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Cross Culture

Cross Culture

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Published by: hosein on Apr 06, 2009
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11/18/2012

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CROSS CULTURAL ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING

•Globalization is an inevitable* process in the 21th century , and so is the cross-culturalization. •Marketing is now a world-encompassing** discipline. •The claim for a “a right to culture” by national cultures can be important criteria*** for trade policy making
*inevitable: unavoidable, inescapable, certain **world-encompassing: surrounding the world ***criteria : standard or principle

What is Culture?

The sum total of values, attitudes, behaviours and symbols that are transmitted within groups and communicated to successive* generations. Culture is a significant** lens that influences the way people think, perceive and act.
*Successive : continuous, sequential
**significant: important, consequential; meaningful

What is Cross Culture?

Intersection* of two or more cultures is Cross-culture.

*intersection: crossing ,convergence

Understanding Cross Culture

Cross Cultural Communication in Business
• Effective communication with customers, suppliers and associates in different countries. • Effective negotiations •Predict trends in social behaviour •Understand ethical standards in various countries •Predict consumer reactions to advertisements, promotions • Promote employee-management relationships •Understand local government policies

Dimensions of Cross Culture

Hofstede’s Four Dimensions
• • • • Power Distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance

Power Distance
Measures how subordinates respond to power and authority. High-power distance countries Latin America,most Asian & African countries Low-power distance countries US, Britain, most of the rest of Europe

Individualism Vs. Collectivism
The extent to which the self or the group constitutes the center point of identification for the individual. Individualistic Culture France, Germany, South Africa, Canada Collectivist Cultures Japan, India, Mexico, Korea

Masculinity vs. Femininity
Dominant values are Success, Money and Things Feminine pole countries - Values good working relationship with their supervisors; working with people who cooperate well with one another and living in an area desirable to themselves and to their families. Sweden; France, Israel, Denmark, Indonesia Masculine pole countries - Values a high opportunity for earnings, getting the recognition, having an opportunity for advancement & challenging work to do. US, Japan, Mexico, Hong Kong, Italy, Great Britain

Uncertainty Avoidance
The extent to which uncertainty and ambiguity* are tolerated. Strong uncertainty avoidance countries South Korea, Japan and Latin America Weak uncertainty avoidance countries US, Netherlands; Singapore, Hong Kong, Britain
* ambiguity: not clarity

Correlates of Cross Culture

Correlates of Cross-Culture
 Language •spoken •written  Non-verbal communication •body & facial expression •gestures  Meta Communication Symbols •company & religious logos

Body language
•In Buddhist Thailand never cross legs. The sole of the foot is the furthest part from heaven and the least sacred. To show the bottom of the foot to someone is to show disrespect

Facial Expressions
Smiling in Japan is strongly associated with nervousness, social discomfort, or sorrow

Raised eyebrows mean different things in different cultures: • North America • U.K • Arab World • India & China Interest/Surprise Scepticism “No” Disagreement

Barriers in Cross-Cultural Communication

Barriers in Cross-Cultural Communication
•Semantics* •Barriers caused by word connotations** •Barriers caused by tone differences •Barriers caused by differences among perceptions
*semantic: study of the meaning and use of words and phrases **connotation : inferred meaning

Barriers caused by SEMANTICS Same word may mean different things to different people. Some words may not even translate between cultures. Example: English terms such as efficiency , free market and regulation are not directly translatable into Russian

Barriers caused by WORD CONNOTATIONS Words imply different things in different languages.

Example: Negotiations between Americans and Japanese executives ,for instance, are made more difficult because the Japanese word ‘hai’ translates as “yes” but its connotation may be “ yes,I’m listening”, rather than “yes, I agree”.

Barriers caused by TONE DIFFERENCES

In some cultures , language is formal , in others it is informal. In some cultures , the tone changes depending on the context : people speak differently at home , in social situations and at work.

Barriers caused by differences among PERCEPTIONS

People who speak different languages actually view the world in different ways. Example: Thais perceive “no” differently than do Americans because the former have no such word in their vocabulary.

Steps Towards Effective Cross-Cultural Marketing

Cross-Cultural Marketing
Is defined as the strategic process of marketing among customers whose culture differs from that of marketer’s own culture at least in one of the fundamental cultural aspects.

Points to Remember
 Be aware of your own culture  Understand and respect others  Believe in mutual* sharing and learning  Assume differences until similarity is proven  Determine where the differences lie  Determine how to best overcome the differences  Find common ground: build bridges Be Supportive  Keep It Simple
*mutual: shared by each of pairs

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