Exploration & Production

GENERAL SPECIFICATION SAFETY
GS EP SAF 216

Area classification

03 02 01 00 Rev.

10/2008 10/2005 10/2003 04/2001 Date

Reviewed and rewritten in accordance with IP 15 3rd edition Addition of EP root to document identification and replaced reference API RP 500 by API RP 505 Change of Group name and logo Old TotalFina SP SEC 216 Notes

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Exploration & Production
General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03

Contents

1. Scope .......................................................................................................................5
1.1 1.2 Purpose .............................................................................................................................5 Applicability........................................................................................................................5

2. Reference documents & interpretation .................................................................6 3. Terminology and definitions ..................................................................................9 4. Area classification procedure ..............................................................................13
4.1 4.2 4.3 Scenarios.........................................................................................................................13 Procedure ........................................................................................................................13 Deliverables .....................................................................................................................14

5. Partition between hazardous & non hazardous areas .......................................14 6. Hazardous zones...................................................................................................15
6.1 6.2 Sub division of hazardous areas into hazardous zones ..................................................15 Hazardous Zone ranking .................................................................................................15

7. Classification of open, sheltered and enclosed areas .......................................20
7.1 7.2 7.3 Open areas ......................................................................................................................20 Sheltered areas ...............................................................................................................20 Enclosed areas ................................................................................................................20

8. Determination of the hazard radius .....................................................................23
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Characteristics of petroleum fluids...................................................................................23 Hazard radius ..................................................................................................................25 Typical sources of release ...............................................................................................25 Procedure for continuous & primary grade releases .......................................................26 Procedure for secondary grade releases.........................................................................26 Particular case of sheltered areas ...................................................................................26

9. Sizing and drawings of hazardous areas ............................................................ 27 10. Drilling rigs, equipment and well operations...................................................... 27 11. Internal combustion engines and fire heaters....................................................27

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 2/73

Exploration & Production
General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03

11.1 11.2 11.3

Gas turbines ....................................................................................................................27 Gas and liquid fuel engines .............................................................................................29 Fired heaters....................................................................................................................30

12. Accumulator batteries in buildings .....................................................................30
12.1 12.2 Basics ..............................................................................................................................30 Location and hydrogen detection.....................................................................................30

13. Hydrocarbon storage ............................................................................................31
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 Under-ground or within-embankment storage tanks........................................................31 Overhead, fixed roof storage tanks..................................................................................31 Overhead, floating roof storage tanks..............................................................................31 LPG storage tanks ...........................................................................................................31 Refrigerated LPG storage................................................................................................31 LNG storage ....................................................................................................................31

14. Miscellaneous........................................................................................................31
14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 Laboratories.....................................................................................................................31 Analyser shelters .............................................................................................................32 Small storage of flammable products ..............................................................................33 Loading and filling operations (road tanker, rail car, drum filling) ....................................33 Jetties (loading, unloading)..............................................................................................33 Air intakes ........................................................................................................................33 Air exhausts .....................................................................................................................33 Chimneys and exhausts ..................................................................................................33 Flares...............................................................................................................................34

14.10 Traffic...............................................................................................................................34 14.11 Purging ............................................................................................................................34 14.12 Classification of enclosed buildings .................................................................................35

Annex 1 Annex 2 Annex 3

Table of hazardous equipment............................................................36 Area classification procedure .............................................................37 Procedure for assessing type & degree of ventilation...................... 38

Annex 4 Guidelines for the determination of the level of ventilation of sheltered areas...............................................................................39

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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.....................................62 Appendix E .............................................................................72 G1............................... C3..45 Appendix B .....53 Wellheads in production operation ..........................................................................72 Traffic.....................................................................................Gas/liquid fuel engines & heaters .............. C2..40 Equipment/arrangements generally generating secondary grade releases .......Snubbing) operations on Live Wells .................................................................Hydrocarbon storage......................70 Appendix G ..............................................................................................................................................................66 Fired heaters........... F3........ It must not be stored.............. fixed roof storage tanks............................................69 Overhead............ reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company............................72 Air exhausts .............53 Appendix D ..................................................................................Gas turbines........... Laboratories................................................Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix A ........................................................ Foreword........................................Drilling rigs.......... Gas engines.......... G4................. G5......................................... floating roof tank (Category C on release) ............51 Surface mud systems .. 40 A1..............48 Appendix C .... C5.................................................................... Overhead............................Miscellaneous............66 E1............................... G7................. C4......... Page 4/73 ............................................... Equipment/arrangements generally generating continuous or primary grade releases .................................................... workover and pulling operations on Non Live Wells ............................70 LPG storage stored under pressure ............. G3......72 Chimneys and exhausts ....... equipment and well operations ....................................................................................................................................................51 Drilling.......................................................................................................................................66 Diesel engines ..............Coiled tubing ..............72 Small storage of flammable products ................................................................................... 51 C1.....................................Sizing of hazardous zones................. C6.......72 Enclosed buildings:..........67 Appendix F ................................................................... F2..........................................69 F1......................................................................52 Rig gas vent........72 Air intakes ........................ A2..........73 This document is the property of Total............................ G2................................... E2........................... G6......Determination of hazard radii values for equipment ...................................................... E3...............................................................................53 Well servicing (Wire-line ............

Production. The scope is limited only to petroleum fluids and all other flammable products that are present in the installations. This specification does not apply to: • Toxic gases (which on manned installations may lead to more stringent rules) • Combustible dusts • Ignitable fibres • Marine facilities covered by the IMO code (International Maritime Organisation) e. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. It must not be stored. 1. treatment. GS EP STR 651 applies. which refers to IEC 60092-502 This document is the property of Total.2 Applicability This specification applies to: • New or modified installations constructed by COMPANY or affiliates both onshore and offshore including LNG & LPG plants • All E&P operations: drilling. storage and bulk distribution operations. tankers. Storage and Offloading) • For all spaces in the hull of a F(P)SO or concerning the cargo deck. Scope 1.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 1. Page 5/73 .1 Purpose This specification defines the method called Area classification used to classify the locations where a flammable atmosphere may occur in such frequencies as to require special precautions for the construction and use of electrical apparatus or other potential ignition sources. production. Particular case of F(P)SO’s: • This specification applies to the whole production deck facilities on FPSO’s (Floating.g. Storage and Offloading) and to utilities on FSO’s (Floating. Area classification consists in: • The partition of a facility into hazardous & non hazardous areas • The sub-division of hazardous areas into hazardous zones • The sizing of the hazardous zones.

Since IEC 60079-10 does not provide detailed recommendations regarding the extent of the hazardous areas in specific industries and applications and allows reference to other codes. GS EP SAF 216 can be used as a stand-alone document unless a relevant National Regulation is applicable.5 of this document. This document is the property of Total. the applicable version of these documents. This specification is not retroactive: its application to the facilities put in operation before the issue of this specification is not mandatory. The definitions of zones comply with the requirements of the ATEX Directive 1999/92/EC. installation and use of equipment with potential ignition source). Page 6/73 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. 2. including relevant appendices and supplements. After the hazardous zones have been determined. This specification and IP 15 differ mainly in areas not adequately covered by the code or where the code requires interpretation. The general philosophy of IP 15 and a lot of its detailed recommendations are adopted.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 • The battery limits between the process areas where GS EP SAF 216 applies and marine areas where GS EP STR 651 applies is defined hereafter: GS EP SAF 216 IGS EP STR 651 ZONE 0 WBP COTP COTC COTS WBS ZONE 1 ZONE 2 PIPE AREA Figure 1 . It complies with IEC 60079-10 “Classification of hazardous areas”. including API RP 505. although the latter shall not be used as a general reference. Reference documents & interpretation The reference documents listed below form an integral part of this General Specification. GS EP SAF 216 is mainly based on IP 15. For the classification of hazardous areas in COMPANY petroleum installations. It must not be stored. In some cases reference is made to standards other than IP 15. the compatibility of all electrical equipment or any potential ignition sources with the zoning classification shall be ensured (see the relevant General Specifications of COMPANY by discipline for the design. Unless otherwise stipulated.Battery limits on FP(S)O's The case of tankers at berth that generate a hazardous area on unit limits is covered in Section 14. is the latest revision published at the EFFECTIVE DATE of the CONTRACT.

Part 13: Construction and use of rooms or buildings protected by pressurization Idem .Pensky -Martens closed cup method (for flash points > 40°C) Industrial-process control . Zone 0. mechanics. HVAC.Part 7: Hazardous areas Standard for the production. Standards Reference EN 1834-1 Title Reciprocating internal combustion engines . storage and handling of liquefied natural gas EN ISO 13736 EN ISO 2719 IEC 61285 IEC 60079-4 IEC 60079-10 IEC 60079-13 IEC 60079-16 IEC 60092-502 IEC 61285 IEC 61892-6 IEC 61892.Part 10: Classification of hazardous areas Idem .Safety requirements for design and construction of engines for use in potentially explosive atmospheres . Zone 1 and Zone 2 Pressure-relieving and Depressurising Systems Emission factors for oil & gas operations API STANDARD 521 API Publ 4615 This document is the property of Total. electricity. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Special Features Industrial .Part 6: Installation Mobile and fixed offshore units .safety of analyser houses Mobile and fixed offshore units .Part 4: Method of test for ignition temperature Idem .Determination of flash points .Electrical installations . etc.Abel closed cup method (Flash point range: -30°C/70°C) Determination of flash point .Safety of analyser houses Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres . Page 7/73 .Part 502: Tankers .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Some of the specifications issued by the COMPANY disciplines (instrumentation. It must not be stored.7 NFPA 59A Professional Documents Reference API RP 505 Title Recommended practice for classification of locations for electrical installations at petroleum facilities classified as class I.Part 1: group II engines for use in flammable gas and vapour atmospheres Petroleum products and other liquids .Electrical installations .) require ATEX-certified equipment (in conformity with ATEX Directive 94/09/EC).Part 16: Artificial ventilation for the protection of analyzer(s) houses Electrical Installations in ships .process control .

It must not be stored. Page 8/73 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. du 31 décembre 1972) ATEX Directive 1999/92/EC Arrêté du 9/11/72 Codes Reference Not applicable Title Other documents Reference Safety Concept Title Statement Of Requirements (SOR) Total General Specifications Reference GS EP CIV 402 GS EP HVA 100 GS EP ELE 001 Title Design & construction of oil field laboratory on production installations Basis of design Electrical design data This document is the property of Total.O.July 2005 (3rd edition) Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon Liquids and Vapours by Hot surfaces in open air (3rd Edition 2003) Regulations Reference ATEX Directive 1994/09/EC Title Directive 1994/09/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 March 1994 on the approximation of the laws of the member states concerning equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres Directive 1999/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 1999 on minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres Arrêté du 9 Novembre 1972 relatif à l’aménagement et l’exploitation de dépôts d’hydrocarbures liquéfiés (J.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Reference IP 15 API RP 2216 Title Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations handling flammable fluids .

restricted area and fire zones Pressure protection relief and hydrocarbon disposal systems Guidelines for selecting and installation fire and gas detection system General principles for a F(P)SO design 3. They are to be understood as follows: Shall Should Is to be understood as mandatory.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Reference GS EP ELE 021 GS EP ELE 079 GS EP INS 101 GS EP MEC 290 GS EP SAF 221 GS EP SAF 222 GS EP SAF 227 GS EP SAF 228 GS EP SAF 253 GS EP SAF 262 GS EP SAF 312 GS EP STR 651 Title Electrical design criteria for floating units Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmosphere Instrumentation engineering. May For the purpose of this specification. the following definitions shall apply (the terms defined in this section are often in bold characters in the text of the specification): Area Adequate ventilation For the purpose of this specification. Page 9/73 . Deviating from a “shall” statement requires derogation approved by the COMPANY Is to be understood as strongly recommended to comply with the requirements of the specification. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. supply and construction general requirements Rotating machines packages Safety rules for buildings Safety rules for machinery and equipment handling hydrocarbon in enclosed areas Safety rules for fired heaters Liquid drainage Impacted area. This will normally be achieved by a uniform ventilation rate of a minimum of twelve air changes per hour with no stagnant areas (IP 15) This document is the property of Total. artificial. Alternatives shall provide a similar level of protection and this shall be documented Is used where alternatives are equally acceptable. or a combination of both ventilations. sufficient enough to avoid persistence of flammable atmospheres within sheltered or enclosed areas but insufficient to avoid their initial formation and spread throughout the area. an area is a three-dimensional region or space (as per IEC 60079-10) Natural. “should” and “may” statements. It must not be stored. the “shall”. Terminology and definitions There are three types of statements in this specification.

this will normally be achieved by a uniform ventilation rate of a minimum of ninety air changes per hour with no stagnant areas (COMPANY definition from IP 15) Area classification Competent Dilution ventilation Emergency Shutdown (ESD) Emergency Shutdown System Enclosed area Control actions undertaken to shutdown equipment or process in response to a hazardous situation (ISO) System. which undertakes the control actions to shutdown equipment or processes in response to a hazardous situation (ISO 10418) Any building. and initiates relevant actions (alarm.3) (IP 15). A local alarm buzzer plus an alarm sounding and lighting in the main control room are to be provided to warn the operators and personnel if both doors are open simultaneously. emergency depressurisation. In the case of a turbine enclosure. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. It must not be stored. initiate a shutdown of the installation The Safety System which monitors the temperature or the energy flux (fire). The minimum pressure difference between the gap and the hazardous area shall be 25 Pa (0. electrical isolation) at pre-determined levels (COMPANY) ESD system Fire and Gas system (F&G) This document is the property of Total. Loss of differential pressure in the gap between the two doors shall also alarm in the main control room Area classification is the assessed division of a facility into hazardous areas and non-hazardous (or not classified or safe) areas. active fire-fighting. experience & supervision is able to make objective judgments Artificial ventilation sufficient to maintain generally as nonhazardous an enclosed area containing a source of release or an aperture into a hazardous area (IP 15).Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Air-lock Two self-closing vapour-tight doors with a space in between (the “gap”) kept above the pressure prevailing in the adjacent hazardous area. the concentration of flammable or toxic gases (gas). the air movement will be limited and any flammable atmosphere will not be dispersed naturally (IP 15) System of manual stations and automatic devices that. Person who by combination of training. ESD. Page 10/73 . in the absence or failure of artificial ventilation. room or enclosed space within which. and the sub-division of hazardous areas into zones (refer to Section 5.25 mbar). when activated. activated by automatic or manual signals.

Page 11/73 . In the context of area classification the term “flammable” is preferable to “explosive” (IP 15) Flammable limits (upper. fired heaters are sorted out into the following classes: • Class A: a heater that has heat utilisation equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there is a potential explosion or fire hazard that could be created by the presence of flammable volatile or combustible materials processed or heated in the heater Class B: a heater that has heat utilisation equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there are no flammable volatile or combustible materials being heated • Flammable atmosphere Mixture of flammable gases or vapours with air in such a proportion that. it will burn when ignited. in addition to storage and offloading capability. etc. Ignition does not occur at the flash point unless there is a source of ignition (IP 15) Floating. Storage and Offloading system consisting of a ship or barge-shaped floating hull incorporating tanks for storage of produced oil. incinerators. indirect heaters (hot oil or hot water).Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Fired heater A vessel in which the temperature of a fluid is increased by the addition of heat supplied by a flame within the vessel (COMPANY from API). Production. facilities for receiving crude oil from producing wells and processing it for export by separating water and gas (OGP) Floating. and a method of loading the oil onto off take tankers (OGP) Same as ISO definition of "source of release" (API) The hazard radius of a source of release is the largest horizontal extent of the hazardous area that is generated by the source when situated in an open area under unrestricted natural ventilation (IP 15) FPSO FSO Fuel source Hazard radius This document is the property of Total. lower) Flash-point The limits of combustibility of flammable gases or vapours when mixed with air (IP 15) Lowest temperature to which a liquid must be heated to give off sufficient vapour to form a flammable mixture with air. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. It must not be stored. without any further admixture. Storage and Offloading system includes. Fired heater is a generic term that covers all type of heaters including steam boilers. For the purpose of this specification. reboilers (flame tube or flue gas tube).

including start-ups. open or vented to atmosphere. typically water.and “selfignition temperatures”) Interceptor/coalescer Vessel open or vented to atmosphere. Other liquids. used to collect petroleum liquids. can enter the sump but the petroleum liquid is normally an appreciable part of the total liquid entering (IP 15) Laboratory Normal operation Open area Over pressurisation Source of release Sump This document is the property of Total. owing to obstruction. All other areas are referred to as non-hazardous areas in this context. routine maintenance and any degraded modes of operations foreseen during design An area that is outdoors without stagnant regions. natural ventilation is restricted and less than in a true open area (IP 15) Point from which a flammable gas. e. In a hazardous area three types of zones (0.g. Page 12/73 . vapour or liquid may be released into the atmosphere (ISO) A vessel. where vapour is rapidly dispersed by wind and natural convection (IP 15) Artificial ventilation of an enclosed area to maintain the area at a controlled pressure above the ambient pressure (IP 15) Over pressure obtained by artificial ventilation is referred to as simply over pressurisation in this specification Safe area Self-closing doors Sheltered/obstructed area Other term used for non hazardous or not classified area Doors that are designed to close by themselves and to remain closed if not intentionally opened or kept opened An area within or adjoining an open area (which may include a partially open building or structure) where. and in which the petroleum liquids are present in smaller quantity. Ventilating and Air Conditioning Source of temperature and energy sufficient to initiate combustion (API) HVAC Ignition source The temperature at which a substance will begin to burn without Ignition temperature application of any source of ignition (IP 15). reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. usually as a result of deliberate draining. It must not be stored. The test conditions shall (synonymous with be as per IEC 60079-4 “auto”.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Hazardous area and zone A hazardous area is defined as a three dimensional space in which a flammable atmosphere may be expected to be present at such frequencies as to require special precautions for the control of potential ignition sources (IP 15). water. 1 and 2) are recognised (IP 15) Abbreviation for Heating. shutdowns. Typically they are found on the main oily water effluent treatment system of a facility (IP 15) A specific closed room or building where analyses are carried out by personnel Operation within the plant design parameters. used to separate petroleum liquids from other non-flammable liquids.

Additionally. It must not be stored. It should be noted that although the results of Area Classification have direct implications on the selection of the electrical apparatus.g. Natural ventilation refers to ventilation caused by wind or convection effects. the optimisation of the equipment layout shall be carried out to decrease the risk of ignition (e. pertinent grouping of equipment. 1 For new projects it is recommended that Area Classification is conducted by a senior safety engineer assisted by a process engineer. This document is the property of Total. optimisation of ventilation). medium. Ventilation (natural. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Artificial ventilation refers to ventilation caused by air purges or mechanical means (fans) (IP 15). Events not considered for Area Classification: • Large gas/vapour releases from process vents or flares. hydrocarbon. such as the rupture of a process vessel or pipe (IEC 60079-10). 4. The area classification shall be carried out before choosing appropriate electrical equipment or any equipment generating ignition sources. Area classification procedure The objective of the area classification is to reduce as much as possible the probability of coincidence of a flammable atmosphere and an ignition source. A flow diagram summarizing the basic steps of the procedure is included in Annex 2.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Under pressurisation Artificial ventilation of an enclosed area to maintain the area at a controlled pressure below the ambient pressure (IP 15) Under pressure obtained by artificial ventilation is referred to as simply under pressurisation in this specification Units Areas within the installation resulting from its partition into a reasonable number of geographical and functional groups of equipment having the same type (e. 4. For the modifications of an existing installation the team should include a member of the operating crew. artificial) 4. For these scenarios reliance is placed on the Emergency Shutdown System and safety distances resulting from consequence analysis calculations (refer to GS EP SAF 253) to mitigate the consequence of a failure in the installation. Such releases shall require appropriate dispersion calculations • Failure scenarios which are very unlikely to occur. low) of risks (COMPANY) Ventilation is a general term to indicate air movement and replacement by fresh air. pressure. The area classification process reduces the installation overall risk level through design improvements.g.1 Scenarios The classification of hazardous areas takes into consideration events which are "liable to occur during normal or abnormal plant operating conditions” (IP 15).2 Procedure Area Classification shall be carried out by competent persons 1. knowledge in electrical matters is not a must for conducting or participating to an Area Classification exercise. Page 13/73 . inventory or ignition) and levels (high.

3 Deliverables The following results shall be delivered: • The table of hazardous equipment as per Annex 1 • When relevant. It must not be stored. This document is the property of Total. draw the envelopes of the zones. for offshore plant plan view of each deck level and at least two elevations. instruments and flanges) and instrument tubing designed and constructed according to COMPANY specifications shall not generate hazardous areas. 2 As a requirement regarding the number of hazardous area drawings to be provided: for onshore plant. the calculation notes necessary for the hazard radius determination • The drawings of hazardous zones showing the Zone envelopes & their main dimensions. see Section 8. or whose flash point is below 21°C (69. Partition between hazardous & non hazardous areas The main principles governing the partition between hazardous and non hazardous areas are as follows: • All hydrocarbons handled at a temperature above their flash point. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Page 14/73 . are liable to generate hazardous areas • A hazardous area is generated when a flammable mixture may be created further to an equipment release • All equipment containing flammable products (for the definition & characterisation of a flammable product. 5.8 °F). flexible hoses (without fittings such as valves.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Area classification shall be conducted in 5 steps (IP 15): • Partition of the installation into hazardous and non hazardous areas by identification of all the potential release sources of flammable products • Sub-division of hazardous areas into hazardous zones which shall be ranked according to the estimated probability of the presence of a flammable atmosphere • Determination of the hazard radii around each potential source of release • Sizing of the hazardous Zone around each potential source of release • Prepare/modify the hazardous area drawings.1) shall be considered as potential release sources where the material quantities exceed the following thresholds: Table 1 . plan view and cross sectional view.Capacity thresholds above which hazardous area classification is required Gas: volume corrected to 1 bar (a) pressure Inside Outside 50 litres 1000 litres Liquefied flammable gas 5 litres 100 litres Flammable liquid at a temperature above its flash point 25 litres 200 litres • All-welded piping. the rest of the installation being classified as non hazardous or safe 2. 4.

2. ventilation conditions.g. etc. sheltered or enclosed) and HVAC calculations • A process flow diagram • A piping & instrumentation diagram • Material identification & process conditions (e.2.4 All the above information shall be included in the table in Annex 1. Hazardous zones The extent of the hazardous area depends on the rate of release.3 & 7 • The type of ventilation as per Section 6. roadways.1 Sub division of hazardous areas into hazardous zones GS EP SAF 216 shall be used for: • Defining the Zones 0 and 1 inside units (see Section 6.1 Grades of release (or types of source) Three grades of release 3 are defined in terms of their likely frequency and duration. The main following information shall be collected in the table included in Annex 1: • The equipment type & codification • The nature of the hazardous fluid • The main characteristics of the hazardous fluid. Page 15/73 .1. This document is the property of Total. 6. 6.) • The extent of confinement (open. 6. sheltered or enclosed) as per Sections 6.1 Continuous grade release A release which is continuous or expected to occur for long periods: the cumulative duration of release exceeds 1000 hours per year. air inlets/exhausts and main sources of ignition (e. furnaces.g.1.2. temperature & pressure).2. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.2) • Defining the Zone 2 contour around the items of equipment located at the deck/unit surface limits. 3 For releases not considered for Area Classification see Section 4. and fluid properties.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 6. The following documents shall be available for the determination of hazardous areas: • Equipment list • A layout drawing showing the position of all equipment.1 • The type of area (open. It must not be stored.2. flares.2. 6.2 Hazardous Zone ranking The determination of the following parameters shall be made in order to evaluate the rank of the hazardous zone: • The grade of release as per Section 6.

is likely to do so only infrequently and for short periods: the cumulative duration of release is less than 10 hours per year 4.1. drain. will exist only for a short period. pump seals. routine sampling points) they should be regarded as primary grade releases unless carried out under permit-towork circumstances (IP 15). The following definitions are from IP 15: • Zone 0 That part of a hazardous area in which a flammable atmosphere is continuously present. or present for long periods. The classification in zones or “zoning” is the partition of the installation into volumes in which a flammable atmosphere may be present (see Section 3). This document is the property of Total. 6. Examples: Flanges. Page 16/73 . 1 or 2 based on the frequency of the occurrence and duration of a flammable atmosphere.2. 6.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Example: Gaseous atmosphere in a hydrocarbon storage tank. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. if it occurs.2. the pressure relative to the surrounding areas and their Zone classification. • Zone 2 That part of a hazardous area in which a flammable atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation. 4 Where releases are likely to be present for 1 to 10 hours per year but are anticipated in normal operation (e. open to atmosphere sampling).3 Secondary grade release A release which is not expected to occur in normal operation and. It must not be stored. and. • Zone 1 That part of a hazardous area in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation. if it does. operating purge. For further guidelines refer to IP 15.g. "Type of sources" and "zones" are not synonymous as the type of a Zone depends on the level of ventilation in the considered area and for enclosed areas.1. Examples: Sampling connection (for regular.2.2 Primary grade release A release which can be expected to occur periodically or occasionally during normal operation: the cumulative duration of release is in the range of 10 to 1000 hours per year. 6.2 Zones Hazardous areas shall be identified and classified into Zones 0.

The level of ventilation achievable for the three categories is described below (Section 6. It does not cover in particular HVAC requirements for human comfort. the zones are represented as follows: Zone 0 6. restricted. adequate or inadequate) is a key factor in determining the Zone classification of an area • The level and extent of hazardous area classification depends on the ventilation of the zones where flammable vapours are likely to be present and to accumulate • Conditions of ventilation and likelihood of detecting the leak may change the Zone definition for each grade of release. • Two boundary cases (open area. enclosed area) and an intermediate case (sheltered or obstructed area) are defined in Section 6.4).Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Throughout this specification.2. 6.2. The extent of confinement governs the determination of the level of ventilation.4. It must not be stored.4 Ventilation The openness of an area is an important factor in determining the effectiveness of ventilation and the extent and severity of a hazardous area.2. ceiling and walls or equivalent obstructions to natural draft) or • An enclosed area. partially confined area (various combinations of solid floor. no walls and floor made of grating) or • A sheltered. • This specification defines only the functional requirements for ventilation or pressurisation systems to effectively dilute flammable gases or prevent the ingress of flammable gases in areas not suitable for the presence of a flammable atmosphere • It is not a specification for the design and operation of ventilation and pressurisation systems. partially enclosed. Page 17/73 .2. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.3 • The degree of ventilation (unrestricted. temperature control and the extraction of smoke during/after a fire (refer to GS EP SAF 221 for ventilation in buildings and to GS EP HVA 100 for basis of HVAC design) • Ventilation can either be natural when it is caused by wind or convection effects or artificial when it has to be provided to dilute and remove flammable gases or vapour released within a room or a building • Pressure differential with respect to surrounding areas can only be achieved for enclosed areas and in conjunction with artificial ventilation This document is the property of Total.3 Confinement (types of location) Zone 1 Zone 2 An area can be classified in three categories with respect to confinement: • An open area (basically no roof/ceiling.

It must not be stored.5 m/s. It shall be based on the largest secondary grade release. Should simultaneous releases from more than one secondary grade releases be likely.2.1 Adequate/Inadequate ventilation Adequate ventilation is defined as ventilation sufficient enough to prevent the accumulation of concentrations of flammable gas-air. with or without delay). the default values for gas leaking rates should be those of API Publ 4615.g. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Open areas are considered as adequately ventilated and typically. 6.4. By definition. in case toxic fluids are involved or in case high cooling requirements). any ventilation that does not match the above criteria will be considered as inadequate which normally results from natural draft less than 0. first edition 11/1997. Typical ventilation rates covering all scenarios for dilution ventilation cannot be proposed. This document is the property of Total. pipe rupture). air velocities will frequently be above 2 m/s and rarely less than 0.4. Page 18/73 .1.2. then the cumulated release shall be considered.2.4.1 Types of ventilation The different types of ventilation are as follows: 6. In such event: • The Zone classification is temporarily down graded • All potential sources of ignition incompatible with the downgraded zoning shall be isolated (electrically or else. This will normally be achieved by a uniform ventilation rate of at least 12 volumetric air changes per hour with no stagnant areas. assuming the equipment is in poor condition (leaking rates) but there is no failure (e.4.1.2 Dilution ventilation Dilution ventilation shall be sufficient to immediately bring the flammable gas concentration below 20% of the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) and keep it so all the time. by virtue of any chemical products or impurities which it may contain produce harmful effects or introduce a reduction of the safety level. 5 Methods to calculate minimum introduction rates to achieve adequate ventilation are proposed in API RP 505 (Appendices B.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 • For all artificial ventilation systems.2. Unless otherwise specified. This can only be achieved by a very large number of air changes (well in excess of 12 per hour). the ventilation air shall be taken from a non-hazardous area and shall not.g.2 Loss of artificial ventilation in enclosed areas Loss of artificial ventilation can cause the level of ventilation of the area to be less than dilution ventilation or even less than adequate. 6. reaffirmed 11/2002). 6.5 m/s or artificial ventilation rate less than 12 volumetric air changes per hour (sheltered areas or loss of ventilation of an enclosed area for example). A calculation shall be carried-out to estimate hydrocarbon leaks 5. Ventilation rates higher than those required for dilution ventilation may be required in case ventilation also serves other purpose than dilution to prevent flammability (e.

sheltered or enclosed).2.4. The difference in pressure to be maintained shall be greater or equal to 25 Pa (0. ventilation is inadequate.1 Over pressurisation protection Protection by over pressurisation is achieved when artificial ventilation or static pressurisation controls the pressure inside an enclosed area sufficiently above that of the surrounding hazardous area to prevent ingress of a flammable atmosphere from an outside fuel source. Overpressure should be monitored or detected by a pressure switch as a minimum. This section does not deal with the electrical apparatus for which protection by pressurisation in hazardous areas follows the electrical codes (the protection of the electrical apparatus in hazardous areas shall comply with COMPANY specification GS EP ELE 079). dilution) by providing artificial ventilation to disperse any flammable atmosphere 6. It must not be stored. the level of ventilation shall be established on the basis of API 505 (see Annex 4) • For enclosed areas.g. Loss of overpressure shall initiate an alarm.3 Ventilation assessment A method included in Annex 3 of this specification will help to assess the type & level of ventilation for each type of area (open. The types of pressurisation and associated construction requirements for buildings are addressed in IEC 60079-13.4. produce harmful effects or introduce a reduction of the safety level.2. 6 A room or building is an enclosure of sufficient size to permit the entry of a person. Page 19/73 . by virtue of any chemical products or impurities which it may contain.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 6. The pressurizing gas shall not.4 Pressurisation Pressurisation shall be provided to ensure the protection of a room or building 6: • Containing electrical equipment or other potential sources of ignition and located in a hazardous area where flammable gases or vapours may enter (over pressurisation) • Containing sources of release and surrounding by a safe area containing electrical equipment or other potential sources of ignition (under pressurisation) The ingress of gases or vapours into a room is prevented by maintaining inside it a protective gas at a higher pressure than that of the outside atmosphere. The level of ventilation available in a location shall be established in order to allow Zone classification: • Open areas shall be deemed adequately ventilated (natural draft exceeding 2 m/s) • For sheltered areas (or obstructed areas).25 mbar). The egress of gases or vapours from a room is prevented by maintaining inside it a protective gas at lower pressure than that of the outside atmosphere. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.4. 6.4. it can be made adequate or better (e. The protection by pressurisation of rooms and buildings containing electrical equipment shall comply with IEC 60079-13 and with this specification (some of the requirements of this section exceed the requirements of IEC 60079-13). This document is the property of Total.2.

the natural ventilation may be restricted.3 Enclosed areas An enclosed area is any building. Isolation of these ignition sources on loss of under pressure may be delayed to allow the loss to be investigated. the classification rules for open areas shall apply (see Section 7. When the level of ventilation of a sheltered/obstructed area is assessed as inadequate.“inadequate” column). The Zone classification of the outside areas shall be taken into account when classifying the enclosed areas in contact (via an aperture) with them unless the enclosed walls. sheltered and enclosed areas 7. Loss of under pressure shall initiate an immediate alarm.4). the ventilation will be regarded as inadequate (refer to Section 6.1 Open areas Where a facility is categorized as an open area (provided with adequate natural ventilation). Under pressure should be monitored or detected by a pressure switch as a minimum. The level of ventilation may then be adequate or inadequate (see definitions in Section 6. The difference in pressure to be maintained shall be greater or equal to 25 Pa (0. 7.4.2. It must not be stored. floors and any ducting are vapour-tight by construction. and isolate all ignition sources located in the vicinity of the enclosed area and not suitable for Zone 1. This document is the property of Total. Classification of open. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.3 . 6.4). the area shall be classified as an enclosed area (see table in Section 7. 7 If gas detection is not provided or if a source of primary grade of release is installed in the building (each of them requiring derogation to this specification approved by COMPANY). room or enclosed space within which. the following classification applies: • Zone 0 is generated by a continuous grade release • Zone 1 is generated by a primary grade release • Zone 2 is generated by a secondary grade release.2 Under pressurisation protection Protection by under pressurisation is achieved when artificial ventilation keeps the pressure inside an enclosed area sufficiently below that of the surrounding area to prevent possible egress of a flammable atmosphere to an outside less or non hazardous area. 7.2 Sheltered areas For a sheltered or obstructed area.1).4. ceilings. Page 20/73 .2. in the absence or breakdown of artificial ventilation.25 mbar). 7. loss of overpressure shall automatically and immediately isolate all ignition sources not suitable for Zone 1.2. When the level of ventilation of a sheltered/obstructed area is assessed as adequate.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Pressurised enclosed areas shall be provided with fixed gas detection as per GS EP SAF 312 to immediately and automatically isolate all ignition sources not suitable for Zone 1 7.

The outside areas in contact through an aperture with the enclosed area shall be considered for classification. and air-locks should not be considered as apertures.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 A vapour-tight door or hatch. Page 21/73 . This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored. locked in normal operation and opened only under a permit to work procedure. One ordinary door or one door of a vapour-tight design (self-closing or not) shall be considered as an aperture. Areas having a direct opening onto another area: • Shall take the Zone classification of adjacent areas if they are more stringent • Shall extend their own classification to adjacent areas of openings if they would otherwise be less stringent. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

It must not be stored. (4) Typical case of living quarters where ventilation rate is low. There should still be a local Zone 1 or 2 around the source and the extent of this Zone should be greater than in the open air.1). ‘If’ to be taken as a restrictive condition This document is the property of Total. by extractor fan. if surrounded by a safe zone Zone 1 or 2 depending on the ventilation rate. (2) An area within a larger enclosure subject to local artificial ventilation. 1 Zone containing an or 2. Not classified Not classified if surrounded by a safe zone Overpressure (4) Under pressure (4) Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Zone 1 or 2 depending on the ventilation rate. shall be classified according to the local ventilation rate in that local area. if surrounded by a safe zone Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Zone 1 or 2 depending on the ventilation rate. either dilution or adequate ventilation depending on which is met.g. i. (1) Page 22/73 . i.e. a sample point. if surrounded by a safe zone Zone 1 or 2 depending on the ventilation rate. Zone 0 if surrounded by a Zone 0 or 1 Zone 1 if surrounded by a Zone 2 Zone 0 if surrounded by a Zone 0 or 1 Zone 1 if surrounded by a Zone 2 Adequate Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Zone 2 Dilution (2) Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not classified if surrounded by a safe zone Not classified if surrounded by a safe zone Secondary (3) no Zone 2 Type of ventilation Dilution + Dilution + under overpressure pressure Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not classified Not classified if if surrounded surrounded by a safe by a Zone 0. (3) With a source of small hazard radius. 1 ignition source or 2. continuous or primary grade sources shall not be located within an enclosed area. General Note: In the above table. Such design shall require formal derogation to this specification. typically about twice the extent.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Zone classification of enclosed areas Grade of internal release (1) (3) Continuous (1) (3) Continuous (1) (3) Primary (1) (3) Primary (3) Secondary Internal ignition sources yes no yes no yes Inadequate Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Zone 1 if surrounded by a safe zone Zone 1 if surrounded by a safe Zone or a Zone 1 or 2. the local ventilation may be high enough to prevent the source from influencing the classification of the whole enclosure. if surrounded by a safe zone Not classified if surrounded by a safe zone No source yes Zone 0 if surrounded by a Zone 0 Zone 1 if surrounded by a Zone 1 Zone 2 if surrounded by a Zone 2 Zone 0 if surrounded by a Zone 0 Zone 1 if surrounded by a Zone 1 Zone 2 if surrounded by a Zone 2 Not classified if surrounded by a safe zone Not classified No source no Not classified Not classified Not classified Not classified Not classified With the exception of accumulator batteries (see Section 12. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. e. ignition source Not classified Not classified if surrounded by a safe if surrounded Zone containing an by a Zone 0.e.

reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. or above.1 Characteristics of petroleum fluids For Area Classification in petroleum installations. Annex A. TH is the temperature at which the fluid is handled in °C. first in classes then in categories: • The Class of liquid hydrocarbons relates to their flash point and handling temperature at actual storage or process conditions • The Category is derived from the class and indicates to which extent a fluid on release can form a flammable mixture with air. or • A point source method developed in present Section 8.1) • The release pressure • The hole release size For the determination of hazard radii. their flash point temperature 8.1) • The fluid category (determined as per Section 8. III Liquid Hydrocarbon with 55°C≤TF<100°C III(1): TH < TF III(2): TH≥ TF 8 For further guidance on petroleum fluids classification refer to IP 15. 12. they should be considered as class III (2) when handled at. 13 and 14.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 8. Hazard radii depend on the following parameters: • The grade of release (determined in Section 6. This is a determining factor in the calculation of the hazard radius (see Section 8 & Appendices A & B). However. or • A risk based method for secondary grade release equipment or when the release rate (hole size & pressure) is unknown (IP 15). This document is the property of Total. 11.1 Classification of petroleum fluids based on closed cup flash points (IP 15) Class Fluid 0 LPG I Liquid hydrocarbon with TF < 21°C II Liquid Hydrocarbon with 21°C≤TF<55°C II(1): TH < TF II(2): TH≥ TF Where: TF is the flash point of the fluid in °C. Unclassified are liquid hydrocarbons with a flash point above 100°C.2. see Appendix A. Page 23/73 .1. 8. the classification of petroleum fluids shall be done in two steps. Determination of the hazard radius This section provides the general requirements for the determination of the hazard radius. 8. It must not be stored. Hazard radii may be determined by either: • Direct examples limited to common facilities given in Sections 10.

1 bar(a). It must not be stored. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Page 24/73 . Any flammable liquid that. more than 40% vol vaporisation with no heat input other than from the surroundings. Any flammable liquid. Category G(ii) G(i) A Refinery hydrogen A typical methane-rich natural gas. on release. but which can be at a temperature above its flash point or form a flammable mist or spray. not in Category A or B.g.1. Crude oil may be regarded as stabilised when separation from gas has been at a pressure at or below 1. Definition B C 8. • Unstabilised crude oil should be put in Category B because of the wide boiling temperature range involved • Stabilised crude oil should be put in Category C. not in Category A. on release. 9 For further guidance on petroleum fluids classification refer to IP 15. Includes LPG and lighter flammable liquids e. This document is the property of Total.1. but at a temperature sufficient for boiling to occur on release.2 Fluid Categories Following are guidelines for application of Categories to the oil and gas production installations 9. Annex A.3 Relationship between fluid classification & fluid category The following table may be used to convert classification to fluid category: Classification of petroleum based on closed cup flash points Class Description LPG Flash point less than 21°C Flash point 21-55°C Flash point 21-55°C Flash point 55-100°C Flash point 55-100°C (1) Fluid category Handled above flash point Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Handled above boiling point A B N/A(1) B N/A B N/A B (1) (1) Can be released as mist A C C C C C C C Handled below boiling point and cannot be released as mist A (2) 0 I II (1) II (2) III (1) C N/A(1) C N/A C N/A(1) C (1) III (2) Unclassified Flash point > 100°C Flash point > 100°C Unclassified (2) (1) (2) Not applicable because liquids not handled above their flash point cannot be above their boiling point. Also includes any flammable liquid at a temperature sufficient to produce. Any flammable liquid.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 8. would vaporise rapidly or substantially. Cryogenic fluids need special consideration. LNG.

primary or secondary (depends on the frequency of venting) Continuous. It is not a substitute for good engineering judgement.3 Typical sources of release The typical grades and sources of release for the current standard equipment/arrangements are included in the following table: Type of equipment Pumps (1) Drains & sample points Sources of release Seals. primary or secondary (depends on the frequency of venting) Safe area Secondary Primary Continuous or Primary Primary Compressors Process vents (includes degassing & cold vents) Instrument vents Seals & joints Discharge point assuming that all welded collecting piping = safe area Discharge point All welded piping Flanges & valves (2) Pig receivers Sumps Interceptors or coalescers None Seals & joints Door Ventilated concrete slab/metal grill Ventilated concrete slab/metal grill (1) In case of frequent seal failure in “normal operation”. characteristics of the environment and conditions of release. vents. 8. should be considered as primary source of release (2) In case of frequent failure in “normal operation”. shall be carried out as per GS EP SAF 253. Page 25/73 . valves. drains.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 8. It must not be stored. piping flanges.2 Hazard radius The hazard radius of a source of release is the largest horizontal & vertical extents of the hazardous area that is generated by the source when situated in an open area under unrestricted natural ventilation. should be considered as primary source of release. This document is the property of Total. The hazard radius does not take into consideration all the actual physical properties of the gas. For example one may consider that a particular item of equipment gives rise to a critical risk and decide to enlarge the associated hazardous area. filter/strainers Drain sampling point Typical release Grade Secondary Primary or secondary (depends on the frequency of sampling) Secondary Continuous. The hazard radius is not the result of a fully deterministic approach. Gas dispersion calculations. if necessary. It should be regarded as a standard to be used when no better method is available. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. using codes (computer programs) approved by COMPANY.

Exploration & Production
General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03

8.4 Procedure for continuous & primary grade releases
The hazard radii may be determined using the generic hazard radius values included in the tables in Appendix A1; however, a more accurate value of hazard radius may be determined using dispersion models when data for the equipment are available.

8.5 Procedure for secondary grade releases
The hazard radii may be determined using the generic hazard radius values included in the tables in Appendix A2; however, a more accurate value of hazard radius may be determined using dispersion models when data for the equipment are available.

8.6 Particular case of sheltered areas
There are many cases of natural ventilated situations where there is some restriction to free air circulation: • Some associated with an otherwise open area layout but where there is an obstruction in the form of a wall, adjacent structure or open-sided roof • Others where a partial restriction to natural air flow is in-built by design in the form of a structure that has pierced openings or louvers to provide weather protection.

Note 1: R1 is the hazard radius obtained from Section 8. Note 2: The wall should extend to at least the full vertical height of the hazardous area if it is to be used as a deflection wall. Note 3: S is the shortest distance from the source to the edge of the retaining wall. Figure 2 - Extent of hazardous area around wall producing sheltered area (gas or vapour lighter or heavier than air)

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Exploration & Production
General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03

9. Sizing and drawings of hazardous areas
The extent of hazardous areas shall be conducted in two steps: • First the hazard radius around each potential release source is determined as per Section 8 • Then this hazard radius is used to set up the three dimensional envelope of the hazardous area taking account of the type of zone, the ventilation in the area, the natural or artificial obstacles in the gas path, and the buoyancy of the release. Hazardous zones sizing is detailed in Appendix B. To draw the line between hazardous areas and non hazardous areas, the following rules apply: • For skid mounted equipment (e.g. packages), it shall be assumed that secondary grade release sources (see Section 6.2.1) can be anywhere at the periphery of the equipment skid. A detailed study of each single secondary grade release is not required. It is only in case of difficulty that the exact location of the sources of release shall be considered. This would require input from the equipment VENDOR • For non skid mounted equipment e.g. vessels, it shall be assumed that sources of secondary grade release are located at a distance of 0.8 m from the equipment external limits (e.g. vessel shell) • The accurate location of each primary or continuous grade releases shall be considered for drawing the hazardous areas they generate • Two adjacent hazardous areas shall be merged in any point where their distance does not exceed 3 m • Generally a whole offshore deck or a whole onshore unit containing essentially hydrocarbon processing or storage equipment should be classified as Zone 2 after identifying the Zones 0 & 1 if any • Extension of Zone contours at unit borders should be considered on a case by case basis.

10. Drilling rigs, equipment and well operations
See Appendix C for the classification of drilling rigs, equipment and well operations.

11. Internal combustion engines and fire heaters
Reference is also made to GS EP SAF 222, GS EP SAF 227 and GS EP MEC 290.

11.1 Gas turbines
11.1.1 Main principles for classification Gas turbines are potential sources of ignition and release. Gas turbines shall not be installed in Zone 0 or Zone 1. As a consequence, gas turbines shall drive equipment that is either a source of secondary grade release (hydrocarbon gas compressor, oil pump) or not a source of release (alternator, water pump). Gas turbines shall be installed in an enclosed area (called turbine enclosure) in order to reduce the noise level and make the area safe by dilution ventilation.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Exploration & Production
General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03

It may happen that the turbine enclosure, the driven equipment and all the auxiliaries are enclosed in a bigger enclosure (called unit room). The main justification of a unit room is to provide a safe environment to the driven equipment (e.g. generator, compressor or pump) if it has to be installed in a hazardous area (e.g. offshore). In cases where the driven equipment does not require a safe environment or is installed in a safe area of the plant (e.g. onshore), the unit room is not mandatory. For the classification of gas turbines, see Appendix D. 11.1.2 Turbine enclosure principles The turbine enclosure shall be provided with a ventilation system for cooling and dilution purposes. The turbine enclosure ventilation system shall be independent from the ventilation system of the unit room, if any. Turbine enclosure ventilation is ensured by a “main” ventilation system backed up by a “stand by” ventilation system. The stand by ventilation shall automatically start on loss of main ventilation. Stand-by ventilation shall be supplied by an emergency power source independent from normal power and shall be suitable for Zone 1. After the turbine is shutdown, the auxiliary power source shall be capable of keeping the ventilation running until hot surfaces have been cooled down below the auto-ignition temperature of the gas/air mixtures that may be present in the enclosure. Differential pressure shall be provided as applicable: • Under pressure where the turbine enclosure is surrounded by a safe area • Overpressure where the turbine enclosure is surrounded by a hazardous area. In both cases (under pressure and overpressure), an alarm shall be initiated in the control room if the differential pressure drops below 25 Pa (0.25 mbar). The electrical equipment within the enclosure shall be certified for use in Zone 2 as a minimum. The turbine enclosure shall be ventilated before energizing of any electrical equipment not suitable for Zone 1. The purge ventilation shall be suitable for operation in Zone 1 and shall ensure a minimum of 5 air changes. 11.1.3 Unit room principles Any electrical equipment outside the turbine enclosure (power generator or auxiliaries) shall be suitable for use in the type of hazardous area that prevails, either Zone 2 or safe area. Where provided, the unit room of the totally enclosed type, shall be rendered safe as follows: • A unit room containing a secondary fuel source and surrounded by an external hazardous area shall be adequately ventilated • A unit room containing a secondary fuel source and surrounded by an external safe area shall be adequately ventilated and under-pressurised at a minimum of 25 Pa

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Hydrogen. an alarm shall be provided in the control room if the differential pressure drops below 25 Pa. are sources of ignition and release. For the classification of gas and liquid fuel engines. see Appendices E1 & E2. they do not generate a hazardous area 10. Their surface temperature shall not exceed 80% of the ignition temperature (in °C) of any flammable gas mixtures likely to be present.e.4 Hot surfaces in areas not provided with dilution ventilation (e. Diesel and gas engines: • Shall not be installed in Zones 0 or 1 • Shall not be installed in a Zone 2 where a category G(ii) gas (e. their auxiliaries and driven equipment. A diesel fuel engine is a source of ignition. 11 Conformity to EN 1834-1 or installation in an enclosure. It must not be stored. 11.2 Gas and liquid fuel engines Spark ignited gasoline-fuelled engines shall not be installed in hydrocarbon plants. Offshore Diesel and gas engines installed in Zone 2 shall conform to EN 1834-1 or be installed in an enclosure. i.4. Gas engines. Page 29/73 . as gas turbines.g.g. acetylene) may be present • Shall not be installed in areas where liquid hydrocarbon spillage or liquid mist may occur and result in the release of vapours with an auto-ignition temperature lower than 135°C • Should not be installed in a hazardous area. Diesel and gas engines. hot surfaces shall be thermally insulated. exhaust pipes) When located in hazardous area. protected by internal overpressure which complies with the requirements of Section 6. The above requirement 11 is not mandatory for onshore gas engine or Diesel engine if their driven equipment and their “auxiliaries” are installed at a distance specified in Appendices E1 & E2. shall in any case be adequately ventilated even if driving equipment that does not constitute a fuel source. A diesel fuel engine and its fuel circuit are not considered as a source of release. such an engine shall be considered as a source of release.1.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 • A unit room containing no fuel source and surrounded by an outside Zone 2 hazardous area shall be maintained at a minimum overpressure of 25 Pa with respect to all surrounding classified areas with potential openings to the room including the turbine enclosure itself • In both cases. The quantity of hydrocarbon vapour involved is small enough to be disregarded.4.2. protected by internal overpressure complying with the requirements of Section 6. 11. By default the surface temperature shall not exceed 200°C (corresponding to ATEX requirement for T3 skin temperature). mainly due to its high skin temperature and the possibility of spark emission. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.2. This document is the property of Total. See Figures D1 to D3 in Appendix D. 10 When fed with crude oil. For more details refer to API 2216.

and GS EP ELE 021 for the electrical design of floating units. When batteries are arranged in two or more tiers.3 Fired heaters Fired heaters themselves do not generate hazardous area. air intakes for natural draught fired heaters can be located in the immediate vicinity of the burner. As a consequence of what precedes.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 11. Two types of accumulator batteries shall be considered: • Open batteries which include recombination type or vented batteries • Sealed batteries. When dilution ventilation is achieved by artificial means. For the classification of fired heaters. see Appendix E3.1 Basics With the exception of small capacity sealed batteries which are outside the scope of this specification. igniters and pilots do not generate hazardous area.2 Location and hydrogen detection Accumulator batteries and their charger may be located in the same cubicle only if this cubicle is provided with natural or artificial dilution ventilation as per the requirements of this Section. 12. all shelves shall have not less than 50 m space. Refer also to GS EP HVA 100 for the dilution ventilation criteria for accumulators. The purpose of ventilating a battery location or enclosure is to maintain the hydrogen concentration below the 4% volume hydrogen Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) threshold. Page 30/73 . The requirements set out in Section 12. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. for circulation of air. Particular attention shall be given to the fact that the gas emitted is lighter than air and will tend to accumulate in any pockets at the top of the space. as long as they are outside the Zone 2 hazardous area generated by the fuel or the process lines. front and back. • Sealed batteries: can be located in the same room as electrical equipment and no hydrogen detection is required This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored. by natural or forced (artificial) ventilation. Main burners.1 shall apply to all batteries liable to release flammable gases. Refer to GS EP ELE 001 for the classification of accumulator batteries. This Section 12 sets out the basic safety requirements for the design of installations designed by or on behalf of COMPANY. Battery locations and enclosures are to be considered as safe from explosions when. accumulator batteries are regarded as primary sources of release: they release hydrogen when they are being charged. Reference is made to international standard IEC 61892-6 and IEC 61892-7 for the installation of accumulator batteries in enclosures/buildings. 12. the concentration of hydrogen is kept below the LFL limit. This section addresses additional requirements that depend on the capacity and discharge voltage of the accumulator batteries. Accumulator batteries in buildings 12. the battery charge shall be stopped on loss of ventilation.

Hydrocarbon storage For storage containing Category C or non-hazardous fluids on release. fixed roof storage tanks For the classification of overhead. IP 15 recommendations shall apply even if the ambient temperature exceeds 30°C.1.3. with the exception of the electrical equipment certified for Zone 1 category G(ii) gases. Hydrogen detection shall be installed. namely the "Arrêté du 9 ovembre 1972" for liquefied hydrocarbons stored under pressure at more than 0°C ambient temperature (Category A2 under French classification).1 Laboratories A laboratory contains potential sources of release such as hydrocarbon gas samples. Section 3 for more details. Also some leak sources may be toxic for This document is the property of Total. 13. 13. It must not be stored. 14. Some of the equipment used for hydrocarbon gas and liquid analysis cannot be made suitable for use in a hazardous area (e. chromatograph) and therefore shall be considered as ignition sources.2 and 13.2 Overhead. see Appendix F1. floating roof storage tanks. 13.4 LPG storage tanks The extent and classification of hazardous areas around storage vessels containing Class 0 liquids (LPG) shall be based on French regulation. 13. As part of this specification.3 Overhead. 13. The safety of personnel handling the acid fluids associated with open batteries in this room shall be considered: provision of an eye wash station. Section 3 shall be complied with. The fans in this battery room shall be suitable for operation in Zone 1 for category G(ii) gases. Miscellaneous 14. 13. IP 15. and vapours from heated hydrocarbon liquids. 13. fixed roof storage tanks. For the classification of LPG storage tanks.1 Under-ground or within-embankment storage tanks For under-ground or within-embankment storage tanks containing liquids of Class I. This is illustrated in Sections 13. II (2) or III (2). Page 31/73 . floating roof storage tanks For the classification of overhead. 13.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 • Open batteries shall be located in a dedicated battery room. Refer to the local regulations and standards prevailing in the country of application. see Appendix F2. Refer to IP 15. the extent and classification of hazardous areas around the surface vents depend on whether the tank is pump or gravity fed. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.6 LNG storage NFPA 59A or more stringent national regulations shall be followed. On hydrogen detection the battery charge shall be switched off (in order to stop hydrogen release) and all ignition sources in the room shall be isolated.g. see Appendix F3.5 Refrigerated LPG storage LPG stored at atmospheric pressure (below 0°C) is outside the scope of this specification.

12 In certain cases. The design of analyser shelters shall comply with the requirements of IEC 60079-16. In particular: • The analyser shelter shall be a separate building or shall be completely isolated from other parts of the building • If the analyser shelter is located in a hazardous area the ingress of the external atmosphere into the shelter shall be prevented by an internal overpressure produced by forced ventilation (refer to Section 6.1) • The analyser shelter containing ignition sources (e. For laboratories where a pressure below that of the surrounding area is maintained. sockets. The doors of a laboratory should be self-closing and of a vapour-tight design.2. Page 32/73 .4.4.2 Analyser shelters An analyser shelter or house is a specific closed room or building containing one or more analysers for sampling of flammable fluids which are or may be connected to a process installation together with electrical equipment and auxiliary devices (IEC 60079-16). located in a non-hazardous area. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Dilution ventilation rates shall be determined on a case by case basis to take into consideration the hazards specific to each case. The inventory of flammable products in laboratories shall be minimised: flammable products other than the minimum quantities necessary for the day-to-day work shall be stored outside the laboratory. air-locks may be permitted between the laboratory and the remainder of the building.2. it should be completely isolated from other parts of the building. Electrical equipment such as fixed lighting. in suitable locations. A laboratory should be a separate building.g. This document is the property of Total.1. All products contained in laboratories shall be checked for toxicity and flammability. junction boxes. which will achieve adequate ventilation • A fume cupboard shall also be provided. air inlets may be common to two ventilation systems. For the classification of laboratories. 14. IEC 61285 & present specification. with an exhaust fan certified for Zone 1 which will achieve a ventilation rate of at least thirty air changes per hour. Adequate ventilation (refer to Section 6. electrical apparatus not suitable for operation in Zone 2) and secondary grade of release sources shall be provided with dilution ventilation (see Section 6.4. They shall be considered by default until the leak rates of secondary grade releases are assessed: • A laboratory handling flammable gases or liquids shall be provided with an exhaust fan certified for Zone 1.4. see Appendix G1. It must not be stored. The dilution ventilation shall ensure thirty air changes per hour as a minimum (IP 15).2.1).Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 health. If incorporated in a larger building. The laboratory ventilation system should be independent from the ventilation of the remainder of the building 12. lighting switches inside the laboratory shall be certified for Zone 2 and defined as per GS EP ELE 079.1) shall be implemented in laboratories to ensure that they can be continuously and safely occupied by personnel. The following dilution rates apply only in the laboratories containing no toxic materials and no sources of primary grade of release.

The external skin temperature limits as given above apply to all hot exhaust chimneys and exhausts within the restricted areas of all petroleum installations (for the definition of the restricted area refer to GS EP SAF 253). Blowout panels should be provided to minimise the consequences of an explosion. see Appendix G4. For the classification of chimneys & exhausts. see Appendix G3. For the classification of small storage of flammable products.4 Loading and filling operations (road tanker. see Appendix G5.5 Jetties (loading.3 Small storage of flammable products This section addresses the case of portable containers with small volumes of flammable products e. 13 If a primary source cannot be vented outside the shelter. 14. Section 3. Section 3. LPG). 14. This document is the property of Total. unloading) Refer to IP 15. They may be installed in Zone 2 hazardous areas only if their external skin temperature does not exceed 200°C. see Appendix G2. Storage locations shall be identified and designated on layouts during the design of an installation for this equipment such that the hazard of ignition or explosion associated with such storage be minimised. air intakes to heating and ventilation systems and to combustion chambers.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Continuous or primary grade of release sources shall be vented. It must not be stored. Page 33/73 . For the classification of air intakes. 14.g. False ceilings and floors shall not be used in analyser shelters. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.8 Chimneys and exhausts Exhausts and chimneys releasing hot gases shall not be located in hazardous areas Zone 1 or Zone 0.6 Air intakes Air intakes shall be located to prevent ingress of flammable gas or vapour in areas containing ignition sources: e.7 Air exhausts For the classification of air exhausts. drum filling) Refer to IP 15. rail car. 14. cylinders containing liquefied hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon gases under pressure (acetylene. Air intakes for ventilation of analyser shelters should also be taken from outside the hazardous area. 14. 14. dilution ventilation shall be provided even if there are no ignition sources in the shelter (this shall require a derogation to this specification approved by COMPANY and an assessment of the dilution rate). Hydrocarbon vent lines shall be fitted with a flame arrester. Sampling operations which involve the intentional release of flammable substances shall be carried out in a suitable location outside the shelter 13.g.

10. traffic restrictions shall be implemented based on fixed gas detection which initiates visual and audible alarms (design and risk mitigation measures shall be approved by COMPANY). This requirement covers not only the ship hull and decks but also its chimney. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.9 Flares Flares shall be installed in a non-hazardous area. For the precautions specific to the operation of fired heaters refer to GS EP SAF 227. 14. 14.1 Roads and railways (onshore) For railways. In case requirements of the relevant section of Appendix G6 are not applicable. Purging shall be done with air being totally free of flammable gas. refer to IP 15.2 Helidecks. The purging process shall last long enough to keep the flammable gas content under 25% of the lowest flammable limit in the worst conditions. traffic restrictions and control procedures shall be implemented based on fixed gas detection which initiates visual and audible alarms. This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored.10. particularly the confined areas such as: • Pits. The safe distances should be materialised by signs wherever an access road enters a hazardous area. radio aerials and radar antenna and other appurtenances regarded as sources of ignition. This shall be established with flammable gas detectors. Flares shall be designed in accordance with GS EP SAF 253 and GS EP SAF 262. Flammable gas detectors shall be used to check all spots where gas is likely to accumulate. if heavier than air gas or vapour is present • Ceiling recesses if lighter than air gas or vapour is present • Blind corners. Page 34/73 .3 Boats In case requirements of the relevant section of Appendix G6 are not applicable. helipads and air strips In case requirements of the relevant section of Appendix G6 are not applicable. presence of a HLO (Helicopter Landing Officer) or other personnel qualified to authorise landing and take-off (design and risk mitigation measures shall be approved by COMPANY).10 Traffic 14.11 Purging Purging is the operation of passing a quantity of air through an enclosure and its associated ducts in order to reduce to a safe level any concentration of flammable gas or vapour within the enclosure and its associated ducts (from IEC 60079-16).10. 14. traffic restrictions shall be implemented based on fixed gas detection which initiates visual and audible alarms (design and risk mitigation measures shall be approved by COMPANY). fixed or portable. In any case the minimum volume of sweeping air shall be five times the total volume of the enclosure/premises. Care shall be taken that all areas have been effectively purged.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 14. 14.

This document is the property of Total.3). Page 35/73 . with due consideration for ventilation and pressurisation (as per Section 6.2.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 14.12 Classification of enclosed buildings The classification of the enclosed buildings shall be based on the rules defined in present specification (refer to Section 7. It must not be stored. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.4) and in conformity with the relevant section of Appendix G.

Vapours from a release are to be considered either heavier (H) or lighter than air (L). reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. This document is the property of Total.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Annex 1 Annex 1 Table of hazardous equipment Hazardous equipment Tag number Description Phase MW T °C P bar(a) Flammable fluid Flash Point °C Category Density Auto ignition T°C Explosive limits % LFL % UFL Type Area Ventilation Source of release Nature Grade Flow m3/h Zone Classification Hazard radius m Gas group Temp class Remark V 110 Separator Vapor (5) 22 (1) 50 (2) 75 (2) (3) G(i) L 502 4% 16% Sheltered Adequate Instrument vent 2 (4) 2 7. Page 36/73 . Only for vents that are covered by this specification (see Appendix A).5 II A T3 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Range of MW to cover all situations. It must not be stored. Design pressure and design temperature or the most critical combination of P and T for hazardous releases. For liquids only.

§ 10. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.§ 6.1 Zone ranking.§ 8.2.2 Location .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Annex 2 Annex 2 Area classification procedure This procedure shall be followed at each stage of a development project and whenever there is a modification to an existing installation.§ 6. Page 37/73 .2. sheltered. enclosed area -§ 6.3.4 & Appendix A Direct example method .2.1 Hazard radius . It must not be stored.4 & 7 Ventilation .§ 6.2.§ 9 & Appendices A & B This document is the property of Total.2 to 8. 12. Equipment Grade of release . 11. 13 & 14 & Appendices A & B gives hazardous radius & envelope at once Hazardous area envelope . 6.Open.§ 8.4 Fluid category .

It must not be stored. Where toxic gases may be released. Determine openness of region to be classified by inspection of installation layout Open Area Open air conditions (wind speed rarely < 0. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. the ventilation rates given in the figure are not relevant.5 m/s and frequently > 2 m/s Enclosed Area Are there any significant obstacles to natural wind ventilation? Does enclosed area contain internal source of release? No No Yes If external source exists is enclosure pressurised to > 25 Pa Yes No Yes Consider general or local artificial ventilation Does ventilation system give >12 air changes per hour? Yes Are there sufficient air changes to give dilution ventilation at all ignition sources? Yes Open area: Adequate Natural ventilation Sheltered or obstructed area: Restricted natural ventilation Over pressurized enclosed area: Non hazardous Enclosed area: Dilution ventilation No Enclosed area: Adequate ventilation No Enclosed area: Inadequate ventilation This document is the property of Total. Page 38/73 .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Annex 3 Annex 3 Procedure for assessing type & degree of ventilation This method for assessing type and degree of ventilation applies in areas where sources of flammable gases are present.

no ceiling No floor (1) . As a minimum the louvers should be present on three (out of the four) sides of the building: two strips of louvers. Page 39/73 . It should also be checked that these buildings offer a sufficient free area of inlet openings as per the formula given in Section 6. This document is the property of Total. shall run along the full length of the wall.6. no ceiling (1) Gratings are regarded as no floor (2) Plain walls (no louvers) (3) In some cases may be regarded as adequate. first edition 11/1997.6. reaffirmed 11/2002). close to the floor/ground. Walls (% surface) (2) > 0 to 25 Top & bottom parts Floor + ceiling No floor (1) > 25 to 50 Inadequate (3) Adequate Adequate Adequate > 50 to 75 Inadequate Inadequate Adequate Adequate > 75 to 100 Inadequate Inadequate Inadequate Adequate Type of ventilation Adequate Adequate Adequate Adequate + ceiling Floor.5 m above ground. close to the roof/ceiling.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Annex 4 Annex 4 Guidelines for the determination of the level of ventilation of sheltered areas Guidance from this table is broadly in line with API RP 505 (Section 6. The buildings described below are regarded as sheltered areas and may be used as weather protection for equipment handling flammable fluids: • Buildings where walls height is less than 2. each with a minimum vertical width of 1 m.6 of API RP 505.4. It must not be stored.2. and the space under the roof is adequately ventilated • Buildings where the walls are provided with louvers or other types of slits purposely designed for ensuring that natural ventilation will be adequate. one at the top i.e.e. the other at the bottom i. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

If used more than once a day they should be regarded as primary sources as a minimum. draining should be done to a closed drain system. All distances in this section are given in metres. Samples should be taken in a sealed container designed to be connected to the drain point for the duration of the sampling. It must not be stored. The maximum hazard radii for categories A. shall be carried out as per GS EP SAF 253.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix A Appendix A . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. and GS EP SAF 228 for the design of closed drain systems). a more accurate value of hazard radius may be determined using dispersion models which take into consideration all the actual physical properties of the gas. B. C and where appropriate G(i) & G(ii) are given in the following tables. Gas dispersion calculations. Hazard radii are given using dispersion calculation methodology applied to particular fluid compositions.Determination of hazard radii values for equipment For further guidance. however. They generate a hazardous area as for valves and flanges (see Appendix A2. using codes (computer programs) approved by COMPANY. designed to be safely vented to an appropriate disposal system such as a flare (refer to GS EP SAF 262 for the design of hydrocarbon disposal systems. There shall be a hazardous area resulting from the flanges and the valves (see Appendix A2. A1. This document is the property of Total.3rd Edition . instrument drains and liquid sample points that discharge directly to atmosphere.3). to fit specific process scenarios. Page 40/73 . a risk based approach may be used to determine release hole size (see Appendix A2). characteristics of the environment and conditions of release.3). Where appropriate.July 2005. Drains and sample points should be graded based on the expected frequency of use. The risk based methodology provides a means of adjusting release frequency and hence hazard radii. As such they are normally blinded and used only after the equipment is isolated and depressurised. • Equipment drains (with the exception of the instrument drains) shall be designed as per GS EP SAF 228.1 Drains & liquid sample points This section applies to process equipment drains. • Draining and sampling of Category B liquids directly to atmosphere should be avoided: Wherever feasible. • They shall require a closed collection system. Equipment/arrangements generally generating continuous or primary grade releases A1. The following rules shall apply: • Draining and sampling of Category A liquids shall not be done directly to atmosphere. If for any reasons equipment drains were not blinded they would generate hazard radii as per Table A1 and in this case the possibility for draining category B liquids shall be considered. if necessary. see Section 5 & Annex C of IP 15 .

B & C for the “worst case” discharge pressure. Page 41/73 .Drains (not blinded) and liquid sample points Fluid category A B C Pressure (Bar(a)) 100 100 100 Hazard radius R1 (in m) Diameter (2) 2 mm (3) 4 5 Diameter (2) 5 mm (3) 10 12 Diameter (2) 10 mm (3) 20 22 Diameter (2) 20 mm (3) (1) (1) (1) For this diameter the radius exceeds 30 m. The size of the potential release is greater than normally considered for area classification and should be avoided.Tank vents Hazard Radius R1 (in m) Vent rate (Nm /h) 50 250 500 1000 2500 2 3 3 4 3 Vent Diameter (in mm) 80 2 3 4 5 100 2 3 4 5 250 3 4 6 6 A1. Alternative design options should be considered such as a closed collection system (refer to the text of this section). reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.g. in particular the instrument drains and sampling of liquids to an open system. (2) This is the diameter of the smallest item on drain or sample line i. i.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix A • Sampling of gases to an open system.e.3 Process vents Permanent or occasional outflows of combustible vapour shall be collected and discharged away from possible sources of ignition. It must not be stored. (3) Draining and sampling of Category A liquids directly to atmosphere shall not be allowed.4 applies). with a release to atmosphere.3).2 Tank vents (category C fluid) Freely vented tanks will allow vapour /air mixtures to be released in normal operation. valve or restriction orifice. All vent flow-rates in this section are given at Normal conditions.e. This document is the property of Total. or a smaller diameter (e. In all other cases. A1. line. a restriction). Table A1 gives the maximum hazard radius for fluid categories A. Table A1 . The hazardous area will extend from the point of draining/sampling. shall generate a hazard radius equivalent to an instrument vent (Appendix A1. Table A2 gives the hazard radii from the storage tank vent of a typical category C fluid: Table A2 . • Sampling to a closed system with normally no release to atmosphere shall generate a hazard radius as for flanges and valves (Appendix A2.

Process vents Hazard Radius R1 (in m) Vapor Emission rate (Nm3/h) 50 10(1) (3) 100(1) (2) 250 500 (2) (2) Vent diameter (mm) 100 5 5 5 5 5 250 6 6 6 7 9 3 3 3 4 5 1000(2) (1) For vents with flow rates kept below 100 Nm3/h and where the velocity of all the releases are above 150 m/s.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix A Material that could condense shall not be vented directly to atmosphere.3 fifth edition 01/2007) should be adopted. the distance to LFL given in API STANDARD 521(Section 6. Vents used frequently (e. primary or secondary grades of release depending on the frequency of operation. Table A3 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. In this case.4 Instrument vents The maximum hazard radii from vents on instrument systems shall be based on Table A4 which gives the maximum hazard radius for fluid categories A. Page 42/73 . This document is the property of Total. B. It may be necessary to fit a flow restrictor on high pressure systems. daily) should be classified as primary grade as a minimum. The peak venting flow rate of the release is to be considered for determining the hazard radius. C. (3) Gaseous sample points should be designed so that the flow rate is less than 10 Nm3/h at ambient conditions. The hazard radii for process vents have been calculated for a matrix of venting rates and vent diameters for a lighter and a heavier than air release and are given in Table A3. the Zone 0 or 1 hazardous area shall be surrounded by a larger Zone 2 area defined by the larger flow (refer to Appendix B). It must not be stored. A dispersion calculation is also recommended for vents with flow rates exceeding 100 Nm3/h. Vents shall be classified as continuous. These recommended distances are based on unrestricted upward discharge and dispersion of vapour without condensation. For some vents there may be a small continuous or primary grade release flow (generating a Zone 0 or 1) with a larger secondary grade release occasional flow (generating a Zone 2) for example during abnormal or emergency operation. (2) For vents with flow rates exceeding 200 Nm3/h a dispersion calculation shall be carried out to check if the distances of this table are adequate (gas dispersion calculations shall be carried out as per GS EP SAF 253). G(i) & G(ii) for the “worst case” discharge pressure of 100 bar(a). A1.g.

When there is a possibility that hot material could enter the sump in sufficient quantity to produce appreciable quantities of gas.5 Sumps in oily water treatments units The typical layout of a sump is shown in Figure A1. This document is the property of Total.5 <1 1 Diameter 2 mm 4 4 4.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix A Table A4 .Instrument vents Fluid category A B C G(i) G(ii) Hazard radius R1 (in m) Diameter 1 mm 2. or that Category A or B material could inadvertently enter. This area should be classified as Zone 1 or Zone 2 depending on whether the source is primary or secondary grade of release.5 2 2. Generally this assumption can be made only in the case of storage and tank areas.5 <1 1 Diameter 5 mm 9 9 9 1 2 A1. Page 43/73 . The hazardous area above ground and outside the sump walls should be drawn as shown from the periphery of the sump using the appropriate hazard radius obtained from Table A5 in cases when it can be assumed that entry of only Category C fluids can occur. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. then a hazard radius of 15 m should be used with an increased vertical distance of 3 m. It must not be stored. including installations and depots.

Note 2: Dimension from table 5. Note 3: h depends on the temperature of release and the volatility of the material released. For Category C fluids up to 50°C. Figure A1 . of at least 3 m should be applied. The design of the pig traps shall be such that they cannot be opened while under pressure.Open sump . A1.Sumps (all distances in meters) L Less than 5 5 to less than 10 10 or greater R1 3 7. Note 4: For a secondary grade release. this is normally achieved by a mechanical interlock between the door mechanism and the drain or vent systems. h. the area shown as Zones 0 and 1 would be Zones 1 and 2 respectively. a nominal height. The hazardous area should be classified as Zone 1. for volatile fluids or at elevated temperatures.Zoning shown for primary grade source Table A5 . Page 44/73 . h is nominally 1 m. This document is the property of Total. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Note 2: L is width of the sump. However it is recommended that this height is verified by calculation. for the primary grade release is less than 15 m.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix A Note 1: The Zone 2 is applicable where there is a possibility of a secondary grade release and the hazard radius R.6 Pig receivers and launchers Pig receivers and launchers are likely to be opened frequently and should normally be regarded as sources of primary grade release. A pressure gauge shall be provided with a range suitable for checking zero pressure before opening the door. The hazardous area should extent from the edge of the pool.5 15 Note 1: This table should be used only for Category C liquids. It must not be stored.

This distance may be reduced to 1. valves. Page 45/73 . Should any of these events be part of “normal operation” (as defined in Section 3) or occur frequently then the item should be regarded as an individual primary grade source. The pumps of glandless type. A2. for which motor and pump are submerged in a “can” or in a storage tank.High Integrity Pumps Fluid category A B C Hazard Radius (in m) 6 5 6 The term "high integrity" refers to a pump for which the design reduces significantly the probability of release. the doors of the pig traps should be regarded as sources with a hazard radius (Zone 1) of 3 m around the trap door. 3 & 4. drains.Calculation of hazard radii. The hazardous area generated by the pump should be drawn from the periphery of the pump. On pig receivers and launchers without an interlock between the door mechanism and the drain or vent systems.5 m if the equipment is purged with nitrogen and water washed through before opening. Pumps LNG pumps. They are normally all secondary grade sources because flanges are broken. Sources of release on pumps include their seals. independently from the pump they are associated with. It must not be stored. or fitted with a double mechanical seal system with a means of detecting leaks through the inner seal should be regarded as “high integrity pumps”. Hazard radii may be read off Table A6 that gives the maximum hazard radii for fluid categories A. piping flanges and filter/strainers. 2. Equipment/arrangements generally generating secondary grade releases A2. filters opened and vents and drains operated infrequently. vents. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. refer to IP 15 3rd edition Annex C . there should be an additional Zone 2 area from the trap door with a hazard radius of 6 m. do not generate a hazardous area. B & C for the “worst case” discharge pressure of 100 bar(a): Table A6 .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix A On this basis. Vents and drains which are not blinded in normal operation generate their own hazardous areas. Likewise a seal failure resulting in an appreciable release of liquid is unlikely. This document is the property of Total. Vents and drains should discharge to a safe location and the hazard radius they generate shall be estimated using Appendices A1.1. For this purpose the term "pump" should include the associated equipment which can be source of release. For non high integrity pumps (single seal with or without throttle bush).

A2. All-welded (without fittings such as valves. should be considered as primary grades of releases.g. glands and joints. instruments and flanges) piping and instrument tubing designed and constructed to COMPANY specifications should not be considered as sources of release.Non dry gas seals reciprocating compressors Fluid category G(i) G(ii) Hazard radius (in m) 2 3 For non dry gas seals centrifugal compressors (purged labyrinth or floating ring seals). Blow out of part of a gasket has not been considered since it is regarded as an incident with a low probability that is considered in consequence analysis for the determination of fire zones (refer to GS EP SAF 253). The hazardous area should be drawn from the periphery of the unit.High Integrity (dry gas seals) compressors Fluid category G(i) G(ii) Hazard radius (in m) 1 2.5 Table A8 . independently from the compressor they are associated with. Vents and drains which are not blinded in normal operation generate their own hazardous areas. All valves shall be considered as sources of release. refer to IP 15 3rd edition .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix A A2. instrument tubing. flanges & valves Hazard radii are from the periphery of flanges and valves in piping and instrument tubing. Flanges routinely broken in normal operation e.3 Piping. with a frequency greater than once a week. Page 46/73 . Hazard radii may be read off Tables A7 & A8 that gives the maximum hazard radii for fluid categories G(i) & G(ii) for the “worst case” discharge pressure of 100 bar(a): Table A7 .2 Compressors Sources of release on compressors include seals. This document is the property of Total.Annex C. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. It must not be stored.

B. C. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. G(i) & G(ii) for the worst case discharge pressure and a release hole diameter of 1 mm: Table A9 . It must not be stored.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix A Hazard radii may be read off Table A9 that gives the maximum hazard radii for fluid categories A. Page 47/73 .Flanges and valves Fluid Category A B C G(i) G(ii) Hazard radius (in m) 3 3 3 1 2 This document is the property of Total.

It must not be stored.Shape factors for pressurised releases The shape factor depends upon the height and orientation of the release and the hazard radius. This document is the property of Total. The key features are: • Releases below (H) of 1 m are influenced by the ground and have a hazard radius R2 • Releases above 1 m.Sizing of hazardous zones The relationship between the hazard radius R1 and the full 3-dimensional envelope of the hazard Zone is determined using the following figure: (c) Releases where H > R1 +1 Figure B1 . but at heights below the hazard radius R1 + 1 m are influenced by the ground if the release is directed downward and passes below 1 m • Releases at height above the hazard radius R1 + 1 m are independent of the ground. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix B Appendix B . Page 48/73 .

reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.5 3 3 2 2.5 3 2.5 5.5 6 4 4 5 5 4 4. It must not be stored.5 6 <1 <1 1.5 2 <1 1 2 3 5 mm 16 20 20 20 14 16 17 17 20 21 21 21 1 1.5 3 3 <1 <1 <1 1 <1 <1 1 2 2 mm 4 4. Page 49/73 . This document is the property of Total.5 5 2 2.5 2.5 6 8 10 mm (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 2 3 7 11 4 5 11 14 (1) For this diameter the radius exceeds 30 m.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix B The ground effect R2 can be estimated from the hazard radius R1.Hazard Radii at ground level R2 Fluid category A Release Pressure (bara) 5 10 50 100 B 5 10 50 100 C 5 10 50 100 G(i) 5 10 50 100 G(ii) 5 10 50 100 Hazard radius R2 (m) Release hole diameter 1 mm 2 2. directly using Table B1: Table B1 .5 2. The size of the potential release is greater than normally considered for area classification and should be avoided.5 3.5 5.

etc.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix B Note 1: Vent pipe opening should have at least R1 metres of free space around it in all directions to allow dispersal of vapour. h should be measured from any working level within R1 metres of the vent stack.Typical hazardous areas around vents This document is the property of Total. Page 50/73 . R1 for Zone 1 should be for the primary grade release and R1 for Zone 2 should be for the secondary grade release. Note 2: To avoid placing a working platform in a Zone 1 area. Note 3: In (c). doors. It must not be stored. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. and be away from open windows. Figure B2 .

or ground level onshore-) in which the bell nipple. C2. equipment and well operations C1. valves and flanges on the BOP. drains. its stack and the riser assembly will conservatively be within the hazardous area shown on Figures C1 to C4. It does not cover the production equipment located downstream of the wellheads. workover and pulling operations on Non Live Wells. Alternatively. hydrocarbon gases level and gas extraction is mandatory on its drilling and work-over rigs. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.offshore . on single and clustered wells for an onshore or offshore location is shown on Figures C1 to C4. above the rig floor • The circulating surface mud system • Tanks. flanges. Kicks are regarded by COMPANY as rare and accidental events because mud degassing equipment. A hazardous area (Zone 2) surrounding the spherical 3 m radius hazardous area shall extend 7 m vertically and horizontally from the spherical area envelope and down to ground or sea level. In an open area a spherical hazardous area (Zone 1) of 3 m radius shall extend from the centre of the bell-nipple. Generally. Hazardous areas from miscellaneous sources such as vents. the "dog house" and all other technical facilities shall be classified as Zone 2. Foreword This section sets out onshore and offshore COMPANY requirements for the area classification of: • Drilling.Drilling rigs. Any apertures from an enclosed area containing a source of release should be regarded as a secondary grade source and the resulting hazardous area should be drawn from the apertures.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C Appendix C . diverter and blow out preventers are located • The wellhead area down to the cellar • The upper works of the rig. Drilling. workover and pulling operations on Non Live Wells Classification of areas for drilling. On drilling installations. It must not be stored. Page 51/73 . workover and pulling operations on Non Live Wells • Well servicing operations on Live Wells • Wellheads in production operations. based on the potential sources of hydrocarbon release at: • The rig substructure (from rig floor to main platform deck . This document is the property of Total. sheltered areas shall generate a hazardous area extending 3 m outside the shelter (beyond the 10 m from the bell-nipple if necessary). vents or drains • Gas vents from any of the above. they can be determined as per the relevant sections of Appendices A & B. The occurrence of a blow-out or a ‘kick’ is not considered in this area classification specification. continuous monitoring of pit level.

a shale shaker should generate a horizontal Zone 1 area and an additional Zone 2 extending from Zone 1 (See Figure C6). It must not be stored. the shale shaker area and the setting tank. All electrical equipment needed for controlling drilling operations in an emergency (i.g. A mud shall be considered hazardous whenever its temperature may reach its flash point or the auto-ignition temperature during: • Storage or • Circulation (as a result of high subsurface temperature and/or mixing with reservoir hydrocarbons) or • Upon release (e. the internal space should be classified as Zone 1 with a Zone 2 extending 3 m outside the enclosure or 10 m from the bell-nipple whichever is greater. kick. with an additional Zone 2 area extending 3 m from any openings in the enclosure. The larger of the distances indicated in Appendices A & B and those defined in this chapter shall be used to define the hazardous zones. Page 52/73 . C3. with a Zone 2 extending 3 m outside the enclosure. Enclosures containing a mud tank should. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. All electrical equipment on the drilling mast shall be suitable for Zone 2 as a minimum (sufficient if the derrick is adequately ventilated). Advice from geologist should be obtained to estimate the maximum operating temperature of the mud. the enclosure should also be classified as Zone 1 extending 3 m from any opening.g. In an open area. If the sub-structure is enclosed and if it contains a secondary grade source of release (e. The possibility of the mud being itself hazardous shall be considered.e. This document is the property of Total. other hot objects or when spray atomisation leading to mist formation can occur). Surface mud systems Open tanks should be regarded as sumps. unless there is adequate (artificial) ventilation. flanges. blow out) shall be suitable for Zone 1. and if it contains a secondary grade source of release (e.g. be classified as Zone 1. heated by sun radiation. together with any mud degassing equipment. flanges. valves in hydrocarbon pipes) the internal space shall be classified as Zone 1. valves in hydrocarbon pipes). the space within the mud tank walls shall be classified Zone 1 with a Zone 2 area outside (See Figure C5). When a shale shaker or a mud tank is located in an enclosure with adequate artificial ventilation. The surface mud system includes the mud circulating pumps.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C If the derrick is enclosed. In an open area. Typical hazardous areas around mud tanks and shale shakers located in open areas are shown on Figures C5 & C6. Mud pumps and manifolds in the surface mud system should normally not be regarded as sources of release.

C6. When this information is not available. any area within the derrick less than 15 m from the vent shall be considered hazardous. It must not be stored. Wellheads in production operation Area Classification for production operations are shown on Figures C9 and C10. Well servicing (Wire-line . the ground cellar is classified as Zone 1 for all servicing and production operations. they should be collected in a purposely designed system discharging at a safe location (away from ignition sources.snubbing) on Live Wells is shown on Figures C7 and C8 based on the potential sources of hydrocarbon release on surface and at the source point of release. When the maximum anticipated vent rate can be estimated. the hazardous area shall extend at least 15 m in all directions from the vent.Coiled tubing .e. C5. Page 53/73 . The gas vent should normally be considered as a source of primary grade release. refer to Appendices A & B). reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Rig gas vent Primary grade sources of release such as vent line outlets shall not be allowed within an enclosed area (derrick or the shielded portion of a derrick). This document is the property of Total.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C C4. For an onshore well. Vents should not be released directly to atmosphere i. With a vent at the derrick top. The gas vent outlet of the main mud system shall be located at the top of the derrick (outside the enclosure if the derrick is enclosed) or be remote from the drilling area. then the extent of the hazardous area should be based on the recommendations on process vents given in Appendices A & B.coiled tubing .Snubbing) operations on Live Wells Area classification for well servicing operations (wire-line .

reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Offshore single wellhead during operations on Non Live Wells (drilling.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C Figure C1 . It must not be stored. workover & pulling) This document is the property of Total. Page 54/73 .

It must not be stored.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C Figure C2 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. workover & pulling) This document is the property of Total. Page 55/73 .Offshore cluster wellhead during operations on Non Live Wells (drilling.

Onshore single wellhead in operations on Non Live Wells (drilling. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C Equivalent diameter of pool L(m) Less than 5 5 to less than 10 10 or greater Hazard radius R1(m) 3 7. workover & pulling) This document is the property of Total. Page 56/73 . It must not be stored.5 15 Figure C3 .

Page 57/73 . It must not be stored.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C Equivalent diameter of pool L(m) Less than 5 5 to less than 10 10 or greater Hazard radius R1(m) 3 7.Onshore cluster wellhead in operations on Non Live Wells (drilling. workover & pulling) This document is the property of Total. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.5 15 Figure C4 .

Hazardous area around a shale-shaker in an open area This document is the property of Total.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C Figure C5 .Hazardous area around mud tanks Equivalent diameter of pool L(m) Less than 5 5 to less than 10 10 or greater Hazard radius R1(m) 3 7.5 15 Figure C6 . Page 58/73 . It must not be stored. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

It must not be stored. the Zone generated by the wellhead and the well service equipment can be considered Zone 2 Note 2: Source point of release is at stuffing box for wireline. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.snubbing) This document is the property of Total. Page 59/73 . head injection for coiled tubing and bowl stripper for snubbing Figure C7 .Offshore wellhead during well servicing operations on Live Wells (wirelinecoiled tubing .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C Note 1: For a non eruptive well.

Page 60/73 . Note 2: Source point of release is at stuffing box for wireline.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C Note 1: For a non eruptive well. head injection for coiled tubing and bowl stripper for snubbing Equivalent diameter of pool L(m) Less than 5 5 to less than 10 10 or greater Hazard radius R1(m) 3 7.Onshore wellhead during well servicing operations on Live Wells (wireline coiled tubing .5 15 Figure C8 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. It must not be stored. the cellar remains classified Zone 1 but the Zone generated by the wellhead and the well service equipment can be considered Zone 2.snubbing) This document is the property of Total.

the release source to be considered is the stuffing box.Offshore wellhead . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.R1(m) 3 7.L(m) Less than 5 5 to less than 10 10 or greater Hazard radius .5 15 Figure C10 .Production or injection (open area) Note: In the case of a beam-pumped well.Onshore wellhead .Production or injection (open area) This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored. Page 61/73 .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix C Figure C9 . Equivalent diameter of pool .

Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix D Appendix D . This document is the property of Total. Page 62/73 . Figure D1 • Gas turbine driving a compressor within a safe area • Gas turbine driving a generator within a safe area. The following figures (Figures D1 to D3) give details for each typical case: • Ventilation and pressurisation requirements • Hazard radii around the vents outlets. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Gas turbines This section sets out the COMPANY specific requirements for the classification of gas turbines. It must not be stored. Figure D2 • Gas turbine driving a compressor in a unit room within a Zone 2 hazardous area • Gas turbine driving a generator in a unit room within a Zone 2 hazardous area. Figure D3 • Gas turbine driving a compressor in a unit room within a safe area • Gas turbine driving a generator in a unit room within a safe area.

Page 63/73 .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix D Figure D1 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. It must not be stored.Turbine enclosure without unit room in a safe area This document is the property of Total.

Page 64/73 . It must not be stored.Turbine enclosure within a unit room in a hazardous area This document is the property of Total. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix D Figure D2 .

It must not be stored. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Page 65/73 .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix D Figure D3 .Turbine enclosure within a unit room in a safe area This document is the property of Total.

and • At least 60 m or more from the living quarters. Ignition sources should be made suitable for Zone 2. All diesel engines and driven equipment shall be grouped together in one functional unit separated from other units (process or utility) by minimum distances as per GS EP SAF 021. not in conformity with EN 1834-1 and not installed in an overpressurised enclosure. a diesel fuel engine installed in Zone 2.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix E Appendix E . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Diesel engines Onshore. E2.4. Page 66/73 . This document is the property of Total.2. Diesel engines in hazardous areas driving different type of equipment (e. Several engine driven packages of the same type and function may be grouped in the same unit (refer to Figure E1). the above requirement is not mandatory if a package comprising one engine. distinct from the diesel engines' and associated driven equipment. Onshore. gas engines shall be installed in a pressurised enclosure with dilution ventilation in accordance with the requirements of Section 6. offices and workshops.Gas/liquid fuel engines & heaters E1.g. Ignition sources should be made suitable for Zone 2. and • At least 45 m or more from LPG units. and • At least 45 m or more from the installation main control room. its driven equipment and their “auxiliaries” shall be installed at a distance d of: • At least 30 m or more from the hydrocarbon process and storage facilities and their technical rooms. offices and workshops. and • At least 45 m or more from the installation main control room. compressors and pumps) shall be grouped in different units segregated as per GS EP SAF 021. 14 Process facilities and technical rooms shared by several gas engines such as the fuel gas treatment unit are not regarded as “auxiliary” and shall be installed at the distance specified above. It must not be stored. Process vessels shared by several diesel engine driven compressors or pumps shall be considered as a separate unit. Gas engines Offshore. and • At least 60 m or more from the living quarters. its driven equipment and their “auxiliaries” 14 is installed at a distance d of: • At least 30 m or more from the hydrocarbon process and storage facilities and their technical rooms. and • At least 45 m or more from LPG units.

Page 67/73 .Diesel and gas engines in a hazardous area onshore E3. Fired heaters The extent and classification of hazardous areas around fired heaters and other fuelled utilities shall be based upon the following principles: • Any fuel gas line (s) and appurtenances (flanges. filters. This document is the property of Total.5 metre around the main burners. It must not be stored. igniters and pilots shall be located at least 3 metres off of the closest joint pertaining to the fuel gas system and from any process flanges • Any equipment within a radius of 1. set of flanges on the liquid-fuel network shall generate a Zone 2 of a radius of 3m • Main burners. igniters and pilots shall be suitable for use in Zone 2. valves. instrument tapping) shall generate a Zone 2 with a radius of 3 m • Any valve. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix E area boundary encroa chi ous ng rd Ha z a t on oe ng in es ENGINE ENGINE ENGINE Unit edge d Unit edge d = defined in Appendix E Sections 1 & 2 Figure E1 .

It must not be stored. Page 68/73 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Hazardous areas around fired heaters This document is the property of Total.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix E Non hazardous area but material suitable for Zone 2 required Figure E2 .

if any.Hydrocarbon storage F1. Zone 1 1m Zone 0 Figure F2 . Page 69/73 .Fixed roof storage tank (Fluid class I.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix F Appendix F . it is recommended to classify the ullage space as Zone 0. and that the flash-point of heavy fuels or bitumen in heated storage is not reliable. III (1) or unclassified) This document is the property of Total. II (2) or III (2) that are normally of Category C on release. II (2) and III (2)) Liquids of Classes II (1) or III (1) or unclassified are normally non-hazardous on release. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Zone 1 Figure F1 . with a small Zone 1 around roof vents and openings. fixed roof storage tanks For fixed roof storage tanks containing liquids of Classes I. the extent and classification of the hazardous areas shall be as shown below: e1 3m Zon Zone 0 3m 2m Zone 2 Pit. Overhead. It must not be stored. Considering however the possible changes in ambient temperature.Fixed roof storage tank (Fluid class II (1).

reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.5 m 7. the extent and classification of hazardous areas shall be as shown below: 2m Zone 1 2m Zone 2 Pit.5 m Zone 2 5m Zone 1 7.Floating roof storage tank (Fluid class I. if any. LPG storage stored under pressure PSV discharge assumed to be at this location 7.5 m Ground Figure F4 .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix F F2. II(2) or III(2) that are normally of Category C on release. Zone 1 Figure F3 .LPG storage vessel < 200 m3 This document is the property of Total. floating roof tank (Category C on release) For floating roof storage tanks containing liquids of Classes I. Page 70/73 . Overhead.5 m Storage vessel Capacity < 200 m3 7. II(2) or III(2)) F3. It must not be stored.

They do not depend on the shape of the storage vessel (sphere. It must not be stored. The Zone 1 envelope is a sphere centred on the PSV discharge point. and the Zone 2 envelope is made of cylinders with a vertical axis containing the PSV discharge point • The size and shape of the hazardous areas are determined by the location of the storage vessel and the volume of the vessel containing LPG under pressure (less or more than 200 m3). Page 71/73 . cylinder) • The hazardous areas generated by piping connections. instrument vents and all other equipment shall be determined as per the standard rules given in Appendices A & B. sample points. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.LPG Storage vessel > 200 m3 Notes on figures F4 and F5: • The figures are the cross-sections of the LPG storage vessel which contain the Pressure Safety Valve (PSV) discharge point.6 m Ground Figure F5 .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix F PSV discharge at this location Storage vessel Capacity > 200 m 3 15 assumed to be m Zone 2 Zone 1 10 m 0. This document is the property of Total.

Air exhausts Air exhausts from a classified enclosed area should generate a hazardous area of 3 m radius with the same classification as the enclosed area. Laboratories The hazardous areas generated by the doors (vapour-tight or not) and the fan exhausts shall extend to 3 m as shown in Figure G1. Chimneys and exhausts Chimney outlets shall be at least 2 m away from the border of any hazardous area Zone 2 and 9 m away from the border of any hazardous areas Zone 1 or 0 15. This standard design is regarded as safe considering the risk specific to this situation. G4. extending X m from the envelope of the containers(s). reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. It must not be stored.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix G Appendix G . Page 72/73 . G6. G5.1 Roads & railways The main roads of a plant (peripheral roads) shall be kept no less than 2 m away from the border of any Zone 2 and 9 m away from the border of any Zone 1 and Zone 0. X should be determined as per Table A9 of Appendix A2 . Traffic G6. helipads and air strips Any point of these areas as well as any area being part of a helicopter/plane approach Zone shall be no less than 2 m away from the border of any Zone 2 and 9 m away from the border of any Zone 1 and Zone 0. Small storage of flammable products Since a leak from properly designed containers can only be accidental. 15 Vents from turbine lube oil tanks. although generating a Zone 1 hazardous area. G6. G3.Laboratories G2.Miscellaneous G1. Air intakes Air intakes shall be located at least 2 m away from the border of any hazardous area. 3m Laboratory Adequate ventilation Self-closing airtight door ZONE 2 3m Exhaust fan creating under pressure Figure G1 . such containers should generate a hazardous area Zone 2.2 Helidecks. may exit into the outlet of the turbine main exhaust chimney. This document is the property of Total.Flanges and valves.

Enclosed buildings: This section is intended to provide examples of the application of these rules. Page 73/73 . Figure G2 . G7. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Installation of self-closing airtight door is recommended.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 10/2008 Rev: 03 Appendix G G6.Classification of enclosed buildings This document is the property of Total. Note 1: Zone classification and extent to be defined according Appendices A & B assuming the door is wide open. as shown in Figure G2.3 Boats The boat landing and/or the mooring facilities shall be such that tugs or supply boats are kept 2 m away from the border of any hazardous area Zone 2 and 9 m away from the border of any hazardous areas Zone 1 and 0. It must not be stored.

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