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Economics One 2013

Economics One 2013

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Published by Bishwodev Bhattarai
class lecture on economics
class lecture on economics

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Published by: Bishwodev Bhattarai on May 08, 2013
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ECONOMICS Jibgar Joshi

5/8/2013

1

marginal pricing vs. Product and income – national. Macroeconomic variables. Demand and supply. Basic concepts in economics. Internal and external economics and urban growth. Valuation-market structures.economic resources and economic concepts of land. Keynesian theory of income determination and Changes in the concept of economic development 2 5/8/2013 . Opportunity or social costs. equilibrium analysis and price determination. Standard of living. regional and settlement level. PQLI. Pricing of public utilities and economic infrastructure. other methods of pricing. Economic growth and development of human settlements.Syllabus • Basics of Economics: Economics and economic problems in relations to human settlements.

Analysis and location of specific land uses such as industrial. residential etc. 5/8/2013 3 .• Economic Principles and Land Use Planning: • Economic principles of land utilization and settlement development. Economic rent of land and values and land use patterns Locational economics: factors influencing locational decisions.

needs and aspirations 5/8/2013 4 .Introduction • Anthropocentric • Human behavior to satisfy/achieve ends with the use • • of means Science of scarcity Optimum utilization of scarce resources to produce the best combinations of goods and services that most satisfies human wants.

Resources are said to be scarce when people do not have enough of them to meet their wants and needs. • Economics studies the allocation of scarce resources in society as a means of satisfying human needs. it takes into account the availability of resources. In doing so. Economics is anthropocentric and as such provides useful tools that can support decision making. their exchange and the distribution of income within society. Economics is the study of the choices people make and the actions they take in order to make the best use of scarce resources in meeting their wants and needs. Everyone faces the problem of scarcity. methods for the production of goods and services.Definitions Scarcity is a situation in which there is not enough of a resource to meet all of people’s wants and needs. wants and desires. • Economics defines the conditions required to secure the most efficient allocation of scarce resources in a variety 5/8/2013 5 of contexts. .

Human settlements • Settlements of any size from a small rural town to a mega polis • Ever-increasing population pressure • The rapid change in the nature of needs and wants • Declining ability to produce goods and services • Exclusion of a large number of the poor • Inequitable access of the poor to urban goods and services Key concern: Production and distribution of urban goods and services 5/8/2013 6 .

and the government) (outcomes) with the construction and production of infrastructure and services (outputs) through the implementation of the projects and programs (activities) and through decentralization and divestment and other appropriate strategies (strategic interventions) by deploying. we aim at the sustainable provision of safe. and labor (inputs) owned by the community.Human settlements development In order to raise the living standards of all the people in our town (impact). capital. mobilizing and managing (process) land. business and the government (stakeholders). business. reliable and affordable goods and services for all (community. 5/8/2013 7 .

unemployment and economic growth.Micro and Macro-economics • Microeconomics is the branch of economics that • deals with the choices and actions of small economic units. 5/8/2013 8 . inflation. Macroeconomics is the branch of economics that deals with large-scale economic phenomena such as national income.

5/8/2013 9 .Land • Return due to indestructible and original power of the • • • soil. The whole of its return is rent. The supply of land is fixed. The supply price is zero.

all activities must take place somewhere. land is a permanent asset. The use value of land as a private good is obvious. It cannot be moved around. To understand the public good manifested in land-use. No one can exist without occupying a piece of land. Since it cannot be consumed or destroyed. the following points will be of particular relevance: • Except in a marginal sense. land is passed over to successive generations. • Land is also a fixed asset.Land is seen as both a private and a public good. 5/8/2013 10 . The use value of land is largely a function of its relative location.

These affect the use of proximate localities. The use of land for any particular function may produce externalities.• Much of the values taken on by land are unearned. These values can be realized in market exchange. pollution and traffic congestion. • They are the results of public investments in infrastructure and services and various social and economic processes including urbanization. for instance. 5/8/2013 11 .

Seminar Topics • Affordability of Apartment Housing and Economics • • of Informal Settlements Use of Land Pooling Projects for Enhancing Efficiency and Equity in the Kathmandu Valley Economics of Inclusive Transport Services and Sustainable Urban Mobility Prioritizing Investments for Making Cities more Inclusive • 5/8/2013 12 .

• suggest ways and means to make AH more affordable to economically weaker section of the society as well. You are expected to: • analyze cost effectiveness of AH.I. Affordability of Apartment Housing and Economics of Informal Sector The purpose is to assess the affordability of AH and suggest ways and means of making it more affordable while integrating IS within the urban economy. 13 . • make a brief study on the contribution of IS to the urban economy and to housing and social capital they create.

II. You are expected to: • list the economic gains of such projects. • analyze the existing condition of their products and the possibility of exploiting their potentials. Use of Land Pooling Projects for Enhancing Efficiency and Equity in the Kathmandu Valley The purpose is to ensure better utilization of the products of land pooling projects in enhancing efficiency and equity. and • prepare an action plan for further development in the project site. 5/8/2013 14 .

• show whether the investments required are economically feasible or not.III. • make a rough estimate of the costs involved. and • suggest strategies for making transport services more inclusive. 15 . Economics of Inclusive Transport Services and Sustainable Urban Mobility The purpose is to link the road network with the goal of enhancing urban mobility in Kathmandu Valley in a sustainable way. You are expected to: • make an economic analysis of the recent initiative of the government on road widening.

In order to ensure universal access of infrastructure and services. Prioritizing Investments for Making Cities more Inclusive The purpose is to determine investments that will enhance inclusiveness in the production. 16 .IV. and • integrating informal sector . you are expected to prioritize investments for: • enhancing community participation. distribution and consumption of urban infrastructure and services. • encouraging private sector.

Mention briefly the goals and objectives of human settlements development? What are the economic problems of their development? Discuss their contributions to national and local economy. Discuss how different types of resources should be managed and mobilized for achieving the goals and objectives? 2.Assignment 1. How is the level of urbanization related with the economic growth of a nation? Discuss the economic reasons of rapid urbanization in Nepal? What are the benefits and costs of urbanization in Nepal? 5/8/2013 17 .

3. What do you mean by the unearned income? How can this be captured for enhancing the public good? What are the economic reasons for the rapid increase in the price of urban land? How does the urban land and real estate market influence urban economy and productivity? 5/8/2013 18 . Discuss different perspectives on land. Discuss the economic use of land resources. Explain why land is considered both as a public good and a private good.

19 . Is there anything like optimum city size? What do you mean by urban economic base? How can you enhance the productivity of local economy? 5. Explain the significance of “Economic Location Theory” in the placing of different economic activities within a city. What are the economic reasons for the growth of cities? Explain what you mean by agglomeration economies and a primate city.4. What do you mean by a footloose industry? What are the factors that determine the location of economic activities? Discuss the major factors that determine the location of central places? Explain how the land use within a city is determined.

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