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QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

IMPORTANT NOTES : (i) The general form of a quadratic equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0; a, b, c are constants and a ≠ 0. (ii) Characteristics of a quadratic equation: (a) Involves only ONE variable, (b) Has an equal sign “ = ” and can be expressed in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0, (c) The highest power of the variable is 2.

**2.1 Recognising Quadratic Equations EXAMPLES
**

No 1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

Quafratic Equations (Q.E.) x2 + 2x -3 = 0 x2 = ½

4x = 3x2 3x (x – 1) = 2 p – 4x + 5x2 = 0, p constant

NON Q.E. 2x – 3 = 0

x2 + 2 = 0 x

WHY? No terms in x2 ( a = 0)

Term 2 x

x3 – 2 x 2 = 0 x2 – 3x -1 + 2 = 0 x2 – 2xy + y2 = 0

Term x3 Term x -1 Two variables

Exercise : State whether the following are quadratic Equations. Give your reason for Non Q.E. No 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Function 3x - 2 = 10 – x x2 = 102 12 – 3x2 = 0 x2 + x = 6 2x2 + ½ x - 3 = 0

− 6 = x x

Q.F.

Non Q.F.

WHY? No terms in x2

√

0 = x ( x – 2) 2x2 + kx -3 = 0, k constant (m-1) x2 + 5x = 2m , m constant 3 – (p+1) x2 = 0 , p constant p(x) = x2 + 2hx + k+1, h, k constants f(x) = x2 – 4 (k-1)x2 – 3kx + 10 = 0 , k constant

2 Quadratic Equations

1

L3. Example : Given Q. find the value of k and p. x2 + 2x – 3 = 0 By substitution. (-2)2 – k(-2) – 10 = 0 -4 + 2k – 10 = 0 2k = 14 k = 7 L5. L2.2 is NOT a root of the given equation.2 The ROOTs of a quadratic Equation (Q. 2 3x + 2x -7 = 0. EXERCISE L1. If 3 is a root of the equation x2– 2kx + 12 = 0 . If -1 are roots of the quadratic equation px2 – 4x + 3p – 8 = 0. C2.) Note : “ROOT” refers to a specific value which satisfies the Q. find k. But if x = 2.E. x = -2. EXAMPLE Determine if -2 is a root of the equation C1. If -2 and p are roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 + 3x + k = 0. Determine if ½ is a root of the equation 4x2 + 2x – 2 = 0. 3(-2)2 + 2(-2) – 7 = 12 – 4 – 7 ≠ 0 Hence . L4. We say that 2 is NOT a root of the given quadratic Equation.2. x = -2. it is found that : x = 1 .E. find p. L6. 2 Quadratic Equations 2 . Determine if 3 is a root of the equation x2 – 2x + 3 = 0. L1. 22 + 2(2) – 3 ≠ 0. If -2 is a root of the quadratic equation x2– kx – 10 = 0.E. find k. Determine if 3 is a root of the equation 2x2 – x – 15 = 0. 12 + 2(1) – 3 = 0 Hence 1 is a root of the quadratic equation x2 + 2x – 3 = 0.

3 . 2 and -3 are called the roots of the equation (x-2)(x+3) = 0. then either one or both the numbers must be zero ? If x y = 0 .e. i. Then x – 2 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 .Do you know that If the PRODUCT of two numbers is zero. Then x = 0 or y = 0 or x = y = 0 (both are zeroes) Example : If (x – 2) (x + 3) = 0 . x = 2 or x = . 2 Quadratic Equations 3 .

Solve x ( 1 + x) = 6. 2 L4. Solve (2x – 1) = 2x – 1 . 5 Ans : – ¾ . Solve the quadratic equation 2x (x – 1) = 6. 4 Ans : 1. Solve x – 4x – 5 = 0. L8. Solve (x – 3)2 = 1. Solve 1 + 2x2 = 5x + 4. 1 Ans : – 3 . Solve 2(x2 – 9) = 5x. 4 Ans : – 2 . Ans : – 3 . Solve 5x2 – 45 = 0. - By Factorisation This method can only be used if the quadratic expression can be factorised completely.3.1 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0 I. Selesaikan (x – 3)(x + 3) = 16. Ans : – 5 . 3/2 2 L3. Solve the quadratic equation x2 + 5x + 6 = 0. Solve x( x + 2) = 24. 1 L7. Jawapan: 2 EXAMPLE C1. 5 L2. Answer: x2 + 5x + 6 = 0 (x + 2) (x + 3) = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 x = -2 or x = -3 C2. L4. L6. Ans: 2x (x – 1) = 6 2x2 – x – 6 = 0 (2x + 3) (x – 2) = 0 2x + 3 = 0 or x – 2 = 0 3 x= − or x= 2 2 L3. 9/2 2 Quadratic Equations 4 . 3 L5. Ans : – 6 . Ans : 2.2. Ans : – 1 . Ans : ½ . Selesaikan 3 + x – 4x2 = 0. EXERCISE L1.

x2 – 6x + 3 = 0 −6 −6 x − 6x + − +3 = 0 2 2 (x – 3 )2 .3. give your answers correct to 4 significant figures.To express ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x + p)2 + q Simple Case : When a = 1 EXAMPLE C1. – 9.317. L4.2.5279. 0.4 – 5 = 0 ( x + 2 )2 – 9 = 0 ( x + 2)2 = 9 x+2 = ± 3 x = -2 ± 3 x = -5 or x = 1 2 2 2 (Ans : – 1 . Solve x + 4x – 5 = 0 by method of ‘completing the square’.6834 L3. give your answers correct to 4 significant figures. Solve x2 – 6x + 3 = 0 by method of ‘completing the square’. Solve x2 . 2 x2 + 4x – 5 = 0 4 4 x +4x + − − 5 = 0 2 2 2 (x + 2) .212 .472 2 Quadratic Equations 5 . – 3 ) C2.162 Ans : – 0. 2 EXERCISE L1. x x = - = -2 ± or x = 6 Ans : 7. By ‘Completing the Square’ . Solve x2 + 10x + 5 = 0 . Ans : – 2. Solve x2 – 2x – 9 = 0 by completing the square. 4.8x + 5 = 0 . Solve x + 4x + 3 = 0 by method of ‘completing the square’. give your answers correct to 4 significant figures. Give your answer correct to 3 decimal places.2 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0 II.9 + 3 = 0 2 (x-2) – 6 = 0 ( x + 2)2 = 6 x+2 = ± 6 2 2 2 L2.

1459.by expressing ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x + p)2 + q [a = 1. -4. -5. Method of completing the square . Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. Solve x2 + x – 8 = 0. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures.372.2.5616 atau x = 3.317 ) 2 Quadratic Equations 6 .3.317 . (Ans : 0. (Ans : 2. but involving fractions when completing the square] EXAMPLE C3.562 L6. Solve x(2 + x) = 10 Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures.372) (Ans : -0.7016.3 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0 II. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. L9. -6. Solve x + 5x – 4 = 0.8541.0.702) L7. 2 3 9 x − − − 2= 0 2 4 17 3 = x − 4 2 3 17 x− = ± 2 4 2 2 3 17 ± 2 2 x = . Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. -3.854) (Ans : 2. x2 – 3x – 3 = 0 − 3 − 3 x − 3x + − −2 = 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 EXERCISE L5. x = (Ans : 0. Solve x2 + 7x + 1 = 0 .8541) L8. Solve x( x + 5) = 5. -5. Solve x – 3x – 2 = 0 by method of ‘completing the square’.

4 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0 II.14 .3. (Ans : -7. Solve 2x – 8x + 7 = 0 by completing the square. 5.78 . Solve x(3 – 2x) = -6 correct to two decimal places. -4. Solve 2x . 2 [ ÷ 2 first ] 2 7 −4 −4 x −4 x + − + =0 2 2 2 7 ( x . 2x2 – 8x + 7 = 0 7 x2 – 4x + = 0 2 2 2 2 EXERCISE L10.64) 2 Quadratic Equations 7 . 2. 0.293 = 2 ± (Ans : 5. EXAMPLE C4.x2 – 7x + 3 = 0 by completing the square.12x + 5 = 0 correct to two decimal places. .78 ) L12. Solve .2 )2 – 4 + = 0 2 ( x – 2 )2 = ½ 1 x–2 = ± 2 x 1 2 = 2. Solve .707 atau 1.2361. L13. Solve -2x2 + 10x + 9 = 0 correct to two decimal places. Method of completing the square .x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 by completing the square. 0.45 ) C5.To express ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x + p)2 + q If a ≠ 1 : Divide both sides by a first before you proceed with the process of ‘completing the square’.405.2.55 .x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 x2 + 4x – 1 = 0 [divide by (-1)] L11. (Ans : 0.4051) (Ans : -1.236 ) (Ans : -0.

52 . EXAMPLE C1. (SPM 2003) (Ans : 1.78) (Ans : 2.5 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0 III.4505) C2. Solve the quadratic equation x(x – 4) = (3 – x )(x + 3). solve 3 – x2 = . Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures.35 . c = 7 x= = − (−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(7) 2(2) 8 ± 8 4 = 2. -1. -0. By using formula. Using Formula x = −b ± b 2 − 4 ac 2a EXERCISE L1. L4.707 atau 1. 11.3.591 .3(4x – 3) correct to two decimal places. 2x(2 – 3x) = -5 4x – 6x2 = -5 6x2 – 4x – 5 = 0 a= .35 ) 2 Quadratic Equations 8 . -0. 0. b = -8 .4495) (Ans : 3. Solve 2x(2 – 3x) = -5 by using formula.2.550. . -0. (Ans : 4. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. Give your answer correct to two decimal places.64) L2. L6. give your answer correct to two decimal places. Solve the quadratic equation 2x(x – 4) = (1-x) (x+2). a = 2.b= .31 . Solve 2x2 – 8x + 7 = 0 by using formul.449 .2573 ) L5. c= (Ans: 0.12x + 5 = 0. qive your answer correct to two decimal places. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. Solve x2 – 4x = 2 by using formula.0.293 (Ans : 5. solve 2x2 .28. By using formula.48 ) L3. Solve x(2x –1) = 2 by using formula. x = (Ans : 1.

2 = -3 p = . Given that the roots of the quadratic equation L4. Find the equation 3x + kx + p – 2 = 0 are 4 and . x= -3 x = 0 or x + 3 = 0 L3. Find the quadratic equation with roots -3 dan 5. x=2.2. q . 2p . x= -4 x – 2 = 0 or x + 4 = 0 (x – 2) ( x + 4) = 0 x2 + 2x – 8 = 0 EXERCISE L1. x=0. Find the quadratic equation with roots 0 dan 3. (Ans : h = 0. Find k and p. Find the quadratic equation with roots . p = -6) L5. q = (Ans : k = -10 . Then x – α = 0 or x – β = 0 . k = 15) 2 Quadratic Equations 9 . value of p and q. x = 6 2x + 1 = 0 . Ans : x2 – 2x – 15 = 0 L2.2 = 0 are -3 and ½ .⅔. Given that the roots of the quadratic 2 x + (h – 2)x + 2k = 0 are 4 and -2 . x= -½ . Find h and equation 2x2 + (3 – k)x + 8p = 0 are p and k. x = ½ x + 3 = 0 or 2x – 1 = 0 (x + 3) ( 2x – 1) = 0 2x2 + 5x – 3 = 0 Comparing with the original equation : p + 1 = 5 .4. x = 6 2x = -1 . x = -3 . Given that the roots of the quadratic equation L6. Find the quadratic equation with roots 2 dan . p ≠ 0. (x – α) ( x – β ) = 0 The quadratic equation is x2 – ( α + β ) x + α β x2 + Sum of Roots = 0. x – 6 = 0 Ans : 2x2 – 11x – 6 = 0 Ans : x2 + 3x = 0 C2. x = α . That is. k = -4) (Ans: p = 2. x = β . Product of roots x+ = 0 EXAMPLE C1. Given that the roots of the quadratic 2 2 2x + (p+1)x + q . Find k and p.½ dan 6.4 To Form Quadratic Equations from Given Roots If the roots of a quadratic equation are α and β.

has two distinct roots. 2 Quadratic Equations 10 . Graph y = f(x) does not touch x-axis.1 Relationship between “b – 4ac” and the Roots of the Q. The Graph y = f(x) cuts the x-axis at y=f(x) TWO distinct points. a<0 The graph y = f(x) touches the x-axis [ The x-axis is the tangent to the curve] y=f(x) x x y=f(x) a>0 CASE 3 b2 – 4ac < 0 Q. CASE1 b2 – 4ac > 0 Q. has real and equal roots. a<0 Graph is below the x-axis since f(x) is always negative.E. x x y=f(x) a>0 CASE 2 b2 – 4ac = 0 Q.5.2.E. does not have real roots.5 The Quadratic Equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 2 2.E.E. y=f(x) a<0 x x y=f(x) a>0 Graph is above the x-axis since f(x) is always positive.

6 and 3. Determine the range of values of k. Find the range of p if the quadratic equation x2 + px = 2p does not have real roots. L2 Find the range of k if the quadratic equation 2x2 – x = k has real and distinct roots. ( Ans : k > .k b2 – 4ac < 0 2 6 – 4(2)(-36 – k) < 0 324 + 8 k < 0 k < – 40.18 = 0 2x2 + 6x – 36 = 0 Comparing : p = 6 .5 L3.3 ) ( Ans : -8 < p < 0 ) L6 The roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 + 8 = (k – 3)x are real and different. EXERCISE L1. k > 11 ) ( Ans : k -2 .5. Find (a) p and q. c = -36 . q = . (b) the range of values of k such that 2x2 + px + q = k does not have real roots. (b) range of values of k such that 2x2 + px + q = k does not have real roots. L7. ( Ans : k < -5 .2 Aplication (Relationship between “b2 – 4ac” and the type of roots) EXAMPLE C1 (SPM 2000) The roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 + px + q = 0 are . The quadratic equation 9 + 4x2 = px has equal roots. Find the range of values of k if the quadratic equation x2 + 2kx + k + 6 = 0 has equal roots. Answer : (a) x = -6 . 3 ) 2 Quadratic Equations 11 . x = 3 (x + 6) (x – 3) = 0 x2 + 3x .2. b = 6.36. (b) 2x2 + 6x – 36 = k 2x2 + 6x – 36 – k = 0 a = 2. L5. The roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 + px + q = 0 are 2 and -3. Find the possible values of p. (Ans : p ≤ .1/8 ) ( Ans : p = -12 atau 12) L4 Find the range of p if the quadratic equation 2x2 + 4x + 5 + p = 0 has real roots. Find (a) p and q.

[3] L3. Give your answer correct to 4 significant sigures. 2x2 + 6x = 2k – 1 is twice the other.Reinforcement Exercises (SPM Format Questions) L1 EXERCISE EXERCISE (a) The equation x2 – 6x + 7 = h(2x – 3) has L2. k constant. (SPM 2003 .E. Determine the possible values of k and m. [SPM 1999] [6] ( h = -1 . [3] ( x = 2.591. has two distinct roots. while 2α and 2β are the roots of the equation x2 + mx + 9 = 0. S3). p > 5) L4 (SPM 2002) Find the range of k if the Q. (SPM 2003. -2 . k > 6) 2 Quadratic Equations 12 . (b) Given that α and β are roots of the equation [1999] x2 – 2x + k = 0 . x2 + 3 = k (x – 1). Find the values of h. k = 9 4 ( x = -1 . P1. One of the roots of the equation roots which are equal. -3 . Find [4] the value of k and the roots of the equation.. (≈ SPM 2001) Show that the straight line y = 2 – x does not meet the curve 2x2 – y2 + k = 0 if k > 8. S4) The quadratic equation x (x+1) = px – 4 has two distinct roots. k = − 3 ) 2 L2.2573) ( p . [3] L5.0. P1. Solve the quadratic equation 2x(x – 4) = (1 – x)(x + 2). [3] ( k < -2 . . Find the range of values of p. x = -2 .

Write down the quadratic equation in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0.477 atau k > 5. If p + q = 4 and pq = .477) ( p = -2 .12. quite challenging! ( k = 15 . (SPM 2000) Find the range of x if the straight line y = 2x + k does not intersect the curve [5] x2 + y2 – 6 = 0. [3] (c) Prove that the roots of the equation (1 – p)x2 + x + p = 0 are real and negative IF 0 < p < 1. 2 < k < 6 ) Untuk renungan : Gred MT anda adalah berkadar songsang dengan latihan yang anda buat ! 2 Quadratic Equations 13 . L9. k ≥ . (k < -5. (SPM 2000) The quadratic equation 2x2 + px + q = 0 has roots -2 and 3.L6 EXERCISE p q (SPM 2002) Given and are roots of the 2 2 equation kx(x – 1) = m – 4x. (SPM 2001) Given 2 and m are roots of the equation (2x – 1)(x + 3) = k (x – 1).5 ) L10. find k and m. find the values of k and m [5] EXERCISE L7. Find the value of p anf q so that 2x2 + px + q = k has real roots. [5] ( 2x2 + 9x – 5 = 0 . m = 3 ) L8.5. m = -5 ) P. [2] (b) Find the range of values of x for which the equation x2 + kx + 2k – 3 = 0 has no real roots.S. with k as a constant. q = -12 . (SPM 1995) (c) Given ½ and -5 are roots of a quadratic Equation. [4] ( k = -4 .

2 Quadratic Equations PDF September 7 2011-10-32 Am 84k

2 Quadratic Equations PDF September 7 2011-10-32 Am 84k

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