# Plastic Analysis of 1 Continuous Beams

Increasing the applied load until yielding occurs at some locations will result in elastic elastic-plastic plastic defor deformations that will eventually reach a fully plastic condition. Fully plastic condition is defined as one at which a sufficient number of plastic hinges g are formed to transform the structure into a mechanism, i.e., the structure is geometrically t i ll unstable t bl .
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1See pages 142 – 152 in your class notes.

Additional Addi i l loading l di applied li d to the fully plastic structure would lead to collapse. Design g of structures based on the plastic or limit state approach is increasingly used and d accepted t db by various i codes d of f practice, particularly for steel construction Figure 1 shows a construction. typical stress-strain curve for mild steel and the idealized stressstrain response for performing plastic analysis.
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σ σy

rupture
x

idealized

εy Figure 1. Mild Steel StressStrain Curve σy = yield stress εy = yield strain

ε

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2(a)) to yield of the outermost fibers ( (Figs. the cross section i in i this hi state is i defined to be fully plastic. g 2(c) ( ) and (d)) and finally the two yield zones meet (Fig. 4 . 2(e)). 2. Increasing the bending moment results in going from elastic cross section behavior (Fig.ULTIMATE MOMENT Consider the beam shown in Fig.

and (e) Fully plastic . plastic (d) Top and bottom 5 fibers plastic. (b) Elastic. Stress distribution in a symmetrical cross section subjected to a bending moment of increasing magnitude: (a) Cross section.Figure. 2. (c) Top fibers plastic.

and the resultant tension and compression are each equal to σ y A/2 A/2. Since the axial force is zero in this beam case. forming a couple equal to the ultimate plastic moment Mp Mp = 1 σ A (y + y ) y c t 2 (1) 6 . case the neutral axis in the fully plastic condition divides the section into two equal areas.The ultimate moment is determined in terms of the yield stress σ y .

The maximum moment which a section can resist without exceeding the yield stress (defined as the yield moment My) is the smaller of M y = σ y St M y = σ y Sc (2a) (2b) St = tension section modulus (≡ I / ct ) p section Sc = compression modulus ( ≡ I / cc ) 7 .

7 for a solid circular section = 1.17 for I.or Csection 8 .15 – 1.ct = distance from neutral axis to the extreme tension fiber cc = distance from neutral axis to the extreme compression fiber p I = moment of inertia α = Mp/My > 1 = shape factor = 1.5 1 5 for a rectangular section = 1.

Since this structure is statically determinate. 3) is increased until the maximum mid-span id moment t reaches h the th fully plastic moment Mp. a plastic hinge is formed at this section and collapse will occur under any further load increase. the collapse load PC can easil be calc easily calculated lated to gi give e PC = 4M p / L (3) 9 .PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF A SIMPLE BEAM If a load P at the mid-span of a simple beam (Fig.

Simple Beam 10 .P L 2 L (a) Loaded Beam Mp (b) Plastic BMD PC θ θ 2θ Δ (c) Plastic Mechanism Figure 3.

Plastic Hinge Along the Length of the Simple Beam 11 .

The collapse load of the beam can be calculated by equating the external and internal work during a virtual movement of the collapse mechanism (this approach is eq equally all applicable to the collapse analysis of statically indeterminate beams). ) Equating the external virtual work We done by the force PC to the internal virtual work Wi done by the moment Mp at the plastic hinge: 12 .

We = Wi Lθ ⇒ PC = M p (2θ) 2 ⇒ PC = 4M p / L which is identical to the result given in (3). 13 .

Figure 4(b) shows the moment diagram sequence from the yield moment My q L y I M y = σ y S(≡ ) = c 12 2 ⇒ qy = 12 M y L 2 through the fully plastic condition 14 in the beam. .ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF FIXED ENDED BEAM FIXED-ENDED Consider a prismatic fixed-ended beam subjected to a uniform load of intensity q (Fig. 4(a)).

q (a) L Mp (b) My Mp qC My Mp Δ θ θ 2θ (c) Figure 4. Fixed-Fixed Beam 15 .

4(c) and the collapse load is calculated by equating g the external and internal virtual works.e. ⎛ q CL ⎞ Lθ 2⎜ = M p (θ θ+ 2θ θ+ θ) ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 16 M p ⇒ qC = 2 L Sequence of S f Plastic Pl i Hinge Hi Formation: (1) Fixed-end Fi d d supports – maxii mum moment (negative) (2) Mid-span Mid – maximum i positive iti 16 moment . i.The collapse mechanism is shown in Fig Fig.

17 .ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS Next consider N id the h three h span continuous beam shown in Fig. the actual collapse ll load l d is i the th smallest ll t of f the possible mechanism collapse loads. Values of the collapse p load correspondp ing to all possible mechanisms are determined. 5 with each span having a plastic moment capacity of Mp.

Mp = constant A B L L 2 P E L L 3 C P F L D (a) PC1 Δ1 (b) 2θ θ θ PC2 Δ2 (c) θ+β θ β Figure 5. (a) Continuous Beam (b) Mechanism 1 18 (c) Mechanism 2 .

Using the principle of virtual work (We = Wi) for each mechanism leads to Figure 5(b) (Δ1 = Lθ/2): ⎛ Lθ ⎞ PC1 ⎜ ⎟ = M p (θ + 2θ + θ) ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⇒ PC1 = 8M p / L 19 .For this structure. 5(b) and (c). there are two possible collapse mechanisms are shown in Figs.

Figure 5(c) (Δ2 = Lθ/3): ⎛ Lθ ⎞ PC2 ⎜ ⎟ = M p (θ + θ +β) ⎝ 3 ⎠ 2Lβ L θ = Δ2 = 3 3 ⇒ β= θ 2 5M pθ 5 ⎛ Lθ ⎞ ∴ PC2 ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⇒ PC2 = 15M p / 2L 20 .

occurs the part of the beam between A and C is still in the elastic range. d Thus.The smaller of these two values i th is the t true collapse ll l load. Th PC = 7. When collapse occurs. M < Mp A B E C F D Mp -M > -Mp -Mp 21 Collapse BMD .5Mp/L and the corresponding bending moment diagram is shown below.

P L 2 1 qL = P q 2 (a) 2Mp L Mp L PC θ θ Δ1 (b) 2θ qC Δ2 (c) θ L1 β θ+β Figure 6. (a) Continuous Beam (b) Mechanism 1 22 (c) Mechanism 2 .

The two span continuous beam shown in Fig Fig. 6 exhibits some unique considerations: 1. 23 .the plastic moment capacity of span 1-2 is different than the plastic l ti moment t capacity it of f span 2-3. and 2.the location of the positive moment plastic hinge in span 2 3 is unknown 2-3 unknown.

Mechanism 1: PC Lθ We = PC Δ1 = 2 Wi = 2M pθ + 2M p (2θ) + M pθ = 7M pθ We = Wi ⇒ PC = 14M p L (A) Mechanism 2: Δ2 Δ2 We = q C L1 + q C (L − L1) 2 2 Δ2 = qCL 2 24 .

Wi = M pθ + M p (θ +β β) L1θ = Δ 2 = (L − L1) β L1 θ ⇒ β= L − L1 ⎛ 2L − L1 ⎞ M pθ ∴ Wi = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L − L1 ⎠ ∴ We = 1 q C LL1θ 2 We = Wi 2 ⎛ 2L − L1 ⎞ ⇒ qCL = ⎜ M (B) p ⎟ L1 ⎝ L − L1 ⎠ 25 .

L1 can be obtained by differentiating both sides of qCL with respect to L1 and set the result to zero.The problem with this solution for qCL is that the length L1 is unknown.e. i. d(q C L) −2L1(L − L1) = Mp 2 2 dL1 (L1) (L − L1) − 2(2L − L1)(L − 2L1) (L1) (L − L1) 2 2 Mp (C) 26 = 0 .

Solving (C) for L1: 2 2 2L1 − 8LL1 + 4L = 0 8L ± (8L) 2 − 4(8L2 ) ⇒ L1 = 4 = 2L − 2 L = 0.66 L (E) 27 .5858L ( ) (D) Substituting (D) into (B): qCL = 11 66 M p 11.

Comparing the result in (A) with (E) and df for qL L = P shows h th t the that th failure mechanism for this beam structure is in span 2 2-3 3. M < 2Mp L1 Mp -M M > -2M 2Mp -Mp BMD for Collapse Load qC 28 .

For example assume beam span B – example.Direct Procedure to Calculate Positive Moment Plastic Hinge Location for Unsymmetrical Plastic Moment Diagram g Consider any beam span that is loaded by a uniform load and the resulting plastic moment diagram is unsymmetric. Just as shown above the location of the maximum positive moment is unknown. the plastic moment29 . C is subjected to a uniform load and a dt the ep plastic ast c moment o e t capac capacity ty at end B is Mp1.

capacity at end C is Mp p2 and the plastic positive moment capacity is Mp3. Mp2 ≤ Mp3 Mp3 x -Mp1 L1 -Mp2 L 30 . Mp1 ≤ Mp3.

The location of the positive plastic moment t can be b determined d t i d using i the bending moment equation M(x) = ax2 + bx + c and appropriate boundary conditions. (i) x = 0: M = -Mp1 = c (ii) x = L1: M = Mp3 = aL12 + bL1 + c ⇒ aL12 + bL1 = Mp3 + Mp1 (iii) x = L1: dM/dx = 0 = 2aL1 + b 31 .

Solving for a and b from (ii) and (iii): a= b= −(M p1 + M p3 ) 2 L1 2(M p1 + M p3 ) L1 32 .

Mp1 0 = -(M (Mp1+ Mp3)(L/L1)2 + 2(Mp1+ Mp3) (L/L1) .Mp1+ Mp2 Solving the quadratic equation: 33 .(iv) x = L: M = -Mp2 = aL2 + bL + c = -(Mp1+ Mp3)(L/L1)2 + 2(Mp1+ Mp3) (L/L1) .

⎛L⎞ ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ L1 ⎠ ± 4(Mp1 + Mp3)2 − 4(Mp1 − Mp2)(Mp1 + Mp3) 2(Mp1 + Mp3) ⎛ Mp1 −Mp2 ⎞ = 1 ± 1− ⎜ ⎟ M + M ⎝ p1 p3 ⎠ ∴ L1 = L ⎛ M p1 − M p2 ⎞ 1+ 1− ⎜ M + M ⎟ p3 ⎠ ⎝ p1 34 .

sis The resulting collapse load is an upper bound on the true col collapse load. A trial mechanism is the correct one if the corresponding moment diagram nowhere exceeds the plastic moment capacity. any assumed mechanism can pro ide the basis for an anal provide analysis.e. the lowest computed load is the best upper bound. i. 35 ..EPILOGUE The process described in these notes and in the example problems uses what is referred to as an “upper bound” approach. For a number of trial mechanisms.

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