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CHNG IV: DAO NG V SNG IN T

I/ MCH DAO NG DAO NG IN T - IN T TRNG 1/ Mch dao ng : - Mch dao ng gm mt t in mc ni tip vi mt cun cm - Mch dao ng l tng c in tr bng 0 2/ S bin thin in tch q ca t in v cng dng in i ca cun cm - in tch ca t in trong mch LC bin thin iu ha vi biu thc :
q = Q0 Cos ( t + )

,trong :

1 LC

- Cng dng in trong mch :


i =q ' = Q0 Sin( t + ) = Q0 Cos ( t ++ ) = I 0 Cos ( t ++

, vi

I 0 = Q0

Nh vy , dng in i trong mch dao ng LC bin thin iu ha cng tn s nhng sm pha l

so vi in tch q ca bn t .

3/ Dao ng in t : S bin thin iu ha ca cng in trng v cm ng t trong mch dao ng gi l dao ng in t t do trong mch + chu k dao ng ring ca mch :
T = 2 LC

+ tn s dao ng ring ca mch :

f =

1 2 LC

4/ T trng bin thin v in trng xoy : a/ in trng xoy : - in trng c ng sc l cc ng cong khp kn gi l in trng xoy b/ T trng bin thin : Nu ti mt ni c mt t trng bin thin theo thi gian th ti ni xut hin mt in trng xoy 5/ in trng bin thin v t trng xoy a/ T trng xoy : Nu ti mt ni c mt in trng bin thin theo thi gian th ti ni xut hin mt t trng xoy b/ So snh dng in dn vi dng in dch Ging nhau : c 2 u sinh ra xung quanh n mt t trng Khc nhau : dng in dn l dng chuyn di c hng ca cc ht mang in tch; cn dng in dch l mt in trng bin thin , khng c cc ht mang in tch chuyn ng . 6/ in t trng v thuyt in t Mc xoen a/ in t trng : in t trng bin thin sinh ra t trng xoy , t trng bin thin sinh ra in trng xoy . Hai trng bin thin ny lin h mt thit vi nhau v l hai thnh phn ca mt trng thng nht , gi l in t trng

b/ Thuyt in t : thuyt in t ca Mc xoen khng nh mi quan h khng kht gia in tch , in trng v t trng . II/ SNG IN T - TRUYN THNG BNG SNG IN T : 1/ Sng in t : a/ nh ngha : Qu trnh lan truyn in t trng theo thi gian c gi l sng in t b/ c im ca sng in t : - Tc lan truyn ca sng in t trong chn khng bng vi tc nh sng c= 3.108 m/s - Sng in t l sng ngang c E B V - Trong qu trnh truyn sng , vecto cng in trng lun lun vung gc vi vecto cm ng t v c hai vecto ny lun vung gc vi phng truyn sng theo qui tc vn inh c - C E v B u bin thin tu hon theo khng gian v thi gian
-

Bc sng ca sng in t Chu k dao ng in t :


T=

= c.T =
1 f

c f

c/ Tnh cht ca sng in t : - Trong qu trnh in t trng lan truyn n mang theo nng lng - Ngun pht sng in t rt a dng - Tun theo cc qui lut truyn thng , phn x , khc x - Tun theo cc qui lut giao thoa , nhiu x - Sng in t c th truyn qua c mi trng chn khng d/ Bc sng in t :

Trong chn khng :

=c.T =

c =2 .c. LC f

vi c= 3.108 m/s
n =
v = v.T = f n

Trong mi trng vt cht c chit sut n :

vi

n=

c v

v : tc nh sng trong mi trng chit sut n 2/ Cc loi sng v tuyn : Loi sng Sng di v cc di Sng trung Sng ngn Sng cc ngn 3/ Mch dao ng h - Anten : Tn s 0,1-1MHz 1-10MHz 10-100MHz 100-1000MHz Bc sng 100-1 km 1000-100 m 100-10 m 10-1 m

- Mch dao ng LC , trong qu trnh dao ng in t trng bin thin tp trung hu ht trong t in , t trng bin thin tp trung hu ht trong cun dy hu nh khng bc x ra ngoi th c gi l mch dao ng kn - Trong mch dao ng h , in t trng khng cn b ng khung gii hn trong LC m lan ta trong khng gian thnh sng in t v c kh nng i rt xa - Anten l mt dng ca mch dao ng h . C loi anten dng pht sng , c loi dng thu sng in t 3/ Nguyn tc truyn thng bng sng in t - Bin cc m thanh mun truyn i thnh cc dao ng in tn s thp gi l cc tn hiu m tn - Dng sng in t cao tn mang cc tn hiu m tn i xa qua anten pht - Dng my thu vi anten thu chn v thu ly sng in t cao tn - Tch tn hiu ra khi sng cao tn ri dng loa nghe m thanh truyn ti 4/ Mt s mch in c bn trong my pht v thu sng in t : - Mch to sng cao tn - Mch bin iu hay cn gi l trn sng - Mch chn sng - Mch tch sng - Mch khuch i 5/ Truyn thng bng cp : Ngy nay ngoi vic s dng sng in t truyn tin trong khng gian , ngi ta cn s dng nhiu loi dy dn truyn sng in t .