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GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSTRCTION AND CLASSIFICATION/CERTIFICATION OF FLOATING, PRODUCTION, STRORAGE AND OFFLOADING UNITS
BIRO KLASIFIKASI INDONESIA
GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSTRCTION AND CLASSIFICATION/CERTIFICATION OF FLOATING, PRODUCTION, STRORAGE AND OFFLOADING UNITS
BIRO KLASIFIKASI INDONESIA
GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION/CERTIFICATION OF FLOATING, PRODUCTION, STORAGE AND OFFLOADING UNITS
ii Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia The following Guidelines come into force on 1st April 2009 Reproduction in whole or in part by any means. is subject to the permission in writing by Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia Head Office Published by : Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia .
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Section 1 A. B. C. D. E. F.
General Requirements and Definitions Application ..................................................................................................................................................... 1Scope/Extent of BKI Surveys ....................................................................................................................... 1Other Applicable Regulations and Guidelines ............................................................................................. 1Documentation ............................................................................................................................................... 1Certification/Classification ............................................................................................................................ 1Definitions ...................................................................................................................................................... 11 1 2 3 3 4
Section 2 A. B. C. D.
Surveys for Certification Surveys During Fabrication........................................................................................................................... 2Surveys of Units in Service ........................................................................................................................... 2Condition Surveys .......................................................................................................................................... 2Other Surveys ................................................................................................................................................. 21 1 5 6
Section 3 A. B. C. D.
Loads and Load Conditions, Site Environment Site and Environment Conditions - General................................................................................................. 3Loads to be Considered ................................................................................................................................. 3Load Conditions, Load Cases........................................................................................................................ 3Determination of Loads ................................................................................................................................. 31 1 5 6
Section 4 A. B. C.
Structure General Design Considerations ..................................................................................................................... 4- 1 Allowable Stresses ......................................................................................................................................... 4- 1 Structural Design of Specific Installations/Components ............................................................................. 4- 3
Section 5 A. B. C.
Materials and Fabrication, Corrosion Protection Materials ......................................................................................................................................................... 5- 1 Fabrication ...................................................................................................................................................... 5- 5 Corrosion Protection ...................................................................................................................................... 5- 6
Section 6 A. B. C. D. E.
Subdivision, Stability, Freeboard General Requirements.................................................................................................................................... 6Documents for Approval ............................................................................................................................... 6Watertight Integrity; Freeboard..................................................................................................................... 6Intact Stability ................................................................................................................................................ 6Subdivision; Damage Stability ...................................................................................................................... 61 1 1 1 2
Section 7 A. B.
Anchoring/Positioning Systems General Definitions and Requirements......................................................................................................... 7- 1 Materials; Fabrication .................................................................................................................................... 7- 2
Table of Contents
C. D. E. F.
Catenary Mooring Systems - Design Considerations and Requirements................................................... 7Single Point Mooring Systems (SPM).......................................................................................................... 7Dynamic Positioning (DP) ............................................................................................................................ 7Turret - Active Heading Control ................................................................................................................... 7-
2 5 5 9
Helicopter Landing Facilities
Section 10 A. B.
Life Saving Appliances and Equipment/Means of Escape Means of Escape/Refuge ............................................................................................................................. 10- 1 Life-saving Appliances and Equipment...................................................................................................... 10- 1
Section 11 A. B. C. D. E.
Fire Safety Area Classification/Ventilation ................................................................................................................... 11- 1 Structural Fire Protection ............................................................................................................................. 11- 4 Control Stations, Fire and Gas Detection Systems .................................................................................... 11- 9 Storage of Gas Bottles ................................................................................................................................. 11-10 Fire-Fighting Installations ........................................................................................................................... 11-10
Section 13 A. B. C. D. E. F. G.
Machinery General Indications; Scope .......................................................................................................................... 13Internal Combustion Engines; Air Compressors........................................................................................ 13Boilers, Pressure Vessels, Thermal Fluid Systems, Heat Exchangers ..................................................... 13Propulsion and Steering Systems ................................................................................................................ 13Pumps, Piping Systems ................................................................................................................................ 13Inert Gas System .......................................................................................................................................... 13Winches, Windlasses, Hoists....................................................................................................................... 131 1 2 2 2 2 3
Section 14 A. B. C.
Production/Process Facilities General Indications ...................................................................................................................................... 14- 1 Flare and Cold Vent Systems ...................................................................................................................... 14- 2 Production Sub-systems and Components ................................................................................................. 14- 2
Section 15 A. B. C. D.
Electrical Installations General Indications; Scope .......................................................................................................................... 15Power Supply ............................................................................................................................................... 15Electrical Installations/Equipment in Hazardous Areas ............................................................................ 15Dynamic Positioning System ...................................................................................................................... 151 1 1 1
Table of Contents
Control and Instrumentation
Section 17 A. B. C. D. E. F. G.
Riser System General Indications ...................................................................................................................................... 17Basic Safety Requirements .......................................................................................................................... 17Control System ............................................................................................................................................. 17Venting ......................................................................................................................................................... 17Flexible Risers .............................................................................................................................................. 17Swivels, Connectors..................................................................................................................................... 17Disconnectable Riser System ...................................................................................................................... 171 1 2 2 2 3 3
Section 18 A. B. C. D. E. F. G.
Storage and Offloading Facilities General Indications ...................................................................................................................................... 18Storage Tanks and Related Spaces ............................................................................................................. 18Storage Operation Facilities ........................................................................................................................ 18Offloading Facilities .................................................................................................................................... 18Mooring of Attending Vessels .................................................................................................................... 18Pollution Prevention..................................................................................................................................... 18Storage and Transport of Chemicals ........................................................................................................... 181 1 2 2 4 4 4
Formal Safety Assessment
Regulations, Standards and Codes cited
barge-type units. special considerations will be necessary. 1. These Guidelines are applicable to floating installations intended for production. anchored or connected to the seabed by an articulated mooring system.g. 2. and possibly carrying out independent (re-) calculations of certain parts of the installation. but may be applied in principle to similar installations serving other purposes.1. anchored or connected to the seabed as described above. The main types of offshore units or installations under consideration are − ship-type.). . including further processing of hydrocarbons. 6. (Fixed. anchored or provided with a dynamical positioning system. see C. is usually independent of the production unit (see sub-Section E. inspection of materials to be employed.). surveys during and − − – – − − Other types of installations will be considered on a case to case basis. often the term "Verification" is used. 3. Note: For the activity of checking the design documentation (drawings. in principle. including units not built under surveillance of BKI. 5. condition surveys and (re-) certification. Amendments to these Guidelines shall be applied to existing units. in comparison with applicable rules/regulations and standards or codes. as it is deemed to be covered by the general terms "Certification" and "Classification" 2. and possibly also for storage and offloading of hydrocarbons. e. buoy-type units. 4. tests/trials commissioning on site. Certification of such facilities. see also Section 2). The Guidelines may be applied. It will not be used in the following. safety assessments based on probabilistic methods. in cases of conversion. The surveys necessary for certification and continuous re-surveys of an offshore production installation will normally comprise the following activities − review of design and calculations/analysis.1. based on Rules and Guidelines (see C. However. 7. as part of the overall installation. Scope/Extent of BKI Surveys 1. Application existing mooring installation may be certified separately (see sub-Section C. below or equivalent acceptable rules or regulations). within the certification procedure. in particular cases an already service/ certification of any such activity. The mooring/positioning system will usually be included in the certification. Facilities connected to and operated together with the production unit are dealt with in so far as necessary regarding testing and other aspects of safe operation of the installation. calculations. ship-type units provided with a dynamical positioning system. B 1-1 Section 1 General Requirements and Definitions A. wherever this is considered necessary with a view to their safe operation. The Guidelines refer to installations used for the production of hydrocarbons (crude oil. rigid structures will be subject to Rules for Classification and Construction of Offshore Installations. (For surveys. however. For substances being stored and conveyed at low temperatures (< 0 °C). self-propelled units. survey of components fabrication.). semi-submersible-type (column stabilized) units. surveillance of installation. regular/periodical operation. − − − B. anchored or connected to the seabed as described above. and for which survey and/or certification by BKI has been requested.) and/or other existing regulations as agreed upon. gas).Section 1 – General Requirements and Definitions A. Safety assessment BKI will also review. etc. also to existing units.
Regarding the design and fabrication of components. Volume II (Section 1-3) Rules for Materials. Resolutions and Codes. relevant (more detailed) BKI Rules may be applied as appropriate. published by industry institutions and organisations such as those listed below.3 generally be compulsory in areas such as − – – – – – unit identification/marking navigational aids. or alternatively. Statutory requirements See Appendix A. 3. planning and design. Volume VI Commonly used and internationally acknowledged regulations. Volume V Rules for Welding. 3. to impose more stringent requirements should these be deemed to be justified. however. lighting life-saving appliances helicopter operations means of external communication crew number and qualification (manning) pollution prevention/control. It is assumed that all parties involved in the 5. the application of which to FPSO units may. 2. major conversions and changes of the operation conditions (including additional structures/ installations in the vicinity of the unit). Application of statutory requirements will 2. 4 & 5) Rules for Mooring and Loading Installations Rules for Pipelines and Risers (Details covered by the above Rules will generally not be repeated in these Guidelines. This will normally be established for critical/safety relevant activities by BKI Audits and certified accordingly. will be accepted for the design review and approval where considered applicable and fitting into the agreed safety concept − API (American Petroleum Institute) . statutory regulations take priority over the provisions of these Guidelines. BKI will consider recognizing surveys and/or 4. Relevant cross references are made where considered useful).g. C. particularly Sections 8 to 12. certificates of other competent and acknowledged institutions in individual cases. − – − design phase(s). Regulations/codes of practice/guidelines and guidance notes. BKI reserve the right to approve designs deviating from these Guidelines and the related Rules. In such cases agreement may have to be reached with the competent National Administration. guidance notes. material and components production and installation have the professional qualifications required and suitable facilities/ equipment for fabrication. etc. − − − − Rules for Non-metallic Material Rules for the Classification and Construction of Offshore Installations (Volume 2.g.2 are based on (and refer to) internationally agreed/adopted IMO Conventions. BKI's surveys focus on safety and reliability of components and procedures.. not always be fully clarified. if deemed to be equivalent and suited for the intended service. unless BKI's contract is specifically extended to include such additional obligations and statements. See also Section 5. e. but do not aim to ensure the efficiency/economical viability of the intended operations. initial service/testing phase (changes.: − – – Rules for Hull. issued by industrial organizations 1.1-2 Section 1 – General Requirements and Definition C Such assessments may be related to the whole production installation or to parts or systems of the unit. codes of practice/guidelines. 3. and may be prepared for/refer to different stages. A relevant statement will have to be made either in the Certificate or in other accompanying documentation. improvements). If more stringent. Other Applicable Guidelines BKI Rules Regulations and – Some of these topics are treated in various sections of these Guidelines. 6. Some of the provisions in these Guidelines 2. such as − – – (steel) structure mooring and anchoring elements piping and machinery items. e.1 Applicable Regulations and associated Guidelines issued by National Authorities/ Administrations shall be observed where necessary. 2.
BKI reserves the right to carry out surveys and witness tests. E. e. operations manual/instructions 1. 4. Where classification has been agreed. including the anchoring. in addition to the design review and fabrication surveys. calculations and material specifications as well as welding and NDT procedures and plans. Manufacturing documentation/quality control records. safety/risk assessments and analysis.g. to be acknowledged and controlled by BKI Audits. B. During fabrication/construction important procedures will be reviewed and new.g. including soil properties. E 1-3 – − – – – ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) AWS (American Welding Society) IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) ISO (International Standardization Organization) OCIMF (Oil Companies International Marine Forum). Phases of fabrication/construction will be certified where required. drawings. location. individual components will be marked and certified as far as necessary to ensure reliable identification and adequate quality of materials and components employed. (This applies particularly to cases where fabrication is carried out at different places and/or by different manufacturers/contractors). BKI will keep one approved copy of all submitted documents in their files at Head Office. This may be achieved by the manufacturer's quality assurance procedures.e. prior to them being carried out. Certification/Classification See also Appendix B. The type of unit. confirming satisfactory performance and results and stating extraordinary events where relevant. certified. referring to all essential structural. Design and construction particulars are to be submitted (in triplicate) to BKI for approval well ahead of the commencement of manufacture.) having been carried out. During the manufacturing process. or with any other standards and regulations used for the design will be certified. supplementing the manufacturer's own quality assurance measures. pressure vessels. for critical items. The documents are generally to include at least the following items − general description of the unit installation and its operation conditions. survey and maintenance planning in relation to the intended service life 1. 1 − − − − − for information and reference purposes 2. All activities will be certified accordingly. in connection with the surveys carried out by BKI after commissioning. details on the location and environment. offshore assembly and installation procedure(s). Compliance of an offshore production/ 1.1 procedure including periodical surveys by BKI of the installation while in service. i. five (5) years). critical procedures. the certificate will be assigned a defined period of validity (normally. another copy will be handed to the Inspection Office in charge. The certificate will cease to be valid. types of hydrocarbon(s) to be handled and other important conditions of use will also be stated in the certificate. One copy of each approved (stamped) document is returned to the sender. Certificates with defined period of validity: Classification D. e. and to submit the necessary documentation. will be treated confidentially. a 4. − . including the recording of any special occurrences are to be kept and also made available to the attending BKI Surveyor(s) at the manufacturing site(s). Documentation 1. if that period expires without the survey(s) due (see Section 2. below). The validity of the certificate depends on 4. welding of high pressure hydrocarbon service pipes.2 owners or operators having met the following obligations − to notify BKI of any damages or incidents having occurred which could impair the safe operation of the system.Section 1 – General Requirements and Definition D. other installations connected. where a classification procedure has been agreed (see E. description of transport. However. to inform BKI about any significant modifications and repairs. storage unit with these Guidelines and the provisions of the appropriate Rules. 4. mooring and hydrocarbons transfer systems and safety-related equipment/measures. 3. 2. All documents submitted to and kept by BKI 3. The same applies to documents related to maintenance and monitoring procedures. machinery and electrical items.
Definitions Authority. where the corresponding characteristics are fulfilled. by FPS (Floating Production and Storage Unit) A floating or fixed structure serving as mooring point for the production unit and/or as regular berthing facility for vessels used for the export of the hydrocarbons (see above). (Two Administrations may be involved where a unit is operated under the flag of a state different from the state responsible for the production location. Location: FPSO (Floating Production.1-4 Section 1 – General Requirements and Definition F 4. for Automation).e. e. with possible additional Notations. This will be noted in the certificate.see Section 3 . a "design life" shall be defined.a correspondingly shorter design life may be envisaged. e. The type of unit may be described. This may be accomplished by connecting the unit to a floating or fixed mooring installation. i. will be assigned the Character of Class SM. if complying with the BKI Rules and Regulations.1 FPS: Floating Production and Storage Unit (The reserve buoyancy of a ship or barge type vessel is usually utilised for intermediate storage of produced hydrocarbons. 1. Administration: Specially designed foundations may form part of the anchoring system in certain cases. depending on the overall configuration and site conditions).2 Machinery The offshore site selected for permanent or temporary operation of the production unit. C. Single-point Mooring: A mooring system allowing the production unit to weather-vane during all operations and under all environment conditions. of an array of chains/wires and anchors. means intended for at least 5 years of operation at the determined site. including energy supply. In the case of single-point mooring (see below). Geographical. a turn-table-like structure arranged inside the hull of the production unit. 6.2. or in addition to the anchoring system.1 Character of Class. 4. 4. in the context of these Guidelines. For components dimensioned on the basis of statistical values . will be assigned the Character of Class P SM. which is to be taken into account.3 4. e. (see also Section 7). Floating Production. 2.3. Storage and Offloading Unit) The notation Oil Tanker may also be included.g. 5. if included in the classification procedure. with the corresponding Notations (e.3. 4. for fatigue calculations of components. . Risers may in principle be used for import and for export of the produced media. to keep the production unit on position.2 The machinery installed for process/ production operations. Notations Hull 3. or by providing a turret. Permanently installed. Hydrocarbons Transfer/Conveying Systems Official (state) body responsible for granting installation and operation permits in the case under consideration. geological and oceanographic characteristics of the location must be clearly defined (see Section 3).) 2. Storage and Offloading Unit (Where further transport of the hydrocarbons is carried out by shuttle tankers.1 The machinery of the unit used for conventional shipboard operations such as propulsion and auxiliary services. Temporarily installed means intended for less than 5 years of operation.g. a special offloading system or installation will be provided). depending on the sea floor characteristics and loads to be transmitted. Dynamic Positioning: A propulsion system used exclusively. 7. In such case. the anchoring system may consist... F. See Rules for Classification and Surveys. type of mooring/positioning etc.g.2. Anchoring/Positioning System: The means provided to keep the production unit on the predetermined position under all possible or defined environmental conditions.2 FPSO: Risers: Vertically arranged piping connecting sea bottom pipelines and/or manifolds (PLEM) with the production unit.3. Volume I. Section 2. Loading/Unloading Terminal: The unit will be assigned the "Character of Class" A100 with additional "Notations" referring to the particular type and use. Permanent/Temporary Installation: 4.3.g..
used for transfer of hydrocarbons to shuttle tankers. 8. into areas of different hazard levels. (Detail definitions: See Section 11). . Area Classification: The systematic sub-division of a unit exposed to explosion risks.Section 1 – General Requirements and Definition F 1-5 Offloading Installation: A system of pipes and flexible hoses. including safety/controlling and metering equipment.
1 Periodical surveys during the service life of the unit .i. monitoring and maintenance service provided by the operator will be accepted as an integral part of the overall inspection schedule. 1. annual surveys will be carried out. See the following sections regarding specific systems. and where tests are due according to a fixed schedule). Essential materials required to conform to the Rules for Materials. Regarding particular requirements for the supervision of welding work.see Section 5 shall be produced under BKI surveillance as described in the appropriate rules mentioned. E. 1. cables. essentially. which provides for a "Continuous Survey" incorporating the items usually covered by Annual and Special Surveys. etc. Storage and Offloading Units to be certified by BKI.. and Rules quoted there.2. surveys at regular intervals . and provided that all controls. 1. An inspection schedule may be agreed upon. Surveyors are to be given access to manufacturing facilities at any time. Where such parts are produced by subcontractors. comprising. either at the manufacturers works or on board of the production/storage/offloading unit. but supported where appropriate by operation testing/checking of − the accessible structure (integrity. 1.1 Annual surveys General B. the following surveys will generally be required during the newbuilding or conversion process. 2. Volume V . depending on the type of installation and the maintenance program provided by the operator. 1. 4.3). B. and taking advantage of the continuous control by the operator. with random detailed inspection and final acceptance by BKI.are required where renewal of certificates (Classification) has been agreed (see Section 1. hydrocarbons transfer system (where possible. 2. watertight doors.). carried out are well documented and capable of being verified by the Surveyor coming on board for a periodical survey. continuous control and maintenance by the operator annual surveys by BKI intermediate surveys by BKI special surveys by BKI at 5 years intervals. Surveys of Units in Service General indications Depending on the type of unit and subject to possible additional requirements of the appropriate National Authority/Administration. testing of hoses and pipes may be required where deemed necessary. Surveys During Fabrication supervision and survey will be applied and combined.Section 2 – Surveys for Certification A. positioning system. repairs. measurements. swivels. replacements. In principle. a visual inspection. B 2-1 Section 2 Surveys for Certification A. ventilator heads etc. as appropriate − − – – 2. turret installations: control of bearings.). Surveillance by BKI includes also witnessing of tests and trials. water tightness. bulkhead penetrations. in order to ascertain proper functioning of the installation.2. 3. fairleads etc.).3 Continuous control (operator): The controlling. see Section 5.2 A detailed inspection schedule will be set up in each individual case. particularly in pump rooms). witnessing of relevant operations. riser supports (see also 4. corresponding certificates will be issued by the BKI Inspection Office(s) in charge. corrosion.4. the following kinds of − − − − . all watertight closures (hatches. as far as accessible (chains. For Floating Production. Construction of structural parts and fabrication of components shall be carried out according to approved quality assurance procedures. control of hose markings. These surveys are intended to ensure that the installation continues to comply with the requirements of the Rules and other Rules and Regulations which have been used as a design base. if the operator adheres to the agreed procedure.e.
cranes etc.2 For coated tanks.2 The machinery. allowing all such spaces to be surveyed at least once during a 5 years period. The control and shut-off systems for the 2. e.1. control of maintenance documentation. will be surveyed according to instructions issued by BKI or by the competent Administration in the individual case. an inspection schedule shall be set up. including their appliances and control systems. survey of ventilation and pressurizing systems. regardless of certification (see Section 17..6. e.2 risers shall be checked. safety and interlocking devices. possibly using simulation routines. where applicable. checking of the main and emergency power supply systems. checking of bilge. inspection and checking of the main and auxiliary steering gear. fire and explosion sources.3 Fire extinguishing and fire alarm systems The fire extinguishing equipment will be subjected to the following inspections and tests − checking of the remote shut-down devices for ventilators and other electrical machines. the auxiliary engines. checking of all piping systems including pressure gauges. and of the remote control devices for the fuel tanks.g. by operation tests. etc.2. as well as protective. checking of all communication systems between bridge and control. maintenances and abnormal occurrences. the corresponding documentation will be revised and/or cross checks made. inspection of the bilge system. including the propulsion system depending on the type of unit and positioning. ballast and stripping pumps for leakages. including verification of the last servicing by recognized specialists where provided. Extended surveys and thickness measurements may be required. external inspection of boilers. machinery. gas detectors etc. and particularly the connecting elements on board of the unit. checking of the foam fire extinguishing and/or water spraying systems(s). including the switch-gear and other electrical installations.2). The inspection method (means of access) shall be such that any damages/deterioration of the coating will be detected. including safety equipment. checking of the ESD system (s). quickclosing/stopping devices and checking of pumps. (Dynamic positioning system: see below).6 Riser system − 2. − − . inspection of tank venting systems. 2. including remote control mechanisms and bilge filling level monitor.4.). The inspection and maintenance routine of the operator may be accounted for. 2. 2.g. production installations: General inspection and review of documentation on regular controls. as far as accessible. as well as of the fire extinguishing facilities. pressure vessels with their appliances and safety devices. as far as practicable. electrical equipment: Inspection of cabling and cable connections. checking of all closing arrangements. Where the system provides the possibility of measuring and recording. including the electrical equipment. will be subjected to the following surveys and operational checks − general inspection of the machinery and boiler rooms.1 The general condition and functioning of corrosion protection systems will be checked during annual surveys. such as fire pumps and corresponding piping/hoses. positioning system(s): Inspection of winches etc..2. if the ESP (Enhanced Surveys Procedure) is to be applied (see 4. tank pressure/vacuum relieve valves. where possible. flame arrestors.4 Corrosion protection 2.5 Special equipment − − − − − − – – Special equipment such as life saving equipment. Machinery and electrical equipment 2. survey of inert gas systems.4.1 The risers.2-2 Section 2 – Surveys for Certification B – safety equipment.6. ventilators. valves. 2. Data transfer lines (umbilicals) running parallel or attached to the risers should be included in the inspection in view of possible interaction with the risers. checking of equipment related to pollution control/prevention (MARPOL regulations). boiler and steering gear rooms. inspection of the remote control. − – − − − − − − − 2. checking of the fire warning and alarm systems. checking of the firemen’s outfit for satisfactory condition and completeness. A. shall be inspected for corrosion and damages. and checking of emergency exits as to their free passage. where relevant.
E. Upon special agreement.2. Special attention shall be given to areas of stress concentration and of suspected or proven damage. The maintenance and testing schedule of the operator will generally be accounted for when deciding about particular survey and testing requirements. An intermediate survey is an extended annual survey. 4. and particularly for ship type units for which the conventional classification procedure has been adopted. inert gas installations.2. Regarding the conditions and particular requirements for In-Water Surveys. must not exceed 12 months.4. earthing/ bonding etc.6. Cleaning and/or uncovering of areas selected for close-up inspection and non-destructive testing may be required.3 For flexible pipes. 4. depending on the unit's age).2. see 4. reference is made to the Rules for Classification and Surveys.2 Ship and barge type units − Function tests may be demanded. crude oil tanks (as above.) of the anchoring system.2 above. Diver assistance may be necessary. Intermediate surveys 3. wear etc.4. power supply and thruster response. A.1 Structure (Hull) General indications The dynamic positioning system. depending on the overall survey plan of the operator.1. every second dry-docking may be substituted by an “In-Water-Survey“. The operator's inspection and testing program may be taken into account.).2. or 3. 4.. 3.1 Special surveys. Summarizing. shall be checked for operational availability/ functioning of the essential sub-systems. however. − − – − − Account may be taken of data recorded by instruments installed to monitor structural behavior. shafting/lubrication systems. C. Upon completion of the survey. see Section 5.Section 2 – Surveys for Certification B 2-3 2.1.1 A thorough survey of the ship’s bottom and of attachments such as rudder and thruster installations is in principle to be carried out in dry dock at intervals of 5 years.2.2 below. the extended surveys refer to − ballast tanks (corrosion protection. see the Rules for Classification 4.1. to be carried out at the date due for the 2. See also Section 1. electrical machinery (insulation.2 4. where provided. Section 3. condition of anodes etc. and tank cleaning and venting installations). 4. the (class) certificate of the unit will be issued and will be valid for another 5 years term (class period). such as position reference. also called "Class Renewal Surveys". Volume I.1 Special (“Class Renewal“) surveys Period definition 4. combined with an internal bottom and hull survey including thickness measurements according to a pre-planned schedule (see below).2 Regarding the scope of Intermediate Surveys related to conventional ship-type structures and machinery/equipment.2 and Section 4. special inspection routines shall be followed. and logbook notation regarding disturbances and general performance should be reviewed. machinery and electrical installations: Automation equipment. 3. and subject to the corresponding BKI Rules. 3. See also 2. The whole survey duration. as laid down by the manufacturer and the operator and agreed with BKI. are to be carried out at nominal intervals . so called "Intermediate Surveys" may have to be carried out.3.1 Depending on the type of unit. and the survey must have been completed by the end of the validity period of the certificate (class period). and to areas where repairs have been carried out previously. close-up surveys and thickness measurements. C.3 For production/process machinery and installations. 4.) marine growth condition (corrosion. Tanks are to be cleaned and gas-freed for this purpose. including conveying installations (piping systems) and riser system. annual survey within a class period. 2. A comprehensive survey of the underwater and above water structure will be carried out at 5 years intervals covering the following aspects − – overall condition and integrity plate thickness measurements and nondestructive testing according to an approved inspection plan and/or on-the-sport decision where excessive corrosion or damages are found or suspected effectiveness of the corrosion protection system (potential measurements.2 The Special Survey may be carried out in several parts. where provided. control system. extended Intermediate Surveys may be defined from case to case.7 Dynamic positioning system not exceeding 5 years.
if this has not been done and properly documented within the operator’s own inspection and maintenance schedule. C. generators and motors are to be examined and their prime movers opened for inspection. particularly explosion protected machines and apparatus.5. pressure and operability testing of pipe systems according to an approved inspection plan.1.3 Fittings and connections on main switchboards.3 Regarding special equipment. Non-destructive required at suspect areas.5 In addition to the general indications given above.1.2. Section 3. 4. e. preferably in dry-dock.2 Where electrical installations.4 Cables are to be examined as far as practicable without undue disturbance of fixtures. cranes and lifting devices.3).1.1 An extended examination of machinery spaces and installations as per 2.3.2 The detailed special survey procedures may be chosen according to the Rules mentioned under 4. The insulation resistance of the circuits is to be measured between conductors and between conductors and ground.3 In case of single-point turret mooring. 4. tank testing and extended documentation.2 below.1 The electrical equipment including the generators. see 2.2.3.g. fuel pumps.3 4. Volume I.1. A.1.2.2. of pressure relief valves. The survey has to be carried out in a sheltered area. the following details are to be observed − all generators are to be run under load. the motors of the essential auxiliary machinery.2.2.1 attention is to be given to internal and secondary structural parts such as bulkheads.3 Mobile offshore units 4. a comprehensive inspection of the turret structure shall be carried out. they are to be inspected (see 4. Section 2. C. electrical auxiliaries installed for vital purposes. Section 126.96.36.199. On column stabilized units.3. oil fired installations and similar equipment are to be tested. 4. all switch gear including their protective and interlocking devices.2. equipment General connections of and pontoons/ accessible also testing may be − − 4. strainers and underwater propulsion units are to be cleaned and examined. Electric lighting.3.2.3. the same exemption being possible as stated under 4. proven satisfactory for the area classification zone and/or . pressure vessels and heat exchangers/thermal oil plants according to approved inspection plans.2. the columns and braces with decks footings shall be examined. switches and circuit breakers are to be tested. Volume I.3.1. the corresponding survey requirements shall be observed . for risers and anchor lines (to be included in the diver inspection in the case mentioned under 4. 4.2. This could limit the time intervals between retesting.1 above. the emergency remote switch-off devices of ventilators.2. This procedure calls for a pre-planned close-up inspection of tank structures. 4. 4. − 4. Turret bearings may be required to be opened-up and inspected internally.3. as well as the cable network are to be examined and tested. tanks.3.2. 4.2. anchor racks and fairleads. Hazardous Areas In addition to the general requirements see 4. and distribution panels are to be examined.2-4 Section 2 – Surveys for Certification B and Surveys. helicopter deck and substructures of heavy equipment with respect to fatigue or corrosion damages.7 and Section 4. electrical fixtures and instrumentation are to be examined.3. 4.3. are situated in spaces in which there is danger of inflammable gas or steam air mixtures. either separately or in parallel.1.2 / 2. Selective tank testing may be required.3. 4. or excessive wastage. all equipment and circuits are to be inspected for possible development of physical changes or deterioration.2 For tanker-type production units with the Class Notation ESP (Enhanced Survey Procedure). cofferdams.3 on occasion of the special survey will generally include. see 4. opening/internal inspection of boilers. where from the interior.2 Electrical installations 4.2.2. Applicable regulations of the appropriate National Authority/Administration are also to be complied with.3 . and these values are to be compared with those previously measured.3. supports etc.2. Sea inlets. and care is to be taken to see that no circuits are over fused.2. 4.1 Machinery. if submerged). including attachments. The insulation resistance of each generator and motor is to be measured.3. thickness measurements. Enclosed Hazardous Areas are to be examined and doors and closures in boundary bulkheads verified as effective. chain lockers.see the Rules for Classification and Surveys. C.3.3 − For electrical equipment.2. depending on type and condition of the tank. as far as applicable − – close inspection of machinery foundations.
6. function tests of alarm system(s) and position reference system(s) (sensors. etc. Hoses are to be carefully inspected for possible deterioration as well as pressure and vacuum tested. 3.2 Inspections carried out by the operator during the class period. including the anchoring system and comprising drydocking where possible.4. and which have not been constructed under surveillance by and in accordance with the Rules and Guidelines of BKI. the BKI surveyor should be called at such occasions.3.8 Mobile offshore units On column stabilized units.7.2). the following checks and tests shall be carried out − − for class notation DP2 and DP3.5 Dynamic positioning system 4. F. may be accounted for. The survey is also to ensure that the pollution prevention requirements are met. will be carried out in order to − − − Details of the testing program will be determined in the individual case. tested and proven satisfactory. 4. operable condition. shall be surveyed as follows.g. Floating production/storage and unloading units for which a certificate is required. 4. Note: As this survey will usually require diver (or ROV) assistance. Design and fabrication documentation: A complete set of documentation shall be submitted for review by BKI Head Office. back-up and manual override systems and shall. A comprehensive survey of the unit. On occasion of the special survey. Special attention is to be given to corrosion and damages (e.3.7 Hydrocarbons transfer system 4. the underwater part shall be inspected together with and to a comparable extent as the unit's hull and the mooring system. a detailed inspection schedule has to be set up including statements/procedures regarding diver qualification.1 If the riser system is included in the classification procedure.).). 4.4. as far as applicable. in summary. power supply) as for other types of consumers (see 4. buckling).6. where appropriate).3.3.3. peripheral equipment). calculations or certificates are not sufficient for proper appraisal.3. Ventilating systems including ductwork. including opening up of sample valves. BKI will carry out. Condition Surveys 1. tests of the remote thrust controls. possibly combining this inspection with an annual survey according to 2.. and to connecting elements between riser sections and with attached or incorporated components such as buoyancy aids. 4. Where the available drawings. may be credited to the special survey.2 Inspections and overhauls carried out recently. fans. relevant investigations (including verification of material properties. e. The ventilating air alarm systems are to be proven satisfactory. 2. communication means..3. 4. intake and exhaust locations for enclosed restricted areas are to be examined.g. on the occasion of a conversion or major repair. depending on the system configuration. covering all important systems described in the previous sections. 4. the drives shall be closely inspected and opened up if considered necessary.3. cocks etc.Section 2 – Surveys for Certification C 2-5 verified as explosion-proof or intrinsically safe. function tests of control alarm systems of all thrusters.6 Turret turning installation Where a turret turning installation is provided (see Section 7. Where possible. if acceptable documentation is available and the relevant system or component is obviously in satisfactory.4 Riser system unit is maintained under all anticipated "single failure" conditions. For electric motors the correct area classification certificates are to be verified. umbilicals. 4.3.1 All fixed and mobile components of the hydrocarbons transfer system shall be examined and tested in accordance with procedures laid down in the detailed maintenance and inspection part of the Operating Manual. ascertain that the position keeping capability of the . (See also Section 1.7.. A. C.g. verification of redundancy and independence requirements. tests/surveys of the electrical installations (e. and the relevant power supply and control system checked by function tests.3. bilge and ballast systems shall be thoroughly examined. The tests shall cover all operational modes. etc. or require to have carried out. and carrying out of essential function tests according to special instructions also incorporated in the Operating Manual. including retrieval and overhaul of risers. documentation.
Generally. Proper functioning and condition of anchoring. and ascertain the actual condition of all components essential for safe operation 3. this does not apply in the case of modifications required to the structure or machinery parts in the light of new knowledge gained from recent experience and damage analysis. in the case of repairs and/or replacement of parts subject to classification. have been performed satisfactorily. hydrocarbons handling. 5. see above. etc. The procedures regarding materials and components to be used. Where structural strength. the structural details identified as critical shall be carefully checked. and following paragraphs). are as described above and in the preceding sections for new buildings.3 Surveys conducted in the course of repairs are to be based on the latest technical knowledge and instructions by BKI. The survey program will be agreed upon from case to case. conversions and major repairs. periodical classification surveys on special occasions. especially where doubts exist as to the cause of damage. or the suitability of the repair method. 4. E. In particular cases advice is to be obtained from BKI Head Office. a comprehensive survey . Reinstallation. and regarding fabrication supervision and certification. In case of classification. machinery. The extent of the survey will be agreed upon from case to case. mooring. Damage and repair surveys Underwater inspection by divers will usually be required where dry-docking is not possible. e. the automatic/remote-control systems. .5 Regarding the materials employed and certificates required.g. 6. the Construction Rules in force during the period of construction continue to be applicable. fire-fighting and other equipment essential for operational safety and reliability may have to be verified by tests. In general. surveys have been agreed upon (see B.4. particularly fatigue investigations have been carried through in connection with the condition survey.1 Where damage has occurred to the unit’s hull. change of location/reinstallation. Other Surveys 4. as well as modifications carried out since the initial (new building) surveys.4 For older units. where periodical 2.at least with the scope of a special survey. Thickness measurements of important structural elements may have to be carried out. (See also Section 1. 3. the scope and extent of which will be determined from case to case. the damaged parts are to be made accessible for inspection in such a way that the kind and extent of the damage can be thoroughly examined and ascertained. The reactivation surveys may be combined with conversion and repair surveys.).g. 3.. D. .). thickness measurements will have to be carried out. 5. including the electrical plant. with a view to avoiding recurrence of similar damages.2-6 Section 2 – Surveys for Certification D – − verify the conformity of all components with the documents submitted. requires to be approved by BKI Head Office. However. For units which have been out of service for a longer period and are required to be re-certified. 3. such as − – – damage .2 The repair measures are to be agreed with the Surveyor such as to render possible confirmation of the class. generally a new (class) certificate will be issued. Before issuing a certificate for the floating production/storage/offloading unit. without reservations. due to collision. which may have been found to be necessary. BKI may be called in for survey of a floating production/storage and offloading unit not subject to regular. reactivation 1. see B. Conversions In case of major conversions. and on the time out of service and volume of alterations. upon completion of the repairs. The unit and connected systems will be particularly investigated for corrosion damage and the corrosion protection system checked for proper functioning. 3. a confirmation of class with recommendations. as a matter of principle. 3.will be necessary. the requirements for new buildings are applicable (see A. e. BKI (Head Office) will have to be notified in any of the events listed under 1. BKI will carry out a final survey to ensure that the repairs. in the case of a preliminary repair ("emergency repair"). depending on type and age of the unit.
under the environmental conditions to be expected. acknowledged methods shall be used. If sufficiently accurate data are not available.3 Regarding the calculation of loads resulting from waves. See alsoSection 7. water depth(s) and manoeuvring area are adequate to ensure safe operations. Volume 2.g. forebody) due to the combined effects of waves and the unit’s motions (see Section 4. snow earthquakes.Section 3 . Section 2.Loads and Load Conditions. wind and waves characteristics. Environmental loads 1.4 Wind (definitions) 5. Sea level 2. 5. B. Sea floor/soil investigations shall be adequate to determine the kind of anchoring or foundation and to evaluate the safety of the system. visibility and soil/anchoring conditions. currents. to be based on statistical data obtained from long term observations in a statistically valid manner. 2. Any other planned or existing installations at or near the envisaged site shall be contained and described in the site plan.3. B. C. 2.2 The sustained wind speed can be obtained from the largest 60 minute mean of wind speeds un60max (z10) observed at z = 10 m above the still water level within a period of n years as follows: The following kinds of loads have to be considered . It has to be shown that. or the chart datum. tide conditions. ice.4.1 The highest still water level to be used for design is defined by the water depth dw at the highest astronomical tide plus water level elevations due to storm surge. the loads due to the following influences and load effects shall be taken into account – – – – – – – – wind waves currents green water on deck temperature variations marine growth/fouling ice. as applicable. B 3-1 Section 3 Loads and Load Conditions.1 Where applicable.1 The sustained wind speed us is defined as the largest 10 minutes mean of wind speed expected within a time period of N= 100 years. 2. 2. A chart and a comprehensive description of the mooring site are to be submitted for the approval procedure.4. 3. The gust wind speed ug is defined as the largest 3 second mean of wind speeds expected within a time period of N= 100 years.2 The lowest still water level to be used for design is defined by the smaller value of either the water depth dw due to the lowest astronomical tide minus a water level decline due to storm surge.). 1. 4. – – – – – Loads to be Considered Kinds of loads environmental loads permanent loads functional loads test loads accidental loads. 2. See also the Rules for Structures. Site and Environment Conditions -General 2. reasonably conservative estimates can be used if approved by BKI. Site Environment A. in principle. Special consideration is to be given to hydrodynamic loads exerted on the structure (e. 5.. Site Environment A. containing data on water depths. 2.2 Environmental design values are. and depending on the location. currents and wind..
5.4 If observations of un60max (z10).2 and 2. us or ug can be obtained from 2. e. 32/ T c = 0.4. un60max (z10) for n = 1 can be estimated as follows: For sheltered sea conditions: for open sea conditions: for high sea conditions: 27 m/s 30 m/s 35 m/s with: γ = 3.e.2 Natural sea state parameters are. respectively.3 b b = 0. The observation time period of un60max must not be shorter than n = 1 year.07 f or ω < 5 . i. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.5. the equivalent design wave parameters of a single wave may be approximated as follows: 2. 2. the considered design period is equal to the observation period. and the characteristic wave period Tc.3.Loads and Load Conditions..5.5 For N = n. 2.3 Equivalent design wave parameters are the wave height H and the related wave period T of a single design wave or a regular design wave train. With these parameters a design wave spectrum shall be defined for deep water waves as follows: with T1= 3600 s. For a fully developed wind sea. a relevant wave theory shall be used to define the design velocity and the design acceleration at the location of the structural element considered.3 The gust wind speed can be obtained from the largest 60 minute mean of wind speed un60max (z10) observed at z= 10 m above stillwater level within a time period of n years as follows: For intermediate water depths.4.5 2.3 can be reduced to Definition of design values of Hs and Tc shall be based on long term observations in a statistically valid manner. The spectrum shall be modified as follows: The observation time period of un60max must not be shorter than n = 1 year. ln = natural logarithm).4.g. defined as the average of the 1/3 highest wave heights in a record of stationary sea surface elevations. 32/ T c Use of sea conditions for design shall be approved by BKI. the significant wave height Hs.4. i. which are used to replace the natural seaway in such a way that its considered effect on the structure is approximately equivalent to the corresponding effect of the natural seaway. period T and water depth dw..4.. are scarce or not available.4 Particle velocities uw and accelerations aw due to waves are related to wave height H.4.3–2 Section 3 . the formulae given in 2.4. Site Environment with ω = 2 π /T B (N= 100 years. defined as the average time period between successive wave crests in the same record.09 f or ω > 5 . Mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm . Based on acknowledged standards and text books. which are needed to define the sustained wind speed or the gust wind speed from 2.1 with – – Sea waves Sea waves may be specified alternatively natural sea state parameters or equivalent design wave parameters The definition of either set of parameters for any considered application shall be approved by BKI.6 For heights z differing from 10 m above the sea surface.2 and 2.5 The effect of wave-current interaction may be taken into account by the vector addition of the respective particle velocities.e.4.5.5.
it may be taken to decrease linearly to zero from a level corresponding to the highest wave elevation to 60 m above that level.2 The velocity uss of sub-surface currents.6 The concept of an equivalent design wave is not applicable to single-point moored FPSOs..9 Marine growth/fouling 2.6 Sea currents 2.7 Green water on deck Loads due to green water on deck may be significant. where uss0 is the current velocity at the sea surface.3 The wind induced near surface current velocity can be estimated as follows: with ζ15 = 15m and uns = 0 for ζ ≥ ζ 15 us (z10) : See 2. ζ is the vertical coordinate. 2. If no relevant data are available.9. the natural seaway design condition must be defined.1 If icing over of parts of or snow accumulation on the structure is possible.4.7 For "Tsunamis". valid for the location. Prediction is possible. 2. Temperature variations may also have to be taken into account in the design of the production / hydrocarbons treatment installations.Loads and Load Conditions. at least qualitatively.2 Thickness of marine growth should be assessed according to local experience. when assessing wave and current loads acting on submerged parts of the installation. snow (precipitation) 2. a thickness of 50 mm may be chosen for normal climatic conditions. If no reliable information is available.g. The range of interactions is determined by the ice environment in the area of operations and may include – – – – pressure from continuous first or multiyear level ice collision with first and/or multi-year ridges within the ice field impact by drifting ice floes (see ice or glacial ice) impact by icebergs. 2.11 Loads due to sea ice 2. When selecting .9. e.3 Where ice covering is due mainly to sea water spray.6.2. 2.2 Ice loads are to be evaluated for a range of ice structure interactions. 2. in connection with the investigation of the unit’s motion behavior (see C. the velocity profile can be estimated as follows: 2. If sufficient data are not available.11. subject to approval by BKI. see 2. the weight of ice or snow shall be added to the permanent loads under operating conditions.1 Forces exerted on a structure by sea ice are to be evaluated for their local effect on structural elements and for global effects on the installation as a whole.Section 3 . Instead.6. reasonably conservative estimates can be based on the following assumptions. and may be reduced linearly for inclinations between 0 and 60°. such as tidal or thermosaline currents. 2. 2.5.1 Currents to be considered are sub-surface and near-surface currents. exposed walls are to be chosen according to indications of independent competent authorities/institutions.5.10. 2. 2. 2. Relevant information shall be submitted to BKI for verification.2 Loads due to ice and/or snow on open decks and external.8 Temperature influences Stresses and deformations of the structure or parts of it induced by temperature gradients in the structure shall be added to the permanent load induced stresses and deformations under operating conditions where deemed relevant. and their effects shall be accounted for in the areas affected.11. 2. The definition of a design sea current velocity shall be based on long term observations in a statistically valid manner. 2.12. Site Environment B 3-3 2.2.3 The maximum compressive strength of the ice is to be considered as characteristic of the local loading of the unit’s structure by ice. Snow covering can be disregarded for inclined surfaces set at more than 60° to the horizontal.11.10. and Section 4 and 7). 2. shall be based on observed values provided by competent institutions.6.10.10 Ice. and dw is the water depth. originating at sea surface(ζ = 0) and pointing downward.1 Marine growth may be considerable in some areas and should be taken into account.2.
. 3.: Work areas: Storage areas: 5. etc. occurring in a variable manner. these mooring loads shall be attributed to loading conditions 1 or 2 as applicable (see C. Regarding permissible stresses. 2. both cases . Such loads may comprise the weight of structures. The most unfavorable distribution of loads is to be accounted for in the structural analysis. using available statistical information.3–4 Section 3 . fuel.g..2 Permanent loads shall be clearly documented and accounted for in the design documents and calculations. a so-called "Design Earthquake" shall be defined.g.. The specification should also contain indications and limitations with a view to the overall weight of the structure or installation. and Section 7). 3.g. Permanent loads 4. 4. wastes ballast and – – – – loads from operations of cranes and other conveyance equipment loads from transport operations. walkways etc. the following factors shall be considered: – – – – – – – Note: In most cases "ice-breaking" quality of the installation will not be relevant. depending on the probability of occurrence. exerted by mooring lines. and the effect of hydrostatic pressure exerted on parts of the submerged structure.. environmental) conditions. gas pockets and voids) strain rate loading rate scale effects (size of structure/ice thickness).1 Functional loads are loads due to normal operations. a test load case may be an important consideration in designing/dimensioning a particular element or system and will usually be associated with other operating (and permanent) loads. shall generally be regarded as functional loads. permanent ballast. such as hydraulic test pressure in tanks or pipes. or as an accidental load. 4. 3.g. riser connections). Any such limitations must also be stated in the Operations Manual.g. Functional loads Test loads.1. whether a Tsunami and the resulting motion behavior of the FPSO have to be considered in connection with the design earthquake. helicopters mooring/fendering loads from vessels serving the installation.may have to be investigated to cover the most unfavorable condition. Nevertheless. The Design Earthquake shall be taken into account for the design of all elements connected with the sea bottom which may be affected by motions and/or forces resulting from an earthquake (e. certain kinds of equipment). Test loads 5 kN/m2 9 kN/m2 13 kN/m2 3.3 In cases where loads/weights may be acting for longer periods but not necessarily at all times (e. and disconnecting will be required for defined ice conditions. Tsunami-type waves resulting from earthquakes may have to be considered in particular cases... in connection with stability requirements. . equipment. See also C. frequently varying injection liquids. Site Environment B the appropriate compressive strength. e.2 Loads on windlasses etc. it will be decided from case to case. – – weight of tools and mobile equipment weight of hydrocarbons or other liquids in tanks/vessels and pipes of the processing installation stores. the following values may be used as guidance: Crew Spaces. e.Loads and Load Conditions. below. shall be specified by the owner/designer. For locations where earthquakes may be expected. Where no other indications have been made regarding the loading of deck surfaces.load acting/not acting .3 Deck loads.1 Permanent loads are loads which act throughout the lifetime of the installation or during prolonged periods. risers. e.g. although mainly due to environmental influence. 4. weight of equipment.12 Earthquakes temperature or temperature gradient in the ice orientation of the ice crystals salinity total porosity of the ice (brine volume. will usually occur only once or a few times during the unit’s life and under controlled (e.
. especially regarding collisions. Load Conditions. Accidental loads within this context may be due to.: – – – – – collisions (other than normal mooring impacts referred to under 4. sea installation.e.4. but critical production/hydrocarbons transfer lines are disconnected. where relevant loads exerted on the unit by risers. Load Cases c. Limitation of operation: – 2. e.2 Three main cases may be distinguished a. (various load cases may have to be considered) defined. 1. The load conditions normally to be considered and the kinds of loads to be taken into account for each load condition are listed in Table 3.g. anchor chains or positioning system. and any functional loads which are not expressly excluded under these conditions. Certain operations. different combinations of wind/wave direction and different loading/ballast conditions. Each of the following load conditions shall cover all possible load cases (load combinations) producing the maximum stress in particular elements of the unit or the most unfavorable situation in particular parts of the hydrocarbon handling/processing installation: Load cond.Loads and Load Conditions. hydraulic testing.Section 3 .g.g. Site Environment – C 3-5 6. "Operating loads" "Extreme environmental loads" "Accidental loads" In any of the three cases. Regulations of the competent Authority/ Administration may have to be observed. may be restricted or interrupted under defined heavy weather conditions. i. however.). limited environmental loads The choice of accident cases and determination of loads for load condition 3 ("Accidental loads") will be considered from case to case. liquids circulating in the treatment production system). 4. C. D.1 This load condition includes all loads occurring during normal operations. etc.1) falling/dropped objects failing crane operations explosions. 2. . functional loads (e.. mooring impact. depending on the configuration of the overall installation. the unit leaves the location. some of the functional loads may continue to be acting. moored vessels etc. 3. "Operating loads" This load condition takes into account the most severe environment state(s) which the unit is intended to endure at the location (see 2.. and Section 7. – – – permanent (dead) loads liquids in tanks. operations and possible consequences of failure.1. production being shut down. b. fire earthquake (exceeding a "design earthquake" that has to be withstood without damage). the unit remains at the location as above. The choice between these alternatives shall be taken in the design procedure as early as possible. and all connections to the sea-floor remain uninterrupted. under the defined environmental conditions mentioned above. total disconnection of any elements linking the installation to the sea floor. where significant loads are imposed on specific components during other phases (assembly. "Extreme environmental loads" These load conditions refer to the operation phase. "Accidental loads" 2. the unit stays at the location under all occurring environment conditions. transportation/towing.e. Load cond. See also Section 4. Accidental loads Accidental loads are loads not normally occurring during the installation and operating phases. e. crane loads. but which should be taken into account depending on location. 5. Generally several load cases will have to be investigated. A. etc.1). they have also to be taken into account in the design as an additional load condition or load case. 3. 2. Load cond. Operations Manual: Any restrictions / limitations of operations due to environment conditions or other foreseeable influences shall be clearly stated in the Operations Manual (see Section 1. stores. i. and the limiting (critical) environment and motion conditions shall be clearly established by a comprehensive investigation of the behavior of the whole installation (offshore unit and anchoring system).2 above). 1.
"Accidental loads" 3 1 2 3 See 3 See 2. For temporarily installed units. (limited) (extreme) (accident) X X X X (X) (X) 2 X – X (X) 1 X (X) – – X 3. "Operating loads" "Extreme environmental loads" Permanent Functional EnvironEnvironCollision. applicable x= D.Loads and Load Conditions. ( See Section 1.2 and 3 See 4 and B. 2. Site Environment Load conditions Kind of load D Load condition 1. 5. Sea waves impose dynamic. For the purpose of calculations of the anchoring/mooring system. oscillatory loads which may have to be split up into firstorder loads with frequencies corresponding to the wave frequency and second-order loads oscillating with the low drift frequency (see Section 7. . and consideration of the influence of the respective random load processes to define design values of superimposed loads is acceptable.. where I is the number of independent design values FDi being considered.).3–6 Table 3. vectorial superposition of design values of these loads are conservative. . 2.1. wind and currents may generally be regarded as being constant within one load case analysis..6. 4. For permanently installed production units. may be applied upon agreement with BKI.1 Section 3 . loads loads mental loads mental loads etc. F. Thus. I. especially for nonlinear superposition of correlated random load processes. 3. Design values of permanent loads shall be vectorially added to the design values of other loads as listed in B. design values for extreme environmental loads based on a 100-year recurrence period shall generally be used. Determination of Loads 1. shorter recurrence periods may be agreed upon. Design values of environmental and functional loads generally occur at different times. i = 1. This Guideline is based – explicitly or implicitly – on nominal or design load values (design loads FD) to be used in structural analysis. C.5). The following rule may be applied to stochastically independent design values FDi: Other superposition principles.2.
8. For materials without a defined yield strength. The resulting loads/forces shall be accounted for when applying the Rules mentioned above. In the design of structures and structural elements. Note: In the following only some general remarks will be made regarding the structural design. For structural strength calculations based on a load .. is based on the General Design Considerations supposition that an accepted corrosion protection system is provided (see Section 5). and with a view to avoiding stress concentrations. For details regarding structural calculations using the Finite Element Method. see the Guidelines for Strength Analysis of Ship Structures with the Finite Element Method (Analysis Techniques Strength). 7. 1.or barge-type production units the Rules for Hull. Section 2 and other equivalent code are applicable. Volume 2. They will generally be specified by the owner/operator of the installation. corrosion allowances shall generally correspond to the Rules for Hull.2. as far as possible. except where explicitly agreed upon with BKI (e. Where other concepts of strength analysis are used. as well as indications given referring to installations and structural elements peculiar to floating production units. for semi-submersible-type units the Rules: for Structures. Section 3 and 4. complicated weld connections and excessive material thicknesses. Corrosion and wear allowances: Determination of scantlings. A comprehensive investigation of the motion behavior (response) of the unit under the given environmental conditions and anchoring/mooring restraints is to be carried out. Adequate corrosion allowances are to be agreed upon. FPSO structures shall be designed and constructed using adequate ductile and weldable. Section 3. regarding materials).g. Serviceability and functional considerations may have influence on the structural design. agreement with BKI shall be reached in the individual case. but will be taken into account in the design review by BKI where relevant from the safety and integrity points of view. approved materials (see Section 5). unless environment and inspection conditions require increased values. 3. The two Rules mentioned shall generally not be applied simultaneously for the same unit. See also Section 7 and Section 3. and for Specific Types of Units and Equipment Volume 3. the allowable stresses shall be taken as indicated below. depending on the environmental and operating conditions. 1.g. Allowable Stresses Design concept 1.1 When using the conventional deterministic dimensioning method normally based on linear elastic theory and global safety factors ("allowable stress design"). For the design/dimensioning of conventional structural elements of ship.2 The design concept mentioned above is based on the condition : . loads and load conditions according to Section 3 and allowable stresses as defined in B below shall be used. such as probabilistic or semi-probabilistic methods using characteristic load and resistance values and partial safety factors. The allowable stresses are generally related to the minimum specified yield strength of the material. 1. 2. K. Volume II. e.Section 4 . The same applies to structural elements prone to wear. using these indications or equivalent design methods. by chafing of cables or chains. 5. Volume II may be applied. B.allowable stress concept. special agreements will be made. For ship-type units.Structure A. C. 6. 4. consideration should also be given to inspection (accessibility) and maintenance requirements. B 4-1 Section 4 Structure A.
75 . Volume 2.1 Global safety factors γg . Section 3. minimum specified yield strength ReH is not to be taken greater than 0.1. The applicability of relevant load conditions.7 Admissible stresses for elements of special purpose installations such as cranes or drilling rigs may be taken according to acknowledged regulations relating to such equipment. global safety factor.4-2 where σ. τ ReH Section 4 . depending on the type of unit. The corresponding indications in the Rules for Hull. Volume II.8. and where the consequences of a possible failure are deemed to be extremely negative.. Table 4.3 In case of predominant compression or plate shear stresses.4 Where calculations are carried through. the safety factors γg may be chosen according to Table 4.1 In case of undisturbed stress distribution. Section 3. Volume II. see 2. 2. using finite element methods. provided that the material employed at – 2. may be used. in order to determine the stress distribution in a more elaborate way. See also the Guidelines mentioned in A. frames and other structural components where the distribution and magnitude of stresses is reliably obtained from the calculations mentioned under 1. γg 2. Section 20 or for Structures. Rm (Rm = minimum tensile strength) "special structural members" (see Section 5) and fatigue considerations (see 2. in case of not sufficiently well-known loads.5 Fatigue: The allowable stresses may have to be reduced in case of loadings repeated with considerable frequency (fatigue).D. The application of such regulations shall be agreed with BKI. including local plate bending.Structure B such point s corresponds to the required for stresses resulting from the design loads defined in Section 3.g. 2. Section 3.e. the possibility of buckling is to be investigated. The admissible stresses may be obtained according to the indications given in the Rules for Hull. 2.6 A reduction of admissible stresses may also be necessary – – in case of unfavorable inspection and testing conditions. The total stress. in girders. in comparison with those defined in Section 3. 2. shall be carefully checked. values up to the yield strength may be admitted for loading condition 2. may reach ReH for load condition 2. 2. F. See also the Guidelines for Fatigue Strength Analysis of Ship Structures (Analysis Techniques Strength).5 below) are not essential. F. or Rules for Structures. Safety factors/allowable stresses 2. Volume 2. i.2 The factors are not applicable to local plate bending under lateral pressure. e.G.
5). swashs bulkheads) may have to be provided. resulting from longitudinal bending and transverse loads. as well as heeling of the unit (see 3. double hull. particularly in weld connections. Existing requirements regarding subdivision (tank volume limitations.g.2 Structural elements of ships (tankers) designed according to the Rules for Hull Volume II. bow mooring yoke) provided for positioning the unit have to be evaluated for all load conditions and load cases defined in Section 3. Special consideration has to be given to fatigue. In certain cases the Rules for Ship Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk. 2. the possible maximum gas pressure inside the tank is to be taken into account.Section 4 .7 Attachment points for anchoring cables (chains) and mooring lines (hawsers) are generally to be designed according to the relevant Sections in the Rules or Specific Types of Units and equipment (Volume 3. etc. Anchoring/mooring and riser suspension structure 2. generally a 3dimensional calculation will be required. 2. 2.5.5. Volume IX. detail investigations (finite . slamming) under the specific motion conditions at the anchoring site (see Sections 3 and 7).4 Where venting is restricted for operational or safety reasons.2 The connection of the risers with the turret and possible interactions between the riser system and the turret structure will normally be investigated using a separate calculation model. Partial filling may produce critical loads even in moderate sea states. Particularly. it shall be ensured that – – turret loads will be safely transferred into the supporting hull structure.5. 1. the turret and the surrounding hull structure shall be designed with a view to sufficient stiffness (evaluation of deformations). The extreme possible temperatures of the stored liquids have to be stated. differing filling states of risers (repair. To get a sufficient understanding of the interaction between hull an turret structure.5 For the tank deck structure.g. 2.) have to be observed. additional loads from production installations and/or operations on top may have to be accounted for. and stresses in the hull structure. be necessary for complicated 1.). Allowable stresses shall be taken as stated above. areas particularly exposed to hydrodynamic loads (slamming effects.or barge-type units provided with integrated storage tanks are required to comply with the regulations for tankers. Structural Design of Specific Installations/ Components Storage tanks elements) may configurations.1.1 In case of turret-mooring-type units.4 In units (ships) designed for heading into the main wind/wave direction (weather-vaning). e. 2. E.e. 1. 2. Section 5. Additional or enlarged structural elements (e. 2.8 Anchoring structures should be designed considering also inspection and repair requirements (see Section 7). See also Section 17.g. 2.1 Ship. these calculations need to be co-ordinated with the investigations described in 2.2 Load cases to be investigated will usually have to include incomplete anchor chain and/or riser arrangements.3 To get a sufficiently accurate knowledge of the stress distribution. 1.g. 1. B. well-service or re-arranging phases). and/or impairment of the turret rotation.6 The material used for the main elements of the mooring structure shall at least correspond to the category prescribed for “Primary structural members” (see Section 5). 2. e. 2.3 Temperature variations may have to be considered in some cases.1 The forces acting on the special structure (e. green water on deck) require special consideration and may have to be additionally strengthened. Section 24.2 below).5. i. in buckling calculations.3 Reinforcements and special considerations regarding deformation may be necessary in case of active turning (installation of turret turning drives). however. under B. being assigned the corresponding "Character of Class"/Class Notations (see Section 1.Structure C 4-3 C. load condition 1.5 Turret 1.4. may be applicable. shall additionally be checked regarding their resistance to dynamical loads resulting from liquids impact (sloshing. in order to prevent damages of bearings and sealing system. are conducted around the turret without affecting its operation. 2. turret.1..
3.4 If aluminium is to be used for (parts of) the helideck structure. beyond ceasing of normal production operations.g. Volume 3. 4. 3. aluminium welding). care has to be taken. API SPEC 4F.4-4 3. flare stack) may be designed according to appropriate codes or standards1.7 Corrosive media handled in (parts of) the installation should be accounted for in the material selection.5 Thermal loads and strains may have to be considered in the structural design of production installation parts.. or equivalent material codes.1 Modules similar to conventional superstructures or deck houses of ships may be designed according to the Rules for Hull. 3. 3.g. Section 10. the Rules for Specific Types of Units and Equipment. Section 7. This may include conditions worse than those defined for "load condition 1".. Section 6 or the Rules for Hull.6 Regarding safety considerations other than structural. e. 3.g.5 For details of loads (e.3 The ability of superstructures and their connections to the main structure (hull) to withstand possible inclinations/heeling shall be proven.3 The main load-carrying elements of the helicopter deck. i.Structure Production installation . load condition 3 (see Section 6).4 Tower. C. 4.e. 4. Volume V.1 The helicopter landing area ("Helideck") shall be dimensioned for the largest helicopter type expected to serve the unit. 4.6 Regarding safety considerations other than structural.g.. the material shall correspond to the Rules for Materials.Deck houses. Volume II. In any case. landing impact) and dimensioning see. The corresponding load cases shall include the maximum heeling angles determined for load condition 2 (Extreme environment condition) and for damaged condition of the unit. 4.6 Regarding fire safety and explosion prevention considerations (e. Volume II. Fire safety considerations will generally require a fireretardant coating of the aluminium structure. shall be considered as "primary structural elements" regarding material selection. see Section 11. structural fire protection). stacks. see Section 9 and10. the load requirements of Administration regulations valid for the location are to be fulfilled. 3. Section 4 .g. which may influence structural design. Helicopter landing area C 3. such as fire safety and lighting. with due regard to heavy equipment/concentrated loads and possible dynamic loads resulting from liquids in tanks and pipes. in comparing the corresponding load conditions/cases with those defined in Section 3. Section 16. and in taking into account the motion behavior of the unit. including substructure. such as fire safety and lighting. 4.2 In connection with the analysis of the unit's motion behavior. where contact with the supporting structure (leakages) can not be excluded. The manufacturer of the deck structure must be qualified for this type of work (particularly. see Section 9 and 10 4. however.2 Loads shall be determined according to the most adverse environmental conditions possibly occurring during helicopter transfer operations. the possibility of loads from "green water on deck" acting on superstructures and deckhouses shall be investigated. 4. area classification.or stack-like structures (e. "Specification for Drilling and Well Servicing Structures" . 1 E. etc.
for semi-submersible units: Rules Structures. in principle. Materials Material selection – general 2. taken from the BKI Rules mentioned. 1. stress concentrations or multi-axial stresses due to the geometrical shape of the structural member and/or weld connections. are exposed to particularly arduous conditions (e. Volume V for either normal or higher strength hull structural steel. is shown in Table 5. the steel selection for the structure above the water line shall be made according to the requirements of the Rules for Hull.2 Offshore units: According to the definitions given in the Rules for Structures. Section 4. A selection of acceptable steels is given in Table 5. to the Rules for Materials. Section 4.thickness direction.1 for easier reference). Volume II. Section 2. to the "Structural member categories" defined in the Rules for Hull. below–. 1.2. the following Rules shall be observed: – – for ship-or barge-type units: Rules for Hull Volume II. for 2. D. Corrosion Protection A. In this context. Further. basically.1 Materials used for the structure and machinery of offshore production units shall correspond. stairs. B. Typical ship structural members shall be selected according to the Rules for Seagoing Ships (see 1. exposed to minor stresses only.4 Materials other than specified in the Rules mentioned above. 2. Corrosion Protection A 5-1 Section 5 Materials and Fabrication. and not coming under the above categories of "special" and "primary" (e. (Hull structural steels: See Table 5. Volume 2.4. B. mountings for pipings and cables. may be accepted based on satisfying documentation and/or tests. etc. These categories correspond. but not to additional straining as mentioned above.1 Important structural parts. complying with Rules for Materials. 1.Section 5 . a definition of the material classes in relation to steel grades and plate thicknesses. Section 2. Volume V and Rules for Non-Metallic Materials. Categories of structural members 1. non-structural walls. – Secondary structural members are all structural members of less significance.3..1 above). design temperature and plate thickness). Volume 2.4 (selection depending on structure category–see 2. typical for off shore production units and not mentioned in the Rules listed above. Section 2. or stresses acting in the through. Section 4.2 Materials for all elements defined in the Rules must be supplied by manufacturers approved by BKI.3.3 Structural steel shall be suitable for welding. – Primary structural members are members participating in the overall integrity of the structure or which are important for operational safety and exposed to calculated load stresses comparable to the special structural members. structural members are categorized as follows: – Special structural members are members essential to the overall integrity of the structure and which.g. or equivalent steels as specified in the Rules for Offshore Installations. . with large-volume weld connections on the plate surface). reference shall be made to the Rules for Materials. Volume V.). Steel with a nominal yield point ReH greater than 390 N/mm2 should be avoided in view of possible brittle fracture and fatigue problems. Works approvals by other acknowledged institutions may be accepted from case to case. Volume II.6 For units stationed in areas with prolonged arctic conditions (temperatures below – 20 °C). pedestals. should correspond to the "Material Class" indicated in Table 5.Materials and Fabrication. the adequacy and applicability of which is proven.5 If in special cases the application of high strength quenched and tempered steels with nominal yield stresses up to 690 N/mm2 is considered. apart from a high calculated stress level. 1. 1. 1.g.
[J] transv. See referenced rules for greater plate thicknesses.2 and 5. DH. [°C] longit.5-2 Table 5. [J] Normal strength KI–A KI–B KI–D KI–E Higher strength 1 KI–A 32 KI–D 32 KI–E 32 KI–F 32 KI–A 36 KI–D 36 KI–E 36 KI–F 36 KI–A 40 KI–D 40 KI–E 40 KI–F 40 1 2 3 + 20 235 400 – 490 22 – 0 – 20 – 40 27 20 (27) 3 – 0 315 440 – 590 22 – 20 – 40 – 60 0 355 490 – 620 21 – 20 – 40 – 60 0 390 510 – 660 20 – 20 – 40 – 60 41 27 34 24 31 22 In Table 5.3 higher strength steels are designated AH.1 Section 5 .Materials and Fabrication. FH For plate thickness t ≤ 50 mm.) A5 [%] 2 Impact energy Kv Test temper. EH. . Supposed min. no test required. value. Corrosion Protection Hull structural steel according to BKI Rules A Steel grade Yield strength (min) ReH [N/mm2] Notched bar impact test Tensile strength Rm [N/mm2] Elongation (min.
Volume V. Section 4. B. and additionally: Higher BKI Rules for Materials. B. Corrosion Protection Table5. Section 4. S235 J2G4. B EN 10025 Secondary KI–A 32 KI–A 36 KI–A 40 S355 JR. S275 J2G4 S 275 N S 275 M 400 – 500 340 – 470 410 – 560 370 – 510 360 – 510 Normal strength As for "Special" and "Primary". S355 JO 440 – 570 490 – 630 510 – 660 490 – 630 As for " Special " and " Primary ". and additionally: Normal strength BKI Rules for Materials. Volume V. elongation (A5) and notch bar impact energy may be taken from the Rules for Materials. S355 K2G4 S 355 N S 355 M S 420 N S 420 M S 460 N S 460 M 440 – 570 490 – 630 510 – 660 490 – 630 470 – 630 450 – 610 520 – 680 500 – 660 550 – 720 530 – 720 Higher strength Primary As for "Special". Volume V.Materials and Fabrication. Volume V. Normal EN 10113-2 EN 10113-3 S 275 NL S 275 ML 370 – 510 360 – 510 As for "Special". Volume V. KI–F 40 S 355 NL S 355 ML S 420 NL S 420 ML S 460 NL S 460 ML Nominal tensile strength 2 Rm [N/mm2] 440 – 570 490 – 630 510 – 660 470 – 630 450 – 610 520 – 680 500 – 660 550 – 720 530 – 720 400 – 500 BKI Rules for Materials. B. B EN 10025 EN 10025 EN 10113-2 EN 10113-3 KI–D S235 J2G3. KI–F 32 KI–E 36. EN 10025 EN 10025 1 KI–A. Section 4. S275 J2G3. Section 4. . Volume V. Volume V. Section 4. and additionally: BKI Rules for Materials. S355 K2G3. Section 4. and additionally: BKI Rules for Materials. KI–F 36 KI–E 40. KI–B S235 JRG2.Section 5 . 2 Requirements for yield stress (ReH). Section 4.2 Structural member category Selection of suitable steels for plates and sections Steel strength class A 5-3 Standard and/or Rules 1 Material designation KI–E 32. B EN 10113-2 Higher strength Special EN 10113-3 EN 10113-2 EN 10113-3 EN 10113-2 EN 10113-3 BKI Rules for Materials. Section 4. Volume V. D. S275 JR. S235 JRO. S275 JO 400 – 500 340 – 470 410 – 560 For high strength quenched and tempered steels for welded structures with nominal yield stresses between 420 and 690 N/mm2 reference Nis made to the Rules for Materials. EN 10025 EN 10113-2 EN 10113-3 EN 10113-2 EN 10113-3 EN 10113-2 EN 10113-3 KI–D 32 KI–D 36 KI–D 40 S355 J2G3. S355 J2G4.
Section 2 Material selection for some typical elements of FPS(O) structures Table 5. Volume II.4 .5-4 Table5. Corrosion Protection Material Classes1 A 1 Quoted from Rules for Hull.Materials and Fabrication.3 Section 5 .
Corrosion Protection A Table 5. type of structure Production installations (deck houses or modules): – Main supporting structure (trusses) – Decks – Flare stack (and similar structures) Turret – Main structural elements – other structural elements Yoke (bow mooring) – Main load bearing structure – other elements Offloading installation – Main derrick structure – other elements Helicopter landing structure – Main load bearing elements (if steel) – other elements II I III II II I III II II I III II II I III II 1Elements/cross sections with easily described (linear) stress distribution 22.dimensional stress pattern.or 3.3 Material Classes 1 Thickness t [mm] 1 <_ 15 > 15 <_ 20 A/AH A/AH A/AH A/AH A/AH B/AH > 20 <_ 25 A/AH B/AH D/DH > 25 <_ 30 A/AH D/DH D/DH > 30 <_ 35 B/AH D/DH E/EH > 35 <_ 40 B/AH D/DH E/EH > 40 <_ 50 D/D H E/EH E/EH > 50 <_ 100 D/DH 2 E/EH E/EH Material Class I II III 1Actual thickness of the structural member 2For thicknesses t > 60 mm: E/EH Quoted from Rules for Hull.Materials and Fabrication. Section 2 Table 5.4 Material selection for some typical elements of FPS(O) structures Material class (See Table 5 3) stress regular1complicated pattern 2 II I II III II III Structural element.5-4 Section 5 . stress concentrations (notches) . Volume II.
) shall conform to the requirements of the Rules for Specific Type of Units and Equipment. Volume 3. Volume VI. D. Section 4. E. execution (welding parameters) and post-weld heat treatment shall conform to the Rule requirements or to acknowledged standards considered equivalent. in case of standard mass produced elements or components from factories using an approved/certified Quality Assurance system. Special testing/trials and certification may be required by an Administration for hydrocarbons storage and conveying (loading. deformations) shall be demonstrated.) and conform to the relevant BKI Rules or equivalent standards or regulations. shall comply with the applicable BKI Rules (Ships or Offshore Installations) and/or accepted Codes and Standards. 5. Volume II. see Rules for Machinery Installations.3 Regarding materials to be used for sour service. Volume 2. Flexible hoses are to be manufactured and tested in compliance with accepted standards and 2. etc. or suitably protected by coating.g. Volume V. Volume 4. equivalence with the requirements mentioned above shall be demonstrated. . weldability and compatibility with the hull structural steel has to be guaranteed. Corrosion Protection B 5-5 2.g. 1. will generally be accepted as basis for fabrication procedures. and Rules for Structures.2 Boilers. 5.Materials and Fabrication. Volume V.) shall correspond to the requirements listed in Volume 3. and 18. hoists. as specified in the Rules – – – – – (destructive) material tests tolerance and verification tests/measurements function tests load tests non-destructive tests (e. may be accepted from case to case. energy supply or any other auxiliary installations. see – – Rules for Welding. Section 4 of the Rules for Specific Type of Units and Equipment and relevant requirements of the Rules for Materials. weld connections). Lifting appliances Materials used for the construction of lifting appliances (cranes. manufacturers must be suitably equipped and have at their disposal sufficiently trained and experienced personnel. See also Section 7.1 Fabrication and manufacturing of all parts and installations subject to certification/classification may only be carried out in workshops approved by and under surveillance of BKI. For standard materials provided. 4. with a view to environment protection. mechanical and electrical equipment. Volume 2.1 Tanks/containments: Integrated or detached tanks or containments shall be constructed using materials adequate for the media to be handled. piping. Section 4.. such as listed below.g. In case of tanks integrated into the structure of the unit. 5. For details. Section 5 and the Rules for Materials. 3. e.2 Particularly as regards welding. Machinery Internationally recognized codes and regulations. e. pressure vessels and similar pressurized equipment shall be made of materials suitable for the service conditions (temperature. 1. 5.3 Tests. ASME Code. Welding Machinery components.g. Fabrication General requirements Elements used for positioning/anchoring and mooring (anchors. Exceptions or deviations. e.. pressure etc. 2. and Rules for Structures. unloading) systems. in the cargo transfer. 7. etc.g. preparation. OCIMF guides). 6. Section 18. Section 19. wire ropes. B. Section 12 to 15.Section 5 . Anchoring/mooring equipment specifications (e.1 Weld joint geometry. cladding etc. Reference is also made to the NACE Standard MR 0175. able to guarantee acceptable quality for all types of welding specified in the design documents. Production equipment 1. see also Section 17. Suitability for the media to be handled and for the environmental conditions (dynamic loads. 1. including qualified supervisors. chain cables. See Rules for Hull. shall be carried out under the supervision of BKI Surveyors. C.3 The categories and steel grades of structural members are to be determined in the design stage and indicated in the construction documentation presented for approval. e. such as the AWS Structural Welding Code. for existing installations.g.
Section 5 - Materials and Fabrication, Corrosion Protection
2.2 A specification for non-destructive testing of weld connections is to be set up and presented to BKI for approval. 2.3 Any repairs of weld connections found to be faulty are to be agreed upon with the BKI Surveyor.
aggressiveness (chemical, mechanical) of substances stored/handled filling rates/flow path of liquids climatic conditions, temperature variations corrosion potential of the coating itself.
– – – C. 1. Corrosion Protection General indications
1.1 Corrosion protection measures are to be considered as early as possible during planning and design, and the relevant specifications are to be presented to BKI for approval. The influence of adjacent structures and installations, including riser system, shall be taken into account. 1.2 Protection by coating shall generally be provided for sea water ballast tanks, and should preferably be chosen for oil (production storage) tanks in view of the limited efficiency of cathodic protection under the conditions usually encountered on production units. 1.3 The protection measures for the production facilities (tanks/containments, pressure vessels, piping systems, etc.) shall be carefully evaluated, depending on the substances handled and the environment / climatic conditions. Special attention is to be paid to possible galvanic corrosion between metals with differing potential. 1.4 Where the use of inhibitors is considered, their compatibility with the substances handled shall be carefully evaluated.
2.2 Surface preparation and conditions prevailing during application shall be according to acknowledged standards, suppliers specification, and the BKI Rules mentioned above (1.5). 2.3 The condition of coatings is to be regularly controlled, and is subject to periodical surveys for classified units (Reference : Rules for Classification and Surveys, Volume I, Section 3 and 4). 3. Cathodic protection
3.1 Where cathodic protection is intended to be provided in storage tanks with varying degrees of filling, it should be considered that this type of corrosion protection is efficient only in presence of a liquid acting as electrolyte. (Cathodic protection may be achieved by sacrificial anodes, impressed current, or a combination of both.) 3.2 The system chosen, the material and geometrical distribution/arrangement of anodes, the physical and chemical boundary conditions and details of the fastening devices shall be described and the documentation presented for approval. 3.3 Potential measurements are to be carried out after an appropriate period following installation and initial use to establish whether the structure is provided with the required protection. 3.4 With impressed current systems, regular control measurements and checks are to be carried out according to an approved itinerary.
1.5 For details, e.g. regarding impressed current protection, see Rules for Structures, Volume 2, Section 6. Reference may also be made to the Rules for Hull, Volume II, Section 38. 2. Coatings
2.1 For the selection of coatings, the following influencing factors shall be considered, i.e.
Section 6 - Subdivision, Stability, Freeboard
A, B, C, D
Section 6 Subdivision, Stability, Freeboard
A. General Requirements – – – – – flooding openings. seawater ballast system; solid ballast, if any. piping systems, including points of discharge. intact and damage stability calculations. information on computer control (hardware/software). control systems related to the items listed above. Watertight Integrity; Freeboard
1. Stability and freeboard shall satisfy the requirements of the regulations applicable to the type of unit and location in question. Particularly, it has to be determined whether the unit is to be regarded as a ship or a mobile offshore installation. 2. For ship-type units guidance is given under C to E below. Depending on the decision of the Administration, such units may be regarded as "special- purpose ships", e.g. with a view to watertight subdivision (see Rules for Hull, Vol. II, Section 29, II C). The arrangement of collision and peak bulkheads may be specially considered, if mooring facilities are provided at the vessel's end. 3. For mobile offshore units, e.g. semisubmersibles, the provisions of the IMO "Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units" are applicable. See also Rules for Specific Type of Units and Equipment, Volume 3, Section 3. 4. A computer-based stability-control checking system will generally be required. B. Documents for Approval and
1. Watertight integrity shall generally be achieved according to established shipbuilding practice and has to be in line with the provisions of the International Convention on Load Lines (1966), if applicable. Any external openings necessary during normal operations, below the down-flooding level as defined in the stability calculations, shall be kept under constant control and be capable of being closed immediately from a central control/operating station. 2. The number of openings in watertight bulk heads shall be kept as small as possible. Any necessary penetrations shall be designed according to acknowledged standards. Closing appliances for internal openings shall be capable of being operated from a constantly accessible control room (see above) as well as locally from both sides of the bulkhead. 3. Any doors, hatch-covers, etc., relevant regarding the considerations mentioned above, shall be clearly marked to this effect. 4. The freeboard shall comply with the provisions of the International Convention on Load Lines (1966), where applicable to the type of unit, with possible modifications due to the damage stability requirements (see E. below). D. Intact Stability
1. A "Stability Booklet" is to be prepared and submitted for approval, containing all relevant information and instructions related to floatability and stability of the unit, in all modes of operation. The Stability Booklet may be part of the general Operations Manual (see Section 1, D. 1.). 2. Plans/documents for the following items are to be submitted for approval, apart from the Stability Booklet: – general arrangement and detail plans, containing information on the location of control rooms; watertight and weathertight doors and hatches; windows, sidescuttles and any other openings, particularly down-
1. Sufficient stability of the production unit has to be demonstrated for all operating and emergency conditions as described in Section 3. In the stability calculations it is usually assumed that the unit is floating free, without restraints from mooring lines or
Section 6 - Subdivision, Stability, Freeboard
risers. While such restraints will normally have a stabilizing effect, any possible negative influences, e.g. due to asymmetrical/incomplete mooring and riser arrangements, shall be carefully considered. 2. The intact stability criteria of IMO Intact Stability Code shall generally be observed. For semisubmersible units, see also the IMO Code for Mobile Offshore Drilling Units, and Rules for Specific Type of Units and Equipment, Volume 3, Section 3. 3. Particularly regarding wind heeling moments and icing, reference is made to the regulations mentioned above. Wind forces may be calculated according to the indications given in Section 3, B. and D. The wind heeling moment curve is to be determined for a sufficient number of heeling angles up to an angle beyond the "second intercept" (crossing point) with the righting moment curve. Wind tunnel tests may be required/recommended in particular cases. 4. For all operating and emergency conditions, the effect of free liquid surfaces in tanks and containments shall be accounted for in the stability calculations. The principle that the number of tanks with partial filling should be kept at a minimum should always be observed. The tanks/containments which may be filled only partially during normal operations,and those for which partial filling is not allowed for extreme environment conditions or during transit and/or installation operations, shall be clearly stated in the Stability Booklet and Operations Manual. 5. Any anticipated lifting operations using the unit’s own facilities shall be accounted for in the stability calculations, where relevant. 6. Inclining Test: An inclining test is to be carried out with the unit as near to completion as possible, in order to determine/check the center(s) of gravity assumed in the calculations. The results shall be recorded in the Stability Booklet, and the necessary corrections made. E. Subdivision; Damage Stability
2. For ship-type units including storage facilities, considered as new buildings whose delivered on or after 6 July 1996 the double - hull requirements according to Regulation 19, Annex I, MARPOL73/78(IMO) have to be observed. Exemptions regarding a double bottom requirement may be considered for units which will not be able to leave the location with oil storage and fuel tanks (partially) filled. 3. In the damaged/flooded condition, considering increased draught, heel and trim, and the heeling effect of wind with a (sustained) speed of 25,8 m/s (50 knots) blowing from any direction, the resulting waterline shall still remain below any opening through which progressive flooding may occur. 4. Any means provided to counter act heeling, e.g. shifting of water ballast, may not be taken into account when determining the final waterline mentioned above. 5. All structures mounted on deck shall be designed to withstand the maximum angles of inclination of the unit in the damaged condition. See also Section 4, C. 6. Damage assumptions
6.1 Any one compartment adjacent to the sea shall be considered damaged to the following extent: – – – depth of damage (penetration): 1,5 m vertical extent: From the base line upwards to the uppermost continuous deck. horizontal extent (along hull): Full length of compartment, minimum 3 m. (i.e., in case of bulkheads placed closer than 3 m, two compartments will be considered flooded).
6.2 All piping, ducts etc., within the extent defined above are to be considered damaged. Effective/positive means of closure are to be provided to preclude flooding of other compartments. 6.3 For column-stabilized (semi-submersible) units, see also Rules mentioned in A.3. for details regarding damage assumptions, means to ensure watertight integrity, and ballast system.
1. The unit shall have a freeboard and shall be subdivided in such a way as to ensure sufficient buoyancy and stability to sustain flooding of compartments as defined in the applicable regulations. As a minimum requirement, the 1-compartment status is to be achieved (see 6. below).
either – under all predictable weather/environment conditions. A turret configuration. etc. to which it is connected by articulated elements. local (environment) conditions including water depth. micro-wave. if provided. see above. including particulars on foundations and soil characteristics where sea-bed based structures are provided Regarding certification of a separate mooring structure.Anchoring/Positioning Systems A 7-1 Section 7 Anchoring/Positioning Systems A.Section 7 . anchors.g.g. (Usual means of positioning for semi. and type of vessel or unit: – Spread Mooring. 4. definitions.). allowing non restricted rotation as above. is usually combined with a spread anchor line mooring. The following means of keeping the unit on the determined position within defined tolerances/deviations may be used.submersible units). E. Types of positioning 3.. Turret Mooring: Combination of spread and single point mooring. see also Section 1. Buoyant mooring structures may in turn be anchored by a spread lines system.): – for units kept on position by a spread anchor line system: "Positioning by Spread Catenary Mooring" (CM) for units connected to a separate.. – – – – drawings and structural calculations of auxiliary mooring installations (see above) and connecting elements (yokes. strain measurement or other suitable methods. a turret-like structure integrated into the hull of the unit. which ensure(s) station keeping in a safe and controlled manner. 1. The floating production unit is to be provided with an anchoring/positioning system. e.m. depending on owner’s/operator’s preference. anchoring/mooring hawsers. etc. specification of equipment (chains. Approval documents – The following documents are to be submitted for approval: – overall/general description and arrangement of the positioning system. The mooring is usually arranged at the bow (ship. an arrangement of chains/anchor lines and anchors evenly distributed to provide restoring forces practically equal for any direction or displacement. with yoke): "Positioning by Single Point Mooring" (SPM) 1 for units kept on position by a turret installation forming part of the unit's structure: "Positioning by Turret Mooring" (TM) For units kept on position by thrusters/propellers and a position control and reference system: "Dynamic Positioning" (DP) – – 2. or within defined sea-state limits. allowing the unit to rotate (‘weather-vane’) around a fixed or buoyant structure. 1 . windlasses. General Definitions and Requirements above. Single Point Mooring. i. Dynamic Positioning: Keeping the unit on position by means of thrusters/propellers and a position control and correction system based on hydro-accoustic. A.or barge-type units). including auxiliary fixed or buoyant structures/installations. anchored mooring installation (single point mooring. Dynamic positioning may be used alone or assisting anchoring systems as mentioned – – Note: The notations given above are somewhat ambiguous: There are designs not correctly described by the a.e. The turret supports the anchor lines and riser system. Class Notations The following Class Notations (examples) will be assigned in case of the unit being subject to a classification procedure (see Section 1. (This requires the possibility of detachment/separation of both the anchoring lines and the riser systems from the unit).5. e.). or a combination of systems.
and incorporated in the Operation Manual. where dynamic positioning is to be provided. 2.g. 4. components and related calculations of an (active) turret turning installation. These measurements should be supplemented by and correlated with a position monitoring system for the unit (e.installations are stationed nearby. C.). For anchor chains. Fabrication is generally to be carried out under BKI surveillance.3 For mooring systems of floating production units. monitoring of the forces in representative mooring lines is recommended. materials. see Rules for – Specific Type of Units and Equipment. Results of model tests. where a reliable assessment of environment conditions is not possible or regular surveys cannot be guaranteed. System specification and procedures for disconnection and re-connection. 1. Under unfavorable conditions. Specification. or certificates considered equivalent in particular cases. All components of the anchoring/positioning system shall comply with the corresponding BKI Rules (see Section 5) and be supplied with BKI certificates. for loading/unloading terminals. 3. Steel wire and ropes: See also C. control of corrosion and wear. See also Section 2. Volume 2. where applicable. 2. Function tests will have to be carried out under BKI surveillance. e. shall be applied in case of larger. by strain measurement. subject to approval by BKI in case of classification. C – 6. see the relevant material-and fabrication-related instructions given in the Rules for Materials.. For power supply. satellite reference navigation system).3.2 Corrosion protection and/or regular surveys are to be combined in a maintenance procedure. e. and 17.). and – – – – the product transfer facilities (hoses. lay-out and detailed description of the system(s).1 For installations complying with all rule and classification requirements regarding design calculations (mooring system analysis). mooring operations of attending vessels will not be impaired. For auxiliary mooring structures not forming part of the unit. fixed installations. Section 12 to 15 Lower grade chain shall not be employed in permanent mooring lines. 2.3. particularly in cases where other . and previous documentation/certification will . B. etc. including power supply. etc. anchors and related equipment. For existing installations to be used again. particularly of elements prone to corrosion and abrasion. The arrangement of the anchoring system shall be such that – – interference with the risers is precluded. Volume V and in the Rules for Seagoing Ships or for Offshore Installations. where provided.1 The anchoring system should be designed having in mind also the possibility of/need for inspection and repair.7-2 – Section 7 . 2.1 may be used. if provided (see F. Inspection/monitoring and maintenance B. Fabrication be reviewed. the safety factors should be increased. C. the safety factors γa shown in Table 7. propulsion machinery and electrical installations in connection with positioning. 3. G. as indicated under the individual headings below.. Anchor lines Volume 3.1).g. For all load conditions investigated also the case “one line failed/missing” shall be calculated (see Table 7. in case of disconnectable riser and anchoring elements (see Section 3. General arrangement. Catenary Mooring Systems (CM) – Design Considerations and Requirements 1. a thorough condition survey will be conducted by BKI. Volume V.fixed or mobile . see the Rules for Mooring and Loading Installations.). not endangered. the Rules for Structures. 5. control/monitoring and measuring (position reference) systems. Materials.Anchoring/Positioning Systems Analysis of the displacements of the unit and forces exerted on the anchoring/positioning elements under all possible environment and operational conditions.g. Section 5 – Materials.. 3. 2.
. will be included in the approval procedure upon special agreement.are to be presented for approval.. actuators. For synthetic fiber ropes. a minimum value of 2 is recommended. below = minimum breaking load/maximum calculated force in anchor line) (γ a 3.2 In anchor lines consisting of different components.high holding capacity anchors . relevant test results and investigations shall be presented for information. in relation to the seafloor properties prevailing at the anchoring site. etc.5 times the breaking load of the attached anchor line. 5. The elasticity of the rope material shall be taken into account in the calculations of the anchoring system. Volume 3. Section 5. G.4 For ("active") turret turning installations.4. proving the values aimed at with a view to the soil conditions to be expected at the installation site.hoists.1 4. to be agreed upon with BKI. i. 4. G. Safe release must be possible under a load equal to the line load and under all predictable angles of application of the load.7 1. the long-term mechanical and chemical resistance/adequacy shall be proven. 5. See Rules for Specific Type of Units and Equipment.3 In cases where disconnection of the riser and anchoring systems is provided (see Section 3. . details of the necessary equipment .g. including. The test load should correspond to the maximum load resulting from the mooring analysis (see 6. The actual anchor points have to be monitored and documented during installation.4 All mooring lines shall be subjected to a load test after installation. Anchor points 5. stoppers.1 is recommended for the connecting elements. Section 7. buoyancy aids and the related control equipment. Section 8.4 Dynamic Analysis 1.5 For the pull-out safety. 3. holding capacity divided by maximum (calculated) anchor line force.3 Steel wire or fiber rope used for anchoring lines shall be of special make. see F below. 4. and Rules for Machinery Installations Volume 4. where practicable.7 Load testing after installation: See 3. shall be designed in accordance with good shipbuilding practice and dimensioned in relation to the breaking strength of the anchor lines. piles or gravity-type anchors. except for a ‘weak link’ incorporated intentionally in particular cases. e.g. The exposure to the test load shall be long enough to make sure that the anchor has settled. the analysis of the system shall prove that under all loading conditions only horizontal forces will occur at the anchoring points.2 The accuracy of positioning of the anchors shall be established in the design procedure. depending on anchor type and soil conditions.3 See 6. and 17. 3. 5.4 Where anchors are provided which are not capable of resisting vertical (lifting) forces. fairleads.2 Quick-release connections shall be of a proven design and are to be tested in presence of a BKI Surveyor. The safety factor may have to be adjusted. depending on length of anchor line.Section 7 . C. see Rules for Structures.. water depth etc. Auxiliary equipment Quasi .Static Analysis 2. 4. but should be covered by the submitted documentation at least for information. 4. An additional safety factor of 1. Steel wire should not be used in portions of the anchor line subject to varying contact with the sea bottom (abrasion/corrosion). This also applies to clump weights and buoys incorporated in the anchor line to influence its restoring characteristics. 4. See also Section 13.3 For anchors of special design . chain).Anchoring/Positioning Systems Safety factors γa Method of Analysis 1 Case All lines intact One line missing 1 C 7-3 Table 7.1 Anchor and anchor line handling equipment.0 1. Failure shall not occur under loads less than 1.e. 4.tests will be required.1 Evidence shall be provided of the adequacy and the holding capacity of the anchor type selected. 5.C. .. all connecting elements shall be designed and tested for at least the same ultimate load as the main component (e. 4.6 For anchoring elements suitable for vertical traction loads.).e. such as windlasses and winches.). The parts of the anchoring system remaining on location. i. storing facilities. A proof load equal to the maximum dynamic (design) load should be applied for at least 15 minutes. Volume 2.
Regarding allowed direction of line pull at the anchoring points. wind and current coefficients documented in "Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs.2 The number of cases investigated must be sufficient to identify maximum forces in the anchor lines and connecting elements. applied to the investigation of the positioning system.3 The load condition "Extreme environmental loads" (see Section 3.4.2 The anchoring system should be designed in – – – – 6. with associated waves and currents. fully loaded unit). sway. 6.1. 6. consisting of the moored unit and all anchoring elements contributing to the restriction of motions/displacements (excursions). shall usually include two cases: – – 100 year return period waves. it suffices to account for only the vertical and horizontal fairlead motions in the plane of the mooring line catenary. and any other situations considered as critical. quasi-static analysis methods should be applied only in the early stages of mooring design as approximation.). considering – different load conditions and load cases as defined in Section 3. Note: Steady forces due to wind and current can be computed analytically or obtained from model tests (see 6. can be used. Additional wind forces due to the presence of process and other equipment can be significant and must be separately determined. a sufficient number of sea states and wind/wave/current directions (see below). Wave forces acting on a floating vessel positioned by catenary mooring comprise the following three components: – – – first-order forces at wave frequencies second-order forces at frequencies lower than wave frequencies steady component of the second-order force. including possible variations of draught (empty. the dynamic wave loads are accounted for by statically offsetting the vessel by an appropriately defined wave induced dislocation.Anchoring/Positioning Systems C 6.1 and 6. The time-varying fairlead motions are calculated from the vessel's surge. the so-called mean drift force. Note: In a quasi-static analysis. Loads induced by vertical fairlead motions and the dynamics of the mooring system itself are neglected. both quasi-static and dynamic approaches are generally used. pitch and yaw motions. – – – – To take account of the forces mentioned above. ballast. Specifically. However. 6. constraints imposed by the riser system as well as any other subsea equipment to be installed. A dynamic mooring analysis for a ship-shaped production unit must account for the dominant effect of low -frequency motions. For tanker based production units. or riser damage/failure under load conditions where production continues. the analysis needs to consider the following aspects: – coupled motion equations for surge. The effect of sea swell may have to be considered. attending vessels moored to the unit. C. A dynamic analysis accounts for the dynamic response of the mooring system itself. see C.1 Cases to be considered such a way that a failure of any single anchor line will not cause progressive failure of the remaining lines.3 Motion analysis methods 6. with associated wind and currents 100 year wind.1. (See also Section 3. " public domain data compiled by OCIMF. D.4 The safety factors to be used for dimensioning of the mooring line components are given in Table 7. and a dynamic analysis method is generally necessary for final design confirmation and for the fatigue assessment. C.2 below). above.7-4 Section 7 . sway and yaw adequate formulation of slowly varying wave drift forces low-frequency damping mooring line dynamics riser effects. has to be carried out. . see 4. 6. the case one anchor line failed or not installed (see 3.1. Time-varying effects due to mooring line inertia and damping are included.).6). Generally.1. Motion and strength analysis of the anchoring system 6.3. roll. The method(s) used in the particular case shall be specified in the approval documentation. heave.. to predict mooring line response.1 A 3-dimensional analysis of the system.
and experience gained. Note: Due to the non-redundant configuration.1 Thrusters used as a means of position keeping. SALM (Single Anchor Leg Mooring)). D. special investigations may be necessary. where relevant: – environment and hydrodynamic forces acting on both. the system integrity depends on the performance of every single element in the mooring force transmission line. B. due to buoyancy changes friction effects (articulations). based on the load history derived from the calculations mentioned above.5 and 6. Detail design and maintenance/inspections are therefore still more important than in the case of conventional spread mooring. together with a semi-automatic or automatic positioncontrol and -correction system. For the transfer and installation phase. Section 8. 1. Single Point Mooring Systems (SPM) 3.. For single point mooring systems (e. the maximum forces occurring in the system elements as well as the force variation needed for a fatigue analysis. For buoyant structures forming part of the SPM mooring.1 Articulated connections shall be designed with a view to maintenance. 5. as far as possible. 7.6 Model tests may be incorporated in the design procedure to supplement or confirm data previously obtained by calculation (e.2 Materials for contact surfaces shall be carefully selected with a view to corrosion and abrasion properties. different calculation methods (frequency domain. 2.Section 7 . if the tests are carried out in an acknowledged laboratory.6 are applicable in principle.7 Special consideration may be given to an arrangement where the anchoring system is used in conjunction with thrusters to maintain the unit on position (see E. time domain) and mathematical models (varying degree of simplification) may be used. For SPM mooring systems the requirements/statements of C. 5. wind tunnel testing). and. 6. – – 4.. and evidence is provided of the validity of the modeling assumptions and the accuracy of measurements and data evaluation. Local hydrodynamic loads (slamming) may have to be accounted for in the structural design. 6.3 Safety factors for design contact pressure and allowances for motion range limitation will be considered from case to case. 6. Volume 2. See also Rules for Structures. E 7-5 6. generally a fatigue investigation will be required. should provide a level of safety/reliability at least equivalent to that inherent in conventional mooring equipment. The method(s) and model(s) used shall be agreed upon with BKI.5.g.2. taking account of the environment conditions to be expected (limiting conditions). e.1.Anchoring/Positioning Systems D. For fatigue analysis. 6. model towing basin experiments.. . The results of such tests may be accepted by BKI as part of the design documentation. E. and the maximum excursions and rotational movements (in articulations. 1.g. Dynamic Positioning (DP) General indications – – – Depending on the configuration of the system and on the state of design progress (preliminary to final). 5. Dimensioning of the anchoring elements will be considered from case to case. taking account of the following influences/effects. See also Rules for Mooring and Loading Installations.6.5 Fatigue analysis: For the important load bearing components of the mooring system. The calculation model used for the final design shall be suitable for revealing : – the maximum forces occurring in the system elements as well as the force variation needed for a fatigue analysis. swivels .control of admissible relative movements). a dynamic analysis is required. inspection and repair. 5. Articulations 1. see Section 4.).g. Lubrication should be reliable and automatic. the moored unit and the SPM structure 1 interactions between the structures involved (eventually including flexible connecting elements) non-linear effects. damage cases (one/two compartments flooded) will generally have to be investigated.
some general requirements are listed and indications given. risers) the distance and kind of structures/installations in the vicinity other – – functional block diagrams of the control system(s).Anchoring/Positioning Systems E (response analysis). type. environment conditions. thruster characteristics. 1. in first line. functional block diagrams of the position reference system(s) and the environmental sensor(s). i. See 1. 3.1 Dynamic positioning installations complying with the Rules may be assigned one of the following Notations (additions) to the Character of Class of the vessel or unit: Class Notation DP1 Class Notation DP2 Class Notation DP3 2. Measuring and sensor system The following documents shall be presented to BKI for approval: – general description of the system configuration and characteristics. and to thruster action – – 3.5 Control station: All essential data/information about position/heading of the unit. as described under C.6 Documents for approval 2. arranged at a suitable location overlooking the operations and surroundings of the unit. response of the unit to environment influences. For details regarding equipment components and failure suppositions see the Rules mentioned under 1.3 Definitions: A dynamic positioning system is usually composed of the following main subsystems: – – – – measuring and sensor system (environment.: – – – the type and purpose of the unit the environmental conditions and water depth at the operations site the motion restrictions imposed by elements connecting the unit with the sea bottom (i.1.e. its operation. etc. this restriction will be clearly indicated in the certification or classification documents.6... – proof of the unit's ability of maintaining position after specific single failures. sensor and reference systems. control consoles.Section 7 . control panels. 7-6 – – – – – the consequences of system failure or malfunction. 1. drawings and descriptions of monitoring functions of control. in addition to the Rules mentioned.. shall be displayed in a separate control station. drawings showing the electrical power supply of all units and the internal power distribution. 1. status of thrusters.2 The arrangement and design of the dynamic Section 2. maintenance. DP 1 meaning the lowest. see Rules for Dynamic Positioning Systems. including general arrangement drawings.1 above.A.2 The Class Notations corresponding to DP1 to DP3 are associated with different failure modes and degrees of redundancy. position and motion reference) control system (evaluation information. In the following. safety checks. wiring diagrams. list of equipment identifying manufacturer. type approval number etc. e. functioning/status of measuring equipment and alarms. of the Rules mentioned under 1. alarms and contingencies in case of component failure or malfunction shall be contained in a special DP Operation Manual. 2.e. positioning system shall take into consideration. For details about dynamic positioning systems.g. location of control station.7 Detailed information on the positioning system.1 Definition: The installations/devices referred to under this heading comprise the following items: . and DP3 the highest grade of sophistication. thruster activation) of sensor – propulsion system (position adjustment) power generation 1.4 As a dynamic positioning system is designed to suit a particular unit at a defined location. Class Notation 1.
) See Rules mentioned under 1. indicating at regular intervals the position of the unit in relation to fixed reference points on the sea. beacons) and/or land based reference stations (radar). Sections 4. Sections 5 and 6.Section 7 . a combination of different measuring methods is used for position reference. shall be confirmed by trials (see 7). the system must be capable of controlling the availability/functioning of all components and automatically switching/passing on functions and duties to other (stand by) components in case of failure. – See also Rules for Electrical Installations. data transmission lines. 3.4 For control/safety systems in general. 5.)..5 Power supply of the control system: See 6. Volume 4. Propulsion system 5. for Machinery and for Electrical Installations. Furthermore. Section 9.3 Systematic investigations such as failure mode and effects analysis should be carried out to determine the viability and reliability of different possible/contemplated system concepts. Suitability for the particular ocean environment shall be proven. thrusters (azimuthing unit with gear.4 The data transmission frequency of position reference measurements shall be sufficient to ensure the reliable functioning of the control system. 3. to ensure an acceptable level of redundancy and reliability. 4. DGPS will usually be incorporated in a position reference system. depending on type of unit environmental forces: Wind speed sensors and in particular cases.Anchoring/Positioning Systems – position reference/measuring system. 3. fixed/variable pitch. heave). strain measurement) may be used additionally measuring devices continuously indicating the heading of the unit (usually. piping) shall generally conform to the relevant BKI Rules (Rules for Materials. and deriving there from suitable input for the activation of the thrusters. 5. Volume III. pitch. 3. gyrocompass) continuous recording of water depth inclination and accelerations measuring devices (roll. taut wire. Volume 5. 6). Acoustic measuring systems shall be designed/ adjusted so that interference with noise/signals from other sources on the unit or neighboring installations will not impair the reliability/operability of the DP system.1 Definition: Depending on the type of unit. Section 11. see also Section 8 and Rules for Electrical Installations.1 above. usually ducted.1 Definition: The control system is meant to be a computer or array of computers and interfaces. convergent manner. the power supply of the latter shall be completely independent. Control system – – – – 4. See also Section 13. essential for the reliability and efficient of a DP system. D.1 Measuring devices and sensors for which offshore operation experience is proven will generally not be required to be certified by BKI. . rule applicability 3.3. E 7-7 fully independent (power supply. V..6 Where the system design requires redundancy of sensors and/or measuring devices.g. 4.3. electrical and hydraulic components of measuring and sensor installations shall comply with Rules for Materials. these must be 5. However. Rules for Machinery Installations. couplings.2 Propulsion unit components (propellers. Where the degree of redundancy chosen provides for a second (back-up) control system. all equipment forming part of the DP system shall be included in the function testing procedure of the whole system (see 7. as far as applicable. Section 9. water velocity (currents) sensors. sometimes retractable). This capability. etc. for ship type units. or Rules for Machinery Installations. 3.2 Mechanical. and the Rules mentioned under 1. or satellites. 3. 4.3 Certification. also transversely arranged tunnel). The corresponding investigation for the concept finally chosen shall be part of the approval documentation. above.g.2 Generally. surpassing of allowed range limits. mechanical systems (e. For operations far from land (radar) stations. Vol.5 – – Alarms shall be provided to indicate malfunctioning or breakdown of any single measuring device or sensor.2 The implied functions of determining the unit's actual position and calculating the forces and moments necessary to restore the desired position shall be performed by the computer programs in a stable. 4. gears. capable of storing and processing the information received from the measuring/sensor system. 4. together with programs. Volume 5.1. the propulsion may in principle be effected by – fixed propellers (free or ducted.floor (e.
5.particularly acoustic systems . particularly Sections 3 and 4).5 The propulsion and power supply systems are additionally subject to the test procedures prescribed by . design and hydrodynamic configuration of the propulsion equipment shall be such that disturbance of the position monitoring (measuring) devices . which may be divided into dockside and on-location testing. or according to an approved test plan.1 above.3 A "Power Management" scheme should be set up to determine. trials 7.2 Testing of sub-systems shall be carried out before installation on board.is minimized. The trials program.1 The electrical power needed for the positioning system may be provided by the general power generation system of the unit.3 Any apparatus/device forming part of the DP system installed on board in such a way that it can be affected by vibrations may have to be subjected to a relevant investigation and test.5 Redundancy: Regarding availability and redundancy requirements for power supply. supply system (battery. Standard components may be exempted.3 Where a dynamic positioning installation is provided as a sole means for station-keeping. 6. Offshore Installations: Volume 5. reference is made to the relevant BKI Rules (Seagoing Ships: Volume IV. The control mode actually in operation shall be indicated on a separate thruster control panel in the control station(s). depending on the Class Notation. emergency 6. This applies also to computers and software. 6.4 Thruster/propulsion control shall generally be possible manually as well as incorporated in the computer-based control system (see above).1 Hardware components of the DP system shall be tested before being installed. under normal and under emergency conditions (local selection and limitation).2 Regarding general design and safety requirements. according to an approved trials plan/program. Component and system failures considered in the design procedure are part of the simulation program. 7. above). i . 6. or by a separate system. 7. 5. The following requirements are valid for both cases. Acceptance criteria shall be established and agreed upon. either according to the BKI Rules where they are applicable. e.6 The arrangement. 7. 5. Section 3.7 Special provisions shall be made for propellers forming part of the positioning systems. 5. the necessary number of generators running. – power distribution between positioning system and other users/power needs on board.5 The possibility of correcting the heading and position of the unit by the combined action of propellers and rudders will generally not be considered as an option within the dynamic positioning concept. See also Section 15.Anchoring/Positioning Systems E 5. Testing. it shall be possible to maintain the position and heading of the unit within the predetermined limits also after failure of any one of the thrusters. power-related input to the control system (see 4. – – – 6.7-8 Section 7 . 6.4 In case of a power supply breakdown. – – – – the total amount of power needed in extreme conditions. Power generation/supply emergency generator). 7. shall include verification/testing of the following: – – functioning of the measuring/sensor systems reaction of the control system(s) to specific signals received from the measuring system functioning of alarms and status signals functioning of automatic switch-over and substitution procedures/actions (failures of equipment to be simulated) functioning of all relevant information flow between the control system(s) and the thrusters/propellers position keeping ability of the system after any single failure associated with the assigned Class Notation. including reaction to component failure/breakdown.4 Trials upon completion and installation on board shall be carried out in presence of a BKI Surveyor. if testing in a satisfactory manner is incorporated in the production process. the control system shall automatically be supplied by an 7. which are also intended for propulsion during transit operations. by simulation of real operating conditions.. depending on environment conditions. as far as practicable. see Rules mentioned under 1.
For tests and surveys.Anchoring/Positioning Systems F 7-9 the BKI Rules for Seagoing Ships. Note: This decision may have to be made at a relatively late stage of design. . etc.Section 7 . bearing configuration. such as turret diameter. according to an approved test plan. as far as they are not covered by the trials program mentioned above. considering also stiffness requirements/tolerable deformations. 3. see also Rules for Dynamic Positioning Systems mentioned under 1. The activation of the drives and control of the relative heading shall be effected from the bridge and/or central control station. power supply. cabling. Offshore Installations: Volume 4 and 5). it must be decided during the design procedure whether an active turning installation (drives) must be provided to ensure the required heading ("weathervaning") capability of the FPSO unit.5. 4. C.) shall generally correspond to the requirements of the applicable BKI Rules (Seagoing Ships: Volume III and IV.2. and/or to acknowledged standards and codes.1. 5. Structural design Local forces exerted by the drives shall be taken account of in the structural design of the turret and the adjacent structures of the unit.Active Heading Control General design considerations Mechanical and electrical installation Where positioning is effected using a turret installation. System details shall be submitted for approval. Testing of the turning installation and control instrumentation is to be carried out under BKI supervision. 2. 1. environment forces acting on the unit. tolerances of riser system. The machinery components and electrical installation (drive units. See Section 4. F. as it depends on a number of factors. Turret . gears.
5.1 For all materials used for structures and equipment of lifting appliances subject to certification. dynamical effects resulting from ship motions. Volume 3. Section 4. are generally to be ascertained according to the operating conditions defined in Section 3. machinery equipment.Lifting Appliances 8 -1 Section 8 Lifting Appliances 1. changes of vertical centre of gravity) on the stability of a floating unit shall be taken into account in the stability investigations (see Section 6). loads exerted by lifting appliances on the structure are part of the design documentation to be submitted for approval of the supporting structural parts of the unit. hoists (e.2 In any case. regardless of whether the lifting appliance is included in the certification or not.1 above. for lifting appliances special limitations may have to be imposed in relation to sea state/motions of the unit and wind characteristics. Volume VI in any case.Section 8 . 2. see Rules for Specific Type of Units and Equipment. material selection.g. the correct functioning of which may be relevant for the safety of personnel and operations on board. Volume V.1 For definition of loads and for principles and requirements regarding strength calculations. e. will usually be included in the certification/classification procedure. Material and welding 2.. Winches serving the anchoring installation are dealt with in Section 7. 4. shall generally be applied. . Load definitions and strength calculations 3. including their driving/activating machinery and power supply.g.D. 5. load test) in presence of a BKI Surveyor before being put into service. 3. subject to agreement with the competent Administration. for riser installation). Further periodical tests (and surveys) and tests following repairs or conversions will be defined depending on supervision of the unit in service (classification procedure) by BKI. Such appliances may be – – – cranes. – lifts. Application/Scope 3. Volume 3. rigging and instrumentation. Stability All lifting appliances. However. For details see the Rules for Specific Type of Units and Equipment. 6. the Rules for Materials. 2.2 Materials of structural parts connected with the structure of the production unit by welding are subject to Rules for Welding. Exceptions and special agreements for standard components are possible as stated in the Rule mentioned under 3. approval may be based on the specification and complete documentation of the components. Approval documents Possible influences of lifting operations (heeling moments. strength calculations. 5.2 E n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u en c e s o n t h e l o a d s . including information on rated loads. derricks.1 Documents are to be submitted for approval as stated in Section 1. Tests and examinations on site Lifting appliances subject to certification / classification shall be tested (function test. Where standardized equipment is to be used. Any limitations and instructions for lifting operations shall be clearly stated in the Operating Manual(s).
).2 On production units which cannot turn into the wind. In detail. easy access by personnel.1 On offshore production units capable of weather-vaning. The system must be capable of supplying to the points of discharge 6 l/min of foaming agent for at least 5 minutes per each square meter within a circle of diameter D (D is the distance in meters across the main rotor and tail rotor in a fore and aft line of a helicopter with a single main rotor and across both rotors for a tandem rotor helicopter). relevant national regulations applicable for the location shall be observed (see 1. prevailing wind direction.) 4.4.Helicopter Landing Facilities 9-1 Section 9 Helicopter Landing Facilities 1. CAP 437). see 1. 1. below. B. the helicopter landing area should be arranged considering – – greatest possible distance from hazardous areas. 2. and to the UK Guidance on relevant standards (e. structural fire protection requirements must be observed.2 Helicopter decks arranged directly on top of a super-structure shall correspond to an "A60" Class division (see Section 11.1. access 1.3). 2. depending on type/motion characteristics of the unit and environment conditions limiting helicopter service. See also 4. 4.3 Where helidecks are located above accommodation quarters.3 Means for a safe drainage of spilled fuel shall be provided (see 6. marking.1 Helicopter decks and their supporting structure shall be made of steel or of equivalent fire resistant construction.Section 9 . semi-submersible offshore units with spread mooring. on ship-type units this usually means a helideck structure on top or to the bow of the accommodation super structure. Allocation of the helideck 4. lighting and safety equipment. Construction material: See 4. . Scope. to the "Memorandum of Understanding" between ICAO and IMO.3 Regarding safety of helicopter operations.g. one of the extinguishers being able to reach the engine area of a helicopter using the platform.g. situated as far apart as possible. Fire-fighting/-extinguishing equipment shall be provided in accordance with the regulations of the competent Administration.4 The helicopter deck shall have at least two points of access/escape routes. 4. Fire protection. It is recommended to provide a space with free air circulation between the helideck and the top of the deckhouse serving as living area. – – 2. the helicopter landing area shall be located as far as possible upwind. clearances and approach conditions. Fire-fighting equipment 2.. and particularly regarding size. A suitable foam application system consisting of monitors or branch pipes. 4. e.1 This guideline provides some general safety oriented indications related to helicopter landing facilities. and the BKI Rules stated there. The operation of the foam system is not to interfere with the simultaneous operation of the fire main. CAA/JAA. 1). 5. – CO2 extinguishers of a total capacity of not less than 18 kg. and for the landing impact (dynamical) loads considered possible. attention is drawn to the standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). C. Structure See Section 4.. greatest possible distance from approach obstacles (observing existing regulations. The following indications may serve as guidance: – – Dry powder extinguishers with a total capacity of not less than 45 kg.2. 1.2 The helicopter landing area shall be designed for the largest helicopter type expected to serve the production unit. general indications 3.
Fuel storage Fire resistant material.Helicopter Landing Facilities – At least two dual purpose nozzles and hoses sufficient to reach any part of the helicopter deck. 6. special attention is to be given to – design of the tank for its intended purpose. 6. 6.1 The fuel storage areas should be as remote as practicable from accommodation spaces. Fuel pumping units should incorporate a device which will prevent over-pressure in the delivery or filling hose. – 6. e. 6. electrical bonding. regarding fire-extinguishing arrangements for the fuel storage area.7 Where portable fuel storage tanks are used.g.3 Tanks and associated equipment are to be protected against physical damage and from a fire in an adjacent space or area. 6.9-2 Section 9 . 6. At least one fireman’s outfit. mounting and securing arrangements.2 Containment of fuel spillage and draining to a safe location is to be provided for.5 The fuel pumping unit is to be connected to one tank at a time. and suitably isolated from areas containing a source of ignition. . inspection procedure. as short as possible and protected against damage.4 Storage tank fuel outlet valves are to permit closure from a remote position. and the piping between the tank and the pumping unit is to be of steel or equivalent. 6. – – – 6.8 Additional requirements of the competent Administration. may have to be observed.6 Electrical fuel pumping units and associated control equipment are to be of a type suitable for the location and potential hazard. escape routes and embarkation areas.
Lifts should not be considered as forming one of the required means of escape.. Means of Escape/Refuge B. SOLAS 1974. Details regarding. on each side of the unit (on ship. Reference shall be made to the – IMO Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units ("MODU CODE"). Chapter III.). in addition.saving Launching Appliances. 7. first aid facilities and survival equipment – will be determined in the particular case.1 Section 10 Life Saving Appliances and Equipment/Means of Escape A. for which certification/classification by BKI has been agreed. Volume 5. Access to and location of the helideck: See Section 9. Section 3.Life Saving Appliances and Equipment/Means of Escape A. Areas or groups of spaces which are regularly occupied.Section 10 . 5.2 For production units. and will possibly have to be agreed upon with the competent Administration. – – 1.3 The following indications may serve as a guidance where no other regulations are applicable or available. IMO Life-saving Appliances Code BKI Regulations for Life . – – – – structural fire protection. complying with the applicable regulations (see above). 6. 8. A temporary refuge (shelter) room or several such rooms may be required in particular cases. Dead-end corridors of more than 7 m in length are not allowed. 1. . venting/air supply.type units. 3. e. Stairways and ladders shall be so arranged as to provide ready means of escape to the lifeboat and life raft embarkation deck. and in two locations reasonably apart on other units) of such aggregate capacity as to accommodate all persons on the unit. and accommodation spaces. must have two separate escape routes.g. 2. – 4. communications. upon owner’s request. D. rigid or inflatable life raft(s) of such aggregate capacity as will accommodate the total number of persons on board. Life-saving appliances If not stated otherwise by the competent Administration. 1. life-saving appliances may be included in the certification.1 Life-saving appliances and equipment shall comply with the relevant applicable international and/or national regulations and shall be suitable for the type and use of the offshore unit. B 10 .2. Lifeboat embarkation stations and the access routes to them must be sufficiently protected to withstand a fire long enough to enable the crew to abandon the platform or unit. each manned unit should be provided with at least the following life-saving appliances: – one rigid totally enclosed motor-propelled survival craft. depending on the assessment of risks and possibilities of escape. 1. Escape ways and embarkation areas shall be sufficiently illuminated. Life-saving Appliances and Equipment General 1. 2. Lighting shall be automatically switched to the emergency source of power (see Rules for Electrical Installations.
Approval.2). taking into account the forces from the above appliances. the supporting structure in way of the launching devices. – – 3.2 The inspection of the life-saving appliances and their launching devices with regards to their proper condition and functioning may be carried out within the scope of the periodical (classification) surveys upon special request (see 1. is subjected to approval and certification/classification. 3. 3.1 Generally.2 above). and as far as practicable on all open decks extending to the sides.2 – Section 10 . and. surveys However. . in addition. spare lifejackets for 5 % of that number. the dimensioning and testing of survival craft with their launching devices and of other life-saving appliances are not part of the certification/classification procedure (see 1. tests.10 .Life Saving Appliances and Equipment/Means of Escape B One rescue boat (a lifeboat may be accepted as a rescue boat provided it also complies with the applicable requirements rescue boats). at least eight lifebuoys so distributed as to be readily available on all sides of the installation. lifejackets of an approved type for all persons usually present on board of the unit.
Definitions 3. if this cannot be avoided.. and to separate these areas as efficiently as possible. the Area Classification influences the general arrangement of the installations on board. 2. sufficient separation of Hazardous and Non-hazardous Areas is to be provided.2 In the vertical direction.1 Hazardous Areas are areas in which flammable. 1. are normally present or may be present under normal operating conditions. Other related codes are applicable.Section 11 . 3.1 Due to the nature and properties of the substances handled on board of offshore production and storage units.. separation of the areas mentioned. Zone 2 in which an ignitable gas/air mixture is not likely to occur.1. in order to achieve an acceptably low risk level (e. but where natural ventilation is not ensured.1.2. accommodation spaces should not be arranged above storage tanks classified as Hazardous Areas or.2. areas where a dangerous concentration of substances as described above must not be expected under normal operating conditions.1 For the purpose of selection and installation of machinery and electrical equipment Hazardous Areas are divided into Zones as follows: Zone 0 in which an ignitable gas/air mixture is continuously present. Outdoor locations are areas where natural ventilation is not impeded.1. Zone 1 in which an ignitable gas/air mixture is likely to occur. 3. shall be accomplished as efficiently as possible.1 Depending on the type of unit. 1. particularly gas/air mixtures. in living quarters). below) fire-fighting and rescue equipment (see D. it will only exist for a short time. 2. etc. ventilation ducts.) quantity.Fire Safety A 11 . where this possibility does not exist.2 Regarding Control and requirements. and provided only with the absolutely necessary openings. the risk of explosion and/or fire exists.e. and if it occurs. It is. On units. and Section 8) ventilation (see 4. the principle should be observed that Hazardous Areas are arranged downwind from Non-hazardous Areas. e. 1. or considered to be present for long periods. See also B. such as doors. to provide measures such as ventilation and/or pressurising. Partially enclosed locations are spaces which are not closed on all sides or not closed completely. to a varying degree. pressure and substance(s) released environmental conditions method of ventilation temperature . In such areas. in various locations of the unit.2 The following aspects for the determination of Hazardous Areas have to be additionally considered – – – – physical properties substances of the ignitable of 2. i. also in areas classified as "non-hazardous".g. explosive or toxic substances. decks etc. This area classification is based on normal operating conditions.2 Non-hazardous Areas are all areas not considered hazardous.1 Section 11 Fire Safety A . For units capable of "weather-vaning".1 Area Classification/Ventilation General remarks Scope Due to the confined space available. separation by a ventilated space shall be provided. it may be necessary. necessary to define Hazardous Areas and Non-hazardous Areas ("Area Classification").1 Area classification Definitions/principles 1.1. 1. 1. 1.2 General arrangement Instrumentation Enclosed spaces are closed rooms confined by walls/bulk-heads. and of the air supply to the related spaces. windows.3 Degree of enclosure 2. therefore. 3. see also Section 16.g. special measures are to be taken. such as – – – explosion-proof equipment (see E.
crude oil and gas producing and treating facilities. locations within 1.2 3. depending on environment conditions.1 Except for compelling operational reasons. ducts or similar structures in locationswhich otherwise would be classed as nonhazardous areas.1. but where the arrangement is such that dispersion of gas is not ensured.1 Access openings Hazardous Areas.2 A spherical space surrounding an escape or vent gas outlet has to be defined as a Zone 0 area. 3. Zone 0 pits.5. enclosed and partially enclosed spaces which contain a possible source of release. + safety valves or other outlets possibly releasing gas. such as pumps and compressors handling crude oil and gas.3. and + access openings to Zone 1 spaces.4 m above the deck. Where such access doors or other openings are provided.g.5 Connections between different zones of Hazardous Areas 3. – outdoor locations within 1. outdoor locations within 3 m from ventilation outlets and from detachable crude oil or gas pipes where leakage may occur (if such locations are not classed Zone 1. Zone 1 3.4 Personnel safety with respect to toxic substances (e. 3.3 As the boundaries of areas often cannot be definitely stated to cover all possible situations.5 m from vent outlets of crude oil tanks and slop tanks.4 having a direct access to any Zone 1 or Zone 2 location becomes the same Zone as that location. often depends on the judgement of prevailing conditions and on the equipment/installations provided.2 An enclosed space with direct access to any Zone 1 location can be considered as Zone 2 if – – the access is fitted with a gas-tight door opening into the Zone 2 space. e. Zone 1 include – – tanks and cofferdams adjacent to crude oil or slop tanks. taking into account also the requirements of the competent Administration..1. + ventilation outlets of Zone 1 spaces. – – – 3. e.5 m from the outdoor areas listed as third and fourth under 3. 3.5 m from + release sources as mentioned above. Zone 0 include the internal spaces of closed tanks and pipes (including escape gas outlet pipes).4Hazardous Areas. each individual case has to be considered under the aspect of sound engineering practice. ducts or similar structures in locations which otherwise would be classed Zone 2.11 . and loss of ventilation is alarmed at a manned station. outdoor or partially enclosed locations within 1.g. properties and quantity of the released substances as well as environmental factors have to be taken into consideration. It may be seen from the following examples that classification.3 Hazardous Areas. the area classification may be specially considered. 3. ventilation arrangement. enclosed spaces and partially enclosed locations which contain detachable sections of crude oil or gas pipes. H2S) is to be considered separately.5.1 – – – Hazardous Areas.2.1. pits. – – Hazardous Areas. any enclosed space not referred to under 3.3 above. with the following exceptions. access doors or other openings shall neither be provided between a Non-hazardous and a Hazardous Area nor between a Zone 2 and a Zone 1 space. Where inerting is used for storage tanks. and ventilation is such that the air flow with the door open is directed from the Zone 2 space into the Zone 1 location. where leakage may occur (if such locations are not classed Zone 1).2 Section 11 . For the determination of the radius of that spherical space the pressure. into Zone 1 or 2.g.5. Zone 2 Hazardous Areas. if gas is released continuously or for extended periods. air locks between a Zone 1 and a Nonhazardous space. but where the arrangement is such so that dispersion of gas is not ensured.Fire Safety – A 3. and any other spaces in which an oil/gas/air mixture is expected to be continuously present or present for long periods.1. 3. Zone 2 include – outdoor locations/deck in the crude oil storage area up to a height of 2. – – .2. The boundaries of the different Zones may be determined in accordance with relevant recognized standards or codes of practice.3 or 3.
4. 4.6 Additionally.2.1. giving special consideration to air consumption by and location of the equipment.1 Attention shall be given to ventilation inlet and outlet locations and air flow in order to minimize the possibility of cross contamination.2. and loss of ventilation overpressure is alarmed at a manned station. 4. The outlet air from Zone 1 and Zone 2 spaces shall be led in separate ducts to outdoor locations. Inlets are to be located in Non-hazardous Areas as high and as far away from any Hazardous Area as practicable. and at least 12 in spaces of Zone 2. 4. A 11 . For ducts.1.1. The internal spaces of such ducts belong to the same Zone as the ventilated space.4. Special consideration shall be given to the location of equipment which may release gas. 4.1. and ventilation is such that the air flow with the door open is directed from the non-hazardous space into the Zone 2 location. supply of fresh air.5. 4. humidity conditions and acceptable levels of noise thermal insulation air filtration provision of standby equipment.2 Ducts: Where the inlet duct passes through a space rated as Hazardous Area it has to have overpressure in relation to the Hazardous Area.3.3. or to proceed with prior purging of . the following aspects shall be considered: – maintaining of suitable temperatures. During start-up or after shut-down it is necessary either to ensure that the internal atmosphere is not hazardous.1 At least 20 air changes per hour have to be achieved in spaces of Zone 1.2 Piping systems shall be designed to preclude direct communication between Hazardous Areas of different zone classifications and between Hazardous and Non-hazardous Areas.Section 11 . 4.4 An enclosed space with direct access to any Zone 1 location is not considered hazardous if – – – the access is fitted with gas-tight self-closing doors forming an air lock.1.3 For control stations alternative and separate means of air supply shall be provided.1. Where in special cases ventilation arrangements of the intended safe space are considered sufficient to prevent any ingress of gas from the Zone 1 location. Adequate discharge of exhaust air under 4. and loss of ventilation is alarmed at a manned station.2 Ducts: Where the inlet duct passes through an area with higher hazard rating. in the absence of the considered outlet.1 Enclosed Hazardous Areas shall be provided with adequate ventilation with under pressure in relation to an adjacent less hazardous space or Zone.6. 4. 3. and to locations where gas may accumulate. 4.4.4 Ventilation for Hazardous Areas is to be completely separate from that used for Non hazardous Areas.5 and B.1. its effectiveness has to be proved. 4.2 The arrangement of ventilation inlet and outlet openings in an enclosed space shall be such that the entire room is effectively ventilated.3 An enclosed space with direct access to any Zone 2 location is not considered hazardous if – the access is fitted with a self-closing gastight door that opens into the non-hazardous location.1 Ventilation General requirements 4. Exceptions may be allowed if the ducts in the Hazardous Area are made gas-tight and are provided with increased wall thicknesses and/or insulation.4 Values of air flow rate and overpressure 4.1. air inlets of the two sources of supply shall be so disposed that the risk of both inlets drawing in smoke or flammable air/gas mixtures simultaneously is minimized.5.3 environmental conditions must be aimed at. 4. and the space has ventilation overpressure in relation to the hazardous space.5 Where natural ventilation is considered sufficient.3. the two self-closing doors forming an air lock may be replaced by a single self-closing gas-tight door which opens into the non-hazardous location and has no hold-back device.1 Enclosed living and working areas are to be maintained under overpressure in relation to adjacent hazardous locations. Ventilation of Hazardous Areas – – – – – 4.3 Ventilation of Non-hazardous Areas 4. is of the same or lesser hazard than the ventilated space. see also 4.5.Fire Safety 3.3 Each air outlet shall be located in an outdoor area which. 4.2 3. it has to have overpressure in relation to this area.
the following is to be observed: . 4. Section 10. In principle.g. In special cases the fire protection arrangements may differ from the regulations of this section.5.4. 1.5 Ducts and shutters Structural Fire Protection General indications 1. "B" and "C" Class divisions as well as the insulation materials.Fire Safety B. Materials 4. ceilings.4 Section 11 . where ‘equivalent material’ means any material which.3 1.6 2. Volume II. Their position shall be clearly and permanently indicated.2 Some principles on structural fire protection.5.1 The hull.).. Additional requirements of the competent Administration may have to be observed. If there is any air consuming equipment inside the pressurized room. and containing details on the planned structural fire protection arrangements as well as information about type. Fire and blast walls: See 5. provided that the protection is considered to be equivalent. an off-switch (actuated from the galley) for the fan. 4. decks.2 Ducts provided for ventilation of accommodation or service spaces and control stations shall generally not pass through working spaces. linings.11 . super structures and mooring structures are to be made of steel (see Section 4 and 5).2 Where mechanical ventilation is provided for overpressure.5. are given below. 1. Generally the necessary volume for purging is estimated as at least five times the internal volume of the room and its associated ducts. The requirements of this IMO convention are applicable in principle. 1. 4. having in mind the risk of fire. 2. See also B. 4. For details see also – – for ship .4. B sufficient duration. In the closed condition fire dampers shall rest firmly and throughout on sealing steel bars and be capable of being arrested. has structural properties equivalent to steel at the end of the applicable fire exposure to the standard fire test (e. Section 22.5 Drawings showing the general arrangement and the intended use of all spaces. Other equivalent material (Aluminium alloy suitably insulated) may be approved in particular cases. Ducts with a sectional area exceeding 750 cm2 and penetrating Class A or B bulkheads and decks are additionally to have fire dampers with melting fuse or plug or other equivalent arrangement. The fire dampers shall close automatically at a temperature above 70°C.5.type units: Rules for Hull.4 Type "A". 4. The ducts have to be protected against corrosion and shall be provided with means for inspection. for offshore installations such as column stabilized units: Rules for Machinery Installations.1 Air ducts have to be made of steel or other equivalent material.25 mbar) with respect to the outer atmosphere shall be maintained at all points inside the space. 1. if power ventilation is provided. aluminium with appropriate insulation).1 The terms and definitions used in the following correspond to those of Chapter II-2 of SOLAS 74. owing to appropriate measures having been taken. or due to insulation provided. Volume 4. and fixed means for extinguishing a fire within the duct.2 Components made from aluminium alloys require special treatment with regard to the mechanical properties of the material in case of temperature increase. 1. a minimum of 25 Pa (0. together with particular requirements for offshore production/storage units. manufacturer and existing type approvals are to be submitted for approval. structural bulkheads. 2.4 The main inlets and outlets of all ventilation systems shall be capable of being closed from outside the area being ventilated. the ventilation flow shall be capable of covering all needs. Each exhaust duct shall be fitted with – – – – a grease trap readily removable for cleaning. Ducts provided for ventilation of working areas shall not pass through accommodation or service spaces and control stations. a fire damper located in the lower end of the duct.3 The exhaust ducts from galleys shall be constructed of "A" Class divisions (see B.6. surface materials and not readily ignitable deck coverings shall be of approved type. by itself.
and for such members required to support "B" Class divisions. ventilation and air-conditioning machinery and similar spaces. any oil-fired boiler or oil fuel units. oil fuel units. or where the fire recording or fire control equipment or the dynamical positioning control system is centralized. pantries containing cooking appliances.3 Accommodation spaces are those used as public spaces. baths. cabins. and similar permanently enclosed spaces.10 Open decks are open deck spaces. 4. In this connection a stairway. 4.1 and 1. drying rooms and laundries. lounges. boilers and other fired process equipment. and isolated pantries containing no cooking appliances. and openings therein. B 11 . the temperature rise limitation specified in a) above applies at the end of half an hour.2 Corridors means corridors and lobbies.1. 4. games and hobbies rooms and similar spaces. b) – – 2. the temperature rise limitation specified in a) above applies at the end of one hour. offices. fire zone(s). lifts and escalators (other than those wholly contained within the machinery spaces) and enclosures thereto. excluding Hazardous Areas.1. Terms and definitions – – For basic definitions in connection with structural fire protection. if any.1. shall be suitably arranged and protected to prevent the spread of fire. trunks to such spaces. 4.1. due to the possible presence of a flammable atmosphere arising from the production operations.1 Structural fire protection requirements Definitions of spaces 4.8 Hazardous Areas are all those areas where. Public spaces are those portions of the accommodation which are used for halls. oil filling stations. 4.4 Stairways are interior stairways.5 Service spaces (low risk) are lockers.Section 11 .5 4. cinemas.5 11 .7 Other machinery spaces are all machinery spaces except those of Category A containing propelling machinery. launching and embarkation areas. lavatories etc. in which no flammable materials are stored.1. which is enclosed only at one level.1.3 Crowns and casings of machinery spaces of category A shall be of steel construction adequately insulated. paint rooms and workshops other than those forming part of the machinery space.. hospitals.Fire Safety B a) The insulation of "A" or "B" Class divisions shall be such that the temperature of the structural core does not rise more than 200 °C above the ambient temperature at any time during the relevant exposure to the standard fire test. "A Class division". generators and major electrical machinery. dining rooms.1.1. See also A. Sanitary facilities which serve a space and with access only from that space shall be considered a portion of the space in which they are located. galleys. lifeboat and liferaft areas and "A" Class divisions. etc. stabilizing. 4. or where a fire extinguishing system serving various locations or a central ballast control station is situated. . the space where the emergency source of power is located is not considered as being a control station. reference is made to the rules and regulations mentioned under 1. store rooms and working spaces in which flammable materials are stored. such as – – – – "non-combustible material". and trunks to such spaces.1 Control stations are those spaces in which the unit's radio or main navigating equipment is located. steam and internal combustion engines. 4. 4. 4. store rooms and working spaces.6 Machinery spaces of Category A are all spaces which contain – internal combustion type machinery used either for main propulsion or other purposes. refrigerating. or where the production control is centralized. 4. 3. "B Class division". 4.1.2 above.1. the use without proper consideration of machinery or electrical equipment may lead to increased fire or explosion hazard. where such machinery has in the aggregate a total power of not less than 375 kW. stanchions and other structural members required to support helidecks as well as lifeboat and liferaft stowage. and "A" and "B" Class divisions to ensure that for such members supporting helidecks. "standard fire test". In the application of this section.11 Sanitary and similar spaces are communal facilities such as showers. above. Special attention shall be given to the insulation of aluminium alloy components of columns. should be regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire door.9 Service spaces (high risk) are lockers..1.
1 Tables 11.2 Application of the tables 4.Fire Safety B 4. 4.2. the minimum fire integrity of bulkheads and decks should be as shown in Tables 11.1 Fire integrity of bulkheads separating adjacent spaces .2. The title of each category is intended to be typical rather than restrictive. corresponding to the definitions given in 4.1 In addition to complying with the specific Provisions for fire integrity of bulkheads and decks in the detailed regulations mentioned under 1.2 apply respectively to the bulkheads and decks separating adjacent spaces as defined under 4.1. and includes entrances and trunks leading to such a space.1 and 11.2. Table 188.8.131.52.1 and 11. 4.2 Fire integrity of bulkheads.2. decks and superstructure boundaries 4.12 Crude oil pump room is a space containing crude oil conveying pumps.6 Section 11 .2. 4.11 . such spaces are classified according to their fire risk: Categories 1 to 12.2 For determining the appropriate fire integrity standards to be applied to divisions between adjacent spaces.1.2.
in exceptional cases. ducts. or for girders.2 Fire integrity of decks separating adjacent spaces B 11 . including any overhanging decks which support such accommodation. Some important principles are stated below. where practicable.3.2 Doors 4.2. should be constructed to "A-60" standard for the whole of the portion which faces the crude oil storage area (and/or the production area.3 Perforations: Where "A" Class divisions are pierced for the passage of electric cables.Section 11 . Doors leading to other spaces.7 4.. arrangements shall be made to ensure that the fire resistance is not impaired.1 The BKI rules mentioned under 1.3.3 Arrangement and type of openings 4. beams or other structural elements. not having direct connection to spaces as listed above.2.2. On the side and top portions the same applies to the boundary plating for a distance of not less than 3 m from the portions mentioned above. BKI may accept equivalent arrangements.3.2 above).1. .2 above are applicable regarding details. 4. etc. provided that the boundaries of the spaces are insulated to "A-60" standard.3. if this.2. 4. 4. is arranged nearby . 4. pipes. depending on the type of unit.2 No doors shall be arranged in or near superstructure boundaries facing the crude oil storage and production areas.4 Exterior boundaries of superstructures and deckhouses enclosing accommodation. trunks.see A.Fire Safety Table 11. if they would provide access to accommodation and service spaces. may be permitted. or to control stations.1 External doors in superstructures and deckhouses should be constructed to "A-0" Class division and be self-closing.
3 Stairways and lift shafts which penetrate more than a single deck should be surrounded by "A" Class divisions and protected by self-closing doors at all levels. also the connecting elements shall be suitably protected against fire. Self-closing doors should not be fitted with hold-back hooks. A.2 Skylights for crude oil pump rooms shall be of steel (without glass panes) and shall be capable of being closed from outside the pump room.6. Navigating bridge windows may be of the opening type. relaxation from this requirement may be permitted provided that – – the ducts are constructed of steel and insulated to "A-60" standard.6 Ventilation ducts 4. should be of the nonopening type. the arrangement of fire or blast walls may be required. For escape ways..2.4 Corridors 4. 5. including the means of securing them when closed.5.2 A fire wall shall in principle be constructed to A-60 standard. on open decks.4 Doors in "A" Class divisions must be capable of being opened and closed from each side of the bulkhead by one person only. 4. 4.1 Stairs shall be constructed of steel or equivalent material. 4.3 For the design and construction of blast walls.2 Personnel lift trunks should be protected by "A" Class divisions.3. Windows and sidescuttles outside Hazardous Areas may be of the opening type. considering. The structure shall be adequate to withstand the environment forces and the inclinations/accelerations to be expected at the particular location on the unit. see Section 10. . and the kind of installations and structures to be protected. 4. Such openings should not be provided in a door in an "A" or "B" Class division forming a stairway enclosure.2 Ducts provided for ventilation of accommodation and service spaces or control stations should not pass through machinery spaces of Category A or Hazardous Areas. – – the "worst case scenario" regarding energy dissipation/occurring pressures.3. a satisfying separation of areas corresponding to different hazard classification or different fire zones cannot be achieved.5. and insulated to "A-60" standard from the machinery space of Category A to a point at least 5 m beyond the fire damper. However. skylights 4.Fire Safety B 4.3.7 5. 4. elevator trunks 5.1 Ducts provided for ventilation of machinery spaces of Category A and Hazardous Areas shall not pass through accommodation and service spaces or control stations.3 Windows. Where continuous "B" Class ceilings and/or linings are fitted on both sides of the bulkhead. the bulkhead may terminate at the continuous ceiling or lining. including doors. etc.8 Section 11 . hold-back arrangements incorporating remote release fittings of the fail-safe type may be utilized. 4. Where the wall is supported by other structures. Such doors and door frames shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material.6.3.e.3 The construction of all doors and frames in Class divisions. with the exception of navigating bridge windows. depending on the applicable Administration regulations. or the ducts are constructed of steel and fitted with an automatic fire damper close to the boundary penetrated. 184.108.40.206 Where.3. shall provide resistance to fire as well as to the passage of smoke and flames.) shall be evaluated.5 Stairways. 4. Stairways which penetrate only a single deck shall be protected at least at one level by "A" or "B" Class divisions and self-closing doors so as to limit the rapid spread of fire from one deck to another. nature of explosion source. the particular situation (geometrical configuration. 4. 4. Fire and blast walls Corridor bulkheads. However. 4. However. as far as practicable.1 Windows and sidescuttles. provided the design of such windows would permit rapid closure. should be "A" or "B" Class divisions extending from deck to deck. equivalent to that of the bulkheads in which the doors are situated.3. i. Doors of cabins and public spaces in such bulkheads may have a louvre in the lower half.11 . sidescuttles. or where an improved protection of important escape ways is considered necessary. relaxation from this requirement may be permitted provided tile ducts are constructed of steel and an automatic fire damper is fitted close to the boundaries penetrated. such as a superstructure or deckhouse.3. Fire protection of helidecks: See Section 9. 5.
on open deck areas.2 For areas provided with automatic pressure water spray systems. 2. separate alarm loops have also to be provided. and D. electrical switch gear rooms. 2. See also Section 14. flame detectors shall be used where flames are to be expected to give the first indication of fire. i.e.e. 1. must be capable of being adjusted to the local conditions.Section 11 .9 C.2 In the control station the following items shall be provided a) b) means of communication with other stations essential to the safety of the unit. individually or in groups.1 Every offshore installation shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system for all accommodation and service spaces. 2.6 In workshops and spaces in which the smoke detectors may be actuated by normal operations.4 The sensitivity of the detectors.7 Arrangement of detectors and alarm loops 2.1 The fire alarm central console shall be located in a permanently attended space (control station).7. Where there are arrangements for the separate flooding with fire extinguishing media of two or more adjoining spaces.1 Every alarm loop shall not cover more than one fire zone or watertight compartment and.e. the fire alarm and gas alarm central consoles.7. 2. The arrangement of the control station(s) is to be determined from case to case. or as a back-up to flame detectors in high hazard areas. 2. manual means to set off the general. C. corridors.8. C.3 The number of the detectors referred to in 2. including riser and offloading line connections. which is to be clearly distinguishable from other signals. referred to in Section 17. such detectors may be switched off while the work is going on. 2. and the control plans. in hydrocarbon and fuel areas. Control Stations.3 In the Hazardous Areas referred to under A.2 Sufficient manual fire alarm stations shall be fitted at suitable locations throughout the unit. . means of indicating whether fire doors are closed and whether the bulkhead doors are open or closed.1 At least one control station. control rooms. 2. separate alarm loops per section are to be allocated. The detectors must be reactivated automatically after a pre. and at locations from which the fire pumps can be started. Manually actuated alarms may be incorporated in a loop together with automatic alarms. 2. readily visible manually actuated alarms have be provided in addition for escape routes. 2. Depending on the design of the production/ storage unit.8 Fire alarm central console f) 2. A. 2.4 The arrangement and number of detectors have to be such that all Hazardous Areas are covered.. all the necessary arrangements for the emergency shut-off and remote controlled valves.Fire Safety B 11 . a second control station may be required. This applies in particular to control and working spaces. stairways. Fire and Gas Detection Systems 1.2. 2. Control stations b) accommodation. 1. i. only alarm loops of a certified safe type may be used. i.selected time. fire and gas alarms. thermal detectors are to be used where ambient conditions are not suitable for smoke detectors. and Section 18. Fire detection and alarm system c) d) c) d) e) 2. lists and location plans/tables of fire detectors and gas monitoring points.. arrangements for starting the fire pumps referred to in E. for instance by welding work.2 The fire alarm central console shall contain means of operating a visual and audible signal in case of a responding fire detector.8. 2. as far as practicable.5 With respect to their mode of operation the following types of fire detectors have to be provided for the appropriate locations: a) smoke detectors are to be used for clean areas not associated with flammables. not more than one deck or a stairway connecting more than two decks. Flame detection can be used in addition. which is to be permanently manned.7. where applicable.7. shall be provided in the safe area.5 shall not exceed 20 per alarm loop.
g. appropriate automatic safety functions shall be initiated.1 Means shall be provided whereby operational personnel may readily check on the accuracy of gas percentage readings and the response of fire detectors.8. 3. separate dedicated storage rooms are to be provided for eachgas.3 Plans and documents containing details (type. 2.2 Provision shall be made to enable the fixed system to be tested without disruption of the normal routine. Calibration and testing 4. control station). number.4 The system shall be self monitoring.6 A list or location table showing the arrangement of detectors has to be provided in the vicinity of the fire alarm central console. This indication shall remain active until the alarm has been accepted all the central console. 3.2 Where systems of the same type are used in different areas. D.5 The fire alarm central console is to be supplied from two separate power sources.4 The gas alarm central console is to be located in a permanently attended space (e. are to be indicated visually and audibly. 1.1) or for Offshore Installations (Volume 4. all faults such as broken wires or short circuits in an alarm loop. oxygen and other gas cylinders which might be a source of or contribute to a fire. 1.11 .3 The gas and fire detection system shall be designed in such a way that it can be tested without interrupting the normal activities on the unit.9 If two or more fire detectors are actuated simultaneously.2 At least two portable gas monitoring devices are to be provided.2 The detection system shall automatically activate the safety system before the concentration of gases reaches the explosive limit. Special areas are to be provided for the storage of acetylene. . 3. 4. Section 10. see E. location) of the fire fighting equipment are to be submitted to BKI for approval. At a concentration of 20 % of the LEL an audible and visual alarm shall be initiated in the control station. Table 10.e.5. the total quantity of fire-fighting medium to be kept available on board shall be determined from case to case.. 1.8. depending on the connecting piping/transport facilities.1 A fixed automatic flammable gas detection and alarm system is to be provided. and be well ventilated and accessible from safe areas. E 2.1 The kind of fire extinction equipment which may be used in the different typical areas of a floating production/storage unit may be chosen according to the relevant requirements for Seagoing Ships (Volume III. 2. 2. Where two or more cylinders of each gas are intended to be carried in enclosed spaces.2). (For storage of CO2 gas containers.8.10 Section 11 . It is to be so arranged as to monitor continuously all areas where an accumulation of gases may be expected to occur. Change over from the main supply to the emergency source shall be automatic.3. 3. At a maximum of 60 % LEL automatic safety functions shall be activated. loss of voltage. 3 . each individual detector shall be provided with its own visual indication.3 Where it is not ascertainable at the central console which detector has responded. Storage of Gas Bottles 1. and on the evaluation of fire risk in the areas concerned. 3. and be capable of indicating at the control station(s) by audible and visual means the presence and location of an accumulation of gas. It shall be possible to identify the detector giving alarm on the control panel.8.Fire Safety D. i. Gas detection and alarm system 4. 3. Section 12. manufacturer. etc. depending on the type of unit. 3. Gas bottles storage rooms are to be constructed of steel. 3. each capable of accurately measuring a concentration of flammable gas. 2. 2.1 The detection system shall initiate an alarm in the control station before the gas concentration reaches dangerous limits.5 Alarm and automatic safety functions E.3).5. National regulations may have to be observed. Fire-Fighting Installations General indications 1. Table 12.
that at least two water jets not emanating from the same hydrant can reach any point of the unit which would normally be accessible to the crew. 2. 2.2. C.Section 11 . 2.3 With the required fire pumps operating simultaneously. For details. 2. some general requirements are listed. see Rules for Machinery Installations.3. 2. or oil processing facilities and storage areas which 2.7 All practical precautions should be taken to protect the fire main against freezing. 2. One jet may be delivered by a single length of hose and the second by a joint hose length of not more than 30 m.2.2 The pumps. once actuated.6 The fire main shall not have connections other than for fire-fighting purposes.1. At least one of the pumps is to be dedicated to fire fighting duties only.4. hoses and nozzles 2. a pressure water pump used solely for this purpose shall start up automatically before the pressure water tank has been exhausted.1.1 The unit shall be equipped with a sufficient number of strategically located monitors.5.5 In the following. Section 10.4 Fire hoses shall be of an approved type and be sufficient in length to project a jet of water to any of the spaces in which they may be required to be used.4. Each monitor shall be capable of discharging under jet and spray conditions.Fire Safety 2. if proof of their successful and safe use can be furnished. 2.4. in order to have water readily available. as applicable.1 At least two fire pumps driven independently of the main power source have to be provided. Every fire hose shall be provided with a dual purpose .1 Water-based fire-fighting systems Fire pumps Gas or oil processing facilities and storage areas which require water protection may be covered by automatically or manually operated deluge systems and/or monitors. The capacity and number of the monitors is to be sufficient to deliver at least 6 l/m2/min at a nozzle pressure of 5 bar.5 apply. 2. 2. 2.5.3 Fire water pumps shall start automatically when there is a pressure drop in the firewater main. 2.5 Monitors.1. their power supply and the associated pipes and valves are to be so arranged that a fire in any fire zone does not involve the failure of all the fire pumps. of operating automatically and efficiently for 4 hours.5 A changeover arrangement to a fire water main shall be provided.11 1.5.2. the pressure maintained in the fire mains shall be adequate for the safe and efficient operation of all equipment supplied therefrom. 1.5 The fire main shall be provided with isolating valves located so as to permit optimum utilization in the event of physical damage to any part of the main.4 Automatic sprinkler systems 2. 2. C..2 2.3 Deluge systems E 11 .4. hydrants. the requirements as per Section 10.3 The system is normally to be supplied by a pressurized fresh water system. 2.2.4 The fire main is to be routed clear of Hazardous Areas as far as practicable and be arranged in such a manner as to make maximum use of any shielding or physical protection afforded by the structure of the unit.2 The diameter of the fire main and service pipes shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from the required fire pumps operating simultaneously. hose stations and fire hose reels.1 Every normally manned production/storage unit shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system for the accommodation spaces.2. 2. Their maximum length should not exceed 15 m.2.6 Gas-based fire fighting agents other than CO2 may be considered. 2. 2. Where deluge systems are installed.1 of the Rules mentioned in 1. Volume 4.2 Monitors (for water or foam) shall be provided to cover the Hazardous Areas of Zones 1 and 2 in open air areas. 2. 1. 2.4 Testing of fire-fighting equipment and drills should be possible without impairment or interruption of other (normal) operations on board of the unit. – F. capable.4. 2.4 In the event of a pressure drop in the system.3 Hydrants are to be so distributed.2.2 The pressure water tank and sprinkler pump are to be located in a safe area outside the spaces to be protected.1 Fire mains A fixed fire main shall be provided. 2. hydrants.5.
3 CO2 cylinders. The systems must be protected against freezing. for accommodation and service spaces. 3.1. the nozzle size shall be 19 mm.11 . for machinery and exterior locations. Foam or gas based fixed fire-fighting systems 3.12 Section 11 . The expansion ratio of the foam shall not exceed 1000:1. which form the boundaries of such rooms. except accommodations.1. a nozzle size greater than 12 mm need not be used. 3. ducts etc.1.1. 3.1.1 Permanently installed CO2 systems may be used in enclosed spaces.6 l/min per square meter of the total area to be protected 1. Bulkheads and decks.10 Foam hydrants are to be so arranged that any part of the protected area can be reached with at least one foam applicator and hose. Special attention is to be paid to the risk of icing of quick-flooding lines. 3.11 Foam storage tanks. 3.1 Permanently installed foam systems may be used in open air areas. solution to the monitors and foam applicators at a rate which shall be at least the greater of the following quantities.4 The pipes for conveying the gas shall be provided with control valves so marked as to indicate clearly the compartments to which the pipes are led. 3.5.Fire Safety E nozzle and the necessary couplings. which shall as far as practicable be located opposite to each other.4 The foam generator with tanks.2.1. 3. The total of foam applicators available shall not be less than four.1.1. shall be gastight and adequately insulated to prevent an excessive rise in temperature in .12 The operation of the foam system shall not impair the simultaneous use of any water fire fighting installation required by the applicable rules and regulations. and in machinery spaces as well as crude oil pump rooms.2. the system is to be so designed.7.1. 2. 3. Any entrance to storage rooms should preferably be from the open air and in any case shall be independent of the protected space. Under special circumstances the use of larger nozzles may be considered. see also Section 9.8 The supply of foam concentrate is to be sufficient for at least 30 minutes of operation of the system at maximum capacity as specified in 3. associated pressure components and piping shall be approved in respect of materials. The supply of foam solution shall be sufficient to fill completely at least 5 times the largest space to be protected. is to be permanently installed and shall be capable to attain full foam production within 2 minutes after fire alarm.1.1.2 Only approved foam concentrates are to be used.2.5 Nozzles shall comply with the following requirements: – standard nozzle sizes should be 12 mm. that the largest area over which fuel can spread.2. 3. such as the helicopter landing deck.1 Foam systems 3.6 If low expansion foam is used. 3. 3. – 3. If there is no access from the open deck. 3.7 Fixed low-expansion foam systems for use in exterior locations shall be capable of supplying foam 3. 3. (For helidecks.5 l/min per square meter of a circular area with the radius of 75 % of the nominal length of throw of the largest monitor provided. proportioners and controls shall be located in a safe area not likely to be cut off in the event of a fire in a protected area.1. two separate means of access are to be provided.5 The foam generator with equipment is to be placed in a safe area. associated pumps. design and manufacture. but not less than 1250 l/min: a) b) 0. 16 mm and 19 mm or as near thereto as possible. 3. can be covered within 5 minutes with a 150 mm thick layer of foam.9 Foam monitors are to be so arranged that the protected area can be covered from at least two monitors.1. separated from areas to be protected.5 Gas cylinder storage rooms or areas shall be situated at a safe and readily accessible position and be effectively ventilated. 3.). pipe system.2. One foam hydrant is to be arranged at the access to any area to be protected. Access doors shall be gastight and open outward. 4. and together with any necessary fittings and tools be kept ready for use in conspicuous positions near the water service hydrants or connections.2 The system is to be arranged for manual initiation of release only.3 High expansion foam systems for the protection of enclosed spaces are to be so designed that the largest space to be protected can be filled with foam at the rate of at least 1 m depth per minute without allowance for machinery and equipment. The expansion ratio must not exceed 12:1.2 CO2 systems – 3.
4. 5. 3.2. Portable and mobile fire extinguisher Water.2.13 the room.2. Volume 4. See Rules for Machinery Installations. Firemen's outfit The firemen's outfit may be chosen according to the Rules for Machinery Installations. warning signs etc.6 Means shall be provided for automatically giving audible and visual warning of the release of CO2 gas into any space to which personnel normally have access. 3. Section 10. dry powder. D. Volume 4. Any of' the boundaries which are contiguous with the protected space are to be A-60 Class division. Detail requirements may be gathered from Rules for Machinery Installations. Volume 4. Section 10. The regulations of the competent Administration may have to be observed. 3.7 Means shall be provided for stopping all ventilation fans and closing openings serving the protected spaces. . pipe connections. The alarm shall operate for a suitable period before the gas is released. CO2 or foam may be used as extinguishing agents for the portable and mobile fire extinguishers to be provided in accordance with the Rules and possibly with additional National regulations.Section 11 . E. delivery rates.2. before the medium is released.2. Section 10. E.8 For details regarding fittings.Fire Safety E 11 .1.
1 An internal communication system is to be provided between all stations. equipment components may be checked/judged by BKI as to their adequacy and reliability upon special request. B.2 A public address system is required which can be operated from important locations. . In case of failure of the main power supply.1 Section 12 Communications Systems 1. However. at the normal working places and operating locations such as the control station(s). Internal communications 2. For details. are subject to the regulations of the competent National Administration and are generally not covered by the BKI Certification or Classification procedure. the communication system is to be switched automatically to the emergency power supply. rooms and working places. see Rules for Electrical Installations.Section 12 . External communications 1. 1. such as radio and navigation equipment. External communication systems.Communications Systems 12 . The public address system shall be audible throughout the accommodation area. Volume 5. Section 9. including the bridge.
of 1. The installation in Zone 2 of Hazardous Areas may be permitted under defined conditions. For area classification (definition Hazardous/Non-hazardous Areas) see Section 11. Machinery installations used for the production process are dealt with in Section 14. as far as possible. 7. Gas detectors and alarms are generally required. General Indications. Standard equipment produced in series under a certified QA system and/or conforming to an internationally recognized code may be accepted. 4.1 Where internal combustion engines and/or air compressors are to be fuelled by gas from the production process. 5. 4. Section 3. piping etc. B 13-1 Section 13 Machinery A. Offshore Installations: Volume 4. Scope B. Machinery essential for the safety of operations shall be of an approved design and produced by recognized manufacturers operating a certified quality control system. The crank case shall generally be provided with gas detectors. Volume IX may be applied. 4. For details about machinery systems commonly used on ships. Drives for turret turning installation: see Section 7. Seagoing Ships: Volume III. see Section 14. devices and instruments.g. Combustion engines shall be of an approved type. subject to a survey and certification procedure to be agreed from case to case. Air Compressors 1. "Use of Cargo as Fuel" and Rules for Liquefied Gas in Bulk. control and instrumentation: see Section 16. Internal Combustion Engines. For machinery systems aboard mobile offshore units. The arrangement and specifications of the 4. In the following. 2. This section covers machinery items serving as auxiliary equipment on board of production units.5 Suitable measures are to be taken to prevent fuel gas from entering the compressed air starting system and crank case. Documents for approval: See the requirements in the Rules mentioned under A. e.Section 13 – Machinery A. 8. such as column-stabilized units. The documentation shall include information about all safety-related measures. the relevant requirements of the IMO IGC Code. 6. any machinery not serving directly the hydrocarbons production. 4.) shall be presented with the approval documentation (see also E below).4 gas conditioning equipment (compressors. Volume III. compressors should be arranged in Non-hazardous Areas. in this context. 4. 3. Engines using process gas 4. 3. by tests at the manufacturers. depending also on the type of fuel gas used. Chapter 16. . "auxiliary" meaning. F. coolers. Power supply and electrical systems/ installations: see Section 15.2 and 3. adequate for continuous use under the ambient conditions prevailing at the site where the offshore unit is intended to operate. see also Rules for Machinery Installations. the suitability of the engine(s) for operation with the particular type of gas shall be demonstrated.2 In principle. Section 2. see also Rules for Machinery Installations.3 Special arrangements may be necessary to provide adequate ventilation in the engine room. For gas compressors. indications are given regarding important safety principles as well as particular items and conditions relevant for offshore production units. Volume 4. Internal combustion engines and air 2.
For propulsion systems used for positioning of the unit.4 above. Tests/trials shall be carried out under supervision of BKI as indicated in the rules mentioned above. Thermal Fluid Systems. Offshore Installations: Volume 4. Pressure Vessels. 2. 5.e. 3. Where this can not be avoided. Section 14 for rudders. In the following. Volume II. Rules for Inert Gas Systems for Tankers shall be applied (see the Rules for Machinery Installations. see Section 14. For series production equipment special arrangements may be considered. Regarding gas supply. couplings. Volume III. couplings. Volume V. Heat Exchangers 1. Inert Gas System 1. Section 11. Where inert gas is used on board of a production/storage unit. See also Section 11. special precautions will be necessary such as automatic take over of the liquid fuel burner and gas supply shutdown under defined conditions.4. C.g. Section 16. Copper alloys for propellers: See Rules for Materials. C. ASME. and documentation about types of propulsion elements and related equipment. Section 13. Pumps. . 3. Pressure vessels are required to also comply with the applicable statutory requirements of the unit’s country of registration. ISO. including shafting arrangement. or to equivalent. Section 12 Designs according to acknowledged codes may be accepted. E. 2.must be taken. 5. i. Volume III. Documents for approval: Drawings showing the general arrangement of the propulsion and steering installations. such as API. Section 4 . All propulsion machinery and steering systems. Combustion engines and air compressors shall generally be manufactured and tested under supervision of a BKI Surveyor. All pressure vessels. and about manufacturers as well as materials to be used.6 for propellers. the requirements of Section 14 will generally apply. E. pipes carrying flammable or toxic substances shall not be led through areas defined as non-hazardous. F 5.9 E. some general provisions are quoted for easier reference. gears and Rules for Machinery Installation. 2. Propulsion and Steering Systems 1. bearings etc. For design details see Rules for Hull. NACE. Drainage of all piping systems shall be designed to meet the relevant pollution prevention requirements of the National Regulations. see B. Wherever possible. and Rules for Machinery Installation. e. Where pipes belonging to auxiliary systems are connected or may be in connection with piping of the production system(s). Section 7 . including shafting. 4. Piping Systems 1. In case of classification. see also Section 7. systems in which pressures greater or less than atmospheric pressure may exist during their operation. D. Section 15. construction and testing of pressure vessels the following rules and regulations are applicable: Seagoing Ships: Volume III.13-2 Section 13 – Machinery C. arrangement of ventilated ducts . Volume 4. For boilers to be fuelled also with gas from 4. recognized codes/standards. ASTM. for inerting the atmosphere in storage tanks. Pumps and connected piping shall conform to the Rules for Machinery Installations. F. Sections 5 and 6.. SNI. ANSI. D). The system specification will be considered and approved from case to case. For the design. For gas compressors. special precautions . are to be submitted for approval.g. 3.e. Volume III. the Class Notation INERT may be assigned. the production process (dual-fuel boilers). D. Volume 4. are to be of an approved design and to be constructed under supervision of BKI. Boilers. shall be of an approved design and manufactured and tested under supervision of BKI. or to the Rules for Machinery Installations. using materials according to the Rules. See also MARPOL 73/78. 4.
partly filled. it must be possible to maintain positive pressure in the tanks. etc. Hoists On floating oil storage units required to be 3. In normal operation. 4.Section 13 – Machinery G 13-3 Storage tanks: Floating oil storage units of 2. serving the anchoring or mooring system and hydrocarbons or provisions transfer installations are generally subject to the certification procedure.11 The system shall ensure that the gas volume specified in 4. Provision shall. suitable connections for the supply of inert gas shall be provided for double hull spaces. and Rules for Machinery Installations. manufacturer etc. 4.2 The inert gas system shall be capable of supplying a low-oxygen gas or gas mixture in order to achieve an inerted atmosphere in cargo tanks and slop tanks.2 Where such spaces are connected to a permanently fitted inert gas distribution system. 4. however. a sufficient quantity of gas in accordance with 4. of this Guidelines. Documentation about type. a second water seal and check valve) shall be provided to prevent flammable vapors entering the double hull space. when tanks are either full. Winches. (Section 15. Double hull spaces It must be possible to purge empty tanks 4. Volume 4. together with notices about health hazards and safety regulations for the prevention of accidents.1 fitted with inert gas systems. D. hoists. The free area of the vent openings shall be so designed that an exit velocity of at least 20 m/s is maintained if 3 cargo tanks are purged simultaneously.13 instructions for the operation and maintenance of the inert gas system. 4. Volume 3. Section 8. G.4 shall prevent air from flowing into the tanks and shall maintain the oxygen content of the tank atmosphere at less than 8 % by volume.6 Under normal operating conditions. The Operation Manual shall contain 4. . 20. C.).8 The system must be capable of delivering inert gas at a rate of at least 125 % of the total discharge capacity of the cargo pumps.3 Where no permanent distribution system is installed. 3. by other sources. fixed purge pipes arranged such as to take into account the configuration of these spaces shall be fitted. i. 4. Section 5. See also Section 7.7 Gas discharge openings for tank purging must be arranged in suitable locations on deck. Means are to be provided to stabilize the 4. or by any combination of these.10 operation of the system after start-up.5 with inert gas in order to reduce the hydro-carbon content to less than 2% by volume as to ensure subsequent safe ventilation.000 dwt and above and storage units equipped with a tank washing system are to be equipped with a permanently installed inert gas system in accordance with the Rules mentioned in 1. suitable means (e. At other times. 3.C.e. 4. See also Section 18. B. Where necessary. 4.5. 4. be made for ventilating the tanks when access is required. or being filled with inert gas. 4. Windlasses. Windlasses.9 The oxygen content of the inert gas produced shall not exceed 5 % by volume under any operating conditions of the system.1 The room containing the inert gas generating equipment is to be considered as a Category A machinery space. General design requirements 4.6 shall be permanently available.3 Inert gas may be produced by one or more main or auxiliary boilers.g. 3. Details: See Rules for Specific Type of Units and Equipment. by one or more inert gas generators.8 is available during discharge.12 Parts of the inert gas system which come into contact with the corrosive vapors and/or liquids from the inert gases must be resistant to these or are to be protected by suitable coatings. the inert gas system 4. a sufficient number of means for connecting to these spaces shall be provided on the inert gas main. shall be submitted for approval.
location and outfit of control station(s).1 Section 14 Production/Process Facilities A . if provided.3. (See also Section 10 and 11). that systems and equipment used for the production process are suitable for the envisaged marine environment. The foundations/securing of all system components shall be designed taking into account the actual masses and motion characteristics (see 3 above). 3. All safety-related information shall be clearly documented in the Operating Manual and displayed in instruction posters on board. Section 16 and Section 17. Components of the hydrocarbons production installation will usually be chosen according to operator specifications and acknowledged standards. 6. See also Section 11. and be suitable for the envisaged environment and substances to be handled.g. G. See also Section 11. for power/heat 7. 8. shall be carefully considered and agreed upon with BKI.). – – general arrangement. where applicable. The systems mentioned shall particularly include fire and gas detection as well as emergency shut-down procedures. Where this principle can not be adhered to in an optimal way. shall be clearly defined and described in the Operating Manual(s). 2. It shall be demonstrated. i. – – See also Section 11 and 16. Pressurization. fire-fighting and life-saving equipment and any other safety measures shall be described and presented to BKI for approval. safety plans and equipment (escape ways etc. with reference. chemicals) used in the production process. escape ways. C. closures. C.e. See also Section 4. plans and specifications of safety equipment (sensors/detectors. 1. main dimensions and masses. including the following items: – – – – – storage and conveyance of substances (e. C. process flow diagrams. 4. Volume V or equivalent regulations/standards. alarms etc. to the defined load conditions (see Section 3. Approval Documents: Plans/documentation shall be submitted for approval. and Section 16. Co-ordination of information with other control stations. with type designation of components. in addition subject to review & survey by BKI for safety aspects. C. electrical single line diagrams. All means and possibilities leading to shutdown/interruption of the production process. piping and instrumentation diagrams. see Section 17. and ordered/purchased from manufacturers operating an appropriate certified (ISO 9000 or equivalent) quality system.). use of hydrocarbons generation on board. schematic/principal wiring diagrams. by acceptable reference or tests. and any possible cases of emergency shall be presented to BKI for consideration This as well as routine maintenance procedures. For the case of disconnectable risers. or parts of it. including indication of hazard areas. within the classification/certification procedure. 5. General Indications (see Section 3). The production installation shall be comply with Government Regulation. listing of all systems related to production processes. accelerations) to be expected . climatic conditions and motions (inclinations. consideration will be given to alternative protection measures such as the provision of fire rated walls and supporting steelwork/floors..Section 14 – Production/Process Facilities A 14 . All materials used for system components shall correspond to Rules for Materials. process shut-down system(s).). schemes of piping and electrical/electronic connections between systems and components. General Arrangement: Production facilities should be arranged as far as possible separated and "downwind" from accommodation and service areas. Control station: A control station for the central monitoring and control of all production and storage related systems shall be arranged in a nonhazardous area location. as follows.
and to Section 16 shall be observed. 2. – – – – – – For production sub-systems. the general requirements and safety considerations according to A.1.). Volume III and IV or Rules for Offshore Installations. Where accidental ignition can not be completely excluded. National regulations may have to be observed. design appraisal and survey during construction and commissioning. The arrangement and geometrical configuration of vents not normally to be ignited are to be presented for approval. E. and other 5. Flare and Cold Vent Systems – – 1. such as gas separation system dehydration system oil heating system seawater cooling system seawater treatment system seawater injection system coalescer system drainage system. . Heat protection shielding and/or selection of heat-resistant material may be necessary for parts of the flare structure and for adjacent installations. the flare installation shall be placed at the farthest down-wind end.e. designs and manufacture according to internationally acknowledged standards and codes (some of which are listed in the table) will be accepted. Adequate facilities shall be provided for draining and collection of liquids accumulating in the venting system.2 Section 14 . National Regulations have to be observed. followed by periodical surveys of the unit and re-certification have been agreed upon. the design specifications and lists of components and manufacturers shall be submitted to BKI for approval and/or information. Components designed and manufactured according to acknowledged standards and codes will generally be accepted. where applicable. For storage of chemicals (hazardous) products. 3. The flare installation shall be arranged outside of and as distant as possible from Hazardous Areas. which may be carried through using relevant acknowledged oil industry standards (see. (See also Section 13. and routine repairs and maintenance work shall be clearly documented in the log-book or diaries. e. means for flame detection and for extinguishing the flare shall be provided. Generally. 4. B. see Section 18. Major damages shall also be communicated to BKI. C. the flare may have to be placed on a cantilever structure with sufficient outreach. providing the necessary documentation for approval.14 . Rules for Seagoing Ships.2. Where classification by BKI i. See also Section 4. For flares and cold vents. depending on the scope of the agreed certification. Volume 4 and 5 should be observed. 3. In the design. For pumping and piping (sub-)systems. any changes or amendments in the configuration of the system(s) shall be notified to BKI. Flares should be designed according to acknowledged standards.3. C. Regarding admissible radiation levels. See also Section 2. Volume 4. E 9. the Rules mentioned above may be applied (see also A. A heat radiation investigation will generally be required. The predicted motions of the unit shall be taken into account in the structural design. For typical components such as listed in Table 14.6. On offshore units capable of changing the heading ("weather-vaning"). Section 11.3 and Section 7. D.). see also Rules for Machinery Installations. API RP521). Cold Vents 10. G. C. On units not offering this possibility. including those necessary for conveying crude oil to storage tanks. C.Production/Process Facilities B. 2.g. Production Sub-systems and Components 1.
C. Production Sub-systems and Component .
API RP521). C. The flare installation shall be arranged outside of and as distant as possible from Hazardous Areas.6. National Regulations have to be observed. which may be carried through using relevant acknowledged oil industry standards (see. Heat protection shielding and/or selection of heat-resistant material may be necessary for parts of the flare structure and for adjacent installations. see also Rules for Machinery Installations. 9. 7. 8. National regulations may have to be observed. the flare installation shall be placed at the farthest down-wind end. Flare and Cold Vent Systems 6. The predicted motions of the unit shall be taken into account in the structural design. C. Volume 4. On offshore units capable of changing the heading ("weather-vaning"). A heat radiation investigation will generally be required. the flare may have to be placed on a cantilever structure with sufficient outreach. e.B.g. See also Section 4. On units not offering this possibility.3. Section 11. Regarding admissible radiation levels. . For flares and cold vents.3 and Section 7. Flares should be designed according to acknowledged standards.
) API RP521 (RP for Pressure Relieving and Depressur. Code * Boilers Volume III.3 Table 14. Section 8 Volume III. 16 A (Specif. Pipe systems – Volume III.Pet. Ref.and Gas Turb.rf fPet.) ASME.Liquid) API 650 (Weld. for Petrol. and Christmas Tree Equipment) Wellhead equipment – – API Spec.f. Section 12c Volume 4. 1 . Integrally Greared Centrif.. Gen. Steel Weld.) API 672 (Packaged.) API RP14C (RP for Analysis. Plants) BS 2790 (Shell Boilers of Weld Constr. Coupl f. Offsh. Section 7 I Volume III. couplings Heat exchangers Pressure vessels (unfired) Pumps. Scrubbers – – Tanks/vessels (atmospheric) Thermal oil systems Volume III. Standards. Syst. Compr. Serv. f. Section 3 ASME. and Gas Industry Serv. Chem. Codes BKI RULES Component Ships Offshore Units Volume 4.) API 661 (Air Cool.) API 671 (Special Purp. Section 11 Volume 4.Chem. Section 12b API 12F (Shop Weld. Oil Storage) BS 2654 (Vert. and Testing of Basic Surf. Eng.and Gas Serv. Platf. Section 10 Volume III.f. Tanks f. Section IV (Heating Boilers) BS 1113 (Water Tube Steam Gen. Gen. Section 5 – Volume 4. Weld. Section 3 II Volume III.Section 14 – Production/Process Facilities C 14 . Syst. Section 2 Volume III. 37 (Stationary Comb. Section 4 Volume 4. Heat Exch. Chem and Gas Serv) API 619 (Positive Displacement Compressor) Standard.and Gas Serv. f. Air Compr.) NFPA No. Storage of Prod. Pet. Section 7 II Volume 4. Section 12c API 616 (Gas Turb. Pressure Vessel) API 610 (Centr. Section 13 Volume 4. Section 13 Separators.) Volume III.) API 617 (Centrif. for Drill Through Equipment) * National Regulation. Section 9 Volume III. Section 2 Combustion Engines Compressors (Air) Compressors (Gas) Gas/oil firing equipment Gas turbines Gears.1 Production system components/Rules. Section I (Power Boilers) ASME.3) (Pressure Vessel) BS 5500 (Unfired Fus. Section 12a Volume 4. Section VIII (Div. Steel Tanks f. Chem and Gas Industry Serv. Storage Tanks) API Spec. Chem. Section 3 Volume 4.) API 618 (Recipr.Compr. Pumps f. Ref. Design. Section 12d Volume 4. Related API and Other Recognized Code . 6A (Wellhead. Prod. Serv. Section 5 Volume 4. Pet. Install.
Section 13.Section 15 – Electrical Installations A. E. Materials used for electrical equipment shall be adequate for the marine environment and for the specific (e. depending on the type of unit. Electrical installations are to be designed and fabricated according to the Rules for Electrical Installations. B. Section 3. uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Volume 5. see Rules for Electrical Installations. General Indications. Details regarding the emergency power supply will be agreed in the individual case. C. and the Rules for Dynamic Positioning System. will generally be accepted within the plan approval procedure. E.). Main power supply The arrangement for the main power supply shall in principle comply with the Rules for Electrical Installations. Volume 5. 3. For Hazardous Area classification. Documents for approval: Regarding the documents to be submitted for approval. Section 1. C. 1. Additional indications for production units are given in the following.) D. internationally recognized standard. 5. Section 1. capable of operating during an unusual situation. Power Supply 1. Volume IV as far as applicable. corrosive) influences prevailing on board the type of unit in question. C. e. Volume 5.g. IEC publications. D. or according to the Rules for Electrical Installations. For systems that need to be operable after shutdown of process facilities special arrangements may be required. . Volume 5. 2. electrical equipment conforming to an applicable. (Minimum requirements: See Rules for Electrical Installations. arrangements are to be provided for a selective disconnection or shutdown of all equipment that may cause an explosion. Electrical equipment to be installed on board production and/or storage units shall be adequate for the motions and vibrations to be expected under the given site conditions. Electrical Installations/Equipment in Hazardous Areas 1. Dynamic Positioning System See Section 7. Scope B.g. see Section 11. Adequacy may have to be demonstrated by tests. 2. Electrical equipment and wiring installed in Hazardous Areas shall be limited to a minimum necessary for operational purposes. Volume 5. (Exception: Ex-protected electrical equipment. National regulations may have to be observed additionally. 2. In case of exceptional conditions where the explosion hazard may accidentally extend outside the Hazardous Areas. It shall be suitable for the particular Hazardous Area zone and comply with Rules for Electrical Installations. The system plans and calculations listed in the Rules shall include the electrical installation in the production and storage areas.g. Emergency power supply The arrangement for the emergency power supply shall in principle comply with the Rules for Electrical Installations. C. Volume 5. 4. Section 3. Except where specified otherwise in the Rules mentioned above. e. D 15-1 Section 15 Electrical Installations A.
Section 16 – Control and Instrumentation 16-1 Section 16 Control and Instrumentation 1.1). 4. 4. The system may be accepted as a general alarm . 4. see Section 11. The manually operated ESD function should as far as possible be arranged independent of the automatically operated ESD system. actuators and their associated connections and circuits are to be arranged independently of other monitoring control and alarm systems. which in other respect are treated in the different Sections of this Guidelines. (See Section 14. 4. if the safety integrity of unit can not be maintained otherwise. those for remote operation on other units or installations. if applicable − – – − – – – functional design specifications.) 3. earthing layout. process shutdown system. and the Rules referenced there.4 Public address system 4. Scope which an accumulation of flammable gas may be expected to occur. fire and gas detection system (see also Section 11).3 Alarms are to be displayed in such a way that the location and the source of initiation of the ESD or the equipment effecting an ESD can be readily identified at the control station. where applicable. However. loop diagrams.2. a data transfer from the safety related system to an operational system may be accepted on a case to case basis. storage and offloading related systems should be provided in a Nonhazardous Area location.220.127.116.11 Emergency shutdown system (ESD) The following requirements and indications apply to all areas and systems of the unit.3 Process operation system (Distributed Control System. incl. A fixed fire detection system shall be provided in all accommodation and service spaces. process operation systems. P&I diagrams. The control and monitoring includes − – fire and gas detection systems and the emergency shutdown system.1 Devices to initiate automatic shutdown actions depending on an abnormal process situation or the detection of fire/gas should be provided. 4. software design specification. A. C.5 Total shutdown of the whole FPSO should be provided only. 2. Control station A control station for the central monitoring and control of all production.2. software documentation (special agreement between system designer and BKI).4 The ESD system including sensors.1 A fixed gas detection system shall be provided to monitor continuously all enclosed areas of the unit in A public address system is to be installed capable of reaching all operating areas at any time in which personnel may be permanently or occasionally present.2 Initiation of an ESD is to activate audible and visual alarms at main control points. Approval documents 4. DCS) The following documents are to be submitted to BKI for approval. System requirements Gas and fire detection system − – – − Process operation systems shall not interfere with safety related systems (see also 5. For more detailed requirements. 4. 4. Facilities for manual release of the ESD action have to be in-stalled in the control station and at strategic positions.2. Special agreement is necessary in such a case. cause and effect charts. fire extinguishing systems (see also Section 11). 4.
e.) 5. For detail requirements see Rules for Electrical Installations. 5. 5. e.and software may be required in addition to the document approval. System aspects 5. Smaller computer based safety systems may be integrated in one common hardware after detailed examination by BKI.1 All safety related systems should generally be independent from each other and from operational systems. (See also Section 11. see Section 18. C. Installation requirements For high level alarm in crude oil storage tanks. is recommended near safety related electronic equipment. should be investigated for the particular application. A simple EMC test on site. Section 9. an examination of hard. A combination of different systems (e.2 The design should be based on the EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) Directive 89/ 336. a test with local radio. Depending on the safety integrity level of the system.5 Crude oil storage 5. the safety integrity according to an international standard. A separated instrument earthing may be required in addition to the protection earthing of the electrical installation. IEC 61508.5 If computer based systems are provided. 6. Volume 5. .3 All above mentioned safety related systems shall be connected to a monitored UPS. C. fire and gas detection) is to be specially agreed.g. Measures to fulfill the requirements of the standard should be listed and submitted to BKI. This may apply to fire and gas detection systems.4 Alarms are to be displayed in such a way that location and source of initiation can be readily identified at the central control station.g.g. 4.. B. See also Section 12 of this Guidelines.16-2 Section 16 – Control and Instrumentation facility. 5.
combination with lines/cables for other purposes than conveying of produced media (e. below) Leak detection measures Within the approval and certification procedure. corrosion protection. according to the following indications and requirements.2 Where the risers are connected with the production/storage unit through a turret. see also Rules for Subsea Pipelines and Risers. vortex shedding. Regarding materials.) Riser support details Swivels and similar connections with piping on board Tensioning system. umbilicals). Corrosion protection measures. specifications. general arrangement. Approval documentation The documents to be submitted for approval shall include.) Control and shut-down elements and procedures. – – – – 3. where provided Essential data about the media to be conveyed (pressures. 1.e. Regarding flexible pipes.. the safety assessment of the riser system is nevertheless to be carried out in conjunction with the survey of the entire unit and installation. information. Manufacture and Installation of Unbonded Flexible Pipe for Subsea Pipelines and Risers.) Materials and ancillary equipment used Installation procedures Testing and maintenance procedures. The (rigid or flexible) riser(s) . marine growth) may have to be taken into account. BKI will usually recognize as valid design basis national or internationally acknowledged codes and standards such as – API RP 2RD (Design of Risers for Floating Production Systems and Tension Leg Platforms) – API RP 17A (Recommended Practice for Design and Operation of Subsea Production Systems) – API RP 17B (Recommended Practice for Flexible Pipe).Section 17 . Motions) 1.1 Section 17 Riser System A. – – – – – – – . control and monitoring. flow characteristics etc. dimensions.shall be analyzed for stresses and deformations/displacements under the influences of environmental forces and of the motions of the floating unit as described in Section 6 (mooring analysis). Basic Safety Requirements (Strength. B 17 .g. see Section 7..1 The riser system including umbilicals. ESD system (see also Section 14 and 16) Strength and fatigue calculations (details see under B. segmentation. Other BKI rules/regulations 1. calculations etc. Other recognized regulations and codes 4. F.g. if provided. points of connection/disconnection etc. installation and testing. Additional loads (e. see Guidelines for the Design.Riser System A. Where a separate certificate is required in particular cases. pretensioning. will generally be regarded as essential part of the production installation.free span between sea-bed connecting point and connector(s) on board of the production unit . regarding the following items: – Overall system configuration (riser type(s). the fixed portion of the riser system within the turret will be considered as part of the production installation in any case and therefore included in its certification. For active turning (drives) of the turret. temperature.. loads due to installation. welding. i. 2. B. General Indications Classification – Investigation of motions/displacements. including risk of collisions or interference with other structures or elements (see B. and included in the overall certification procedure. A fatigue assessment will generally be required. 1.
4. The air change rate should be 6. D. depending on the type of connections. or to an acknowledged code or standard. Flexible risers or riser sections shall be of a proven design and make. or else their suitability be demonstrated by tests. See also Section 5. such as API RP17B ("Recommended Practice for Flexible Pipe") and API SPEC 17J ("Specification for Unbonded Flexible Pipe”). the combined system is to be investigated regarding possible interactions between risers and turret structure . angles. For disconnect able risers see F below. suitable protective measures must be provided. Where detachment (disconnection) of the risers' lower part from the unit is planned under defined weather conditions (see Section 3. valve or actuator position. Where contact between risers and other lines or components can not be excluded. The investigation may have to cover thermal expansion and buckling phenomena. Shut-off valves shall be arranged at locations of the riser(s) where interruption of flow and possibly disconnection of the line is desired and/or required.2.2 Section 17 . Venting 5. Manufacture and Installation of Unbonded Flexible Pipe for Subsea Pipelines and Risers. E 2. The following details shall be submitted to BKI for information and approval – – – – kind of data to be monitored (tensions. particularly in way of clamps and attachments (coating. Suitable connection/communication shall be established .2. 4. wear: Depending on external contact conditions and on the transported media. The requirements of API RP14C (Recommended Practice for Analysis. C. e. C. will be necessary for material selection and decision on coating/internal liners. The riser system shall be controlled/ monitored from the main control station on the production/storage unit. if arranged in close vicinity. See G. 2.6. the separation procedure shall also be analyzed to ensure that the connecting elements will not be damaged. 7. external (environmental) influences and internal corrosive action. See also Section 11. The analysis of motions/displacements shall ensure that the riser(s) will not come in contact with parts of the mooring system or any other elements belonging to the production unit. and also from the control station. below. including flow characteristics and temperatures. as a minimum. Flexible Risers 1. Special consideration shall be given to the corrosion protection in the splash zone.2 External corrosion protection should be combined for risers and the anchoring system.Riser System C. 3. see also Section 16.see also Section 4. 5. Adequate venting is to be provided where risers pass through closed spaces. Installation and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems for Offshore Production Platforms) or of an equivalent acknowledged standard shall be complied with.1 The riser system is to be suitably protected against corrosion by both. Shut-off valves should be operable from a station near to the location where the risers come on board. abrasion may have to be considered when determining the wall thickness and material quality.) location and types of sensors method(s) and means of data transmission safety/redundancy considerations and logic. D. 6. For surveys/inspection of risers in service. B. – shall be included in this investigation. C.g. 6. 5. The case "one mooring line failed" – see Section 7. Design.). 5. A careful evaluation of the substances to be conveyed. The shut-off system and specification of components shall be presented for approval. Abrasion. E. The current status shall be clearly visible on the control panels. corrosion allowance). Control System 1. fabrication and testing shall conform to the BKI Guidelines for the Design. C. Where the upper part of the riser(s) is fixed in a turret. C.17 . see Section 2. inside of a turret structure. 3. Regarding requirements for control systems and instrumentation. Corrosion protection between control station and bridge control room as regards motions of the unit and relevant operating limits for the riser system (see also Section 7). etc. Design.
Type-tested components may be accepted where proof is furnished regarding comparable applications. the unit is disconnected from the risers and the anchoring system. The pressure-subjected parts of a swivel shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with a recognized pressure vessel code. with power supply from different sources.Section 17 . as well as emptying of tanks/vessels. one of which should be independent from the unit’s main supply net. chains.g.3 Disconnection of risers shall be completed.3 2. The connection elements of the risers with the fixed transfer lines on board (swivels) shall be of proven design. repair and renewal procedures shall be established and laid down in the Operations Manual. sea water (impact) etc. Section 8 and Section 11. where – – normal production and associated operations are interrupted. . Procedures shall be available. modifications in the riser system). 2. anchoring and stabilizing flexible riser lines (buoys/weights. extreme weather conditions. including pressure tests as well as dynamic tests to verify the rotational and bending design capabilities of the connecting element under design pressure conditions. where necessary.e.. 1. remaining connected to the sea bed installation. Additional requirements of the National Regulation have to be observed.1 Apart from – unprecedented – emergency situations there may be foreseen and planned cases/ events (e. the required communications / flow of information. and leaves the location. corrosion risk).g. A testing program shall be set up. 4. Swivels.1. are minimized.riser support platform is provided. placing the riser head(s) in a safe position where the following operations cannot cause damage.) shall in principle conform to the requirements for anchoring equipment (see Section 7). below). G. 5. Disconnectable Riser System Scope. F. D. Leakage control. Note: Where a retractable . maintenance. 1. 1. training schedules and drills. inspection. indicating in an inequivocable way – – – the prescribed sequence of actions/steps. before the disconnection of the unit from the anchoring/positioning system is initiated. The bearings and sealing systems shall be designed for the forces and pressures acting under operating conditions.2 Shut-down of production processes and hydrocarbons flow. and purging of flow lines and risers shall be indicated by suitable measuring and control equipment in the control station(s) and shall be acknowledged before the disconnection procedures are started.g. Standard elements may be used if their satisfactory behavior under similar conditions can be proven. Connectors/swivels serving the transmission of electrical signals shall comply with the general requirements of Section 15. 1. Connectors 1. 6. depending on the scope of certification (see A. the submersion under the sea surface shall be such that wave action and possible sea traffic/ship operations cannot endanger the installation part remaining on the location. Equipment and elements used for supporting.4 The lower part of the riser system. cables etc. C. Due attention shall be paid to the selection of materials (e. and U.). – 3.). the responsibilities of involved personnel.5 Disconnection systems shall be redundant. shall be capable of resisting the extreme environment conditions determined according to the indications in Section 2. Relevant calculations shall be presented for approval. buoy type . G 17 . suitably documented (Operating Manual etc.) (See Section 3. New designs shall undergo a test procedure to be agreed upon (see 5. (See also Rules for Machinery Installations Volume III.Riser System F.. 1.) and introduced. Pressurized swivels shall be arranged/supported such that external loads resulting from connected piping. general requirements 1.
2. and in constant audio-visual contact with the local control station near the connection point. . maintenance 3. 1. and before starting of normal operations. function tests shall be carried out for the disconnecting/connecting systems provided (see 1.4 Section 17 .g.17 . National Regulation should be applied.shall be demonstrated under sea-state conditions worse than those defined as limiting conditions in the Operating Manual (e. to be approved by BKI in case of classification. it is to be ensured that – – clearly defined procedures exist regarding priorities/take-over of operations.3 The operability of the disconnecting system(s) shall be safeguarded by a suitable maintenance and testing schedule.1 For new designs. and the local control station is sufficiently protected against environmental impact (safety of attending personnel). Where an additional possibility of disconnection is provided at this location. 2.5. The test procedure shall be agreed upon in the individual case. for characteristic wave heights one meter higher). apart from the system/plan approval by BKI Head Office. prototype testing will usually be required under conditions representing as realistically as possible the expected on-site conditions. Approval of system(s) and components Function tests.2 The ability of the system to disconnect the risers ..6). showing that the disconnecting arrangement has been used under comparable conditions. G 1. 3. if provided. 2.2 In case of proven systems. evidence/references shall be provided.and possibly the anchoring elements . 3.6 Disconnection should be effected from a central control station or from the bridge.1 Upon installation of the production unit at the location.Riser System 3.
1. Components of the hydrocarbons storage and offloading installation. material selection. in principle. Section 15.3) shall be applied in principle. depending on the decision of the competent Administration.5. as far as applicable. Volume III. to agreement from case to case.2 Crude oil storage tanks. drinking water tanks and from accommodations. 3. Complementary. also to storage and offloading facilities. 4.4.Section 18 . pipe tunnels. Volume III. including suitable access possibilities. are applicable. with the requirements of the Rules for Hull. acknowledged Codes and Standards may be used upon agreement with BKI. by cofferdams.Storage and Offloading Facilities A. shall generally be chosen in compliance with Rules for Machinery Installations. see the Rules mentioned above. For the detail design. General Indications subject. and Rules for Electrical Volume IV. C. double hull spaces and similar spaces. 2. segregation requirements. Section 24.2.1 Tanks used for storage of substances from which flammable gases may evaporate shall be equipped with suitable installations for venting/gas freeing. B 18 . Storage Tanks and Related Spaces General arrangement 4.) the provision of the MARPOL 73/78 convention will generally have to be taken into account. All vents are to be equipped with appropriate flame arrestors. regarding the arrangement of inlet and outlet openings and exhaust velocity: See Rules for Machinery Installations. For crude oil and ballast tanks preference should be given to coating. See also Section 6. .4 Regarding the arrangement of crude oil pump rooms.2 Crude oil pump rooms and ballast pump rooms located in the oil storage area are to be ventilated by mechanically driven extraction fans. For details of the ventilation system. the details being Tank structures shall be provided with adequate means. with due consideration of the motion behavior of the unit in the anchored condition. E. cofferdams. integrated into the structure of the offshore unit. A. Regarding documents for approval. in principle.1 The arrangement of storage tanks is to comply. Venting B. Corrosion protection A suitable corrosion protection system is to be provided for all tank spaces. 1. The arrangement and structural details of storage tanks shall conform to the requirements listed under B. A. Details of the venting installation. control stations and service spaces to be arranged "aft of the cargo tank area" do not apply. dynamical loads. e. The tank structure shall be designed according to the principles listed in Section 4 for ship-type units. 1..1 (Section 24. Structure 1. B. double hull.1 Section 18 Storage and Offloading Facilities A.3 Provision must be made for venting of ballast tanks. however. etc. i. fuel oil tanks and water ballast tanks. See also Section 5. the provision of the Rules mentioned under 1. Volume II. are to be separated from machinery spaces and other spaces with similar risk of ignition. facilitating inspection and maintenance. 1.e. etc. 2. safety measures. Forced ventilation may be required where exhaust ducts from spaces as per 4. except that the prosions requiring accommodation spaces. the provisions under Section 14. 4.3 Regarding pollution prevention considerations (tank sizes.g. Section 15.2 are led through the spaces listed above. the BKI Rules for Seagoing Ship are applicable. Inspection and maintenance 1. 3. 4. Section 15. 5. other than structural.
if any. In case of offloading systems connecting the unit temporarily with a tanker. D. See also Section 5. with possible modifications due to deviations regarding in the general arrangement of spaces.Storage and Offloading Facilities C. 1. Section 15. the system and arrangement will be specially considered regarding safety and reliability aspects such as – – – power supply/cable connections. to critical items/locations (corrosion. Volume III. Materials shall be selected with due regard for the chemical and physical properties of the media to be conveyed.18 . 1. Tank filling level control Crude oil tanks shall be fitted with a level gauging device of an approved type. Tank cleaning equipment See Rules for Machinery Installations. Regarding dimensioning and materials of pipes. Volume IV. for the export risers necessary for connecting with the pipeline the provisions of Section 17 apply in principle. 3.2 Where submerged ("deep well") pumps are used. Accident prevention measures according to the requirements of the competent Administration may have to be observed. above and 10. 4. see C. Fire and explosion prevention See Sections 11 and 15. above is also applicable. F. and the Rules mentioned above. reference is made to Section 11 of the same Rules.7. See also Section 2. and 10. below). which is released when the tank is filled to about 98 % of its volume. and Rules for Electrical Installations. 6. In addition a high level alarm should be provided. to be agreed upon in the individual case. as well as Rules for Machinery. B. Automatic shut-down is to be provided for the case of line failure or loss of pressure in the transfer line. but they shall be capable of enduring any forces and deformations which inevitably ensue due to relative movements between the production unit and the shuttle tanker. Smaller. detached tanks for the storage of special products.2 Section 18 . Volume III. B. B. etc) and checks to be made. 6. for use in the utilities systems. Bilge and ballast systems For the bilge pumping and ballasting installations.g.1 For the crude oil pumping and conveying system. Section 15. additionally. Section 15. D Attention is drawn to the requirements of the ESP scheme ("Enhanced Surveys Procedure") which may be applicable. See also Section 13. Offloading of hydrocarbons treated on board of the production unit may be carried out using a subsea pipeline or (shuttle) tankers. Section 15. For substances requiring a second barrier. Inerting system See Section 13. 2. See also the Rules mentioned above. 3. e. the limiting environment conditions for offloading operations shall be defined and clearly stated in the Operations Manual (see also E. C. B.9. Volume III. Storage Operation Facilities Crude oil pump and piping system 5. of the Rules mentioned under 1.8. the provisions of the Rules for Machinery Installations. of this Guidelines. are generally applicable. the expected relative motions between the units. . E. Offloading Facilities 1. and their foundations/ connection with the structure of the unit shall be capable of resisting the motions and forces occurring at the particular location. It must further be possible to operate (open/close) the valves in the offloading line from a 1. either a double-walled tank or drip trays of sufficient volume shall be provided. 5. B. and safely endure. shall be designed for the maximum pressures and temperatures to be expected. venting/explosion protection of well and ducts. inspection/maintenance procedures. instead of pumps arranged in a pump room. Note: The transfer lines shall not be designed to serve at the same time as mooring connection (see E). reference shall be made. In the former case. Investigations regarding the motions of the units and the loads and deformations/movements of the connecting elements will generally be required. In the Operations Manual. Section 15. wear. 1. For pumping facilities. B. 4. 2. Sections 12 and 15. The offloading system shall be designed and installed so as to allow.
sea. crude oil) Separation from other lines/elements Flow characteristics (velocity.2 The bearings and sealing system shall be designed for the forces and pressures acting under operating conditions. the following considerations may have to be taken into account: – Employment/destination. Possible pressure variations (surge) due to normal operations or in unusual/emergency situations have to be considered when dimensioning the components of the transfer system. and U.Storage and Offloading Facilities control station located near and with unobstructed view at the connection line. schedule / – – 11.3 9. constantly filled. the need for pigging has to be taken into consideration. It must be ensured that offloading is interrupted and the line(s) shut off before disconnecting of the offloading line. Due attention shall be paid to the selection of materials (e. "Buoy Mooring Hose Guide" and "Hose Standards". Swivels and flexible joints 9. abrasion) Insulation and flotation aids Inspection and replacement procedures (see 9. 8.2 Other applicable Codes and Standards may be accepted as a basis for the design and specification of system components from case to case.2 Design/reliability of end connections: Unless favorable experience has been gained with similar hose connections successfully employed in comparable systems. 9.. e. 10..1 Flexible hoses Applicable regulations D 18 . 6.g. regarding forces and pressures acting. The pressure-subjected parts of a swivel shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with a recognized pressure vessel code.2 Design requirements 9. Type-tested components may be – – – – – . E. see C. Pumping operations shall be controllable also from the control station overlooking the offloading installation (see 5. above). 9..2. temperatures prevailing. are to be simulated as realistically as possible. to the OCIMF (Oil Companies International Marine Forum) publications. above. 7. Thermal expansion shall be taken into account in the design of piping and their connections to the structure. Standard elements may be used if their satisfactory behavior under similar conditions can be proven.g.3 Rotating and flexible joints will have to be shop-tested according to a program to be prepared from case to case. 11. regular testing. New designs shall undergo a test procedure to be agreed upon (see 11. 9.1 Flexible hoses used for the offloading operations shall in principle correspond to the requirements outlined in Section 17.) 11. above Temperature conditions (air. Reference is made. instructions shall be contained in the Operations Manual regarding. The design and material selection of such an element require careful evaluation and control. Where the build-up of wax or hydrates cannot be excluded.2.1 Offloading line connections allowing one or more degrees of rotation should be of a proven design.1 For the design and/or selection of hoses used in cargo transfer lines. floating or suspended in air. etc. filled temporarily only Pressure conditions and variations Forces and bending moments.5 below). fully submerged. investigations – including (model) tests – may be required to prove the suitability and fatigue strength of the configuration proposed. 11. – – – maintenance and replacement schedules.1. 9. curvatures imposed (fatigue considerations) – see 3. Section 8. 9. (See also Rules for Machinery Installations. See also the BKI Guidelines for the Design.1.4 For flexible hoses. e. corrosion risk).g.5 Weak Link: A "weak link" concept may be adopted in cases where a defined failure point in the hose line is considered to be justified for safety reasons. 9. Volume III Section 8 and Section 11. storage (while not in use). Manufacture and Installation of Unbonded Flexible Pipe for Subsea Pipelines and Risers and Rules for Mooring and Loading Installations. Pumping facilities For general design requirements.g.1.3 Initial testing of hoses and hose connections is to be carried out in the presence of a BKI Surveyor. The conditions to be expected. e. D. motions/deformations imposed. etc..3 below). 9.Section 18 . temperature.
18 . packaged). National regulations may have to be observed additionally. may have to be applied. Details of the offloading system and arrangements may have to be agreed upon with the competent Administration. 2. on deck. A.) is considered adequate for initial design.g. control of atmospheric conditions. Safety factors may be adjusted. 2. C. 3. depending on the redundancy of the arrangement and its flexibility (e. G 11. E. The IMO/SOLAS Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code.4. Pollution Prevention E. as a measure assisting in the design of leakage control and spillage prevention facilities. according to Section 11. above). The corresponding measures are generally subject to approval. Facilities/compartments used for the storage of chemicals and substances related to the production installation shall be contained in the documentation to be presented for approval (Section 14. The mooring system shall be designed for the maximum loads occurring in load condition 1 (Operating loads – limited environmental loads) according to Section 3. 2. A "Safety Management Plan" should be setup (and will possibly be required by the Administration). Conventional mooring equipment such as hawsers and shackles may be selected according to accepted standards and specifications. concentration measurements.4. Note: Depending on site conditions and production schedules. The statement under F.5 (definition: See Section 7. the requirements regarding ventilation etc. access warnings. 1. 54) should generally be applied. Machinery serving mooring operations. covering also the safety measures related to the offloading operations. A safety factor of 2. Volume 1. Supervision/control of mooring operations shall be possible from the unit's bridge and from a control station located at a suitable place. gas are to be taken depending on the kind of substance and of storage (bulk.4 accepted where proof comparable applications. The MARPOL 73/78 Convention is applicable in principle. Section 1. – – – – Precautions such as coating of tanks/walls and pipes. venting. above applies also to storage and handling of chemicals and similar hazardous substances. Mooring of Attending Vessels 1. the "limiting environmental loads" (sea state) defined for production and for offloading (mooring of attending tankers) may differ. etc. inspection. Where substances used in the production process are conveyed on board by pipes. G.).2. securing/storing of mooring equipment elements while not in use shall be effected so that they safely withstand extreme environmental conditions and associated motions of the production/storage unit.Storage and Offloading Facilities furnished regarding F. is Section 18 . G. repair and renewal procedures shall be established and laid down in the Operations Manual. C. The control station should be identical with that provided for the offloading procedures (see D.).). such as windlasses -– where provided on board of the unit – should be designed with special consideration of the service and maintenance conditions to be expected (see also Section 13. use of compensators). A. Elements provided for fastening/securing or leading mooring lines shall be designed and arranged with due consideration of all the geometrical configurations and the maximum relative motions as well as dynamic forces possibly occurring during offloading operations. . See also Rules for Classification and Survey. 5..2. However. 4. Reg. 3. D.4 Leakage control.g. maintenance.3. e. Strength shall generally be based on the breaking load of the relevant cable (see Section 4. F. 3. It is recommended to carry out an investigation regarding the possibilities and consequences of failures (failure mode analysis). C. Storage and Transport of Chemicals 1.
3. including supply and products transport operations. 1.1 Formal Safety Assessments (FSA) are increasingly being applied to safety and reliability investigations of offshore installations.1 Scope/Application Introductory remarks 1. it is evident that a Classification Society is active in. considering the additional task of checking and auditing management systems (ISM. such as the "Safety Case Concept". to determine whether the management activities of the audited entity comply with planned arrangements. to the whole of a floating production/storage unit. particularly where the existing rules/regulations. The corresponding decision as to the requirements of national Regulations is generally up to the competent Administration. codes and standards. including positioning and riser systems. whether and to which extent the FSA satisfies or substitutes the Rules. guidelines and standards do not adequately cover the installations or components to be certified.2 Safety assessment techniques may be used under the following aspects: – View of the designer: 1.2. agreement with BKI shall be sought. changes). Risk Analysis methods etc.1. and about the relationship / interdependence between FSA and the conventional documentation to be submitted for approval and certification. systems or components of a FPSO. to parts. In case of deviating definitions.1 Audit: A systematic and independent examination. Definitions (In the following. 2. 1. by writing and/or interrogation. It is assumed that users/designers preparing FSAs are acquainted with the terminology – see also 1. To assist designers and their clients in deciding on design alternatives.Formal Safety Assessment A-1 Appendix A Formal Safety Assessment 1. 1.1 FSA may be applied to offshore installations to differing extents. ..) 2. comparative risk and reliability analyses for alternative solutions/arrangements may be valuable. design/preparation phase for major operational changes and conversions (including changes/additions to surrounding structures installations). and authors of this kind of investigations are supposed to be acquainted with handling them. supplementing conventional design procedures based on rules/ regulations. guidelines. introduced in shipping operations). as there is sufficient literature available on this (A change of location and production site is in most cases considered to constitute a fundamental redesign and start of a different unit/installation. 1.3. for example: – to the whole arrangement of structures and installations at an offshore production site. at least with relation to personnel safety. 2 Scope It is the intention of this Appendix to the BKI FPSO Guidelines to inform the designer and/or operator about the role and involvement of BKI in this kind of investigations. definitions will only be given to the extent necessary for the understanding and interpretation of this Appendix.Appendix A .1. personnel safety and reliability of systems and components. 1. It is not intended to present a comprehensive review of FSA techniques. to be certified a new). Some national Administrations even require or strongly recommend the use/application of FSA to certain types of installations.2 FSA may be applied to all phases during the lifetime of an offshore installation. The rules and survey activities/duties of a Classification Society cover both. – – BKI will consider and decide in the particular case. are still scarce or incomplete.3 Application subject. initial service/testing phase (decision on improvements. and prepared to deal with all aspects to which a FSA may be related. even where statistical data on failure rates etc. such as: – – – design phase(s) (including concept/definition phase). – View of the Classification Society: To supplement/assist conventional Rule based certification/classification design assessment procedures. with a view to optimum reliability of systems and processes.
auxiliary machinery instrumentation installations: and control . including inerting. expressed in qualitative or quantitative terms. supply.2 Critical element:Any system. extreme weather conditions). Hazards may be predictable / foreseeable (e. Performance standards are used as a basis for controlling.8 Unit: The floating production/storage unit (vessel. of a system or component. production processes.. explosion.Formal Safety Assessment and whether these arrangements are effective and suitableto achieve the agreed or prescribed objectives. 3. which has been identified as essential to the safety of operations and/or integrity of the unit.4 Hazard.. Risk: The probability. 2. crude oil offloading operations. 2. considered meaningful regarding the safety/integrity of the installation or unit. component failure. sea floor equipment and foundations. Approval by BKI of the application in the particular case should be sought as earlyas possible. riser. etc. Hazardous Situation: A situation or development with potential for an accident causing human injury. etc. wear.6 Performance Standard: A written description or statement. of the performance (capabilities. etc.1 All hazards as well as the "undesired events" which may result therefrom.). units. or damage to the installation/unit or to the environment. lifting. 3. storage operations. equipment. component. are to be identified.).2 Definition of extent/scope The scope of the safety assessment.3 Identification of hazards the whole arrangement of structures. or unpredictable (e.g. including positioning. etc.7 that a defined hazard will develop into an undesired event (accident. control/changes/repair of riser and piping systems. 2. system) to which it refers. etc. 2. Any relation to similar assessments of other parts or systems of theinstallation shall be stated. connection lines. auditing and verification activities during the lifetime of the installation or unit. multiplied by the (quantified) consequences of that event.g. the installation or part of the installation (e.5 Installation: meanings: a) The term is used with two satisfactory performance of all it’s critical elements as defined. Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) operations).).. with possible consequent failure on a larger scale: Loss of stability. 2. fatigue. or malfunction. sudden damage (collision/impact. inspecting. The probability may be related to a specified time interval. 2. structure.3 Failure: Loss of function.A-2 Appendix A . semi-submersible. at a production site.3. such as – well servicing and control (including diver. floatability. serving a defined purpose. or of a person or procedure.2 Hazards and hazardous situations may arise in different fields of activity and operation. i. offloading systems.e. 2. environment. personnel transfer operations..g.3 Hazards and undesired events may also be classified according to their appearance and nature: Structure (hull): – – degradation (corrosion.. in quantitative terms.1 Method of assessment The method of safety assessment used shall be described and/or the standard or code from which it is derived shall be stated. qualification) required/expected of a critical element. etc. or linked to defined conditions. plant. integrity. including mooring of vessels.3. Process. fire. a system or plant located on board an offshore unit. "Risk" is sometimes also defined as the probability that an undesired event will occur. 3.9 Verification: An independent and comprehensive examination of the safety assessments carried out to ensure the safety and integrity of the unit or installation and the – – – – – 3. 3. procedure. shall be clearly defined.3. gas leak). weather). b) 2. Procedures 3. 3.
e. damages due to environmental forces. line damage due to collision.5 Ranking and evaluation of hazards and undesired events 3. BKI reserves the right to cross check findings of operator inspections and recordings by .3 BKI involvement 3. The scope of the assessment will depend on the extent of the deficiencies found.6) shall be defined.definition. it shall be ascertained whether the performance standards are met and may be excepted to be fulfilled throughout the following service period(s).3 to 3. additional or alternative preventive and/or protective systems.5 above. 4. either due to original deficiencies or to deterioration. 4. The results of this analysis are used to make various decisions. shall be evaluated and classified according to their probability (frequency) of occurrence and the probable consequences if the undesired event occurs. incidents/malfunction due to human error or leaks/spillage.3. the failure or malfunction of which is considered to be critical for the safety/integrity of the unit or installation. where unacceptable risks have been identified. If it is evident or suspected that the original design is not satisfactory. BKI will check whether the performance standards of the elements investigated.Appendix A . as defined.e.Formal Safety Assessment A-3 – degradation (as above). i. above). compliance 3.7.7 Performance standards . subject to compliance with the maintenance and inspection arrangements prepared for the unit/installation (see 4).3 above. Maintenance and inspection procedures – 3. 3.1 A formal.5) with the risk analysis. are maintained in a condition satisfying the defined performance standards. it is the duty and responsibility of BKI to ascertain the extent to which the inspection and maintenance provisions of the operator can be accounted for in the scheme of (periodical and extraordinary) surveys carried out by the Classification Society (see Section 14 of these Guidelines).4 Identification of critical elements and failure modes 3.6. quantitative risk analysis/ assessment shall be carried out. a new safety assessment may be required. leading to leaks and fire/explosion/intoxication accidents.1 The operator will be responsible for setting up maintenance plans and inspection procedures to ensure that the unit/installation.4 the "performance standards" (see 2.5.7. 4. and/or to malfunction.6 Risk analysis 4. structure and details management sytems.1 In the case of continuing involvement with the unit. devices or measures. 3. on possible connections/interdependence between the deficient component or system and other systems. based on the information received from the investigations described under 3. 3.2 A relation shall be established between elements identified as critical and the hazards according to 3.2 Within the certification/classification procedure. 3.4. of the safety – – 4. – – 3.1 For the critical elements identified according to 3.4. 3. remedial measures have to be taken.1 The hazards identified as stated above. are in line with the objectives of the applicable rules and provide an equivalent level of safety. 3. including – alternative arrangements or component selection.3 For each critical element the possible failure modes (type/character of failure) shall be identified.. i. taking into account the experience gained during the past service period.2 Where the inspections reveal components or systems that do not fulfill the requirements.1 All elements/components.2 The analysis methods (mathematical models) used and the consequences derived from the analysis shall be clearly stated and are subject to approval by BKI within the certification procedure (see 1.6. in case of classification. and particularly the critical elements referred to under 2 and 3 above.4. falling objects. Comparing the results of the hazards ranking and the acceptance criteria (see 3. shall be identified and systematically listed or grouped according to systems and sub-systems. and the undesired events which may result.
.3. new or additional safety assessments shall generally be carried out. considering the experience gained since the design phase. conversions In case of system changes. 4. ISM) may be part of the tasks conferred to BKI.g.4 Major changes. A combined (joint) inspection/survey 4. major repairs. conversions..3 The auditing and checking of management systems (e. .Formal Safety Assessment inspections of BKI Surveyors.A-4 Appendix A . important additions.2 scheme may be agreed between owner/operator and BKI.3. and the reasons which made the changes necessary or advisable. etc. 4.
and Gas Industry Serv. Leg. for Unbonded Flexible Pipes Page 1 – 2 / 13 – 2 4–4 14 – 2 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 14 – 3 17 – 1 17 – 1 17 – 1 / 17 – 2 17 – 2 17 – 3 13 – 2 1 – 2 / 13 – 2 5–5 Sect. Compressors for General Refinery Services Reciprocal Compressors for General Refinery Services Positive Displacement Compressors Type H Industr. 16A RP 57 RP 2RD RP 17A RP 17B RP 14C SP 17J (gen. and Testing of Basic Surface Systems for Offshore Production Platf.and Abandoment. RP for Design and Operation of Subsea Production Systems RP for Flexible Pipes RP for Analysis. Platf. Design of Risers for Floating Production Systems and Tens.Regulations.. Sect. Design. Workover and Plug.Appendix B . 6A Spec. Integrally Geared Centrif Air Compr.) Title – Drilling and Well Servicing Structures RP for Pressure Relieving and Depressurizing Systems Packaged./Stand./Code API API API API API API API API API API API API API API API API API API API API API ANSI ASME ASME ASME ASTM AWS (gen.) (gen.) (gen. Servicing. for Petrol. Refinery Services Shop Welded Tanks for Oil Storage Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment Specif. Combust. Standards and Codes cited Chapter 6 B-1 Appendix B Regulations. 4E RP 521 672 617 618 619 616 671 661 610 12 F 650 Spec.. for Drill Through Equipment Offshore Well Compl. Oper. Refinery Services Centrifugal Pumps for Gen.) Centrifug. Standards and Codes cited Reg. I (Power Boilers). Install. Spec. Gas Turbines for Refinery Services Special Purpose Couplings for Refinery Services Air Cooled Heat Exchangers for Gen. Chem.) (gen. IV (Heating Boilers) 14 – 3 13 – 2 Structural Welding Code 1–3/5–5 .) (generally) Spec.
A680 . Standards and Codes Reg.B–2 B-2 Appendix B . A647 .) ISO 9000–9003 Title Water Tube Steam Generating Plant Shell Boilers of Welded Construction Vertical Steel Welded Storage Tanks Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels CAP 437 (Offshore Helicopter Landing Areas) EMC Directive 89/336 Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels Hot rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels Page 14–3 14–3 14–3 14–3 9–1 15–2 5–3 5–3 9–1 1–3/15–1 Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety related systems Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units International Convention on Load Lines (1966) Intact stability criteria (1993) MARPOL 73/78.) IEC 61508 IMO-Modu Code IMO-LLC IMO-Res. A689 (17) IMO-ISM Code ISO (gen.Regulations./Code BS 1113 BS 2790 BS 2654 BS 5500 CAA (UK) EMC Dir.) IEC (gen. A741 ) International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and Pollution Prevention 16–2 6–1/6–2/ 10–2 6–1 6–2 3–2 6–2/13–2/ 18–1/18–4/ 13–1 10–2/11–4/ 18–4 10–2 Appendix A 1–3/13–2 Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards 14–1 .Regulations./Stand. 89/336 EN 10025 EN 10113 ICAO (gen. A 749 IMO-MARPOL IMO-IGC Code IMO-SOLAS IMO-Res. Standards and Codes Appendix B . Annex I International Gas Carrier Code International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (1974) + Amendments/Protocols Recommendation on Testing of Life-Saving Appliances (Res.
Regulations./Stand.) OCIMF (Guides) OCIMF (Guides) OCIMF (Guides) Title Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines Page 14 – 3 1–3 Hose Standards. Discharge Hoses for Offshore Moorings Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs Buoy Mooring Hose Guide. 37 OCIMF (gen./Code NFPA No.Appendix B . Hose Standards 5–5 7–4 18 – 3 . Standards and Codes cited B-3 Reg.
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