being spoken to he does not answer. eating little. eating what is ungraciously placed before him. 14-16. some disease arises. like a serpent. 17.--fall into a foul hell. 20. with his body deformed through old age. a divine vision arises. at the destruction of the decayed senses and the numbing of the intelligence.13. O Târkṣya. meet with torments. with mind busy with the support of his family. in the house. in accordance with his former earning. being caught in the noose of death. moving little. and I will describe the Way of Yama. with the death rattle in his throat. those who delight in sin. and pain like the stinging of hundred scorpions is experienced. revelling in the enjoyments of the desire-nature. exhausted by coughing and difficult breathing. 26. Listen how the misery of this world accrues to the sinful. 28. by which those who are sinful go in hell. then how they. with senses unconquered. Not yet tired of life. intoxicated with the pride of wealth. having the ungodly qualities. as the result of his 1 actions. 25. 21-24.

He obtains the rice-balls given by his offspring. his mouth becomes filled with saliva. The vital breaths of the sinful depart by the lower gateway. seeing whom his heart palpitates and he releases excrements. and the gifts made during the time of his illness. and the weeping of his relatives. 43. the sinful Denier does not obtain gratification. bound by his past tendencies.--in this way. 30-31. 34-35. . and rising again. Then hearing these words. desiring the body but held back with a noose by the followers of Yama.-'Hurry up. Here and there falling exhausted and insensible. remembering his misdeeds. and recount over and over again the awful terrors of the hells. bitten by clogs upon the way. he weeps. Now he emits foam. O Târkṣya. naked. 30-40. We will lead you now. struck upon the back with whips. by command of Yama. tortured by hunger and thirst. oh. Having returned. Hungry and thirsty. to Kumbhîpâka and the other hells. crying loudly 'Oh. with ugly faces. forest-fires and hot winds. Nevertheless. oh. While thus leading him the messengers menace him. with hair erect. The man of the size of a thumb. with grinding teeth. The man is brought there in a short time and the messengers show him the terrible torments of hell. Then. like the king's officers a convict. and bound the noose about his neck. roasting in the sun. As black as crows. 33.' 36. with nails like weapons. with the messengers. painfully he walks. 32. without delay.29. after a time. bearing nooses and rods. Having seen the fearful Yama. shelterless and waterless. 41. swiftly comes back through the air. the man. almost powerless. you wicked man. two terrifying messengers of Yama are come. 37-38. 42. Having put round him a body of torment. afflicted. crying out 'oh. You shall go to the abode of Yama. very miserably led through the darkness to the abode of Yama.' is dragged from the body by the servants of Yama. looking the while at his own body. they forcibly lead him a long way. With failing heart and shuddering at their threats.' he is beaten by the servants of Yama. of fierce aspect. along a road of burning sand.

51-53. by the third the heart forms: By the fourth the back forms. 56. the being who has not experienced the torment certainly does not obtain the human form. by this experiences good and evil on the way. a new one is formed by these offerings. 8 Krûrapura. going by day and night. 46. 55. O Twice-born. 47. 54. Those who are in the departed condition. The old body being cremated. Hence. The extent of the way of Yama measures eighty-six thousand Yojanas. On the thirteenth day the departed. the neck and shoulders by the second. 1 the gifts. O Bird. 7 Krauncha. 45. and on the tenth day the being. Dwelling in the body formed by the rice-balls. 3 Sauripura. Although they eat the rice-ball offering. by the sixth the hips and secret parts. Two portions give nourishment to the five elements of the body. the man. Having passed successively. 50. for the sinful. By the rice-ball of the first day the head is-formed. Every day these are divided into four portions. Two hundred and forty-seven Yojanas each day the departed travels. by the seventh the thigh forms.44. 48. 9 Vichitrabhavana. he lives upon the fourth. 40. and by the fifth the navel. deprived of the rice-ball offering. on both the eleventh and twelfth days the departed eats. and the handsful of water. still they are tortured with hunger. For nine days and nights the departed obtains rice-balls. 1 for ten days the son should offer rice-balls. Likewise next the knees and feet by two. 6 Shailâgama. 11 Duḥkhada. acquires strength. 10 Bahwâpada. the size of a hand (cubit). 4 Nâgendrabhavana. O Bird. the sinful man goes to the place of the King of Righteousness 2:-Saumya. do not uplift. 13 . 5 Gândharva. with fully formed body. in an uninhabited forest. 58-59. wander about in great misery. bound by the servants of Yama. very hungry and pained with thirst. 12 Nânâkrandapura. walks alone along the road like a captured monkey. until the end of the age. The Śrâddha. 1 without Vaitaraṇî. Karma not experienced does not die away even in thousands of millions of ages. the third goes to the messengers of Yama. O Best of Birds. on the tenth day hunger and thirst. through these sixteen cities on the way. 57.

. the sinful. 7:1 Members of the three higher castes take a "second birth" when invested with the sacred thread. . goes on the way to the city of Yama. Held by the nooses of Yama. oh.Sutaptabhawana.e. 8:6 Place of Singers. 8:9 Town of cruelty. The superphysical beings. 8:1 A Yojana is between 8 and 9 miles. 17 Bahubhîti 18:--before the city of Yama. 8:4 Town of Saturn. 6:1 Ceremony for the dead. 14 Raudra." having left his own house. 8:10 A wonderful place. Vinatâ was the mother of Garuḍa. crying out "Oh. They may be interpreted only with the aid of common-sense. 8:8 Name of a mountain. 8:7 Inaccessible mountain. 8:2 Another form of Yama. 2:2 Saṁsâra: The three worlds in which men circle through births and deaths. Footnotes 1:1 I. 3:1 The ambiguity of the pronouns in this work is unavoidable. in and from the egg. 8:5 Residence of the Lord of Serpents. 2:1 Yama is the Lord of death. 2:3 A name of Garuḍa. 8:3 Calm place. 8:11 Many calamities. the abode of righteousness 60. 15 Payovarshana. all birds are twice-born. who do not sleep. 16 Shîtâdhya.

8:18 Many horrors.8:12 Misery-giving. 8:16 Rains 8:17 Very cold. 8:13 Town of varied cries. 8:14 Very hot place. 8:15 Savage. .

In one place there is pitch darkness. in others bills to climb and valleys to descend. of which even an account arouses fear. bees. made of smelted. in another rocks difficult to climb over. in another a mound of embers. tigers. In one place are deep chasms. 2. There is no shade of trees there. In some places are showers of charcoal. bestowing great misery. No water is to be seen anywhere that he. 11. O Keśava. 12-13.--by whose leaves he is pierced and torn. and with excrement. 5. showers of boiling water. in others lakes filled with pus and blood. as though at the end of a pralaya. An Account of The Way of Yama. and dogs. hawks. showers of stones and thunderbolts.Infested with crows. when you have heard it you will become agitated. in another a great cloud of smoke. showers of blood. in another in mud abounding in leeches. The sinful in one place is bitten by ferocious lions. and on this road there is none of the foods by which he may support life. in another burnt by fire. vultures. may drink. extremely thirsty. 14. owls. 4. way the sinful go there. 10. In one place is a plain of hot sand. The Blessed Lord said: I will tell you about the Way of Yama.CHAPTER II. And showers of caustic mud. 15-17. In one place he stumbles in the awful black darkness and falls into water. and having forest-fires. in another he treads on razor-edges and on spear-points. 3. in which a man may take rest. 9. O Bird. in another stung by scorpions. 6. In one place he falls into a hidden well. which is recorded as two thousand yojanas in length and breadth. in one place torn by thorns. copper. In one place there is a very terrible forest of sword-like leaves. showers of weapons. which when seen inspires misery. in what. Although you are my devotee. in another in hot slime. . mosquitoes. Twelve suns blaze. 7-8. Garuḍa said: What is the path of misery in the world of Yama like? Tell me. in another from a lofty mountain. In the midst of the way flows the terribly horrible Vaitaraṇî River. There the sinful soul goes along pierced by cold winds. 1. in another stung by very venomous serpents.

like butter in the frying-pan: Covered all over with dreadful throngs of insects with piercing stings. O Brother. Very dreadful. impassible for the sinful. Filled with porpoises. O Father!'--again and again wailing. Unfordable. with powerful roaring. with mud of flesh and blood. with leeches. vomiting blood from the mouth. fishes and turtles. Hungry and thirsty the sinful drink the blood. 26. and its opposite cannot be seen. difficult to see into. seethes. . and also by nooses through the ears. 21. 29.--of those who have fallen into the midst of this. When it sees the sinful approaching. And being beaten with hammers by the awful messengers of Yama. Covered with many scorpions. obstructed with hairy moss. fear-inspiring. arms. impassible. which then they eat again. 30-32.--at the very sight of it the sinful swoon away. 28. carrying much foam. infested with huge vultures and crows with adamantine beaks. 18-20. this river. after the moment rising again. 25. fallen into the flood. O Bird. flowing with blood. giving extreme misery. Very sinful people. Some go on the way neck. 22-23. O Târkshya. by the nooses of death being dragged along. overspread with flames and smoke. Thus along the Way of Yama. and with other flesh-eating water-animals. others. and with black snakes. filled with huge crocodiles. some of them being dragged by hooks. They stay for a moment in the lower region. Bound by the noose. it is said. crying and weeping and laden with misery. O Son. 27. cry.Extending a hundred yojanas. bearing many loads of iron. By hundreds of thousands of whirlpools the sinful descend to the lower region. there is no rescuer whatever. feet and back bound with chains. go the sinful. the sinful are led on. Others are drawn along by a noose through the end of the nose. It is difficult to cross and gives great misery. and crowded with hundreds of dreadful birds. and pierced from behind with points of weapons. 24. this river was created only that the sinful should fall into it. That river. are pecked by crows. with crocodiles. with heaps of bones on the banks. a flow of pus and blood. of many kinds of pain.

'I made no daily gifts and did not give food daily to the cow. which is a source of great misery. 33-34. nor after his death enter the fire. For seventeen days he goes on alone with the speed of the wind. calling on son and grandson. ' Alas. 'Not knowing my duty I did not serve my husband. remembering the past incarnation. did not value the precepts of the Vedas and the Śâstras. go on towards the mansion of Yama. the departed reaches the City of Saumya. did not worship the deities. make reparation for whatever you have done! 41. 'I did not duly honour the assemblies of Brâhmiṇs. make reparation for whatever you have done! 40. becoming exhausted.' 42. make reparation for whatever you have done! 36. make reparation for whatever you have done!' 39. 'I made no gifts. And the stupid. Large numbers of the departed are in that excellent and beautiful city. 43. Having become widowed I performed no austerities. no offerings to the fire.' repents:-'By great meritorious effort birth as a human being is gained. . performed no penances. never preserved fidelity to my husband.--O Dweller in the Body. On the eighteenth day.--also. I did not do my duty. full of very great misery. incessantly crying out. Thus having lamented many times. did not perform service at a place of pilgrimage as prescribed. Haying obtained that. I did not excavate tanks in waterless places. and a fig-tree delightful to see. nor worship the wise. did not even a little for the support of cows and brahmins. O Târkṣya.--O Dweller in the Body. 'I did not follow the good advice of my husband.Bewailing their own karmas these beings. never performed any benevolent acts. make reparation for whatever you have done! 37.--O Dweller in the Body. did not wait upon good men. 44. whatever have I done! 35.--O Dweller in the Body.--O Dweller in the Body. thus going on the way.-O Dweller in the Body. did not pay due respect to my worthy elders. crying 'Whence did I attain this human state?' he goes on. did not listen to the Purâṇas. nor by detailed observances. make reparation for whatever you leave done! 38. did not visit the holy river 1. Owing to my bad deeds in former lives I got a woman's body. The River Puṣhpabhadrâ is there. either for the benefit of men or for the sake of animals and binds. 'I did not emaciate myself by monthly fasts by the course of the moon. 'Oh. oh.

water and cloths given by his relatives. Having enjoyed there the rice-balls. you fool. then the departed belonging there and the servants say this: Where is your wealth now? Where are your children and wife now? Where are your friends and relatives now? You only suffer the result of your own karma. Thus spoken to by the messengers and being beaten with the hammers. where there is neither buying nor selling. of this way. Being dragged unmercifully he weeps again and again. son and others. along with the servants of Yama. 'Have you not heard. and then passes on from that city. which is familiar even to children? Have you not heard of it from the twice-born. O Mortal. There stones rain down copiously upon the departed. 46-47. 59. being again dragged with the nooses he is led onwards by the servants. and is miserable. And in the fourth month reaches Śailâgama city. . he is forcibly dragged by the nooses. 57-58. In that city he takes rest. Here he eats the monthly rice-balls given by his sons and grandsons through either love or compassion. 51. 54. 'You know that provisions are the strength of a traveller. At the end of two months the afflicted leaves that city. his family and dependents all. Thence the departed speedily goes to Nagendrabhavana. In that city he eats a mixture of water and food. Having eaten the rice-balls of the fourth month he becomes somewhat happy. In the fifth month the departed goes thence to the city of Krauncha. Go on for a long time! 48.41. as spoken of in the Purâṇas?' 50. 55-56. 49. When he bewails his wealth. There is there a king named Jangama. You do not strive for provisions. and having seen the fearful forests there he cries in misery. O Traveller in the Higher World! Yet you must inevitably go on that way. There he remembers the enjoyment of wife. given at the end of three fortnights. Having seen him he is overcome with fear and decides to give up efforts. having arrived at the city of the Gandharvas. 52. who has the appearance of Death. falling down and getting up again and running. 53. and thence goes on into Sauripura. Upon the coming of the third month. and there having eaten the rice-balls offered in the third month he moves on.

he passes on. goes to Krûrapura. Travelling in the air he suffers great misery. in the tenth month. the messengers. Having left that city. and being himself faint of heart. The sinful soul who has made no gifts verily sinks in that.' 66-67. threatened by the servants of Yama. 74. 'Oh heavens. Having then eaten the rice-balls of the sixth month. 'It is said by the sages. bringing a boat for you--who desire to cross the great Vaitaraṇî River-if your merits are sufficient. 75. he arrives at the city of Duhkhada. He remains. who see the truth. He goes to Chitrabhavana. 72. 68. and then. 73. Having stayed.' Having heard their words. At the end of five and a half months the ceremony before the six-monthly is performed. 69. 'If you have made the gift of a cow. When he sees his huge form he runs away in fear. seeing which he cries loudly. to Sutaptabhavana. O Ruler of Birds. 61. very greatly afflicted with the desire to eat.' he exclaims. 64-65. goes. Remaining in the city of Krauncha. Having fixed a skewer through his lips. Having passed beyond that city. 70.60. There he enjoys what is given by his sons in the seventh month. At the approach of the seventh month he goes to the city of Bahwâpada. Having eaten the rice-balls which are given in the eighth month he moves on. having eaten it. 62-63. he cries in great misery. Then having come before him some fishermen say: 'We have arrived. He goes on the way lamenting. satisfied with the rice-balls and jars then given. over which kingdom rules a king named Vichitra. with difficulty. that Vitarana is a gift. the departed eats the rice balls given by hand in the fifth month. then the boat will come to you. floating in the air. . for a time and having left that city. carry him across like a fish upon a hook. the departed. At the end of the ninth month he goes to the city of Nânâkranda. 71. and this is called Vaitaraṇî because it is crossed over by that. otherwise not. who is the younger brother of Yama. threatened by the servants of Yama. Having seen many people crying in agony in various ways. Seeing him it seethes. trembling and very miserable.

70. How they go on this most dreadful path. 84. 86. to work out its karma. 83. he is not happy At the completion of the eleventh month he goes to the city of Raudra. has been told. 77. There the servants ask: 'What sort of merit have you?' Having eaten the annual riceballs he plucks up courage again. afflicted with hunger. 'Does there remain any relative who will remove my misery?' 81. in misery. coming nearer to the abode of Yama. . sets out through the air with the servants of Yama. he casts off the body the measure of a hand. Those who do not offer gifts for the dweller in the upper body. having reached the city of Bahubhîti. and half after the eleventh month he reaches Payovarṣaṇa. There clouds team. thirst and exhaustion. thus go. obtains the Śrâddha before the annual one. painfully bound in tight bonds. 80. he looks about in the ten directions. he. where cold a hundred times greater than that of the Himâlaya afflicts him. Hungry and pierced with cold. At the end of the year he goes to the city of Śîtâḍhya.76. giving misery to the departed. Though he there obtains the rice-ball gifts and water. There he enjoys what is offered in the eleventh month by his sons and others. O Kâśyapa. of which the way of the southern gate has been declared to you. At the end of the year. and them. 85. 82. getting a body of torment. The spirit the size of a thumb. Into the city of the King of Justice there are four gateways. O Bird. 78. What else do you wish to hear? Footnotes 14:1 The Ganges.

Oh. 11. Even at the description of hell you will tremble. hear and understand at a distance. Four and forty yojanas. and the karma born of mind. O Descendant of Vinatâ. having passed along the way of Yama into the abode of Yama? Tell me this. he asks Chitragupta about their sins. distinctively. 1. Their wives have a similar nature. although he is allknowing. 2. . and always delight in great sin. O Keśava. having gone to Chitragupta. 6. 9. The Blessed Lord said: Listen.' and having heard his cry. Such is the power of these. 10. well-known to the King of Justice. 1 reports the good and evil deeds. lies the great city of the King of Justice. I will tell it to you from the beginning to the end. These followers of the King of Justice know accurately all the virtues and vices of mankind. Chitragupta. The men who are Deniers. O Târkshya. All go to the door-keeper and report it to him. and in the nether regions. they become benevolent. openly and secretly. The Śravaṇas are the sons of Brâhmaṇ who wander in heaven. as is proper. An Account of the Torments of Yama. The sinful man cries when he hears the mingled wails of 'Oh. 4-5. and are called. To the man who pleases them by austerity. those who walk about in the city of Yama. and see a long way off. He. always stands there. 8. 13. who have authority over mortals and immortals. O Kâśyapa. Nevertheless. The doorkeeper Dharmadhwaja. 3. Then Chitragupta tells it to the King of Justice. enquires of the Śravaṇas 1. on earth. They know accurately all that is done by women. 7.CHAPTER III. these are all. 12. Sravanîs. Garuḍa said: What are the torments like that the sinful suffers. beyond the city of Bahubhîti. by men. speech and body. granting heaven and liberation. Thus do these truth-speaking Śravaṇas relate the actions of man. 14. charity and truthful speech. These report to Chitragupta everything that is said and done.

Hearing these words of Chitragupta. the two twilights. anger and association with the sinful. wind.15. 'O. the strong and the weak. summons them and shows them his own very terrible form. like a mountain of lampblack. become dispensers of misery.' 30. 22. Knowing the wicked actions of the sinful. Having seen him. Chitragupta speaks to all those sinners. the sinful then grieve over their karmas. the sun and others see fully the sins and merits of the embodied being. day and night. injudicious. with eyes like wells. evil-doers. polluted with egoism. possessing thirty-two arms. who are crying. why ever did you commit sin? 26. seated on a buffalo. 'O. Near to him are all the messengers. cries 'Oh. Oh. those truth-speakers. Extending three yojanas. It is no use turning your faces away. terrible with weapons gleaming like lightning. Very sinful people behold the terrifying form of Yama--huge of body. resembling Yama. sky. the beggar and the wealthy. you foolish people. 19-21. Roaring like a cloud at the time of pralaya. Then. The sun and moon. attended by Death. 'The sinful actions done by you are very many. relating them before the King of Justice. you sinners. 24. Even Chitragupta is fearful. having assured himself concerning the sins of the sinful. 23. Yama. the heart. and thereby are now destined for torment. 28. and bewailing their karmas. fire.' The sinful soul who made no gifts trembles and cries again. earth and water. 'It is known that Yama deals equally with the fool and the learned. Fever and others. rod in hand. and remain silent and motionless. and those sins are the cause of unavoidable misery. 18. Śravaṇas. 27 'Hitherto you have committed sins with great delight. by command of Yama. overcome with fear. 29. 25. Chitragupta. with mouth gaping with formidable fangs. roaring. 17 The King of Justice. with red eyes and a long nose. why ever did you commit that misery-giving sin which is born of lust. . and Justice--know the actions of man. Then Yama. the wretch. 16.

along with which torment cannot exist. 'You did not give even halt a mouthful of food to the dog or the crows. with iron clubs. has fitting punishment ordered for the sinful. It covers five yojanas and is one yojana in height. nor honour your guests. 32. Many sinful ones are hung on that silk-cotton tree. seeing them quiet. having beaten them. Chaṇḍaka 1 and others. with hammers. helpless. the servants address them thus: 'O. cry. 43.' 33. The King of Justice. 'Go along. glowing like a blazing fire. having bound them with one noose. We only punish miscreants. Again and again they are forcibly struck. by the messengers.31. . for whom there is no rescuer. Then the cruel messengers. 'Oh. You never visited any places of pilgrimage. sinful people. 39-40. They. 31. The messengers. 'You did not do any acts of service. 37. 36. Though living as a householder you did not even express compassion. 34. Thus having spoken the messengers heat them mercilessly. 35. 'Forgiveness of faults is done by the Lord Hari 1 Îśwara. why ever did you commit such wicked deeds? You did not even make the easy water and food offerings at all. to the very dreadful terrifying hells. with spears. 41. 45. you evildoers. you sinner. nor make the water-offering to the forefathers. as we are ordered. 42. burning there. say. head downwards. Thus beaten they become still. Suffer the fruits of your own sin! Because you are devoid of righteousness you deserve to be beaten. you sinners. executors of the sentences of Yama. You did not meditate well upon Yama and Chitragupta. and on account of the beating they fall down like glowing charcoal. 44. There is one big tree there. nor repeat their mantra. Prachaṇḍa. lead them towards the hells. and beaten by the messengers of Yama. Then. seeing them standing motionless like thieves. forgive my faults'--with suppliant hands. with maces and with big pestles. those most. Having bound them on the tree by chains. nor worshipped the deities. they beat them. implore the messengers.' 46. exhausted by hunger and thirst. with metal rods. swooning away.

give up my wealth. and like a cake thrown into the frying-pan they are turned about. are eaten away by them. are given pieces of flesh torn off with pincers by the messengers. Then the mouths of those who are crying are filled with dust by the messengers. 16 .' 57. Tâmisra and others. others plunged into pits full of worms. Hells full of great misery are there. the midst of which are twenty-one most dreadful of the dreadful. being bound with various nooses some are beaten with hammers. and thrown into the dreadful hells. 51. 12 Kâka. Some. and others thrown flat on the ground. 13 Ûlu. in the hell-region. fallen down and bitten by dogs. are pierced in the head with arrows. Others clamour: 'Give up. In falling their limbs are cut by the sharp leaves. 7 Maharauravaśâlmalî. and smelted like a lump of ore. 55. O Bird. Others. 60. 49. There are eighty-four lakhs of hells. Some are surrounded closely with blazing charcoal. 4 Kuḍmala. and some with hands and feet bound are placed head downwards. which you owe me. 54. 50. By the hard beaks of huge flesh-eating crows and vultures they are pecked in the head. 2 Kâlasûtraka. like firewood. and they cry.--in which there is great misery indescribable in words. are squeezed like sugar-cane. 3 Raurava. In the world of Yama I see my wealth being enjoyed by you. Some are thrown into wells. and others into heated oil. Some are thrown in the way. 15 Mahâpathin. 58.--near to the tree. the sinful. 48. 9 Saviṣa. some are hurled from heights. Some of the sinful are cut with saws. Some are plunged into heated butter. and. by order of Yama. in front of huge maddened elephants. enwrapped with torches. 1 Lohaśaṇku. Thus disputing. 10 Sampratâpana. 11 Mahâniraya. 56. Thus quarrelling. 59. 5 Saṅghâta.47. 61-64. their bodies half-buried in a pit. 53. 6 Pûtimṛittika. 14 Sanjîvana. 52. Tâmisra. 8 Lohitoda. are chopped into pieces with axes. eyes and faces. fixed in the middle of a machine. they are taken hold of by the messengers.

28:2 Iron spears. Footnotes 21:1 Name of the being who records the doings of men. Men and women suffer the torments of Tâmisra. he comes here again. goes to Andhatâmisra. the various fruits of sin. . 28:1 Darkness. like an invalid who has been robbed of his wealth. 68.Avîchi. 28:5 Blossoming. 26:1 Lit. experience there. 17 Andhatâmisra. which was nourished at the expense of other creatures. provisioned with the opposite of happiness. which is the place of uttermost darkness. devoid of righteousness. 71. 70: The individual. which are produced by secret association. Having experienced in due order the torments below. he goes alone to hell. 22:1 Lit. obtains appropriate fruit. 67. 20 and Tapana. The man experiences in a foul hell what is ordained by his fate. the support of his family. Listeners. and being departed. All formed of various afflictions and diseases of different classes. having given up both. purified. 69. who was fond of supporting his family by unrighteous means alone. Raurava and other hells. 24:1 Both names mean fierce or violent. 28:3 Very terrible silk-cotton tree. 66. Thus he who was holding a family or gratifying his belly. Who have fallen into these. 18 Kumbhîpâka. and inhabited by multitudes of servants. The sinful fools. 21--in all twenty-one. He who takes away (sins). 65. Andhatâmisra. the various torments of hell. until the end of the age. 28:4 Terrible. 19 Sampratâpana. Having cast off his body.

28:14 Owls. 28:9 Iron weights. 28:18 Besetting darkness. 28:15 Living together. 28:7 Stinking clay. 28:21 Hot. 28:8 Accumulation. 28:11 Burning. 28:20 Burning. 28:17 Waveless. 28:12 The great exit.28:6 The thread of death. . 28:16 The great path. 28:10 Poisonous. 28:19 Based like a pot. 28:13 Crows.

who are foolish. the Vedas. weeping day and night. destroyers of the embryo. The righteous go into the city of the King of Justice by three gateways. murderers of women. An Account of the Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell. go from hell to hell. Those who steal the wealth of the teacher. Those who seize upon the fault and depreciate the merit. and are always evil-minded. very sinful. from misery to misery. Garuḍa said: For what sins do they go on that great Way? Why do they fall into the Vaitaraṇî? Why do they go to hell? Tell me this. good actions. who turn away from the company of the good. from fear to fear. Beaten by the messengers of Yama. who turn away from good deeds. the Nyâya and the Vedânta. who are attached to the wicked. Those who do not repay their debts. who speak evil words. certainly go on the Way of Yama. they go towards the Vaitaraṇî. those who betray confidence. infanticides. I will tell you who the sinners are who go by it. who try to make the happy wretched. and those who kill with poisonous foods. 2. . the property of the temple or of the twice-born. Those who do not listen to good counsel nor even to the word of the Śâstras. 13. 4. O Keśava. The Blessed Lord said: 'Those who always delight in wrong deeds. those who take away the possessions of women. and many others. 3. slayers of owe. Slayers of Brâhmiṇs. 1. who thinks themselves learned. who are foolish. but the sinful go into it only by the road of the southern gate. and those who commit secret sins. who are jealous of those who have merit. those who misappropriate deposits. and those who steal the possessions of children. devoid of righteousness. Those who despise places of pilgrimage. I will tell you what sinners fall into it. who are unbending. those who disparage the Purâṇas. drinkers of intoxicants.CHAPTER IV. the Mîmâṁsâ. Those who are elated at seeing the miserable.-These. good men. teachers and Shining Ones. The Vaitaraṇî River is only on this very miserable way. who are self-satisfied. 5-12.

who eats flesh and drinks liquor. nor perform the ceremonies for those who are in the upper body. anal abandoning prescribed ditties. who earn by cheating. 28-30. who does not study the Śâstras. who perform false duties. of noble birth.14. 27. fathers. who removes fieldboundaries. not for the prescribed sacrifices of the Vedas. The Brâhmiṇ who sells liquors. who prevents the telling of stories. and consorts with a lowcaste woman. who abducts others' wives. says. gardens and forests. and who slanders virtuous women. who kills animals for his own gratification. who hinders others making gifts. possessed of thousands of merits. the messengers hurl them into that river again. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. 17. 15. go to the tree standing on its bank. who is lustful towards virgins. and having come. and treat them disrespectfully. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. who destroy the chastity of widows. Who covets the King's wife. who wears the sacred thread or consorts with Brâhmiṇ women. who neglect vows and pilgrimages. Who does not fulfil promises made to Brâhmiṇs. O King of Birds. 18-24. fond of treading forbidden paths. 23.--these men sink in it.-These. Who cut down and destroy big trees. and who. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. having suffered great misery in it. who is of unbridled nature. Those who dishonour their mothers. faithful.'--of these two the stay is continued. Who give false witness. and modest. they then hurl those sinners into the Vaitaraṇî. and many other fools. Those who ascribe evil to the good. . 26. who drinks the milk of the tawny cow. Having come all along the path the sinful reach the abode of Yama. Who takes away what he gave. The Śûdra who studies the letter of the Vedas. by command of Yama. of good qualities. Who has put aside his Brâhmaṇic duties. 16. Who did not make gifts of black cows. and who gain a livelihood by thieving. Who obstructs sacrifices. teachers and preceptors and the reverend. having called them. which is the foremost among hells. Those who wickedly abandon their wives. 'There is nothing for you. who repents of his gifts: who takes away another's livelihood. who ploughs up pastures.

40. in a garden. those attached to senseobjects. and of bows and arrows. shrines. self-indulgent. Those who are makers of swords. he is certainly degraded from the Brâhmiṇ rank: That wretched twice-born is not worthy of salutation at any time. Those who obstruct roads with posts. these certainly go to hell. on the four days of lunar change. with women who have no other refuge. and those who are sellers of them. do not worship Śiva. Those men who. Sûrya.--these certainly go to hell. those fools who worship him certainly go to hell. on Śrâddha occasions. the wise. those who break the laws of morality. with timber.--they certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. Those who eat. 43. Those who are fond of quarrels. the avaricious. through malignity.The woman who despises her husband and thinks about another. in water. blinded by passion. .--these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. servants and teachers. 32. with stones or with thorns. 42. ponds. and having neglected the offerings to the forefathers and the Shining Ones. these who sell poisons. or in a cowpen. begetting offspring of a Śudra woman. through being beaten. 37-38. and the good teachers. the messengers cast into hells. Those who. goes to a low condition. 36.--such and others at the silk-cotton tree experience much beating. in a road. or people's houses. I will tell you about the sinful who fall into them. 44. The Brâhmaṇi who places a harlot on his bed. consort with women in the monthly courses. Those who fall down. women who sell their hair. 31. children.-all these certainly go to hell. 39. with mounds. 34. do not give up causing dissension among Brâhmaṇs and cow-fights but delight in them. Those who destroy wells. the ungrateful. 33. tanks. commit transgression at the time of conception.--these certainly go to hell. in the day time. Deniers. Hari. into water. Those who throw their bodily refuse into fire. Those who. hypocrites. having neglected their wives. 35. Vaiśyas who are dealers in skins.---these certainly go to hell. 41. Śivâ.--these certainly go to hell. Gaṇeśa.

49. who have come full of hope to the house. 60-62. even though food is cooked.45. 56. Those who assume observances. Those who do not respect the teacher who imparts the knowledge of the Supreme Self. 58. and afterwards. When his limbs are cut by its leaves.--these certainly go to hell. 52.--these certainly go to hell. who hate the good. Those who betray their friends. and those who destroy hopes. Those who are suspicious of all creatures.--these certainly go to hell. processions of the Shining Ones. he begs for a shady place. 47. When. Then they say: 'Drink this liquid and eat this food. 57. and then is led by the messengers into the forest of sword-like leaves. Why should I explain them fully. Thus. that there are many torments for the sinful. sharp as swords. Being tortured thus. afflicted with thirst. 50. 48. he wails piteously. those who cut short friendship. 51. who punish the guiltless. and the tellers of the Purâṇas. He who interferes with marriage.--these certainly go to hell. he begs for water to drink. a village or a wood. Having eaten there their undecaying fruits they are born again. The very sinful man who sets fire to a house. when they are spoken of in all the Śâstras? 59. ha! Sleep comfortably in this cool shade!' 55. those who deceive all creatures. cast them away again. and who are cruel to them. By order of Yama they return to the earth and become unmoving and other creatures: . with senses uncontrolled. Those who do not compassionate the helpless. 46. men and women by thousands are baked in dreadful hells until the coming of the deluge. When his limbs are burnt with fire. dwells in a dreadful hell from which there is no return.' As soon as he drinks it he falls down. Those who do not feed the Brâhmaṇ guests. then they say. 53. burning inside. it is declared. then the messengers give him boiling oil to drink. O Târkṣya. is captured by the messengers of Yama and baked in pits of fire. Powerless and breathless he is unable even to speak.--these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. 1 or bands of pilgrims. 'Ah. Getting up again somehow. 54.

Thus they become men and women oozing with leprosy. All these evolve thence into the human condition. and even there. creepers. become very miserable. these are spoken of as unmoving. 63. infested with grievous maladies. bushes. born blind. plants. . Footnotes 36:1 The images are carried round the streets on occasions.-Insects.Trees. animals and fish. by the stains of sin. having come back from hell they are born in the human kingdom amongst low outcastes. 64.--it is said that there are eighty-four hundred thousands of fates of birth-fates. rocks and grasses. birds. enveloped in great delusion. and bearing the marks of sin.

13. 3. and who listens to them becomes deaf. and to what sorts of birth such sins lead? 2. Who steals vegetables and leaves becomes a peacock. the murderer of a virgin becomes leprous. Who steals food becomes a rat. The eater of flesh becomes very red. Who bears false witness becomes dumb. 9. without giving to others. 7. eats what should not be eaten. Garuḍa said: Tell me. who breaks the meal-row 1 becomes oneeyed. one with discoloured teeth. The Blessed Lord said: The sins on account of which the sinful returning from hell come to particular births. an ant. 11. who despises the Vedas and the Śâstras certainly becomes jaundiced. who gives impure food at a Śrâddha ceremony is born a spotted leper. who steals water becomes a Châtaka-bird 2. The man who. who steals any metal becomes poverty-stricken. by what sins particular signs are produced. 12. The slayer of a woman and the destroyer of embryos becomes a savage full of diseases. a scorpion. the Brâhmaṇ who. The murderer of a Brâhmaṇ becomes consumptive. a gad-fly. an incendiary becomes bald. O Keśava. the killer of a cow becomes humpbacked and imbecile. 4. 8. 10. and the signs produced by particular sins. honey. who speaks lies becomes a stammerer. on account of greed. diseased-skinned. through pride. and who steals poison. who eats fled of other beings becomes diseased. perfumes. becomes swollen-necked.--these hear from me. . who steals a book-is born blind. and salt.CHAPTER V An Account of the Signs of Sins. a vulture. who interferes with marriage becomes lipless. who commits illicit intercourse. 5. Who strikes a cow or a Brâhmaṇ with his foot is born lame and deformed.--all three born as outcastes. 1. flesh. Who steals jewels is born in a low caste. A poisoner becomes insane. the drinker of intoxicants. insults his teacher. who goes with his teacher's wife. He who eats sweet foods. who steals gold gets diseased nails. who steals grain becomes a locust. 6. who sells flesh becomes unlucky. becomes big-bellied. a musk-rat. becomes an epileptic. a eunuch.

Who destroys hopes and who destroys affection. 18. The Brâhmiṇ who does not recite the Gâyatrî 1. He who cuts off his lineage. a crow. becomes a crane. 21. who robs caravans on the road. 26. becomes a leech. 16. or a kind of female serpent. 17. by embracing a woman of his own family. abandoning her own husband. become tigers in a desolate forest. . 15. whose feature is unrestrained becomes an elephant in a desolate forest. and who is fond of hunting. The Brâhmiṇ who officiates for one unfit to perform sacrifice becomes a village hog. 29. and by too many sacrifices he becomes an ass. an owl. The woman who abuses her mother-in-law and father-in-law. father and teacher. even for a thousand births. becomes a ruddy goose for a long time. the pupil who does not serve his teacher becomes an animal. Who dies by drinking poison becomes a black serpent on a mountain. is born as a Brâhmiṇ-fiend in a waterless wilderness. 20. The twice-born who does not impart learning to the deserving becomes a bull. who is inwardly wicked while outwardly pious. becomes a flying-fox. runs after another man. who steal shoes.--an ass or a cow. having become a hyena and a porcupine. and causes constant quarrels. who does not meditate at twilight. 2 23. Who steals betel. 27. is born from the womb of a bear. and who eat all foods without consideration. who speaks ill of caste and order is born a pigeon in a wood. 22. Who threatens and spits at his teacher. Those twice-born who do not make offering to the World-deities.14. who through dislike abandons his wife. is destroyed when an embryo in the womb. 25. a house-lizard. who cheats in selling. Who lives by violence. who quarrels with sister and brother. 19. Who. by eating without grace. Who hates mother. 24. or browbeats a Brâhmaṇ. certainly becomes a goat in a butcher's house. who consorts with an immature girl becomes a huge snake in a wood. and she who scolds her husband becomes a louse. grass and cotton are born from sheeps' wombs. 28. who is not hospitable to the goody becomes a howling Fire-face. Who does not give to a twice-born according to his promise becomes a jackal. Who deceives a friend becomes a mountain-vulture. fruits and flowers becomes a forest-monkey. The lustful man who goes with a female ascetic becomes a desert fiend.

The devalaka is born from the womb of a hen. Who steals another's wife. Who commits unnatural vice becomes a village pig. Who feeds upon the eleventh-day offerings to the dead is born a dog. The Brâhmiṇ's possessions acquired by deception. having passed through dreadful hells produced by their great sins. 34. who is passionate becomes a lustful horse. Who covets his teacher's wife. O Târkṣya. 38-40. He is called a neglector who. powdered stone. who consorts with a Śûdra woman becomes bull. who robs a Brâhmiṇ. is born as a Brâhmiṇ-fiend. becomes a chameleon. a dog and a jackal. 37. afflict the family even for seven generations. The wretch among twice-born who worships the deities for the sake of wealth is called a devalaka and is unfit to offer oblations to ale deities and forefathers.30. 41-43. who goes with the king's wife becomes corrupt. by taking a Brâhmiṇ's possessions. instead of making a gift to one who is well-read in the Vedas and Śâstras and has resorted to him. and having experienced the results in the successive hells. a camel and a she-buffalo. an insect and a bird. 35. The murderer of a Brâhmaṇ goes into the womb of an ass. goes to the condition of grass. gives it to some other. it would be like offering to ashes instead of to the blazing fire near by. becoming not a giver but a beggar. bushes and plants. families become broken up. are born here upon the exhaustion of their karma. but where is the person in the three worlds who can digest a Brâhmiṇ's wealth! Chariots and troops supported by the wealth of a Brâhmiṇ crumble away in battle like artificial river-banks of sand. 32-33. who misappropriates deposits. Who goes with his teacher's wife. By appropriating temple property. and by neglecting Brâhmiṇs. . enjoyed even in friendship.--and by forcible robbery even as long as the moon and stars exist: A man may digest even iron filings. The stealer of gold attains the condition of a worm. and poison. 44. But it is no neglect if the Brâhmiṇ is without Veda-knowledge. he is born blind and in poverty. a drinker of intoxicants enters the wombs of a wolf. Having neglected. a donkey. and with his friend's wife. 36. Those who are very sinful. 31.

but robs. Then. he becomes an embryo in due course. is born for sixty thousand years as a worm in excrement. 53. who robs Brâhmiṇs of their means of sup port becomes an ape. They revolve at one time of earth. are born with the residues of their sins. he afterwards reaches the human state. Having given the means of subsistence and a piece of land. As the wheel of time turns. 50. 57. Karma which has been made. . thus turns the wheel in the four kingdoms of beings. 52. must inevitably be suffered. 56. he should then protect it firmly. Having suffered the miseries from conception onwards to death. are seen to be the karma of the embodied. at another in hell. which was given by himself for another. by the force of sin he goes to hell. 48. Having experienced as a bird the misery of cold. Who gives the means of support to Brâhmiṇs obtains fruit equal to that of a lakh of cows. Thus the makers of bad karma.45. he again dies. The sinner who takes back by force what has been given by himself. held fast by the noose of karma. in these stated forms. a dog and a monkey. Who does not protect. when the good and evil are balanced. made by themselves in this world. Karma not suffered does not fade away even in tens of millions of ages. having experienced the tortures mf hell. 49. rain and heat. is born as a lame dog. they suffer from carrying burdens and other miseries. Man and woman having come together. Who takes away a plot of land. O Lord of Birds. He who does not mike gifts becomes poverty--stricken and through poverty he commits sin. whether good or evil. 55. and is again born in poverty and again becomes sinful. 46. so mortals revolve by my magic. Birth and death are the lot of all embodied beings. 47. goes into hell until the coming of the deluge. obtaining for thousands of lives the bodies of animals. 54. These and other signs and births. 51.

Whoever gives different food to one than to another is said to break the row also.Footnotes 39:1 This refers to the custom among Brâhmiṇs of sitting in a row at meals. and rising together. 40:1 A sacred mantra repeated every day by the twice-born caste. . 39:2 A bird fabled to live only on rain-drops. 40:2 A class of evil spirits.

Thus enveloped by the womb and bound outside by the sinews.--and remembering. skin. 12. sobs for a long time. 9. 11. and what miseries he suffers in the embryonic condition. according to karma. All its limbs bitten constantly by hungry worms. The mother of one returning from hell is regarded on the first day as an outcaste woman. 13. 5. enters the womb of a woman. The bodily substances are formed of the foods and liquids of the mother. by the sixth. Viṣṇu said: I will tell you how the mortal is born when the male and female elements are bound together by the union of man and woman. There he remembers. in the three days on which Indra incurs the sin of Brâmicide. by the fifth hunger and thirst arise. as they are very tender. the divine eye. 1. and on the third as a washerwoman. The creature. 10. The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful. in obtaining a body. In one night it becomes a lump. and the creature at the time of birth lies in the disgusting hollow of the loins. . 2. 1 and after that an egg of flesh. the Karma generated in hundreds of previous births. the body of the sinful begins to form. hair. Garuḍa said:--Tell me. 3. By the first month the head. salt.CHAPTER VI. By the fourth the seven bodily fluids. In the middle of the menstruation period. by the third occurs the formation of nails.--like a parrot in a cage. 6. With its head placed in its belly and its back and neck curved. it swoons away repeatedly through excessive pain. which is the receptacle of a man's seed. by the fifth night round. hot. by divine power. obtaining not the least happiness. caused by the mother's eating many things--pungent. sour and acid. 4. it is unable to move its limbs. on the second as the murderer of a Brâhmiṇ. linga and other cavities. by the second the arms and other parts of the body are formed. how he who returns from hells is formed in the womb of the mother. it moves to the left of the womb. bitter. bones. O Keśava. by the tenth day like the fruit of the jujube tree. enveloped by the chorion. it feels pain all over its body. 7-8. amid fœces and urine.

26. and as s result I am tormented. From the beginning of the seventh month. and cries loudly. When shall I get out? "In Him alone. 16-23. while they who enjoy the fruits escape.14. and I will take the means by which I may obtain liberation. . Cast out forcibly. then verily the man is bewildered by the magic of Viṣṇu. I am burnt by the fire of the belly. "I seek refuge in Viṣṇu. 27. who is compassionate to those who come for shelter. bearing the fatigue. and anxious to escape from it. The creature says. "Fallen into a well of fœces and urine. after experiencing his karma. O Lord. "Because remaining even here in great misery. If the state of mind which arises in the womb. adores in plaintive tones Him who placed him in the womb. 15. I wish never to come out of the womb. "I did good and evil actions for the sake of my dependents. He is become changed in condition. Having this insight he. while praying. or upon hearing the Purâṇas were permanent--who would not be liberated from bondage! 28. the husband of Śrî. by the winds of delivery. with hands put together. deprived of knowledge. Having fallen on the ground he moves like a worm in excrement. 25. like a uterine worm." 24. on the cremation ground. the destroyer of evil. resorting to Thy feet I will keep myself aloof from the worlds of change. he who is in the womb trembles and moves about because of the parturition winds. endowed with insight. during illness. though he gains consciousness. where misery results from my sinful actions. misled by my egoism I am transmigrating. the supporter of the universe. "I am bewildered by Thy magic. and is compassionate to the afflicted. suddenly is cast out head downwards into birth. The Blessed Lord said: He who has thus considered. imploring and trembling. bound in seven bonds. will I seek refuge. as regards body and son and wife. who has given me this experience. "But no. When he comes out of the womb. and has been ten months in the womb. "If I am released from this womb I will lay myself at Thy feet. bending down his head. he comes out with anxiety and painfully breathless and with memory destroyed. Let not this transmigration occur to me again.

like a moth into a flame. to his own ruin and is destroyed by those stronger than himself. 35. when he is touched by that magic. 39. He is nourished by people who do not understand his wishes. he goes to a miserable hell. The deer. and on account of ignorance becomes angry and sorry. go in hell. unable to ward off what is thrust upon him against his desire. He longs for the unobtainable. 41. Lain upon a bed unclean and befouled by perspiration. He experiences the miseries of infancy and childhood arising from dependence. he hates the scriptures and good men. Thus I have related to you. attached to sense-objects. What else do you wish to hear? . as one elephant by another. 36. Then. how then shall the infatuated one not be destroyed. and even more difficult to obtain is that as a twice-born: and who then only provides for and pampers the senses. having arrived at old age. how the sinful. deprived of the sacrifices for the dead. death having come. mingling in the company of the wicked. are never released. 30. he is troubled with great diseases. through foolishness lets slip the nectar from his hand. just as insects bite little worms. In this wise having experienced the miseries of infancy and of childhood. he reaches youth and acquires evil tendencies. to sit. 34. 42. Seeing a seductive woman. 38. the elephant. gnats. O Târkṣya. Mosquitoes. when he enjoys the five kinds of objects by five senses.29. bewildered by my magic. 31. infatuated he falls into great darkness. Who is more sinful than the fool who. he is unable to scratch his limbs. 33. Then. 37. bugs and other flies bite him. 43. the bee and the fish: these five are led to destruction by one of the senses. and becomes lustful. rise or move. Thus held fast in the ever-circling noose of karma. the sinful. 32. as before. powerless. spends in vain the human birth which was difficult to obtain. the bird. and his pride and anger increase with the growth of his body. he is unable to speak. 40: After hundreds of lives one obtains human birth on earth. Then he begins evil brooding. and. his senses captivated by her blandishments. The lover makes quarrels with rivals. skinless and weeping and deprived of understanding.

hard.Footnotes 46:1 That is. .

is the fate of the sinful and those without sons. but never so. Hard indeed. or worshipped the Blessed Śiva with devotion. then some means should be taken for obtaining a son. The son saves his father from the hell called Put. grandsons. Accordingly. By the touch of his grandson a mortal is released from the three-fold debt. by making Śrâddha-gifts are the means of their fathers' attaining heaven. 3-4. and the means by which people attain a happy condition. therefore he was named "putra" by the Self-existent himself. O Best of Birds.CHAPTER VII. 7. 10. the intelligent should beget a son. 13. Sûta said: Having heard this. Knowing this. For those men who are immersed in the ocean of transmigration. having seen the face of a son. With the help of sons. or performed the Śatachaṇḍî. Babhruvâhana's Sacrament for the Departed One. Listen attentively. O Bird. but the illegitimate drags down. carries the whole family over. Garuḍa. if righteous. 2. Garuḍa said: Tell me by what means men who have committed sins unknowingly or knowingly escape from the torments of the servants of Yama. you have done well in asking for the benefit of men. 5. O Lord of Birds. . O Lord. If by any past action of his the birth of a son has been prevented. 8. The Vedas also proclaim the great importance of the son. Having listened to the Harivanśa. 12. Sons having father and mother of the same caste are legitimate. again questioned Keśava for the benefit of men. their self dimmed by attachment to senseobjects-For their uplifting tell me. that of those who have sons and who are righteous. as already said. their reason clouded by sin. one should avoid a woman of lower caste. 9. and I will tell you all. Even a single son. one is released from the debt to the forefathers. The Blessed Lord said: O Târkṣya. 14. 6. 1.' is the ancient saying. and great-grandsons he goes from the worlds and obtains heaven. They alone. O Mâdhava. trembling like a leaf of the holy fig-tree. The son of a Brâhma marriage uplifts. 11. the exact meaning of the Purâṇas. of weak intelligence. 'By the son he conquers the worlds.

always delighting in Kṣattriya duties. hungry and with parched throat. In the midst of the forest the king saw a deer in the distance. Then. there reigned over the delightful city of Mahodaya a king named Babhruvâhana. Concerning this I will give you. And standing like a big standard over the whole forest. and resounding with the cries of various birds. Now listen. rendered fragrant by the-pollen of the lotus. The king approached and sat at its root. sounding with many birds. that powerful king. 16. 25-27. He entered a thick forest. when a Departed One went to heaven even when it was offered by another.15. Now he beheld a Departed One. dirty. went hunting. 20-21. from ancient history. Lord of Gifts. having drunk of that cool water. That leader of men. 23. valuing the good. The Departed One. and firm in righteousness. who was very powerful. Crowded with various species of animals. 24. skilled. with his army. Formerly. pursued the deer and came into another forest. Seeing him deformed and dreadful Babhruvâhana wondered. humpbacked and fleshless. The king. compassionate. with hair erect. fainting with the heat and with fatigue. severely wounded by his very hard arrow. A sacrificer. following the blood-stains on the grass. prosperous. carrying the arrow with him. 29-31. and with senses discomposed by hunger and thirst. Once. Righteously protecting his subjects as though they were his own sons. Need I say one attains heaven by means of the Śrâddha performed by a son. 28. an example of the efficacy of gifts for the higher body. . Babhruvâhana came out of the water refreshed. ran out of sight into the interior of the forest. of terrible appearance. giving cool shade with its large spreading boughs. in the Treta age. full of various kinds of trees. endowed with good character and of good conduct. Târkṣya. The deer. a lover of Brâhmaṇs. and punishing the guilty. also seeing the king who had come to that dreadful forest. 17-19. And saw a delightful fig-tree. 22. coming to a lake bathed in it with his horse.

by what bad deeds did you reach this state of the Departed. and I will give you a most precious jewel.And becoming filled with curiosity. even if hundreds of annual Śrâddhas are performed for him. came near to him. O Best of Kings. It is said that in this world the king is the kinsman of all castes. I gave food of various kinds to the poor. O King. 42-45. O warrior. no companion. no relative and no friend like you. 39-41. and by what gifts will your condition as Departed pass away?" 34-38. and abounding in precious stones of various kinds. "Uplift me then. "If the sixteen monthly Śrâddhas. "In that manner please act. who will perform for me the ceremonies for the-higher body. are not performed. always engaged in worship of the Shining Ones. O Lord of Earth. having many districts. Suffering from the misery of hunger and thirst. . You will surely have compassion upon me when you have heard the cause of my condition as Departed. by doing the ceremonies for my higher body. through my evil fate has proved fruitless. and in which many religious acts are performed. "Beautiful with palaces and mansions. Who are you. "Therefore. and highly unhappy?" "Tell me in detail the cause of your condition. The king said: "O Black-complexioned and Gaping-mouthed. if you desire my welfare. O Reverend Sir. "I have no offspring." 32-33. "All this. dear. please know. O Great-Armed one. help me over. I cannot endure this departed condition. the condition as Departed becomes firmly fixed.--I am highly blessed. "There is a town named Vaidaśa. The Departed one said: "I will tell you everything from the beginning. this king of the Departed spoke thus to the king: "I have escaped the condition of the Departed and reached the highest condition. O Târkṣya. possessed of all prosperity. I dwelt. so that my departed condition may be destroyed. Then. and my higher state arise. O great king. How my good deeds proved fruitless I will relate to you. By fire-offering I pleased the Shining Ones. "I gladdened the twice-born by offering various gifts. dreadful to see. and likewise the forefathers by food. There. by being in touch with you. the blind and the wretched. "By caste I am a Vaishya. by name Sudeva. O Lord of Kings.

along with all the ceremonies for the higher body. you have done well in asking this. the destroyer of the departed condition. make offerings in the fire to these deities. I have heard. the ceremony for the upper body. honestly gained. Vaidic mantras. on account of my sympathy for all. by giving up anger and greed. are the destroyers of the departed condition.' is a destroyer of all evil. 46-48. according to the rite. The king said. curds and milk. having gone round them. Make offerings to the universal deities with clarified butter. austerities.--and placing it. and perform all the ceremonies and the release of a bull." 58-63. "How is the pot for the departed to be prepared.--these." 57. to the north Gadâdhara. calm and controlled in mind. worship of Viṣṇu. about the pot which gives release to the departed. 4 "In the middle Pitâmaha 5 and also Maheśwara. "He must commence. bathe it in many waters. "Dress it with a pair of yellow cloths. "The gift which is named 'the pot for the departed. "So I will tell you about the worship of Viṣṇu. in front of Nârâyaṇa. association with the good. Bring two pieces of gold. O King. "Listening to holy scriptures. Please take notice and l will describe that good gift by which the departed condition cannot exist. you should worship thus. although afflicted with hunger and thirst."In this forest there is sweet and cool water. 51-56. "Next. having bathed. "Then. . "Place Śrîdhara 1 to the east of it. and compassion to all beings. the sacrificer should perform. and make one image of Nârâyaṇa from them. according to the rite. The departed said: "Oh Great King. 49-50. and pleasant fruits. O King. put on it various ornaments. but I am not able to grasp them at all. as prescribed in the scriptures. Madhusûdana 2 to the south. consecrate a pot of water for the sake of the departed. and in accordance with what: rites must it be given? Tell me. to the west Vâmanadeva 3. "Then surely my condition as departed will unfailingly pass away. with Vaidic mantras. In all the worlds it is difficult to obtain this dissipator of evil conditions. gifts. "Then he must give thirteen sets of pots to Brâhmiṇs. "If the great Nârâyaṇa rite is performed for me. 5 Worship these in turn with sandal-paste and flowers. and having made the gift of a bed.

performed even by a stranger. On the arrival of the army the departed one. O Bird. . O King. Îśa 1 and Keśava 2. He who hears. the king returned to his city. attained heaven. released by these sacred gifts. have acted sinfully. 59:1 Śiva. 58:4 The club-bearing Viṣṇu. should be made with faith. What good are a hundred other gifts from you?"Brahmâ in the middle. though they may. eternal giver of happiness."Having prepared a pot of refined gold. having given the great jewel to the king. the rites and ceremonies for the dweller in the upper body. and he who causes others to hear this holy history. with incenses. again implored him. bowed to him. 58:3 The divine dwarf Viṣṇu. By the Śrâddha. and the departed. with elephants. Footnotes 58:1 Viṣṇu.--what wonder then that when the son performs it the father should reach it! 60. in the neck of it. full of milk and clarified butter. He duly performed. the guardians of the universe. "This gift. the departed attain a happy state. and Śaṅkara. never go to the departed condition. and all the guardians of the quarters. 59:2 Viṣṇu. in order-"These having duly worshipped. 58:5 A name for Śiva. O Kâśyapa. O King. one should give away the golden pot. 58:2 Another form of Viṣṇu. which is superior to all other gifts in removing great sins. followed him up. while he was thus conversing with the departed. horses and chariots. and arrived there remembering all that was said by the departed one. consecrated it to Brahmâ. flowers and sandal-paste. give it to a twice-born. Having come out of the forest. for the release of the departed. filled it with clarified butter and worshipped before it with devotion. in the east and other directions. and became invisible. The Blessed Lord spoke on: His army. slayer of the demon Madhu. likewise Viṣṇu. a form of." 64-65. 66-68.

An Account of the Gifts for the Dying. 1. Garuḍa said: Tell me, O Lord, all the rites for those in the other worlds who have done good, and also how these rites should be performed by the sons. 2. The Blessed Lord said: O Târkṣya, you have done well in questioning me for the benefit of mankind. I will tell you all about the rites proper for the righteous. 3-4. The good person, finding his body, in its old age, afflicted with diseases, and the planetary conditions unfavourable, and not hearing the sounds of life, And knowing his death to be near, should he fearless and alert, and should make reparation for any sins committed knowingly or in ignorance. 5-8. When it is near the time to die he must perform his ablutions, and worship Viṣṇu in the form of Śâlagrâma. He must worship with fragrant substances, with flowers, with red saffron, with leaves of the holy basil, with incense, with lamps, with offerings of food and many sweetmeats, and other things. He should give presents to Brâhmiṇs, should feed them with the offerings, and should recite the eight and the twelve syllabled mantras. He should call to mind, and listen to, the names of Viṣṇu and Śiva. The name of Hari, coming with the range of hearing, takes away the sins of men. 9. Relatives, coming near the diseased, should not mourn. My holy name should be remembered and meditated upon repeatedly. 10-11. The Fish, the Tortoise, the Boar, the Man-lion, the Dwarf, Paraśurâma, Râma, Kṛiṣṇa, Buddha, and also Kalkî 1: These ten names should always be meditated upon by the wise. Those who recite them near the diseased are called relatives. 12-16. Of him who gives voice to the auspicious name "Kṛiṣṇa" tens of millions of great sins are quickly reduced to ashes. Even the dying Ajâmila reached heaven by pronouncing the name Hari, which had been given to his son. 2 How much more then is its effect when it is pronounced with faith! Hari, meditated upon even by one who has evil thoughts, takes away sins: fire burns, even though accidentally touched. The sinful man is not able to sin while the power of the name Hari is uprooting the sins, O Twice-born.

Yama said to his servants: "Bring the man who denies, but O messengers, do not bring the man who meditates on the name Hari." 17-20. One should worship the Achyuta, Keśava, Nârâyaṇa, Kṛiṣṇa, Dâmodara, Vâsudeva, Hari, Śrîdhara, Mâdhavam, Gopîkâvallabham, Râmachandra, the Lord of Jânakî. 1 "O servants, do not go near those sinless people who take refuge in the lotus-eyed Vâsudeva and Viṣṇu, who is the supporter of the earth, and carries in his hand the conch and discus. "Bring those sinners who always turn away from time nectar of the lotus-feet of Viṣṇu,-which are served by the race of Paramahaṅsas, who know the true essence of things, and are without possessions,--and those whose desires are bound up in the household, which is the path to hell." "Bring them whose tongues do not pronounce the qualities and name of the Lord, whose minds do not meditate upon His lotus feet, whose heads never bow to Kṛiṣṇa, who do not offer worship to Viṣṇu." 21-23. Know, then, O Lord of Birds, the hymning of Viṣṇu, which bestows welfare on the universe, to be the best expiation for even great sins. The performance of penances does not purify the wicked man, who has turned his face away from Nârâyaṇa; just as even rivers cannot purify a liquor-pot. By the name of Kṛiṣṇa one is riddened of sins, and never sees, even in dream, Yama nor his servants. 24-25. The man, having a body of flesh, bones and blood,--who, towards the end gives cows to the twice-born, uttering "Nandanandanam," never falls into the Vaitaraṇî. Hence one should remember the name of Mahâ Viṣṇu, which effaces multitudes of sins, and should read or listen to the Gîtâ and the Hymn of the Thousand Names. 26-27. The fast of the eleventh day, the Gîtâ, the water of the Ganges, the leaves of the holy basil, the foot-water and names of Viṣṇu--all these are givers of freedom at the time of death. Then he must dedicate food, with clarified butter and gold, to a learned twice-born and. also give cows with calves. 28-31. Whatever a man gives in his last days, little or much, if it is approved by his Son, is exempt from decay, O Târkṣya. In these last days a good son should make all the gifts. It is for the sake of this that the wise pray for a righteous son in this world,

The sons, seeing their father lying upon the ground with eyes half-closed, should not covet his earned wealth. 1 A good son will make such gifts as will prolong his father's life, and free him from misery when he goes into the next world. 32-34. In disease and calamity two gifts rank above all others. They are indispensable-the eight-fold gift of sesamum and other things. Sesamum, iron, gold, cotton stuff, salt, the seven grains, a plot of ground, a cow,--every one of these is said to purify. The eight great gifts are the effacers of great sins, and should be given in the last days. Hear now their good effects: 35-36. There are three kinds of holy sesamums generated from my sweat. Asuras, Dânavas and Daityas 2 are gratified by the gift of these sesamums. White, black and brown are the three kinds of sesamums. The gift of these removes the sins gathered in speech, thought and action. 37-40. A gift of iron-ore should be made with the hands touching the ground,--then he does not go within the domain of Yama, nor tread his path. Yama holds in his hands, for the punishing of the sinful, an axe, a threshing-pestle, a rod, a sword and a dagger. This gift is considered propitiatory to these weapons of Yama. Therefore should be made the gift of iron, which is the bringer of happiness in the world of Yama. Because of this gift of iron, happiness is bestowed by these great messengers of Yama:-Uraṇa, Śyâmasûtra, Śuṇdâmarka, Udumbara, Śeṣa and Bala. 41-44. Hear this great secret, O Târkshya, about this most supreme gift, by which are pleased the dwellers in Bhû, Bhûvar and Swar worlds. 1 Brahmâ and others, sages, shining ones, and those who are in the assembly of the King of Justice are gratified by the gift of gold, and become granters of boons. Therefore a gift of gold should be made for the uplifting of the departed. He does not go to the world of Yama, O child, but reaches heaven. He dwells for a long time in the world of truth and is then reborn here as a king, handsome, righteous, eloquent, prosperous, and of unexcelled strength. 45. By the gift of cotton-stuff one is freed from fear of the messengers. By the gift of salt one is freed from the fear of Yama.

And by gifts of the seven grains the standard-bearer of the King of Justice and others who stand at the gates are propitiated. O Bird. cotton-stuff. of a cow is equal to a gift of land. salt. barley. having become a king. All other gifts. speech and thought. Rices. to a proper person. absolves one from Brahmicide. The sins committed in boyhood. 53-55. does not give land to the twice-born.--one is absolved of all these sins. 1 panic seeds. . Therefore shall a king especially make gifts of land. not by holy pilgrimages. The fruit produced by the gift of land increases daily. Having given even once a tawny cow.--of action. It has been observed by the sages that the gift of a plot of land of the size of a cow's hide. in the forenoon and the afternoon. dwarf-peas: these are called the seven grains. shall dwell in hell as long as Śeṣa 2 supports the earth. I say. Towards the end. sesamum and gold. does not make gifts of land. learned in the Vedas. He should give a cow to overcome death. are producers of little fruit. milkgiving. through pride. O Kâśyapa. to a well-conducted and austere Brâhmiṇ. 49-52. He who gives to the twice-born land filled with grains goes to the abode of Indra and is worshipped by divinities and demons. kidney beans. in old age and in previous births. The giver is released by her at the end from the accumulated sins. is reborn for many times as a beggar. The cows verily carry the man beyond three kinds of hells. 58-61. The sins committed in the night. mâṣa. By gifts of inn. a cow should be given.46-48. Not by vows. Chitragupta and the others who dwell in the city of Yama are propitiated. though for others. He who. in accordance with the rites. in manhood. wheat. 56-57. the gift. not by any gifts but by the gift of land is a great sin committed in kingship expiated. should the gift of a cow for Vaitaraṇî be made. another for the gaining of liberation. With special rites. without even a village hut. in the morning. another to absolve himself of debts. in the twilight. in youth. The king who. with the calf and other necessary things.

and place the covered bronze vessel upon some cotton-stuff. 70-76. of which I have spoken to you already. One should decorate a black or reddish cow. Put there a golden image of Yama. And it troubles the recipient's people for a hundred generations. place a foot in the boat. are equal. hang a bell round its neck. with ornaments to a Brâhmiṇ. If he either sells it or shares it his family will he troubled to the seventh generation. having honoured a Brâhmiṇ. And the gift of one hundred thousand cows after death 1. and never to many. A gift should not be made to an undeserving person by the wise who desire their own welfare. tip its horns with gold. the gift of a hundred cows while suffering from diseases. increases a hundred thousand fold. The cow given to an undeserving person leads the giver to hell. A gift made to a deserving person multiplies a hundred-thousand-fold. do not themselves partake of these evil qualities. and in it place the raft: Having placed the things which are born from the body of the sun in it. 64. and. 69. fill it with water. place clarified butter in the bronze vessel and put all upon the cow. Take hold of the tail of the cow. which is a means for crossing the Vaitaraṇî River. Cover it with a pair of black cloths. make a hole. I will tell you about the gilt of a cow. flowers. Mantras and fire. the gift of a thousand when dying and bereft of mental faculties. The gift of one cow while one is in full vigour of mind. the removers of cold and poison. and an iron rod. who has bathed at the sacred waters. silver its feet. fastening it with silk threads. and milk it into a bronze vessel.62-63. Make a raft of sugarcanes. properly worship with fragrances. recite this mantra:-- . and coloured rice 2. One cow should be given to one only. 1 Present the cloths. dedicate the cow there in accordance with the scriptures. It brings unending fruit to the giver and does not harm the recipient. 65-68. One who has studied the scriptures and made fire-offerings to the shining ones and who does not eat food cooked by others is not polluted by receiving even the earth filled with precious stones. A gift made to a deserving person.

At the equinoctial and solstitial points. 87-88. gives the Vaitaraṇî cow. "O Cow. Queen of the shining ones! "May cows be in front of me.77-82. God upon earth. possessions are not eternal. That river. Salutations to Vaitaraṇî. "May she who is the Goddess of Prosperity for all creatures. made miserable by the waves of sorrow and remorse. 85-86. may cows be in my heart 1. 90. I have presented this gift to you. does not appear in the Great Way after the gift of a cow. and may I dwell in the midst of cows. Salutations to Vaitaraṇî! "I have presented this to you. 91-92. Salutations to thee. with these mantras." 83-84. Thou art verily the saviour of those who are immersed in the ocean of existence. at the crossing over 1. like the Ganges. may cows be behind me. being desirous of crossing that river. to a learned Brâhmiṇ. 2 Therefore it is necessary to give a cow at all sacred times. uplift me. he should give them to the Brâhmiṇ. the very form of Viṣṇu.--thence flows unending benefit. 2 on Yuga days 3 and at other sacred times. That verily is called the sacred time. at Vyatîpâta. on the day of the new moon. goes by a righteous path into the assembly of the King of Justice. So one who desires his own welfare should make unending gifts. With hands together having invoiced. Vaitaraṇî. should make a gift of a cow. which is a hundred yojanas in extent. and lies on the very dreadful way of Yama. compassionate to those who seek refuge in Thee. The wise man. He who. desiring to cross that river. 89.--one should accumulate righteousness. and having walked round all these things. Bodies are transitory. "O Lord of the Universe. according to his wealth. and when a proper person is present. . in which faith is produced. and in the dwelling-places of Brâhmiṇs. look upon me. Whether the body is well or ill one should carry out the Vaitaraṇî observance. "O Best of the Twice-born. Yama in the form of a cow. its the form of a cow remove my sins. At all the sacred bathing-places. at the eclipses of the sun and moon. death is always near. O Bird. for the sake of my passing through the gateway of Yama on the great path. with these rites.--the supreme gift of a cow should be made. who is the mainstay of the shining ones.

. Otherwise--without provision--the man suffers pain on the path. and the relatives from the cremation-ground. goes and comes in misery. He should constantly remember that the true kinsman of the self is the Self. If not to the living. like a lump of wood or earth. father. reaches the supreme goal. be it good or bad. As long as one is in possession of wealth. and goes again upon its exhaustion. and who can give afterwards? 101-102. By the power of great merit. The fruitfulness of birth as a human being depends upon the pursuit of righteousness alone. Life is transient. or the wealth? In the world of change nobody belongs to anybody. but when they have known him to be dead. 103-104. but righteousness goes with him. wife and fancily. 100. 95-96. 97-99. sons. When his body has been destroyed by fire his karma remains and wherever he is the man experiences it. Like creatures in a water-tank. Nobody has a relation in this changing ocean of sorrow. The relatives turn away with averted faces leaving the dead body on the ground. son. birth as a human being is obtained. Therefore righteousness should be sought. So long as a man is alive he has a father and other relatives. and like the motion or sticks in a river is one's contact with mother. body. brother. wife and the others. goes happily on the Great Way. The man who neglects righteousness. and the time is effectual. Wealth. The wealth disappears from the house. presented with one's own hand:--this is unending. Knowing all this. The good and evil karma he has made goes with him.--all these are transitory. one should give with one's own hand.The gift of even a little wealth. and the grandsons? Whose is the wife. kinsmen. Therefore one should make gifts himself. 105-106. their affection soon fades away. 93-94. 107-100. having gained it. so long should one make gifts to a Brâhmiṇ. He who has gifts as provision. but when the wealth becomes another's one can have nothing to say. He is born by the attraction of karma. kinsman. He who. All the gifts made by human beings in this world clear the way for them on the path of the world of Yama. Whose are the sons. much less will anyone give to the dead. while still alive. follows righteousness.

incalculable. I accept that. and go to heaven. 65:1 They may expect ancestral property. Footnotes 62:1 The ten avatâras. Wealth is born of righteousness. O Bird. the self-subdued. but not that earned by the father. a fruit or water--from him. a leaf. 115. and as prescribed. a thousand-fold. do not make gifts at the time of illness come to grief when dead. ten-thousand fold. From him who offers to Me. for the sake of righteousness. by all means. through the brother. presented with devotion. by righteousness desire is conquered. leave faith. his sets. not by large piles of wealth. kinsmen and friends who do not make gifts on behalf of a dying man are without doubt slayers of Brâhmaṇ. Righteousness is supported by faith. because of greed. Hence should wealth be given. which appeared in archaic and ancient times. Sons. All those sinful-misers. 62:2 Ajâmila was a man of very evil life. Therefore should righteousness be pursued. Whether it be small or great does not count with me. 110-111. For him who makes gifts there are no troubles and no torments of hell. himself. by that. . A righteous son is honoured even by the shining ones. Righteousness verily is the cause of freedom. with devotion. by one knowing this. through the mother. a flower. grandsons. descents or incarnations of Viṣṇu. Therefore. 63:1 Names of Vishnu. and happened to call him as he was dying. though in poverty. except Kalkî. 113-114. who. What is given through the father has a hundred-fold merit. If the wealth made by the father is given to the deserving by the sons--then. brothers. through the sister. who is still to come. 112. a gift should be made. He should cause his ailing father to make gifts on earth. 116-118. 65:2 Classes of non-human beings. and no fear caused by the messengers of Yama at the time of death. grandsons and great-grandsons are ennobled. who named his son Nârâyaṇa. The wise.On account of gifts made in a former birth much wealth is obtained in this.

67:2 The eternal serpent. 71:2 Note the subjective character of the "river. 67:1 A kind of spotted grain. . and the minutes declination are the same. astral and lower mental worlds. silk. 71:1 Note here. 70:2 Akṣata. and used to honour persons by sprinkling over them. are closely connected with sacrifice and therefore with the sun. 68:1 That is. given by another for one." 72:1 The passing of the sun from one constellation to another. 72:3 Every month there is a day called Yuga--the last or last but one.66:1 Physical. gold. that the cow is merely a symbol. 72:2 When the sun and moon are on opposite sides of either solstice. whole rice coloured with turmeric and saffron. 70:1 Probably the afore-mentioned cow. etc. ghee.

and they prevent an ailing man from going to a miserable condition. unfailingly. which removes the pain of being. 3-5. 1. in the middle of the kuśa is Janârdana. of the rites for the dying. mantras. 14-15. then. are produced from my hairs. Dânavas and Daityas run away from sesamum. The house in which the holy basil tree is enshrined is like a holy bathing place. 6-9 Where is the shade of the holy basil tree. Sesamums. and then have the Śâlagrâma stone placed on the cleaned platform. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. there is always liberation for the dying. by the effects of karma. fire. Brâhmiṇs and cows do not lose their purity by being used again and again. though he have no son. goes to the city of Viṣṇu. having scattered sesamum seeds. When.--the servants of Yama do not come to it. An Account of the Rites for the Dying. holy basil. 1 Next. and I will explain the rites for one leaving the body. Liberation is certain for the being who dies near the Śâlagrâma stone. The darbha grasses. hence Asuras. The man who dies with a leaf of it in his mouth. near to a holy basil tree one should make a ring with cowdung. darbha-grasses and holy basil are three holy things. Tell now. 10-13. Brahma is seated at the root of the kuśa-grass.CHAPTER IX. 2. Garuḍa said: You have spoken fully about the gifts for the diseased. O Târkṣhya. . he should strew darbha-grass. my riches. though he have hundreds of sins. which removes all ills and sins. Yama is not able to see him who gives up his life while having a holy basil shoot. and by what rites men after death reach a good condition. difficult to obtain by gifts. Because the sesamum is produced from My sweat it is holy. hence by the mere touch of them men attain heaven. Hence kuśa. 1 at the tip of the kuśa is Śaṅkaradeva 2--three shining ones are seated in the kuśa grass. the embodied leaves his ordinary body. O Târkṣya. upon a seat of sesamum and darbhagrass. O Lord.

One should lay the dying man on the ground cleaned with cow-dung and spread over with darbha-grasses. nor place the dying man upon the ground. and the followers of Yama enter an impure place. with no stain to be seen. and a cot above the ground. and he who drinks the water of the Ganges. the worship of the Holy Ones. heated by the rays of the sun 1 is freed from all births and goes to the abode of Hari. Then one should give him the water of the Ganges. Ganges" while life is flickering in the throat. goes when dead to the city of Viṣṇu. He who drinks the water of the Ganges. . He who calls. drinking or calling upon the Ganges. Therefore should one drink of the Ganges. Demons. by his drinking the water of the Ganges. which is the effacer of great sins. Rudra 2 all the shining ones. one should put gold and jewels upon his lips. Just as. the feeding of Brâhmiṇs. 21-22. Brâhmiṇs. Viṣṇu. and give him the Water of the Feet of Vishnu in the form of the Śâlagrâma. whose water helps one over the ocean of transmigration. when basely used. If there is a stain it should be cleaned away by further plastering. and goes to the residence Vaikuṇṭḥa. spooks. goblins. mantras. 4 23-30. and is not born again on earth. By bathing in other rivers men are purified. He who performs a thousand times the Chândrâyaṇa fast which purifies his body. Śrâddha.Darbha-grass becomes unclean with rice-balls. 16-20. and fire. so. is his sin reduced to ashes. It sanctifies meritless men by hundreds and thousands. a bundle of cotton is destroyed by falling into the fire. cows and holy basil. placing him on the cleaned ground. He who drinks even a drop of the water of the water of the Śâlagrâma stone 3 is absolved from all sins. elementals.--therefore should one make a ring. "O Ganges. by eating the offerings for the departed.--so also by merely touching. Next. Hence without this ring one should not perform oblations to the fire. and Sacrificial Fire stand upon the ring. are both equal. not support him in the air. 1 Brahmâ. The ground must he pure everywhere. O Târkṣya. on a cremationground. and gives fruit of merit equal to bathings and gifts at all the sacred waters.

then. O Bird. Then he should listen. How can men. Yogins go through an opening in the head. to the Bhâgavata. clinging to desire and love. he should make a fast. At the time when the breath is leaving the body. The repeating of the Vedas and the Upaniṣads. When the Lord of Breath departs. fire is dissipated in fire. witness of the world. also air in air. of him who is righteous and has thus performed the rites. 3 while life is still flickering in his throat. keep in mind the Ganges. 36-39. who perish in a moment. Earth is dissipated to earth. all-pervading. The individual. eyes. similarly. 31-33. the body falls like a tree unsupported and stricken by time. as does a householder whose house has been burnt." goes at death to the city of Viṣṇu. Therefore he should contemplate.And the man who. . with its three conditions. dung and ashes? 42-43. becomes detestable and unfit to touch. Endowed with good tendencies. the life breaths easily pass out through the higher opening. nostrils and ears are the seven gateways through which go those of good deeds. foul smells soon arise in it. He who in his last moments repeats a verse. which are joined. The motionless body. ether to ether: and the Self that is in the bodies is happy. becoming subtle. eternally free. when his life is leaving. "I have relinquished. 1 which is a giver of liberation. The mouth. enters a new body created by his own karma. likewise water to water. possessing all the senses. Dissatisfied with worldly things the twice-born should take up relinquishment. be proud of the body. environed by the sheath of karma. 34-35. goes to the highest goal. the hymning of Viṣṇu and Śiva--these bring liberation at death to Brâhmiṇs. When the rising and descending life-breaths. and drink its water. 40-41.-worm. Then. left by the vital breath. And. and is not born again on earth. surrounded with sense-objects of sound and the rest. Kṣattriyas and Vaiṣyas. O Bird. salute. contemplates with faith the Ganges. 44-45. 2 He who says. become separate. the life-breath departs from the inert body. birthless and deathless. or half or quarter of a verse of the Bhâgavata never returns hither from the world of Brahmâ. and it is disliked by everybody. however little.

who has performed the rites. away in their own chariot. in a resplendent body. by virtue of gifts attains heaven.46-47: Then the messengers of the Shining Ones. arrive. 78:1 When the people of the house are aware that one is about. truly says. 77:2 Śiva. knowing the true righteousness. 78:4 The heaven of Viṣṇu. wise. and thus consecrated to Viṣṇu. And they. always beloved by the righteous. 80:2 Sannyâsa. bringing a chariot wreathed with countless bells. 78:2 Siva. 48. Footnotes 76:1 Cowdung is extensively used in India as a purifier and antiseptic. to die they remove him from the couch to the ground. with shining garments and garlands. 79:1 Here is a mystical suggestion. . and is honoured by the Holy Ones. giving up attachment to worldly life and its objects. resplendent with flashing plumes. 78:3 Water is poured over the stone. carry him. 80:1 The Bhâgvata Purâṇa. possessed of gold and diamond ornaments. 80:3 That is. That great man. 77:1 Viṣṇu.

Garuḍa said: Tell me. but one should perform the funeral ceremonies for his parents. except the nails and the hair of the armpits. Then the son. in the name of the so-called dead. should pronounce the family name. 1. 3. By this the earth and its presiding deity become pleased.--how can he be called a son. by this the evil ones amongst the tens of millions of elementals can do no harm. he should make a halt. O Târkṣya. having bathed with his relatives he must put on clean cloths. by doing which sons and grandsons are released from the hereditary debt. The son who does not have the shave when the mother or father has died. he should make an offering for him. At the place of death. the rites for burning the bodies of the good. . Then. Then. with his sacred thread on the right shoulder. along with all his relatives. 7-9. Ḥe should wake offering at the threshold in the name of him who is become a traveller. 2. in order to remove all sins. half-way. The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire. Then. and describe also the greatness of the wife who is faithful. 11-13. he should offer them. 10. he should bathe the corpse and next adorn it with sandalpaste. and dedicate rice-balls and presents.CHAPTER X. the helper through the ocean of changefulness. 1 4-6. O Lord. Then the daughter-in-law 1 and others should go round it and worship it. should have the shave. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. There is no need for numerous gifts. The son who bears his father on his shoulder to the burning-ground obtains the fruit of the horse-sacrifice at every step. after cleaning and sprinkling. Therefore he must have the shave by all means. 14. garlands. bringing river water. He who carries his dead father on shoulder or back or hip pays off the debt of constant parental kindnesses. abandoning sorrow. then along with the other relatives the son should bear it on his shoulder. Having bathed the corpse. I will tell you all about the ceremonies for the upper body. or the clay of the Ganges. Having covered it with new cloths he. the son who does so obtains fruit like that of the Agniṣṭoma.

and laid down with its head to the north. Beginning from the middle of Dhaniṣṭhâ. Having thus prayed to the fire. should give them to the fire. Oblations should be made in order that goblins. If burning takes place. having dedicated five rice-balls to the departed.on the funeral pyre. Burning should not be done then. This one belonging to the changing world is dead. 16-19. Having placed the departed on the funeral pyre. 24. evil occurs. Thus the dead gets the benefit of the offering of five rice-balls. demons and fiends. or in that of Departed. if there is not Pañchaka. Who dies in the Pañchaka does not attain a good condition. I will explain to you the rites for the warding off of all ills. and consecrated with the four Rikṣa mantras. having taken out some earth and erected an altar and sprinkled it with water. he should make there a funeral pyre with sandal wood. make of darbha grass. either in this name.15. Some place should be cleaned there. 1 he should make an oblation as prescribed. as follows: Having swept the ground and washed it with cow-dung. in the hand of the dead. The son. another death occurs. in case burning takes place in the middle of Rikṣa. Thou. for the burning of the body. and others in the various directions. Supporter of Beings. beginning with 'loman. otherwise the abovementioned come to disturb. Then it should be taken to the burning-ground. 20-33. 23. shall not cause disturbance of that body which is to be sacrificed. in the five Pañchaka mansions ending with Revatî 2 is not a suitable time for burning. From the time he is released on the funeral pyre the condition as departed begins. Womb of the World. the holy bath wood. . if it is done. 28. lead Thou him to heaven!" 20-22. and some trouble arises for the sons and family. Nourisher of Creatures. 1 25-27. and having brought the oblation with the grasses. An offering should be made on the funeral pyre. O Târkṣya. Harm befalls the house in which death takes place in the Rikṣa mansion. and with the wood of palâsha and aśwattha.'-"Oh. and having placed the fire as prescribed. And having worshipped with flowers and coloured rice the Shining One known as the eater of flesh. Those who know the ways of the departed call him a seeker. Then one should place near the corpse images. he should offer in the name of the departed two rice ball.

filled with milk and water. in that of ascetics with a cocoanut. in order. he should give food to a cow and eat-from a leaf-plate-but not any food already in the house. turned to the south. he should repeat this mantra: "Thou hast been burned with the fires of the burning-ground. he should weep loudly. does the burning. having split open the brahmarandra 1 should make an oblation of clarified butter with this mantra: "Thou art born from him. 56-50. on the day of the offering of the rice-balls. They should walk home. and the departed goes to the supreme condition. Who. Here is milk and here water. then the sons. the women in front and the men behind. in the name of the family. after having thus performed the pacificatory ceremonies. with the mantra "Pretâjayata. 2 may he be born again from you. He is an offering to the heaven-world. O Fire. When the burning is finished the women should bathe. Having bathed again at home.--no harm befalls him. For three days. Whether half or wholly burnt. bound with-three sticks. with mantras and sesamum offerings. and offer water mixed with sesamum. at sunset.Purified gold should be used." and with leaf-vessels. bathe and drink!" . in the case of householders with a piece of wood. gold. he should keep a lamp burning there. 62. Holding the unbaked earthen pot. For warding off ills he should give a vessel full of sesamum. and a bronze vessel filled with clarified butter. he should offer. 34-66. diamonds. 63. His son. blaze forth!" Thus having made an oblation of clarified butter. He should eat the leaves of the nimba-tree and recount the virtues of the dead. and the son. should perform the pacificatory rites for him. Having cleaned the place of death with cow-dung. up to the twelfth day. that he may become happy 60-61. and sacrifice performed with Rikṣa mantras. so that he may attain the world of the forefathers. at the cross-roads or on the burning-ground. silver. Thou hast been forsaken by relatives. Then the burning along with the images should be done. O Târkṣya. his skull should be split open. milk and water in an earthen pot.

and. on the second or the third day he should do as follows: 68-78. Having gone to the burning-ground. and cleansed it with cow-dung. Having placed them on palasha leaves. Having put them into a leaf-box. place in it. in the three directions. Then he should several times sprinkle the bones with water and milk. with great austerities. carry it to a tank of water. 79-84. Bhagîratha 1 brought her down from the world of Brahmâ." Then having sprinkled milk over the place of the funeral pyre. he should sprinkle water. 1 The son should make the grain oblation to the denizens of the burning-ground. Then he should make. he should sprinkle them with milk and water. and walk round three times. perform Śrâddha as prescribed. the divine Ganges. containing water. If there is nothing to prevent. and by those who do not. by those who maintain household fires. he should drop it into the middle of the Ganges. for the departed. for the uplifting of his forefathers. water and sweetmeats. Having collected the ashes from the pyre. as prescribed. He should take fifteen steps in the northerly direction and. . having bathed and become pure. and. He whose bones sink in the water of the Ganges within ten days. O Bird. taking the vessel from the hole. the jar of bones. On the fourth day the collection 1 should be made.--for so many thousands of years he remains in the heaven-world. never returns from the world of Brahma. Having worshipped. his sin is at once destroyed. Having prepared a triangular plot of ground.67. Then he should offer over it a rice-ball. digging a hole there. he. having put on a woollen garment. an oblation of cooked rice with curds and clarified butter. touched with it his heart and head and walked round it saluting it. taking a three-legged stool he should place on it a jar with mouth uncovered. When the wind which has touched the waves of the Ganges touches the dead. and wearing the sacred ring. and worship them well. should offer three rice-balls. facing south. with sandal-paste and saffron. which destroys the pain of burning. and begin to pick up the heap of bones. O Lord of Birds. As long as a man's bones float on the water of the Ganges. having put them into an earthen pot. repeating the mantra beginning with "Yamâyatva.

then one should offer a jar. one should have young children fed. Now. If a child dies on the bank of the Ganges. 91. whether vowed or not. 92-93. On the eleventh and twelfth days one should perform the ceremonies for a youth. Older than that it should be burned and its bones strewn on the Ganges. If a youth who has taken the vow dies. and the child drawn out and placed on the ground. if anybody meets his death in an uninhabited place.In the three worlds is celebrated the purifying fame of the Ganges. When his bones were dropped into the Ganges by a crow he ascended the divine chariot and went to the abode of the Shining Ones. killed by a lion in a great forest. along with children. if a child dies. and then collect its ashes and drop them into the water of the Ganges. and food should be given to children. for the performance of the annual Śrâddha. If a woman dies in the fulness of pregnancy. When one who has passed five years dies. or in a wood. There was a certain hunter. a destroyer of all sorts of creatures who. then. 94-98. And from the same day the ten-days' ceremonies should be performed and that date should be noted. If a youth dies. one should burn it alone. there are no rites. 88-90. if in another place. A gift of a waterpot should be made. If the embryo perishes. along with milk-food and lumps of sugar. and if his body is not found. but without the rites of releasing a bull and of the great gift. or from dangerous thieves. . up to twenty-seven months old. If an infant dies. 87. went to the place called hell. milk-porridge and eatables. Hence the good son should himself drop the bones in the Ganges. one should have Brâhmiṇs. it should simply be thrown into the Ganges. as explained above. 85-86. one should offer ten rice-balls. and she alone be burned. fed. her womb should be cut open. Those men who die after committing sins attain the heaven-world by their bones falling into the Ganges. on the day this is heard of-Having made an effigy of darbha grass. After the bones are collected he should perform the ten-days' ceremonies. one should give milk. it should be buried in the ground. who led to heaven the sons of Sagara 2 who had been reduced to ashes.

The Haṅsa. In boyhood and in youth the cot. He who is little attached to action. Bahûdaka. 86:1 A certain astrological position. Paramahaṅsa. no water rites. and the gifts of land. A man.If the father is living. the great gift and the gift of a cow should be made. 102-107. 86:2 The fifth Nakṣatra. rites are done according to age. by the mere holding of the staff. Where great rivers exist. 2 O Târkṣya. they must be buried in the ground. . Therefore rice-balls and water should not be offered to them. Marriage. and when dead. 85:1 The fire-deva. but one should perform the annual Śrâddha at the sacred waters. is declared to take the place of vows. 101. the bull and other sacrifices should be performed. because of carrying the three-fold staff they never go into the condition of the departed. and Śrâddha at Gayâ. If the Ganges. Footnotes 83:1 A certain sacrifice. with women and Śûdras. with devotion to the forefathers. With all ascetics there is no burning. by realisation of their own true nature. becomes Nârâyaṇa 1. who is little bound by sense-objects. Those who know are always free. they should be thrown into them. it is declared that they should be buried in the ground. 5 days in each month. Kutîchaka. 84:1 His son's wife--the wife of the son performing the rite. and the ten-days' ceremonies should not be performed for them by their sons. is not available. there is not joint rite for the youth. 99. requires but scanty rites. and he who is young in age of body. but on the twelfth day one should perform the ceremony for him alone. these are Sannyâsins. hence they do not expect rice-balls to be given. 100. with all the castes. Previous to the taking of vows. or other.

87:87-34 87:87-35 88:88-41 88:88-42 88:88-46 .

96:2 These names are given to advanced stages of human development. 93:2 There is a legend to the effect that the 80. 96:1 Viṣṇu. the ancestors of Bhrigu. were released and purified by him in the Ganges. . 91:1 Of the bones.000 sons of Sagara were reduced to ashes by Viṣṇu. and that they. 92:1 A finger-ring of kusha grass. 93:1 A great king who is said to have brought down the Ganges from heaven to earth. 90:2 The funeral pyre is lighted from the sacred household fire.89:89-48 89:89-53 90:1 An opening at the top of the head. put on the third finger of right hand.

1. O Keśava. and birth is certain for the dead. Nobody should form an excessive attachment to anybody. rests awhile and then departs again. Because the departed has inevitably to drink the bitter tears let fall by his relatives. and they should not weep when sorrow is useless. having done which. should perform them. either human or divine. or a Brâhmiṇ's pupil or a proper kinsman should perform them. There is no way out. how can there be permanence in a body which is sustained by these foods? 12-17. 9-11. the man who is dead may never be seen. Although there be sorrowing day and night for thousands of years. An Account of the Ten-Days' Ceremonies. Râma and Yudiṣhṭhira would not have experienced miseries. the body is only a dream. and who should perform it if there is no son. then Nala. O Bird. If there is no son the wife. so is the coming together of beings. This is inevitable and therefore a wise man should not grieve over it.CHAPTER XI. If there were a way of averting the inevitable. The ten-days' ceremonies. and if no wife the brother. refraining from tears. the being who has come under the sway of death must be born again here. should be performed by the sons or grandsons of his younger or his elder brother. The son. Having considered this. the son should perform the rites. what then of other persons’? As a traveller. and given up sorrow arising from ignorance. which removes misery. 3-8. Death is certain for those who are born. and I will tell you about the ten-days' ceremony. for the man who has no son. a good son is released from the hereditary debt. what good results follow from the performance of the ten-days' rite. O Târkṣya. should offer rice-balls to the father. Garuḍa said: Tell me. 2 The Blessed Lord said: Listen. The good things eaten in the morning are destroyed by evening. . taking calm courage. resorting to some shady place.

on account of that son. mouth-perfumes and presents. by this sacrament for the helpless departed. they are all considered. a lamp. over leaves. should bow to it. a twice-born 2 made of darbha and kuśa grasses. A man or a woman who performs the rites for a friend. The ten-days' ceremony for the father should be performed by the son. 1 eating one meal. He should dedicate Usîra-root. The son who performs the rites for one year. and having placed upon it a ball prepared in the family-name of the departed. and the other sixteen Śrâddhas. O Bird. If there is nobody else. in a garden. he should make an altar 1 there. 2 and pure. as a seat for the rice-ball. beginning with the ten-days' ceremony. on account of that son.--the son should make the offering. the flowers of the Bhṛiṅgarâja. through excessive affection. as is obtained by going round the shrines seven times. obtains such fruit as is acquired by performing the Śrâddha at Gayâ. even if the wealth has been divided. only one has a son. obtains the fruit of tens of millions of sacrifices. ." Then having spread kuśa grass in front of it. all of them have a son. For all who have no sons a friend may offer the rice-balls. The rites must not be neglected. to have a son. or in a temple. perform it. Having gone to a well or a tank. If a man has several wives. eatables. He should place on it. but only one of them has a son.-Only by one these ceremonies. incense. devoted to Brâhmaṇ. 22-24. the family priest may do them. of brothers of the same father. Therefore should the eldest son perform with devotion the ten-days’ ceremony. Being purified. and having worshipped it with water for the feet and other things. 19-21. seated facing southward at the root of a tree. Although there be many sons. saying the "Atasî.Manu declared that if. sleeping on the ground. the riceball offerings. Even if the eldest son dies. cleansed with cow-dung. 25-30. 18. only one shall perform the ten-days' ceremony. between nine and twelve noon. But the annual Śrâddha should be performed severally if the wealth has been divided. Made of cooked rice or of barley meal. sandal paste. The son obtains such fruit from the performance of the rite for the father and mother. the father should not. he should bathe without reciting mantras. at a sacred bathing-place.

O Bearer of the conch. he should. that has been given by me to the departed in his earthly name. from the first day onwards.Crow-food. 34-36. cloths. On the tenth day he should shave." Every day at the conclusion of the Śrâddha he should prayerfully repeat this incantation. they should proceed to the place of the dead. and handfuls of castor-oil in a pot: "May all this. clad in yellow robes. And say: "May his family increase like the panic grass. and having the women go in front. persist. "O Beginningless and Endless Deva. taking with them panic grass and parched grain. 37-38. if given in the name of the departed. The son who performs the ceremony must again have a complete shave. During the ten days he should feed a twice-born with seasoned foods. 33. gone home. 100:2 A rough image. 39. Lotus-eyed. Therefore. confer eternity upon the dead. 99:2 Celibate. There is no reason for fear for those who bow to Govinda. in accordance with the sapiṇḍa rite. and given food to the cow. Having bathed. Food. as beautiful as the atasî flower. he may eat. O Lord of Birds. . wealth or other things. so should the nine rice-balls be given. Having bathed in the open. wishing the dead to reach heaven. or a ball of mâṣa. as also should the other relatives. with hands together. the Eternal. pray for the release of the departed. one should pronounce the name of the departed woman or man. 40. Having meditated upon Hari." 31-33. symbolical of the deceased twice-born person. In the same way that on the first day a rice-ball is given as prescribed. since flesh is forbidden in the Kali Yuga at the ceremony for the forefathers. discus and mace. be Thou the giver of release to the departed. water. On the tenth day a ball of flesh should be given. Indestructible. 41-42." and then leave in the house the mixed-panic grass and grain. On the ninth day all the authorised kinsmen at the proper time should besmear themselves with oil. milk and water. Footnotes 99:1 One each day. 100:1 A square flat mound a few inches high. and radiate like the parched grain.

To the west there should be a pot filled with Ganges water for Viṣṇu. should make the wateroffering. He should invite Brâhmiṇs. To the south there should be a pot of rain-water for Yama. explain the ceremony of the dedication of the bull. as prescribed. clad in black robes. and bowing their heads. clad in red robes. To the east there should be a pot of milk and water for Brahma. and an iron one of Yama. facing southward. 3 perform the offering to the fire and then the eleventh-day Śrâddha. to Śiva and to Justice. pray for the release of the departed. and performing the Sandhyâ and other ceremonies 1. to Viṣṇu.CHAPTER XII. O Ruler of the universe. 3. having made a circle in the middle. 5. with hands folded together. and upon it one should place Yama. offer a rice-ball to the departed. with mantras." 12-15. a copper one of Rudra. One should make a golden image of Viṣṇu. Even a preceptor should become purified by bathing. and perform diligently all the funeral ceremonies. tell me about the eleventh-day rite also. and there one should place Rudra. which he has used. and. the seven grains which he liked. and upon it one should place Viṣṇu. with the sacred thread over the right shoulder 1. without mantras. clad in yellow robes.--a brass vessel filled with clarified butter. 11-13.--these. 1. He should make water-offering. 2. The Blessed Lord said: In the early morning on the eleventh day one should go to a water-reservoir. 6-10. and there one should place Brahmâ. An Account of the Eleventh-day Rite. And he should next make a gift of a cow for the helping along of his forefathers: "this cow is given by me. one should do the eleventh-day ceremony. clad in white robes. The son. O Bird. his ornaments. One should perform the tenth-day Śrâddha in the family name. His clothes. and placed therein kuśa-grass. a silver one of Brahmâ. O Mâdhava. 4. his conveyances. with Vaidic mantras. May it please Thee. . To the north there should be a pot of honey and clarified butter for Rudra. and on the eleventh day. to the creator 2. well-read in Vedas and Śâstras. Garuḍa said: O Lord of the Holy Ones.

and the other things. and red in its eyes. O Brâhmiṇ. is called very dark--of which five varieties are known. is called a reddish bull. with the image of the departed. A glossy and red complexion is suitable for a Kṣattriya. and which is the colour of lac dye is called dark. and give him cooked food. and is the uplifter of the ancestors. so going round him he should salute him and present it. and brown hoofs and horns is called dark-coloured. red horns. That which has one colour over all its limbs and tail and hoofs is called dark-brown. for the sake of the departed. and Śrâddhas of the ninth and other days. That which is dove-coloured and has a tilaka-mark 1 on its forehead is called deep-brown. for the sake of the dead." With these words it should be given to a Brâhmiṇ preceptor who has a family. give the bed as prescribed. the departed goes to the highest condition. 17-. He should not use a cow which is crippled. . yellow colour for a Vaiśya. 16. with white face and tail. with tail and feet white. flour-cakes and milk. and having worshiped it. The bull whose face. and is entirely beautiful in all its limbs. and increases the satisfaction of the forefathers. they should be brought to his bedside and he should have them given. On the eleventh day the rite of the dedication of a bull should be performed as prescribed. the eight great gifts: if one does not offer these in his last days. By this gift of the bed.19. One with all limbs red-brown. sweetmeats. black is suitable for a Śûdra.Sesamum and the rest. and by the rite of the dedication of a bull. 21-30. That which has a red colour. "This bed is given by me to you. That which has red eyes. legs and tail are white. Having washed the feet of a Brâhmiṇ he should honour him with cloths and other things. ill or too young. Then the son should place upon the bed a golden image. a reddish colour. That which is dark over all its body. but one having well-marked characteristics. white belly and black back is suitable for a Brâhmiṇ. 20. neck and hoofs.

31-35. he should release the bull and the young cow. The man who has no son. Any one whose ancestors are tormented in Raurava and other hells helps them all out for twenty-one generations by the dedication of a bull. and then tether them to a post. On account of your being released. the ailing man should make the fire-offering. and should not be used for domestic purposes. at the equinoctial and solstitial points. In the month of Kârtika 1 and in other auspicious months. at a sacred bathing place. 38-42. with hands folded together. all of us will go to the highest condition? Among all sacrifices." 43. one should perform the dedication of a bull.This should by all means be dedicated. having worshipped them with fragrances and garlands. It exists in the world on this account. goes easily to the highest condition. Having brought together a young bull and cow. the son. Therefore. "By whose dedication. Its fruit comes even during life. and will give release to the departed. walk round them. 37. And should bathe the bull and young cow with the water from the pot of Rudra. One should desire for many sons. left side with a discus. He should [mark] the right side with the trident of Śiva and the. and worship a bull. he should bind them together with a marriage string in accordance with marriage rites. when the sun is going north. Therefore this should be done. In the two eclipses. or the dark on the twelfth and following days. for the release of the forefathers. Having released the bull. of whom one perchance may go to Gayâ. one should perform the bull-sacrifice. help over this ocean of existence!" Having thus bowed to it. according to the Śâstras. the bull-sacrifice is the certain giver of release to us. .--so runs an ancient saying. doing it himself. Having cast the positions of the planets and worshipped them with their respective mantras. Even the forefathers who have gone to heaven desire the dedication of a bull: "which son in our lineage will perform the dedication of a bull. and. in the bright fortnight. or marry a virgin Gaurî or dedicate a dark bull. with this mantra. "I shall always be the grantor of boons to you. He alone should be considered a son who performs the dedication of a bull and the Gayâ Śrâddha---who does not do so verily is like unto excrement. He should do everything with diligence according to the prescribed rite." 36. 44-45. Thou wert formerly created by Brahma. should recite this mantra:-"Thou art Justice in the form of a bull.

he who goes with his teacher's wife. I will tell you what should be done prior to sapiṇḍîkaraṇa ceremony. a Brâhmiṇ who knows the rites and has the auspicious signs should be invited. the stealer of gold are all absolved by the dedication of a bull. such as the fire-offering and the rest. likewise by gifts. whether having a son or not. is not reached by oblations to the fire and other sacrifices. O Târkṣya. and at the collection of the bones.--these six. That at the place of death. in manhood and in old age are destroyed.46-49. all the rites should be done. and in a pure place. sixteen:-30-64. in childhood. 50. If a woman. And having placed a Śâlagrâma one should do the Vaiṣṇava Śrâddha. As in the former case. the second to the blessed Śiva. 57-59. the dedication of a bull should not be performed. having a husband and a son. in youth. without doubt. and then perform the Śrâddha for himself and give gifts to the twice-born. Therefore should one perform the bull sacrifice with all diligence. the middle. suffers the torments of Yama until the end of the age. 55-56. The betrayer of friends. 51-53. falls into a dreadful hell. by the performance of the dedication of a bull obtains the fruit of all his desires. half-way on the road. nor by manifold gifts. by the dedication of a bull. by fire-offerings. O bird! until the coming of the deluge. there is no merit in all the three worlds equal to that from the dedication of a bull.--one should present a milk-giving cow. By recitation. The man who cruelly strikes a bull with his fists or with sticks. 54. And next I will tell you about the second. at the funeral pyre. one should perform the sixteen Śrâddhas. at the threshold. . He who burdens a bull on the shoulder or on the back. one should present the third to the retinue of Yama. and the ten piṇḍas given in the ten days:-These first sixteen are called impure. predeceases both. the slayer of a Brâhmiṇ. Having thus carried out the dedication of a bull. He who does this. the drinker of intoxicants. That condition which is obtained by the performance of the release of a bull. One should offer the first rice-ball to Viṣṇu. O Bird. At the hour when the sun enters an auspicious constellation. The sins which are committed in infancy. in the hand of the corpse. the purification of the body should be done. the ungrateful.

either by himself or another. one should perform the sacrament and other rites as prescribed. One should form a picture of a hooded serpent upon the ground with ricepowder. I have declared to you. Having had food cooked. and should dedicate 1 uncooked rice-flour.The fourth to king Soma. Also. If the performance of the three sixteens of Śrâddhas is not carried out. on the fortnight. 1 and the sixth to the bearer of oblations to the forefather. the fifteenth to Yama. the third fortnight. The forty-eight Śrâddhas destroy the condition of the ghost-life. then he certainly does not join them. owing to carelessness. or if the wife does them for the husband there is uninterrupted prosperity. as prescribed. is killed by fire. for any one who. "the Faithful. Therefore the three sixteens should be performed by the son. the thirteenth to Viṣṇu. and the eleventh reverently to Viṣṇu. If he is killed through recklesness or wilfully. He for whom this series is performed becomes a member of the assembly of the forefathers. The sixteenth rice-ball. 1 the ninth to Puruṣa. O Târkṣya. One should offer a serpent incenses and lights. much strew rice and sesamum. and worship with white sweet-smelling flowers and sandalpaste. 73-78. . if deprived of Śrâddhas the ghost remains as preta always. the seventh one should present to Death. and the annual and the fortnightly is called by me. one should give to Puruṣa: These are called the middle sixteen by men who know the truth. 70-72. 65-67. the fourteenth to Śiva. or by water. the fifth to the bearer of oblations to the Shining Ones. 2 the tenth to the departed. The three sixteens should be performed so that the departed may join the assembly of the forefathers. or by a serpent. 2 eatables and milk. then me should worship a serpent on the fifth day of each fortnight. 68-69. The eighth one should give to Rudra." This faithful wife lives for the good of her husband: the life is fruitful of her who worships her dead lord. She who does the funeral ceremonies on the death of her husband. O bird. before the six months. and also before the year.-This is the last sixteen. The twelfth one should give to Brahmâ. One should give rice-balls in each one of the twelve months.

111:1 Śiva. or rice-balls with water regularly. by which they are absolved of all sins and obtain residence in heaven. with hands together "may the King of Serpents be pleased. having done all the rites. and passes of the hands are made as though a influence it towards the image. Panini Office." And should further perform for them the rite Nârâyaṇa-bali. according to his means. It is the ceremony for all the ancestors together. and a cow. 104:2 Brahmâ. 108:1 Including the latter part of October and the first part of November. Then one should. Footnotes 103:1 For an account of these ceremonies. he mast change it. 104:3 Dharma or Yama. 80. Having done this on the eleventh day he should then offer the rice-balls for all the ancestors. 112:1 The food is placed near the image. 104:1 It is usually worn ever the left shoulder under the right arm. 111:2 The primeval man. . usually with sugar and cocoanut.One should offer a serpent made of gold. to a twiceborn. 110:1 That is Fire. one should give every day a jar with food and water until the end of the year. Sris Chandra Vasu. 1 and when free from pollution he should have made a gift of a bed and other gifts. 113:1 This ceremony is performed on the twelfth day. as it were in anticipation of the annual event. see the Daily Practice of the Hindus by Mr. for this ceremony. Allahabad. 79. Thus. 106:1 Orthodox Hindus place a mark on the forehead to show caste and other things. Viṣṇu. 112:2 Made into a ball.

Those who are related within the fourth degree to the deceased are purified in ten nights. 1. Therefore the Sapiṇḍa. Those whose piṇḍas have not been mixed together with the ancestors called Śiva and the rest. If a person dies in a foreign land and one hears of his death. four days. and the gift of accessories. The eighth. the tenth. a Kṣattriya in twelve days. he becomes pure even by bathing. An Account of the Ceremony for all the Ancestors. The Sapiṇḍa relatives 1 are purified from the death pollution in ten days. O Lord. . merely till bathing. the Sâkulya relatives 2 in three nights. If the son is always impure. a Vaiśya in fifteen days. those in the fifth degree. If a boy who has not yet cut his teeth dies. should be performed by the son. then the impurity lasts for the remaining portion of ten days on which he hears the news. before the investiture with the thread. the removal of pollution. and the gotrajâs 3 are purified merely by bathing. Garuḍa said: Tell pre. O Târkṣya. 1 are not uplifted by the various gifts made by the sons. a quarter of a day. about the method of [performing] the Sapiṇḍa rite. before tonsure. ten nights. a single day. 2. the sixth. the seventh. 13. the ninth. 12. purification is immediate. they are never purified. 6-9. in six nights. 10-11. at the end of the pollution period. three days. I will tell you about the ending of pollution to be observed by all. it is said. he is polluted for three nights.--so long lasts the pollution of death and birth [according to the distance of degrees from the deceased]. A Brâhmiṇ becomes pure in ten days. If a second pollution comes daring that from the first death. and I will explain to you the entire Sapiṇḍa rite. without the Sapiṇḍa rite the impurity does not depart. If after a year. by which the condition of preta is left behind and the soul enters the class of the pitṛis. The Blessed Lord said: Listen.CHAPTER XIII. 3-5. three nights. a Śûdra in a month. and afterwards. one night. then the purification from the first pollution includes that from the second. If after the lapse of ten days.

gives food to a twice-born. accepts it. in as many days the embryo lived months. and touching others should not he done during the death pollution. . the third fortnight. reception of guests. after births and deaths. 23. purification is immediate. an ascetic or a king there is verily no pollution. Blessing the worship of the Shining Ones. Therefore. suffers no evil. who then goes to the world of the forefathers to join the multitudes of forefathers. and from that to old age three nights are authoritative. according to the caste. hiding his pollution. can be eaten. Sandhyâ prayers. during pollution.14-16. But I say. the sixth month or at the end of the year. O Târkṣya. Whoever. reciting. If a girl dies between birth and tonsure. offering to the forefathers. 24-26. Up to betrothal a single day. 19. feeding of Brâhmiṇs and the observance of vows should not be done during the death pollution. lying on a bed. or a twice-born intent upon Brâhmaṇ. Food prepared before marriage festivals and sacrifices. If the embryo dies before sixth month. If the embryo dies. and the Brâhmiṇ who knowing it. religious study. salutation. if after marriage. engaged in mantras or in fire-offerings. suffers evil. If after the betrothal ceremony three days for both families. 27. purification of the Sapiṇḍa relatives is immediate. 28-30. the occasional and the specially desired ceremonies--of him the regular and other ceremonies already done are lost. only the husband's family. so Manu declared. 17-18. The truth-knowing sages hare declared that the Sapiṇḍa ceremony should be on the twelfth day. fire-offering.--are both subjected to suffering. After this the women are polluted. in all the castes alike. one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for the father. but the giver even though it be to a mendicant that he gives. For one observing vows. for the purifying from pollution. that for the four castes the Sapiṇḍa should be on the twelfth day. 20-22. giving. it should be understood. He who during pollution performs the daily. and before the pollution by birth or death. Whoever. following the scriptural ordinances. accepts through ignorance. During the Kali Age--it is authoritatively declared in the Śâstras--ten days' purification for all the castes. purity is regained.

the fruit which accrues from performing all sacrifices: that fruit is obtained by doing the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. then investiture with the sacred thread. Rudra and Arka. mouth-scents. Hence. He should worship with sandal-paste. 1 and âchamana. If a Brâhmiṇ house-holder dies. The father's rice-ball. divided into three parts should be mixed with their rice-balls. The fruit which accrues from visiting all the sacred bathing-places. He should offer three rice-balls in order to his grandfather and others. as laid down in the scriptures. The husband should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for his. If the father dies while the grandfather still lives.The twelfth day is preferable because of the endless variety of conditions in the Kali Age. 41-43. It is my decision. 44. and the impermanence of the body. leaves of the holy basil. Having divided the rice-ball for the departed into three parts with a thin bar of gold. he should do the Sapiṇḍa for her along with the mother-in-law and others. he should mix them severally with the three rice-balls given to the grand father and the others. O Târkṣya. Until the Sapiṇḍa has been performed the mendicant should not accept alms. good cloths and presents. . in the forms of Vasu. wife. lamps. 36-30. agreeable fools. the son should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. marriage and other ceremonies should not be done. he should sip water. By the omission of rites sinfulness arises. oblations. the mother's with the grandmother's and the father's with the grandfather's. incenses. 35. 40. or should mix the rice-ball with both mine and great Lakṣmî's. having bathed. 31-33. and because of the shortened life of men. three rice balls should be offered to the great grandfather and his predecessors. therefore one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. and having cleaned with cow-dung the place of death. that the Sapiṇḍa ought to be done. and guestofferings should not be accepted. The daily and the occasional ceremonies should be discontinued. If the mother dies before the grandmother-Then he should perform the mother's Śrâddha in the same way as the fathers. having given rice-balls to other departed ones. if she has no son. 2 Next. the fulfilment of vows. Then he should worship the world-deities with foot-water. and the fourth rice-ball to the dead. 34. whether he be without fire or with fire.

O Kâśyapa! husband and wife ascend the same funeral pyre. If. having bathed again. and a rod should be touched severally by the castes." and four abundances is called "hantakâra. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony having been thus performed. then. gold. with mantras." along with Vaidic mantras. silver. All the Devâs. Made of the choicest wood. O Târkṣya. he should make the offering of water to the forefathers. . 58.45. an elephant. ornamented with gold leaves. coloured rice and eatables. Then he should worship with mantras--after saying "Hail to thee"--the planets. food. 2 and Vinîyakam 3. 50-57. 47. and having bound a thread upon the hand. painted in beautiful colours. He should utter "Let there be Swadhâ. and after that. because the wife being already half the body of her husband requires no Sapiṇḍa ceremony with regard to her husband. Afterwards he should always have a guest fed until he says "hanta. scales." 1 By this the forefathers. having put grasses between them. for his continued satisfaction. the sages. water. a chariot and a plot of ground given to a preceptor. canopied with silken cloth. a good cow. After the feeding of the twice-born. The preceptor should then. with saffron. the rite for the mother. and he should give them presents. During the Sapiṇḍa he should worship the feet of a twice-born with sandal-paste and coloured rice." four mouthfuls is "abundance. Therefore a bed should be given. and make to him a gift. strong." 52-53. Only one son should perform the rites. 59-64. and white cloths having been donned. Devi. first the offering of a rice-ball and other things for the father. sprinkle water. a horse. during life or else after death. 46. O Târkṣya. a weapon. "The Sapiṇḍa rite for women should be done with that for the husband. should present the coloured rice also consecrated with mantras. the cloths worn during the rite should be cast off. who are respectively thus purified. the Shining Ones and the Dânavas are pleased. Then he should have Brâhmiṇs fed with various pleasant sweetened foods. and twelve pots with water and food. extol the gift of a bed. the gift of a bed should he made. 54. 1 headed by Indra. delightful. 49-51. As much as a mouthful is called "alms. 55. is not my opinion. He should have maintenance for a year. Having done the Sapiṇḍa. he should perform it with that of the mother-in-law and father-inlaw. his father and grandfather"--that. clarified butter.

while he is still living. he should pronounce this mantra. He should worship Hari and Lakṣmî with saffron and flower-garlands. he should have the red dye. and holding flowers in his palms. An umbrella. and a canopy of five colours. furnished with all the necessaries. and tells about Brâhmiṇ. 65-66. according to the rite. Thus he should place the handsful of flowers before the Brâhmiṇ and the image of Hari. O Kṛiṣṇa. weapons and clothes. with his wife adorned with fragrances and flowers. together with Lakṣmî. is a teacher. He should give it to him who observes vows. a water-pot. and then. in their proper places. and then the bed-gift with its accompaniments. 69-71. And. broad and pleasant: such a bed as this being made. a row of silver lamps. the Planetary Spirits and Vinâyaka. If a living man makes with his own hand the gift of a bed. Wearing a turban and an upper cloth and jacket. 67-68. 75.Having beautiful pillows stuffed with swans' down. with ear and finger ornaments and golden necklaces. a seat. and adore the Guardians of the World. Then a Brâhmiṇ. in front of Lakṣmî and Nârâyaṇa. seated on the bed. an oxtail fan. ornaments. saffron. a vessel. Facing north. give them leave. a mirror. clothes. should be seated by him on the comfortable bed. How seldom does any one so give!" He should rock the twice-born and Lakṣmî and Hari. And all the other accompaniments of the bed he should place round it. together with a coverlet made fragrant with the scent of flowers. in the case of women. On it he should have placed a golden Hari. "O Brâhmiṇ. If he is rich he should give a very beautiful house. may this likewise be not empty in my future births. standing in front of the Brâhmiṇ: "Just as. 76. there should be performed. ." 72-74. with all the ornaments. receive these. your bed is the ocean full of milk. and say. on full moon day the dedication of a bull. having placed them on the bed. it should be placed on the ground covered with cloth. Well-bound with bright bands. having walked round and bowed. and all the other necessary things. so that he may sleep happily on the bed.

82-86. he may obtain the fruit of his desires. The miseries of cold and heat and wind are dreadful there. At the celestial house of Indra. fierce and brown-black. and at the abode of Yama. obtained these thirteen padas he should give. 78. 79-80. but by the power of the gift of clothes he goes happily along the way. And on the path in the world of Yama. The father. Having this made the gift of a bed. There is there intense heat. a copper vessel.77. a signet ring. by which the man is scorched. is windless and without water. and the son giving it. drinks water. O Bird. a seat. By this padadâna the righteous go to a good condition. he will arrive without doubt through the potency of the gift of a bed. An umbrella. when thirsty. the son should have Padadâna given. seated in the best of chariots. 87-93. those who gave shoes go riding horses. Who. them to thirteen Brâhmiṇs on the twelfth day. and this padadâna gives happiness to those who have gone on the way of Yama. uncooked rice. and I will tell you the method of it. He will reside there free from trouble. very terrible. This pada becomes complete with a staff. foods. and sacred threads. valuables. It is enveloped in great heat. Listen to my words. waited upon by numbers of celestial damsels. 81. until the coming of the deluge. but the gift of an umbrella makes pleasant shade above his head. Having. through the gift of a water pot he. clothes. Having given a bed to a deserving person. The messengers of Yama. and never to several. full of great thorns. rejoices here and hereafter. Divided or sold it drags down the giver. a water-pot. This bed should be given to one only. shoes. do not trouble on the road him who made the gift of a signet ring. a set of five vessels--are called the seven kinds of padas. for the dead. and on all the days of the changes of the moon: even superior to these is the merit arising from the gift of a bed. gives a water-vessel made of copper. The merit from all the sacred bathing places. certainly enjoys the fruit which is obtained by thousands of gifts of wells. . according to his means.

the latter. When there is no sankrânta. then in the thirteenth month the annual ceremony for the departed occurs. Thus are understood by the wise the two months which are in the irregular month. The ceremony for one only should not be done. After a year one should always offer three rice-balls at the Śrâddha. his day is the fourteenth. Now I shall tell you the rules concerning the monthly. rice-balls are proper. in addition. also chaṇḍalâs and other outcasts. should be done when there is no sankrânta. O bird. There is no re-doing of what is done excepting the rites for the departed. when there is sankrânta. the Śrâddha is not performed. 107-110. he should have many Brâhmiṇs fed. If one dies on the fourth day his rites fall on the ninth. after the Sapinda and before the annual ceremony. leisurely going on the path he comfortably enjoys his provisions. a water-pot with rice-balls should be given every month. as a means of unfading satisfaction. If one dies at the full moon his rites fall on the fourth day. the twice-born should be fed. If one dies on the ninth day. rice-balls are not used. 94-95. Thus. as prescribed. similarly the monthly and the first annual Śrâddhas. by it one becomes the destroyer of his forefathers. the two fortnights and the thirty days are the same [both must be performed. 1 O Bird. for the sake of the departed it may be done again. in the irregular month. but. this gift. 1 When there are two months in one month. . When in one month [Kṣayamâsa] two saṅkrântis occur. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony. the annual and the fortnightly ceremonies. 106. and in that. 100-105. 97-99. and of dying on lunar days. for the second half. Having thus given. 911. If there is an additional month in the middle of a year. Then.] For the first half day take the former [the dark]. at the end of the first year one should perform the annual Śrâddha. Thus the annual Śrâddha should be done in both months. In these cases one should perform the fortnightly Śrâddha on the twentieth day. on the day of the Sapiṇḍa ceremony.Through properly giving to a twice-born a seat and a vessel. the month being double. of those two.

the deer on the mountain of Kâlinjira. a rice-ball of the size of even a śamî leaf helps over seven clans and one hundred and one fatuities. but hears this account. like the son of Kauśika. even he. O Lord of birds. his life is fruitful. and giving liberation to the forefathers. nor on yuga days. having experienced a series of births. performs the Śrâddha and gives satisfaction to the forefathers. The forefathers are freed from the ocean of existence by the Śrâddha at Gayâ and. it should be done after a year. all the ceremonies. having gone to Gayâ. is happy and becomes liberated. If the son performs the Śrâddha at Gayâ. by favour of the Viṣṇu. although they killed a cow. delighting the family. Therefore a man should make every effort in devotion to the forefathers. 121. will offer us rice-balls. the Śrâddha at Gaya. He who. on the field of the Kurus. O Lord of Birds. and all these sons of the twice-born attained liberation through devotion to the forefathers. He who offers. treading the good path. 120. The son who thus performs the rites for the other world. on the head of Gayâ. the Chakravaka birds in Śaradvîpa: and the swans in the Mânasa lake Were born as Brâhmiṇs learned in the Vedas. O Târkshya. with devotion to the forefathers. giving merit to and satisfying the desires of the son. the son of Manu:-"Are there none in your family. O Târkṣya. were liberated by the favour of the forefathers.The Śrâddha at a sacred bathing-place. Thus I have told you. having gone to Gayâ. and in proper order offer rice-balls round them. they go to the supreme state. with devotion?" 116-119. O Târkshya. . The seven hunters in the country of Daśârṇas. obtains the fruit of gifts. 111-115. 111-113. concerning the deceased. the forefathers hear a song sung by the Holy Ones in Kalâpa. the Gajachchhâyam. 122. who. for by devotion to the forefathers he becomes happy either in this or the other world. for the fathers--these he should not do during the year. He should worship the feet of Viṣṇu with the shoots of the holy basil. Any man who is poor. the garden of Ikṣvâku. absolved from sins. The seven sons of Bharadwâja. nor at eclipses.

--all males and unmarried females. gratified by the Śrâddha.--listen to the fruit for him:-The father gives good sons. the grandfather. on the male line. wealth of cows and his great-grandfather becomes the giver of riches. with water. The great-great-grandfather gives foods in abundance: all these. 115:3 Cousins up to the forty-second. highly respected.123-126. and also hears the Garuḍa Purâṇa. the Śrâddha offerings described by me. 115:2 Cousins up to the fourteenth. 118:1 Consisting of rice.--all males and unmarried females. and flowers. and there they remain. Sûta said: Having heard the result of the after-death gifts and their mighty greatness. but this may. granting the son's desires. 120:3 Gaṇeśa. 115:1 Cousins up to the seventh. according to the rite. 127. Go on the way of righteousness to the mansion of the King of Justice. 125:1 If other ceremonies have been badly done they may not be re-performed. 120:2 The consort of Śiva. 120:120-48 . 121:1 A high class of superhuman beings. darbha grass. thus declared by the Blessed Viṣṇu. on the male line. He who performs. Rudra and Âditya. 118:2 See "Daily Practice of the Hindus" for an account of âchamana. .--all males and unmarried females. in the assembly of Righteousness. Garuḍa went into raptures. Rudra is Śiva. 120:1 A benediction which the recipient makes when he has had enough. his father and grandfather are considered as corresponding to Vasu. on the male line. Footnotes 114:1 The grandfather.

then his annual Śrâddha must be done in the dark half on the same day on which he died. The month preceding month which is dropped has its two fortnights taken as belonging to the regular and the dropped month respectively. December. If a man dies in the second fortnight in this case the annual ceremony belongs to the month which was dropped. in which there is no sankrânti. although it is a year of intercalary month.126:1 "The ceremonies are performed according to the lunar months. hence an additional irregular month occurs once in 27 months. It is November. . on the other hand. or irregular portion.--thus there are only 12 months in that year. The difference of solar and lunar months is about 11 days in the year. In this long month. a main has died and his month is dropped the preceding month is taken for the annual Śrâddha. If a man dies in the adigmâsa. but the intercalary is always associated with one of the other eight. The kṣaya-mâsa is a name for a month which occurs every 149th year. the malamasa. lf. The sankrânta is a solar month. not 13. is the first half. while the second half is regular. and on the same day in the bright half if he died during the second half of the day. January or February which is thus dropped. but the regular mouth is dropped. In this case the intercalary is added and (?) treated as such. the passing of the sun through one zodiacal constellation. Hence there is an intercalary month of 30 days every three years. if his death occurred during the first half of the day. but there are to be only twelve of the monthly ones in a year. Astrological calculations are done with solar months.

with hundreds of streets decorated with flags and banners. It is declared to be four-angled. Headache. and smallpox likewise. Syncope. Beautiful with gardens and parks. In that city is the very lovely dwelling of Chitragupta. 1-2. to the south-east. decorated by skilful painters and constructed by divine architects. which extends to the number of twenty-five yojanas. 6-9. surrounded by high ramparts and measuring a thousand yojanas. resounding with songs and music. Between the south and south-west is the city of the son of Vivaswata. Garuḍa said: what is the extent of the world of Yama? What is it like? By whom was it made? What is the assembly like. impregnable by Holy Ones or Demons. To the east of the abode of Chitragupta is the great house of Fever. tell me about those righteous ones and the ways. with four gateways. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. and Biliousness also. I will tell you about that shining city of Justice. Surrounded with shining ramparts of iron. considers the lives of men individually. resplendent. To the south are those of Rheumatism and skin diseases. 10-15.CHAPTER XIV. An Account of the City of the King of Justice. or by whom good or evil deeds have been done And by order of Chitragupta he experiences all of them there. He is never mistaken in distinguishing between good and evil deeds. and sounding with the songs of various birds. seated on his most wonderful throne in that assembly. to the north-west. all built of diamonds. O Treasure-house of Compassion. Dyspepsia. . and with whom does Justice reside? The righteous go by righteous ways to the mansion of Justice. up to ten [yojanas] heights. To the north there is consumption and Jaundice likewise. To the west are those of the Snare of Death. 3-5. O Târkṣya. Chitragupta. Abounding in chariots. habited in every part by celestial damsels and choristers. which is accessible to Nârada and others find is reached by the very meritorious.

decorated with flags and banners. 24-28. is enchanting. to the north-west cold and heat--with these and other diseases it is surrounded. 29-30. 16-23. and embellished with golden fringes. has no bondage. Twenty yojanas before the abode of Chitragupta. are sweet. In that there is a divine assembly place which is a thousand yojanas in extent. Filled with various wonders. and is full of palaces and mansions. splendid like the sun. decorated with emeralds. It is certainly two hundred yojanas in extent. with hundreds of golden doors. O Târkṣya. and was created by the Architect of the Universe by doing tapas 2 for a long time. That assembly. is the very resplendent mansion of the king of justice. and measures fifty yojanas in height. ornamented with gold. full of light. and in every way satisfying. And with windows of strings of pearls. It is shining with jewels. and splendid like lightning. and no trouble of hunger and thirst. with beautiful crystal stairways and walls beautified with diamonds. 1 With no extreme heat and no extreme cold. . In the middle of the city. It is supported by thousands of pillars. accomplished. rich with the sounds of bells and drums. is Dysentery. whether they be human or divine. tranquil. Chitragupta records the good and evil of men. and remain there ornamented with their own meritorious actions. the sounds and other things there are pleasant. With these and other embellishments decorated always--it was created by the architect of the Universe by the power of his own Yoga. All there are in a condition of happiness. flame and the sun. plants and creepers without thorns. and purified by good actions go there. beautiful with trees. are of good vows. the eatables are tasteful and plentiful. Pleasing to the mind with cupolas of the splendour of the autumnal sky. both hot and cold.To the south-west. renouncing. is a fulfiller of desires. Those who have done great tapas. and trees always bear the fruit desired. All there have bodies of light. The water. and are adorned with shining garments. and enjoyable in every way. truth-speaking. most ravishing to the mind with no sorrows and no old age there.

and fanned by celestial damsels bearing in their hands fans of hair. Mândhâtâ. bedecked with all kinds of jewels-Sits. . round about. having performed many horse sacrifices. There is there no favouritism. Vaśiṣṭha. 46-47. and others having forms. hosts of progenitors. 41-45. well-read in the Vedas.-These royal sages. Nimi. 2 The kings of the Solar Race. are in the assembly of Righteousness. 34-40. Nârada. the powerful Barhiṣads formed and formless. on a throne pure and incomparable. and also Sahasrârjuna. his head dignified with the regal umbrella. Agastya. Puru. prosperous. Anaraṇya. and no jealousy. Pulaha. He is waited up by Mṛityu 1 with a noose in his hand. There the Lord of Justice. Śântaṇu. and many others in the assembly of the King of Progenitors. also of the Lunar Race. meritorious. Dilîpa. ornamented with ear-rings. Jâmadagnya. Dakṣa. Aryamâs and others. Śibi. Kraturatha. Nahuṣa. Sagara. Yayâti. Who are the Agniṣvâttha. bearing awful nooses and rods. made splendid with a large crown. and by Chitragupta. 2 the Somapâs and the Uṣmapâs. no untruthfulness. splendid as a blue cloud. Muchakunda. the Best of the Good. Those who expound with accurate commentaries. famous.31-33. O Bird. Aṅgiras. either by their names or their deeds. Bharata. Bhagîratha.-These. 1 serve the King of Justice by order of Parameṣṭhin. Pitṛis. with the sages: Atri. Manu.--all these wait upon the King of Justice. and also Bhṛigu. music and dances. Pâṇdu. serve him with songs. and Pṛithu. Adorned with all ornaments. Pulastya. Ambarîṣa. the recorder of fate.--these knowers of righteousness wait upon the King of Justice in the assembly. the Dharmaśâstras. Nala. by kâla 1 still more powerful. Surrounded by various servants equal to him in prowess. ready to do his bidding. Multitudes of celestial choristers and numerous groups of celestial damsels. Duṣmanta. ten yojanas in extent. Righteousness alone prevails in the assembly of the King of Justice. impossible to enumerate.

choristers. 50. those who impart learning. abounding in all enjoyments. Those who shelter ascetics 1 in their houses during the rains. and others of good deeds. magicians and great serpents. those free from anger and greed. It is full of swans and water-fowl. O Târkṣya. is the assembly of the great-souled King of Justice. splendidly lined with swans. those who speak consolation to the mentally distressed. and certainly those who give a hermitage. those who tell and listen to the Purâṇas. all are devoted to righteousness. and beautiful with Brâhmany ducks. and the devotees of Śiva. they go to the Assembly of Righteousness.--are travellers on the path-These. There is an eastern way. who go by the southern path. and multitudes of celestial damsels. . By their merits they go into it. and of purified intelligence. eastern and others. and make them gifts. and paved with jewels. Such. and in that assembly they continually wait upon Vaivasvata 3 48-49. of houses. and there is there a delightful tank full of the essence of nectar. those devoted to father and mother. having the essence of nectar. By that go the holy Brâhmiṇ-sages. Those who make gifts of land. of cows. and who give fuel in winter.All those assembled are knowers of the scriptures. Hear about them:-51-55. enter by the eastern gate. The second. those who give rest-houses in the summer. the stainless royal sages. and is paved with yellow sandal-wood. covered with the shade of Pârijâta trees. Skilful in goodness. There are four ways leading into the city of the King of Justice: The way for the sinful has already been described to you. On this way go those who are learned in the Vedas. 2 and those who bathe at the sacred waters at the changes of the moon. is filled with hundreds of great chariots and with palanquins. And worshippers of the deities. 59-61. also those who honour guests. Those who go into the mansion of righteousness by the three gateways. are those of good deeds. the northern way. Busy with numerous chariots. The sinners. bounded by trees and pleasure-gardens. And those who delight in truth and righteousness. do not behold it. those who are worshippers of Dûrgâ 1 and Bhanu. those taking pleasure in the service of their Teacher.

ascend the best of chariots. go to the Assembly of Righteousness. devoted to the society of the good. reach the Assembly of Righteousness. those who die in Benares. those who are accidentally drowned in the sacred waters. 2 By this way go the self-reliant. Observers of the vow of celibacy. in the service of the master. those who contemplate the good scriptures. mace and sword. those who always take pleasure in the five sacrifices. those intent upon renunciation. Those who abstain from the company of the wicked. those intent upon the welfare of all beings. he speaks and acts in a hind and friendly way to those who delight in meritorious deeds. the western way. those faithful to their wives. always filled with the essence of nectar. by the will of the Shining Ones. those who look equally upon gold. 74-76. and those who delight in making great gifts. Those who are rid of the three-fold debt. at the sacred waters and on holy ground. and those who die of vow of starvation. Yama.-these. those who perform the rites of Brahmâ. the austere. and from calumny. forest dwellers. devotees of the feet of Śrî. . and go to the mansion of righteousness. discus. those who perform Śrâddha for the forefathers. Then. those who repeat the Gâyatrî-mantra. those who maintain household fires. rising and coming forward. seeing them come. 65-73. repeatedly bids them welcome. those who keep vows to Śiva and Viṣṇu. Is filled with maddened elephants sprung of the family of Airâvata 1 and with jewels of horses sprung from Uchchaiḥśravâ. the good. Those who die for the sake of Brâhmiṇs. stone and earth. assuming his four arms. Those who always honour the deserving. Those who have attained knowledge and dispassion. The third. accompanied by numbers of celestial damsels.-these. those entirely devoted to Viṣṇu. Those who turn away from injury to others. holding his conch. those who die in the practice of Yoga. entering by the northern gate. those who perform the Sandhyâ at the proper times. those who die in the protection of cattle.Those who die in the pursuit of righteousness. and splendid with ponds. from the wealth of others. and entering by the western gate. is beautified with jewelled mansions. those who repeat the Vedas. They drink nectar.

never acts wisely. Then again they go to the highest condition by their own good conduct. difficult to reach. He. All this about the abode of Yama has been told you upon your asking. 133:2 Meditation with an effort to produce physical effects. Best of the Wise. . and then honours them with sandal-paste and other things. Who is more foolish than he? "He who. they obtain. and bows to them. holy human birth. Go you to the holy place which abounds in all enjoyments. Footnotes 133:1 Taking any form desired.He offers them the throne. the state of happiness. and having saluted him and the assembly. expert in all the scriptures. stores up unchanging righteousness. The man who hears this with devotion goes to the assembly of the King of Justice. and being honoured by the immortals and extolled by the leaders of the sages. and enjoyed superhuman pleasures. will go to the world of Brahmâ. he alone is a wise man. 86. as a result of their merits. "O’ You Assembled! Salute with deepest reverence the knower. you have by your merits attained divinity. washes their feet. departing from my dominion. 135:1 Scriptures teaching the duties of life. 77-81." 82-85. "He who. in the impermanent body. accompanied by multitudes of chariots. 135:2 Brâhmaṇ. with every effort. attaining the human state. 134:1 Forms of Death. having heard the words of Justice. amid perishable wealth and other things. "O. he goes to a dreadful hell. Wealthy and wise. Go along the highest path. 134:2 A class of progenitors. who avoid the pains of hell. "Therefore should righteousness be accumulated. They. then those in that assembly of righteousness rise up with great respect Having spent there 1 some ages.

136:1 Those who have renounced the world. . 138:1 The divine elephant.135:3 Yama. 137:2 The Sun. the son of Visvasvat. 138:2 The divine horse. 140:1 That is in Heaven world. 137:1 The consort of Śiva.

O Treasurehouse of Compassion! 3-4. I wish to hear what. 13. 11-12. I will tell you that supreme secret. Pungent. O Târkṣya. And how he of good deeds is born in the house of the pure and prosperous. daughters on odd. and likewise meditation upon the nature of Chit and Ânanda in the Brahmarandhra. Tell me. Now tell me how he is produced in the womb of the mother. On the firth. having sown the seed of great potentiality in the field which is productive of grain. astringent and hot things should be entirely avoided. I will tell you the real nature of that body which possesses the attributes of the universal Egg. From the seventh day she becomes fit to perform the rites of worship to the forefathers and the Shining Ones. like a husbandman. I will tell you also about the rites and observances of the parents. Keeping away from. Having bathed. The Blessed. After menstruation the women should be avoided for four days. reaps a good harvest.CHAPTER XV. Here the sons gradually enter during the eighth day. The husband. Their face should not be seen during that time. 7-10. day women should eat sweet foods. Garuḍa said: The righteous man having enjoyed heaven. Then is produced the righteous son. a store of auspicious qualities. That night is never obtained by vulgar people. a woman becomes pure on the fourth day.--the object of concentration of Yogins. . is born in a stainless family. Sons are born on even nights. lest sin should arise in the body. acid. in this body. Hear how the Yogins perform the meditation upon the six chakras 1 within it. and washed her clothes. 14-18. even by knowing which one becomes all-knowing. her during the first seven days. 5-6. 1-2. 1 On the fourteenth night the seed remains there certainly. the man of good deeds thinks. Sixteen nights are declared to be common for women. Lord said: You have asked well. During the seven days the embryo continues impure. on even nights he enters. An Account of the Coming to Birth of People who have done Good.

1 put on flowers and sandal-paste. such as the Punsavana. Saliva. By adhyâropa 1 and apavâda 2 he meditates upon Brâhmaṇ.--these are the five attributes of earth.The man. Then the man obtains semen. Then he constantly strives to discriminate between the self and the not-self. the fifth. Earth. According to the thoughts in his mind at the time of union will be the nature of the one who enters the womb. water.--these are declared the five attributes of air. . becoming skilful in all the sciences. stretching and moving. wealthy and benevolent. sloth. formerly done. urine. hair and flesh. The meritorious soul obtains birth in a high family. Now hear those of fire:-Hunger. and pilgrimages to sacred waters. O Lord of birds. This body is made up of the five elements. Skin. endowed with learning and modesty. thirst. At the time of his birth Brâhmiṇs receive much wealth. by association with the wise. and blood. running. sperm. The intelligence joined with the seed remains always in the sperm. jumping." 25-30. and clean clothes. For the understanding of the dissociation of Brâhmaṇ from that with which he is associated. which are of the genus "Not-self. air and ether--these are called the stable elements. marrow. 24. In his youth he is divinely handsome. by the union of sperm and germ [cells] 19. O Târkṣya. Bending. austerities. and with righteous thoughts in his mind. having chewed betel. For him there are numerous rites. nerves. thought and sperm become united.--are said to be the five attributes of water. sleep and sexual desire--are called the five attributes of fire by Yogins everywhere. 2 20-23. I will tell you the attributes of earth and the others. He grows up in his parents' house. arising as the result of great merit. fire. When desire. should unite with his good wife. The good son who enters the womb is the giver of the highest bliss. bones. and in the interior of the womb the formation of ovum takes place. declared to you by me.

and the waste. Vâta. Ears. Indra. as soon as eaten. Dhanañjaya. hands. 11 36-39. 7 Alambuṣa. is ejected from the body. Dik. Devadatta. hair--are called unclean places. in the navel. The fire. the cause of hunger is to be known as Kṛikala. Food. Vahni. teeth. Kûrma. The Vyâna air makes the essence go all over. Arka. Thus the airs. and are the ten principal Naḍîs. in the region of the throat. 5 Pûṣâ. Mitra. opening and shutting the eyes is known as Kûrma. Udâna. 2 Suṣumnâ. and Vyâna also. 4 Gajajihva. Vyâna: Vomiting is called Nâga. The air called Vyâna carries the essential part in all the Nâḍîs. are declared to be the duties of the organs of sense and action. nostrils. Prâṇa. and also Gândhârî. the two Aśvins. and distributed all over the body. tongue and nose are the sense organs. inflamed by the air. individualisation. separates the substance from the waste. tongue. Upeudra. generative organs. nails. Yawning. 40-43. navel. the organs of generation and of excretion are the organs of action. 44. and have the flavour of past karma. may be understood by you with effort.Speech. 32. perform their own functions. The organs of speech. Apâna. Samâna. . thought. Samâna. Apâna. forced through the twelve gateways. head. skin. Udâna. and carries all over the body the nourishment which is obtained by eating mouthfuls of food. 8 and Kuhû. Mind. feet. 45. 33. Prachetas. eyes. 6 Yaśasvinî. inflames it slowly. vacuity. analysis--these four are called the Internal Means. 3 thirdly. just as does the rising of the sun. eyes. Kṛikala. reason. Iḍâ. 1 Pingalâ. placing the water over the fire. having derived their power from the self. 9 and Saṅkhinî.--Nâga. all-pervading. anus. is split into two by that air. in the anus. 34-35. Having entered near the anus it separates the solid and liquid portions. 31. does not leave even the corpse. 10 the tenth as well--are situated in the interior of the body. trunk. Prâṇa. affecting people. and the solid over the water. Ears. delusion and mental instability--the five attributes of ether. The Prâna standing under the fire. Devadatta and Dhanañjaya 12:-In the heart.

Meru is situated in the triangle 1.46. Svarloka. Seed is known to be two kuḍavas. in the left triangle. . oceans.--the seven great mountains. Now hear. above the feet. 54. at the middle of the navel. At the hips. marrow is twelve palâs. phlegm is half of that. at the knees know it as Sutala. seven hundred thousands of hairs of the head. O Bird. at the forehead. the flesh is said to be one thousand palâs 1 and blood one hundred palâs. at the throat it should be known as Maharloka. The waste materials are not measurable. Vitala. 2 53. 4 56-59. I will tell you about these. the two-fold nature of the body of man. and bones in the body are said to be three hundred and sixty. Talâtala. skin is seven palâs. 60-61. both dense and subtle. at the thighs Mahâtala. continents. which are the objects of meditation of Yogins. All the worlds. mountains. Below the feet is called Atala. in the region of the mouth. ovum one kuḍava. and the second Pâramârthika. O son of Vinatâ. 47-52. The body which possesses these attributes is Vyâvahârika. there are six chakras in which are said to be located the attributes of the egg of Brahmâ. There are said to be thirty-two teeth usually. The nâḍîs. these are declared to be the seven worlds: Bhûloka. On the Vyâvahârika there are thirty-five millions of hairs of the body. in the heart. bile is fifty palâs. as they are constantly changing. at the secret part Rasâtala. Himâchala. Satyaloka in the Brahmarandhra--these are the fourteen worlds. Fat is ten palâs. In the Pâramârthika body. Tapolaka. and twenty nails. By pondering upon them one becomes the enjoyer of the nature of Vairâja. it is said. suns and planets are in the Pâramârthika 3 body. One is Vyâvahârika. Ramaṇa in the lines on the left. Mandara is in the inverted triangle. Kailâśa is in the right triangle. above it the Bhuvarloka. at the loins Pâtâla. Niṣada is in the upper lines Gandhamâdana in the lines on the right. Janaloka. number tens of million. 55. the "great blood" is three palas.

62-65. Jambu is in the place of the bones; Sâka is situated in the marrow; the Kuśa continent is situated in the flesh; the Krauncha continent in the nerves; The Śâlmalî continent is in the skin; Gomeda, in the mass of hair; Puṣkara, in the place of the nails;--and next the oceans: In the urine the Kṣâra ocean; the Kṣîra ocean in the milk; the Sura ocean is situated in the phlegm; in the marrow, the Ghṛita ocean; The Rasa ocean in the juices; the Dadhi ocean is known to be in the ova; the Swâdu ocean in the region of the soft palate; you should know son of Vinatâ. 66-68. The sun is situated in the Nâda chakra; the moon is in the Bindu chakra; Mars is situated, it should be known, in the eyes; Mercury is in the heart, it is declared; Jupiter is in the Viṣṇu-sthâna, it should be known; Venus is situated in the seed; Saturn is in the navel; Râhu, in the face, it is declared; Ketu is situated in the lungs;--in the body is the circle of the planets. In all these forms one should meditate on his own body. 69-71. Always at dawn, sitting steadily cross-legged, one should meditate upon the six chakras, in the order of the Ajapâ. 1 The Gâyatrî called Ajapâ is the giver of liberation to the sages; by merely thinking upon it one is released from all sin. Listen, O Târkṣya, and I will explain the best method of Ajapâ, by doing which the individual always gives up his separateness. 72-73. Mûlâdhâra, Swâdhishthâna, Maṇipûraka, Anâhatam, Viśuddhi and also Âjñâ,--are spoken of as the six chakras. One should meditate in order upon the chakras, at the root of the generative organ; in the region of the pelvis; in the navel; in the heart; in the throat; between the eyebrows; at the top of the head. 74-75. The mûlâdhâra is four-petalled and resplendent, with letters from va to sa; the Svâdhiṣṭhâna resembles the sun, is six-petalled, and has the letters from ba to la; the Maṇipûraka is red in colour and has ten petals, from da to pha; the Anâhata is twelvepetalled, from ka to tḥa, and is golden-coloured; The viśuddhi lotus is sixteen-petalled, with the vowels, and has the light of the moon; the Mâtra 1 lotus is two-petalled, has the letters ha and kṣa, and is red in colour; the one at the top of the head is the most resplendent, this lotus has a thousand petals, and is the seat of truth and bliss, ever auspicious, light-possessing and eternal.

76. One should meditate, in order, in the chakras, on Gaṇeṣa, on Vidhi, 2 on Viṣhṇu, on Śiva, on Jîva, on Guru, and on Parambrahmaṇ, all-pervading. 17-80. It is said by the wise that the subtle movements of the breath in one day and night number twenty-one thousand six hundred. It goes out with the sound of "ha," and enters again with the sound of "sa." The individual is, indeed, always repeating the mantra. "Haṁsa, haṁsa,"-Six hundred for Gaṇeśa; six thousand for Vedhas 1; six thousand for Hari 2; six thousand for Hara. 3 A thousand for the Jîvâtman; a thousand for Guru; a thousand or the Chidâtman;--thus one should understand the respective numbers of the repetitions. 81-82. Aruṇa and other sages, who know the succession of Teachers, meditate upon the deities presiding over the chakras, who are rays of Brahmaṇ. The sages, Śuka and ethers, teach it to their pupils; therefore a wise man, after meditating upon the path of the Great Ones, should always meditate thus. 83. Having worshipped mentally in all the chakras, with unwavering mind, he should repeat the Ajapâ-gâyatrî according to the instructions of the Teacher. 84-88. He should meditate in the Ranḍhra, with the thousand-petalled lotus inverted, upon the Blessed Teacher within the Haṁsa, whose lotus-hand frees from fear. He should regard his body as being washed in the flow of nectar from His feet. Having worshipped in the five-fold way he should prostrate, singing His praise. Then he should meditate on the Kuṇḍalinî, as moving upwards and downwards, as making a tour of the six chakras, placed in three-and-a-half coils. Then he should meditate on the place called Suṣumnâ, which goes out of the Randhra; thereby he goes to the highest state of Viṣṇu. Then he should always meditate, between four o'clock and sunrise, on my form, selfillumined, eternal and ever-blissful. 89. He should bring his mind to a state of steadiness, not by efforts alone, but under the instruction of a teacher, without whom he falls. 90. Having done the inward-sacrifice he should perform the outward-sacrifice. Having done the purificatory ablution, and the Sandhyâ, he should worship Hari and Hara. 91-94. For those who are attached to the body facing-inward 1 does not come about. For then devotion is easier, and that gives liberation.

Tapas, and Yoga, and others, are also ways to liberation, but for those who are attached to the world of change the path by devotion to me is far superior. This is the conclusion of the all-knowing Brahma and others, after having conned the Vedas and the Śâstras for three periods. Sacrifices and other righteous duties purify the mind. The devotion to me has a form of fruit from which the obtainer never falls away. 95. The good man who follows this, O Târkṣya, by the union due to devotion to me, goes to eternal liberation.

141:1 Certain centres in the etheric and higher bodies, which revolves like wheels when set in motion by meditation; hence the name chakra. 142:1 Sixteen are favourable, but the fourteenth of them is best, if some other cause doer not render it inauspicious. 143:1 To augment the virile power. 143:2 A rite performed when living conception is observed. 144:1 False ascription, and ... 144:2 refutation, two sorts of arguments. 145:1 The left hand nâḍî. 145:2 The right hand one. 145:3 The central one. 145:4 This goes to the left eye. 145:5 This goes to the right eye. 145:6 This goes to the right ear. 145:7 This goes to the left ear. 145:8 This goes to the mouth. 145:9 This goes to the liṅgam.

the Âjñâ. 151:3 Śiva.145:10 This gees to the mûla. channel for the vital breath." 148:1 The triangle in the triangle. 151:1 Brahmâ." 150:1 That is.) 147:2 Individual and common physical body. Meru is the sacred mountain or pakk. . 147:1 Pala is a little more than an ounce (6/5 oz. 150:2 Brahmâ. 145:11 An inner nerve. 149:1 The saying of "Haṁsa. 147:4 Viraj means "to shine. 147:3 Universal and spiritual body. 152:1 Their meditation is unsuccessful. 145:12 Various forms of the vital breath. 151:2 Viṣṇu. because they are thinking of outer things.

one becomes a man by good deeds. Always miserable in this world. length of life. That which is considered the individual is from a part of Him. Garuḍa said: I have heard from you. no one is ever known to be happy. like sparks of a fire. Are fettered by forms of good and evil. The unmoving things. lasting until liberation. in the unsubstantial. in the worlds of change. 1-4. O Ruler of the Shining Ones. Being and Knowing and Bliss. 5-7. all-knowing. goats. men. They have also. according to their order. and I will explain to you what you have asked. and also the liberated. The embodied. In every life obtained. the liṅga. through the accumulation of merit. who has the nature of Supreme Brâhmaṇ.CHAPTER XVI. a higher and more subtle body. O Ocean of compassion. 8-10 These. worms. all-doing. Through millions of myriads of thousands of births some time a being obtains human birth. placed in various kinds of bodies. There is a Shining One. and fortune born of karma. the thirtythree deities. compassionate to those who seek refuge. The endless multitudes of individuals. the righteous. 14-16. birds. . O Lord. stainless and secondless. without attributes. in the eighty-four hundred thousands of bodies before attaining human birth. Śiva. I now wish to hear about the means for eternal liberation. O Lord. who is partless. tell me by what means they may obtain release. about the transmigrating of the individual. beyond the Beyond. in all deep miseries. 11-13. and if he becomes a knower 1 he attains liberation. even by the hearing of which a man is released from the world of change. are born and die-of them no end is known.--in this terrible world of change. through ignorance. O Bird.--with nationality of body. Lord of all. Self-illumined. separated and encased in bodies by beginningless karma. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. O Lord of Liberation. O Târkṣya. with beginningless ignorance. Having worn and cast aside the four sorts of bodies thousands of times. beginningless and endless. can obtain no knowledge of the truth. giving happiness and misery. An Account of the Law for Liberation. animals.

Old age comes on like a tigress. a field again. Therefore should he strive for the best. and even that little is unfruitful owing to the miseries of childhood. having drunk the liquor of delusion.--then he is soon released. 22-23. a house again.--where is there a discerning one who is at ease? Even a hundred years of life is very little.--who in this world is more sinful than he? The man who. The wise always adopt means for the preservation of the body. duty for the sake of knowledge. He who does not take precautions against the diseases of hell while here. If he does not guard himself against harm who else will? Therefore should he look after his own benefit. those whom calamity has befallen. Alas! a man. 26-32. the dead. 1 20-21. does not help himself over. .He who. and a step to liberation. in view of welfare. does not know his own benefit. having obtained this highest birth and superior senses. difficult to get. It should be guarded for the sake of duty. so long as the senses are not decayed. so long should he strive for the best. people are never afraid. Without a body. does not understand what benefits the soul is a slayer of Brâhmaṇ. life is fickle as lightning. good and evil actions again-the body never again. Living. between happiness and misery. 17-19. He should always guard his body. disease and old age. youth is like a flower. wealth again. and the miserable. which is the means to everything. so long should truth be pursued. the afflicted. The time of death is not known by those who are variously embodied in the world of change. So long as misery does not come. therefore should he guard his body as wealth and perform meritorious deeds. even those afflicted with diseases such as leprosy do not wish to give it up. So long as the body lasts. A village again.--the stupid man digs his well when the corner of his house is already afire. and half of it is sleep and idleness. Though seeing those just born. what will he do? 24-25. afflicted with disease and having gone to a country where there is no medicine. Riches are like unto a dream. so long as calamity does not befall. life goes like water from a broken pot. knowledge for the sake of Yoga-meditation. diseases attack like foes. he should make every effort to protect it. having obtained a human body. nobody obtains the object of human life.

He who is in it is afflicted with misery. who prates of "my offspring. though wearing away with every moment.--such is this world of creatures. mother.--otherwise never. who has an army of dreadful diseases--wilt thou not see the saviour? 43-44. 42. waves may be bound. he does not understand. this other is done or not done. bewildered by the divine magic. Death preys upon the man afflicted with the needles of thirst."-death does not consider whether it leas been done or not done. even Meru is reduced to powder. he does not understand. young men. bitten by the serpent of sense-objects. The wolf of death forcibly slays the lamb of a mortal. though reading. just as an unbaked pot placed in water disappears imperceptibly. in the morning or in the afternoon. where he should fear he confides.--though grasped by the crocodiles of death. 45-48. ." Him who is thus prating death overpowers. "It must be done to-morrow. which is like foam on water and is attached to passing objects. my wife. the impermanent permanent. whose. is unnoticed. What is the good of association with wife. This individual. leaving his own body. He who abandons it becomes happy. This universe is immersed in the boundless ocean of death. Alas! what man is not stricken. Thou shalt encounter the enemy. and baked in the fire of desire and repulsion. and the evil good.He does not do what ought to be done. death. my wealth. Though seeing. those in the embryo condition. 36-38. Death attacks children. he falters. ether may be split. my relatives.--life cannot be made permanent. this is to be done. Time. Air may be enclosed. disease and old age. he does not know." "This has been done. coming is shown by age. though hearing. Earth is burnt away by time. How shall the individual who has taken a body. goes to the abode of Yama. the old. the water of the ocean is dried away--what shall be said of the body? 39-41. be free from fear? 33-35. father. when he should be awake he sleeps. it must be done to-day. son and others? The world of change is verily the root of misery. He who does not know what is good for him thinks the harmful beneficial.

are destined for hell. How shall he not tread evil ways? 58. discrimination. All those beings who are attached to their bodies. . All those deluded men who turn away from the duties of their respective castes and orders. in the night by passion and sleep. who constantly pursue evil courses. so the embodied. perish fruitlessly. wealth. It is not possible to give up everything. Those men who do not understand what is good and what is not good for them.This world of change. A man bound in fetters of iron or wood may be released. the seat of all calamities. The fools. 59-60. covetous of pleasure. People are destroyed every day by the desire for great wealth. 61-62. sexual pleasure. O Bird. and by the emaciation of the body. which steal away the senses of the body. who is devoid of it is called a beast. 49-51. and purity of the eyes--the man who has not these is blind. deluded by the repetitions of mantras. as a remedy for attachment. desire to obtain the invisible by single meals. which is the source of all misery. are born and die deluded by ignorance. alas! 56-57. bewildered by My magic. attached to the practice of vows. Who possesses knowledge is called a man. oblations and other things. Foolish men are tormented at break of day by nature's calls. with self enveloped in ignorance the imposters go about. but from the fetters of son and wife can never be freed. Therefore should attachment be shunned always. and do not understand the highest righteousness. therefore should friendship with the great be cultivated. wife and other things. and by elaborate rituals. Alas! Fie upon the foods of the senses. does not see the iron hook. should be abandoned at once. and are intent on the filling of the belly. So long as the being makes attachments pleasant to the mind. The men who are attached to the ceremonial alone are satisfied with mere names. Some are intent upon ceremonies. when the sun is in the meridian by hunger and thirst. fasts and other restraints. 52-55. and the refuge of all sins. so long shall the dagger of sorrow pierce his heart. does not see the torments of Yama. Just as the fish. Sleep. and eating are common to all creatures. Attachment to the good. covetous of flesh.

They are tossed hither and thither in the dreadful ocean of Vedas and Śâstras." and is devoid of both rites and Brâhmaṇ should be shunned like a low outcaste. He who knows the Vedas. the Śâstras and the Purâṇas. 76-77. saying "I am a knower of Brâhmaṇ. Donkeys walk about among people. Men trouble themselves variously. deer and others. remain with senses bewildered. quite naked and unashamed. and always live in forests. Therefore this class of practices is a thing which makes pleasure for people. wander about like knowers. they explain in different ways but the best purport of the Śâstras is otherwise.Of those who have no discrimination. which feed upon grass. leaves and water. "This is known. this must be known. and using antelope skins. in forests and among houses. and wearing quantities of matted hair. 65-69. turning away from the highest truth. decorated with garlands of poetry constructed of forms of speech. The hypocrites. rats. does the dog which always live among earth and ashes become liberated? The jackals. which from birth to death. 64.--do these become ascetics? The crocodiles. He who is attached to the pleasures of the worlds of change. Are these free from attachment? If men are to be liberated by earth. Fallen into the great well of the six philosophies. putting on appearances.--are these observers of vows? 70. 71-76. bound in the snare of animalism. dwell in the waters of Ganges.--do these become Yogins? Pigeons at times eat stones. what liberation can there be by bodily tortures alone? What great serpent is killed by beating the anthill alone? 1 63. fishes and others. caught in the six waves they remain sophists. and even delude people. but does not know the chief good.--of that imitator all this is as the speech of a crow. and Châtaka birds do not drink water from the earth. miserable with anxiety. ashes and dust. The fools. 71-73."--thus bewildered by anxiety they read the scriptures day and night.--direct knowledge of the Truth is the cause of liberation. 1 O Bird. . O Lord of Birds. the brutes do not understand the chief good. but the highest truth is otherwise.

is bewildered by the Śâstras. 92.--like the swan taking the milk in the water. 89-90. Verbal knowledge cannot destroy the illusions of the world of change. Knowledge is said to be of two kinds: study and discrimination. therefore the essence should be understood. hence. 91. . They read the Vedas and the Śâstras. Some have ceased preaching. and to be obtained by the word of the Teacher. The non-dual. Just as there is no use for food to one who is satisfied with nectar. nor are actions.--a foolish goatherd. and having known the Truth. 87-88. for those who have understanding. O Târkṣya. not realising them themselves. is beyond efforts of action.---knowledge only is the cause.--darkness never disappears by talking of a lamp. verily declared auspicious. so is there not use for the scriptures.--like the spoon the flavour of the food. to the knower of the Truth. the nostril knows the smell. all learning is masquerade. life is brief. not otherwise. "'This is known. The word from the Teacher gives liberation."--he wishes to hear everything. Some prefer the Non-dual 2.They talk of the highest experiences. There is no liberation by the study of the Vedas. not by the study of tens of millions of texts. The fool. Reading. Haring practised the Vedas and the Śâstras. is like a mirror to the blind. 85-86. other prefer the Dual 3 but they do not understand the One Reality. The head bears flowers. but they do not understand the highest truth. beyond the Dual and Non-dual. 83-84. peers into the well. not knowing that the truth is seated in himself. to a man devoid of wisdom. Among thousands of woods the Sañjîvana 1 is best. O son of Vinatâ. nor are the philosophies. with the young goat under his arm. Emancipation is by knowledge alone. 78-82. The stages of life are not the cause of liberation. the wise man should abandon all the scriptures. The Śâstras are numerous. If one lives for a thousand celestial years he cannot reach the end of the Śâstras. and argue with one another. Śâstras are only a potter to the knowledge of the truth. Para Brahmaṇ is reached by discrimination. but find impossible the understanding of the truth. The study is of Śabda Brâhmaṇ. nor by the reading of the Śâstras. this must be known. being engrossed in egotism. and there are tens of millions of obstacles. just as one rich in grains abandons the straw. They repeat the Vedas and the Śâstras.

so long as there is no love for the Teacher. with the sword of unattachment. 95-97. . Therefore from the mouth of the Blessed Teacher the Truth of the self should be known. 101. So long as one does not reach Truth. other knowledge is skilful chiselling. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? 98-99. so long as there is imagination of plans. sitting alone on a pure seat prepared as prescribed. he should every effort. drawn away by karmas. restrain his mind. which is called the Nirvâṇa of Brâhmaṇ. so long as the impressions of the world of change remain." so long as there is excited striving. upon the pure. the man. if one desires liberation for himself. should cut off. Therefore. He should. worship and reading of the prescribed texts of the Vedas and Śâstras. should resort to the shade of the tree of Liberation. and should fix his mind. His last days approaching. recitations. Two phrases make for bondage and liberation: "Mine" and "Not-mine. oblations. that the knowledge that gives release. always. 103-107. 102. saying "Not-mine" is released. performing ablutions in the water of the holy bathing places. So long as actions are performed. whose flowers are righteousness and knowledge. So long as there is not stability of mind. other karma is worrying. with breath controlled. rid of fear. 100. not forgetting the Brahma Bîja. by which he obtains liberation. so long should he do austerities. By knowledge the being is easily released from the awful bondage of the worlds of change. He should practise mentally upon the supreme three-fold pure Word of Brahmâ. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? So long as there is pride of body." The being saying "Mine" is bound. O Târkṣya. and fruits are heaven and liberation. pilgrimage to sacred waters.93-94. One who is tormented by the three miseries and the rest. vows. and under all circumstances he attached to Truth. so long as there is no meditation upon the Śâstras. That is the karma that does not bind. 1 With reason for charioteer he should withdraw the senses from the sense-objects by the mind. Listen! I will tell you now about the final actions of the knower of the Truth. with understanding. Courageously wandering from home. so long as the senses are fickle. so long as there is the sense of "mineness. the desires connected with the body.

who gives the condition of happiness for the sacrifice of worship. dwells at a sacred bathing-place. they go. This eternal way of liberal in al has been described to you."--having realised this and placed the self in the self he should meditate. 4 Kaśî. birds and others transmigrate. in the waters of Truth. having heard these words of nectar I have been helped over the ocean of existence. I am Brâhmaṇ. O. on that eternal path. thinking of no other. May Hari. O Târkṣya. with tranquil self. The hypocrites. My desires have been completely fulfilled. I will tell you about the wise. Protector! "I stand freed from doubts. He who bathes in the water of the Mânasa. 6 Avantikâ. 115. he verily attains liberation. Garuḍa." remembering me.--he verily attains liberation."1 am Brâhmaṇ. or dies in a place of liberation. Knowers of Truth attain liberation. the Supreme Abode. utters the one-syllabled Brâhmaṇ. 5 Kañchi. 117.--he verily attains liberation. the remembrance of whom removes evil. He who. repeatedly prostrating himself. Free from pride and delusion. 8--these seven cities should be known as the givers of liberation. who go to that goal. expecting to die. with the evils of attachment conquered. released from the contracts known as pleasure and pain. full-visioned. 109-110. leaning his home. with desires overcome. O King.--hearing it with knowledge and dispassion one attains liberation. Ayodhyâ. 108. with hands folded together:-"O Lord. He who. "Oṁ." Having said this. 3 Gayâ. 121. devoid of knowledge and unattachment. do not go there. the Highest Goal. He who. 111-114. 116. firm in non-attachment. undeluded. worships me. in the lake of knowledge. these words from the mouth of the Lord. 2 Mathurâ. always dwelling in the Higher Self. 1 which removes the impurities of attraction and repulsion. when leaving the body. sinners go to an evil condition. . Garuḍa became silent and lost in meditation. righteous men go to heaven. said this. goes to the Highest Goal. Thus in sixteen chapters I have related to you the extracted essence of all the scriptures.--protect us. What else do you wish to hear? 118-120. 7 Dwârâvatî. and who gives liberation for supreme devotion to Him. O Lord. Sûta said: Having thus heard. O God of Gods.

Mîmânsâ. 165:2 Adwaita philosophy. 168:6 Conjeeveram. 168:7 Ujjain. Sâṅkhya. 168:4 Gayâ. 168:5 Benares. 168:2 Perhaps Oudh. Vaiśeṣika. 168:1 A holy lake in the Himâlayas. 168:3 Muttra. 161:1 There is supposed to be a serpent living in the ground beneath the ant-hill. 165:3 Dwaita. also a mystical place. Vedânta. 162:1 Nyâya. Separateness of the individual and universal self. a mantra governing a work such as an Upaniṣad Oṁ. 156:1 Meaning that one may re-obtain these things after losing them--but not the body. 165:1 The plant brought by Hanumat to restore Lakṣman when killed by Indrajit. . One who knows the Self. 168:8 Dwârakâ. Eternal inseparateness and non-duality.Footnotes 155:1 That is. Yoga. 167:1 Bîja is a seed.

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