P. 1
Physical Sciences 8

Physical Sciences 8

|Views: 454|Likes:
Published by cyoung36
MCAT 8 Physics
MCAT 8 Physics

More info:

Published by: cyoung36 on May 08, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/03/2014

pdf

text

original

PHYSICAL SCIENCES 1.

With respect to bonding and electrical conductivity, respectively, sulfur hexafluoride, SF6(g), would be described as: A) covalent and a nonconductor. The passage states that the vast majority of covalent compounds are comprised exclusively of nonmetallic elements, whereas binary ionic compounds are made up of a metal and a nonmetal. Because neither sulfur nor fluorine is a metallic element, sulfur hexafluoride is a covalent compound. The passage also states that aqueous solutions of covalent compounds do not conduct electricity. Sulfur hexafluoride is covalent and a nonconductor. Thus, A is the best answer. 2. Where are nonmetals found in the periodic table? A) Right side The noble gases and halogens are found on the right side of the table. These are nonmetals. Thus, A is the best answer. 3. Which of the following pairs of compounds provides an example of ionic and covalent bonding, respectively? A) HBr(g) and NaCl(s) B) NaCl(s) and NaI(s) C) NaI(s) and NaCl(s) D) NaCl(s) and HBr(g) The passage states that the vast majority of covalent compounds are comprised exclusively of nonmetallic elements, whereas binary ionic compounds are made up of a metal and a nonmetal. Sodium is a metal and chlorine is a nonmetal; consequently, NaCl is an ionic compound. Hydrogen and bromine are both nonmetals, which means HBr is a covalent compound. Thus, D is the best answer. 4. Which of the following compounds has the most ionic character? A) KBr(s) B) CsCl(s) The compound with the greatest difference in electronegativities between the metal and nonmetal has the most ionic character. The data in Table 1 show that electronegativities tend to decrease down a group of the periodic table. Cs would have an electronegativity of approximately 0.8 or lower and Cl has an electronegativity of 3.0. The difference between the electronegativities of these two elements is the greatest of the compounds listed. Thus, B is the best answer.

5. Which of the following statements is consistent with the incorrect conclusion that HCl is an ionic compound? A) It is a gas at room temperature. B) A 1 M solution freezes below 0°C. C) A 1 M solution conducts electricity. The passage states that an aqueous solution of an ionic compound conducts electricity. Thus, C is the best answer. 6. According to the passage, the magnitude of B3 at the position of a given hydrogen nucleus is determined by the: A) chemical environment of the nucleus. The passage states that B3 is the vector sum of the magnetic fields of the electrons and other nuclei near the H atom, so the chemical composition of the material around the H nucleus being examined will contribute to B3. Only Foil A relates to the material around the H nucleus. Thus, A is the best answer.

B) mass of the nucleus. C) radius of the nucleus. D) charge of the nucleus.

7. Consider an H nucleus with µ pointing in a direction 180° from a magnetic field. When the nucleus relaxes, which of the following most likely will result? A) The magnitude of µ will decrease to zero. Solution B) The magnitude of the magnetic field will decrease to zero. C) The nucleus will emit a photon. Guess Based on the passage, µ is an intrinsic property of the atomic and subatomic particles, and the magnetic fields are either externally controlled (B1, B2) or intrinsic to the electrons and nuclei (B3). The passage also states that energy is emitted when an H nucleus relaxes, which is compatible only with emitting a photon. Thus, C is the best answer.

D) The nucleus will absorb a photon.

I missed this question because I...

Solution

8. X-ray imaging sometimes requires the use of contrast dyes. In MRI, dyes are: A) less toxic. B) not needed. The dyes used in X-ray imaging must consist of elements from the lower part of the periodic table to take advantage of attenuation’s being “roughly proportional to the atomic numbers of elements contained in the tissue.” In contrast, the passage states that “adjacent locations with different chemical compositions,” when imaged by MRI, already have “contrasts of several hundred percent.” This implies that a dye is not necessary. Thus, B is the best answer.

Guess

C) needed but not always used. D) always used. I missed this question because I...

9. Human proteins are composed mostly of the elements C, H, O, N, and S. Without dyes, X-ray images of tissue containing different proteins do NOT have high contrasts, most likely because: Solution A) dyes do not bind well to proteins. B) protein bonds are broken by the radiation, resulting in the formation of free radicals. Guess C) the differences in the atomic numbers of the elements are not large enough. Because attenuation is “roughly proportional to the atomic numbers of elements contained in the tissue,” to see significant differences in the X-ray image one needs a sizable difference in atomic number. Noting that bones, but not much else, easily appear in an X ray of undyed tissue, one can infer that Ca has an atomic number high enough to significantly attenuate X rays. Of the elements C, H, O, N, and S, only sulfur has an atomic number approaching (but still less than) that of Ca. Thus, C is the best answer.

.. To adjust ωd of H nuclei.. C is the best D) 20 P 8 82b I missed this question because I.D) proteins are opaque to X rays. Solution 11. Of the foils. an odd number of nucleons is needed.. 10. Thus. I missed this question because I. to guarantee a nonzero net spin. the nucleus with the nonzero precession frequency will be which of the following? A) 4H 2e Solution B) 1 6 O Guess 8 C) 1 9 F 9 Because protons and neutrons have spin just as electrons do. a diagnostician is most likely to vary which of the following? A) B1 Based on the passage. the only element that has an odd number of nucleons is answer. . the angular frequency ωd is Guess . For a given magnitude of B1.

this means µ has turned by 180°. D) Tube 6 .. 12. The effect of temperature on the rate of the reaction can best be determined by comparing Tube 5 with which of the following tubes? A) Tube 2 B) Tube 3 C) Tube 4 To determine the effect of temperature on the rate of the reaction. If the precesssing H atom becomes antiparallel. at resonance. Tube 4 contained 20 mL each of solutions A and B and no water at 12ºC. C) 180°.One can see that B1 is the only externally controllable variable. According to the passage. Thus. C is the best answer. Tube 5 contained 20 mL each of solutions A and B and no water at 32ºC. B) B3 C) h D) µ I missed this question because I. 13. except the temperature. Solution B) 90°. C is the best answer. Thus. A is the best answer.. Guess The passage states that to precess µ at a frequency of ωd. µ must be parallel to B1. Tube 5 must be compared with another tube in which all conditions were the same. Thus. B2 rotates an H nucleus through an angle of: A) 45°.

which are identical except for the addition of CuSO4 to Tube 6... In Tube 6. D is the best answer. The results in Table 1 would most likely NOT be affected if the students had added excess: A) KI(aq) to Solution A. Solution B) average kinetic energies of I–(aq) and S2O8–(aq) were greater in Tube 1 than in Tube 4. D is the best answer. what is the most likely function of CuSO4(aq)? A) Reactant B) Indicator Solution C) Inhibitor D) Catalyst Guess A comparison of the results for Tube 1 and Tube 6. D) starch to Solution B. because the: A) rate of Reaction 2 was slower in Tube 1 than in Tube 4. Thus. 16.. 15. The solution in Tube 1 turned dark blue more rapidly than did the solution in Tube 4. I missed this question because I. C) (NH4)2S2O8(aq) to Solution B. Guess Starch is not a participant in any of the reactions. I missed this question because I.. . Solution B) Na2S2O3(aq) to Solution A. acting only as an indicator of excess I2.14. Thus. shows that it takes longer for the combined solution in Tube 1 to turn dark blue than it takes for the combined solution in Tube 6.

.. The higher the temperature. Thus. . C) concentrations of I–(aq) and S2O8–(aq) were greater in Tube 1 than in Tube 4. B is the best answer. The amount of S4O62– would increase for 19 sec and then level off. Which of the following graphs best shows the number of moles of S4O62–(aq) in Tube 6 as time passes? A) Solution Guess B) The data in Table 1 show that the reaction is complete in 19 sec. D) concentration of starch was greater in Tube 1 than in Tube 4.Guess The reaction conditions for tubes 1 and 4 are identical except Tube 1 was run at 22ºC and Tube 4 was run at 12ºC. B is the best answer. 17. I missed this question because I. the greater the average kinetic energy of the components of the reaction. Thus.

As described in the passage. According to the results of Galileo’s experiments described in the passage. D) violent motion ceased. Aristotle’s theories of motion do NOT deal with which of the following observations? A) An object in a vacuum can move with constant velocity. the greatest acceleration of a sphere will occur when the plane is also vertical. A is the best answer. the only situation that does not occur naturally on Earth’s surface is that of an object in a vacuum. Guess . the ratio of d to t2 attained its maximum value when: A) the inclined plane was horizontal. 19. Thus. B) the inclined plane was vertical. Solution Of the foils. B is the best answer. Thus. C) natural motion began.C) D) 18. Because the acceleration of gravity is in the vertical direction.

The question asks one to determine the highest terminal velocity (when striking the ground). 21. rotation. Meanwhile. 20 g. 20. which object will have the Solution highest terminal velocity? A) Object A B) Object B Guess Aristotle’s theory states that an object’s time of fall t is inversely proportional to its weight W..B) An object in free fall can reach a constant velocity. and friction. Thus. The main advantage to using the inclined plane is that on the Solution inclined plane the: A) final velocity of a sphere is smaller. 40 g. and 30 g. this is t ∝ 1/W.. its weight will also be . C is the best answer. and D have identical radii and masses of 10 g. According to Aristotle’s theory.. I missed this question because I. leading to a longer time for a sphere to reach the bottom. The highest terminal velocity should then be inversely proportional to t because spheres A–D all fall from the same height. C) A mass on a spring undergoes violent motion. Guess C) spheres take longer to reach the bottom. Symbolically. Galileo could have allowed spheres to drop from a height of 10 m rather than using the 10-m inclined plane described in the passage. Ignoring air resistance. D) A heavy body falls with a greater velocity than a light one. C. if the spheres are dropped to the ground from the same height. When designing his experiment. B. the final velocity of a sphere that drops is the same as the final velocity of a sphere that moves down the inclined plane. Spheres A. D) spheres take less time to reach the bottom. B) final velocity of a sphere is larger. Because the largest mass in this group is Sphere B. the path is longer on the inclined plane than in free fall. I missed this question because I. respectively..

23. Object A is given as having twice the density of Object B (ρA = 2ρB) and having half of Object B’s volume (VA = VB/2). D is the best answer. Because W = mg and m = ρV. Its Ksp value is: A) S2. Thus. Object A has 2 times the density and ½ the volume of Object B. if A and B are dropped to Earth from the same height. so Aristotle’s theory predicts the shortest t for it.. because it is denser than object B B) Object A. because it is heavier than object A Guess D) The objects will reach Earth at the same time.the largest. because it is heavier than object B C) Object B. Thus. C) Object C D) Object D I missed this question because I. M(OH)2 has a molar solubility of S mol/L at 25°C.. which object will reach Earth first? (Note: Ignore the effects of friction. To find which object has the shorter time of fall under Aristotle’s theory (t ∝ 1/W). A sparingly soluble metal hydroxide. 22. . and the time of fall for each object will be the same. B) 2S2. B is the best answer. and WA = mAg =ρAVAg = (2ρB)(VB/2)g = ρBVBg This means that WA = WB. C) 2S3. one must determine the weight of each object from its mass. According to Aristotle’s theory. WB = mBg = ρBVBg.) Solution A) Object A.

C is the best answer. because volume is inversely proportional to temperature. The Ksp = S(2S)2 = S(4S2) = 4S3. The Ksp for M(OH)2 = [M][OH–]2. An astronaut on Earth notes that in her soft drink an ice cube floats with 9/10 of its volume submerged. The Ksp for a substance.. I missed this question because I. B) with 9/10 submerged. the ice in the same soft Solution drink would float: A) with more than 9/10 submerged. the volume of the gas will: A) always increase. AaBb. If the solubility of M(OH)2 is S mol/L. Thus. If the pressure remains constant. equals [A]a[B]b.. Solution B) always decrease. If she were instead in a lunar module parked on the Moon where the gravitation force is 1/6 that of Earth. D is the best answer.D) 4S3. Thus. then [M] = S mol/L and [OH–] = 2S mol/L. 24. D) decrease if pressure remains constant. C) increase if pressure remains constant. If the quantity of gas remains unchanged while its temperature increases. then PV (pressure × volume) will increase. If n (the quantity of gas) is constant and T (temperature) increases. because volume is directly proportional to temperature. 25. Guess The floating ice cube implies that its weight is balanced by the buoyant force on it . then the volume must increase. Guess The ideal gas law shows that PV = nRT.

C is the best answer. . A is the best answer. C) with 6/10 submerged. D) totally submerged. Thus. the solubility of CO2 decreases as the temperature increases. A glass fiber carries a light digital signal long distances with a minimum loss of amplitude. B is the best answer. calcium ions in the water contribute to the hardness of the water and CaCO3 is soluble in acidic solutions. Boiling the water causes Reaction 1 to take place. Reaction 1 decreases the hardness of an acidic water sample by removing CaCO3 from the sample and increasing the pH by reducing the amount of CO2 in the sample. making the numerical value of g irrelevant to the volume of the ice cube that is submerged. D) Diffraction 27. Thus. Thus. I missed this question because I. 26. What optical property of glass allows this phenomenon? A) Dispersion Solution B) Refraction C) Reflection Guess Light can be carried along a distance within a transparent material by means of total internal reflection.. According to the passage.. Reaction 1 is an effective means of decreasing the hardness of an acidic water sample because it: A) increases the pH and decreases the solubility of CaCO3.Wice = mg = ρfluidVsubmergedg Note that both the weight and the buoyant force are proportional to g.

B) decreases the pH and decreases the solubility of CaCO3. The amount of CaCO3 formed is 50 g.4 L.5 mol CO2 was generated.2 L at STP? A) 0..5 g Solution B) 11. causing a decrease in the pH. A is the best answer. Solution 28.2 g C) 50 g Guess At STP. What is the effect of a high level of atmospheric CO2 on the hardness of water in limestone regions? A) It would lower the pH and increase the solubility of CaCO3. 1 mole of gas occupies 22. There is 0. When CO2 dissolves in water it becomes carbonic acid. which has a formula weight of 100 g/mol. I missed this question because I. The passage states that CaCO3 is very soluble in acidic solutions. D) decreases the pH and removes Ca2+ from solution. C is the best answer. Guess B) It would raise the pH and increase the solubility of CaCO3. According to Reaction 1. C) It would lower the pH and decrease the solubility of CaCO3. D) It would raise the pH and decrease the solubility of CaCO3.5 mol CaCO3. How many grams of CaCO3 would be formed in Reaction 1 if the CO2 evolved occupies 11. Thus. The pH would be lowered and the solubility of CaCO3 would increase. 0. High levels of CO2 in the atmosphere would result in CO2 dissolved in the water. therefore. C) increases the pH and converts HCO3– to water. Thus. 29. 1 mol CaCO3 forms for every mole of CO2 that forms. ..

Thus. Guess When CaCO3 is in solution. D) [CO32–] would decrease to maintain Ksp.8 × 10–9)1/3 M I missed this question because I.. If the pH of the water sample were high such that all the carbonate is present as CO32–. 30. some CaCO3 precipitates in accordance with Le Châtelier’s principle. C) 4. 31. C) [CO32–] would increase to maintain Ksp. . what would be the concentration of Ca2+? (The Ksp of CaCO3 is 4.8 × 10–9 M D) (4. B is the best answer..8 × 10–9. When excess Ca2+ is added.D) 100 g I missed this question because I. The addition of excess Ca2+ to a solution containing Ca2+ and CO32– ions causes CaCO3 to precipitate because: A) Ksp for CaCO3 would increase due to the increase in [Ca2+].. then [Ca2+] = [CO32–] = (4. [CO32–] therefore decreases and the Ksp is maintained. the following takes place: CaCO3(s) ↔ Ca2+(aq) + CO32–(aq) and Ksp = [Ca2+][CO32–].8 × 10–9)1/2 M Guess The Ksp of CaCO3 = [Ca2+][CO32–] = 4. Solution B) Ksp for CaCO3 would decrease due to the increase in [Ca2+].8 × 10–9)1/2 M. If all of the carbonate is in the form of CO32–.8 × 10–9.8 × 10–9)2 M B) (4. D is the best answer.) Solution A) (4. Thus..

32. What is the expression for the angular frequency ω of a pendulum? A) 2πmg/L B) (L/g)1/2 C) 2π(g/L)1/2 D) (g/L)1/2 Because the frequency f of a pendulum in Hz is the angular frequency ω (in rad/s) is Thus. How is an angle of 30° converted to radians? A) θo = 30° × π Solution B) θo = 30° × 2π C) θo = 30° × π/180° .. D is the best answer. The equation for tension used in the passage requires θo to be units of radians.. I missed this question because I. 33.

.. R2. and the other passes through R3 and RSG in series. the appropriate conversion factor for degrees-toradians is π rad/180°. Rtotal is also 200 Ω. and the current Itotal = V/Rtotal is then 0.060 A. D) θo = 30° × π/360° I missed this question because I. and RSG are each 200 Ω. If all the resistors in Figure 3 are 200 Ω. C is the best answer.. B is the best answer. Thus.. What is the magnitude of the restoring force on the pendulum bob at angle θ? A) mg . C) 120 mA D) 240 mA I missed this question because I. 34. 35.Guess Because 2π rad = 360°. The total resistance of the parallel circuit is then Given that R1. Thus. what is the current from the battery when V0 = 12 V? A) 30 mA Solution B) 60 mA Guess There are two branches to this parallel circuit: one passes through R1 and R2 in series. R3.

Solution B) mgsinθ The restoring force on a pendulum points along the tangent to the circular arc of its motion. B is the best answer.0 × 10–2 N The buoyancy force FB is . Thus. and the only force acting along the direction of motion is mgsin θ. Thus. Guess C) mgcosθ D) mgtanθ I missed this question because I. What mechanism supplies the tension in the string at the molecular level? A) Magnetic forces B) Electron transfer Solution C) Gravitational forces D) Stretching bond lengths Guess Intermolecular forces and the physical structure of the molecules determine the structure of the string at the molecular level. D is the best answer.. Each lead weight has a volume of 4 × 10–6 m3. Physically stretching the string affects the intermolecular forces (which are primarily electrostatic) and the bond lengths within the molecules. What buoyancy force does the water exert on a lead weight? A) 4. 36. Figure 1 shows the free-body diagram of the pendulum bob.. 7.

Solution B) The work done by the gas in expanding decreases its internal energy.1 × 10–1 N D) 4. 38. B) 4. A is the best answer. Thus.. The true statement must reflect the decreasing temperature and pressure in the balloon as it rises. D is the best answer.. and temperature falls as the balloon rises.. depth increases to the right. Which of the following items of information would NOT help in predicting the results shown in Figure 1? A) The number of air molecules inside the balloon Solution B) The thermal conductivity of the rubber C) The variation with depth in the speed of the balloon D) The total mass of the water in the tank Guess The mass of the water in the tank will not have an effect on the temperature of the air or the depth of the balloon. Which of the following statements best explains the temperature change shown in Figure 1? A) The work done on the gas by the water pressure decreases its temperature.. 39. Thus. Guess The key to understanding the correct statement is to realize that in Figure 1.5 × 10–2 N C) 4. I missed this question because I. This means that air temperature in a rising balloon will follow the plotted curve from right to left.5 × 10–1 N I missed this question because I.Thus. B is .

. it would be difficult to vary the pressure on the gases. Of these. Thus. gravity and buoyancy act in the vertical direction. 41.. while water pressure acts perpendicularly to all surfaces of the balloon.. I missed this question because I. increasing the temperature of the gas. . thin-walled steel spheres were used. If air-filled. C) not be airtight. the tank is used to study the effects of pressure on gases. Guess According to the passage.the best answer. C is the best answer.. C) The balloon and water exchange heat. buoyancy. I missed this question because I. and gravity as acting on a balloon. What vertical forces are acting on a balloon as it ascends? A) Weight only B) Buoyancy force only Solution C) Weight and buoyancy force only Guess The foils list only water pressure. The most likely reason that this idea was rejected is that steel spheres would: Solution A) not be sufficiently flexible. D) The compression of the gas decreases its temperature. A is the best answer. Thus. thin-walled steel spheres were suggested for experiments in the tank instead of rubber balloons. D) rust too quickly. Air-filled. B) be too heavy. 40.

P1V1 = P2 × 2V1. D is the best answer. I missed this question because I. then V2 = 2V1.. 43. Using the ideal gas law. and P2 = P1/2. where is the speed of the flowing water the greatest? A) At the top of the tank Solution B) At the bottom of the tank C) At the wide end of the pipe D) At the narrow end of the pipe Guess For a given volume flow rate. If the valve is opened to drain the tank. the speed of fluid flow is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area through which the fluid flows.. B is the best answer. A balloon is attached to a weight that keeps it from ascending quickly enough for the air in the balloon to change temperature. . If the volume of the balloon doubles. 42. Guess The amount of air in the balloon and the temperature of the air will remain constant..D) Water pressure and buoyancy force only I missed this question because I. B) It has been reduced to one-half the original pressure. D) It has been increased to twice the original pressure. nRT = P1V1 = P2V2.. C) It has remained at the original pressure. When the volume of the balloon has doubled. The pressure therefore reduces by 1/2. Thus. Thus. how has the pressure of the air inside changed? Solution A) It has been reduced to one-quarter the original pressure.

producing a basic solution... C is the best answer. which means the H+ was gaining electrons and undergoing reduction. Thus. B) oxidation by a gain of electrons.. D) reduction by a gain of electrons. 45. C) reduction by a loss of electrons. I missed this question because I. D) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d2 I missed this question because I. The electron configuration for Ca2+ is 1s22s22p63s23p6. Ca has the atomic number 20 and therefore has 20 electrons.44. so Ca2+ has 18 electrons.. H2(g) was produced at the cathode. D is the best answer. Thus. According to the passage. the following reaction takes place: Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) → Ca2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) + H2(g). The reaction taking place at the cathode was 2H+(aq) + 2e– → H2(g). Two electrons are removed to form Ca2+. The metal ion produced is Ca2+. The process taking place at the cathode was: A) oxidation by a loss of electrons. What is the electron configuration of the metal ion produced when Ca reacted with water in Experiment 1? A) 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 Solution B) 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 C) 1s22s22p63s23p6 Guess When Ca is added to water. .

The amount of H2 formed was also 0.01 mol.0821 L⋅atm/mol⋅K)(300 K)]/1. the volume of 0. A is the best answer..46. 250 mL..40 g)/(40. The reactivity of a metal depends on its ionization potential. then the number of moles of calcium reacted was equal to (0. Therefore. The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is the ionization potential. Among the metals listed in Table 1. Which of the following properties is most useful in explaining the trend in the reactivities in Experiment 1? A) Electronegativity Solution B) Ionization potential Guess The metals that reacted in Experiment 1 underwent oxidation.40 g of calcium. C) Electron affinity D) Polarizability I missed this question because I.01 mol. B is the best answer. potassium has the smallest ionization potential and magnesium has the largest ionization potential. If 0. 500 mL.246 L = 246 mL. Guess Calcium undergoes the following reaction with water: Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) → Ca2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) + H2(g). potassium reacted the most vigorously and there was no obvious reaction with magnesium.01 mol H2 = [(0.0 atm and 27°C. Thus. and the gas that evolved was collected.0821 L•atm/mol•K) A) H2.0 atm = 0. 47. 250 mL. C) O2.01 mol)(0. and its approximate volume at 1. The identity of the gas.0 atm and 27°C were: Solution (Note: R = 0. .40 g calcium reacted. The gas produced was H2. At 1. Experiment 1 was repeated with 0. B) H2.1 g/mol) = 0. Thus.

D) Specific wavelengths of light are absorbed when the metal is converted from the solid phase to the gas phase in the flame. 500 mL. As the excited electrons drop to lower energy levels. C) Electrons in the metals are converted into gases in the flame that emit specific wavelengths of light. the electrons in the atoms are excited to higher energy levels. I missed this question because I. 49. A is the best answer. Thus. they emit specific wavelengths of light. the metals vaporize and impart a brilliant color to the flame. .D) O2. What is the origin of Solution these colors? A) Excited electrons in the metals drop to lower energy levels and emit specific wavelengths of light. Guess When alkali metals are held in a flame. 48. Lithium imparts a bright red color.. When alkali metals are held in a colorless flame.. and potassium a violet color. sodium a yellow color. B) Electrons in the metals are raised to higher energy levels by absorbing specific wavelengths of light. Consider the phase diagram of water below.

D) vaporization. . C) condensation.. Guess D) Electrons in the material cannot easily move from one atom to another. the valence electrons are tightly bound to their atoms. B) sublimation. C) The atoms in the material can easily move from one lattice site to another. Which of the following statements best characterizes a material that is a good insulator but a poor conductor? A) The material contains no electrons.. Thus.The arrow proceeding from Point A to Point B represents: A) melting. or vaporization. D is the best answer. I missed this question because I.. Point A is in a region where water exists as a liquid and Point B is in a region where water exists as a vapor.. D is the best answer. Solution B) The magnitude of the electric field inside the material is always equal to zero. In insulators. In the phase diagram. Thus. and it takes a great amount of energy to free them from their atomic energy levels. 50. The arrow proceeding from Point A to Point B represents the transition from liquid to vapor. I missed this question because I.

Thus. I missed this question because I. An object with a mass of 0. Solution B) resistivity. and cross-sectional area. length. the resistance of a wire to direct current depends only on the: A) voltage applied across the wire. What is the specific heat of the object? A) 125 J/(kg•°C) Solution B) 250 J/(kg•°C) C) 375 J/(kg•°C) D) 500 J/(kg•°C) Guess Heating that produces only a temperature change obeys the relationship Given 250 J of heat absorbed by the object’s mass of 0. Guess The resistivity relation at a fixed temperature is . At a given temperature. 52.1 kg..51.. D is the best answer. the temperature change of 5°C implies a specific heat of about 500 J/(kg•°C).1 kg absorbs 250 J of heat while changing temperature from 20°C to 25°C.

followed by 2s with two electrons.15 g)/(286. Dividing by the molar mass will give the number of moles: (7.00-mL solution of Na2CO3? A) 1. The resulting electron configuration is 1s22s22p3. and cross-sectional area.0250 mol. and then the 2p level with the last three electrons. B is the best answer. length. Which of the following electron configurations of nitrogen is the most stable? A) 1s22s12p4 Solution B) 1s22s22p3 The atomic number of nitrogen is 7. How many sodium ions are in the initial 50.02 × 1023 ions/mol) = 3. The electrons will begin to fill the lower energy levels first. and capacitance.Thus. 53. there is 0.. C) inductance.01 . the number of sodium ions is (0. I missed this question because I. the 1s level will fill first with two electrons.. D) resistivity.00 × 1022 The solution contains 7. consequently. length.50 × 1022 B) 3. Guess C) 1s12s22p4 D) 1s22s22p23s1 54.0500 mol)(6.15 g Na2CO3⋅10H2O. B is the best answer.14 g/mol) = 0. Thus. Because each mole of Na2CO3⋅10H2O contains 2 mol Na+. Using Avogadro’s number.0500 mol Na+.

84 g/mol) = 0.57 g)/(262. I missed this question because I. B is the best answer.02 × 1023 D) 12. 56.025 mol Solution Guess There is 0. B) remain red.0 × 1023 I missed this question because I. A is the best answer. C) 6. If red litmus paper is dipped into the Na2CO3 solution. What is the maximum number of moles of nickel carbonate (NiCO3) that can form during the precipitation reaction? A) 0. There is also 0. Solution C) turn blue.025 mol CO32– from Na2CO3⋅10H2O: (7. C is the best answer. The maximum number of moles of NiCO3 that can form is 0..0250 mol. carbonate will undergo the following reaction: CO32–(aq) + H2O(l) → HCO3–(aq) + OH–(aq). because carbonate is an acidic salt. D) turn blue.025 mol Ni from NiSO4⋅6H2O: (6. Thus.14 g/mol) = 0.× 1022 ions. it will: A) remain red. because sodium ions form sodium hydroxide in water.025 mol. because carbonate reacts with water to produce OH–... because sodium carbonate is neutral. Thus..025 mol. 55. . Thus. Red litmus paper will turn blue in a base. Guess In water.15 g)/(286.

D) carbon monoxide. C is the best answer. Thus. The ion responsible for the color of the solutions is: A) sulfate.25 mol I missed this question because I. 58.. because sulfur has s and p orbitals. D) sulfate.B) 0. the gas is given off when HCl is added to one portion of the slurry. Guess According to the passage. According to the information in the passage. because it has a charge of +2..25 mol C) 1. B) sulfur trioxide.00 mol D) 2. Solution C) nickel(II). Guess The solution containing nickel(II) ions is green-colored. because it has unfilled d orbitals. Thus.. The color arises because nickel(II) ion has partially filled d orbitals and the electrons in the lower energy d orbitals absorb visible light to move to the higher energy d orbitals. 57. C is the best answer. I missed this question because I. .. B) nickel(II). Solution C) carbon dioxide. HCl reacts with CO32– to form CO2(g). because it is a resonance-stabilized anion. the gas that evolves is: A) sulfur dioxide.

the maximum K = 0 (there are no photoelectrons). and M are 5. Note that because Metal L has WL > E.59.0 D) 12. 13. If each metal is struck by a 7.0. 8. L. Foil B describes a change that reduces the stopping potential. The work functions of K. 1. In the photoelectric experiment. 0. respectively? A) 2.0 eV.0 I missed this question because I. 1. Thus. .0 eV.0 C) 2. from K. L. respectively. Guess The current I will be directly proportional to the number of photoelectrons leaving the metal at Plate A. 15. if any.0 eV photon. 15. and M.0. L.0. and M for use in Plate A of the photoelectric experiment. what will be the maximum kinetic energies (in eV) of the electrons ejected. which of the following changes will produce the largest increase in the value for I? A) Plate A is replaced with one having a higher work function. Suppose a scientist tests Metals K. B) 2. 60.0 eV.0 The maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons is always E − W. 1..0.0. Thus.0. 0. B is the best answer. A is the best answer.0. and 6. A photoelectron that leaves Plate A will only be counted among the current I if its value of K is greater than the stopping potential. Solution B) The electrical potential of Plate B is made more positive relative to that of Plate A.0. allowing more photoelectrons to reach Plate B..

Solution B) bluer.C) The flux of photons having energies less than W is increased. Thus. if wavelength is increased. For a bright fringe to appear. bright fringes appear on the screen as the column of dark spots in the following figure.. 61. the difference in distances is equal to an integral number of wavelengths. C) closer together.. and the distance from one fringe to the next on the screen reflects a change in the value of that is directly proportional to one wavelength. I missed this question because I. D) farther apart. . D) The average frequency of the photons is decreased. In Young’s experiment. D is the best answer. I missed this question because I. the bright fringes will become: A) brighter. Guess In Young’s double-slit experiment...

62. Thus. Guess B) T1 and T2 is small. the fringes on T3 in Figure 1 should disappear when: A) λ is increased slightly. I missed this question because I. Because wavefronts from a spherical source become flatter and flatter as they move away from their source. C) S1 and S2 is large. B.. C) S1 is covered. When Waves A. and C meet at the same point on the target screen. A is the best answer. Solution 63. The light entering S1 and S2 will most likely consist of plane waves if the distance between: A) T1 and T2 is large. D) T3 is moved farther from T2. C is the best answer. This single-slit interference pattern appears as a result of light diffracting through the slit. In Young’s experiment.. I missed this question because I. Thus. 64. Wave . D) T2 and T3 is small... If light is wavelike and if diffractive effects are ignored. S produces spherical wave fronts. Solution B) light intensity is increased. increasing the distance between T1 and T2 will cause waves from S to become more planar. Guess The interference patterns seen in real double-slit experiments also have a characteristic pattern in the intensity of the peaks that is a result of the width of each individual slit.

Based on the passage. not how much energy each photon has. D) 3E. because light intensity determines the work function of a metal B) Yes. because light waves cannot carry sufficient energy to eject an electron Guess D) No. . Thus. The principle of superposition allows one to add incoming waves’ amplitudes together to determine the total amplitude at a point. 66. If each of the 3 waves has an amplitude E when it reaches this point. if Wave A has amplitude +E. The wave theory states that for an electron to be ejected from a metal. C) 2E. but only if that photon carries enough energy. Thus. the photon energy is too low.Solution Guess A is 180° out of phase with Wave B and 0° out of phase with Wave C. 65. B is the best answer. because light intensity depends only on frequency C) No. because an electron can be ejected by a single high-energy photon At the core of the photoelectric effect is the concept that even a single photon can release a photoelectron. even a flood of photons will not release any photoelectrons. B) Cl–. does the particle theory agree with this aspect of the wave theory? Solution A) Yes. the anion component must be: A) CrO42–. Intensity in the photon picture is a measure of how many photons are arriving each second. and the sum will be +E. If. This means that photoelectrons can be released even when only a few highenergy photons are present. If Solution A contains Ag+. I missed this question because I. B) E.. the amplitudes of waves B and C will be −E and +E. respectively. Based on the passage. however. D is the best answer. light of sufficient intensity must be used. the resulting wave amplitude at the point will be: A) zero..

The precipitation reactions in Table 1 are the result of mixing aqueous . Thus... D) the solubility product of a compound was exceeded. precipitates formed because: A) few aqueous solutions can contain more than one cation or anion. C is the best answer. then a precipitate would form to maintain the Ksp.. D is the best answer. The Ksp for a substance. 68. 67.C) F–. Thus. Solution B) the anions precipitated as solid metals. I missed this question because I. I missed this question because I. D) S2–.. C) the solubilities of cations were decreased by the other cations. equals [A]a[B]b. the ionic compound in Solution A was completely soluble in water. According to the passage. If the amount of the compound present is in excess of the Ksp. Guess The amount of a substance that will dissolve in water is described by the Ksp. All of the precipitation reactions in Table 1 can be classified as: A) metathesis reactions. The information in Table 1 shows that the only Ag+ salt studied that is soluble in water is AgF. AaBb. When aqueous solutions of the various anions and cations were mixed.

Which of the following compounds. Ca2+ had the greatest number of soluble compounds.. D) oxidation reactions. Ba2+(aq) is an ion that is very toxic to mammals when taken internally. Ca2+ had three soluble compounds. A is the best answer.. I missed this question because I. Ksp = 1. This type of reaction is a metathesis reaction. B) decomposition reactions. If mixed with water and accidentally swallowed. and Cu2+ and Fe3+ each had two soluble compounds. would be the safest if accidentally swallowed? Solution A) BaSO4.. Thus. Ag+ had one soluble compound. C) Cu2+ D) Fe3+ I missed this question because I. These are reactions of the type AB + CD → AD + CB. Thus. which cation allowed for the greatest number of soluble compounds? A) Ag+ Solution B) Ca2+ Guess According to Table 1. 70. The ionic compounds switch the ions with which they are paired. mixed in water. the lower the concentrations of the cation and anion in an aqueous solution and the lower the solubility of the compound in water. B is the best answer.1 × 10–10 Guess The lower the value of Ksp is. C) hydrolysis reactions. In Table 1.. 69. the . where one of the products is a precipitate.Solution Guess solutions of cations and anions.

B) BaCO3.. one could differentiate between a solution of FeCl3 and FeF3. The battery voltage ¼ will be reduced by the voltage required to overcome the internal . Ksp = 8. Ksp = 8. A is the best answer. A battery in a circuit has an electromotive force given by E and an internal resistance of r.7 × 10–6 I missed this question because I. Thus. CaF2 will form a white precipitate. 71.1 × 10–9 C) BaSO3.Ba salt with the lowest value of Ksp would be the safest.0 × 10–7 D) BaF2. Using Ca2+. C) S2– D) Cu2+ 72. Ksp = 1. but CaCl2 is water-soluble. Thus. What is the terminal voltage of the battery? A) E B) E – ir The terminal voltage is the voltage provided to the external components of the circuit. B is the best answer.. The battery provides a current i to the circuit. Which one of the following cations or anions would be useful in differentiating between a solution containing FeCl3 and one containing FeF3? A) CrO42– Solution B) Ca2+ Guess According to the data in Table 1.

73. Snell’s law would show that θ > α. B is the best answer. so V = ¼ − ir. and the beam reflecting from the lower surface of the medium will then be a mirror image of the incoming beam. Which of the following is true? A) θ < θ ′ and θ < α B) θ = θ ′ and θ > α Because the medium’s surfaces are parallel. so θ′ = θ. Thus. (The figure is NOT to scale. C) E + ir D ) E + i2r I missed this question because I..resistance. Part of the beam is reflected back into the air as diagrammed above. Thus. .0.. Further. This means that the angle of incidence at the lower surface will also be α. Solution Guess A beam of light shines into a transparent medium with parallel surfaces. B is the best answer. as will the angle of reflection at the lower surface.5. a perpendicular line drawn to the lower surface of the medium will be parallel to both of the perpendiculars shown in the figure. because air’s index of refraction is about 1.) The index of refraction of the medium is 1.

The molecules that escape from the liquid are those with greater than the average kinetic energy...C) θ = θ ′ and θ < α D) θ > θ ′ and θ > α I missed this question because I. then the average kinetic energy of the liquid and the vapor must be the same. the speed of sound remains constant. 75. It takes energy for the molecules to escape from the liquid.. Sound of a known frequency. Which of the following properties of the sound remains the same before and Solution after reflection? A) Speed Guess Within still air. Although only molecules having much greater than the average kinetic energy can escape from a liquid. B) The excess kinetic energy is lost in collisions with the walls of the Guess container. A is the best answer. I missed this question because I.. and speed travels through air and bounces off an imperfect reflector which is moving toward the source. Thus. the temperature of a liquid in equilibrium with its vapor is found to be the same as that of the vapor. wavelength. 74. How can this be Solution interpreted? A) The excess kinetic energy is transferred to air molecules. D is the best answer. intensity. Thus. C) The higher kinetic energy of the vapor molecules is compensated for by their lower potential energy. D) The excess kinetic energy is expended on overcoming attractive forces exerted by the molecules of the liquid. If the liquid and the vapor have the same temperature. .

. In order to determine the relative speed of approach of a sound source by Doppler measurements. I missed this question because I. three of the following items of data are necessary.. 76. Which of the following is equal to a change in momentum of an object? A) Force B) Acceleration C) Velocity D) Impulse Guess . the Doppler equation for a source that is approaching (receding from) an observer can be written as Thus.B) Intensity C) Frequency D) Wavelength I missed this question because I. Solution 77... Which one is NOT required? Solution A) The speed of sound in the medium B) The frequency of the emitted sound C) The frequency of the observed sound Guess D) The distance between source and observer Given that v is the speed of sound in the medium. D is the best answer.

This product. is referred to as an impulse. .A change in momentum can be accomplished by the action of a force F over a time interval ∆t. Thus. F∆t. D is the best answer.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->