Individual, Interpersonal, and Group Process Approaches


 Represent attempts to improve individual

performance and people’s working relationships with one another.  Earliest interventions devised in OD  Most Popular

 A set of activities on the part of the consultant that

helps individuals and group members understand, diagnose, and improve their behaviors.
 Interventions are aimed at helping individuals

develop skills, and members of groups assess their interactions and devise more effective ways of working.

 The presence of other people can have significant

effects on our behavior  Under certain conditions people obey the orders of an authority figure to the extent of harming innocent others.  social support and close interpersonal relationships benefit our health and happiness.  Membership of groups can have both positive and negative consequences on the people’s behavior and judgement,depending on the context



handle conflict and address leadership style.  Is a skill .  Done to improve performance  Personal intervention and Involves a one-on-one relation. also improve interpersonal relations. Focuses on skills and capabilities of any organization member  Tries to improve the ability of an individual to set and clarify goals and meet them.

 Is future oriented and action-oriented.  Helps clients to understand that how their behaviors are contributing to the current situation. . Assist in execution of a transition e.g. downsizing.  Address a performance problem  Develop new behavioral skills with leadership development.

the goals. Personal or systemic Personal: e.g. or FIRO-B or DISC Profile or MMPI Systemic : e. Establish the principles of the relationship i.e. . Myers.e.g. Purpose: to get the client move to action. the resources and the compensation  Conduct an assessment i.peers and some others are involved in the process • Coach and client debrief the results : Reviewing on the data and coming to a diagnosis.Briggs type indicator. 360 degree feedback process where the team of the client .

actions that will lead to goal achievement.  Implement the action plan: i. the coach must encourage the client to act on his intentions. and learning opportunities that build knowledge and skill. Also it should include the methods & milestones to monitor progress and evaluate how effective the coaching is. Develop an action plan i.  Assess the results: Assess and then evaluate the actions and then revise goals or terminate the process. .e. after the one-on-one interaction. Skill is required.e.

 Builds capacity in people to lead more effectively.  Increases leadership skill and effectiveness. . Improves personal productivity  Improves quality  Improves working relationships  Leads to job satisfaction.


Computer-Based and Case studies  Largest Practice Area with Growing Importance  Represents an Important Organization Investment Accounting  for about 2% of a company’s payroll five”  Considered as either “the most” Important or “one of the top  Factor in Achieving Competitive Advantage . Oldest Strategy for Organizational Changes  Provide New and Existing Members with Skill  and Knowledge to Perform work  Various Methods of Training targeted are Simulations .  Action Learning.

while the terms Management or Leadership Development is applied when Goal is Organizations Management or Development  For Training to be considered an OD Intervention. it must Focus on Changing the Skills and Knowledge of a group of Organizations Members to Improve their Effectiveness or to Build the capabilities of an Organization Systems. . Training is Typically used when the Goal is the Development of the Workforce.

Performs a Needs Assessment Develop the Objectives and Design of the Training Deliver the Training Evaluate the Training .

Reaction Data tends to Correlate only Weakly with other Measures of Training Effectiveness. however. . Several more Rigorous Assessment. Provide Evidence about Training Effects. the Weakest Measure of Effectiveness. Most of the Evaluation Research Consists of only Reactions . Despite the Prevalence of Training and Development interventions in the Workplace.

. The creation of a relationship that permits the client to perceive. understand. and act on the process events that occur in his internal and external environment in order to improve the situation as defined by the client  Not like a doctor-patient model.

 An approach that helps people and groups help themselves . decision making. Used to assess and improve human processes like communication. interpersonal relations etc.

Access your ignorance Always stay in touch with the current reality Go with the flow Timing is crucial Everything you do is an intervention .Always try to be helpful.

share the problem Be constructively opportunistic with confrontive interventions The client owns the problem & the solution .Everything is information. errors will always occur & are the prime source for learning When in doubt.

Most groups perform little group maintenance: Thus the process consultant comes into picture. The functional roles of group members: 1.Communications: The nature and style of communication. Harmonize and compromise 3. The group should encourage 1 another 2. Consequences of each decision process C. Group problem solving and decision making The process consultant must help the group understand A. Help diagnose which type of decision process will be most effective in a given situation . How it makes decisions B. Set standards and observe.

 Use of leadership and authority: He needs to understand the processes of leadership and how different styles of leadership can help or hinder the functioning of a group . Group Norms: The process consultant can help the group to understand and articulate its own norms and determine whether the norms are helpful or not.make optimum use of its resources and learn from their own experiences.they can now understand which are helpful and then grow realistically. Once he has guided them .

 Individual Interventions  Aimed at helping people better communicate with others  Johari Window • Group Interventions • Aimed at the process. content or structure of the group .

Unknown to Others Known to Others Open Window Hidden Spot Known to Self Unknown Window Blind Spot Unknown to Self .

Create a more positive and supportive working environment (improved working relationship). Alter the staff's perceptions of the characteristics of the work setting 2. . Reverse negative attitudes (alienation) 3.Widely practiced over 40 years & a modest amount of research addresses its effect on improving the ability of groups to accomplish work The findings of this study suggest that process consultation can 1.

facilitating diagnosis of the conflict and its resolution . Activities that focus on interpersonal conflicts within the organization  Interventions help involved parties interact with each other directly.

pay rates and also interpersonal issues like misconceptions and personalities. perceptions among group members and competition for scarce resources. . Can arise due to differences in personality. or task orientation or goal interdependence.  Can arise due to issues like work methods.

CON’S of Conflict:  Prevents people from working together constructively  Destroys task interactions among group members . Conflict enhances motivation and innovation  Leads to greater understanding of views and ideas.

 Used when conflict disrupts task interactions and work relationships in between members 12-30 .

Triggering Event Behavior Triggering Event Behavior Issues Issues Consequences Consequences Episode 2 Episode 1 .

establish communication between two parties •Refocus on sustantative issue •Repair stained relationship • Salvage sunk cost of stalled negotiations • Increase level of negotiator satisfaction 12-32 .OBJECTIVES •Re.

 Prevent the conflict through mandate or separation of the parties  Set limits on the timing and extent of the conflict  Help the parties to cope differently with the conflict  Attempt to eliminate or resolve the basic issues in the conflict .

 Mediation  Arbitration  Third Control  Forth Control .

A Broad range of planned activities That help groups improve the way they accomplish tasks That help members enhance their interpersonal & Problem-solving skills Help members develop a Highlevel of motivation to implement group decisions It also helps groups over-come specific problems •Apathy & General Lack of member Interest •Increasing Complaints within the Group •Low Participation in Meetings •Lack of Innovation & Initiation •Effectiveness of Services & Products •Loss of Productivity •Confusion about Assignments •Hostility/Conflicts among Members •Increasing Complaints from those outside the Group about Quality .

TEAM:Group of Interdependent people sharing Common Purpose Common Work Methods & Hold each other accountable Variables in Teams:Important variable in teams is location – When team members When Members are Geographically Dispersed are in close Proximity: & their interaction is mediated by Information Traditional Team Exists technology: Virtual Team Exists The Nature of Interdependencies varies creating Various types of Teams .

Groups reporting to the same manager Groups involving people with common goals Temporary groups formed to accomplish a specific. one-time task Groups consisting of people whose work roles are interdependent Groups with no formal links but whose collective purpose requires coordination .

 Activities Related to One or More Individuals  Activities Oriented to the Group’s Operations and Behaviors  Activities Affecting the Group’s Relationship with the Rest of the Organization 12-38 .

 Determine the Intervention Target  One or more individuals  A group’s operation and behavior  A group’s relationships with the rest of the organization  Determine the Intervention Orientation  Diagnostic  Developmental .

 Group Operation and Behavior  An inward look by the team at its own performance. behavior and culture for the purpose of improving effectiveness  Group Relationships with the Organization  Understand the group’s role within the organization including interaction. support. and collaboration  Manager’s Role .

TEAM INTERVENTION Intervention Introduction Techniques of Team Building Interventions .

Team Interventions These are Sets of Structured Activities In which selected organizational units Engage in tasks or sequence of task With GOALS of ORGANISATIONAL IMPROVEMENT + INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT .

Techniques of team building  ROLE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE Designed to clarify the role expectations and obligations of team members to improve team effectiveness.))-All these listed on chalkboard and discussed. Steps Involved First Step –Analysis of Focal Role initiated by focal role individual. in India. . its rationale. contribution in achieving organizational goals etc.((its place in organization. Developed by Ishwar Dayal and John Thomas for top managements in New Organizations.

Second Step: This Examines the Focal Role Bearer’s Expectations of others.RAT further…. . What effects his/her own role performance & these are discussed. added to & agreed upon by the group and focal role person. modified. Third Step: The member of the group describe what they want from & expect from the Focal role individual.

 Improving team productivity. .  Making work place more enjoyable.  Develop team leadership skills.IMPORTANCE OF TEAM BUILDING  Improving communication.

12-46 .

 Motivation.  Help in decision making.  Efficiency. .  Division of work.ADVANTAGES OF TEAM BUILDING  Range of options.

 Free riding. .  Opposing views could cause arguments.DIS-ADVANTAGES OF TEAM BUILDING  Difficult to assess the individual performance.  co.ordination cost.

 Put forward in cooperation with team members . .  Be fair. supportive. a vision of what the team is to do. and can make final judgment as needed.  Participating in defining the composition of team.  Help developing a set of principle that will contribute to success.

Positive results across a range of variables.  Provide opportunities for collaboration. .  Inspired a shared vision and purpose.  Increase team motivation and trust.

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