Matrices of linear transformation

& eigen values eigen vectors

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Definition : Natural matrix of a
linear transformation T : Vn →
Vm

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Example :

Let T: V3

V3 be a linear map,

defined by

T ( x1, x2 , x3 )

= ( x1 − x2 + x3 , x2 − x1, x 3 − x1 )

Find the matrix [T: S′ , S′′] if

S′={(1,0,0), (0,1,0),(-1,1,1)}
S′′={(0,1,0),(0,0,1),(3,1,0)}
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S′={(1,0,0), (0,1,0),(-1,1,1)}
S′′={(0,1,0),(0,0,1),(3,1,0)}

T ( x1, x2 , x3 ) = ( x1 − x2 + x3 , x2 − x1, x 3 − x1 )
T(1,0,0) = (1,-1,-1)
T(0,1,0) = (-1,1,0)
T(-1,1,1) = (-1,2,2)
[(1,-1,-1)]S′′ =(- 4/3,[(-1,1,0)]S′′ =(4/3,0,-1/3)
1,1/3)
[(-1,2,0)]S′′ =(7/3,2,-1/3)
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A=

 4

 3
 −1
 1

 3

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7 

3
3

0
2
1
1

− 
3
3 

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Let T: V3

V3 be a linear map.

S ′ = { (1,0,0) , ( 0,1,0 ) , ( 0,0,1)} and

S ′′ = { (1,1,1) , (1,1,0 ) , (1,0,0 )}
are ordered bases of

V3. If

Matrix of Transformation is
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1

(T : S ′, S ′′) = 0

0

0
1
0

0

0
1

Findthe T : V3 →V3
As per definition of (T:S′,S′
′) 1]S′′= (1,0,0)
[Tu
[Tu2]S′′= (0,1,0)
[Tu3]S′′= (0,0,1)

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S ′ = { (1,0,0 ) , ( 0,1,0 ) , ( 0,0,1)}

S ′′ = { (1,1,1) , (1,1,0) , (1,0,0 )}

[T(1,0,0)]S′′= (1,0,0)
(1,0,0)= 1(1,1,1)+ 0(1,1,0)+ 0(1,0,0
T(1,0,0)= (1,1,1)
(0,1,0)= 0(1,1,1)+ 1(1,1,0)+ 0(1,0,0
=(1,1,0)
(0,0,1)= 0(1,1,1)+ 0(1,1,0)+ 1(1,0,0
=(1,0,0)
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T(x1,x2, x3 )=
T(x1 (1,0,0) +x2 (0,1,0)
+x
(0,0,1))
3
T(x ,x , x )=
1

2

3

x1 T (1,0,0) +x2 T(0,1,0)
+x
T(0,0,1)
3
T(x ,x , x )=
1

2

3

x1 (1,1,1) +x2 (1,1,0) +x3(1,0,0)
T(x1,x2, x3 )= (x1 +x2 +x3 , x1 +x2,
x1 )
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Definition : A transformation
T:V→ V is said to be nilpotent if
Tn is zero transformation for
some (+ve) integer n>1 , smallest
such integer is called degree of
nilpotence.
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Q. 4 Page 157 If
A=

 1 2
 0 1


− 1 3

S′={(1,1), (-1,1)}
S′′={(1,1,1),(1,-1,1),(0,0,1)},
Find T Such that

[T: S′,S′′] = A

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S′={(1,1), (-1,1)} ={u1,
u 2}
S′′={(1,1,1),(1,1,1),(0,0,1)},
[Tu ] = (1,0,-1)
1 S′′

[Tu2]S′′= (2,1,3)

T(1,1)= 1(1,1,1)+ 0(1,-1,1)- 1(0,0,1)
T(1,1)= (1,1,0)
(-1,1)= 2(1,1,1)+ 1(1,-1,1)+ 3(0,0,1
=(3,1,6)
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T(1,1)= (1,1,0), T(1,1)=(3,1,6)

Now find T : V2 → V3 i.e.
Find T(x,y)
T(x,y)= (2y-x,y,3y-3x)

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Fact : Every (m×n) matrix A
corresponds to a linear
transformation , formally we
write A : Vn → Vm
Essentially A represents the
transformation T : Vn → Vm
Whose natural matrix is A
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Rank and nullity of a matrix

Definition : The range,
kernel, rank & nullity of a
matrix A are defined as the
range , kernel , rank and
nullity of linear
transformation A.
heorem : Range of the matrix is
span of the column vectors of matrix
A.
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Rank nullity theorem for matrices

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Q.1 Page 178
Find the range kernel , rank and nullity of the
matrix A

3 − 2 1 


A =  1 3 − 2
 2 − 1 3 
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Q.1 Page 178
Find the range kernel , rank and nullity of the
matrix A

A=

 1 3
 0 1


− 1 3

Solution : A: V2→ V3
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Range (A) = [{(1,0,1),(3,1,3)}]
nullspace of A= {u∈V2 : Au=
(0,0,0)}
 1 3
0 

 0 1  x  =  0 

 y  


− 1 3
0
⇒ x + 3y = 0 , y = 0, - x + 3y = 0
Kernel (A)= {(0,0)}
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Eigen values and eigen vectors

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Definition : If

A is square matrix of order n,

then the values of λ for which the equation
Ax = λx ………… (i)
has

nontrivial

solutions

eigenvalues of matrix A . If

are called
λ

the

is an eigen

value , then the nonzero vectors x for which
equation (i) is true are called eigenvectors for
eigen value λ.
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How to find eigen values
Eigen values λ are roots of
characteristic polynomial
|A-λI| i.e values of λ for
which |A-λI|=0

A-λI|=0 is called characterstic equati

Remark : Eigen values may be real
or complex numbers.
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Definition : Set of all eigen
vectors for an eigen value λ
is written as E(λ).
Eigen space : eigen space
for eigen value
λ of (m×n)
matrix A is ker (A-λI) in
other words nullspace of
matrix (A-λI).
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Q.1 : Find all

the eigenvalues and

eigen spaces & set of eigen vectors of
the

0

A = 0
2

0
2
0

2

0
3
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Characters
tic equation
−λ
| A - λI |= 0 ⇒ 0
2

0

2

2−λ
0 =0
0
3−λ

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on expansion
2- λ
0
0
0
0 2−λ
| A - λI |= -λ
−0
+2
0
3−λ
2 3−λ
2
0
= -λ (2 - λ )(3- λ ) + 2(2- λ )(-2)

| A - λI |= (2 - λ ){λ (λ − 3) - 4}
hence characterstic equationis
(2 - λ ){λ (λ − 3) - 4}= 0
2

(2 - λ ){λ − 3λ - 4}= 0
(2 - λ )(λ + 1)(λ − 4) = 0
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Hence eigen values are λ=2,-1,4
Now eigen space of eigen value
2 is nullspace of matrix (A-2I)

for λ = 2 , (A - 2I) is
− λ
 0

 2

0
2   − 2 0 2



2−λ
0  =  0 0 0
0
3 − λ   2 0 1 
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− 2 0 2  x1  0
 0 0 0   x  = 0 

  2  
 2 0 1  x3  0
that is solutionof threehomogenous
equationsin threeunknowns
- 2x1 + 2 x3 = 0
0 x1 + 0 x2 + 0 x3 = 0
2x1 + x3 = 0
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Solving we get x3 =0 & x1 =0 & x2
free

Eigen space of eigen value λ=2
= {(0,x2,0): x2 is real number}
[{(0,1,0)}]

Set of eigen vectors for λ=2
E(2) =[{(0,1,0)}]\{(0,0,0)}
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Now eigen space of eigen value
4 is nullspace of matrix (A-4I)

for λ = 4 , (A - 4I) is
− λ
 0

 2

0
2  − 4 0
2



2−λ
0  =  0 −2 0 
0
3 − λ   2
0 − 1
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2   x1  0
− 4 0
 0 − 2 0   x  = 0 

  2  
 2
0 − 1  x3  0
that is solutionof threehomogenous
equationsin threeunknowns
- 4 x1 + 2x3 = 0
− 2 x2 = 0
2x1 − x3 = 0
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Solving we get x2 =0 & x3 =2x1 is
arbitrary

Eigen space of eigen value λ=4
= {(x1,0, 2x1): x1 is real
number}
[{(1,0,2)}]

set of eigen vectors for λ=4

E(4) =[{(1,0,2)}]\{(0,0,0)}

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Now eigen space of eigen value
-1 is nullspace of matrix (A+I)

for λ = -1 , (A + I) is
− λ
 0

 2

0
2  1 0 2 



2−λ
0  = 0 3 0 
0
3 − λ  2 0 4
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1 0 2  x1  0
 0 3 0   x  = 0 

  2  
2 0 4  x3  0
that is solutionof threehomogenous
equationsin threeunknowns
x1 + 2 x3 = 0
3x2 = 0
2x1 + 4 x3 = 0
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Solving we get x2 =0 & -2x3 =x1 is
arbitrary

Eigen space of eigen value λ=2
= {(-2x3,0, x3): x3 is real
number}
[{(-2,0,1)}]

set of eigen vectors for λ=-1
E(-1) =[{(-2,0,1)}]\{(0,0,0)}

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Theorem : Let v1,v2,…,vr be the
eigenvectors for distinct
eigenvalues λ1 , λ2 ,..., λr of an
n × n square matrix A with r≤ n.
Then the set
{ v1 ,..., vr } is linearly
independent.
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Proof: We shall prove this
theorem by induction v1 ≠ 0 by
definition of an eigenvector it is
a non-zero vector, therefore
{ v } is Linearly Independent.
1

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Now assume

{ v1 , v2 ,..., vm }

is
Linearly independent
Now, we shall prove

{ v1, v2 ,..., vm , vm +1}

is

Linearly independent
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Let

α1v1 + α 2v2 +,...,
+ α m vm + α m +1vm +1 = 0........(1)
Apply matrix A on both sides

A(α1v1 + α 2v2 +,...,
+ α m vm + α m +1vm +1 ) = A(0)
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α1 Av1 + α 2 Av2 +,...,
+ α m Avm + α m +1 Avm +1 =0

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α 1λ1v1 + α 2 λ2 v2 +,...,
+ α m λm vm + α m +1λm +1vm +1 = 0...(i)
Now multiplying (1) by
we get

λm +1 ,

α1λm +1v1 + α 2λm +1v2 +,...,
+ α mλm +1vm + α m +1λm +1vm +1 =0 − − −(ii )
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on subtracting (ii) from (i), we get

α1 ( λ1 − λm+1 ) v1 + α 2 ( λ2 − λm+1 ) v2 +,...,
+ α m ( λm − λm +1 ) vm = 0
Now set

{ v1 , v2 ,..., vm }
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is LI

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Therefore

α1 ( λ1 − λm+1 ) v1 = α 2 ( λ2 − λm+1 ) v2 .......
= α m ( λm − λm+1 ) vm = 0

Since λ1 , λ2 ,..., λm , λm +1 are
distinct, therefore

α1 = α 2 =,..,α m = 0 .
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Now (1) reduces to
0v1 + 0v2 +,...,+0vm + α m +1vm +1 = 0

α m +1vm +1 = 0 ⇒ α m +1 = 0

as

v m +1 ≠ 0

being an

eigenvector.
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Therefore the set

{ v1, v2 ,..., vm , vm +1}
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Q.2 : Find all the eigenvalues and
eigen spaces & set of eigen vectors of
the

1 1 0


A = 1 1 0
0 0 0
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Characters
tic equation
| A - λI |= 0 ⇒

1− λ

1

1
0

1− λ
0

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0 =0
−λ

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on expansion
1- λ
| A - λI |= (1 - λ )
0

0
1 0
1 1− λ
−1
+0
−λ
0 −λ
0
0

= (1 - λ )(1- λ )(-λ ) + λ
2

| A - λI |= (-λ ){1- 2λ + λ − 1}
hence characterstic equationis
2

2

(-λ ){1- 2λ + λ − 1} = λ (−2 + λ ) = 0
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Hence eigen values are λ=0,0,2
Now eigen space of eigen value
2 is nullspace of matrix (A-2I)

for λ = 2 , (A - 2I) is
1
1 − λ
 1 1− λ

 0
0

0  − 1 1
0



0  =  1 −1 0 
− λ   0 0 − 2

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0   x1  0
− 1 1
 1 − 1 0   x  = 0 

  2  
 0 0 − 2  x3  0
- x1 + x 2 = 0
x1 − x2 + 0 x3 = 0
− 2 x3 = 0
x1 = x 2 & x3 = 0
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Eigen space of eigen value λ=2
= {(x1, x1,0): x1 is real number}
[{(1,1,0)}]

set of eigen vectors for λ=2
E(2) =[{(1,1,0)}]\{(0,0,0)}

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Now eigen space of eigen value
0 is nullspace of matrix A

1 1 0  x1  0
1 1 0  x  = 0

  2  
0 0 0  x3  0
x1 + x2 = 0 ⇒ x1 = − x2
x3 free

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Eigen space of eigen value λ=0
= {(x1,-x1,x3 ) : x3 is real
number}
[{(1,-1,0), (0,0,1)}]

set of eigen vectors for λ=0
E(0) = [{(1,-1,0),
(0,0,1)}]\{(0,0,0)}
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